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Sample records for type 1-interacting protein

  1. The Scaffolding Protein IQGAP1 Interacts with NLRC3 and Inhibits Type I IFN Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocker, Aaron M; Durocher, Emily; Jacob, Kimberly D; Trieschman, Kate E; Talento, Suzanna M; Rechnitzer, Alma A; Roberts, David M; Davis, Beckley K

    2017-10-15

    Sensing of cytosolic nucleotides is a critical initial step in the elaboration of type I IFN. One of several upstream receptors, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, binds to cytosolic DNA and generates dicyclic nucleotides that act as secondary messengers. These secondary messengers bind directly to stimulator of IFN genes (STING). STING recruits TNFR-associated NF-κB kinase-binding kinase 1 which acts as a critical node that allows for efficient activation of IFN regulatory factors to drive the antiviral transcriptome. NLRC3 is a recently characterized nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing protein (NLR) that negatively regulates the type I IFN pathway by inhibiting subcellular redistribution and effective signaling of STING, thus blunting the transcription of type I IFNs. NLRC3 is predominantly expressed in lymphoid and myeloid cells. IQGAP1 was identified as a putative interacting partner of NLRC3 through yeast two-hybrid screening. In this article, we show that IQGAP1 associates with NLRC3 and can disrupt the NLRC3-STING interaction in the cytosol of human epithelial cells. Furthermore, knockdown of IQGAP1 in THP1 and HeLa cells causes significantly more IFN-β production in response to cytosolic nucleic acids. This result phenocopies NLRC3-deficient macrophages and fibroblasts and short hairpin RNA knockdown of NLRC3 in THP1 cells. Our findings suggest that IQGAP1 is a novel regulator of type I IFN production, possibly via interacting with NLRC3 in human monocytic and epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Rakovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD- related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37, 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM. Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway.

  3. A novel neurofibromin (NF1) interaction with the leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat motif-containing protein links neurofibromatosis type 1 and the French Canadian variant of Leigh's syndrome in a common molecular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Vedant; Wiley, Joseph C; Kaur, Harpreet; Kaplan, David R; Guha, Abhijit

    2013-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations and deletions in the neurofibromin tumor suppressor gene (NF1) cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), the most common inherited syndrome of the nervous system in humans, with a birth incidence of 1:3,000. The most visible features of NF-1 are the neoplastic manifestations caused by the loss of Ras-GTPase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) activity mediated through the GAP-related domain (GRD) of neurofibromin (NF1), the protein encoded by NF1. However, the syndrome is also characterized by cognitive dysfunction and a number of developmental abnormalities. The molecular etiology of many of these nonneoplastic phenotypes remains unknown. Here we show that the tubulin-binding domain (TBD) of NF1 is a binding partner of the leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat motif-containing (LRPPRC) protein. These two proteins complex with Kinesin 5B, hnRNP A2, Staufen1, and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) mRNA, likely in RNA granules. This interaction is of interest in that it links NF-1 with Leigh's syndrome, French Canadian variant (LSFC), an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that arises from mutations in the LRPPRC gene. Our findings provide clues to how loss or mutation of NF1 and LRPPRC may contribute to the manifestations of NF-1 and LSFC. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cytoplasmic FMR1-Interacting Protein 2 Is a Major Genetic Factor Underlying Binge Eating.

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    Kirkpatrick, Stacey L; Goldberg, Lisa R; Yazdani, Neema; Babbs, R Keith; Wu, Jiayi; Reed, Eric R; Jenkins, David F; Bolgioni, Amanda F; Landaverde, Kelsey I; Luttik, Kimberly P; Mitchell, Karen S; Kumar, Vivek; Johnson, W Evan; Mulligan, Megan K; Cottone, Pietro; Bryant, Camron D

    2017-05-01

    Eating disorders are lethal and heritable; however, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Binge eating is a highly heritable trait associated with eating disorders that is comorbid with mood and substance use disorders. Therefore, understanding its genetic basis will inform therapeutic development that could improve several comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions. We assessed binge eating in closely related C57BL/6 mouse substrains and in an F 2 cross to identify quantitative trait loci associated with binge eating. We used gene targeting to validate candidate genetic factors. Finally, we used transcriptome analysis of the striatum via messenger RNA sequencing to identify the premorbid transcriptome and the binge-induced transcriptome to inform molecular mechanisms mediating binge eating susceptibility and establishment. C57BL/6NJ but not C57BL/6J mice showed rapid and robust escalation in palatable food consumption. We mapped a single genome-wide significant quantitative trait locus on chromosome 11 (logarithm of the odds = 7.4) to a missense mutation in cytoplasmic FMR1-interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2). We validated Cyfip2 as a major genetic factor underlying binge eating in heterozygous knockout mice on a C57BL/6N background that showed reduced binge eating toward a wild-type C57BL/6J-like level. Transcriptome analysis of premorbid genetic risk identified the enrichment terms morphine addiction and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, whereas binge eating resulted in the downregulation of a gene set enriched for decreased myelination, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and expression. We identified Cyfip2 as a major significant genetic factor underlying binge eating and provide a behavioral paradigm for future genome-wide association studies in populations with increased genetic complexity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BRCA1 interaction of centrosomal protein Nlp is required for successful mitotic progression.

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    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-08-21

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability.

  6. GEMC1 is a TopBP1-interacting protein required for chromosomal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Cosentino, Claudia; Errico, Alessia; Garner, Elizabeth; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Many of the factors required for chromosomal DNA replication have been identified in unicellular eukaryotes. However, DNA replication is poorly understood in multicellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of GEMC1 (geminin coiled-coil containing protein 1), a novel vertebrate protein required for chromosomal DNA replication. GEMC1 is highly conserved in vertebrates and is preferentially expressed in proliferating cells. Using Xenopus laevis egg extract we show that Xenopus GEMC1 (xGEMC1) binds to the checkpoint and replication factor TopBP1, which promotes binding of xGEMC1 to chromatin during pre-replication complex (pre-RC) formation. We demonstrate that xGEMC1 interacts directly with replication factors such as Cdc45 and the kinase Cdk2-CyclinE, through which it is heavily phosphorylated. Phosphorylated xGEMC1 stimulates initiation of DNA replication, whereas depletion of xGEMC1 prevents the onset of DNA replication owing to the impairment of Cdc45 loading onto chromatin. Similarly, inhibition of GEMC1 expression with morpholino and siRNA oligos prevents DNA replication in embryonic and somatic vertebrate cells. These data suggest that GEMC1 promotes initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in multicellular organisms by mediating TopBP1- and Cdk2-dependent recruitment of Cdc45 onto replication origins.

  7. The potato sucrose transporter StSUT1 interacts with a DRM-associated protein disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügel, Undine; He, Hong-Xia; Gier, Konstanze; Reins, Jana; Chincinska, Izabela; Grimm, Bernhard; Schulze, Waltraud X; Kühn, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Organization of proteins into complexes is crucial for many cellular functions. Recently, the SUT1 protein was shown to form homodimeric complexes, to be associated with lipid raft-like microdomains in yeast as well as in plants and to undergo endocytosis in response to brefeldin A. We therefore aimed to identify SUT1-interacting proteins that might be involved in dimerization, endocytosis, or targeting of SUT1 to raft-like microdomains. Therefore, we identified potato membrane proteins, which are associated with the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction. Among the proteins identified, we clearly confirmed StSUT1 as part of DRM in potato source leaves. We used the yeast two-hybrid split ubiquitin system (SUS) to systematically screen for interaction between the sucrose transporter StSUT1 and other membrane-associated or soluble proteins in vivo. The SUS screen was followed by immunoprecipitation using affinity-purified StSUT1-specific peptide antibodies and mass spectrometric analysis of co-precipitated proteins. A large overlap was observed between the StSUT1-interacting proteins identified in the co-immunoprecipitation and the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. One of the SUT1-interacting proteins, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), interacts also with other sucrose transporter proteins. A potential role of the PDI as escort protein is discussed.

  8. BRCA1 Interaction of Centrosomal Protein Nlp Is Required for Successful Mitotic Progression*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunqian; Gao, Hua; Mazzacurati, Lucia; Wang, Yang; Fan, Wenhong; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Wei; Wang, Mingrong; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chuanmao; Zhan, Qimin

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 is implicated in the control of mitotic progression, although the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be further defined. Deficiency of BRCA1 function leads to disrupted mitotic machinery and genomic instability. Here, we show that BRCA1 physically interacts and colocalizes with Nlp, an important molecule involved in centrosome maturation and spindle formation. Interestingly, Nlp centrosomal localization and its protein stability are regulated by normal cellular BRCA1 function because cells containing BRCA1 mutations or silenced for endogenous BRCA1 exhibit disrupted Nlp colocalization to centrosomes and enhanced Nlp degradation. Its is likely that the BRCA1 regulation of Nlp stability involves Plk1 suppression. Inhibition of endogenous Nlp via the small interfering RNA approach results in aberrant spindle formation, aborted chromosomal segregation, and aneuploidy, which mimic the phenotypes of disrupted BRCA1. Thus, BRCA1 interaction of Nlp might be required for the successful mitotic progression, and abnormalities of Nlp lead to genomic instability. PMID:19509300

  9. Characterisation of several ankyrin repeat protein variant 2, a phosphoprotein phosphatase 1-interacting protein, in testis and spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Luers, Georg; Cardoso, Maria João; Patrício, António; Maia, Nuno; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar F; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Phosphoprotein phosphatase 1 (PPP1) catalytic subunit gamma 2 (PPP1CC2), a PPP1 isoform, is largely restricted to testicular germ cells and spermatozoa. The key to understanding PPP1 regulation in male germ cells lies in the identification and characterisation of its interacting partners. This study was undertaken to determine the expression patterns of the several ankyrin repeat protein variant 2 (SARP2), a PPP1-interacting protein, in testis and spermatozoa. SARP2 was found to be highly expressed in testis and spermatozoa, and its interaction with human spermatozoa endogenous PPP1CC2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR revealed that SARP2 and PPP1CC2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the spermatocyte fraction. However, microscopy revealed that SARP2 protein was only present in the nucleus of elongating and mature spermatids and in spermatozoa. In spermatozoa, SARP2 was prominently expressed in the connecting piece and flagellum, as well as, to a lesser extent, in the acrosome. A yeast two-hybrid approach was used to detect SARP2-interacting proteins and a relevant interaction with a novel sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) variant, a testis and spermatozoa-specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase-binding protein, was validated in human spermatozoa. Given the expression pattern of SARP2 and its association with PPP1CC2 and SPAG9, it may play a role in spermiogenesis and sperm function, namely in sperm motility and the acrosome reaction.

  10. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  11. p21WAF1/CIP1 interacts with protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Wagner, P; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    p21WAF1/CIP1 which belongs to a class of regulatory proteins that interact with cyclin dependent kinases is a potent inhibitor of these kinases. The inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases induces an arrest of cells in the G phase of the cell cycle. In addition p21WAF1/CIP1 associates with PCNA...

  12. Rubber particle proteins REF1 and SRPP1 interact differently with native lipids extracted from Hevea brasiliensis latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadeesirisak, Kanthida; Castano, Sabine; Berthelot, Karine; Vaysse, Laurent; Bonfils, Frédéric; Peruch, Frédéric; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Lecomte, Sophie; Bottier, Céline

    2017-02-01

    Rubber particle membranes from the Hevea latex contain predominantly two proteins, REF1 and SRPP1 involved in poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) synthesis or rubber quality. The repartition of both proteins on the small or large rubber particles seems to differ, but their role in the irreversible coagulation of the rubber particle is still unknown. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with different classes of lipids extracted from Hevea brasiliensis latex, and defined as phospholipids (PL), glycolipids (GL) and neutral lipids (NL). We combined two biophysical methods, polarization modulated-infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and ellipsometry to elucidate their interactions with monolayers of each class of lipids. REF1 and SRPP1 interactions with native lipids are clearly different; SRPP1 interacts mostly in surface with PL, GL or NL, without modification of its structure. In contrast REF1 inserts deeply in the lipid monolayers with all lipid classes. With NL, REF1 is even able to switch from α-helice conformation to β-sheet structure, as in its aggregated form (amyloid form). Interaction between REF1 and NL may therefore have a specific role in the irreversible coagulation of rubber particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. GEMC1 is a TopBP1 interacting protein required for chromosomal DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Cosentino, Claudia; Errico, Alessia; Garner, Elizabeth; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Many factors required for chromosomal DNA replication have been identified in unicellular eukaryotes. However, DNA replication in complex multicellular organisms is poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of GEMC1, a novel vertebrate protein required for chromosomal DNA replication. GEMC1 is highly conserved in vertebrates and is preferentially expressed in proliferating cells. Using Xenopus egg extract we show that Xenopus GEMC1 (xGEMC1) binds to checkpoint and replication factor TopBP1, which promotes xGEMC1 binding to chromatin during pre-replication complex (pre-RC) formation. We demonstrate that xGEMC1 directly interacts with replication factors such as Cdc45 and Cdk2-CyclinE by which it is heavily phosphorylated. Phosphorylated xGEMC1 stimulates initiation of DNA replication whereas depletion of xGEMC1 prevents DNA replication onset due to impairment of Cdc45 loading onto chromatin. Likewise, inhibition of GEMC1 expression by morpholino and siRNA oligos prevents DNA replication in embryonic and somatic vertebrate cells. These data suggest that GEMC1 promotes initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in higher eukaryotes by mediating TopBP1 and Cdk2 dependent recruitment of Cdc45 onto replication origins. PMID:20383140

  14. STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) Interacts with Protein Kinase SnRK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Guerra, Tiziana; Alseekh, Saleh; Wiermer, Marcel; Sonnewald, Sophia; Fernie, Alisdair R; Börnke, Frederik

    2018-02-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting related kinase1 (SnRK1) is a conserved energy sensor kinase that regulates cellular adaptation to energy deficit in plants. Activation of SnRK1 leads to the down-regulation of ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes and the stimulation of energy-generating catabolic reactions by transcriptional reprogramming and posttranslational modifications. Although considerable progress has been made during the last years in understanding the SnRK1 signaling pathway, many of its components remain unidentified. Here, we show that the catalytic α-subunits KIN10 and KIN11 of the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) SnRK1 complex interact with the STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) inside the plant cell nucleus. Overexpression of STKR1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants led to reduced growth, a delay in flowering, and strongly attenuated senescence. Metabolite profiling revealed that the transgenic lines exhausted their carbohydrates during the dark period to a greater extent than the wild type and accumulated a range of amino acids. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by STKR1 overexpression were broadly associated with systemic acquired resistance, and transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance toward a virulent strain of the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. We discuss a possible connection of STKR1 function, SnRK1 signaling, and plant immunity. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) Interacts with Protein Kinase SnRK11[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Guerra, Tiziana; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2018-01-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting related kinase1 (SnRK1) is a conserved energy sensor kinase that regulates cellular adaptation to energy deficit in plants. Activation of SnRK1 leads to the down-regulation of ATP-consuming biosynthetic processes and the stimulation of energy-generating catabolic reactions by transcriptional reprogramming and posttranslational modifications. Although considerable progress has been made during the last years in understanding the SnRK1 signaling pathway, many of its components remain unidentified. Here, we show that the catalytic α-subunits KIN10 and KIN11 of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 complex interact with the STOREKEEPER RELATED1/G-Element Binding Protein (STKR1) inside the plant cell nucleus. Overexpression of STKR1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants led to reduced growth, a delay in flowering, and strongly attenuated senescence. Metabolite profiling revealed that the transgenic lines exhausted their carbohydrates during the dark period to a greater extent than the wild type and accumulated a range of amino acids. At the global transcriptome level, genes affected by STKR1 overexpression were broadly associated with systemic acquired resistance, and transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance toward a virulent strain of the biotrophic oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. We discuss a possible connection of STKR1 function, SnRK1 signaling, and plant immunity. PMID:29192025

  16. The intrinsically disordered structural platform of the plant defence hub protein RPM1-interacting protein 4 provides insights into its mode of action in the host-pathogen interface and evolution of the nitrate-induced domain protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolin; Greenwood, David R; Templeton, Matthew D; Libich, David S; McGhie, Tony K; Xue, Bin; Yoon, Minsoo; Cui, Wei; Kirk, Christopher A; Jones, William T; Uversky, Vladimir N; Rikkerink, Erik H A

    2014-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana (At) RPM1-interacting protein 4 (RIN4), targeted by many defence-suppressing bacterial type III effectors and monitored by several resistance proteins, regulates plant immune responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and type III effectors. Little is known about the overall protein structure of AtRIN4, especially in its unbound form, and the relevance of structure to its diverse biological functions. AtRIN4 contains two nitrate-induced (NOI) domains and is a member of the NOI family. Using experimental and bioinformatic approaches, we demonstrate that the unbound AtRIN4 is intrinsically disordered under physiological conditions. The intrinsically disordered polypeptide chain of AtRIN4 is interspersed with molecular recognition features (MoRFs) and anchor-identified long-binding regions, potentially allowing it to undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to partner(s). A poly-l-proline II structure, often responsible for protein recognition, is also identified in AtRIN4. By performing bioinformatics analyses on RIN4 homologues from different plant species and the NOI proteins from Arabidopsis, we infer the conservation of intrinsic disorder, MoRFs and long-binding regions of AtRIN4 in other plant species and the NOI family. Intrinsic disorder and MoRFs could provide RIN4 proteins with the binding promiscuity and plasticity required to act as hubs in a pivotal position within plant defence signalling cascades. © 2014 FEBS.

  17. Contribution of MS-based proteomics to the understanding of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 interaction with host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eSantamaría

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other DNA viruses, Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1 replicates and proliferates in host cells continuously modulating the host molecular environment. Following a sophisticated temporal expression pattern, HSV-1 encodes at least 89 multifunctional proteins that interplay with and modify the host cell proteome. During the last decade, advances in mass spectrometry applications coupled to the development of proteomic separation methods have allowed to partially monitor the impact of HSV-1 infection in human cells. In this review, we discuss the current use of different proteome fractionation strategies to define HSV-1 targets on two major application areas: i viral protein interactomics to decipher viral protein interactions in host cells and ii differential quantitative proteomics to analyse the virally induced changes in the cellular proteome. Moreover, we will also discuss the potential application of high throughput proteomic approaches to study global proteome dynamics and also post-translational modifications in HSV-1-infected cells, what will greatly improved our molecular knowledge of HSV-1 infection.

  18. Identification of novel Ack1-interacting proteins and Ack1 phosphorylated sites in mouse brain by mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    del Mar Masdeu, Maria; Armendáriz, Beatriz G.; Torre, Anna La; Soriano, Eduardo; Burgaya, Ferran; Ureña, Jesús Mariano

    2017-01-01

    Ack1 (activated Cdc42-associated tyrosine kinase) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in brain. This kinase contains several protein-protein interaction domains and its action is partially regulated by phosphorylation. As a first step to address the neuronal functions of Ack1, here we screened mouse brain samples to identify proteins that interact with this kinase. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified new putative partners for Ack1 including cytoskeletal prot...

  19. DEAF1 is a Pellino1-interacting protein required for interferon production by Sendai virus and double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordureau, Alban; Enesa, Karine; Nanda, Sambit; Le Francois, Brice; Peggie, Mark; Prescott, Alan; Albert, Paul R; Cohen, Philip

    2013-08-23

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA of viral origin, a ligand for Melanoma Differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3), induces the TANK-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Pellino1, which are required for interferon β (IFNβ) gene transcription. Here, we report that Pellino1 interacts with the transcription factor Deformed Epidermal Autoregulatory Factor 1 (DEAF1). The interaction is independent of the E3 ligase activity of Pellino1, but weakened by the phosphorylation of Pellino1. We show that DEAF1 binds to the IFNβ promoter and to IRF3 and IRF7, that it is required for the transcription of the IFNβ gene and IFNβ secretion in MEFs infected with Sendai virus or transfected with poly(I:C). DEAF1 is also needed for TLR3-dependent IFNβ production. Taken together, our results identify DEAF1 as a novel component of the signal transduction network by which dsRNA of viral origin stimulates IFNβ production.

  20. Shiga toxin 1 interaction with enterocytes causes apical protein mistargeting through the depletion of intracellular galectin-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiko, Marina; Murtazina, Rakhilya; Malyukova, Irina [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar C. [Department of Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Gutsal, Oksana [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); O' Malley, Robert; Cole, Robert N. [Department of Biochemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Tarr, Phillip I. [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Murray, Karen F. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Kane, Anne [The Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Donowitz, Mark [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kovbasnjuk, Olga, E-mail: okovbas1@jhmi.edu [Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2 are responsible for intestinal and systemic sequelae of infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). However, the mechanisms through which enterocytes are damaged remain unclear. While secondary damage from ischemia and inflammation are postulated mechanisms for all intestinal effects, little evidence excludes roles for more primary toxin effects on intestinal epithelial cells. We now document direct pathologic effects of Stx on intestinal epithelial cells. We study a well-characterized rabbit model of EHEC infection, intestinal tissue and stool samples from EHEC-infected patients, and T84 intestinal epithelial cells treated with Stx1. Toxin uptake by intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo causes galectin-3 depletion from enterocytes by increasing the apical galectin-3 secretion. This Shiga toxin-mediated galectin-3 depletion impairs trafficking of several brush border structural proteins and transporters, including villin, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and the sodium-proton exchanger 2, a major colonic sodium absorptive protein. The mistargeting of proteins responsible for the absorptive function might be a key event in Stx1-induced diarrhea. These observations provide new evidence that human enterocytes are directly damaged by Stx1. Conceivably, depletion of galectin-3 from enterocytes and subsequent apical protein mistargeting might even provide a means whereby other pathogens might alter intestinal epithelial absorption and produce diarrhea.

  1. Structural basis for ribosome protein S1 interaction with RNA in trans-translation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Dai, Yazhuang; Hou, Meijing; Wang, Huilin; Yao, Hongwei; Guo, Chenyun; Lin, Donghai; Liao, Xinli

    2017-05-27

    Ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA), the largest 30S protein in ribosome, plays a significant role in translation and trans-translation. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the C-terminus of RpsA is known as tuberculosis drug target of pyrazinoic acid, which inhibits the interaction between MtRpsA and tmRNA in trans-translation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction of MtRpsA with tmRNA remains unknown. We herein analyzed the interaction of the C-terminal domain of MtRpsA with three RNA fragments poly(A), sMLD and pre-sMLD. NMR titration analysis revealed that the RNA binding sites on MtRpsA CTD are mainly located in the β2, β3 and β5 strands and the adjacent L3 loop of the S1 domain. Fluorescence experiments determined the MtRpsA CTD binding to RNAs are in the micromolar affinity range. Sequence analysis also revealed conserved residues in the mapped RNA binding region. Residues L304, V305, G308, F310, H322, I323, R357 and I358 were verified to be the key residues influencing the interaction between MtRpsA CTD and pre-sMLD. Molecular docking further confirmed that the poly(A)-like sequence and sMLD of tmRNA are all involved in the protein-RNA interaction, through charged interaction and hydrogen bonds. The results will be beneficial for designing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interference of HTLV-1 Tax Protein with Cell Polarity Regulators: Defining the Subcellular Localization of the Tax-DLG1 Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Federico; Bugnon Valdano, Marina; Brunet Avalos, Clarisse; Moriena, Lucía; Cavatorta, Ana Laura; Gardiol, Daniela

    2017-11-23

    Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 Tax (Tax) protein is very important in viral replication and cell transformation. Tax localizes in the nucleus and cytoplasm in association with organelles. Some activities of Tax depend on interactions with PDZ (PSD-95/Discs Large/Z0-1) domain-containing proteins such as Discs large protein 1 (DLG1) which is involved in cell polarity and proliferation. The DLG1 interaction results in a cytoplasmic co-localization pattern resembling vesicular aggregates, the nature of which is still unknown. To further explore the role of PDZ proteins in HTLV-1 cell transformation, we deeply investigated the Tax-DLG1 association. By fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we detected, for the first time, the direct binding of Tax to DLG1 within the cell. We showed that the interaction specifically affects the cellular distribution of not only DLG1, but also Tax. After studying different cell structures, we demonstrated that the aggregates distribute into the Golgi apparatus in spatial association with the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). This study contributes to understand the biological significance of Tax-PDZ interactions.

  3. Structure of human stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) reveals a saccharide-binding cleft with lower sugar-binding selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhao, Yanmei; Bai, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yong; Green, Todd J; Luo, Ming; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2010-12-17

    Human secreted protein stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) has been identified as a novel member of Glyco_18 domain-containing proteins that is involved in host defense and inflammatory reactions. Efficient secretion of SI-CLP is mediated by its interaction with the endocytic/sorting receptor stabilin-1. SI-CLP is expressed abundantly in macrophages and neutrophils and is up-regulated by Th2 cytokine IL-4 and glucocorticoid, which suggest that SI-CLP could be a marker for adverse effects of glucocorticoid therapy. To gain insight into the biological function of SI-CLP, we determined the crystal structure of SI-CLP at 2.7 Å resolution by x-ray crystallography and found that it featured a typical triose-phosphate isomerase barrel fold with a putative saccharide-binding cleft. Comparison with other chitinase-like proteins showed the cleft to be atypically wide and open. The saccharide-binding capacity of SI-CLP was investigated, and its ligand-binding specificity was found to relate to the length of the oligosaccharides, with preference for chitotetraose. Further investigations reveal that SI-CLP could bind LPS in vitro and neutralize its endotoxin effect on macrophages. Our results demonstrate the saccharide-binding property of SI-CLP by structure and in vitro biochemical analyses and suggest the possible roles of SI-CLP in pathogen sensing and endotoxin neutralization.

  4. Pepino mosaic virus triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1) interacts with and increases tomato catalase 1 activity to enhance virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, Matthaios M; Veiga, Rita S L; Canto, Tomas; Medina, Vicente; Mossialos, Dimitris; Makris, Antonios M; Livieratos, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    Various plant factors are co-opted by virus elements (RNA, proteins) and have been shown to act in pathways affecting virus accumulation and plant defence. Here, an interaction between Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) triple gene block protein 1 (TGBp1; p26) and tomato catalase 1 (CAT1), a crucial enzyme in the decomposition of toxic hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), was identified using the yeast two-hybrid assay, and confirmed via an in vitro pull-down assay and bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) in planta. Each protein was independently localized within loci in the cytoplasm and nuclei, sites at which their interaction had been visualized by BiFC. Following PepMV inoculation, CAT mRNA and protein levels in leaves were unaltered at 0, 3 and 6 days (locally) and 8 days (systemically) post-inoculation; however, leaf extracts from the last two time points contained increased CAT activity and lower H₂O₂ evels. Overexpression of PepMV p26 in vitro and in planta conferred the same effect, suggesting an additional involvement of TGBp1 in potexvirus pathogenesis. The accumulation of PepMV genomic and subgenomic RNAs and the expression of viral coat protein in noninoculated (systemic) leaves were reduced significantly in CAT-silenced plants. It is postulated that, during PepMV infection, a p26-CAT1 interaction increases H₂O₂ cavenging, thus acting as a negative regulator of plant defence mechanisms to promote PepMV infections. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Cellular Transcription Factor Oct-1 Interacts with the Epstein-Barr Virus BRLF1 Protein To Promote Disruption of Viral Latency▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda R.; Kwek, Swee Sen; Hagemeier, Stacy R.; Wille, Coral K.; Kenney, Shannon C.

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent-to-lytic switch is an essential part of the viral life cycle, but the cellular factors that promote viral reactivation are not well defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the cellular transcription factor Oct-1 cooperates with the EBV immediate-early protein BRLF1 (R, Rta) to induce lytic viral reactivation. We show that cotransfected Oct-1 enhances the ability of BRLF1 to activate lytic gene expression in 293 cells stably infected with a BRLF1-defective EBV mutant (BRLF1-stop) and that Oct-1 increases BRLF1-mediated activation of lytic EBV promoters in reporter gene assays. We find that Oct-1 interacts directly with BRLF1 in vitro and that a mutant BRLF1 protein (the M140A mutant) attenuated for the ability to interact with Oct-1 in vitro is also resistant to Oct-1-mediated transcriptional enhancement in 293 BRLF1-stop cells. Furthermore, we show that cotransfected Oct-1 augments BRLF1 binding to a variety of lytic EBV promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays (including the BZLF1, BMRF1, and SM promoters) and that BRLF1 tethers Oct-1 to lytic EBV promoters. In addition, we demonstrate that an Oct-1 mutant defective in DNA binding (the S335D mutant) still retains the ability to enhance BRLF1 transcriptional effects. Finally, we show that knockdown of endogenous Oct-1 expression reduces the level of constitutive lytic EBV gene expression in both EBV-positive B-cell and EBV-positive epithelial cell lines. These results suggest that Oct-1 acts as a positive regulator of EBV lytic gene expression and that this effect is at least partially mediated through its interaction with the viral protein BRLF1. PMID:21697476

  6. Visualization of human karyopherin beta-1/importin beta-1 interactions with protein partners in mitotic cells by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Laura; Verrico, Annalisa; Asteriti, Italia Anna; Rovella, Paola; Cirigliano, Pietro; Guarguaglini, Giulia; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Lavia, Patrizia

    2018-01-30

    Karyopherin beta-1/Importin beta-1 is a conserved nuclear transport receptor, acting in protein nuclear import in interphase and as a global regulator of mitosis. These pleiotropic functions reflect its ability to interact with, and regulate, different pathways during the cell cycle, operating as a major effector of the GTPase RAN. Importin beta-1 is overexpressed in cancers characterized by high genetic instability, an observation that highlights the importance of identifying its partners in mitosis. Here we present the first comprehensive profile of importin beta-1 interactors from human mitotic cells. By combining co-immunoprecipitation and proteome-wide mass spectrometry analysis of synchronized cell extracts, we identified expected (e.g., RAN and SUMO pathway factors) and novel mitotic interactors of importin beta-1, many with RNA-binding ability, that had not been previously associated with importin beta-1. These data complement interactomic studies of interphase transport pathways. We further developed automated proximity ligation assay (PLA) protocols to validate selected interactors. We succeeded in obtaining spatial and temporal resolution of genuine importin beta-1 interactions, which were visualized and localized in situ in intact mitotic cells. Further developments of PLA protocols will be helpful to dissect importin beta-1-orchestrated pathways during mitosis.

  7. The Chloroplastic Protein THF1 Interacts with the Coiled-Coil Domain of the Disease Resistance Protein N′ and Regulates Light-Dependent Cell Death1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Ken-Taro; Wallon, Thérèse; Sugiwaka, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kappei

    2016-01-01

    One branch of plant immunity is mediated through nucleotide-binding/Leu-rich repeat (NB-LRR) family proteins that recognize specific effectors encoded by pathogens. Members of the I2-like family constitute a well-conserved subgroup of NB-LRRs from Solanaceae possessing a coiled-coil (CC) domain at their N termini. We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 (THF1) as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol. Several HR-inducing I2-like CC domains have a negative effect on the accumulation of THF1, suggesting that the latter is destabilized by active CC domains. To confirm this model, we investigated N′, which recognizes the coat protein of most Tobamoviruses, as a prototypical member of the I2-like family. Transient expression and gene silencing data indicated that THF1 functions as a negative regulator of cell death and that activation of full-length N′ results in the destabilization of THF1. Consistent with the known function of THF1 in maintaining chloroplast homeostasis, we show that the HR induced by N′ is light-dependent. Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. PMID:26951433

  8. The Chloroplastic Protein THF1 Interacts with the Coiled-Coil Domain of the Disease Resistance Protein N' and Regulates Light-Dependent Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Wallon, Thérèse; Sugiwaka, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kappei; Moffett, Peter

    2016-05-01

    One branch of plant immunity is mediated through nucleotide-binding/Leu-rich repeat (NB-LRR) family proteins that recognize specific effectors encoded by pathogens. Members of the I2-like family constitute a well-conserved subgroup of NB-LRRs from Solanaceae possessing a coiled-coil (CC) domain at their N termini. We show here that the CC domains of several I2-like proteins are able to induce a hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death associated with disease resistance. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, we identified the chloroplastic protein Thylakoid Formation1 (THF1) as an interacting partner for several I2-like CC domains. Co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that THF1 and I2-like CC domains interact in planta and that these interactions take place in the cytosol. Several HR-inducing I2-like CC domains have a negative effect on the accumulation of THF1, suggesting that the latter is destabilized by active CC domains. To confirm this model, we investigated N', which recognizes the coat protein of most Tobamoviruses, as a prototypical member of the I2-like family. Transient expression and gene silencing data indicated that THF1 functions as a negative regulator of cell death and that activation of full-length N' results in the destabilization of THF1. Consistent with the known function of THF1 in maintaining chloroplast homeostasis, we show that the HR induced by N' is light-dependent. Together, our results define, to our knowledge, novel molecular mechanisms linking light and chloroplasts to the induction of cell death by a subgroup of NB-LRR proteins. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  10. The arabidopsis RNA binding protein with K homology motifs, SHINY1, interacts with the C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1 to repress stress-inducible gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Jiang

    Full Text Available The phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain (CTD of the RNA polymerase II plays crucial roles in transcription and mRNA processing. Previous studies showed that the plant CTD phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1 dephosphorylates Ser-5-specific CTD and regulates abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the identification of a K-homology domain-containing protein named SHINY1 (SHI1 that interacts with CPL1 to modulate gene expression. The shi1 mutant was isolated from a forward genetic screening for mutants showing elevated expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by a salt-inducible promoter. The shi1 mutant is more sensitive to cold treatment during vegetative growth and insensitive to abscisic acid in seed germination, resembling the phenotypes of shi4 that is allelic to the cpl1 mutant. Both SHI1 and SHI4/CPL1 are nuclear-localized proteins. SHI1 interacts with SHI4/CPL1 in vitro and in vivo. Loss-of-function mutations in shi1 and shi4 resulted in similar changes in the expression of some stress-inducible genes. Moreover, both shi1 and shi4 mutants display higher mRNA capping efficiency and altered polyadenylation site selection for some of the stress-inducible genes, when compared with wild type. We propose that the SHI1-SHI4/CPL1 complex inhibits transcription by preventing mRNA capping and transition from transcription initiation to elongation.

  11. Negative regulation of mitosis in fission yeast by the shk1 interacting protein skb1 and its human homolog, Skb1Hs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, M; Yang, P; Bartholomeusz, G; Pimental, R A; Kansra, S; Gadiraju, R; Marcus, S

    1998-12-08

    We previously provided evidence that the protein encoded by the highly conserved skb1 gene is a putative regulator of Shk1, a p21(Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase (PAK) homolog in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. skb1 null mutants are viable and competent for mating but less elongate than wild-type S. pombe cells, whereas cells that overexpress skb1 are hyperelongated. These phenotypes suggest a possible role for Skb1 as a mitotic inhibitor. Here we show genetic interactions of both skb1 and shk1 with genes encoding key mitotic regulators in S. pombe. Our results indicate that Skb1 negatively regulates mitosis by a mechanism that is independent of the Cdc2-activating phosphatase Cdc25 but that is at least partially dependent on Shk1 and the Cdc2 inhibitory kinase Wee1. We provide biochemical evidence for association of Skb1 and Shk1 with Cdc2 in S. pombe, suggesting that Skb1 and Shk1 inhibit mitosis through interaction with the Cdc2 complex, rather than by an indirect mechanism. These results provide evidence of a previously undescribed role for PAK-related protein kinases as mitotic inhibitors. We also describe the cloning of a human homolog of skb1, SKB1Hs, and show that it can functionally replace skb1 in S. pombe. Thus, the molecular functions of Skb1-related proteins have likely been substantially conserved through evolution.

  12. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Min [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Zhu, Yunye [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Qiao, Maiju [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Xiaofeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Wei [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xiao, Fangming [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: liuyongsheng1122@hfut.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  13. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Min; Zhu, Yunye; Qiao, Maiju; Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Wei; Xiao, Fangming; Liu, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato

  14. The RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphatase-Like Protein FIERY2/CPL1 Interacts with eIF4AIII and Is Essential for Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2016-02-18

    © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a posttranscriptional surveillance mechanism in eukaryotes that recognizes and degrades transcripts with premature translation-termination codons. The RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like protein FIERY2 (FRY2; also known as C-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE1 [CPL1]) plays multiple roles in RNA processing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we found that FRY2/CPL1 interacts with two NMD factors, eIF4AIII and UPF3, and is involved in the dephosphorylation of eIF4AIII. This dephosphorylation retains eIF4AIII in the nucleus and limits its accumulation in the cytoplasm. By analyzing RNA-seq data combined with quantitative RT-PCR validation, we found that a subset of alternatively spliced transcripts and 59-extended mRNAs with NMD-eliciting features accumulated in the fry2-1 mutant, cycloheximidetreated wild type, and upf3 mutant plants, indicating that FRY2 is essential for the degradation of these NMD transcripts.

  15. The Craterostigma plantagineum glycine-rich protein CpGRP1 interacts with a cell wall-associated protein kinase 1 (CpWAK1) and accumulates in leaf cell walls during dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Valentino; Krey, Stephanie; von den Driesch, Barbara; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-04-01

    Craterostigma plantagineum tolerates extreme desiccation. Leaves of this plant shrink and extensively fold during dehydration and expand again during rehydration, preserving their structural integrity. Genes were analysed that may participate in the reversible folding mechanism. Analysis of transcripts abundantly expressed in desiccated leaves identified a gene putatively coding for an apoplastic glycine-rich protein (CpGRP1). We studied the expression, regulation and subcellular localization of CpGRP1 and its ability to interact with a cell wall-associated protein kinase (CpWAK1) to understand the role of CpGRP1 in the cell wall during dehydration. The CpGRP1 protein accumulates in the apoplast of desiccated leaves. Analysis of the promoter revealed that the gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, is independent of abscisic acid (ABA) and involves a drought-responsive cis-element (DRE). CpGRP1 interacts with CpWAK1 which is down-regulated in response to dehydration. Our data suggest a role of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex in dehydration-induced morphological changes in the cell wall during dehydration in C. plantagineum. Cell wall pectins and dehydration-induced pectin modifications are predicted to be involved in the activity of the CpGRP1-CpWAK1 complex. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; Rougeot, Julien; Decoville, Martine; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2011-03-14

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways) are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK) in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling.

  17. The MAP kinase ERK and its scaffold protein MP1 interact with the chromatin regulator Corto during Drosophila wing tissue development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peronnet Frédérique

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades (p38, JNK, ERK pathways are involved in cell fate acquisition during development. These kinase modules are associated with scaffold proteins that control their activity. In Drosophila, dMP1, that encodes an ERK scaffold protein, regulates ERK signaling during wing development and contributes to intervein and vein cell differentiation. Functional relationships during wing development between a chromatin regulator, the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto, ERK and its scaffold protein dMP1, are examined here. Results Genetic interactions show that corto and dMP1 act together to antagonize rolled (which encodes ERK in the future intervein cells, thus promoting intervein fate. Although Corto, ERK and dMP1 are present in both cytoplasmic and nucleus compartments, they interact exclusively in nucleus extracts. Furthermore, Corto, ERK and dMP1 co-localize on several sites on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that they regulate gene expression directly on chromatin. Finally, Corto is phosphorylated. Interestingly, its phosphorylation pattern differs between cytoplasm and nucleus and changes upon ERK activation. Conclusions Our data therefore suggest that the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto could participate in regulating vein and intervein genes during wing tissue development in response to ERK signaling.

  18. The N-terminal domain of the Drosophila retinoblastoma protein Rbf1 interacts with ORC and associates with chromatin in an E2F independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ahlander

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor protein can function as a DNA replication inhibitor as well as a transcription factor. Regulation of DNA replication may occur through interaction of Rb with the origin recognition complex (ORC.We characterized the interaction of Drosophila Rb, Rbf1, with ORC. Using expression of proteins in Drosophila S2 cells, we found that an N-terminal Rbf1 fragment (amino acids 1-345 is sufficient for Rbf1 association with ORC but does not bind to dE2F1. We also found that the C-terminal half of Rbf1 (amino acids 345-845 interacts with ORC. We observed that the amino-terminal domain of Rbf1 localizes to chromatin in vivo and associates with chromosomal regions implicated in replication initiation, including colocalization with Orc2 and acetylated histone H4.Our results suggest that Rbf1 can associate with ORC and chromatin through domains independent of the E2F binding site. We infer that Rbf1 may play a role in regulating replication directly through its association with ORC and/or chromatin factors other than E2F. Our data suggest an important role for retinoblastoma family proteins in cell proliferation and tumor suppression through interaction with the replication initiation machinery.

  19. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. → Adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. → The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. → AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. → AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells.

  20. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules II...

  1. PolyC-binding protein 1 interacts with 5'-untranslated region of enterovirus 71 RNA in membrane-associated complex to facilitate viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Luo

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD, which may lead to severe neurological disorders and mortality in children. EV71 genome is a positive single-stranded RNA containing a single open reading frame (ORF flanked by 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR and 3'UTR. The 5'UTR is fundamentally important for virus replication by interacting with cellular proteins. Here, we revealed that poly(C-binding protein 1 (PCBP1 specifically binds to the 5'UTR of EV71. Detailed studies indicated that the RNA-binding K-homologous 1 (KH1 domain of PCBP1 is responsible for its binding to the stem-loop I and IV of EV71 5'UTR. Interestingly, we revealed that PCBP1 is distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of uninfected cells, but mainly localized in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells due to interaction and co-localization with the viral RNA. Furthermore, sub-cellular distribution analysis showed that PCBP1 is located in ER-derived membrane, in where virus replication occurred in the cytoplasm of EV71-infected cells, suggesting PCBP1 is recruited in a membrane-associated replication complex. In addition, we found that the binding of PCBP1 to 5'UTR resulted in enhancing EV71 viral protein expression and virus production so as to facilitate viral replication. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism in which PCBP1 as a positive regulator involved in regulation of EV71 replication in the host specialized membrane-associated replication complex, which provides an insight into cellular factors involved in EV71 replication.

  2. Cellular Prion Protein and Caveolin-1 Interaction in a Neuronal Cell Line Precedes Fyn/Erk 1/2 Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc is enriched in caveolae or caveolae-like domains with caveolin-1 (Cav-1 participating to signal transduction events by Fyn kinase recruitment. By using the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins assay, we observed that PrPc strongly interacts in vitro with Cav-1. Thus, we ascertained the PrPc caveolar localization in a hypothalamic neuronal cell line (GN11, by confocal microscopy analysis, flotation on density gradient, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Following the anti-PrPc antibody-mediated stimulation of live GN11 cells, we observed that PrPc clustered on plasma membrane domains rich in Cav-1 in which Fyn kinase converged to be activated. After these events, a signaling cascade through p42/44 MAP kinase (Erk 1/2 was triggered, suggesting that following translocations from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains PrPc could interact with Cav-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  3. The similar to RCD-one 1 protein SRO1 interacts with GPX3 and functions in plant tolerance of mercury stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Gao, Lijie; Jin, Pingning; Cui, Liusu

    2018-01-01

    Heavy metals in the environment are one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, the mechanisms of the heavy metal-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we explored that SRO1 can physically interact with Glutathione Peroxidase 3 (GPX3) in Arabidopsis. Under Hg treatment, similar to the sro1, the growth of the gpx3/sro1 was repressed more seriously and the number of true leaves was more reduced and etiolated than that of the wild type and gpx3 plants. The electrolyte leakage rates showed that cell membrane integrity in gpx3/sro1 was damaged more severely than in the wild type and gpx3 mutant. The Real-time PCR results have shown that the expression of the APX1 and CAT3 was reduced under mercury stress in the sro1 and sro1/gpx3. Our results suggested that the combination of the SRO1 and GPX3 may be contributed to plant response to mercury stress by regulating ROS intracellular oxidative homeostasis.

  4. Interactions of Oryza sativa OsCONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING-LIKE 1 (OsCOLE1) and OsCOLE1-INTERACTING PROTEIN reveal a novel intracellular auxin transport mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Lan; Luo, Yanzhong; Xu, Miaoyun; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the transport mechanism of intracellular auxin. Here, we report two vacuole-localized proteins, Oryza sativa OsCONTINUOUS VASCULAR RING-LIKE 1 (OsCOLE1) and OsCOLE1-INTERACTING PROTEIN (OsCLIP), that regulate intracellular auxin transport and homoeostasis. Overexpression of OsCOLE1 markedly increased the internode length and auxin content of the stem base, whereas these parameters were decreased in RNA interference (RNAi) plants. OsCOLE1 was localized on the tonoplast and preferentially expressed in mature tissues. We further identified its interacting protein OsCLIP, which was co-localized on the tonoplast. Protein-protein binding assays demonstrated that the N-terminus of OsCOLE1 directly interacted with OsCLIP in yeast cells and the rice protoplast. Furthermore, (3) H-indole-3-acetic acid ((3) H-IAA) transport assays revealed that OsCLIP transported IAA into yeast cells, which was promoted by OsCOLE1. The results indicate that OsCOLE1 affects rice development by regulating intracellular auxin transport through interaction with OsCLIP, which provides a new insight into the regulatory mechanism of intracellular transport of auxin and the roles of vacuoles in plant development. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. The Rev1 interacting region (RIR) motif in the scaffold protein XRCC1 mediates a low-affinity interaction with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) during DNA single-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Claire; Mani, Rajam S; Fanta, Mesfin; Hoch, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-09-29

    The scaffold protein X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) interacts with multiple enzymes involved in DNA base excision repair and single-strand break repair (SSBR) and is important for genetic integrity and normal neurological function. One of the most important interactions of XRCC1 is that with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a dual-function DNA kinase/phosphatase that processes damaged DNA termini and that, if mutated, results in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 (AOA4) and microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ). XRCC1 and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Here, we identified using biochemical and biophysical approaches a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 phosphorylation. However, this interaction nevertheless stimulated PNKP activity and promoted SSBR and cell survival. The low-affinity interaction site required the highly conserved Rev1-interacting region (RIR) motif in XRCC1 and included three critical and evolutionarily invariant phenylalanine residues. We propose a bipartite interaction model in which the previously identified high-affinity interaction acts as a molecular tether, holding XRCC1 and PNKP together and thereby promoting the low-affinity interaction identified here, which then stimulates PNKP directly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 protein in ameloblastoma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sissy, N A

    1999-05-01

    Overexpression of p53 protein in unicystic ameloblastoma (uAB) is denser than in the conventional ameloblastoma (cAB) type, indicating increased wild type p53--suppressing the growth potential of uAB and denoting the early event of neoplastic transformation, probably of a previous odontogenic cyst. Overexpression of p53 in borderline cAB and malignant ameloblastoma (mAB) types might reflect a mutational p53 protein playing an oncogenic role, promoting tumour growth. Overexpression of p53 protein could be a valid screening method for predicting underlying malignant genetic changes in AB types, through increased frequency of immunoreactive cells or increased staining density.

  8. Discriminating lysosomal membrane protein types using dynamic neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vijay; Gupta, Dwijendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a dynamic artificial neural network methodology, which classifies the proteins into their classes from their sequences alone: the lysosomal membrane protein classes and the various other membranes protein classes. In this paper, neural networks-based lysosomal-associated membrane protein type prediction system is proposed. Different protein sequence representations are fused to extract the features of a protein sequence, which includes seven feature sets; amino acid (AA) composition, sequence length, hydrophobic group, electronic group, sum of hydrophobicity, R-group, and dipeptide composition. To reduce the dimensionality of the large feature vector, we applied the principal component analysis. The probabilistic neural network, generalized regression neural network, and Elman regression neural network (RNN) are used as classifiers and compared with layer recurrent network (LRN), a dynamic network. The dynamic networks have memory, i.e. its output depends not only on the input but the previous outputs also. Thus, the accuracy of LRN classifier among all other artificial neural networks comes out to be the highest. The overall accuracy of jackknife cross-validation is 93.2% for the data-set. These predicted results suggest that the method can be effectively applied to discriminate lysosomal associated membrane proteins from other membrane proteins (Type-I, Outer membrane proteins, GPI-Anchored) and Globular proteins, and it also indicates that the protein sequence representation can better reflect the core feature of membrane proteins than the classical AA composition.

  9. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

  10. Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic vertebrate neurons, whereas transitin and nestin are found in myogenic and neurogenic cells. Another type VI IF protein, synemin, is expressed in undifferentiated and mature muscle cells of birds and mammals. In addition to an IF-typical α-helical core domain, type VI IF proteins are characterized by a long C-terminal tail often containing distinct repeated motifs. The molecular evolution of type VI IF proteins remains poorly studied. Results To examine the evolutionary history of type VI IF proteins, sequence comparisons, BLAST searches, synteny studies and phylogenic analyses were performed. This study provides new evidence that tanabin, transitin and nestin are indeed orthologous type VI IF proteins. It demonstrates that tanabin, transitin and nestin genes share intron positions and sequence identities, have a similar chromosomal context and display closely related positions in phylogenic analyses. Despite this homology, fast evolution rates of their C-terminal extremity have caused the appearance of repeated motifs with distinct biological activities. In particular, our in silico and in vitro analyses of their tail domain have shown that (avian transitin, but not (mammalian nestin, contains a repeat domain displaying nucleotide hydrolysis activity. Conclusion These analyses of the evolutionary history of the IF proteins fit with a model in which type VI IFs form a branch distinct from NF proteins and are composed of two major proteins: synemin and nestin orthologs. Rapid evolution of the C-terminal extremity of nestin orthologs could be responsible for their divergent functions.

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein functional sites. 999. J. Biosci. 32(5), August 2007. 1. Introduction. Diabetes is affecting nearly 10% of the global population above 20 years of age. Its most prevalent form is type 2 diabetes (T2D), with a share of 90-95%. By the year 2025, an estimated 300 ...

  12. Morbillivirus v proteins exhibit multiple mechanisms to block type 1 and type 2 interferon signalling pathways.

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    Senthil K Chinnakannan

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV and measles virus (MeV have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β and type II (IFNγ interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV, measles virus (MeV, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and canine distemper virus (CDV. These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action.

  13. Identification of protein types in Bambara nut seeds: Perspectives for dietary protein supply in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpuzor, J; Ogbunugafor, H A; Okafor, U; Sofidiya, M O

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to identify the types of proteins in malted and dry Bambara groundnut seeds and through a comparative analysis, identify similarities and their known uses. Dry viable bambara seed was stored for five days to malt. The proteins in the dry and malted seed were subsequently extracted in potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and precipitated with saturated ammonium sulphate. MudPit (multidimensional protein identification technology) and LC-MALDI TOF-TOF (liquid chromatography - matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight) mass spectrometry were thereafter used to identify the different types of proteins. A total of ten and twelve different types of proteins present in other legume species were identified in the malted and dry seeds respectively from the 214 peptides isolated after searching 586 proteins of the genus Vigna . Seed storage protein B and vicilin were observed to be the major proteins common to both malted and dry seeds and are similar to Vigna luteola . Some of the other proteins observed showed amino acid sequence homology with Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata species. The following proteins BV1, Heat shock and Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (a protease), were observed only in the malted state. This information may enhance the appreciation of the nutritional and health benefits of the seed.

  14. Thyrocyte-interleukin-1 interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A K; Bendtzen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2000-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disease and is a very common cause of thyroid dysfunction such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, Graves' disease and postpartum thyroiditis. The thyroid gland from patients with autoimmune thyroid disease is morphologically...... such as adhesion molecules, cytokines, and complement regulatory proteins in thyroid epithelial cells. IL-1 may thus play a role during physiological as well as pathophysiological conditions contributing to for example the euthyroid sick syndrome and development of thyroid autoimmunity. This review summarizes...

  15. The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Nemp1 Is a New Type of RanGTP-Binding Protein in Eukaryotes.

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    Takashi Shibano

    Full Text Available The inner nuclear membrane (INM protein Nemp1/TMEM194A has previously been suggested to be involved in eye development in Xenopus, and contains two evolutionarily conserved sequences in the transmembrane domains (TMs and the C-terminal region, named region A and region B, respectively. To elucidate the molecular nature of Nemp1, we analyzed its interacting proteins through those conserved regions. First, we found that Nemp1 interacts with itself and lamin through the TMs and region A, respectively. Colocalization of Nemp1 and lamin at the INM suggests that the interaction with lamin participates in the INM localization of Nemp1. Secondly, through yeast two-hybrid screening using region B as bait, we identified the small GTPase Ran as a probable Nemp1-binding partner. GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays using region B and Ran mutants revealed that region B binds directly to the GTP-bound Ran through its effector domain. Immunostaining experiments using transfected COS-7 cells revealed that full-length Nemp1 recruits Ran near the nuclear envelope, suggesting a role for Nemp1 in the accumulation of RanGTP at the nuclear periphery. At the neurula-to-tailbud stages of Xenopus embryos, nemp1 expression overlapped with ran in several regions including the eye vesicles. Co-knockdown using antisense morpholino oligos for nemp1 and ran caused reduction of cell densities and severe eye defects more strongly than either single knockdown alone, suggesting their functional interaction. Finally we show that Arabidopsis thaliana Nemp1-orthologous proteins interact with A. thaliana Ran, suggesting their evolutionally conserved physical and functional interactions possibly in basic cellular functions including nuclear transportation. Taken together, we conclude that Nemp1 represents a new type of RanGTP-binding protein.

  16. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-12-10

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  17. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-28

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood. Keeping this view, we demonstrate the phylogenetic motifs (PMs) identification in type 2 diabetes mellitus very likely corresponding to protein functional sites.

  19. Low protein alimentation normalizes renal haemodynamic response to acute protein ingestion in type 1 diabetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, P; De Santo, N G; Capasso, G; Anastasio, P; Coppola, S; Capodicasa, G; Perna, A; Torella, R; Salvatore, T; Giordano, C

    1989-02-01

    The effect of an acute protein load (2 g kg-1 bodyweight [BW]) was studied in nine type 1 diabetic children. Patients were maintained on two different dietary regimens. In study one, patients were on a high protein diet providing from 2.7 to 1.8 g of protein/kg of BW per day. In study two, patients were reevaluated after three weeks of a diet providing from 1.0 to 1.2 g kg-1 of BW per day of protein. In study one (High Protein Diet), we failed to observe any rise in GFR and RPF following the protein meal (137 +/- 21 basal vs. 110 +/- 14 and 472 +/- 93 basal vs. 494 +/- 93 ml/1.73 m2 of SA min-1 at 60 min. This is in contrast with results from seven age matched controls consuming a free diet, which showed a significant rise in both GFR and RPF. In study two (low protein diet), basal GFR was significantly reduced. However after the protein load, both GFR (92 +/- 11 vs. 126 +/- 18 ml/1.73 m2 of SA min-1) and RPF (467 +/- 83 vs. 705 +/- 102 ml/1.73 m2 min-1) rose significantly (P less than 0.05 vs. basal). The data indicate that: 1. short term protein restriction reduces significantly GFR in type 1 diabetic children; 2. diabetic children maintained on an high protein intake show an altered haemodynamic response to protein ingestion; 3. a normal response to protein ingestion can be restored by short term dietary protein restriction.

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Employs the Cellular Dynein Light Chain 1 Protein for Reverse Transcription through Interaction with Its Integrase Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayappa, Kallesh Danappa; Ao, Zhujun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Mouland, Andrew J.; Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we examined the requirement for host dynein adapter proteins such as dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1), dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (DYNLT1), and p150Glued in early steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We found that the knockdown (KD) of DYNLL1, but not DYNLT1 or p150Glued, resulted in significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcription in cells. Following an attempt to determine how DYNLL1 could impact HIV-1 reverse transcription, we detected the DYNLL1 interaction with HIV-1 integrase (IN) but not with capsid (CA), matrix (MA), or reverse transcriptase (RT) protein. Furthermore, by mutational analysis of putative DYNLL1 interaction motifs in IN, we identified the motifs 52GQVD and 250VIQD in IN as essential for DYNLL1 interaction. The DYNLL1 interaction-defective IN mutant HIV-1 (HIV-1INQ53A/Q252A) exhibited impaired reverse transcription. Through further investigations, we have also detected relatively smaller amounts of particulate CA in DYNLL1-KD cells or in infections with HIV-1INQ53A/Q252A mutant virus. Overall, our study demonstrates the novel interaction between HIV-1 IN and cellular DYNLL1 proteins and suggests the requirement of this virus-cell interaction for proper uncoating and efficient reverse transcription of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Host cellular DYNLL1, DYNLT1, and p150Glued proteins have been implicated in the replication of several viruses. However, their roles in HIV-1 replication have not been investigated. For the first time, we demonstrated that during viral infection, HIV-1 IN interacts with DYNLL1, and their interaction was found to have a role in proper uncoating and efficient reverse transcription of HIV-1. Thus, interaction of IN and DYNLL1 may be a potential target for future anti-HIV therapy. Moreover, while our study has evaluated the involvement of IN in HIV-1 uncoating and reverse transcription, it also predicts a possible mechanism by which IN contributes to these early viral

  1. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan D. Teasdale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP's plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport.

  2. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  4. Post-translational protein modifications in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wägner, A M; Cloos, P; Bergholdt, R

    2007-01-01

    that recognises and repairs isomerised Asn and Asp residues in proteins. The aim of this study was to assess the role of PIMT in the development of type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of 59 normal human tissues was performed with a monoclonal PIMT antibody. CGP3466B, which induces......-translational modifications and PIMT in the development of type 1 diabetes in the diabetes-prone BB rat, and perhaps also in humans...... expression of Pcmt1, was tested on MIN6 and INS1 cells, to assess its effect on Pcmt1 mRNA and PIMT levels (RT-PCR and western blot) and apoptosis. Forty-five diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BB) Ottawa Karlsburg (OK) rats were randomised to receive 0, 14 or 500 microg/kg (denoted as the control, low...

  5. A Novel Mechanism for Protein Delivery by the Type 3 Secretion System for Extracellularly Secreted Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Dominguez, Farid; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmin; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2017-03-28

    The type 3 secretion system (T3SS) is essential for bacterial virulence through delivering effector proteins directly into the host cytosol. Here, we identified an alternative delivery mechanism of virulence factors mediated by the T3SS, which consists of the association of extracellularly secreted proteins from bacteria with the T3SS to gain access to the host cytosol. Both EspC, a protein secreted as an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) autotransporter, and YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , require a functional T3SS for host cell internalization; here we provide biophysical and molecular evidence to support the concept of the EspC translocation mechanism, which requires (i) an interaction between EspA and an EspC middle segment, (ii) an EspC translocation motif (21 residues that are shared with the YopH translocation motif), (iii) increases in the association and dissociation rates of EspC mediated by EspA interacting with EspD, and (iv) an interaction of EspC with the EspD/EspB translocon pore. Interestingly, this novel mechanism does not exclude the injection model (i.e., EspF) operating through the T3SS conduit; therefore, T3SS can be functioning as an internal conduit or as an external railway, which can be used to reach the translocator pore, and this mechanism appears to be conserved among different T3SS-dependent pathogens. IMPORTANCE The type 3 secretion system is essential for injection of virulence factors, which are delivered directly into the cytosol of the host cells for usurping and subverting host processes. Recent studies have shown that these effectors proteins indeed travel inside an "injectisome" conduit through a single step of translocation by connecting the bacterium and host cell cytoplasms. However, all findings are not compatible with this model. For example, both YopH, a protein detected on the surface of Yersinia , and EspC, an autotransporter protein secreted by enteropathogenic E. coli , require a

  6. Isolation of three B-box zinc finger proteins that interact with STF1 and COP1 defines a HY5/COP1 interaction network involved in light control of development in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Young; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeon, Su Jeong; Sim, Soon Ae; Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Yoo, Cheol Min; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Hong, Jong Chan

    2016-09-23

    LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and STF1 (Soybean TGACG-motif binding Factor 1) are two related bZIP transcription factors that play a positive role in photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. In this study, we compared full length STF1 and truncated STF1 overexpression lines and found that the C-terminal 133 amino acids (194-306) possess all the HY5-like function in Arabidopsis. The STF1-DC1 mutant (1-306), with a 20 amino acid deletion at the carboxy terminus, failed to complement the hy5 mutant phenotype, which suggests an intact C-terminus is required for STF1 function. To understand the role of the C-terminal domain in photomorphogenesis we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to isolate proteins that bind to the STF1 C-terminus. We isolated three soybean cDNAs encoding the zinc-finger proteins GmSTO, GmSTH, and GmSTH2, which interact with STF1. These proteins belong to a family of B-box zinc finger proteins that include Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO) and STO HOMOLOG (STH) and STH2, which play a role in light-dependent development and gene expression. The C-terminal 63 amino acids of STF1, containing a leucine zipper and the two N-terminal B-boxes, contains the domain involved in interactions between STF1 and GmSTO. In addition, we identified an interaction between soybean COP1 (GmCOP1) and GmSTO and GmSTH, as well as STF1, which strongly suggests the presence of a similar regulatory circuit for light signaling in soybean as in Arabidopsis. This study shows that photomorphogenic control requires complex molecular interactions among several different classes of transcription factors such as bZIP, B-box factors, and COP1, a ubiquitin ligase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm-Pettersen, Anette; Selmer, Kaja Kristine; Nakken, Karl O

    2011-05-06

    Glucose is the brain's main source of energy. To pass the blood-brain barrier, glucose transporter protein type 1 (GLUT-1) is essential. Mutations in the SLC2A1 gene which codes for GLUT-1 may therefore compromise the supply of glucose to the brain. The aim of this review is to describe the clinical consequences of such mutations, with special emphasis on GLUT-1 encephalopathy. This review is based on a non-systematic literature search in PubMed and the authors' experience within the field. Epileptic or epilepsy-like are usually the first symptom in children with the GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome. Later on these children suffer delayed psychomotor development, microcephaly, ataxia, spasticity or movement disorders. EEG abnormalities may develop. GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome should be suspected in children with epilepsy-like seizures and delayed development combined with a low content of glucose in spinal fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by genetic testing. Treatment is a ketogenic diet, as ketone bodies pass the blood-brain barrier using other transport proteins than GLUT-1. GLUT-1-deficiency syndrome is a rare metabolic encephalopathy which is not well known and probably underdiagnosed. An early diagnosis and early start of a ketogenic diet may give these children a normal or nearly normal life.

  8. Multivariate Entropy Characterizes the Gene Expression and Protein-Protein Networks in Four Types of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Juarez-Flores

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an important urgency to detect cancer at early stages to treat it, to improve the patients’ lifespans, and even to cure it. In this work, we determined the entropic contributions of genes in cancer networks. We detected sudden changes in entropy values in melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and squamous lung cell carcinoma associated to transitions from healthy controls to cancer. We also identified the most relevant genes involved in carcinogenic process of the four types of cancer with the help of entropic changes in local networks. Their corresponding proteins could be used as potential targets for treatments and as biomarkers of cancer.

  9. Cell type-specific neuroprotective activity of untranslocated prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Restelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A key pathogenic role in prion diseases was proposed for a cytosolic form of the prion protein (PrP. However, it is not clear how cytosolic PrP localization influences neuronal viability, with either cytotoxic or anti-apoptotic effects reported in different studies. The cellular mechanism by which PrP is delivered to the cytosol of neurons is also debated, and either retrograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or inefficient translocation during biosynthesis has been proposed. We investigated cytosolic PrP biogenesis and effect on cell viability in primary neuronal cultures from different mouse brain regions.Mild proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of an untranslocated form of cytosolic PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, but not in cerebellar granules. A cyclopeptolide that interferes with the correct insertion of the PrP signal sequence into the translocon increased the amount of untranslocated PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, and induced its synthesis in cerebellar neurons. Untranslocated PrP boosted the resistance of cortical and hippocampal neurons to apoptotic insults but had no effect on cerebellar cells.These results indicate cell type-dependent differences in the efficiency of PrP translocation, and argue that cytosolic PrP targeting might serve a physiological neuroprotective function.

  10. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison of PCR-based open reading frame typing, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Kozakai, Takahiro; Shima, Mari; Aiso, Yoshibumi; Fujie, Toshihide; Nukui, Yoko; Koike, Ryuji; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2018-04-01

    The recently developed PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method is a useful molecular typing tool. Here, we evaluated the performance of POT for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and compared its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa typing). Thirty-seven MRSA isolates were collected between July 2012 and May 2015. MLST, spa typing, and POT were performed, and their discriminatory powers were evaluated using Simpson's index analysis. The MRSA isolates were classified into 11, 18, and 33 types by MLST, spa typing, and POT, respectively. The predominant strains identified by MLST, spa typing, and POT were ST8 and ST764, t002, and 93-191-127, respectively. The discriminatory power of MLST, spa typing, and POT was 0.853, 0.875, and 0.992, respectively, indicating that POT had the highest discriminatory power. Moreover, the results of MLST and spa were available after 2 days, whereas that of POT was available in 5 h. Furthermore, POT is rapid and easy to perform and interpret. Therefore, POT is a superior molecular typing tool for monitoring nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts progression to nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Elkjaer; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hovind, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (u-LFABP) is a marker of tubulointerstitial inflammation and has been shown to be increased in patients with type 1 diabetes and is further increased in patients who progress to micro- and macroalbuminuria. Our aim was to evaluate u-LFABP as a predictor...... of progression to micro- and macroalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes....

  12. A duplex approach for immunochemical staining and typing of protein in western blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczius, T.; Brandstädter, L.; Karch, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The qualitative and semiquantitative Western blotting technique enables the detection of separate proteins and the determination of subtypes and fragments by specific immunological reactions. Protein typing on immunoblots is restricted to antibody-specific determination, with the result of a

  13. Enigma homolog 1 scaffolds protein kinase D1 to regulate the activity of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Andrés D; Wälchli, Sébastien; Iwata, Miki; Ryser, Stephan; Van Lint, Johannes; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Schlegel, Werner; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tanizawa, Katsuyuki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi

    2008-06-01

    In cardiomyocytes, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) plays a central role in the response to stress signals. From a yeast two-hybrid assay, we have identified Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) as a new binding partner of PKD1. Since in neurons, ENH1, associated with protein kinase Cepsilon, was shown to modulate the activity of N-type calcium channels, and the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, alpha1C, possesses a potential phosphorylation site for PKD1, we studied here a possible role of ENH1 and PKD1 in the regulation of the cardiac L-type voltage-gated calcium channel. PKD1-interacting proteins were searched by yeast two-hybrid screening. In vivo protein interactions in cardiomyocytes isolated from heart ventricles of newborn rats were tested by co-immunoprecipitation. Small interfering RNA and a dominant negative mutant of PKD1 were delivered into cardiomyocytes by use of an adenovirus. Calcium currents were measured by the patch-clamp technique. Both ENH1 and PKD1 interact with alpha1C in cardiomyocytes. This interaction is increased upon stimulation. Silencing of ENH1 prevented the binding of PKD1 to alpha1C. Moreover, a dominant negative mutant of PKD1 or the silencing of ENH1 inhibited the alpha-adrenergic-induced increase of L-type calcium currents. We found a new binding partner, ENH1, and a new target, alpha1C, for PKD1 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We propose a model where ENH1 scaffolds PKD1 to alpha1C in order to form a signalling complex that regulates the activity of cardiac L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

  14. Protein Intake, Especially Vegetable Protein Intake, Is Associated with Higher Skeletal Muscle Mass in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Akane; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Ushigome, Emi; Fukuda, Takuya; Sennmaru, Takafumi; Tanaka, Muhei; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Protein intake is important for maintaining muscle mass in general population. However, it remains to be elucidated the association between dietary protein intake and skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study of 168 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and protein intake. Bioimpedance analysis was used for measurement for skeletal muscle mass (kg) and SMI (%), which was defined as skeletal muscle mass (kg)/total body weight (kg) × 100. Habitual food and nutrient intake were estimated by a questionnaire. Protein intake was independently correlated with SMI after adjusting for age, hemoglobin A1c, C-peptide index, exercise, smoking, insulin treatment, total energy intake, and C-reactive protein (standardized regression coefficient = 0.664, P animal protein to vegetable protein ratio was negatively correlated with SMI after adjusting for covariates in men (standardized regression coefficient = -0.339, P = 0.005). We found that total protein intake, especially vegetable protein intake, was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Protein Intake, Especially Vegetable Protein Intake, Is Associated with Higher Skeletal Muscle Mass in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akane Miki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Protein intake is important for maintaining muscle mass in general population. However, it remains to be elucidated the association between dietary protein intake and skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of 168 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle index (SMI and protein intake. Bioimpedance analysis was used for measurement for skeletal muscle mass (kg and SMI (%, which was defined as skeletal muscle mass (kg/total body weight (kg × 100. Habitual food and nutrient intake were estimated by a questionnaire. Results. Protein intake was independently correlated with SMI after adjusting for age, hemoglobin A1c, C-peptide index, exercise, smoking, insulin treatment, total energy intake, and C-reactive protein (standardized regression coefficient = 0.664, P<0.001 in men and standardized regression coefficient = 0.516, P=0.005 in women. Additionally, the animal protein to vegetable protein ratio was negatively correlated with SMI after adjusting for covariates in men (standardized regression coefficient = −0.339, P=0.005. Conclusions. We found that total protein intake, especially vegetable protein intake, was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  17. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen eNietzsche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1 responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic alpha subunit associates with a regulatory beta subunit and an activating gamma subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1 alpha subunit (AKIN10/11 of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins can share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  18. The effects of probiotic yoghurt on C-Reactive Protein in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanoyesadat Ejtahed

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yoghurt improved C-Reactive Protein concentration in type 2 diabetic patients. Probiotic yoghurt consumption is recommended as auxiliary therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  19. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  20. Evaluation of antibody response against recombinant domain III proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh K Tripathi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito borne viral disease caused by dengue virus has emerged as a major health problem during the last few decades. The envelope domain III (DIII protein of dengue virus is highly immunogenic and capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies against wild-type dengue virus. The envelope domain III protein is a potential subunit vaccine candidate as well as a diagnostic reagent for dengue. This report describes the high yield production and immunogenicity of recombinant DIII proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2. The subunit DIII proteins were produced in Escherichia coli using batch and fed-batch fermentation process. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography was used to capture DIII proteins of dengue virus type 1 and 2. The purified proteins were refolded by diafiltration to achieve biologically active proteins. After fed-batch fermentation, the recombinant E. coli resulted in purified DIII proteins of about 10.06 mg and 47.70 mg per gram of dry cell weight for recombinant dengue virus type 1 and 2 respectively with more than 95% purity. Biological function of the purified DIII proteins were confirmed by their ability to generate DIII specific antibodies in mice. The DIII antigens in combination with adjuvant resulted antibody endpoint titers of 1:64,000 and 1:1,28,000 for recombinant dengue virus type 1 and 2 respectively. These findings establish that the DIII proteins in combination with adjuvant are immunogenic, which suggests that refolded and purified DIII proteins can be a potential vaccine candidates.

  1. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts progression to nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Elkjaer; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hovind, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (u-LFABP) is a marker of tubulointerstitial inflammation and has been shown to be increased in patients with type 1 diabetes and is further increased in patients who progress to micro- and macroalbuminuria. Our aim was to evaluate u-LFABP as a predictor...

  2. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  3. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  4. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-08-30

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  5. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  6. Redesigning the type II' β-turn in green fluorescent protein to type I': implications for folding kinetics and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Bharat; Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2014-10-01

    Both Type I' and Type II' β-turns have the same sense of the β-turn twist that is compatible with the β-sheet twist. They occur predominantly in two residue β-hairpins, but the occurrence of Type I' β-turns is two times higher than Type II' β-turns. This suggests that Type I' β-turns may be more stable than Type II' β-turns, and Type I' β-turn sequence and structure can be more favorable for protein folding than Type II' β-turns. Here, we redesigned the native Type II' β-turn in GFP to Type I' β-turn, and investigated its effect on protein folding and stability. The Type I' β-turns were designed based on the statistical analysis of residues in natural Type I' β-turns. The substitution of the native "GD" sequence of i+1 and i+2 residues with Type I' preferred "(N/D)G" sequence motif increased the folding rate by 50% and slightly improved the thermodynamic stability. Despite the enhancement of in vitro refolding kinetics and stability of the redesigned mutants, they showed poor soluble expression level compared to wild type. To overcome this problem, i and i + 3 residues of the designed Type I' β-turn were further engineered. The mutation of Thr to Lys at i + 3 could restore the in vivo soluble expression of the Type I' mutant. This study indicates that Type II' β-turns in natural β-hairpins can be further optimized by converting the sequence to Type I'. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expression and purification of sea raven type II antifreeze protein from Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotter, Andrew J; Kuntz, Douglas A; Saul, Michelle; Graham, Laurie A; Davies, Peter L; Rose, David R

    2006-06-01

    We present a system for the expression and purification of recombinant sea raven type II antifreeze protein, a cysteine-rich, C-type lectin-like globular protein that has proved to be a difficult target for recombinant expression and purification. The cDNAs encoding the pro- and mature forms of the sea raven protein were cloned into a modified pMT Drosophila expression vector. These constructs produced N-terminally His(6)-tagged pro- and mature forms of the type II antifreeze protein under the control of a metallothionein promoter when transfected into Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. Upon induction of stable cell lines the two proteins were expressed at high levels and secreted into the medium. The proteins were then purified from the cell medium in a simple and rapid protocol using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and specific protease cleavage by tobacco etch virus protease. The proteins demonstrated antifreeze activity indistinguishable from that of wild-type sea raven antifreeze protein purified from serum as illustrated by ice affinity purification, ice crystal morphology, and their ability to inhibit ice crystal growth. This expression and purification system gave yields of 95 mg/L of fully active mature sea raven type II AFP and 9.6 mg/L of the proprotein. This surpasses all previous attempts to express this protein in Escherichia coli, baculovirus-infected fall armyworm cells and Pichia pastoris and will provide sufficient protein for structural analysis.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    input_flowerpower.py). Flower Power is a protein homology clustering algorithm similar to PSI-Blast in its iterated approach to search homolgs by searching the. UniProt database, includes phylogenetic tree construction, subfamily HMM construction in ...

  9. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores: Strain typing and protein identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Pešlová, Kateřina; Žabka, Martin; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, 1-3 (2009), s. 162-168 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus * spore * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  10. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  11. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  12. IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A and enhances its stability and its role in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ning; Shi, Ji; Wang, Dapeng; Tong, Tong; Wang, Mingrong; Fan, Feiyue; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A through its RGCt domain. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 prevents ubiquitination of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 enhances the protein stability of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 promotes the kinase activity of Aurora-A. -- Abstract: IQGAP1, a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein, has been identified in a wide range of organisms. It participates in multiple aspects of cellular events by binding to and regulating numerous interacting proteins. In our present study, we identified a new IQGAP1 binding protein named Aurora-A which is an oncogenic protein and overexpressed in various types of human tumors. In vitro analysis with GST-Aurora-A fusion proteins showed a physical interaction between Aurora-A and IQGAP1. Moreover, the binding also occurred in HeLa cells as endogenous Aurora-A co-immunoprecipitated with IQGAP1 from the cell lysates. Overexpression of IQGAP1 resulted in an elevation of both expression and activity of Aurora-A kinase. Endogenous IQGAP1 knockdown by siRNA promoted Aurora-A degradation whereas IQGAP1 overexpression enhanced the stability of Aurora-A. Additionally, we documented that the IQGAP1-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by knocking down Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results showed an unidentified relationship between Aurora-A and IQGAP1, and provided a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which IQGAP1 played a regulatory role in cancer.

  13. Protein expression, characterization and activity comparisons of wild type and mutant DUSP5 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Jaladhi; Gastonguay, Adam J.; Talipov, Marat R.; Vakeel, Padmanabhan; Span, Elise A.; Kalous, Kelsey S.; Kutty, Raman G.; Jensen, Davin R.; Pokkuluri, Phani Raj; Sem, Daniel S.; Rathore, Rajendra; Ramchandran, Ramani

    2014-12-01

    Background: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is critical for cellular signaling, and proteins such as phosphatases that regulate this pathway are important for normal tissue development. Based on our previous work on dual specificity phosphatase-5 (DUSP5), and its role in embryonic vascular development and disease, we hypothesized that mutations in DUSP5 will affect its function. Results: In this study, we tested this hypothesis by generating full-length glutathione-S-transferase-tagged DUSP5 and serine 147 proline mutant (S147P) proteins from bacteria. Light scattering analysis, circular dichroism, enzymatic assays and molecular modeling approaches have been performed to extensively characterize the protein form and function. We demonstrate that both proteins are active and, interestingly, the S147P protein is hypoactive as compared to the DUSP5 WT protein in two distinct biochemical substrate assays. Furthermore, due to the novel positioning of the S147P mutation, we utilize computational modeling to reconstruct full-length DUSP5 and S147P to predict a possible mechanism for the reduced activity of S147P. Conclusion: Taken together, this is the first evidence of the generation and characterization of an active, full-length, mutant DUSP5 protein which will facilitate future structure-function and drug development-based studies.

  14. Detection of type 1 prion protein in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yull, H.M.; Ritchie, D.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Bruce, M.E.; Ironside, J.W.; Head, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular typing of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) has come to be regarded as a powerful tool in the investigation of the prion diseases. All evidence thus far presented indicates a single PrPSc molecular type in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (termed type 2B), presumably

  15. Mapping of protein-protein interaction sites in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin.

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    Haruka Kameda

    Full Text Available Knowing the manner of protein-protein interactions is vital for understanding biological events. The plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (Fd, a well-known small iron-sulfur protein with low redox potential, partitions electrons to a variety of Fd-dependent enzymes via specific protein-protein interactions. Here we have refined the crystal structure of a recombinant plant-type Fd I from the blue green alga Aphanothece sacrum (AsFd-I at 1.46 Å resolution on the basis of the synchrotron radiation data. Incorporating the revised amino-acid sequence, our analysis corrects the 3D structure previously reported; we identified the short α-helix (67-71 near the active center, which is conserved in other plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fds. Although the 3D structures of the four molecules in the asymmetric unit are similar to each other, detailed comparison of the four structures revealed the segments whose conformations are variable. Structural comparison between the Fds from different sources showed that the distribution of the variable segments in AsFd-I is highly conserved in other Fds, suggesting the presence of intrinsically flexible regions in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fd. A few structures of the complexes with Fd-dependent enzymes clearly demonstrate that the protein-protein interactions are achieved through these variable regions in Fd. The results described here will provide a guide for interpreting the biochemical and mutational studies that aim at the manner of interactions with Fd-dependent enzymes.

  16. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  17. Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water with different types and concentrations of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Rabearisoa, Andry H; Jiang, Xiaoman; Dai, Zhineng

    2013-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are sometimes regarded as proteinophilic compounds, however, there is no research report about the effect of environmental protein on the bioaccumulation of PFASs in waters. In the present study we investigated influences of protein on the bioaccumulation of six kinds of PFASs by Daphnia magna in water; it included perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Two types of protein including bovine albumin from animal and soy peptone from plant were compared and the effects of protein concentration were investigated. Both types of protein at high concentrations (10 and 20 mg L(-1)) suppressed the bioaccumulation of PFASs. When protein concentration increased from 0 to 20 mg L(-1), the decreasing ratios of the PFAS body burden (35.3-52.9%) in Daphnia magna induced by bovine albumin were significantly higher than those (22.0-36.6%) by soy peptone. The dialysis bag experiment results showed that the binding of PFASs to protein followed the Freundlich isotherm, suggesting it is not a linear partitioning process but an adsorption-like process. The partition coefficients of PFASs between bovine albumin and water were higher compared to soy peptone; this resulted in higher reducing rates of freely dissolved concentrations of PFASs with increasing bovine albumin concentration, leading to a stronger suppression of PFAS bioaccumulation. However, the presence of both types of protein with a low concentration (1 mg L(-1)) enhanced the bioaccumulation of PFASs. Furthermore, the water-based bioaccumulation factor based on the freely dissolved concentrations of PFASs even increased with and the depuration rate constants of PFASs from Daphnia magna decreased with protein concentration, suggesting that protein would not only reduce the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lower the elimination rates of PFASs in

  18. Two outer membrane proteins are required for maximal type I secretion of the Caulobacter crescentus S-layer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporowski, Michael C; Nomellini, John F; Awram, Peter; Smit, John

    2004-12-01

    Transport of RsaA, the crystalline S-layer subunit protein of Caulobacter crescentus, is mediated by a type I secretion mechanism. Two proteins have been identified that play the role of the outer membrane protein (OMP) component in the RsaA secretion machinery. The genes rsaF(a) and rsaF(b) were identified by similarity to the Escherichia coli hemolysin secretion OMP TolC by using the C. crescentus genome sequence. The rsaF(a) gene is located several kilobases downstream of the other transporter genes, while rsaF(b) is completely unlinked. An rsaF(a) knockout had approximately 56% secretion compared to wild-type levels, while the rsaF(b) knockout reduced secretion levels to approximately 79%. When expression of both proteins was eliminated, there was no RsaA secretion, but a residual level of approximately 9% remained inside the cell, suggesting posttranslational autoregulation. Complementation with either of the individual rsaF genes by use of a multicopy vector, which resulted in 8- to 10-fold overexpression of the proteins, did not restore RsaA secretion to wild-type levels, indicating that both rsaF genes were required for full-level secretion. However, overexpression of rsaF(a) (with normal rsaF(b) levels) in concert with overexpression of rsaA resulted in a 28% increase in RsaA secretion, indicating a potential for significantly increasing expression levels of an already highly expressing type I secretion system. This is the only known example of type I secretion requiring two OMPs to assemble a fully functional system.

  19. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Tyler B; Binning, Jennifer M; Gross, John D; Frankel, Alan D

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are completely dependent upon cellular machinery to support replication and have therefore developed strategies to co-opt cellular processes to optimize infection and counter host immune defenses. Many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), encode a relatively small number of genes. Viruses with limited genetic content often encode multifunctional proteins that function at multiple stages of the viral replication cycle. In this review, we discuss the functions of HIV-1 regulatory (Tat and Rev) and accessory (Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef) proteins. Each of these proteins has a highly conserved primary activity; however, numerous additional activities have been attributed to these viral proteins. We explore the possibility that HIV-1 proteins leverage their multifunctional nature to alter host transcriptional networks to elicit a diverse set of cellular responses. Although these transcriptional effects appear to benefit the virus, it is not yet clear whether they are strongly selected for during viral evolution or are a ripple effect from the primary function. As our detailed knowledge of these viral proteins improves, we will undoubtedly uncover how the multifunctional nature of these HIV-1 regulatory and accessory proteins, and in particular their transcriptional functions, work to drive viral pathogenesis.

  1. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6 Protein Aggregates Cause Deficits in Motor Learning and Cerebellar Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, Melanie D; Krause, Martin; Boele, Henk-Jan; Kruse, Wolfgang; Pollok, Stefan; Kuner, Thomas; Dalkara, Deniz; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Herlitze, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is linked to poly-glutamine (polyQ) within the C terminus (CT) of the pore-forming subunits of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav2.1) and is characterized by CT protein aggregates found in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). One hypothesis regarding SCA6 disease is that

  2. LIK1, a CERK1-interacting kinase, regulates plant immune responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Ha Le

    Full Text Available Chitin, an integral component of the fungal cell wall, is one of the best-studied microbe-associated molecular patterns. Previous work identified a LysM receptor-like kinase (LysM-RLK1/CERK1 as the primary chitin receptor in Arabidopsis. In order to identify proteins that interact with CERK1, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular kinase domain of CERK1 as the bait. This screen identified 54 putative CERK1-interactors. Screening mutants defective in 43 of these interacting proteins identified only two, a calmodulin like protein (At3g10190 and a leucine-rich repeat receptor like kinase (At3g14840, which differed in their response to pathogen challenge. In the present work, we focused on characterizing the LRR-RLK gene where mutations altered responses to chitin elicitation. This LRR-RLK was named LysM RLK1-interacting kinase 1 (LIK1. The interaction between CERK1 and LIK1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation using protoplasts and transgenic plants. In vitro experiments showed that LIK1 was directly phosphorylated by CERK1. In vivo phosphorylation assays showed that Col-0 wild-type plants have more phosphorylated LIK1 than cerk1 mutant plants, suggesting that LIK1 may be directly phosphorylated by CERK1. Lik1 mutant plants showed an enhanced response to both chitin and flagellin elicitors. In comparison to the wild-type plants, lik1 mutant plants were more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae, but more susceptible to the necrotrophic pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to necrotrophs, lik1 mutants showed reduced expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways. These data suggest that LIK1 directly interacts with CERK1 and regulates MAMP-triggered innate immunity.

  3. Mutational Analysis of the QRRQ Motif in the Yeast Hig1 Type 2 Protein Rcf1 Reveals a Regulatory Role for the Cytochrome c Oxidase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Joshua; Strecker, Valentina; Wittig, Ilka; Stuart, Rosemary A

    2017-03-31

    The yeast Rcf1 protein is a member of the conserved family of proteins termed the hypoxia-induced gene (domain) 1 (Hig1 or HIGD1) family. Rcf1 interacts with components of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular the cytochrome bc 1 (complex III)-cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) supercomplex (termed III-IV) and the ADP/ATP carrier proteins. Rcf1 plays a role in the assembly and modulation of the activity of complex IV; however, the molecular basis for how Rcf1 influences the activity of complex IV is currently unknown. Hig1 type 2 isoforms, which include the Rcf1 protein, are characterized in part by the presence of a conserved motif, (Q/I) X 3 (R/H) X R X 3 Q, termed here the QRRQ motif. We show that mutation of conserved residues within the Rcf1 QRRQ motif alters the interactions between Rcf1 and partner proteins and results in the destabilization of complex IV and alteration of its enzymatic properties. Our findings indicate that Rcf1 does not serve as a stoichiometric component, i.e. as a subunit of complex IV, to support its activity. Rather, we propose that Rcf1 serves to dynamically interact with complex IV during its assembly process and, in doing so, regulates a late maturation step of complex IV. We speculate that the Rcf1/Hig1 proteins play a role in the incorporation and/or remodeling of lipids, in particular cardiolipin, into complex IV and. possibly, other mitochondrial proteins such as ADP/ATP carrier proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Specific Adhesion of Lipid Membranes Can Simultaneously Produce Two Types of Lipid and Protein Heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Orrin; Micah, Natalie; Ritzer, Max; Gordon, Vernita

    2015-03-01

    Living cells adhere to one another and their environment. Adhesion is associated with re-organization of the lipid and protein components of the cell membrane. The resulting heterogeneities are functional structures involved in biological processes. We use artificial lipid membranes that contain a single type of binding protein. Before adhesion, the lipid, protein, and dye components in the membrane are well-mixed and constitute a single disordered-liquid phase (Ld) . After adhesion, two distinct types of heterogeneities coexist in the adhesion zone: a central domain of ordered lipid phase that excludes both binding proteins and membrane dye, and a peripheral domain of disordered lipid phase that is densely packed with adhesion proteins and enriched in membrane dye relative to the non-adhered portion of the vesicle. Thus, we show that adhesion that is mediated by only one type of protein can organize the lipid and protein components of the membranes into heterogeneities that resemble those found in biology, for example the immune synapse.

  5. Unanticipated functional diversity among the TatA-type components of the Tat protein translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Ekaterina; Kao, Wei-Chun; Fröbel, Julia; Blümmel, Anne-Sophie; Hunte, Carola; Müller, Matthias

    2018-01-22

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems transport folded proteins that harbor a conserved arginine pair in their signal peptides. They assemble from hexahelical TatC-type and single-spanning TatA-type proteins. Many Tat systems comprise two functionally diverse, TatA-type proteins, denominated TatA and TatB. Some bacteria in addition express TatE, which thus far has been characterized as a functional surrogate of TatA. For the Tat system of Escherichia coli we demonstrate here that different from TatA but rather like TatB, TatE contacts a Tat signal peptide independently of the proton-motive force and restricts the premature processing of a Tat signal peptide. Furthermore, TatE embarks at the transmembrane helix five of TatC where it becomes so closely spaced to TatB that both proteins can be covalently linked by a zero-space cross-linker. Our results suggest that in addition to TatB and TatC, TatE is a further component of the Tat substrate receptor complex. Consistent with TatE being an autonomous TatAB-type protein, a bioinformatics analysis revealed a relatively broad distribution of the tatE gene in bacterial phyla and highlighted unique protein sequence features of TatE orthologs.

  6. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 accessory proteins that suppress beta interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Kenji; Gotoh, Bin

    2007-07-01

    The paramyxovirus P gene encodes accessory proteins antagonistic to interferon (IFN). Viral proteins responsible for the IFN antagonism, however, are distinct among paramyxoviruses. Here we determine bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3) IFN antagonists that suppress IFN-beta production, and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Of bPIV3 P gene products, C and V proteins were found to suppress double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production. The V protein of bPIV3 and Sendai virus in the same genus Respirovirus significantly inhibits double-stranded RNA-stimulated IFN-beta production and the IFN-beta promoter activation enhanced by overexpression of MDA5 but not RIG-I, and yet does not suppress IFN-beta production induced by TRIF, TBK1, and IKKi. The V protein of both viruses specifically binds to MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that the V protein targets MDA5 for blockage of the IFN-beta gene activation signal. On the other hand, both bPIV3 and Sendai virus C proteins modestly inhibited IFN-beta production irrespective of a species of the signaling molecules used as an inducer. Interestingly, reporter gene expression driven by various promoters was also suppressed by the C proteins irrespective of the promoter species. These results demonstrate that the target of the respirovirus C protein is undoubtedly different from that of the V protein.

  7. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  8. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gardenia jasminoides Encodes an Inhibitor-2 Protein for Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulates diverse, essential cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, protein synthesis, muscle contraction, carbohydrate metabolism, transcription and neuronal signaling. Inhibitor-2 (I-2) can inhibit the activity of PP1 and has been found in diverse organisms. In this work, a Gardenia jasminoides fruit cDNA library was constructed, and the GjI-2 cDNA was isolated from the cDNA library by sequencing method. The GjI-2 cDNA contains a predicted 543 bp open reading frame that encodes 180 amino acids. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that the GjI-2 has conserved PP1c binding motif, and contains a conserved phosphorylation site, which is important in regulation of its activity. The three-dimensional model structure of GjI-2 was buite, its similar with the structure of I-2 from mouse. The results suggest that GjI-2 has relatively conserved RVxF, FxxR/KxR/K and HYNE motif, and these motifs are involved in interaction with PP1.

  10. Dietary Protein Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Li, Yanping; Tobias, Deirdre K; Pan, An; Hu, Frank B

    2016-04-15

    Dietary proteins are important modulators of glucose metabolism. However, few longitudinal studies have evaluated the associations between intake of protein and protein type and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the associations between total, animal, and vegetable protein and incident T2D in 72,992 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008), 92,088 women from Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009) and 40,722 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008). During 4,146,216 person-years of follow-up, we documented 15,580 cases of T2D. In pooled multivariate models including body mass index, participants in the highest quintiles of percentage of energy derived from total protein and animal protein had 7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1, 17) and 13% (95% CI: 6, 21) increased risks of T2D compared with those in the lowest quintiles, respectively. Percentage of energy intake from vegetable protein was associated with a moderately decreased risk of T2D (comparing extreme quintiles, hazard ratio =0.91, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.98). Substituting 5% of energy intake from vegetable protein for animal protein was associated with a 23% (95% CI: 16, 30) reduced risk of T2D. In conclusion, higher intake of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of T2D, while higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a modestly reduced risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the S-layer protein type I secretion system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporowski, Michael C; Nomellini, John F; Awram, Peter; Levi, Assaf; Smit, John

    2005-10-01

    The Gram-negative Caulobacter crescentus exports RsaA, the crystalline S-layer subunit protein using a dedicated type I secretion system. The protein and two transporter genes (rsaADE) are located together, comparable to the Escherichia coli type I hemolysin hlyCABD operon, where read through of a stem loop following hlyCA results in reduced transcription of the hlyBD. Using two genetic approaches and a direct assessment of transcription from regions 5' to the genes we learned that rsaD and rsaE were transcribed together as a separate transcript from rsaA. These results are contrary to previous assumptions about the rsaADE type I secretion gene control and add another theme to the area of type I secretion transcription regulation. It may be that to accommodate the high levels of RsaA secretion, the type I transporters must be transcribed independently from rsaA.

  12. Quasicrystalline and crystalline types of local protein order in capsids of small viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevtsova, O. V.; Pimonov, V. V.; Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Like metal alloys and micellar systems in soft matter, the viral capsid structures can be of crystalline and quasicrystalline types. We reveal the local quasicrystalline order of proteins in small spherical viral capsids using their nets of dodecahedral type. We show that the structure of some of the viral shells is well described in terms of a chiral pentagonal tiling, whose nodes coincide with centers of mass of protein molecules. The chiral protein packing found in these capsids originates from the pentagonal Penrose tiling (PPT), due to a specific phason reconstruction needed to fit the protein order at the adjacent dodecahedron faces. Via examples of small spherical viral shells and geminate capsid of a Maize Streak virus, we discuss the benefits and shortcomings of the usage of a dodecahedral net in comparison to icosahedral one, which is commonly applied for the modeling of viral shells with a crystalline local order.

  13. Structural and biochemical characterization of the type-II LOG protein from Streptomyces coelicolor A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hogyun; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-03-29

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3 contains Sc5140, a gene coding for poorly understood bacterial LOG-like protein. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Sc5140 and found it resembles the overall structure of other type-II LOGs. In addition, Sc5140 exhibited phosphoribohydrolase activity against adenosine monophosphate (AMP), indicating that it had the same function as known type-II LOGs. Based on these results, we designated Sc5140 as ScLOGII. We performed docking calculations of AMP into the ScLOGII structure, which suggested the mode of binding for type-II LOG with their AMP substrate. The ScLOGII structure uniquely exhibited a long tail-like structure at the N-terminus that was involved in hexamerization of the protein; the disordered N-terminal region (DNR). Truncation of DNR in ScLOGII negatively affected both the phosphoribohydrolase activity and the oligomerization of the protein, suggesting that this region functioned in enzyme stabilization. However, results from truncation experiments using ScLOGII and CgLOGII, a type-II LOG homologue from Corynebacterium glutamicum, were quite different, leaving uncertainty regarding the general functions of DNR in type-II LOGs. Overall, the current structural work may help in understand the significance of type-II LOG protein at the molecular level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alveolar type II cell transplantation restores pulmonary surfactant protein levels in lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Xaubet, Antoni; Peinado, Victor I; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar Type II cell transplantation has been proposed as a cell therapy for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Its long-term benefits include repair of lung fibrosis, but its success partly depends on the restoration of lung homeostasis. Our aim was to evaluate surfactant protein restoration after alveolar Type II cell transplantation in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Lung fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Alveolar Type II cells were obtained from healthy animals and transplanted 14 days after bleomycin was administered. Furthermore, one group transplanted with alveolar macrophages and another group treated with surfactant were established to evaluate the specificity of the alveolar Type II cell transplantation. The animals were euthanized at 21 days after bleomycin instillation. Lung fibrosis was confirmed by a histologic study and an evaluation of the hydroxyproline content. Changes in surfactant proteins were evaluated by mRNA expression, Western blot and immunofluorescence studies. The group with alveolar Type II cell transplantation was the only one to show a reduction in the degree of lung fibrosis and a complete recovery to normal levels of surfactant proteins. One of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of alveolar Type II cell transplantation is restoration of lung surfactant protein levels, which is required for proper respiratory function. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS, then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Electro-Optical Properties Characterization of Fish Type III Antifreeze Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Salvay, Andrés G.; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I.

    2007-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa—or 14-kDa tandem—globular proteins. In the present work, we study ...

  17. Identification of Two Translocon Proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Toshio; Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Park, Kwon-Sam; Cantarelli, Vlademir V.; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) translocon complex is composed of several associated proteins, which form a translocation channel through the host cell plasma membrane. These proteins are key molecules that are involved in the pathogenicity of many T3SS-positive bacteria, because they are necessary to deliver effector proteins into host cells. A T3SS designated T3SS2 of Vibrio parahaemolyticus is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of this bacterium in humans, but the effector tr...

  18. Crystal structure of the Yersinia type III secretion protein YscE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, Jason; Austin, Brian P.; Waugh, David S. (NIH)

    2010-12-06

    The plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis utilizes a contact-dependent (type III) secretion system (T3SS) to transport virulence factors from the bacterial cytosol directly into the interior of mammalian cells where they interfere with signal transduction pathways that mediate phagocytosis and the inflammatory response. The type III secretion apparatus is composed of 20-25 different Yersinia secretion (Ysc) proteins. We report here the structure of YscE, the smallest Ysc protein, which is a dimer in solution. The probable mode of oligomerization is discussed.

  19. [Characterization of antigenic types of circulating rotaviruses in Mendoza, Argentina based on typing of the external VP7 capsid protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espul, C; Cuello, H; Navarta, L M; Mamani, N; O'Ryan, M; O'Ryan, M

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most common etiologic agents of acute diarrhea in childhood. Understanding the immunologic mechanisms involved in rotavirus diseases, including knowledge on seasonal and geographic antigenic variations may be crucial for vaccine development. A monoclonal antibody based ELISA specific for antigenic domains on the outer capsid protein VP7 has been developed and used widely in the past years. We studied the rotavirus VP7-serotype epidemiology causing diarrhea in children who consulted at two main hospitals of Mendoza, Argentina over a 20 month period. A total of 227 cases of diarrhea were identified, 45 of which (20%) were rotavirus positive. We're able to serotype 43 viruses (96%), 42 VP7-type 1 and one VP7-type 3. The VP7-type 3 was detected towards the end of the second year, possibly representing a new incoming VP7-type. Three electropherotype patterns were identified, two corresponding to VP7-type epidemiology in Mendoza, Argentina seems to be characterized by a relatively homogeneous pattern of circulation with a strong predominance of VP7-type 1 viruses, at least during the 20 month period studied, in contrast to what has been reported in larger, more cosmopolitan cities like Buenos Aires.

  20. The human papillomavirus type 11 and 16 E6 proteins modulate the cell-cycle regulator and transcription cofactor TRIP-Br1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Takhar, Param Parkash S; Degenkolbe, Roland; Heng Koh, Choon; Zimmermann, Holger; Maolin Yang, Christopher; Guan Sim, Khe; I-Hong Hsu, Stephen; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a taxonomic group including HPV types that preferentially cause genital and laryngeal warts ('low-risk types'), such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, or cancer of the cervix and its precursor lesions ('high-risk types'), such as HPV-16. The transforming processes induced by these viruses depend on the proteins E5, E6, and E7. Among these oncoproteins, the E6 protein stands out because it supports a particularly large number of functions and interactions with cellular proteins, some of which are specific for the carcinogenic HPVs, while others are shared among low- and high-risk HPVs. Here we report yeast two-hybrid screens with HPV-6 and -11 E6 proteins that identified TRIP-Br1 as a novel cellular target. TRIP-Br1 was recently detected by two research groups, which described two separate functions, namely that of a transcriptional integrator of the E2F1/DP1/RB cell-cycle regulatory pathway (and then named TRIP-Br1), and that of an antagonist of the cyclin-dependent kinase suppression of p16INK4a (and then named p34SEI-1). We observed that TRIP-Br1 interacts with low- and high-risk HPV E6 proteins in yeast, in vitro and in mammalian cell cultures. Transcription activation of a complex consisting of E2F1, DP1, and TRIP-Br1 was efficiently stimulated by both E6 proteins. TRIP-Br1 has an LLG E6 interaction motif, which contributed to the binding of E6 proteins. Apparently, E6 does not promote degradation of TRIP-Br1. Our observations imply that the cell-cycle promoting transcription factor E2F1/DP1 is dually targeted by HPV oncoproteins, namely (i) by interference of the E7 protein with repression by RB, and (ii) by the transcriptional cofactor function of the E6 protein. Our data reveal the natural context of the transcription activator function of E6, which has been predicted without knowledge of the E2F1/DP1/TRIP-Br/E6 complex by studying chimeric constructs, and add a function to the limited number of transforming properties shared

  1. Carbonylated plasma proteins as potential biomarkers of obesity induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Fedorova, Maria; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2014-11-07

    Protein carbonylation is a common nonenzymatic oxidative post-translational modification, which is often considered as biomarker of oxidative stress. Recent evidence links protein carbonylation also to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), though the protein targets of carbonylation in human plasma have not been identified. In this study, we profiled carbonylated proteins in plasma samples obtained from lean individuals and obese patients with or without T2DM. The plasma samples were digested with trypsin, carbonyl groups were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine, enriched by avidin affinity chromatography, and analyzed by RPC-MS/MS. Signals of potentially modified peptides were targeted in a second LC-MS/MS analysis to retrieve the peptide sequence and the modified residues. A total of 158 unique carbonylated proteins were identified, of which 52 were detected in plasma samples of all three groups. Interestingly, 36 carbonylated proteins were detected only in obese patients with T2DM, whereas 18 were detected in both nondiabetic groups. The carbonylated proteins originated mostly from liver, plasma, platelet, and endothelium. Functionally, they were mainly involved in cell adhesion, signaling, angiogenesis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. Among the identified carbonylated proteins were several candidates, such as VEGFR-2, MMP-1, argin, MKK4, and compliment C5, already connected before to diabetes, obesity and metabolic diseases.

  2. Salivary Proteins Associated with Periodontitis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara B. Taiyeb-Ali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800TM Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304. This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis.

  3. Computational prediction of methylation types of covalently modified lysine and arginine residues in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wankun; Wang, Yongbo; Ma, Lili; Zhang, Ying; Ullah, Shahid; Xue, Yu

    2017-07-01

    Protein methylation is an essential posttranslational modification (PTM) mostly occurs at lysine and arginine residues, and regulates a variety of cellular processes. Owing to the rapid progresses in the large-scale identification of methylation sites, the available data set was dramatically expanded, and more attention has been paid on the identification of specific methylation types of modification residues. Here, we briefly summarized the current progresses in computational prediction of methylation sites, which provided an accurate, rapid and efficient approach in contrast with labor-intensive experiments. We collected 5421 methyllysines and methylarginines in 2592 proteins from the literature, and classified most of the sites into different types. Data analyses demonstrated that different types of methylated proteins were preferentially involved in different biological processes and pathways, whereas a unique sequence preference was observed for each type of methylation sites. Thus, we developed a predictor of GPS-MSP, which can predict mono-, di- and tri-methylation types for specific lysines, and mono-, symmetric di- and asymmetrical di-methylation types for specific arginines. We critically evaluated the performance of GPS-MSP, and compared it with other existing tools. The satisfying results exhibited that the classification of methylation sites into different types for training can considerably improve the prediction accuracy. Taken together, we anticipate that our study provides a new lead for future computational analysis of protein methylation, and the prediction of methylation types of covalently modified lysine and arginine residues can generate more useful information for further experimental manipulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Non–SCF-type F-box protein Roy1/Ymr258c interacts with a Rab5-like GTPase Ypt52 and inhibits Ypt52 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kotera, Michiko; Kanada, Akira; Nishimura, Takashi; Kishi, Tsutomu; Mimura, Satoru; Kamura, Takumi

    2011-01-01

    Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF)–type F-box proteins are a component of the Cullin-RING SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase, which is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, the function of non–SCF-type F-box proteins remains largely unknown. The Rab5-like small guanosine 5′-triphosphatase Vps21/Ypt51 is a key regulator of intracellular transportation; however, deletion of its isoforms, Ypt52 and Ypt53, results in only a modest inhibition of intracellular trafficking. The function of these proteins therefore remains largely elusive. Here we analyze the role of a previously uncharacterized non–SCF-type F-box protein, Roy1/Ymr258c, in cell growth and intracellular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Roy1 binds to Ypt52 under physiological conditions, and Skp1 is indispensable for the association of Roy1 with Ypt52. The vps21Δ yeast cells exhibit severe deficiencies in cell growth and intracellular trafficking, whereas simultaneous deletion of roy1 alleviates the defects caused by deletion of vps21. However, additional disruption of ypt52 in roy1Δvps21Δ cells largely suppresses the cell growth and trafficking observed in roy1Δvps21Δ cells. We demonstrate that Roy1 interacts with guanosine 5′-diphosphate–bound and nucleotide-free Ypt52 and thereby inhibits the formation of guanosine 5′-triphosphate–bound, active Ypt52. These results thus indicate that Roy1 negatively modulates cell viability and intracellular transport by suppressing Ypt52. PMID:21389113

  5. Non-SCF-type F-box protein Roy1/Ymr258c interacts with a Rab5-like GTPase Ypt52 and inhibits Ypt52 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kotera, Michiko; Kanada, Akira; Nishimura, Takashi; Kishi, Tsutomu; Mimura, Satoru; Kamura, Takumi

    2011-05-01

    Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF)-type F-box proteins are a component of the Cullin-RING SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase, which is involved in numerous cellular processes. However, the function of non-SCF-type F-box proteins remains largely unknown. The Rab5-like small guanosine 5'-triphosphatase Vps21/Ypt51 is a key regulator of intracellular transportation; however, deletion of its isoforms, Ypt52 and Ypt53, results in only a modest inhibition of intracellular trafficking. The function of these proteins therefore remains largely elusive. Here we analyze the role of a previously uncharacterized non-SCF-type F-box protein, Roy1/Ymr258c, in cell growth and intracellular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Roy1 binds to Ypt52 under physiological conditions, and Skp1 is indispensable for the association of Roy1 with Ypt52. The vps21Δ yeast cells exhibit severe deficiencies in cell growth and intracellular trafficking, whereas simultaneous deletion of roy1 alleviates the defects caused by deletion of vps21. However, additional disruption of ypt52 in roy1Δvps21Δ cells largely suppresses the cell growth and trafficking observed in roy1Δvps21Δ cells. We demonstrate that Roy1 interacts with guanosine 5'-diphosphate-bound and nucleotide-free Ypt52 and thereby inhibits the formation of guanosine 5'-triphosphate-bound, active Ypt52. These results thus indicate that Roy1 negatively modulates cell viability and intracellular transport by suppressing Ypt52.

  6. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins

  7. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  8. The p62 antibody reveals various cytoplasmic protein aggregates in spinocerebellar ataxia Type 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, K.; Brunt, E. R. P.; de Vos, R. A. I.; Dijk, F.; van der Want, H. J. L.; Kampinga, H. H.; Rueb, U.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal protein aggregates are considered as pathological hallmarks of various human neurodegenerative diseases, including the so-called CAG-repeat disorders, such as spinocerebellar ataxia Type 6 (SCA6). Since the immunocytochemical findings of an initial post-mortem study using a specific

  9. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccine (Meningococcal Protein Conjugate in Canadian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Scheifele

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess adverse effects and immune responses with a three-dose series of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningococcal protein conjugate (PedvaxHIB or Hib.OMP vaccine, including any immunological response alterations from concurrent administration with routine vaccines for infants.

  10. The effect of oil type on network formation by protein aggregates into oleogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke; Lopez Gomez, Yuly; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oil type on the network formation of heat-set protein aggregates in liquid oil. The gelling properties of such aggregates to structure oil into so-called ‘oleogels’ are related to both the particle-particle and particle-solvent interactions. To

  11. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  12. Intracellular localization of Equine herpesvirus type 1 tegument protein VP22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ayaka; Kodaira, Akari; Hanyu, Sachiko; Izume, Satoko; Ohya, Kenji; Fukushi, Hideto

    2014-11-04

    Intracellular localization of Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) tegument protein VP22 was examined by using a plasmid that expressed VP22 fused with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Also a recombinant EHV-1 expressing VP22 fused with a red fluorescent protein (mCherry) was constructed to observe the localization of VP22 in infected cells. When EGFP-fused VP22 was overexpressed in the cells, VP22 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Live cell imaging suggested that the fluorescently tagged VP22 also localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. These results show that VP22 localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus independently of other viral proteins. Experiments with truncation mutants of pEGFP-VP22 suggested that 154-188 aa might be the nuclear localization signal of EHV-1 VP22. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  14. The Proteomic Analysis of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Protein Marker in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihardyastutie, Arie; Soeatmadji, DW; Fatchiyah; Aulanni'am

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is the vast majority case of diabetes. Patient with T2D is at higher risk for developing acute or chronic pancreatitis. Prolonged hyperglycemia results in damages to tissue, which also causes dysfunctions of some organ systems, including enzyme or hormone secretions. Commonly, dysfunction or insufficiency of pancreatic exocrine is evaluated by increasing activity of serum pancreatic enzyme, such as amylase and lipase. Although incidence of pancreatitis was found in Indonesian T2D, the pathogenic mechanism still unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the marker protein that indicated the correlation of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency with progression of T2D. Proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS was used in identification and characterization of protein marker which indicates insufficiency pancreatic exocrine. First step, protein profile was analyzed by SDS-PAGE methods using serum sample of T2D compared with normal or healthy control, as negative control, and pancreatitis patients, as positive control. Protein with 18 kDa was found as a candidate protein marker which indicated the pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in T2D. The further identification of that protein using LC-MS/MS showed 4 peptide fragments. In silico analysis of the peptide fragment indicated the correlation of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency with progression of T2D was METTL10 - methyltransferase like protein-10.

  15. Salivary proteins associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hang Haw; Rahim, Zubaidah H A; Jessie, Kala; Hashim, Onn H; Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800(TM) Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p periodontitis.

  16. A novel mechanism of P-type ATPase autoinhibition involving both termini of the protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Kira; Palmgren, Michael; Veierskov, Bjarke

    2010-01-01

    The activity of many P-type ATPases is found to be regulated by interacting proteins or autoinhibitory elements located in N- or C-terminal extensions. An extended C terminus of fungal and plant P-type plasma membrane H+-ATPases has long been recognized to be part of a regulatory apparatus...... involving an autoinhibitory domain. Here we demonstrate that both the N and the C termini of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase are directly involved in controlling the pump activity state and that N-terminal displacements are coupled to secondary modifications taking place at the C-terminal end....... This identifies the first group of P-type ATPases for which both ends of the polypeptide chain constitute regulatory domains, which together contribute to the autoinhibitory apparatus. This suggests an intricate mechanism of cis-regulation with both termini of the protein communicating to obtain the necessary...

  17. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease characterised by specific T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Yet, except for insulin, no beta cell-specific antigens have been discovered. This may imply that the autoantigens in type 1 diabetes exist in modified...... forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create...... beta cell-specific neo-epitopes. We suggest that the current paradigm of type 1 diabetes as a classical autoimmune disease should be reconsidered since the immune response may not be directed against native beta cell proteins. A modified model for the pathogenetic events taking place in islets leading...

  18. Inhibition of HIV type 1 replication by human T lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 Tax proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Christy S; Castillo, Laura; Giam, Chou-Zen; Wu, Li; Beilke, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Patients with HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections often exhibit a clinical course similar to that seen in HIV-1-infected individuals who are long-term nonprogressors. These findings have been attributed in part to the ability of HTLV-2 to activate production of antiviral chemokines and to downregulate the CCR5 coreceptor on lymphocytes. To further investigate these observations, we tested the ability of recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins to suppress HIV-1 viral replication in vitro. R5-tropic HIV-1 (NLAD8)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated daily with recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins (dosage range 1-100 pM). Culture supernatants were collected at intervals from days 1 to 22 postinfection and assayed for levels of HIV-1 p24 antigen by ELISA. Treatment of PBMCs with Tax2 protein resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-1 p24 antigen levels (pTax1-treated PBMCs. These results support the contention that Tax1 and Tax2 play a role in generating antiviral responses against HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Determination of protein content in the two types of Parkia biglobosa (fermented and unfermented) seeds and seedlings.

    OpenAIRE

    Ajala, Christiana Adeyinka; Etejere, Emmanuel Obukohwo; Olatunji, Tomi Lois

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the protein content in two types of Parkia biglobosa seeds (dark brown and reddish brown testa), fermented and unfermented seedlings were analyzed. Three stages were used to determine the protein content which was digestion, distillation and titration. The protein content of fermented seeds of reddish brown testa was found to be 43.09%, fermented seeds of dark brown was 33.25% which indicated that the reddish brown has higher crude protein content. The protein content of ...

  20. Sodium nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not augment postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates in older, type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouw, Imre W K; Cermak, Naomi M; Burd, Nicholas A; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Senden, Joan M; Gijsen, Annemarie P; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-08-01

    The age-related anabolic resistance to protein ingestion is suggested to be associated with impairments in insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and postprandial muscle tissue perfusion. The present study investigated whether dietary nitrate co-ingestion with protein improves muscle protein synthesis in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Twenty-four men with type 2 diabetes (72 ± 1 yr, 26.7 ± 1.4 m/kg(2) body mass index, 7.3 ± 0.4% HbA1C) received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine and ingested 20 g of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine- and l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled protein with (PRONO3) or without (PRO) sodium nitrate (0.15 mmol/kg). Blood and muscle samples were collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates. Upon protein ingestion, exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased in both groups (P nitrate co-ingestion with protein does not modulate protein digestion and absorption kinetics, nor does it further increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates or the incorporation of dietary protein-derived amino acids into de novo myofibrillar protein in older, type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Identification of soybean proteins from a single cell type: The root hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechenmacher, Laurent; Nguyen, Tran H.; Hixson, Kim K.; Libault, Marc; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2012-11-01

    Root hairs are a terminally differentiated single cell type, mainly involved in water and nutrient uptake from the soil. The soybean root hair cell represents an excellent model for the study of single cell systems biology. In this study, we identified 5702 proteins, with at least two peptides, from soybean root hairs using an accurate mass and time tag approach, establishing the most comprehensive proteome reference map of this single cell type. We also showed that trypsin is the most appropriate enzyme for soybean proteomic studies by performing an in silico digestion of the soybean proteome database using different proteases. Although the majority of proteins identified in this study are involved in basal metabolism, the function of others are more related to root hair formation/function and include proteins involved in nutrient uptake (transporters) or vesicular trafficking (cytoskeleton and RAB proteins). Interestingly, some of these proteins appear to be specifically expressed in root hairs and constitute very good candidates for further studies to elucidate unique features of this single cell model.

  2. A study on structural changes in protein by time-division type Laue method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    In order to know the physiological roles of proteins, it is important to investigate the intermediate states of their structural changes. The sizes of proteins are generally several tens angstrom(A). Considering the resolution, only x-ray crystal analysis can be used in practice for the investigation of the mechanism of protein structural changes, though NMR is applicable only for small-sized proteins. However, x-ray analysis is not so suitable for analysis of their intermediate states. Thus, the author paid attention to the time-division type Laue method for the study of hemoglobin (Hb). Laser-flash induces to release carbonmonooxide (CO) from carboxyhemoglobin (Hb(CO) 4 ). Therefore, if an appropriate length of x-ray pulse (∼100 picosec) is available, the processes in the period from cleavage of the bond between a ligand (O 2 , CO or NO) and Hb to recombination of them might be monitored. Using DNA recombination and chemical modification techniques, recombinant Hb, of which T structure is stable was produced. An investigation on the conditions which allow to release CO from the Hb is undertaken using a single crystal of this Hb. The experimental systems applicable to time-division type Laue method are some protein molecules participating in chemical reactions inducible by light absorption, the electron-transfer system excited by light and so on. (M.N.)

  3. MemType-2L: a web server for predicting membrane proteins and their types by incorporating evolution information through Pse-PSSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuo-Chen; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2007-08-24

    Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a membrane protein or not? If it is, which membrane protein type it belongs to? These questions are important because they are closely relevant to the biological function of the query protein and to its interaction process with other molecules in a biological system. Particularly, with the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the Post-Genomic Age and the relatively much slower progress in using biochemical experiments to determine their functions, it is highly desired to develop an automated method that can be used to help address these questions. In this study, a 2-layer predictor, called MemType-2L, has been developed: the 1st layer prediction engine is to identify a query protein as membrane or non-membrane; if it is a membrane protein, the process will be automatically continued with the 2nd-layer prediction engine to further identify its type among the following eight categories: (1) type I, (2) type II, (3) type III, (4) type IV, (5) multipass, (6) lipid-chain-anchored, (7) GPI-anchored, and (8) peripheral. MemType-2L is featured by incorporating the evolution information through representing the protein samples with the Pse-PSSM (Pseudo Position-Specific Score Matrix) vectors, and by containing an ensemble classifier formed by fusing many powerful individual OET-KNN (Optimized Evidence-Theoretic K-Nearest Neighbor) classifiers. The success rates obtained by MemType-2L on a new-constructed stringent dataset by both the jackknife test and the independent dataset test are quite high, indicating that MemType-2L may become a very useful high throughput tool. As a Web server, MemType-2L is freely accessible to the public at http://chou.med.harvard.edu/bioinf/MemType.

  4. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  5. Electro-optical properties characterization of fish type III antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvay, Andrés G; Santos, Javier; Howard, Eduardo I

    2007-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice-binding proteins that depress the freezing point of water in a non-colligative manner without a significant modification of the melting point. Found in the blood and tissues of some organisms (such as fish, insects, plants, and soil bacteria), AFPs play an important role in subzero temperature survival. Fish Type III AFP is present in members of the subclass Zoarcoidei. AFPIII are small 7-kDa-or 14-kDa tandem-globular proteins. In the present work, we study the behavior of several physical properties, such as the low-frequency dielectric permittivity spectrum, circular dichroism, and electrical conductivity of Fish Type III AFP solutions measured at different concentrations. The combination of the information obtained from these measurements could be explained through the formation of AFP molecular aggregates or, alternatively, by the existence of some other type of interparticle interactions. Thermal stability and electro-optical behavior, when proteins are dissolved in deuterated water, were also investigated.

  6. Dynein Light Chain 1 (DYNLT1 Interacts with Normal and Oncogenic Nucleoporins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayan J Sarma

    Full Text Available The chimeric oncoprotein NUP98-HOXA9 results from the t(7;11(p15;p15 chromosomal translocation and is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. It causes aberrant gene regulation and leukemic transformation through mechanisms that are not fully understood. NUP98-HOXA9 consists of an N-terminal portion of the nucleoporin NUP98 that contains many FG repeats fused to the DNA-binding homeodomain of HOXA9. We used a Cytotrap yeast two-hybrid assay to identify proteins that interact with NUP98-HOXA9. We identified Dynein Light Chain 1 (DYNLT1, an integral 14 KDa protein subunit of the large microtubule-based cytoplasmic dynein complex, as an interaction partner of NUP98-HOXA9. Binding was confirmed by in vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays and the FG repeat region of NUP98-HOXA9 was shown to be essential for the interaction. RNAi-mediated knockdown of DYNLT1 resulted in reduction of the ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to activate transcription and also inhibited the ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to induce proliferation of primary human hematopoietic CD34+ cells. DYNLT1 also showed a strong interaction with wild-type NUP98 and other nucleoporins containing FG repeats. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that DYNLT1 localizes primarily to the nuclear periphery, where it co-localizes with the nuclear pore complex, and to the cytoplasm. Deletion studies showed that the interactions of the nucleoporins with DYNLT1 are dependent predominantly on the C-terminal half of the DYNLT1. These data show for the first time that DYNLT1 interacts with nucleoporins and plays a role in the dysregulation of gene expression and induction of hematopoietic cell proliferation by the leukemogenic nucleoporin fusion, NUP98-HOXA9.

  7. Dynein Light Chain 1 (DYNLT1) Interacts with Normal and Oncogenic Nucleoporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nayan J.; Yaseen, Nabeel R.

    2013-01-01

    The chimeric oncoprotein NUP98-HOXA9 results from the t(7;11)(p15;p15) chromosomal translocation and is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. It causes aberrant gene regulation and leukemic transformation through mechanisms that are not fully understood. NUP98-HOXA9 consists of an N-terminal portion of the nucleoporin NUP98 that contains many FG repeats fused to the DNA-binding homeodomain of HOXA9. We used a Cytotrap yeast two-hybrid assay to identify proteins that interact with NUP98-HOXA9. We identified Dynein Light Chain 1 (DYNLT1), an integral 14 KDa protein subunit of the large microtubule-based cytoplasmic dynein complex, as an interaction partner of NUP98-HOXA9. Binding was confirmed by in vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays and the FG repeat region of NUP98-HOXA9 was shown to be essential for the interaction. RNAi-mediated knockdown of DYNLT1 resulted in reduction of the ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to activate transcription and also inhibited the ability of NUP98-HOXA9 to induce proliferation of primary human hematopoietic CD34+ cells. DYNLT1 also showed a strong interaction with wild-type NUP98 and other nucleoporins containing FG repeats. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that DYNLT1 localizes primarily to the nuclear periphery, where it co-localizes with the nuclear pore complex, and to the cytoplasm. Deletion studies showed that the interactions of the nucleoporins with DYNLT1 are dependent predominantly on the C-terminal half of the DYNLT1. These data show for the first time that DYNLT1 interacts with nucleoporins and plays a role in the dysregulation of gene expression and induction of hematopoietic cell proliferation by the leukemogenic nucleoporin fusion, NUP98-HOXA9. PMID:23840580

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein bodies cause tumour regression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Mark; Öhlschläger, Peter; Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alloza, Leonor; Marzábal, Pablo; Meyers, Ann E; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize γ-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs

  9. The pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein, GP2, binds Escherichia coli type 1 Fimbriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Anson W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GP2 is the major membrane protein present in the pancreatic zymogen granule, and is cleaved and released into the pancreatic duct along with exocrine secretions. The function of GP2 is unknown. GP2's amino acid sequence is most similar to that of uromodulin, which is secreted by the kidney. Recent studies have demonstrated uromodulin binding to bacterial Type 1 fimbria. The fimbriae serve as adhesins to host receptors. The present study examines whether GP2 also shares similar binding properties to bacteria with Type 1 fimbria. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella, express type 1 fimbria. Methods An in vitro binding assay was used to assay the binding of recombinant GP2 to defined strains of E. coli that differ in their expression of Type 1 fimbria or its subunit protein, FimH. Studies were also performed to determine whether GP2 binding is dependent on the presence of mannose residues, which is a known determinant for FimH binding. Results GP2 binds E. coli that express Type 1 fimbria. Binding is dependent on GP2 glycosylation, and specifically the presence of mannose residues. Conclusion GP2 binds to Type 1 fimbria, a bacterial adhesin that is commonly expressed by members of the Enterobacteriacae family.

  10. Renal function reserve in patients with early type 2 diabetic nephropathy using protein loading-scintirenography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rongrong; Zhang Chenggang; Qi Hao; Li Xianfeng; Wang Jin; Liu Jianzhong; Li Sijin; Gao Fei; Yang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore a sensitive method and index to evaluate renal functional reserve (RFR) in patients with early diabetic nephropathy (DN) using protein loading-scintirenography. Methods: Fifty subjects were studied and divided into 3 groups.Group one (G1) consisted of 14 healthy volunteers; Group two (G2) consisted of 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and normoalbuminuria; Group three (G3) consisted of 21 patients with type 2 DM and microalbuminuria. All subjects underwent baseline and protein loading- 99 Tc m -DTPA scintirenography within one week. RFR was calculated as the difference between stimulated and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), time of peak (T b ), time of half excretion (C 1/2 ), residual rate at 20 min (C 20/b ) .Variance analysis and t-test were used to analyze the group differences. Results: (1) The RFR in terms of GFR had statistical difference between any two groups (t=14.884, 32.180, 16.042, all P -1 ·1.73 m -2 respectively. Therefore, the RFR decreased before microalbuminuria in type 2 DM patients. (2) There was statistical difference between the RFR of G1 and G2 in terms of C 1/2 (t = 5.505, P 20/b between G1 and G3 (t= 4.376, P 99 Tc m -DTPA protein loading-scintirenography is an effective method for measuring RFR to evaluate early DN in type 2 DM patients. (authors)

  11. Overexpression of KH-type splicing regulatory protein regulates proliferation, migration, and implantation ability of osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Klangjorhor, Jeerawan; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Diskul-Na-Ayudthaya, Penchatr; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Srisomsap, Chantragan

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The current 5-year survival rate is ~60% and that seems to be reaching a plateau. In order to improve treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma, a better understanding of tumorigenesis and underlying molecular mechanisms is required for searching out possible new treatment targets. This study aimed to identify the potential proteins involving the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma using a proteomics approach. Proteins extracted from primary cell culture of osteosarcoma (n=7) and osteoblasts of cancellous bone (n=7) were studied. Using 2-DE based proteomics and LC-MS/MS analysis, we successfully determined seven differentially expressed protein spots. Four upregulated proteins and three downregulated proteins were observed in this study in which KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) was selected for further exploration. KSRP was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma cells compared to osteoblasts using western blot assay. In addition, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that KSRP was also highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissue of independent cases from the experimental group. More importantly, KSRP silencing of osteosarcoma cell lines significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration ability, as well as implantation and growth ability in chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, that KSRP plays important roles in regulatory controls of osteosarcoma pathogenesis and serves as a potentially therapeutic target of osteosarcoma. PMID:27573585

  12. Type 2 transglutaminase is involved in the autophagy-dependent clearance of ubiquitinated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eletto, M; Farrace, M G; Rossin, F; Strappazzon, F; Giacomo, G Di; Cecconi, F; Melino, G; Sepe, S; Moreno, S; Fimia, G M; Falasca, L; Nardacci, R; Piacentini, M

    2012-07-01

    Eukaryotic cells are equipped with an efficient quality control system to selectively eliminate misfolded and damaged proteins, and organelles. Abnormal polypeptides that escape from proteasome-dependent degradation and aggregate in the cytosol can be transported via microtubules to inclusion bodies called 'aggresomes', where misfolded proteins are confined and degraded by autophagy. Here, we show that Type 2 transglutaminase (TG2) knockout mice display impaired autophagy and accumulate ubiquitinated protein aggregates upon starvation. Furthermore, p62-dependent peroxisome degradation is also impaired in the absence of TG2. We also demonstrate that, under cellular stressful conditions, TG2 physically interacts with p62 and they are localized in cytosolic protein aggregates, which are then recruited into autophagosomes, where TG2 is degraded. Interestingly, the enzyme's crosslinking activity is activated during autophagy and its inhibition leads to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. Taken together, these data indicate that the TG2 transamidating activity has an important role in the assembly of protein aggregates, as well as in the clearance of damaged organelles by macroautophagy.

  13. Computational Simulations to Predict Creatine Kinase-Associated Factors: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies of Brain and Muscle Types of Creatine Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jiang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2 is related to several skin diseases such as psoriasis and dermatomyositis. CK is important in skin energy homeostasis because it catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from MgATP to creatine. In this study, we predicted CK binding proteins via the use of bioinformatic tools such as protein-protein interaction (PPI mappings and suggest the putative hub proteins for CK interactions. We obtained 123 proteins for brain type CK and 85 proteins for muscle type CK in the interaction networks. Among them, several hub proteins such as NFKB1, FHL2, MYOC, and ASB9 were predicted. Determination of the binding factors of CK can further promote our understanding of the roles of CK in physiological conditions.

  14. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum translation initiation eIF2β subunit: direct interaction with Protein Phosphatase type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine eTellier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c is one of the main phosphatases whose function is shaped by many regulators to confer a specific location and a selective function for this enzyme. Here, we report that eukaryotic initiation factor 2 of P. falciparum (PfeIF2β is an interactor of PfPP1c. Sequence analysis of PfeIF2 revealed a deletion of 111 amino acids when compared to its human counterpart and the presence of two potential binding motifs to PfPP1 (29FGEKKK34, 103KVAW106. As expected, we showed that PfeIF2 binds PfeIF2 and PfeIF5, confirming its canonical interaction with partners of the translation complex. Studies of the PfeIF2-PfPP1 interaction using wild-type, single and double mutated versions of PfeIF2β revealed that both binding motifs are critical. We next showed that PfeIF2 is able to induce Germinal Vesicle BreakDown (GVBD when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, an indicator of its capacity to regulate PP1. Only combined mutations of both binding motifs abolished the interaction with PP1 and the induction of GVBD. In P. falciparum, although the locus is accessible for genetic manipulation, PfeIF2 seems to play an essential role in intraerythrocytic cycle as no viable knockout parasites were detectable. Interestingly, as for PfPP1, the subcellular fractionation of P. falciparum localized PfeIF2β in cytoplasm and nuclear extracts, suggesting a potential effect on PfPP1 in both compartments and raising the question of a non-canonical function of PfeIf2 in the nucleus. Hence, the role played by PfeIF2 in blood stage parasites could occur at multiple levels involving the binding to proteins of the translational complex and to PfPP1.

  15. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat.

  16. BET bromodomain proteins and epigenetic regulation of inflammation: implications for type 2 diabetes and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Dequina A; Andrieu, Guillaume; Strissel, Katherine J; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Denis, Gerald V

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation drives pathologies associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may explain increased risk and mortality of breast cancer with T2D reported in the epidemiology literature. Therapeutic approaches to target inflammation in both T2D and cancer have so far fallen short of the expected improvements in disease pathogenesis or outcomes. The targeting of epigenetic regulators of cytokine transcription and cytokine signaling offers one promising, untapped approach to treating diseases driven by inflammation. Recent work has deeply implicated the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) proteins, which are acetylated histone "readers", in epigenetic regulation of inflammation. This review focuses on inflammation associated with T2D and breast cancer, and the possibility of targeting BET proteins as an approach to regulating inflammation in the clinic. Understanding inflammation in the context of BET protein regulation may provide a basis for designing promising therapeutics for T2D and breast cancer.

  17. The emerging role of speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) in cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ram-Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein that is frequently mutated in prostate and endometrial cancers. All the cancer-associated SPOP mutations reported to date are clustered in the meprin and TRAF (Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) homology (MATH) domain, presumably affecting substrate binding. SPOP mutations in prostate cancer are mutually exclusive with the ETS (Erythroblast transformation-specific) family gene rearrangements and define a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer. SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer development by altering the steady-state levels of key components in the androgen-signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of altered B-cell response induced by changes in dietary protein type in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounous, G.; Shenouda, N.; Kongshavn, P.A.; Osmond, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 20 g/100 g dietary lactalbumin (L) or casein (C) diets or a nonpurified (NP) diet on the immune responsiveness of C57Bl/6J, C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To investigate the possible influence of dietary protein type on the supply of B lymphocytes, bone marrow lymphocyte production has been examined by a radioautographic assay of small lymphocyte renewal and an immunofluorescent stathmokinetic assay of pre-B cells and their proliferation. The humoral response of all mice fed the L diet was found to be higher than that of mice fed the C diet or nonpurified diet. A similar pattern of dietary protein effect in (CBA/N X DBA/2J) F1 mice carrying the xid defect was observed following challenge with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). An even greater enhancing effect of dietary L was noted in normal (DBA/2J X CBA/N) F1 mice after immunization with SRBC, but in contrast, the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein. Dietary protein type did not affect blood level of minerals and trace metals. The free plasma amino acid profile essentially conformed to the amino acid composition of the ingested protein, suggesting that the changes in plasma amino acid profile might be a crucial factor in diet-dependent enhancement or depression of the B-cell response

  19. Visualization and characterization of individual type III protein secretion machines in live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongdeng; Lara-Tejero, María; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Galán, Jorge E

    2017-06-06

    Type III protein secretion machines have evolved to deliver bacterially encoded effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. Although electron microscopy has provided a detailed view of these machines in isolation or fixed samples, little is known about their organization in live bacteria. Here we report the visualization and characterization of the Salmonella type III secretion machine in live bacteria by 2D and 3D single-molecule switching superresolution microscopy. This approach provided access to transient components of this machine, which previously could not be analyzed. We determined the subcellular distribution of individual machines, the stoichiometry of the different components of this machine in situ, and the spatial distribution of the substrates of this machine before secretion. Furthermore, by visualizing this machine in Salmonella mutants we obtained major insights into the machine's assembly. This study bridges a major resolution gap in the visualization of this nanomachine and may serve as a paradigm for the examination of other bacterially encoded molecular machines.

  20. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  1. Protein supplementation during resistance-type exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; Van der Hoeven, Letty; Van Kranenburg, Janneau; Nilwik, Rachel; Wodzig, Will K W H; Senden, Joan M G; Keizer, Hans A; Van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-03-01

    Resistance training has been well established as an effective treatment strategy to increase skeletal muscle mass and strength in the elderly. We assessed whether dietary protein supplementation can further augment the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men and women. Healthy elderly men (n = 31, 70 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 29, 70 ± 1 yr) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 24-wk resistance-type exercise training program with or without additional protein supplementation (15 g·d-1). Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), limb (computed tomography), and muscle fiber (biopsy) level. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum (RM) strength testing. Functional capacity was assessed with a sit-to-stand and handgrip test. One-RM strength increased by 45% ± 6% versus 40% ± 3% (women) and 41% ± 4% versus 44% ± 3% (men) in the placebo versus protein group, respectively (P muscle mass (women, 4% ± 1% vs 3% ± 1%; men, 3% ± 1% vs 3% ± 1%) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (women, 9% ± 1% vs 9% ± 1%; men, 9% ± 1% vs 10% ± 1%) increased similarly in the placebo versus protein groups (P muscle fiber size increased over time in both placebo and protein groups (25% ± 13% vs 30% ± 9% and 23% ± 12% vs 22% ± 10% in the women and men, respectively). Sit-to-stand improved by 18% ± 2% and 19% ± 2% in women and men, respectively (P training increases skeletal muscle mass and strength, augments functional capacity, improves glycemia and lipidemia, and reduces blood pressure in healthy elderly men and women. Additional protein supplementation (15 g·d-1) does not further increase muscle mass, strength, and/or functional capacity.

  2. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum Translation Initiation eIF2β Subunit: Direct Interaction with Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tellier, G.; Lenne, A.; Cailliau-Maggio, K.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Martoriati, A.; Aliouat, El M.; Gosset, P.; Delaire, B.; Fréville, A.; Pierrot, C.; Khalife, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 26 (2016), č. článku 777. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Plasmodium falciparum * Protein Phosphatase type1 * eIF2b * protein-protein interaction * translation complex Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  3. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of γ-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has in- creased over seven times since the previous analysis. β-turns (7153) and γ-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and ...

  4. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cermak, N.M.; Res, P.T.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to

  5. Protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms found in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms, Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terreum and Agaricus macrosporus that are common in Jordan. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization methods (NPU) were used. The four mushroom types failed to support growth as reflected by negative values for PER; -1.76 for T. claveryi; -0.23 for P. ostreatus; -0.98 for T. terreum and -0.41 for A. macrosporus. The NPU(op), NPU(st) and NdpE% for T. claveryi were 32.6, 33.9 and 3.89%, respectively. The respective values for P. ostreatus were 38.5, 40.7 and 4.35%; T. terreum 29.1, 29.8 and 3.63%; and A. macrosporus 31.5, 32.9 and 3.91%. The results showed that the four mushrooms were significantly (p < or = 0.05) lower in protein quality compared with casein results (NPU(op), NPU(st) and NDpE% of 78.5, 86.4 and 7.16%, respectively.

  6. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labudde, D.; Leitner, D.; Krueger, M.; Oschkinat, H.

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the α-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely α-helix, β-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time

  7. Prediction algorithm for amino acid types with their secondary structure in proteins (PLATON) using chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, D; Leitner, D; Krüger, M; Oschkinat, H

    2003-01-01

    The algorithm PLATON is able to assign sets of chemical shifts derived from a single residue to amino acid types with its secondary structure (amino acid species). A subsequent ranking procedure using optionally two different penalty functions yields predictions for possible amino acid species for the given set of chemical shifts. This was demonstrated in the case of the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain and applied to 9 further protein data sets taken from the BioMagRes database. A database consisting of reference chemical shift patterns (reference CSPs) was generated from assigned chemical shifts of proteins with known 3D-structure. This reference CSP database is used in our approach for extracting distributions of amino acid types with their most likely secondary structure elements (namely alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and coil) for single amino acids by comparison with query CSPs. Results obtained for the 10 investigated proteins indicates that the percentage of correct amino acid species in the first three positions in the ranking list, ranges from 71.4% to 93.2% for the more favorable penalty function. Where only the top result of the ranking list for these 10 proteins is considered, 36.5% to 83.1% of the amino acid species are correctly predicted. The main advantage of our approach, over other methods that rely on average chemical shift values is the ability to increase database content by incorporating newly derived CSPs, and therefore to improve PLATON's performance over time.

  8. The Effect of Oral Leucine on Protein Metabolism in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson ThomasA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lack of insulin results in a catabolic state in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is reversed by insulin treatment. Amino acid supply, especially branched chain amino acids such as leucine, enhances protein synthesis in both animal and human studies. This small study was undertaken to assess the acute effect of supplemental leucine on protein metabolism in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. L-[1-13C] Leucine was used to assess whole-body protein metabolism in six adolescent females (16–18 yrs with type 1 diabetes during consumption of a basal diet (containing 58 μmoles leucine/kg/h and the basal diet with supplemental leucine (232 μmoles leucine/kg/h. Net leucine balance was significantly higher with supplemental leucine ( μmoles leucine/kg body weight/hr than with the basal diet (, due to reduced protein degradation ( μmoles leucine/kg body weight/hr compared to the basal diet (, .

  9. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. [Expression, purification and protective antigen analysis of cell wall protein MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-ping; Pian, Ya-ya; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Yu-ling; Jiang, Yong-qiang; Xiong, Zheng-ying

    2012-02-01

    To amplify the mrp gene of Streptococcus suis type 2 05ZYH33, express it in E.coli BL21 in order to acquire high purity recombinant protein MRP, then evaluate the protective antigen of recombinant protein MRP. Using PCR technology to obtain the product of mrp gene of 05ZYH33, and then cloned it into the expression vector pET28a(+). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography, later immunized New Zealand rabbit to gain anti-serum, then test the anti-serum titer by ELISA. The opsonophagocytic killing test demonstrated the abilities of protective antigen of MRP. The truncated of MRP recombinant protein in E.coli BL21 expressed by inclusion bodies, and purified it in high purity. After immunoprotection, the survival condition of CD-1 was significantly elevated. The survival rate of wild-type strain 05ZYH33 in blood was apparently decreased after anti-serum opsonophagocyticed, but the mutant delta; MRP showed no differences. MRP represent an important protective antigen activity.

  11. pH sensitivity of type III secretion system tip proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Aaron P; Birket, Susan E; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Middaugh, C Russell

    2008-06-01

    Many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria employ type III secretion systems to transport proteins into the host cell membrane and cytoplasm to subvert normal cellular functions. The type III secretion apparatus consists of a basal body spanning the inner and outer bacterial membranes and a needle which extends away from the bacterium. Recent work has found that a special class of proteins localizes to the tip of the needle to control secretion of effector proteins. Five of these tip proteins are IpaD (Shigella flexneri), BipD (Burkholderia pseudomallei), SipD (Salmonella spp.), LcrV (Yersinia spp.), and PcrV (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In this study, the conformational stability of these proteins was characterized as a function of pH and temperature. Understanding the stability of the proteins in different pH environments is particularly important since they are expected to encounter different pH environments in their passage through the gastrointestinal tract and are exposed to low pH microenvironments near the surface of target cell membranes. Secondary and tertiary structural changes were monitored using the spectroscopic techniques of far-UV circular dichroism, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. Optical density and right angle scattering measurements were also used to evaluate protein association/dissociation. Empirical phase diagrams were then applied to mathematically combine data from the various spectroscopic techniques to provide a global picture of the proteins' structural behavior in solution. The responses of the proteins to changes in temperature and pH conditions reveal two distinct subfamilies in terms of stability. The first is that of IpaD, BipD, and SipD whose corresponding phase diagrams show conformational differences at pH 5-6. The conserved pH dependence in this subfamily suggests possible common mechanistic function. In the second subfamily (LcrV and PcrV), conformational stability is directly related to p

  12. Prevalence of protein-energy wasting and its various types in Iranian hemodialysis patients: a new classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibi, Hadi; As'habi, Atefeh; Heshmati, Behnaz Nozary; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) and its various types in hemodialysis (HD) patients in Tehran, Iran. For this cross-sectional study, 291 HD patients were randomly selected. The nutritional status of the patients was determined by subjective global assessment (SGA) and their dietary intakes were assessed using a 4-day dietary recall. In addition, serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was measured. The prevalence of mild-to-moderate and severe PEW based on SGA was 60.5% and 1% in Tehran HD patients, respectively. The prevalence of various types of PEW in HD patients was 20.5% type I (inadequate energy or protein intake without inflammation), 65.5% type IIa (inadequate energy or protein intake with inflammation), and 14% type IIb (adequate energy and protein intake with inflammation). Of the total HD patients with no PEW based on SGA, about 3.5% had type 0 normal nutritional status (adequate energy and protein intake without inflammation), 34% had type I normal nutritional status (inadequate energy or protein intake without inflammation), 55.5% had type IIa normal nutritional status (inadequate energy or protein intake with inflammation), and 7% had type IIb normal nutritional status (adequate energy and protein intake with inflammation). PEW in Tehran HD patients is considerably prevalent and PEW type IIa is the most common type. In addition, HD patients with no PEW based on SGA should also be paid attention because they may be in the early stages of inadequate intake of energy and/or protein and inflammation.

  13. Identification of novel protein-protein interactions of Yersinia pestis type III secretion system by yeast two hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system (T3SS of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS.

  14. Soy Germed Protein Plus Zn as an Inducer Insulin Secretion on Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY WINARSI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglicemic induces pancreatic cells to produce inadequate insulin. However, previous studies revealed that soy protein induce pancreatic cells to secrete insulin. Hence, this study was aimed to investigate effect of soy germed protein on the insulin and blood glucose level of type-2 diabetes mellitus with Zn enrichment. The research involved twenty four women that characterized with having more blood glucose level than normal, body mass index more than twenty three kg/m2, and age more than fourty years old. They were divided into three groups randomly, eight woman for each group. The first, second and third group were treated respectively with milk containing soy germed protein plus Zn, this product without Zn, and placebo, all for two months. Blood samples were taken at baseline, one and two months after observation. Results showed that two months after observation the insulin level increased from 194.79 to 519.82 pmol/ml (P = 0.033 in group consuming milk containing soy germed protein with or without Zn, supported by significantly reduced blood glucose level. This result might be correlated with the potency of isoflavones in soy germ protein to protect pancreatic beta cellsmembrane from free radicals attack. Therefore, this maintain the cells integrity and to secrete optimal insulin.

  15. Building multidimensional biomarker views of type 2 diabetes on the basis of protein microheterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Chad R; Oran, Paul E; Buddi, Sai; Jarvis, Jason W; Schaab, Matthew R; Rehder, Douglas S; Rogers, Stephen P; Taylor, Thomas; Nelson, Randall W

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Guidance for Industry statement formally recognizing (during drug development) the conjoined nature of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which has precipitated an urgent need for panels of markers (and means of analysis) that are able to differentiate subtypes of CVD in the context of T2D. Here, we explore the possibility of creating such panels using the working hypothesis that proteins, in addition to carrying time-cumulative marks of hyperglycemia (e.g., protein glycation in the form of Hb A(₁c)), may carry analogous information with regard to systemic oxidative stress and aberrant enzymatic signaling related to underlying pathobiologies involved in T2D and/or CVD. We used mass spectrometric immunoassay to quantify, in targeted fashion, relative differences in the glycation, oxidation, and truncation of 11 specific proteins. Protein oxidation and truncation (owing to modified enzymatic activity) are able to distinguish between subsets of diabetic patients with or without a history of myocardial infarction and/or congestive heart failure where markers of glycation alone cannot. Markers based on protein modifications aligned with the known pathobiologies of T2D represent a reservoir of potential cardiovascular markers that are needed to develop the next generation of antidiabetes medications.

  16. Whey protein: The “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, Linda E; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postprandial period, and this review will discuss the mechanisms by which whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins. Whey protein is also a rich source of amino acids, and these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, which contributes to the reduction in postprandial glycaemia. Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus. These properties of whey protein suggest its potential in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, the optimal dose and timing of whey protein ingestion are yet to be defined, and studies are required to examine the long-term benefits of whey consumption for overall glycaemic control. PMID:26516411

  17. Expression of Insoluble Influenza Neuraminidase Type 1 (NA1 Protein in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen Lee Pua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The avian influenza virus, particularly H5N1 strain, is highly virulent to poultry and mankind. Several expression systems, like yeast, baculovirus and mammalian cells, have been adopted to produce vaccine candidate for this lethal disease. The present research aimed at developing a recombinant vaccine candidate, neuraminidase type 1 (NA1, for the Malaysia isolate of H5N1 in Nicotiana benthamiana. The NA1 gene was fused directly in-frame in cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV-based pEAQ-HT vector with C-terminal polyhistidine-tag incorporated to ease the subsequent purification step. The expression of the NA1 gene in tobacco was confirmed at RNA and protein levels at 6 days post-infiltration (Dpi. From the insoluble fraction of the protein, a recombinant glycosylated NA1 protein with a molecular weight of ~56 kDa was immunogenically detected by a specific anti-NA polyclonal antibody. We report for the first time the insolubility of the plant-made NA1 protein where a native sequence was used for its expression. This study signifies the necessity of the use of optimised sequences for expression work and provides great opportunity for the exploration of plant-manufactured NA1 protein as vaccine candidate.

  18. Interactions between flagellar and type III secretion proteins in Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahony James B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flagellar secretion systems are utilized by a wide variety of bacteria to construct the flagellum, a conserved apparatus that allows for migration towards non-hostile, nutrient rich environments. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate, intracellular pathogen whose genome contains at least three orthologs of flagellar proteins, namely FliI, FlhA and FliF, but the role of these proteins remains unknown. Results Full length FliI, and fragments of FlhA, FliF, and FliI, were cloned and expressed as either GST or His tagged proteins in E. coli. The GST-tagged full length FliI protein was shown to possess ATPase activity, hydrolyzing ATP at a rate of 0.15 ± .02 μmol min-1 mg-1 in a time- and dose-dependant manner. Using bacterial-2-hybrid and GST pull-down assays, the N-terminal domain of FliI was shown to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of FlhA, but not with FliF, and the cytoplasmic domain of FlhA was shown to interact with the C-terminus of FliF. The absence of other flagellar orthologs led us to explore cross-reaction of flagellar proteins with type III secretion proteins, and we found that FliI interacted with CdsL and CopN, while FlhA interacted with CdsL and Cpn0322 (YscU ortholog CdsU. Conclusions The specific interaction of the four orthologous flagellar proteins in C. pneumoniae suggests that they interact in vivo and, taken together with their conservation across members of the chlamydiae sps., and their interaction with T3S components, suggests a role in bacterial replication and/or intracellular survival.

  19. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  20. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  1. FRET-based localization of fluorescent protein insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta A Raina

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein (FP insertions have often been used to localize primary structure elements in mid-resolution 3D cryo electron microscopic (EM maps of large protein complexes. However, little is known as to the precise spatial relationship between the location of the fused FP and its insertion site within a larger protein. To gain insights into these structural considerations, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements were used to localize green fluorescent protein (GFP insertions within the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1, a large intracellular Ca(2+ release channel that plays a key role in skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling. A series of full-length His-tagged GFP-RyR1 fusion constructs were created, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T cells and then complexed with Cy3NTA, a His-tag specific FRET acceptor. FRET efficiency values measured from each GFP donor to Cy3NTA bound to each His tag acceptor site were converted into intermolecular distances and the positions of each inserted GFP were then triangulated relative to a previously published X-ray crystal structure of a 559 amino acid RyR1 fragment. We observed that the chromophoric centers of fluorescent proteins inserted into RyR1 can be located as far as 45 Å from their insertion sites and that the fused proteins can also be located in internal cavities within RyR1. These findings should prove useful in interpreting structural results obtained in cryo EM maps using fusions of small fluorescent proteins. More accurate point-to-point distance information may be obtained using complementary orthogonal labeling systems that rely on fluorescent probes that bind directly to amino acid side chains.

  2. The C protein of measles virus inhibits the type I interferon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Jessica A.; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are an important part of innate immunity to viral infections because they induce an antiviral response and limit viral replication until the adaptive response clears the infection. Since the nonstructural proteins of several paramyxoviruses inhibit the IFNα/β response, we chose to explore the role of the C protein of measles virus (MV) in such inhibition. Previous studies have suggested that the MV C protein may serve as a virulence factor, but its role in the pathogenesis of MV remains undefined. In the present study, a recombinant MV strain that does not express the C protein (MV C-) and its parental strain (Ed Tag) were used. Growth of MV C- was restricted in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HeLa cells, but in the presence of neutralizing antibodies to IFNα/β, MV C- produced titers that were equivalent to those of Ed Tag. In addition, expression of the MV C protein from plasmid DNA inhibited the production of an IFNα/β responsive reporter gene and, to a lesser extent, inhibited an IFNγ responsive reporter gene. The ability of the MV C protein to suppress the IFNα/β response was confirmed using a biologic assay. After IFNβ stimulation, HeLa cells infected with Ed Tag produced five-fold less IFNα/β than cells infected with MV C-. While the mechanism of inhibition remains unclear, these data suggest that the MV C protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MV by inhibiting IFNα/β signaling

  3. Fragmentation of the CRISPR-Cas Type I-B signature protein Cas8b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hagen; Rompf, Judith; Wiegel, Julia; Rau, Kristina; Randau, Lennart

    2017-11-01

    CRISPR arrays are transcribed into long precursor RNA species, which are further processed into mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). Cas proteins utilize these crRNAs, which contain spacer sequences that can be derived from mobile genetic elements, to mediate immunity during a reoccurring virus infection. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems are defined by the presence of different Cascade interference complexes containing large and small subunits that play major roles during target DNA selection. Here, we produce the protein and crRNA components of the Type I-B CRISPR-Cas complex of Clostridium thermocellum and Methanococcus maripaludis. The C. thermocellum Cascade complexes were reconstituted and analyzed via size-exclusion chromatography. Activity of the heterologous M. maripaludis CRISPR-Cas system was followed using phage lambda plaques assays. The reconstituted Type-I-B Cascade complex contains Cas7, Cas5, Cas6b and the large subunit Cas8b. Cas6b can be omitted from the reconstitution protocol. The large subunit Cas8b was found to be represented by two tightly associated protein fragments and a small C-terminal Cas8b segment was identified in recombinant complexes and C. thermocellum cell lysate. Production of Cas8b generates a small C-terminal fragment, which is suggested to fulfill the role of the missing small subunit. A heterologous, synthetic M. maripaludis Type I-B system is active in E. coli against phage lambda, highlighting a potential for genome editing using endogenous Type-I-B CRISPR-Cas machineries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ProClusEnsem: Predicting membrane protein types by fusing different modes of pseudo amino acid composition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2012-05-01

    Knowing the type of an uncharacterized membrane protein often provides a useful clue in both basic research and drug discovery. With the explosion of protein sequences generated in the post genomic era, determination of membrane protein types by experimental methods is expensive and time consuming. It therefore becomes important to develop an automated method to find the possible types of membrane proteins. In view of this, various computational membrane protein prediction methods have been proposed. They extract protein feature vectors, such as PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) and PsePSSM (pseudo position-specific scoring matrix) for representation of protein sequence, and then learn a distance metric for the KNN (K nearest neighbor) or NN (nearest neighbor) classifier to predicate the final type. Most of the metrics are learned using linear dimensionality reduction algorithms like Principle Components Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Such metrics are common to all the proteins in the dataset. In fact, they assume that the proteins lie on a uniform distribution, which can be captured by the linear dimensionality reduction algorithm. We doubt this assumption, and learn local metrics which are optimized for local subset of the whole proteins. The learning procedure is iterated with the protein clustering. Then a novel ensemble distance metric is given by combining the local metrics through Tikhonov regularization. The experimental results on a benchmark dataset demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm named ProClusEnsem. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  6. Co-existence of scrapie prion protein types 1 and 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: its effect on the phenotype and prion-type characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cali, I.; Castellani, R.; Alshekhlee, A.; Cohen, Y.; Blevins, J.; Yuan, J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Parchi, P.; Safar, J.G.; Zou, W.Q.; Gambetti, P.

    2009-01-01

    Five phenotypically distinct subtypes have been identified in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), based on the methionine/valine polymorphic genotype of codon 129 of the prion protein (PrP) gene and the presence of either one of the two protease K-resistant scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) types

  7. Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 interacts with SPA1 to suppress COP1 activity in response to blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Zuo, Zecheng; Liu, Hongtao; Liu, Xuanming; Lin, Chentao

    2011-01-01

    Plant photoreceptors mediate light suppression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1) to affect gene expression and photomorphogenesis. However, how photoreceptors mediate light regulation of COP1 activity remains unknown. We report here that Arabidopsis blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) undergoes blue-light-dependent interaction with the COP1-interacting protein SPA1 (SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A). We further show that the CRY1–SPA1 interaction suppresses the SPA1–COP1 interaction and COP1-dependent degradation of the transcription factor HY5. These results are consistent with a hypothesis that photoexcited CRY1 interacts with SPA1 to modulate COP1 activity and plant development. PMID:21511871

  8. The pat1 protein kinase controls transcription of the mating-type genes in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1990-01-01

    The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation. This differ......The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation...... of the mating-type genes in the zygote leads to complete loss of pat1 protein kinase activity causing entry into meiosis. Thus, pat1 can promote its own inactivation. We suggest a model according to which a stepwise inactivation of pat1 leads to sequential derepression of the processes of conjugation...

  9. Human surfactant protein D: SP-D contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, K; Grosso, L; Zhang, V; Chang, D; Persson, A; Longmore, W; Cai, G Z; Crouch, E

    1991-10-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) shows calcium-dependent binding to specific saccharides, and is similar in domain structure to certain members of the calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin family. Using a degenerate oligomeric probe corresponding to a conserved peptide sequence derived from the amino-terminus of the putative carbohydrate binding domain of rat and bovine SP-D, we screened a human lung cDNA library and isolated a 1.4-kb cDNA for the human protein. The relationship of the cDNA to SP-D was established by several techniques including amino-terminal microsequencing of SP-D-derived peptides, and immunoprecipitation of translation products of transcribed mRNA with monospecific antibodies to SP-D. In addition, antibodies to a synthetic peptide derived from a predicted unique epitope within the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D specifically reacted with SP-D. DNA sequencing demonstrated a noncollagenous carboxy-terminal domain that is highly homologous with the carboxy-terminal globular domain of previously described C-type lectins. This domain contains all of the so-called "invariant residues," including four conserved cysteine residues, and shows high homology with the mannose-binding subfamily of C-type lectins. Sequencing also demonstrated an amino-terminal collagenous domain that contains an uninterrupted sequence of 59 Gly-X-Y triplets and that also contains the only identified consensus for asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. The studies demonstrate that SP-D is a member of the C-type lectin family, and confirm predicted structural similarities to conglutinin, SP-D, and the serum mannose binding proteins.

  10. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform...... this is the first report of dimerization of AFP type III proteins....

  11. Protein energy malnutrition associates with different types of hearing impairments in toddlers: Anemia increases cochlear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Terez Boshra; Deraz, Tharwat Ezzat; Elkabarity, Rasha H; Ahmed, Rasha K

    2016-06-01

    This work aimed to highlight a challenging asymptomatic problem which is early detection of hearing impairment in toddlers with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) as a neuro-cognitive effect of PEM on developing brain in relation to hemoglobin level. 100 toddlers, aged 6-24 months, fifty with moderate/severe PEM and fifty healthy children, were included in study. Both TEOAEs and ABR testing were used to assess auditory function. Study reported an association between malnutrition and hearing impairment, 26% of cases had conductive deafness secondary to otitis media with effusion using tympanometry; 84.6% showed type B and 15.4% type C which may suggest developing or resolving otitis media. Their ABR showed 46% mild and 53% moderate impairment. 32% of PEM cases had sensory neural hearing loss and with type (A) tympanometry. Those were assessed using ABR; 58% had mild, 34% moderate and 8% profound impairment. 10% of PEM cases had mixed hearing loss with 50% type B and 50% type C tympanometry and their ABR showed moderate to profound impairment. TEOAEs latencies at different frequencies correlate negatively with hemoglobin level. Toddlers with moderate/severe PEM had hearing impairments of different types and degrees. Neuro-physiological methods could be early and safe detectors of auditory disorders especially in high-risk toddlers. Anemia increases risk for auditory dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Curcumin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Taisuke; Takada, Shingo; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? We sought to examine whether curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that curcumin ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting protein ubiquitination without affecting protein synthesis. This favourable effect of curcumin was possibly due to the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. Curcumin may be beneficial for the treatment of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Skeletal muscle atrophy develops in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in type 1 DM, which is associated with chronic inflammation. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric, has various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We hypothesized that curcumin could ameliorate skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM. C57BL/6 J mice were injected with streptozotocin (200 mg kg(-1) i.p.; DM group) or vehicle (control group). Each group of mice was randomly subdivided into two groups of 10 mice each and fed a diet with or without curcumin (1500 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) for 2 weeks. There were significant decreases in body weight, skeletal muscle weight and cellular cross-sectional area of the skeletal muscle in DM mice compared with control mice, and these changes were significantly attenuated in DM+Curcumin mice without affecting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Ubiquitination of protein was increased in skeletal muscle from DM mice and decreased in DM+Curcumin mice. Gene expressions of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 were increased in DM and inhibited in DM+Curcumin mice. Moreover, nuclear factor-κB activation, concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β and oxidative

  13. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  14. Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat R. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI and N excretion (NEX or N deposition (ND, respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na and heterozygous (Na/na naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20 and the grower period (days 25–35. Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg0.67/day, respectively.

  15. MS/MS of synthetic peptide is not sufficient to confirm new types of protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Tan, Minjia; Dai, Lunzhi; Kwon, Oh Kwang; Yang, Jeong Soo; Zhao, Yingming; Chen, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is one of the major regulatory mechanisms that fine-tune protein functions. Undescribed mass shifts, which may suggest novel types of PTMs, continue to be discovered because of the availabilities of more sensitive mass spectrometry technologies and more powerful sequence alignment algorithms. In this study, the histone extracted from HeLa cells was analyzed using an approach that takes advantages of in vitro propionylation, efficient peptide separation using isoelectric focusing fractionation, and the high sensitivity of the linear ion trap coupled with hybrid FT mass spectrometer. One modified peptide was identified with a new type of protein modification (+42 Da), which was assigned to acetylation of threonine 15 in histone2A. The modified peptide was verified by careful manual evaluation of the tandem mass spectrum and confirmed by high-resolution MS/MS analysis of the corresponding synthetic peptide. However, HPLC coelution and MS/MS/MS of key ions showed that the +42 Da mass shifts at threonine residue did not correspond to acetylation. The key fragment ion, y4, in the MS/MS/MS spectra (indicative of the modification site) differed between the in vivo and synthetic peptide. We showed that the misidentification was originated from sequence homologues and chemical derivitization during sample preparation. This result indicated that a more stringent procedure that includes MS/MS, MS/MS/MS, and HPLC coelution of synthetic peptides is required to identify a new PTM.

  16. Preparation of dichlorvos-protein complete antigen by Mannich-type reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qianqian; Xu, Ying; Zhou, Youxiang; Lu, Liang; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2010-08-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP) residues have been linked to substantial adverse health effects on several organ systems. To ensure food safety, rapid and low-cost immunological methods must be applied to detect DDVP residues in food. In immunological methods, a key step is coupling DDVP to carrier proteins to obtain a complete antigen due to DDVP being hapten. In the current research, DDVP was coupled with cationized bovine serum albumin (cBSA) using a method based on Mannich-type reaction. A DDVP-cBSA conjugate, with a molar ratio of 40:1 DDVP to cBSA was synthesized. The cationized proteins and their conjugates were identified by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra, which showed the characteristic bands of the ethylenediamine group and DDVP, respectively. BALB/c mice were immunized with DDVP-cBSA. One hybridoma cell line secreted anti-DDVP monoclonal antibody (Mab) that had high sensitivity and specificity for DDVP. Competitive ELISA identified an IC50 of 600 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 1 ng/mL in aqueous solution. The Mab had some cross-reactivity with phosmet, but no cross-reactivity with chlorothalonil and procymidone. We also detected a trace of DDVP in waste water. In conclusion the Mannich-type reaction couples DDVP to protein, yielding an antigen for the production of Mab to detect residual DDVP in the environment.

  17. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically explored. Here, we present comprehensive proteomic analysis of VATs in drug-naïve early T2DM patients and subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 4,707 proteins were identified in LC-MS/MS experiments. Among them, 444 increased in abundance in T2DM and 328 decreased. They are involved in T2DM-related processes including inflammatory responses, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose metabolism. Of these proteins, we selected 11 VAT proteins that can represent alteration in early T2DM patients. Among them, up-regulation of FABP4, C1QA, S100A8, and SORBS1 and down-regulation of ACADL and PLIN4 were confirmed in VAT samples of independent early T2DM patients using Western blot. In summary, our profiling provided a comprehensive basis for understanding the link of a protein profile of VAT to early pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:24403596

  18. G protein-independent effects of the Angiotensin II type I receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptoren (AT1R) er en syv transmembranreceptor (7TMR) og et vigtigt terapeutisk target indenfor kardiovaskulær medicin. AT1R er gennem de seneste år blevet en model for det concept, at 7TMRer kan signalere via andre og mindre velbeskrevne signalveje end de G protein...... afhængige. Skæve agonister, som blokerer G protein signaleringen mens de samtidig aktiverer de G protein uafhængige signaleringsveje er blevet brugt til at beskrive de to hovedgrene i AT1R signaleringen i cellemodelsystemer. Vi påviser at denne farmakologiske differentiering af de to signalveje er relevant...... i primære kardiomyocytter og hele hjerter og endvidere at skæve agonister kan adskille skadelig hypertrofisk vækst fra ønskelig fornyelse af hjertemuskelceller. Deruover har fokus i denne PhD afhandling været på at beskrive de G protein uafhængige effekter af AT1R aktivering vha. den skæve agonist...

  19. Myelin protein zero gene mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ying; Li, Lanying; Lepercq, J.; Lebo, R.V. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Brooks, D.G.; Ravetch, J.V. (Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY (United States)); Trofatter, J.A. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The autosomal dominant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), whose gene is type 1B (CMT1B), has slow nerve conduction with demyelinated Schwann cells. In this study the abundant peripheral myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene, MPZ, was mapped 130 kb centromeric to the Fc receptor immunoglobulin gene cluster in band 1q22, and a major MPZ point mutation was found to cosegregate with CMT1B in one large CMT1B family. The MPZ point mutation in 18 of 18 related CMT1B pedigree 1 patients converts a positively charged lysine in codon 96 to a negatively charged glutamate. The same MPZ locus cosegregates with the CMT1B disease gene in a second CMT1B family [total multipoint logarithm of odds (lod) = 11.4 at [theta] = 0.00] with a splice junction mutation. Both mutations occur in MPZ protein regions otherwise conserved identically in human, rat, and cow since these species diverged 100 million years ago. MPZ protein, expressed exclusively in myelinated peripheral nerve Schwann cells, constitutes >50% of myelin protein. These mutations are anticipated to disrupt homophilic MPZ binding and result in CMT1B peripheral nerve demyelination.

  20. Characterization of the ectodomain of the envelope protein of dengue virus type 4: expression, membrane association, secretion and particle formation in the absence of precursor membrane protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Hsieh

    Full Text Available The envelope (E of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. After biosynthesis E protein forms a heterodimer with precursor membrane (prM protein. Recent reports of infection enhancement by anti-prM monoclonal antibodies (mAbs suggest anti-prM responses could be potentially harmful. Previously, we studied a series of C-terminal truncation constructs expressing DENV type 4 prM/E or E proteins and found the ectodomain of E protein alone could be recognized by all 12 mAbs tested, suggesting E protein ectodomain as a potential subunit immunogen without inducing anti-prM response. The characteristics of DENV E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein remains largely unknown.In this study, we investigated the expression, membrane association, glycosylation pattern, secretion and particle formation of E protein ectodomain of DENV4 in the presence or absence of prM protein. E protein ectodomain associated with membrane in or beyond trans-Golgi and contained primarily complex glycans, whereas full-length E protein associated with ER membrane and contained high mannose glycans. In the absence of prM protein, E protein ectodomain can secrete as well as form particles of approximately 49 nm in diameter, as revealed by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation with or without detergent and electron microscopy. Mutational analysis revealed that the secretion of E protein ectodomain was affected by N-linked glycosylation and could be restored by treatment with ammonia chloride.Considering the enhancement of DENV infectivity by anti-prM antibodies, our findings provide new insights into the expression and secretion of E protein ectodomain in the absence of prM protein and contribute to future subunit vaccine design.

  1. Expression Profiling of Human Genetic and Protein Interaction Networks in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunak, Søren; Bergholdt, R; Brorsson, C

    2009-01-01

    Proteins contributing to a complex disease are often members of the same functional pathways. Elucidation of such pathways may provide increased knowledge about functional mechanisms underlying disease. By combining genetic interactions in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) with protein interaction data we have......RNA expression levels for each gene were evaluated and profiling was performed by measuring and comparing constitutive expression in human islets versus cytokine-stimulated expression levels, and for lymphocytes by comparing expression levels among controls and T1D individuals. We identified differential...... stress, regulation of transcription and apoptosis. To understand biological systems, integration of genetic and functional information is necessary, and the current study has used this approach to improve understanding of T1D and the underlying biological mechanisms....

  2. Evaluation of a type 1 diabetes serum cohort by SELDI-TOF MS protein profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, J.; Kaas, A.; Schonle, E.

    2009-01-01

    Proteomics analysis of serum from patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may lead to novel biomarkers for prediction of disease and for patient monitoring. However, the serum proteome is highly sensitive to sample processing and before proteomics biomarker research serum cohorts should preferably...... be examined for potential bias between sample groups. S ELDI-TOF MS protein profiling was used for preliminary evaluation of a biological-bank with 766 serum samples from 270 patients with T1D, collected at 18 different paediatric centers representing 15 countries in Europe and Japan over 2 years (2000......-2002). Samples collected 1 (n = 270), 6 (n = 248), and 12 (n = 248) months after T1D diagnosis were grouped across centers and compared. The serum protein profiles varied with collection site and day of analysis; however, markers of sample processing were not systematically different between samples collected...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus env proteins possess a functionally conserved assembly domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Doms, R W; Earl, P L; Chakrabarti, S; Moss, B

    1990-01-01

    The envelope (env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) form dimers shortly after synthesis. Analysis of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env protein expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus revealed that it, too, forms stable homodimers. When the HIV-1 and SIV env proteins or the HIV-1 and HIV-2 env proteins were coexpressed in the same cells, heterodimers were formed. Thus, the env proteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV possess a functionally ...

  4. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  5. The SNARE protein SNAP23 and the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c in human skeletal muscle are implicated in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Andersson, Linda; Vind, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    association between lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes in humans, as well as to identify a potential regulator of SNAP23. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy, insulin-sensitive control......OBJECTIVE: Our previous studies suggest that the SNARE protein synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) is involved in the link between increased lipid levels and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. The objective was to determine whether SNAP23 may also be involved in the known...... subjects for expression (mRNA and protein) and intracellular localization (subcellular fractionation and immunohistochemistry) of SNAP23, and for expression of proteins known to interact with SNARE proteins. Insulin resistance was determined by a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Potential mechanisms...

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type z negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kuboyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fyn tyrosine kinase-mediated down-regulation of Rho activity through activation of p190RhoGAP is crucial for oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Therefore, the loss of function of its counterpart protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP may enhance myelination during development and remyelination in demyelinating diseases. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether Ptprz, a receptor-like PTP (RPTP expressed abuntantly in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, is involved in this process, because we recently revealed that p190RhoGAP is a physiological substrate for Ptprz. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found an early onset of the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP, a major protein of the myelin sheath, and early initiation of myelination in vivo during development of the Ptprz-deficient mouse, as compared with the wild-type. In addition, oligodendrocytes appeared earlier in primary cultures from Ptprz-deficient mice than wild-type mice. Furthermore, adult Ptprz-deficient mice were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE induced by active immunization with myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG peptide than were wild-type mice. After EAE was induced, the tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP increased significantly, and the EAE-induced loss of MBP was markedly suppressed in the white matter of the spinal cord in Ptprz-deficient mice. Here, the number of T-cells and macrophages/microglia infiltrating into the spinal cord did not differ between the two genotypes after MOG immunization. All these findings strongly support the validity of our hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ptprz plays a negative role in oligodendrocyte differentiation in early central nervous system (CNS development and remyelination in demyelinating CNS diseases, through the dephosphorylation of substrates such as p190RhoGAP.

  7. Infection with the oncogenic human papillomavirus type 59 alters protein components of the cornified cell envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Elizabeth; Brown, Darron R.

    2003-01-01

    Infection of the genital tract with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) leads to proliferative and dysplastic epithelial lesions. The mechanisms used by the virus to escape the infected keratinocyte are not well understood. Infection of keratinocytes with HPV does not cause lysis, the mechanism used by many viruses to release newly formed virions. For HPV 11, a type associated with a low risk of neoplastic disease, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) of infected keratinocytes is thin and fragile, and transcription of loricrin, the major CCE protein, is reduced. The effects of high-risk HPV infection on components of the CCE have not been previously reported. HPV 59, an oncogenic genital type related to HPV types 18 and 45 was identified in a condylomata acuminata lesion. An extract of this lesion was used to infect human foreskin fragments, which were grown in athymic mice as xenografts. Continued propagation using extracts of xenografts permitted growth of additional HPV 59-infected xenografts. CCEs purified from HPV 59-infected xenografts displayed subtle morphologic abnormalities compared to those derived from uninfected xenografts. HPV 59-infected xenografts revealed dysplastic-appearing cells with mitotic figures. Detection of loricrin, involucrin, and cytokeratin 10 was reduced in HPV 59-infected epithelium, while small proline-rich protein 3 (SPR3) was increased. Reduction in loricrin was most apparent in regions of epithelium containing abundant HPV 59 DNA. Compared to uninfected epithelium, loricrin transcription was decreased in HPV 59-infected epithelium. We conclude that HPV 59 shares with HPV 11 the ability to alter CCE components and to specifically reduce transcription of the loricrin gene. Because loricrin is the major CCE protein, a reduction in this component could alter the physical properties of the CCE, thus facilitating virion release

  8. High protein weight loss diets in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E; Jesudason, D R; Clifton, P M

    2014-05-01

    Diets where carbohydrate has been partially exchanged for protein have shown beneficial changes in persons with type 2 diabetes but no studies have enrolled people with albuminuria. We aim to determine if a high protein to carbohydrate ratio (HPD) in an energy reduced diet has a beneficial effect on metabolic control and cardiovascular risk factors without negatively affecting renal function. Adult, overweight participants with type 2 diabetes, with albuminuria (30-600 mg/24 h or an albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 3.0-60 mg/mmol), and estimated GFR of >40 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were enrolled. Participants were randomized to an HPD or an SPD. Protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio was 30:30:40% of energy for the HPD and 20:30:50% for the SPD. Main outcomes were renal function, weight loss, blood pressure, serum lipids and glycaemic control. We recruited 76 volunteers and 45 (35 men and 10 women) finished. There were no overall changes in renal function at 12 months and no significant differences in weight loss between groups (9.7 ± 2.9 kg and 6.6 ± 1.4 kg HPD and SPD group respectively; p = 0.32). Fasting blood glucose decreased significantly with no treatment effect. The decrease in HbA1c differed between treatments at 6 months (HPD -0.9 vs. SPD -0.3%; p = 0.039) but not at 12 months. HDL increased significantly with no treatment effects. There were no changes in LDL or blood pressure overall but DBP was lower in the HPD group (p = 0.024) at 12 months. Weight loss improved overall metabolic control in this group of well controlled participants with type 2 diabetes regardless of diet composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NMR identification of the binding surfaces involved in the Salmonella and Shigella Type III secretion tip-translocon protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C; Kaur, Kawaljit; Chatterjee, Srirupa; Knight, Kevin M; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2016-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is essential for the pathogenesis of many bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella, which together are responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. The structural component of the T3SS consists of the needle apparatus, which is assembled in part by the protein-protein interaction between the tip and the translocon. The atomic detail of the interaction between the tip and the translocon proteins is currently unknown. Here, we used NMR methods to identify that the N-terminal domain of the Salmonella SipB translocon protein interacts with the SipD tip protein at a surface at the distal region of the tip formed by the mixed α/β domain and a portion of its coiled-coil domain. Likewise, the Shigella IpaB translocon protein and the IpaD tip protein interact with each other using similar surfaces identified for the Salmonella homologs. Furthermore, removal of the extreme N-terminal residues of the translocon protein, previously thought to be important for the interaction, had little change on the binding surface. Finally, mutations at the binding surface of SipD reduced invasion of Salmonella into human intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and advance our understanding of the assembly of the T3SS needle apparatus. Proteins 2016; 84:1097-1107. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V; Sampey, Gavin C; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-08-08

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  12. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  13. Interference of dextran in biuret-type assays of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris R; Hamers, Nicole; Taes, Youri E; Libeer, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Dextran interference in biuret-type assays of total serum proteins was investigated in a Belgian National External Quality Assurance Survey with 256 participants. In vitro supplementation of therapeutic (10% Gentran 70) dextran concentrations showed a broadly varying (from 0 to 20%) negative interference. The analytical interference was found to depend on both the sodium hydroxide and tartrate concentrations in the reagent formulation. The dry chemistry biuret method was not affected by the dextran interference. In a number of cases, the effects observed may be of clinical importance. Both clinicians and laboratory staff should be aware of the persistence of this analytical problem.

  14. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  15. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel protein expression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patie......The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed...... that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated homocysteine levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared to control subjects. We further observed that administration of homocysteine or acetylcysteine significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared...

  16. Chlamydial Type III Secretion System Needle Protein Induces Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis imposes serious health problems and causes infertility. Because of asymptomatic onset, it often escapes antibiotic treatment. Therefore, vaccines offer a better option for the prevention of unwanted inflammatory sequelae. The existence of serologically distinct serovars of C. trachomatis suggests that a vaccine will need to provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS composed of structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor. In this study, we expressed the T3SS needle protein of Chlamydia muridarum, TC_0037, an ortholog of C. trachomatis CdsF, in a replication-defective adenoviral vector (AdTC_0037 and evaluated its protective efficacy in an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum model. For better immune responses, we employed a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol in which mice were intranasally primed with AdTC_0037 and subcutaneously boosted with recombinant TC_0037 and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A mixed in a squalene nanoscale emulsion. We found that immunization with TC_0037 antigen induced specific humoral and T cell responses, decreased Chlamydia loads in the genital tract, and abrogated pathology of upper genital organs. Together, our results suggest that TC_0037, a highly conserved chlamydial T3SS protein, is a good candidate for inclusion in a Chlamydia vaccine.

  17. Novel Mixed-Type Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B. Kinetic and Computational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jazmín Sarabia-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlas of Diabetes reports 415 million diabetics in the world, a number that has surpassed in half the expected time the twenty year projection. Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent form of the disease; it is characterized by a defect in the secretion of insulin and a resistance in its target organs. In the search for new antidiabetic drugs, one of the principal strategies consists in promoting the action of insulin. In this sense, attention has been centered in the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, a protein whose overexpression or increase of its activity has been related in many studies with insulin resistance. In the present work, a chemical library of 250 compounds was evaluated to determine their inhibition capability on the protein PTP1B. Ten molecules inhibited over the 50% of the activity of the PTP1B, the three most potent molecules were selected for its characterization, reporting Ki values of 5.2, 4.2 and 41.3 µM, for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Docking and molecular dynamics studies revealed that the three inhibitors made interactions with residues at the secondary binding site to phosphate, exclusive for PTP1B. The data reported here support these compounds as hits for the design more potent and selective inhibitors against PTP1B in the search of new antidiabetic treatment.

  18. Direct control of type IIA topoisomerase activity by a chromosomally encoded regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Seychelle M; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Hershey, David M; Schoeffler, Allyn J; Sengupta, Sugopa; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Berger, James M

    2014-07-01

    Precise control of supercoiling homeostasis is critical to DNA-dependent processes such as gene expression, replication, and damage response. Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling commonly thought to act independently in the recognition and modulation of chromosome superstructure; however, recent evidence has indicated that cells tightly regulate topoisomerase activity to support chromosome dynamics, transcriptional response, and replicative events. How topoisomerase control is executed and linked to the internal status of a cell is poorly understood. To investigate these connections, we determined the structure of Escherichia coli gyrase, a type IIA topoisomerase bound to YacG, a recently identified chromosomally encoded inhibitor protein. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that YacG is frequently associated with coenzyme A (CoA) production enzymes, linking the protein to metabolism and stress. The structure, along with supporting solution studies, shows that YacG represses gyrase by sterically occluding the principal DNA-binding site of the enzyme. Unexpectedly, YacG acts by both engaging two spatially segregated regions associated with small-molecule inhibitor interactions (fluoroquinolone antibiotics and the newly reported antagonist GSK299423) and remodeling the gyrase holoenzyme into an inactive, ATP-trapped configuration. This study establishes a new mechanism for the protein-based control of topoisomerases, an approach that may be used to alter supercoiling levels for responding to changes in cellular state. © 2014 Vos et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. The Yersinia enterocolitica type three secretion chaperone SycO is integrated into the Yop regulatory network and binds to the Yop secretion protein YscM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesemann Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenic yersiniae (Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica share a virulence plasmid encoding a type three secretion system (T3SS. This T3SS comprises more than 40 constituents. Among these are the transport substrates called Yops (Yersinia outer proteins, the specific Yop chaperones (Sycs, and the Ysc (Yop secretion proteins which form the transport machinery. The effectors YopO and YopP are encoded on an operon together with SycO, the chaperone of YopO. The characterization of SycO is the focus of this study. Results We have established the large-scale production of recombinant SycO in its outright form. We confirm that Y. enterocolitica SycO forms homodimers which is typical for Syc chaperones. SycO overproduction in Y. enterocolitica decreases secretion of Yops into the culture supernatant suggesting a regulatory role of SycO in type III secretion. We demonstrate that in vitro SycO interacts with YscM1, a negative regulator of Yop expression in Y. enterocolitica. However, the SycO overproduction phenotype was not mediated by YscM1, YscM2, YopO or YopP as revealed by analysis of isogenic deletion mutants. Conclusion We present evidence that SycO is integrated into the regulatory network of the Yersinia T3SS. Our picture of the Yersinia T3SS interactome is supplemented by identification of the SycO/YscM1 interaction. Further, our results suggest that at least one additional interaction partner of SycO has to be identified.

  20. Cyanobacterial Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases functionalize carrier proteins of diverse biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Nicholas K; Cozad, Monica A; Kearney, Sara E; Luesch, Hendrik; Ding, Yousong

    2017-09-19

    Cyanobacteria produce structurally and functionally diverse polyketides, nonribosomal peptides and their hybrids. Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are essential to the production of these compounds via functionalizing carrier proteins (CPs) of biosynthetic megaenzymes. However, cyanobacterial Sfp-type PPTases remain poorly characterized, posing a significant barrier to the exploitation of cyanobacteria for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Herein, we describe the detailed characterization of multiple cyanobacterial Sfp-type PPTases that were rationally selected. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes along with the prototypic enzyme Sfp from Bacillus subtilis demonstrated their varying specificities toward 11 recombinant CPs of different types of biosynthetic pathways from cyanobacterial and Streptomyces strains. Kinetic analysis further indicated that PPTases possess the higher binding affinity and catalytic efficiency toward their cognate CPs in comparison with noncognate substrates. Moreover, when chromosomally replacing the native PPTase gene of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, two selected cyanobacterial PPTases and Sfp supported the growth of resulted mutants. Cell lysates of the cyanobacterial mutants further functionalized recombinant CP substrates. Collectively, these studies reveal the versatile catalysis of selected cyanobacterial PPTases and provide new tools to synthesize cyanobacterial natural products using in vitro and in vivo synthetic biology approaches.

  1. Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid (NCp7) protein unwinds tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R; Giedroc, D P

    1992-04-05

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) of all animal retroviruses, encoded by the gag gene, is the major structural protein of the core ribonucleoprotein complex, bound to genomic RNA in mature virions. NC is also thought to play one or more accessory roles in reverse transcription. Mature NC (p7NC) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a 71-amino acid, basic protein which contains two Cys3His Zn(II) retroviral-type zinc finger domains. Herein, we describe the subcloning and expression of HIV-1 NC, denoted NC71, from an inducible phage T7 RNA polymerase promoter in Escherichia coli. Purified NC71 can be reversibly reconstituted with 2 g.at Zn(II) determined by atomic absorption. Ultraviolet circulation dichroism spectroscopy has been used to characterize the complexes between highly purified NC71 and the RNA homopolynucleotide poly(A) and E. coli tRNA(mixed). On poly(A), Zn2 NC71 is characterized by an apparent site size n = 15 +/- 3 nucleotides and high affinity (Kapp = 3 x 10(7) M-1) and moderately cooperative (omega approximately 170 +/- 25) binding. A mixture of E. coli tRNA species (tRNA(mixed) was used to probe the conformational changes induced in tRNA upon binding of HIV-1 NC71. Two structural forms of tRNA(mixed), which differ in their degree of tertiary structure, were assayed for their susceptibility to denaturation by NC71. Five molar monomer equivalents of NC71 are required to denature the "inactive" tRNA in the absence of Mg2+. A Zn(II)-free, oxidized form of NC71 was also shown to unwind inactive tRNA with the same efficiency and stoichiometry. The detailed spectral changes which occur on NC-induced denaturation closely mimic temperature-induced denaturation of inactive tRNA(mixed). The prototype helix-destabilizing protein, T4 gene 32 protein, is unable to unwind this form of tRNA under the same conditions. The stoichiometry of unwinding of inactive tRNA by NC71 is consistent with the site size determined with poly(A). An "active" form of t

  2. Riproximin is a recently discovered type II ribosome inactivating protein with potential for treating cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Hassan; Bayer, Helene; Pervaiz, Asim; Sagini, Micah; Berger, Martin R

    2014-11-01

    The development of new anticancer drugs is a salient problem and the traditional use of plants is a potentially rich source of information for detecting new molecules with antineoplastic activity. Riproximin is a recently detected cytotoxic type II ribosome inactivating protein with high selectivity for certain tumor cell lines. Its activity was recognized as the main component in a plant powder used by African healers for treating cancer. By ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase gene sequencing analysis, the powder was identified to be derived from the plant Ximenia americana. The cDNA sequence of riproximin was identified, the protein was modeled to contain one A- and a B-chain, respectively, and a reliable purification procedure from kernels of X. americana was established. Riproximin displays high but differential antiproliferative activity in a panel of human and rodent cancer cell lines, with concentrations inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% (IC50 values) that diverge by a factor of 100. Consistent antineoplastic activity was detected in colorectal and pancreatic cancer liver metastasis models in rats. The cytotoxic mechanism of action was determined to be based on cellular uptake of riproximin followed by its A-chain prompted depurination of the 28S ribosomal RNA and induction of unfolded protein response. Riproximin's specificity depended on its B-chain connected binding to cell surface glycans, the presence of which is crucial for subsequent internalization into cells and cytotoxicity. These N- and O-glycans include bi- and tri-antennary NA structures (NA2/NA3) as well as Tn3 structures (clustered Tn antigen). Riproximin was found to crosslink proteins with N- and O-glycan structure, thus indicating both types of binding sites on its B chain. Due to this crosslinking ability, riproximin is expected to show prominent cytotoxicity towards cells expressing both, NA2/NA3 and clustered Tn structures. Apart from the properties of riproximin, the plant X. americana

  3. An autoactive mutant of the M flax rust resistance protein has a preference for binding ATP, whereas wild-type M protein binds ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon J; Sornaraj, Pradeep; deCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Menz, R Ian; Kobe, Bostjan; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N; Anderson, Peter A

    2011-08-01

    Resistance (R) proteins are key regulators of the plant innate immune system and are capable of pathogen detection and activation of the hypersensitive cell death immune response. To understand the molecular mechanism of R protein activation, we undertook a phenotypic and biochemical study of the flax nucleotide binding (NB)-ARC leucine-rich repeat protein, M. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in flax cotyledons, site-directed mutations of key residues within the P-loop, kinase 2, and MHD motifs within the NB-ARC domain of M were shown to affect R protein function. When purified using a yeast expression system and assayed for ATP and ADP, these mutated proteins exhibited marked differences in the quantity and identity of the bound nucleotide. ADP was bound to recombinant wild-type M protein, while the nonfunctional P-loop mutant did not have any nucleotides bound. In contrast, ATP was bound to an autoactive M protein mutated in the highly conserved MHD motif. These data provide direct evidence supporting a model of R protein function in which the "off" R protein binds ADP and activation of R protein defense signaling involves the exchange of ADP for ATP.

  4. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  5. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Angel L.; Albert, Armando; Salido, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis. PMID:23956997

  6. Protein Homeostasis Defects of Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase: New Therapeutic Strategies in Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel L. Pey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase catalyzes the transamination between L-alanine and glyoxylate to produce pyruvate and glycine using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP as cofactor. Human alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase is a peroxisomal enzyme expressed in the hepatocytes, the main site of glyoxylate detoxification. Its deficit causes primary hyperoxaluria type I, a rare but severe inborn error of metabolism. Single amino acid changes are the main type of mutation causing this disease, and considerable effort has been dedicated to the understanding of the molecular consequences of such missense mutations. In this review, we summarize the role of protein homeostasis in the basic mechanisms of primary hyperoxaluria. Intrinsic physicochemical properties of polypeptide chains such as thermodynamic stability, folding, unfolding, and misfolding rates as well as the interaction of different folding states with protein homeostasis networks are essential to understand this disease. The view presented has important implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies based on targeting specific elements of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase homeostasis.

  7. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 13 is a liver-specific lipid droplet-associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Yuka; Araki, Makoto; Motojima, Kiyoto

    2008-01-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) type 13 is identified as a new lipid droplet-associated protein. 17βHSD type 13 has an N-terminal sequence similar to that of 17βHSD type 11, and both sequences function as an endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet-targeting signal. Localization of native 17βHSD type 13 on the lipid droplets was confirmed by subcellular fractionation and Western blotting. In contrast to 17βHSD type 11, however, expression of 17βHSD type 13 is largely restricted to the liver and is not enhanced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and its ligand. Instead the expression level of 17βHSD type 13 in the receptor-null mice was increased several-fold. 17βHSD type 13 may have a distinct physiological role as a lipid droplet-associated protein in the liver

  8. H-Type Hypertension and C Reactive Protein in Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension with high homocysteine (HHcy (H-type hypertension and C reactive protein (CRP can increase the incidence of ischemic stroke. However, it is not clear whether recurrent ischemic stroke (RIS is related to H-type hypertension and CRP. The present study investigated the correlation of H-type hypertension and CRP level with RIS. Totally, 987 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were recruited in a teaching hospital in Henan province, China during March 2014 to March 2015. The demographic and clinical characteristics and blood biochemical parameters of patients were analyzed. Elevated levels of CRP and homocysteine (Hcy were defined as >8.2 mg/L and 10 μmol/L, respectively. Among the 987 patients, 234 were RIS. Thirty-eight percent of RIS patients had elevated CRP level and 91.5% of RIS patients had HHcy. In multivariate analysis, adjusted odds ratio (OR of RIS in patients aged ≥60 years was 1.576 (95% CI: 1.125–2.207, in male patients 1.935 (95% CI: 1.385–2.704, in patients with diabetes 1.463 (95% CI: 1.037–2.064, CRP levels 1.013 (95% CI: 1.006–1.019, simple hypertension 3.370 (95% CI: 1.15–10.183, and H-type hypertension 2.990 (95% CI: 1.176–7.600. RIS was associated with older age, male, diabetes, H-type hypertension and CRP. Controlling H-type hypertension and CRP level may reduce the risk of RIS.

  9. Study in mice shows that an aggressive type of breast cancer is linked to an inflammatory protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberrant expression of an inflammatory protein, nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), may enhance the progression and metastasis of an aggressive and less common form of breast cancer, known as the estrogen receptor-negative type of disease.

  10. Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-06-07

    Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and their multi-functional types (Layer II). Specifically, given a query protein, its associated gene ontology (GO) information is retrieved by searching a compact GO-term database with its homologous accession number. Subsequently, the GO information is classified by a binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether it is a membrane protein or not. If yes, it will be further classified by a multi-label multi-class SVM classifier equipped with an adaptive-decision (AD) scheme to determine to which functional type(s) it belongs. Experimental results show that Mem-ADSVM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art predictors in terms of identifying both membrane proteins and their multi-functional types. This paper also suggests that the two-layer prediction architecture is better than the one-layer for prediction performance. For reader׳s convenience, the Mem-ADSVM server is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/MemADSVMServer/. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of the relative reduction potentials of type-1 copper sites in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Webb, Simon P; Ivanic, Joseph; Jensen, Jan H

    2004-06-30

    The relative Cu(2+)/Cu(+) reduction potentials of six type-1 copper sites (cucumber stellacyanin, P. aeruginosa azurin, poplar plastocyanin, C. cinereus laccase, T. ferrooxidans rusticyanin, and human ceruloplasmin), which lie in a reduction potential range from 260 mV to over 1000 mV, have been studied by quantum mechanical calculations. The range and relative orderings of the reduction potentials are reproduced very well compared to experimental values. The study suggests that the main structural determinants of the relative reduction potentials of the blue copper sites are located within 6 A of the Cu atoms. Further analysis suggests that the reduction potential differences of type-1 copper sites are caused by axial ligand interactions, hydrogen bonding to the S(Cys), and protein constraint on the inner sphere ligand orientations. The low reduction potential of cucumber stellacyanin is due mainly to a glutamine ligand at the axial position, rather than a methionine or a hydrophobic residue as in the other proteins. A stronger interaction with a backbone carbonyl group is a prime contributor to the lower reduction potential of P. aeruginosa azurin as compared to poplar plastocyanin, whereas the reverse is true for C. cinereus laccase and T. ferrooxidans rusticyanin. The lack of an axial methonine ligand also contributes significantly to the increased reduction potentials of C. cinereus laccase and human ceruloplasmin. However, in the case of C. cinereus laccase, this increase is attenuated by the presence of only one amide NH hydrogen bond to the S(Cys) rather than two in the other proteins. In human ceruloplasmin the reduction potential is further increased by the structural distortion of the equatorial ligand orientation.

  12. Complex structure of type VI peptidoglycan muramidase effector and a cognate immunity protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tianyu [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ding, Jinjing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Da-Cheng, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: dcwang@ibp.ac.cn [The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex associated with the bacterial type VI secretion system of P. aeruginosa has been solved and refined at 1.9 Å resolution. The structural basis of the recognition of the muramidase effector and its inactivation by its cognate immunity protein is revealed. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a bacterial protein-export machine that is capable of delivering virulence effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. The T6SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa transports two lytic enzymes, Tse1 and Tse3, to degrade cell-wall peptidoglycan in the periplasm of rival bacteria that are competing for niches via amidase and muramidase activities, respectively. Two cognate immunity proteins, Tsi1 and Tsi3, are produced by the bacterium to inactivate the two antibacterial effectors, thereby protecting its siblings from self-intoxication. Recently, Tse1–Tsi1 has been structurally characterized. Here, the structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 complex is reported at 1.9 Å resolution. The results reveal that Tse3 contains a C-terminal catalytic domain that adopts a soluble lytic transglycosylase (SLT) fold in which three calcium-binding sites were surprisingly observed close to the catalytic Glu residue. The electrostatic properties of the substrate-binding groove are also distinctive from those of known structures with a similar fold. All of these features imply that a unique catalytic mechanism is utilized by Tse3 in cleaving glycosidic bonds. Tsi3 comprises a single domain showing a β-sandwich architecture that is reminiscent of the immunoglobulin fold. Three loops of Tsi3 insert deeply into the groove of Tse3 and completely occlude its active site, which forms the structural basis of Tse3 inactivation. This work is the first crystallographic report describing the three-dimensional structure of the Tse3–Tsi3 effector–immunity pair.

  13. Uterine function in the mouse requires speckle-type poz protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Lan; Szwarc, Maria M; He, Bin; Lonard, David M; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2018-03-13

    Speckle-type poz protein (SPOP) is an E3-ubiquitin ligase adaptor for turnover of a diverse number of proteins involved in key cellular processes from chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation to cell signaling. Genomic analysis revealed that SPOP somatic mutations are found in a subset of endometrial cancers, suggesting that these mutations act as oncogenic drivers of this gynecologic malignancy. These studies also raise the question as to the role of wild type SPOP in normal uterine function. To address this question, we generated a mouse model (Spopd/d) in which SPOP is ablated in uterine cells that express the PGR. Fertility studies demonstrated that SPOP is required for embryo implantation and for endometrial decidualization. Molecular analysis revealed that expression levels of the PGR at the protein and transcript level are significantly reduced in the Spopd/d uterus. While this result was unexpected, this finding explains in part the dysfunctional phenotype of the Spopd/d uterus. Moderate increased levels of the ESR1, GATA2, and SRC2 were detected in the Spopd/d uterus, suggesting that SPOP is required to maintain the proteome for normal uterine function. With age, the Spopd/d endometrium exhibits large glandular cysts with foci of epithelial proliferation, further supporting a role for SPOP in maintaining a healthy uterus. Collectively, studies on the Spopd/d mouse support an important role for SPOP in normal uterine function and suggest that this mouse model may prove useful to study the role of SPOP-loss-of-function mutations in the etiopathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 modulates NOD2-induced cytokine release and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R Spalinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22 are associated with the risk to develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. PTPN22 is involved in the regulation of T- and B-cell receptor signaling, but although it is highly expressed in innate immune cells, its function in other signaling pathways is less clear. Here, we study whether loss of PTPN22 controls muramyl-dipeptide (MDP-induced signaling and effects in immune cells. MATERIAL & METHODS: Stable knockdown of PTPN22 was induced in THP-1 cells by shRNA transduction prior to stimulation with the NOD2 ligand MDP. Cells were analyzed for signaling protein activation and mRNA expression by Western blot and quantitative PCR; cytokine secretion was assessed by ELISA, autophagosome induction by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC were obtained from PTPN22 knockout mice or wild-type animals. RESULTS: MDP-treatment induced PTPN22 expression and activity in human and mouse cells. Knockdown of PTPN22 enhanced MDP-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-isoforms p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase as well as canonical NF-κB signaling molecules in THP-1 cells and BMDC derived from PTPN22 knockout mice. Loss of PTPN22 enhanced mRNA levels and secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF in THP-1 cells and PTPN22 knockout BMDC. Additionally, loss of PTPN22 resulted in increased, MDP-mediated autophagy in human and mouse cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PTPN22 controls NOD2 signaling, and loss of PTPN22 renders monocytes more reactive towards bacterial products, what might explain the association of PTPN22 variants with IBD pathogenesis.

  15. Myelin protein zero gene sequencing diagnoses Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1B disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Y.; Zhang, H.; Madrid, R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, affects about 1 in 2600 people in Norway and is found worldwide. CMT Type 1 (CMT1) has slow nerve conduction with demyelinated Schwann cells. Autosomal dominant CMT Type 1B (CMT1B) results from mutations in the myelin protein zero gene which directs the synthesis of more than half of all Schwann cell protein. This gene was mapped to the chromosome 1q22-1q23.1 borderline by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The first 7 of 7 reported CMT1B mutations are unique. Thus the most effective means to identify CMT1B mutations in at-risk family members and fetuses is to sequence the entire coding sequence in dominant or sporadic CMT patients without the CMT1A duplication. Of the 19 primers used in 16 pars to uniquely amplify the entire MPZ coding sequence, 6 primer pairs were used to amplify and sequence the 6 exons. The DyeDeoxy Terminator cycle sequencing method used with four different color fluorescent lables was superior to manual sequencing because it sequences more bases unambiguously from extracted genomic DNA samples within 24 hours. This protocol was used to test 28 CMT and Dejerine-Sottas patients without CMT1A gene duplication. Sequencing MPZ gene-specific amplified fragments identified 9 polymorphic sites within the 6 exons that encode the 248 amino acid MPZ protein. The large number of major CMT1B mutations identified by single strand sequencing are being verified by reverse strand sequencing and when possible, by restriction enzyme analysis. This protocol can be used to distringuish CMT1B patients from othre CMT phenotypes and to determine the CMT1B status of relatives both presymptomatically and prenatally.

  16. Perdeuteration, purification, crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction of an ocean pout type III antifreeze protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Haertlein, Isabelle; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Howard, Eduardo; Hazemann, Isabelle; Mitschler, Andre; Haertlein, Michael; Podjarny, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Perdeuterated type III antifreeze protein has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Preliminary neutron data collection showed diffraction to 1.85 Å resolution from a 0.13 mm 3 crystal. The highly homologous type III antifreeze protein (AFP) subfamily share the capability to inhibit ice growth at subzero temperatures. Extensive studies by X-ray crystallography have been conducted, mostly on AFPs from polar fishes. Although interactions between a defined flat ice-binding surface and a particular lattice plane of an ice crystal have now been identified, the fine structural features underlying the antifreeze mechanism still remain unclear owing to the intrinsic difficulty in identifying H atoms using X-ray diffraction data alone. Here, successful perdeuteration (i.e. complete deuteration) for neutron crystallographic studies of the North Atlantic ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) AFP in Escherichia coli high-density cell cultures is reported. The perdeuterated protein (AFP D) was expressed in inclusion bodies, refolded in deuterated buffer and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Well shaped perdeuterated AFP D crystals have been grown in D 2 O by the sitting-drop method. Preliminary neutron Laue diffraction at 293 K using LADI-III at ILL showed that with a few exposures of 24 h a very low background and clear small spots up to a resolution of 1.85 Å were obtained using a ‘radically small’ perdeuterated AFP D crystal of dimensions 0.70 × 0.55 × 0.35 mm, corresponding to a volume of 0.13 mm 3

  17. Protein Expression Profile of Rat Type Two Alveolar Epithelial Cells During Hyperoxic Stress and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Maneesh

    Rationale: In rodent model systems, the sequential changes in lung morphology resulting from hyperoxic injury are well characterized, and are similar to changes in human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the injured lung, alveolar type two (AT2) epithelial cells play a critical role restoring the normal alveolar structure. Thus characterizing the changes in AT2 cells will provide insights into the mechanisms underpinning the recovery from lung injury. Methods: We applied an unbiased systems level proteomics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to lung repair in a rat hyperoxic lung injury model. AT2 cells were isolated from rat lungs at predetermined intervals during hyperoxic injury and recovery. Protein expression profiles were determined by using iTRAQRTM with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Of 959 distinct proteins identified, 183 significantly changed in abundance during the injury-recovery cycle. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell metabolism, ion homeostasis, programmed cell death, ubiquitination, and cell migration to be significantly enriched by these proteins. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of data acquired during lung repair revealed differential expression of gene sets that control multicellular organismal development, systems development, organ development, and chemical homeostasis. More detailed analysis identified activity in two regulatory pathways, JNK and miR 374. A Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) algorithm identified protein clusters with coherent changes during injury and repair. Conclusion: Coherent changes occur in the AT2 cell proteome in response to hyperoxic stress. These findings offer guidance regarding the specific molecular mechanisms governing repair of the injured lung.

  18. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 protein Tax reduces histone levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laybourn Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1 is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL. The virally encoded Tax protein is thought to be necessary and sufficient for T-cell leukemogenesis. Tax promotes inappropriate cellular proliferation, represses multiple DNA repair mechanisms, deregulates cell cycle checkpoints, and induces genomic instability. All of these Tax effects are thought to cooperate in the development of ATLL. Results In this study, we demonstrate that histone protein levels are reduced in HTLV-1 infected T-cell lines (HuT102, SLB-1 and C81 relative to uninfected T-cell lines (CEM, Jurkat and Molt4, while the relative amount of DNA per haploid complement is unaffected. In addition, we show that replication-dependent core and linker histone transcript levels are reduced in HTLV-1 infected T-cell lines. Furthermore, we show that Tax expression in Jurkat cells is sufficient for reduction of replication-dependent histone transcript levels. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Tax disrupts the proper regulation of replication-dependent histone gene expression. Further, our findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection uncouples replication-dependent histone gene expression and DNA replication, allowing the depletion of histone proteins with cell division. Histone proteins are involved in the regulation of all metabolic processes involving DNA including transcription, replication, repair and recombination. This study provides a previously unidentified mechanism by which Tax may directly induce chromosomal instability and deregulate gene expression through reduced histone levels.

  19. A rare polyglycine type II-like helix motif in naturally occurring proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warkentin, Eberhard; Weidenweber, Sina; Schühle, Karola; Demmer, Ulrike; Heider, Johann; Ermler, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    Common structural elements in proteins such as α-helices or β-sheets are characterized by uniformly repeating, energetically favorable main chain conformations which additionally exhibit a completely saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain NH and CO groups. Although polyproline or polyglycine type II helices (PP II or PG II ) are frequently found in proteins, they are not considered as equivalent secondary structure elements because they do not form a similar self-contained hydrogen-bonding network of the main chain atoms. In this context our finding of an unusual motif of glycine-rich PG II -like helices in the structure of the acetophenone carboxylase core complex is of relevance. These PG II -like helices form hexagonal bundles which appear to fulfill the criterion of a (largely) saturated hydrogen-bonding network of the main-chain groups and therefore may be regarded in this sense as a new secondary structure element. It consists of a central PG II -like helix surrounded by six nearly parallel PG II -like helices in a hexagonal array, plus an additional PG II -like helix extending the array outwards. Very related structural elements have previously been found in synthetic polyglycine fibers. In both cases, all main chain NH and CO groups of the central PG II -helix are saturated by either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, resulting in a self-contained hydrogen-bonding network. Similar, but incomplete PG II -helix patterns were also previously identified in a GTP-binding protein and an antifreeze protein. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Expression and activity determination of recombinant capsid protein VP2 gene of enterovirus type 71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Liu, Guohua; Hu, Xiaoning; Du, Yanhua; Li, Xingle; Xu, Yuling; Chen, Haomin; Xu, Bianli

    2014-04-01

    To clone and express the recombinant capsid protein VP2 of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and to identify the immune activity of expressed protein in order to build a basis for the investigation work of vaccine and diagnostic antigen. VP2 gene of EV71 was amplified by PCR, and then was cut by restriction enzyme and inserted into expression vector pMAL-c2X. The positive recombinants were transferred into E.coli TB1, the genetically engineered bacteria including pMAL-c2X-VP2 plasmids were induced by isopropyl thiogalactoside ( IPTG) , and the expression products were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting method. EV71 IgM antibody detection method by ELISA was set up, and the sensitivity and specificity of this method was assessed; 60 neutralizing antibody positive serum samples from hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients were determined, of which 52 samples were positive and 8 samples were negative; a total of 88 acute phase serum samples of HFMD patients diagnosed in clinical were also detected. VP2 gene of 762 bp was obtained by PCR, the gene segment inserted into the recombinant vector was identified using restriction enzyme digestion. The recombinant vector could express a specific about 71 500 fusion protein in E.coli by SDS-PAGE. The purified recombinant protein of EV71-VP2 can react with the serum of HFMD patients to produce a specific band by western blotting. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 87% and 83%, respectively. Of the 88 acute phase serum samples from children with HFMD, 48 samples (55%) were positive by the ELISA assay. VP2 gene of EV71 has been cloned and a prokaryotic high expression system for VP2 gene was successfully constructed in the present study. The recombination EV71-VP2 has well antigenicity, which could be useful for developing diagnose reagent or vaccine of EV71.

  1. Soy Protein Supplementation Reduces Clinical Indices in Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Mei; Zhang, Yun-Bo; Chi, Mei-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Clinical trials have studied the use of soy protein for treating type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS). The purpose of this study was to outline evidence on the effects of soy protein supplementation on clinical indices in T2D and MS subjects by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to March 2015 for RCTs. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed-and-random-effects model. A total of eleven studies with eleven clinical variables met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that fasting plasma glucose (FPG) [weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.207; 95% CI, -0.374 to -0.040; p=0.015], fasting serum insulin (FSI) (WMD, -0.292; 95% CI, -0.496 to -0.088; p=0.005), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (WMD, -0.346; 95% CI, -0.570 to -0.123; p=0.002), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD, -0.230; 95% CI, -0.441 to -0.019; p=0.033), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD, -0.304; 95% CI, -0.461 to -0.148; p=0.000), total cholesterol (TC) (WMD, -0.386; 95% CI, -0.548 to -0.225; p=0.000), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD, -0.510; 95% CI, -0.722 to -0.299; p=0.000) are significant reduced with soy protein supplementation, compared with a placebo control group, in T2D and MS patients. Furthermore, soy protein supplementation for longer duration (≥6 mo) significantly reduced FPG, LDL-C, and CRP, while that for a shorter duration (protein supplementation could be beneficial for FPG, FSI, HOMA-IR, DBP, LDL-C, TC, and CRP control in plasma.

  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R deficient mice exhibit increased exploration in a new environment and impaired novel object recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, M.; Bakker, B.; Duijn, L.M. van; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Mouse gene Ptprr encodes multiple protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR) isoforms that negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In the mouse brain, PTPRR proteins are expressed in cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, amygdala and perirhinal

  3. Systematic analysis and prediction of type IV secreted effector proteins by machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Yang, Bingjiao; An, Yi; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana; Leier, André; Wilksch, Jonathan; Hong, Qingyang; Zhang, Yang; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Webb, Geoffrey I; Strugnell, Richard A; Song, Jiangning; Lithgow, Trevor

    2017-11-27

    In the course of infecting their hosts, pathogenic bacteria secrete numerous effectors, namely, bacterial proteins that pervert host cell biology. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including context-dependent human pathogens, use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate effectors directly into the cytosol of host cells. Various type IV secreted effectors (T4SEs) have been experimentally validated to play crucial roles in virulence by manipulating host cell gene expression and other processes. Consequently, the identification of novel effector proteins is an important step in increasing our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we train and compare six machine learning models, namely, Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVMs) and multilayer perceptron (MLP), for the identification of T4SEs using 10 types of selected features and 5-fold cross-validation. Our study shows that: (1) including different but complementary features generally enhance the predictive performance of T4SEs; (2) ensemble models, obtained by integrating individual single-feature models, exhibit a significantly improved predictive performance and (3) the 'majority voting strategy' led to a more stable and accurate classification performance when applied to predicting an ensemble learning model with distinct single features. We further developed a new method to effectively predict T4SEs, Bastion4 (Bacterial secretion effector predictor for T4SS), and we show our ensemble classifier clearly outperforms two recent prediction tools. In summary, we developed a state-of-the-art T4SE predictor by conducting a comprehensive performance evaluation of different machine learning algorithms along with a detailed analysis of single- and multi-feature selections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. EspZ of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli regulates type III secretion system protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cedric N; Crepin, Valerie F; Baruch, Kobi; Mousnier, Aurelie; Rosenshine, Ilan; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Translocation of effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a widespread infection strategy among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Each pathogen translocates a particular set of effectors that subvert cell signaling in a way that suits its particular infection cycle. However, as effector unbalance might lead to cytotoxicity, the pathogens must employ mechanisms that regulate the intracellular effector concentration. We present evidence that the effector EspZ controls T3SS effector translocation from enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli. Consistently, an EPEC espZ mutant is highly cytotoxic. Following ectopic expression, we found that EspZ inhibited the formation of actin pedestals as it blocked the translocation of Tir, as well as other effectors, including Map and EspF. Moreover, during infection EspZ inhibited effector translocation following superinfection. Importantly, while EspZ of EHEC O157:H7 had a universal "translocation stop" activity, EspZ of EPEC inhibited effector translocation from typical EPEC strains but not from EHEC O157:H7 or its progenitor, atypical EPEC O55:H7. We found that the N and C termini of EspZ, which contains two transmembrane domains, face the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial attachment, while the extracellular loop of EspZ is responsible for its strain-specific activity. These results show that EPEC and EHEC acquired a sophisticated mechanism to regulate the effector translocation. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are important diarrheal pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and the developed world, respectively. The virulence strategy of EPEC and EHEC revolves around a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS), which translocates bacterial proteins known as effectors directly into host cells. Previous studies have shown that when cells are infected in two

  5. A G3BP1-interacting lncRNA promotes ferroptosis and apoptosis in cancer via nuclear sequestration of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chao; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Yating; Wang, Min; Yan, Bin; Jiang, Yiqun; Shi, Ying; Shen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoli; Liai, Weiwei; Yang, Rui; Xiao, Desheng; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Hu; Cao, Ya; Yu, Weishi; Muegge, Kathrin; Yu, Herbert; Tao, Yongguang

    2018-03-27

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been associated with various types of cancer, however, the precise role of many lncRNAs in tumorigenesis remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the cytosolic lncRNA P53RRA is downregulated in cancers and functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cancer progression. Chromatin remodeling proteins LSH and Cfp1 silenced or increased P53RRA expression respectively. P53RRA bound Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) using nucleotides 1 and 871 of P53RRA and the RRM interaction domain of G3BP1 (aa 177-466). The cytosolic P53RRA-G3BP1 interaction displaced p53 from a G3BP1 complex resulting in greater p53 retention in the nucleus which led to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and ferroptosis. P53RRA promoted ferroptosis and apoptosis by affecting transcription of several metabolic genes. Low P53RRA expression significantly correlated with poor survival in patients with breast and lung cancers harboring wild-type p53. These data show that lncRNAs can directly interact with the functional domain of signaling proteins in the cytoplasm, thus regulating p53 modulators to suppress cancer progression. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Role of UV-inducible proteins in repair of various wild-type Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedliakova, M.; Slezarikova, V.; Brozmanova, J.; Masek, F.; Bayerova, V.

    1980-01-01

    3 wild-type strains of E. coli, namely K12 AB2497, B/r WP2 and 15 555-7, proficient in excision and post-replication repair, differ markedly in their UV resistance. To elucidate this difference, the influence was investigated of induction by application of inducing fluence (IF) before lethal fluence (LF) on repair processes after LF. In cells distinguished by low UV resistance (E. coli 15 555-7; E. coli B/r WP2), dimer excision was less complete in cultures irradiated with IF + LF than in cultures irradiated with LF only. The highly resistant E. coli K12 AB2497 performed complete excision both after IF + LF or after LF alone. All 3 types of cell survived better after IF + LF than after LF only. Because, in most strains so far investigated, the application of IF reduced dimer excision and increased survival, dimer excision per se does not appear important for survival. We conclude that the rate and completeness of dimer excision can serve as a measure of efficiency of the excision system whose action is necessary for repair of another lesion. Cells of all investigated strains could not resume DNA replication and died progressively when irradiated with LF and post-incubated with chloramphenicol (LF CAP + ). Thus, it appears that inducible proteins are necessary for repair in all wild-type E. coli cells given with potentially lethal doses of UV irradiation. (orig.)

  7. Differential 3’ processing of specific transcripts expands regulatory and protein diversity across neuronal cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereb, Saša; Hwang, Hun-Way; Van Otterloo, Eric; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Fak, John J; Yuan, Yuan; Hatten, Mary E

    2018-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) regulates mRNA translation, stability, and protein localization. However, it is unclear to what extent APA regulates these processes uniquely in specific cell types. Using a new technique, cTag-PAPERCLIP, we discovered significant differences in APA between the principal types of mouse cerebellar neurons, the Purkinje and granule cells, as well as between proliferating and differentiated granule cells. Transcripts that differed in APA in these comparisons were enriched in key neuronal functions and many differed in coding sequence in addition to 3’UTR length. We characterize Memo1, a transcript that shifted from expressing a short 3’UTR isoform to a longer one during granule cell differentiation. We show that Memo1 regulates granule cell precursor proliferation and that its long 3’UTR isoform is targeted by miR-124, contributing to its downregulation during development. Our findings provide insight into roles for APA in specific cell types and establish a platform for further functional studies. PMID:29578408

  8. Recycling of protein subunits during DNA translocation and cleavage by Type I restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michelle; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzymes comprise three protein subunits; HsdS and HsdM that form a methyltransferase (MTase) and HsdR that associates with the MTase and catalyses Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DNA translocation and cleavage. Here, we examine whether the MTase and HsdR components can 'turnover' in vitro, i.e. whether they can catalyse translocation and cleavage events on one DNA molecule, dissociate and then re-bind a second DNA molecule. Translocation termination by both EcoKI and EcoR124I leads to HsdR dissociation from linear DNA but not from circular DNA. Following DNA cleavage, the HsdR subunits appear unable to dissociate even though the DNA is linear, suggesting a tight interaction with the cleaved product. The MTases of EcoKI and EcoAI can dissociate from DNA following either translocation or cleavage and can initiate reactions on new DNA molecules as long as free HsdR molecules are available. In contrast, the MTase of EcoR124I does not turnover and additional cleavage of circular DNA is not observed by inclusion of RecBCD, a helicase-nuclease that degrades the linear DNA product resulting from Type I cleavage. Roles for Type I restriction endonuclease subunit dynamics in restriction alleviation in the cell are discussed.

  9. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with T2DM risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on T2DM risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or T2DM risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or T2DM risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects. PMID:27455320

  10. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality.

  11. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.S.; Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Hartvigsen, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions...... in the incremental area under the curve over the 480-min period.Conclusions:A supplement of four different whey protein fractions to a fat-rich meal had similar effects on postprandial triglyceride responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whey isolate and whey hydrolysate caused a higher insulin response...... on postprandial lipid and hormone responses added to a high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic subjects.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four isocaloric test meals in randomized order. The test meals contained 100¿g of butter and 45¿g of carbohydrate in combination with 45¿g of whey...

  12. The effect of protein restriction on albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijls, L.T.J.; de Vries, H.; Donker, A.J.M.; van Eijk, J.T.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background. A randomized trial was conducted to assess whether protein restriction helps to delay the onset of renal disorders in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. Included in the trial were 121 type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or at least detectable albuminuria, or diabetes of

  13. No evidence for functional inactivation of wild-type p53 protein by MDM2 overexpression in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, P.; Craanen, M. E.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    Inactivation of wild-type p53 during gastric carcinogenesis is usually caused by mutations within exons 5-8 of the p53 gene leading to mutated, usually immunohistochemically detectable p53 proteins. However, functional inactivation of wild-type p53, mimicking mutational inactivation, may also result

  14. Meat consumption and its association with C-reactive protein and incident type 2 diabetes : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Kuijsten, A.; Tigcheler, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intake of different types of meat is associated with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Our analysis included 4,366 Dutch participants who did not have diabetes at baseline.

  15. Evidence that kidney function but not type 2 diabetes determines retinol-binding protein 4 serum levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Andrea; Frey, Simone K; Raila, Jens

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) links adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, circulating RBP4 levels are also affected by kidney function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether RBP4 serum levels are primarily associated with kidney...... function or type 2 diabetes....

  16. The correlation study of serum retinol binding protein 4 and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fusong; Cheng Xingbo; Li Huijuan; Zhu Bei; Fan Huaying; Zhang Hui; Shi Yaofang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of Retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: ELISA was used to detect the serum RBP4 level in 100 T2DM in 39 of which carotid atherosclerosis was observed and in the 30 controls, transthyretin (TTR) and other clinical index were also tested. Results: Serum RBP4 level and RBP4/ TTR were significantly higher in T2DM with/without carotid atherosclerosis than that in the controls (P 0, OR>1, P<0.1). Conclusion: Serum RBP4 may be a novel risk factor for diabetes with atherosclerosis. Importantly, the RBP4/TTR ratio is more valuable than serum RBP4 concentration to used to evaluate risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM. (authors)

  17. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  18. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Y Deng

    Full Text Available Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs for blood pressure (BP have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8 to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5' Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP 'indirectly' by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy.

  19. Association of the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type-3 protein with clathrin

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    Gahl William A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS is a disorder of lysosome-related organelle biogenesis characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and prolonged bleeding. These clinical findings reflect defects in the formation of melanosomes in melanocytes and dense bodies in platelets. HPS type-3 (HPS-3 results from mutations in the HPS3 gene, which encodes a 1004 amino acid protein of unknown function that contains a predicted clathrin-binding motif (LLDFE at residues 172–176. Results Clathrin was co-immunoprecipitated by HPS3 antibodies from normal but not HPS3 null melanocytes. Normal melanocytes expressing a GFP-HPS3 fusion protein demonstrated partial co-localization of GFP-HPS3 with clathrin following a 20°C temperature block. GFP-HPS3 in which the predicted clathrin-binding domain of HPS3 was mutated (GFP-HPS3-delCBD did not co-localize with clathrin under the same conditions. Immunoelectron microscopy of normal melanocytes expressing GFP-HPS3 showed co-localization of GFP-HPS3 with clathrin, predominantly on small vesicles in the perinuclear region. In contrast, GFP-HPS3-delCBD did not co-localize with clathrin and exhibited a largely cytoplasmic distribution. Conclusion HPS3 associates with clathrin, predominantly on small clathrin-containing vesicles in the perinuclear region. This association most likely occurs directly via a functional clathrin-binding domain in HPS3. These results suggest a role for HPS3 and its protein complex, BLOC-2, in vesicle formation and trafficking.

  20. The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens of the L-phase from a group B, type III Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A E; Ferrieri, P

    1985-04-01

    The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens from filtered culture supernatants of the bacterial phase and L-phase of the group B, type III streptococcal strain 76-043 were studied by several immunological methods. In the L-phase of growth, the two antigens were separate and distinct molecules which were found principally in the culture supernatant even on the 254th serial subculture in the cell-wall-defective state. Only trace amounts of these antigens were detected in extracts of L-phase cells. The type III polysaccharide antigens in the supernatant of cultures of the parent bacterium and the L-phase gave reactions of identity in immunodiffusion. Precipitin bands obtained by immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) revealed that the type-specific antigen of the bacterial phase of growth migrated toward the anode, whereas that of the L-phase remained near the antigen well. The R protein antigen in the L-phase supernatant was immunologically identical to the R protein of the supernatant and 1% trypsin-extracted antigens from whole cells of the parent bacterial strain, and other groups A, B and C streptococcal strains sharing a common R antigen. Immunologically, the R antigen appeared to be the species R4. The R protein of the L-phase and bacterial phase cultures was resistant to 5% trypsin but sensitive to 0.5% pepsin at 37 degrees C/2hr. Antiserum prepared in rabbits against L-phase cells contained an antibody reactive with the R protein antigens of the bacterial and L-phase cultures. The soluble, naturally released type III and R protein streptococcal antigens of the L-phase of growth permitted immunological confirmation of its bacterial origin.

  1. Uncoupling protein 2 G(-866A polymorphism: a new gene polymorphism associated with C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the relationship between the G(-866A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 gene and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP plasma levels in diabetic patients. Methods We studied 383 unrelated people with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years. Anthropometry, fasting lipids, glucose, HbA1c, and hs-CRP were measured. Participants were genotyped for the G (-866A polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 2 gene. Results Hs-CRP (mg/L increased progressively across the three genotype groups AA, AG, or GG, being respectively 3.0 ± 3.2, 3.6 ± 5.0, and 4.8 ± 5.3 (p for trend = 0.03. Since hs-CRP values were not significantly different between AA and AG genotype, these two groups were pooled for further analyses. Compared to participants with the AA/AG genotypes, homozygotes for the G allele (GG genotype had significantly higher hs-CRP levels (4.8 ± 5.3 vs 3.5 ± 4.7 mg/L, p = 0.01 and a larger proportion (53.9% vs 46.1%, p = 0.013 of elevated hs-CRP (> 2 mg/L. This was not explained by major confounders such as age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, HbA1c, smoking, or medications use which were comparable in the two genotype groups. Conclusions The study shows for the first time, in type 2 diabetic patients, a significant association of hs-CRP levels with the G(-866A polymorphism of UCP2 beyond the effect of major confounders.

  2. Control of type III protein secretion using a minimal genetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miryoung; Sukovich, David J; Ciccarelli, Luciano; Mayr, Julia; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Jesus; Mirsky, Ethan A; Tucker, Alex C; Gordon, D Benjamin; Marlovits, Thomas C; Voigt, Christopher A

    2017-05-09

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete proteins using a type III secretion system (T3SS), which functions as a needle-like molecular machine. The many proteins involved in T3SS construction are tightly regulated due to its role in pathogenesis and motility. Here, starting with the 35 kb Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), we eliminated internal regulation and simplified the genetics by removing or recoding genes, scrambling gene order and replacing all non-coding DNA with synthetic genetic parts. This process results in a 16 kb cluster that shares no sequence identity, regulation or organizational principles with SPI-1. Building this simplified system led to the discovery of essential roles for an internal start site (SpaO) and small RNA (InvR). Further, it can be controlled using synthetic regulatory circuits, including under SPI-1 repressing conditions. This work reveals an incredible post-transcriptional robustness in T3SS assembly and aids its control as a tool in biotechnology.

  3. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase.

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    Thomas A Prohaska

    Full Text Available The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity. Enteropeptidase (EP is a type II transmembrane serine protease mainly found on the brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the duodenum, where it activates trypsinogen to initiate the digestion of food proteins. Some active EP is also present in duodenal fluid and has been made responsible for causing pancreatitis in case of duodeno-pancreatic reflux. Together with its substrate trypsinogen, EP is furthermore present in the epidermis and in some cancer cells. In this report, we show that PCI inhibited EP with an apparent 2nd order rate constant of 4.48 × 10(4 M(-1 s(-1. Low molecular weight (LMWH and unfractionated heparin (UFH slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of PCI. The SI (stoichiometry of inhibition value for the inhibition of EP by PCI was 10.8 in the absence and 17.9 in the presence of UFH (10 U/ml. By inhibiting trypsin, chymotrypsin, and additionally EP, PCI might play a role in the protection of the pancreas from autodigestion. Furthermore the interaction of PCI with EP may influence the regulation of epithelial differentiation.

  4. Interaction of glutaric aciduria type 1-related glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schmiesing

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH, which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1.

  5. Evolution of 17beta-HSD type 4, a multifunctional protein of beta-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, R; Marijanović, Z; Perović, D; Adamski, J

    2001-01-22

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17beta-HSD4) is the most unusual among human 17beta-HSDs. It is characterized by a multidomain structure, in which the dehydrogenase domain is fused to a hydratase and a lipid transfer domain. 17beta-HSD4 not only inactivates estradiol by conversion to estrone but its three protein domains also participate in successive steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of long- and branched-chain fatty acids. We have compared the genomic structure of human 17beta-HSD4 and several homologous genes from lower animals and fungi. Our data suggest an evolutionary scenario for the three protein domains and indicate a highly dynamic history of the enzyme but also a very high conservation of multifunctionality. This suggests that the main function of human 17beta-HSD4 is still its involvement in fatty-acid metabolism, while steroid conversion is only a secondary and possibly minor activity in vivo.

  6. Heterologous production of human papillomavirus type-16 L1 protein by a lactic acid bacterium

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    Bermúdez-Humarán Luis G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of vaccine antigens in lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems. In this study, we investigated i the expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 L1 major capsid protein in the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and ii the ability of the resulting recombinant strain to produce either capsomer-or virus-like particles (VLPs. Results and conclusion HPV-16 L1 gene was cloned into two vectors, pCYT and pSEC, designed for controlled intra- or extracellular heterologous expression in L. lactis, respectively. The capacity of L. lactis harboring either pCYT:L1 or pSEC:L1 plasmid to accumulate L1 in the cytoplasm and supernatant samples was confirmed by Western blot assays. Electron microscopy analysis suggests that, L1 protein produced by recombinant lactococci can self-assemble into structures morphologically similar to VLPs intracellularly. The presence of conformational epitopes on the L. lactis-derived VLPs was confirmed by ELISA using an anti-HPV16 L1 capsid antigen antibody. Our results support the feasibility of using recombinant food-grade LAB, such as L. lactis, for the production of L1-based VLPs and open the possibility for the development of a new safe mucosal vector for HPV-16 prophylactic vaccination.

  7. Interaction between G Protein-Coupled Receptor 143 and Tyrosinase: Implications for Understanding Ocular Albinism Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Elisabetta; Schiedel, Anke C; Manga, Prashiela

    2017-02-01

    Developmental eye defects in X-linked ocular albinism type 1 are caused by G-protein coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) mutations. Mutations result in dysfunctional melanosome biogenesis and macromelanosome formation in pigment cells, including melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium. GPR143, primarily expressed in pigment cells, localizes exclusively to endolysosomal and melanosomal membranes unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, which localize to the plasma membrane. There is some debate regarding GPR143 function and elucidating the role of this receptor may be instrumental for understanding neurogenesis during eye development and for devising therapies for ocular albinism type I. Many G protein-coupled receptors require association with other proteins to function. These G protein-coupled receptor-interacting proteins also facilitate fine-tuning of receptor activity and tissue specificity. We therefore investigated potential GPR143 interaction partners, with a focus on the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase. GPR143 coimmunoprecipitated with tyrosinase, while confocal microscopy demonstrated colocalization of the proteins. Furthermore, tyrosinase localized to the plasma membrane when coexpressed with a GPR143 trafficking mutant. The physical interaction between the proteins was confirmed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. This interaction may be required in order for GPR143 to function as a monitor of melanosome maturation. Identifying tyrosinase as a potential GPR143 binding protein opens new avenues for investigating the mechanisms that regulate pigmentation and neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-genome identification and characterization of chlamydiae-specific type III secretion substrates: the Inc proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guangming

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that multiply in a vacuolar compartment, the inclusion. Several chlamydial proteins containing a bilobal hydrophobic domain are translocated by a type III secretion (TTS mechanism into the inclusion membrane. They form the family of Inc proteins, which is specific to this phylum. Based on their localization, Inc proteins likely play important roles in the interactions between the microbe and the host. In this paper we sought to identify and analyze, using bioinformatics tools, all putative Inc proteins in published chlamydial genomes, including an environmental species. Results Inc proteins contain at least one bilobal hydrophobic domain made of two transmembrane helices separated by a loop of less than 30 amino acids. Using bioinformatics tools we identified 537 putative Inc proteins across seven chlamydial proteomes. The amino-terminal segment of the putative Inc proteins was recognized as a functional TTS signal in 90% of the C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae sequences tested, validating the data obtained in silico. We identified a macro domain in several putative Inc proteins, and observed that Inc proteins are enriched in segments predicted to form coiled coils. A surprisingly large proportion of the putative Inc proteins are not constitutively translocated to the inclusion membrane in culture conditions. Conclusions The Inc proteins represent 7 to 10% of each proteome and show a great degree of sequence diversity between species. The abundance of segments with a high probability for coiled coil conformation in Inc proteins support the hypothesis that they interact with host proteins. While the large majority of Inc proteins possess a functional TTS signal, less than half may be constitutively translocated to the inclusion surface in some species. This suggests the novel finding that translocation of Inc proteins may be regulated by as-yet undetermined mechanisms.

  9. Applications of type I antifreeze proteins: studies with model membranes & cryoprotectant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Steven R; Turner, Jennifer J; Harding, Margaret M

    2006-12-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), found in the body fluids of many species of polar fish allow them to survive in waters colder than the equilibrium freezing point of their blood and other internal fluids. Despite their structural diversity, all AF(G)Ps kinetically depress the temperature at which ice grows in a non-colligative manner and hence exhibit thermal hysteresis. AF(G)Ps also share the ability to interact with and protect mammalian cells and tissues from hypothermic damage (e.g., improved storage of human blood platelets at low temperatures), and are able to stabilize or disrupt membrane composition during low temperature and freezing stress (e.g., cryoprotectant properties in stabilization of sperm and oocytes). This review will summarize studies of AFPs with phospholipids and plant lipids, proposed mechanisms for inhibition of leakage from membranes, and cryoprotectant studies with biological samples. The major focus will be on the alpha-helical type I antifreeze proteins, and synthetic mutants, that have been most widely studied. For completeness, data on glycoproteins will also be presented. While a number of models to explain stabilization and destabilization of different lipid systems have been proposed, it is currently not possible to predict whether a particular AFP will stabilize or destabilize a given lipid system. Furthermore the relationship between the antifreeze property of thermal hysteresis and membrane stabilization is unknown. This lack of detailed knowledge about how AFPs function in the presence of different types of materials has hampered progress toward the development of antifreezes for cold storage of cells, tissues, and organs.

  10. Human papillomavirus type 59 immortalized keratinocytes express late viral proteins and infectious virus after calcium stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Elizabeth E.; Qadadri, Brahim; Brown, Calla R.; Brown, Darron R.

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 59 (HPV 59) is an oncogenic type related to HPV 18. HPV 59 was recently propagated in the athymic mouse xenograft system. A continuous keratinocyte cell line infected with HPV 59 was created from a foreskin xenograft grown in an athymic mouse. Cells were cultured beyond passage 50. The cells were highly pleomorphic, containing numerous abnormally shaped nuclei and mitotic figures. HPV 59 sequences were detected in the cells by DNA in situ hybridization in a diffuse nuclear distribution. Southern blots were consistent with an episomal state of HPV 59 DNA at approximately 50 copies per cell. Analysis of the cells using a PCR/reverse blot strip assay, which amplifies a portion of the L1 open reading frame, was strongly positive. Differentiation of cells in monolayers was induced by growth in F medium containing 2 mM calcium chloride for 10 days. Cells were harvested as a single tissue-like sheet, and histologic analysis revealed a four-to-six cell-thick layer. Transcripts encoding involucrin, a cornified envelope protein, and the E1-circumflexE4 and E1-circumflexE4-circumflexL1 viral transcripts were detected after several days of growth in F medium containing 2 mM calcium chloride. The E1-circumflexE4 and L1 proteins were detected by immunohistochemical analysis, and virus particles were seen in electron micrographs in a subset of differentiated cells. An extract of differentiated cells was prepared by vigorous sonication and was used to infect foreskin fragments. These fragments were implanted into athymic mice. HPV 59 was detected in the foreskin xenografts removed 4 months later by DNA in situ hybridization and PCR/reverse blot assay. Thus, the complete viral growth cycle, including production on infectious virus, was demonstrated in the HPV 59 immortalized cells grown in a simple culture system

  11. Release of skeletal muscle peptide fragments identifies individual proteins degraded during insulin deprivation in type 1 diabetic humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew M; Dasari, Surendra; Karakelides, Helen; Bergen, H Robert; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-09-01

    Insulin regulates skeletal muscle protein degradation, but the types of proteins being degraded in vivo remain to be determined due to methodological limitations. We present a method to assess the types of skeletal muscle proteins that are degraded by extracting their degradation products as low-molecular weight (LMW) peptides from muscle samples. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to identify the original intact proteins that generated the LMW peptides, which we validated in rodents and then applied to humans. We deprived insulin from insulin-treated streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice for 6 and 96 h and for 8 h in type 1 diabetic humans (T1D) for comparison with insulin-treated conditions. Protein degradation was measured using activation of autophagy and proteasome pathways, stable isotope tracers, and LMW approaches. In mice, insulin deprivation activated proteasome pathways and autophagy in muscle homogenates and isolated mitochondria. Reproducibility analysis of LMW extracts revealed that ∼80% of proteins were detected consistently. As expected, insulin deprivation increased whole body protein turnover in T1D. Individual protein degradation increased with insulin deprivation, including those involved in mitochondrial function, proteome homeostasis, nDNA support, and contractile/cytoskeleton. Individual mitochondrial proteins that generated more LMW fragment with insulin deprivation included ATP synthase subunit-γ (+0.5-fold, P = 0.007) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6 (+0.305-fold, P = 0.03). In conclusion, identifying LMW peptide fragments offers an approach to determine the degradation of individual proteins. Insulin deprivation increases degradation of select proteins and provides insight into the regulatory role of insulin in maintaining proteome homeostasis, especially of mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Type III secretion as a generalizable strategy for the production of full-length biopolymer-forming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Li, Cheng; Metcalf, Kevin J; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer-forming proteins are integral in the development of customizable biomaterials, but recombinant expression of these proteins is challenging. In particular, biopolymer-forming proteins have repetitive, glycine-rich domains and, like many heterologously expressed proteins, are prone to incomplete translation, aggregation, and proteolytic degradation in the production host. This necessitates tailored purification processes to isolate each full-length protein of interest from the truncated forms as well as other contaminating proteins; owing to the repetitive nature of these proteins, the truncated polypeptides can have very similar chemistry to the full-length form and are difficult to separate from the full-length protein. We hypothesized that bacterial expression and secretion would be a promising alternative option for biomaterials-forming proteins, simplifying isolation of the full-length target protein. By using a selective secretion system, truncated forms of the protein are not secreted and thus are not found in the culture harvest. We show that a synthetically upregulated type III secretion system leads to a general increase in secretion titer for each protein that we tested. Moreover, we observe a substantial enhancement in the homogeneity of full-length forms of pro-resilin, tropo-elastin crosslinking domains, and silk proteins produced in this manner, as compared with proteins purified from the cytosol. Secretion via the type III apparatus limits co-purification of truncated forms of the target protein and increases protein purity without extensive purification steps. Demonstrating the utility of such a system, we introduce several modifications to resilin-based peptides and use an un-optimized, single-column process to purify these proteins. The resulting materials are of sufficiently high quantity and yield for the production of antimicrobial hydrogels with highly reproducible rheological properties. The ease of this process and its

  13. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

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    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  14. Identification of Heat Shock Protein families and J-protein types by incorporating Dipeptide Composition into Chou's general PseAAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Kabir, Muhammad; Hayat, Maqsood

    2015-11-01

    Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are the substantial ingredients for cell growth and viability, which are found in all living organisms. HSPs manage the process of folding and unfolding of proteins, the quality of newly synthesized proteins and protecting cellular homeostatic processes from environmental stress. On the basis of functionality, HSPs are categorized into six major families namely: (i) HSP20 or sHSP (ii) HSP40 or J-proteins types (iii) HSP60 or GroEL/ES (iv) HSP70 (v) HSP90 and (vi) HSP100. Identification of HSPs family and sub-family through conventional approaches is expensive and laborious. It is therefore, highly desired to establish an automatic, robust and accurate computational method for prediction of HSPs quickly and reliably. Regard, a computational model is developed for the prediction of HSPs family. In this model, protein sequences are formulated using three discrete methods namely: Split Amino Acid Composition, Pseudo Amino Acid Composition, and Dipeptide Composition. Several learning algorithms are utilized to choice the best one for high throughput computational model. Leave one out test is applied to assess the performance of the proposed model. The empirical results showed that support vector machine achieved quite promising results using Dipeptide Composition feature space. The predicted outcomes of proposed model are 90.7% accuracy for HSPs dataset and 97.04% accuracy for J-protein types, which are higher than existing methods in the literature so far. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Activities of Fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae Type II Topoisomerases Purified as Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; George, John

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase have been purified from a fluoroquinolone-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strain, from first-step mutants showing low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin, and from two clinical isolates showing intermediate- and high-level fluoroquinolone resistance by a gene cloning method that produces recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, or ofloxacin required to inhibit wild-type topoisomerase IV were 8 to 16 times lower than those required to inhibit wild-type DNA gyrase. Furthermore, low-level resistance to these fluoroquinolones was entirely due to the reduced inhibitory activity of fluoroquinolones against topoisomerase IV. For all the laboratory strains, the 50% inhibitory concentration for topoisomerase IV directly correlated with the MIC. We therefore propose that with S. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin target topoisomerase IV in preference to DNA gyrase. Sitafloxacin, on the other hand, was found to be equipotent against either enzyme. This characteristic is unique for a fluoroquinolone. A reduction in the sensitivities of both topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase are required, however, to achieve intermediate- or high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pneumoniae. PMID:10543732

  17. PARP-1 Interaction with and Activation by Histones and Nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Colin; Kotova, Elena; Tulin, Alexei V

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is an abundant chromatin associated protein, typical for most eukaryotic nuclei. The localization of PARP-1 in chromatin and its enzymatic activation involves multiple interactions of PARP-1 with nucleosomal histones, other proteins, and DNA. We report a set of methods designed to reconstitute PARP-1 regulation in vitro. These methods involve the expression of PARP-1 and PARP-1-regulating proteins using bacterial and eukaryotic systems, purification of these proteins using chromatography, testing of individual interactions in vitro, assembly of active complexes, and reconstitution of PARP-1 regulating reactions in vitro.

  18. Identification of immunogenic outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, E.J.; Frisch, C.F.; McDade, R.L. Jr.; Johnston, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus influenzae type b which are immunogenic in infant rats were identified by a radioimmunoprecipitation method. Intact cells of H. influenzae type b were radioiodinated by a lactoperoxidase-catalyzed procedure, and an outer membrane-containing fraction was prepared from these cells. These radioiodinated outer membranes were mixed with sera obtained from rats convalescing from systemic H. influenzae type b disease induced at 6 days of age, and the resultant (antibody-outer membrane protein antigen) complexes were extracted from these membranes by treatment with nonionic detergent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. These soluble antibody-antigen complexes were isolated by means of adsorption to protein A-bearing staphylococci, and the radioiodinated protein antigens were identified by gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. Infant rats were shown to mount a readily detectable antibody response to several different proteins present in the outer membrane of H. influenzae type b. Individual infant rats were found to vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in their immune response to these immunogenic outer membrane proteins

  19. Identification of immunogenic outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.J.; Frisch, C.F.; McDade, R.L. Jr.; Johnston, K.H.

    1981-06-01

    Outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus influenzae type b which are immunogenic in infant rats were identified by a radioimmunoprecipitation method. Intact cells of H. influenzae type b were radioiodinated by a lactoperoxidase-catalyzed procedure, and an outer membrane-containing fraction was prepared from these cells. These radioiodinated outer membranes were mixed with sera obtained from rats convalescing from systemic H. influenzae type b disease induced at 6 days of age, and the resultant (antibody-outer membrane protein antigen) complexes were extracted from these membranes by treatment with nonionic detergent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. These soluble antibody-antigen complexes were isolated by means of adsorption to protein A-bearing staphylococci, and the radioiodinated protein antigens were identified by gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. Infant rats were shown to mount a readily detectable antibody response to several different proteins present in the outer membrane of H. influenzae type b. Individual infant rats were found to vary both qualitatively and quantitatively in their immune response to these immunogenic outer membrane proteins.

  20. [Effect of protein intervention on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Mao, Xin-Min; Ma, Xiao-Li; Li, Lin-Lin; Wang, Ye; Tao, Yi-Cun; Wang, Jing-Wei; Guo, Jia-Jia; Lan, Yi

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of plant protein and animal protein on amino acid metabolism spectrum of Qi and Yin deficiency type 2 diabetic rats. 110 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group (n=10), diabetic model group (n=20), disease-symptoms group (n=80). The rats of blank group received ordinary feeding, while other groups were fed with high sugar and fat diets. During the whole process of feeding, rats of disease-symptoms group were given with Qingpi-Fuzi (15.75 g•kg⁻¹) once a day through oral administration. Five weeks later, the rats were given with a low dose of STZ (40 mg•kg⁻¹) by intraperitoneal injection to establish experimental diabetic models. Then the models were randomly divided into disease-symptoms group 1 (Qi and Yin deficiency diabetic group, 15.75 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 2 (plant protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 3 (animal protein group, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹), disease-symptoms group 4 (berberine group, 0.1 g•kg⁻¹). The drugs were given for 4 weeks by gavage administration. After 4 weeks of protein intervention, the abdominal aortic blood was collected and serum was isolated to analyze its free amino acid by using AQC pre-column derivatization HPLC and fluorescence detector. Four weeks after the protein intervention, plant protein, animal protein and berberine had no obvious effect on body weight and blood sugar in type 2 diabetic rats. As compared with animal protein group, histidine and proline(PYin deficiency type 2 diabetic SD rats. Symbolic differential compounds could be found through metabonomics technology, providing experimental basis for early warning of type 2 diabetes and diagnosis of Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Mannosylated mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion proteins enhance antigen-specific antibody and T lymphocyte responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Ahlén

    Full Text Available Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG(2b, which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented.OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in (51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays.Immunizations with the OVA - mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG(2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG(2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG(2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect.Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses.

  2. The role of the Aspergillus niger furin-type protease gene in processing of fungal proproteins and fusion proteins: Evidence for alternative processing of recombinant (fusion-) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Drint-Kuijvenhoven, A.; Lokman, B.C.; Spencer, J.A.; Jeenes, D.; Archer, D.A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized growth and protein processing characteristics of Aspergillus niger strains carrying a disrupted allele of the previously cloned and characterized kexB gene [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2000) 363] encoding a furin-type endoprotease. Deletion of the single-copy gene confirms it

  3. Inhibition of protein kinase Cbeta does not improve endothelial function in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Joshua A; Goldfine, Allison B; Goldin, Alison; Prsic, Adnan; Kim, Sora; Creager, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    Antagonism of protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta) restores endothelial function in experimental models of diabetes and prevents vascular dysfunction in response to hyperglycemia in healthy humans. We tested the hypothesis that PKCbeta antagonism would improve vascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with healthy control subjects. The effect of PKCbeta was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover trial. The study was performed in the outpatient setting of a university medical center. Thirteen subjects with type 2 diabetes without evidence of cardiovascular disease and 15 healthy control subjects were recruited via newspaper advertisement. Subjects underwent a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of the selective PKCbeta antagonist ruboxistaurin mesylate. Subjects received each treatment for 14 d. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation of forearm resistance vessels was measured with mercury-in-silastic, strain-gauge plethysmography during intraarterial administration of methacholine chloride and verapamil, respectively. Markers of inflammation, fibrinolysis, endothelial damage, and oxidative stress were measured after each treatment. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of forearm resistance vessels was attenuated in diabetic subjects when compared with healthy subjects (P=0.001). Endothelium-independent vasodilation did not differ between groups (P value not significant). Ruboxistaurin did not significantly change endothelium-dependent or endothelium-independent vasodilation or blood-based markers of inflammation, fibrinolysis, endothelial damage, and oxidative stress in either diabetic or healthy subjects. Endothelial dysfunction of forearm resistance vessels was not improved by 2 wk of selective PKCbeta inhibition in patients with diabetes. These results suggest that PKCbeta does not contribute significantly to vascular dysfunction in otherwise healthy patients with type 2

  4. Matrix Gla protein species and risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmeijer, Geertje W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Magdeleyns, Elke J; Vermeer, Cees; Verschuren, W M Monique; Boer, Jolanda M A; Beulens, Joline W J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of circulating matrix Gla protein (MGP) species with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD) in type 2 diabetic patients. EPIC-NL is a prospective cohort study among 40,011 Dutch men and women. At baseline (1993-1997), 518 participants were known to have type 2 diabetes. MGP levels were measured by ELISA techniques in baseline plasma samples. The incidence of fatal and nonfatal CVD and CVD subtypes-CHD, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart failure, and stroke-were obtained by linkage to national registers. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for sex, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, and history of CVD. During a median 11.2 years of follow-up, 160 cases of CVD were documented. Higher circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) levels were significantly associated with higher risk of CVD, with an HR per SD (HRSD) of 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.38), PAD (HRSD 1.32 [95% CI 1.07-1.65]), and heart failure (HRSD 1.75 [95% CI 1.42-2.17]) after adjustment. Higher circulating dp-ucMGP levels were not related to risk of CHD (HRSD 1.12 [95% CI 0.94-1.34]) or stroke (HRSD 1.05 [95% CI 0.73-1.49]). Circulating desphospho-carboxylated MGP and circulating total-uncarboxylated MGP levels were not associated with CVD or CVD subtypes. High dp-ucMGP levels were associated with increased CVD risk among type 2 diabetic patients, especially with the subtypes PAD and heart failure, while other MGP species were not related to CVD risk. These results suggest that a poor vitamin K status is associated with increased CVD risk.

  5. Mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers cause premature reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James A; Bosche, William J; Shatzer, Teresa L; Johnson, Donald G; Gorelick, Robert J

    2008-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires that its genome be reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA for productive infection of cells. This process requires not only reverse transcriptase but also the nucleocapsid protein (NC), which functions as a nucleic acid chaperone. Reverse transcription generally begins once the core of the virion enters the cytoplasm of a newly infected cell. However, some groups have reported the presence of low levels of viral DNA (vDNA) within particles prior to infection, the significance and function of which is controversial. We report here that several HIV-1 NC mutants, which we previously identified as being replication defective, contain abnormally high levels of intravirion DNA. These findings were further reinforced by the inability of these NC mutants to perform endogenous reverse transcription (ERT), in contrast to the readily measurable ERT activity in wild-type HIV-1. When either of the NC mutations is combined with a mutation that inactivates the viral protease, we observed a significant reduction in the amount of intravirion DNA. Interestingly, we also observed high levels of intravirion DNA in the context of wild-type NC when we delayed budding by means of a PTAP((-)) (Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro) mutation. Premature reverse transcription is most probably occurring before these mutant virions bud from producer cells, but we fail to see any evidence that the NC mutations alter the timing of Pr55(Gag) processing. Critically, our results also suggest that the presence of intravirion vDNA could serve as a diagnostic for identifying replication-defective HIV-1.

  6. Mimicry by asx- and ST-turns of the four main types of beta-turn in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddy, William J; Nissink, J Willem M; Allen, Frank H; Milner-White, E James

    2004-11-01

    Hydrogen-bonded beta-turns in proteins occur in four categories: type I (the most common), type II, type II', and type I'. Asx-turns resemble beta-turns, in that both have an NH. . .OC hydrogen bond forming a ring of 10 atoms. Serine and threonine side chains also commonly form hydrogen-bonded turns, here called ST-turns. Asx-turns and ST-turns can be categorized into four classes, based on side chain rotamers and the conformation of the central turn residue, which are geometrically equivalent to the four types of beta-turns. We propose asx- and ST-turns be named using the type I, II, I', and II' beta-turn nomenclature. Using this, the frequency of occurrence of both asx- and ST-turns is: type II' > type I > type II > type I', whereas for beta-turns it is type I > type II > type I' > type II'. Almost all type II asx-turns occur as a recently described three residue feature named an asx-nest.

  7. Mimicry by asx- and ST-turns of the four main types of β-turn in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddy, William J.; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Allen, Frank H.; Milner-White, E. James

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonded β-turns in proteins occur in four categories: type I (the most common), type II, type II’, and type I’. Asx-turns resemble β-turns, in that both have an NH. . .OC hydrogen bond forming a ring of 10 atoms. Serine and threonine side chains also commonly form hydrogen-bonded turns, here called ST-turns. Asx-turns and ST-turns can be categorized into four classes, based on side chain rotamers and the conformation of the central turn residue, which are geometrically equivalent to the four types of β-turns. We propose asx- and ST-turns be named using the type I, II, I’, and II’ β-turn nomenclature. Using this, the frequency of occurrence of both asx- and ST-turns is: type II’ > type I > type II > type I’, whereas for β-turns it is type I > type II > type I’ > type II’. Almost all type II asx-turns occur as a recently described three residue feature named an asx-nest. PMID:15459339

  8. Kernel based machine learning algorithm for the efficient prediction of type III polyketide synthase family of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika V

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Type III Polyketide synthases (PKS are family of proteins considered to have significant role in the biosynthesis of various polyketides in plants, fungi and bacteria. As these proteins show positive effects to human health, more researches are going on regarding this particular protein. Developing a tool to identify the probability of sequence, being a type III polyketide synthase will minimize the time consumption and manpower efforts. In this approach, we have designed and implemented PKSIIIpred, a high performance prediction server for type III PKS where the classifier is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Based on the limited training dataset, the tool efficiently predicts the type III PKS superfamily of proteins with high sensitivity and specificity. PKSIIIpred is available at http://type3pks.in/prediction/. We expect that this tool may serve as a useful resource for type III PKS researchers. Currently work is being progressed for further betterment of prediction accuracy by including more sequence features in the training dataset.

  9. Cloning, expression, and activity of type IV antifreeze protein from cultured subtropical olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kyu Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antifreeze proteins (AFPs lower the freezing point but not the melting point of aqueous solutions by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals via an adsorption-inhibition mechanism. However, the function of type IV AFP (AFP IV is questionable, as its antifreeze activity is on the verge of detectable limits, its physiological concentration in adult fish blood is too low to function as a biological antifreeze, and its homologues are present even in fish from tropic oceans as well as freshwater. Therefore, we speculated that AFP IV may have gained antifreeze activity not by selective pressure but by chance. To test this hypothesis, we cloned, expressed, and assayed AFP IV from cultured subtropical olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus, which do not require antifreeze protein for survival. Among the identified expressed sequence tags of the flounder liver sample, a 5′-deleted complementary DNA (cDNA sequence similar to the afp4 gene of the longhorn sculpin was identified, and its full-length cDNA and genome structure were examined. The deduced amino acid sequence of flounder AFP IV shared 55, 53, 52, and 49 % identity with those of Pleuragramma antarcticum, Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus, Myoxocephalus scorpius, and Notothenia coriiceps, respectively. Furthermore, the genomic structure of this gene was conserved with those of other known AFP IVs. Notably, the recombinant AFP IV showed a weak but distinct thermal hysteresis of 0.07 ± 0.01 °C at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, and ice crystals in an AFP IV solution grew star-shaped, which are very similar to those obtained from other polar AFP IVs. Taken together, our results do not support the hypothesis of evolution of AFP IV by selective pressure, suggesting that the antifreeze activity of AFP IV may have been gained by chance.

  10. Different Types of nsP3-Containing Protein Complexes in Sindbis Virus-Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions. PMID:18684830

  11. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-10-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions.

  12. Proresolving protein Annexin A1: The role in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrani, Nathalia T; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Rodrigues, Kathryna F; Perucci, Luiza O; Carneiro, Fernanda S; Bosco, Adriana A; Oliveira, Marina C; Pereira, Solange S; Teixeira, Antônio L; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; Ferreira, Adaliene V; Sousa, Lirlândia P; Gomes, Karina B

    2018-04-17

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein involved in inflammation resolution that might be altered in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a chronic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate AnxA1 serum levels in individuals with and without DM stratified according to the body mass index (BMI), and the dynamic of AnxA1 expression in adipose tissue from humans with obesity and non-obesity. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with DM (lean, overweight and obese) and 40 controls, and adipose tissue samples were obtained from 16 individuals with obesity (with or without DM), and 15 controls. DM patients showed similar AnxA1 serum levels when compared to controls. However, when the individuals were stratified according to BMI, AnxA1 levels were higher in individuals with obesity than lean or overweight, and in overweight compared to lean individuals. Moreover, AnxA1 was correlated positively with IL-6 levels. AnxA1 levels were also positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. Furthermore, higher levels of cleaved AnxA1 were observed in adipose tissue from individuals with obesity, independently of DM status. Enhanced levels of AnxA1 in serum of individuals with obesity suggest an attempt to counter-regulate the systemic inflammation process in this disease. However, the higher levels of cleaved AnxA1 in the adipose tissue of individuals with obesity could compromise its anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions, locally. Considering our data, AnxA1 cleavage in the adipose tissue, despite increased serum levels of this protein, and consequently the failure in inflammation resolution, suggests an important pathophysiological mechanism involved in inflammatory status observed in obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The C proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 1 limit double-stranded RNA accumulation that would otherwise trigger activation of MDA5 and protein kinase R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Bartlett, Emmalene; Schomacker, Henrick; Surman, Sonja; Akira, Shizuo; Bae, Yong-Soo; Collins, Peter; Murphy, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important respiratory pathogen in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. We found that infection with wild-type (WT) HPIV1 suppressed the innate immune response in human airway epithelial cells by preventing not only phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but also degradation of IκBβ, thereby inhibiting IRF3 and NF-κB activation, respectively. Both of these effects were ablated by a F170S substitution in the HPIV1 C proteins (F170S) or by silencing the C open reading frame [P(C-)], resulting in a potent beta interferon (IFN-β) response. Using murine knockout cells, we found that IFN-β induction following infection with either mutant relied mainly on melanoma-associated differentiation gene 5 (MDA5) rather than retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Infection with either mutant, but not WT HPIV1, induced a significant accumulation of intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These mutant viruses directed a marked increase in the accumulation of viral genome, antigenome, and mRNA that was coincident with the accumulation of dsRNA. In addition, the amount of viral proteins was reduced compared to that of WT HPIV1. Thus, the accumulation of dsRNA might be a result of an imbalance in the N protein/genomic RNA ratio leading to incomplete encapsidation. Protein kinase R (PKR) activation and IFN-β induction followed the kinetics of dsRNA accumulation. Interestingly, the C proteins did not appear to directly inhibit intracellular signaling involved in IFN-β induction; instead, their role in preventing IFN-β induction appeared to be in suppressing the formation of dsRNA. PKR activation contributed to IFN-β induction and also was associated with the reduction in the amount of viral proteins. Thus, the HPIV1 C proteins normally limit the accumulation of dsRNA and thereby limit activation of IRF3, NF-κB, and PKR. If C protein function is compromised, as in the case of F170S HPIV1, the

  14. Method for the typing of Clostridium difficile based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabaqchali, S.; O' Farrell, S.; Holland, D.; Silman, R.

    1986-01-01

    A typing method for Clostridium difficile based on the incorporation of (/sup 35/S)methionine into cellular proteins, their separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their visualization by autoradiography is described. On analysis of the radiolabeled-protein profiles, nine distinct groups were observed (A to E and W to Z). The method, which is simple, reproducible, and readily expandable, has been applied in epidemiological studies to demonstrate cross-infection and hospital acquisition of C. difficile.

  15. Effects of supplemental protein type on productivity of primiparous beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, B W; Hixon, D L; Hess, B W; Woodard, L F; Hallford, D M; Moss, G E

    2000-12-01

    treatment. Although UIP in addition to or in replacement of DIP affected milk production and blood metabolites, the productivity of these primiparous beef cows was not altered. Thus, the type of supplemental protein does not seem to influence productivity of primiparous beef cows in production systems with conditions similar to our experimental conditions.

  16. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and β-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi...

  17. Exploring variation in binding of Protein A and Protein G to immunoglobulin type G by isothermal titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L. N.; Christensen, T.; Toone, E.

    2011-01-01

    ligands and for the establishment of generic processes for the purification of various antibodies. In this paper, the interactions between the two IgG-binding proteins and IgG of two different subclasses, IgG1 and IgG4, as well as their analogous Fc fragments have been studied by isothermal titration...

  18. Type A botulinum neurotoxin complex proteins differentially modulate host response of neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Yi; Yang, Weiping; Lindo, Paul; Singh, Bal Ram

    2014-05-01

    Type A Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A), the most potent poison known to mankind, is produced by Clostridium botulinum type A as a complex with neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). Currently BoNT/A in purified and complex forms are both available in therapeutic and cosmetic applications to treat neuromuscular disorders. Whereas Xeomin(®) (incobotulinumtoxin A, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Germany) is free from complexing proteins, Botox(®) (onabotulinumtoxin A, Allergan, USA) contains NAPs, which by themselves have no known role in the intracellular biochemical process involved in the blockade of neurotransmitter release. Since the fate and possible interactions of NAPs with patient tissues after intramuscular injection are not known, it was the aim of this study to evaluate the binding of BoNT/A and/or the respective NAPs to cells derived from neuronal and non-neuronal human tissues, and to further explore neuronal cell responses to different components of BoNT/A. BoNT/A alone, the complete BoNT/A complex, and the NAPs alone, all bind to neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. The BoNT/A complex and NAPs additionally bind to RMS13 skeletal muscle cells, TIB-152 lymphoblasts, Detroit 551 fibroblasts besides the SH-SY5Y cells. However, no binding to these non-neuronal cells was observed with pure BoNT/A. Although BoNT/A, both in its purified and complex forms, bind to SH-SY5Y, the intracellular responses of the SH-SY5Y cells to these BoNT/A components are not clearly understood. Examination of inflammatory cytokine released from SH-SY5Y cells revealed that BoNT/A did not increase the release of inflammatory cytokines, whereas exposure to NAPs significantly increased release of IL-6, and MCP-1, and exposure to BoNT/A complex significantly increased release of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES vs. control, suggesting that different components of BoNT/A complex induce significantly differential host response in human neuronal cells. Results suggest that host response to different

  19. A Light-Induced Reaction with Oxygen Leads to Chromophore Decomposition and Irreversible Photobleaching in GFP-Type Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Bella L; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Polyakov, Igor V; Khrenova, Maria G; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-04-30

    Photobleaching and photostability of proteins of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) family are crucially important for practical applications of these widely used biomarkers. On the basis of simulations, we propose a mechanism for irreversible bleaching in GFP-type proteins under intense light illumination. The key feature of the mechanism is a photoinduced reaction of the chromophore with molecular oxygen (O2) inside the protein barrel leading to the chromophore's decomposition. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) modeling we show that a model system comprising the protein-bound Chro(-) and O2 can be excited to an electronic state of the intermolecular charge-transfer (CT) character (Chro(•)···O2(-•)). Once in the CT state, the system undergoes a series of chemical reactions with low activation barriers resulting in the cleavage of the bridging bond between the phenolic and imidazolinone rings and disintegration of the chromophore.

  20. In vivo versus in vitro protein abundance analysis of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 reveals changes in the expression of proteins involved in virulence, stress and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donohue-Rolfe Arthur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1 causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. Quantitative proteome profiling of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1 in vitro (derived from LB cell cultures and in vivo (derived from gnotobiotic piglets was performed by 2D-LC-MS/MS and APEX, a label-free computationally modified spectral counting methodology. Results Overall, 1761 proteins were quantitated at a 5% FDR (false discovery rate, including 1480 and 1505 from in vitro and in vivo samples, respectively. Identification of 350 cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane (OM proteins (38% of in silico predicted SD1 membrane proteome contributed to the most extensive survey of the Shigella membrane proteome reported so far. Differential protein abundance analysis using statistical tests revealed that SD1 cells switched to an anaerobic energy metabolism under in vivo conditions, resulting in an increase in fermentative, propanoate, butanoate and nitrate metabolism. Abundance increases of transcription activators FNR and Nar supported the notion of a switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration in the host gut environment. High in vivo abundances of proteins involved in acid resistance (GadB, AdiA and mixed acid fermentation (PflA/PflB indicated bacterial survival responses to acid stress, while increased abundance of oxidative stress proteins (YfiD/YfiF/SodB implied that defense mechanisms against oxygen radicals were mobilized. Proteins involved in peptidoglycan turnover (MurB were increased, while β-barrel OM proteins (OmpA, OM lipoproteins (NlpD, chaperones involved in OM protein folding pathways (YraP, NlpB and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis (Imp were decreased, suggesting unexpected modulations of the outer membrane/peptidoglycan layers in vivo. Several virulence proteins of the Mxi-Spa type III secretion system and invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa proteins required for invasion of colonic epithelial cells, and release

  1. Lack of immunogenicity of ice structuring protein type III HPLC12 preparation administered by the oral route to human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crevel, R W R; Cooper, K J; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Before a novel protein can be used in foods, its potential allergenicity must be assessed. In this study, healthy volunteers consumed ice structuring protein (ISP) Type III preparation or a control material 5 days a week for a total of 8 weeks. General measures of health were recorded during...... background against which to interpret the results. Nevertheless, the absence of an immune response using a protocol which could have been expected to result in a response with a strongly immunogenic protein, confirms the conclusions of earlier published work, and attests to the lack of allergenicity of ISP...

  2. Relationship between Proinflammatory and Antioxidant Proteins with the Severity of Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García-Fontana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are at significant risk of cardiovascular disease, however, the pathophysiology of these complications is complex and incompletely known in this population. The aim of this study was to compare the serum proteome of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting or not presenting cardiovascular disease with non-diabetic subjects to find essential proteins related to these cardiovascular complications. This cross-sectional study compares the serum proteome by a combination of protein depletion with 2D-DIGE (2-dimension Difference Gel Electrophoresis methodology. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and Time-Of-Flight ion detector or LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass-Mass Spectrometry. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiovascular disease showed higher expression of plasma retinol binding protein and glutathione peroxidase-3 compared to those without cardiovascular disease and non-diabetic controls. These results show that proteins related to the inflammatory and redox state appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease in the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Highly efficient one-step scarless protein tagging by type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated precision cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Rui, Yan-Ning; Balzeau, Julien; Menezes, Miriam R; Niu, Airu; Hagan, John P; Kim, Dong H

    2017-08-12

    Protein tagging with a wide variety of epitopes and/or fusion partners is used routinely to dissect protein function molecularly. Frequently, the required DNA subcloning is inefficient, especially in cases where multiple constructs are desired for a given protein with unique tags. Additionally, the generated clones have unwanted junction sequences introduced. To add versatile tags into the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein THSD1, we developed a protein tagging technique that utilizes non-classical type IIS restriction enzymes that recognize non-palindromic DNA sequences and cleave outside of their recognition sites. Our results demonstrate that this method is highly efficient and can precisely fuse any tag into any position of a protein in a scarless manner. Moreover, this method is cost-efficient and adaptable because it uses commercially available type IIS restriction enzymes and is compatible with the traditional cloning system used by many labs. Therefore, precision tagging technology will benefit a number of researchers by providing an alternate method to integrate an array of tags into protein expression constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mimicry by asx- and ST-turns of the four main types of β-turn in proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Duddy, William J.; Nissink, J. Willem M.; Allen, Frank H.; Milner-White, E. James

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonded β-turns in proteins occur in four categories: type I (the most common), type II, type II’, and type I’. Asx-turns resemble β-turns, in that both have an NH. . .OC hydrogen bond forming a ring of 10 atoms. Serine and threonine side chains also commonly form hydrogen-bonded turns, here called ST-turns. Asx-turns and ST-turns can be categorized into four classes, based on side chain rotamers and the conformation of the central turn residue, which are geometrically equivalent to t...

  5. In vivo FRET-FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Yuchen; Stahl, Yvonne; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Postma, Marten; Zhou, Wenkun; Goedhart, Joachim; Sánchez-Pérez, María Isabel; Gadella, Theodorus W.J.; Simon, Rüdiger; Scheres, Ben; Blilou, Ikram

    2017-01-01

    During multicellular development, specification of distinct cell fates is often regulated by the same transcription factors operating differently in distinct cis-regulatory modules, either through different protein complexes, conformational modification of protein complexes, or combinations of both.

  6. Physical interaction between the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early regulatory proteins ICP0 and ICP4.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, F; Schaffer, P A

    1994-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein ICP0 enhances expression of a spectrum of viral genes alone and synergistically with ICP4. To test whether ICP0 and ICP4 interact physically, we performed far-Western blotting analysis of proteins from mock-, wild-type-, and ICP4 mutant virus-infected cells with in vitro-synthesized [35S]Met-labeled ICP0 and ICP4 as probes. The ICP4 and ICP0 polypeptides synthesized in vitro exhibited molecular weights similar to those of their counterpa...

  7. Molecular characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Linda; Madsen, P; Moestrup, S K

    1996-01-01

    the corresponding cDNA. The gene, designated SORL1, maps to chromosome 11q 23/24 and encodes a 2214-residue type 1 receptor containing a furin cleavage site immediately preceding the N terminus determined in the purified protein. The receptor, designated sorLA-1, has a short cytoplasmic tail containing a tyrosine...... density lipoprotein receptor gene family receptors, and 3) six tandemly arranged fibronectin type III repeats also found in certain neural adhesion proteins. sorLA-1 may therefore be classified as a hybrid receptor. Northern blotting revealed specific mRNA transcripts in brain, spinal cord, and testis...

  8. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). → The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. → The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. → A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. → KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange and the failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells.

  9. Application of protein typing in molecular epidemiological investigation of nosocomial infection outbreak of aminoglycoside-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Tang, Min; Ding, Yinghuan; Wu, Zecai; Xiang, Chengyu; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Zhang; Li, Baolin; Deng, Zhenghua; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-12-16

    Pseudomonas aeruginosan has emerged as an important pathogen elated to serious infections and nosocomial outbreaks worldwide. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of aminoglycoside (AMG)-resistant P. aeruginosa in our hospital and to provide a scientific basis for control measures against nosocomial infections. Eighty-two strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from clinical departments and divided into AMG-resistant strains and AMG-sensitive strains based on susceptibility test results. AMG-resistant strains were typed by drug resistance gene typing (DRGT) and protein typing. Five kinds of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes were detected in the AMG-resistant group. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were classified into three types and six subtypes by DRGT. Four protein peaks, namely, 9900.02, 7600.04, 9101.25 and 10,372.87 Da, were significantly and differentially expressed between the two groups. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were also categorised into three types and six subtypes at the distance level of 10 by protein typing. AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa was cloned spread in our hospital; the timely implementation of nosocomial infection prevention and control strategies were needed in preventing outbreaks and epidemic of AMG-resistant P. aeruginosa. SELDI-TOF MS technology can be used for bacterial typing, which provides a new method of clinical epidemiological survey and nosocomial infection control.

  10. Deltabaculoviruses encode a functional type I budded virus envelope fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envelope fusion proteins (F proteins) are major constituents of budded viruses (BVs) of alpha- and betabaculoviruses (Baculoviridae) and are essential for the systemic infection of insect larvae and insect cells in culture. An F protein homolog gene was absent in gammabaculoviruses. Here we show tha...

  11. Porcine circovirus type 2 ORF4 protein binds heavy chain ferritin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    associated disease (PCVAD) in swine. ORF4 protein is a newly identified viral protein of PCV2 and is involved in virus-induced apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms of ORF4 protein regulation of apoptosis remain unclear, especially given ...

  12. Protein deposition in pigs as influenced by sex, type and livemass. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boars and gilts) fed ad lib. The intakes of digestible ideal protein (DIP) and deposition rates of body protein was used to calculate conversion ratios of. DIP to body protein at various Iivemasses for the different groups. The efficiency of DIP ...

  13. Probing the effects of cysteine residues on protein adsorption onto gold nanoparticles using wild-type and mutated GB3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, Kumudu; Wang, Ailin; Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Fitzkee, Nicholas; Zhang, Dongmao

    2013-09-03

    The role of cysteine residues in the protein binding kinetics and stability on gold nanoparticles (AuNP) was studied using AuNP localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in combination with an organothiol (OT) displacement method. GB3, the third IgG-binding domain of protein G, was used to model protein-AuNP adsorption. While wild-type GB3 (GB30) contains no cysteine residues, bioengineered GB3 variants containing one (GB31) and two (GB32) cysteine residues were also tested. The cysteine content has no significant effect on GB3 binding kinetics with AuNPs, and most protein adsorption occurs within the first few seconds upon protein/AuNP mixing. However, the stability of GB3 on the AuNP surface against OT displacement depends strongly on the cysteine content and the age of the AuNP/GB3 mixture. The GB30 covered AuNPs can be completely destabilized and aggregated by OTs, regardless of the age of the GB30/AuNP mixtures. Long-time incubation of GB31 or GB32 with AuNPs can stabilize AuNPs against the OT adsorption inducted aggregation. This study indicates that multiple forces involved in the GB3/AuNP interaction, and covalent binding between cysteine and AuNP is essential for a stable protein/AuNP complex.

  14. Associations of Salivary BPIFA1 Protein in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1 concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM. Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG and body mass index (BMI, were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding index (BI, and plaque index (PLI. Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations were also detected. Results. BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P=0.031. In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-α concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions. BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310.

  15. Associations of Salivary BPIFA1 Protein in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the differences in salivary BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) concentration among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with various severities of chronic periodontitis and to determine whether BPIFA1 in saliva can be used as a potential biomarker of T2DM. Methods Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 44 subjects with T2DM and 44 without T2DM (NDM). Additionally, demographic data and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FBG) and body mass index (BMI), were collected. We also detected full-mouth clinical periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding index (BI), and plaque index (PLI). Salivary BPIFA1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also detected. Results BPIFA1 in saliva was detected at relatively high levels. T2DM subjects had decreased salivary BPIFA1 concentrations (P = 0.031). In T2DM subjects with nonperiodontitis or severe periodontitis, the level of BPIFA1 was significantly lower compared with that of NDM. Salivary TNF-α concentration displayed a similar trend to BPIFA1 in the NDM group. Conclusions BPIFA1 protein is rich in saliva and might be used as a potential predictive biomarker of T2DM, especially in patients with severe periodontitis and nonperiodontitis. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010310. PMID:29109737

  16. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Na

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that regulate rhythmic physiological and behavioral changes to correspond to daily light-dark cycles. Molecular dissections have revealed that transcriptional feedback loops of the circadian clock genes drive the molecular oscillation, in which PER/CRY complexes inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to constitute a negative feedback loop. In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, rhythmic recruitment of PRMT5 and CRY1 to the Per1 gene promoter was found to be associated with an increased level of histone H4R3 dimethylation and Per1 gene repression. Consistently, decreased histone H4R3 dimethylation and altered rhythmic Per1 gene expression were observed in Prmt5-depleted cells. Taken together, these findings provide an insight into the link between histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 and transcriptional regulation of the circadian Per1 gene.

  17. GLUT4 protein expression in obese and lean 12-month-old rats: insights from different types of data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Seraphim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available GLUT4 protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT and skeletal muscle (SM was investigated in 2-month-old, 12-month-old spontaneously obese or 12-month-old calorie-restricted lean Wistar rats, by considering different parameters of analysis, such as tissue and body weight, and total protein yield of the tissue. In WAT, a ~70% decrease was observed in plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 protein, expressed as µg protein or g tissue, in both 12-month-old obese and 12-month-old lean rats compared to 2-month-old rats. However, when plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 tissue contents were expressed as g body weight, they were the same. In SM, GLUT4 protein content, expressed as µg protein, was similar in 2-month-old and 12-month-old obese rats, whereas it was reduced in 12-month-old obese rats, when expressed as g tissue or g body weight, which may play an important role in insulin resistance. Weight loss did not change the SM GLUT4 content. These results show that altered insulin sensitivity is accompanied by modulation of GLUT4 protein expression. However, the true role of WAT and SM GLUT4 contents in whole-body or tissue insulin sensitivity should be determined considering not only GLUT4 protein expression, but also the strong morphostructural changes in these tissues, which require different types of data analysis.

  18. Intracellular route and biological activity of exogenously delivered Rep proteins from the adeno-associated virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awedikian, Rafi; Francois, Achille; Guilbaud, Mickael; Moullier, Philippe; Salvetti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The two large Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, from the adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) are required for AAV-2 DNA replication, site-specific integration, and for the regulation of viral gene expression. The study of their activities is dependent on the ability to deliver these proteins to the cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. We evaluated the ability of a protein transduction domain (PTD) derived from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) TAT protein to drive the cellular internalization of exogenously delivered PTD-fused Rep68 proteins. This analysis unexpectedly revealed that recombinant Rep68 alone, in the absence of any PTD, could be endocytosed by the cells. Rep68 as the chimeric TAT-Rep68 proteins were internalized through endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles and retained in late endosomes/lysosomes with no detectable nuclear localization. In the presence of adenovirus, the Rep proteins could translocate into the nucleus where they displayed a biological activity. These findings support recent reports on the mechanism of entry of TAT-fused proteins and also revealed a new property of Rep68

  19. M protein typing of Thai group A streptococcal isolates by PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A streptococcal (GAS infections can lead to the development of severe post-infectious sequelae, such as rheumatic fever (RF and rheumatic heart disease (RHD. RF and RHD are a major health concern in developing countries, and in indigenous populations of developed nations. The majority of GAS isolates are M protein-nontypeable (MNT by standard serotyping. However, GAS typing is a necessary tool in the epidemiologically analysis of GAS and provides useful information for vaccine development. Although DNA sequencing is the most conclusive method for M protein typing, this is not a feasible approach especially in developing countries. To overcome this problem, we have developed a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP-based assay for molecular typing the M protein gene (emm of GAS. Results Using one pair of primers, 13 known GAS M types showed one to four bands of PCR products and after digestion with Alu I, they gave different RFLP patterns. Of 106 GAS isolates examined from the normal Thai population and from patients with GAS-associated complications including RHD, 95 isolates gave RFLP patterns that corresponded to the 13 known M types. Only 11 isolates gave RFLP patterns that differed from the 13 known M types. These were then analyzed by DNA sequencing and six additional M types were identified. In addition, we found that M93 GAS was the most common M type in the population studied, and is consistent with a previous study of Thai GAS isolates. Conclusion PCR-RFLP analysis has the potential for the rapid screening of different GAS M types and is therefore considerably advantageous as an alternative M typing approach in developing countries in which GAS is endemic.

  20. Engineering of a parainfluenza virus type 5 fusion protein (PIV-5 F): development of an autonomous and hyperfusogenic protein by a combinational mutagenesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, O; Durupt, F; Cartet, G; Thomas, L; Lina, B; Rosa-Calatrava, M

    2009-12-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is accomplished by fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. For the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV-5), this fusion involves an attachment protein (HN) and a class I viral fusion protein (F). We investigated the effect of 20 different combinations of 12 amino-acid substitutions within functional domains of the PIV-5 F glycoprotein, by performing cell surface expression measurements, quantitative fusion and syncytia assays. We found that combinations of mutations conferring an autonomous phenotype with mutations leading to an increased fusion activity were compatible and generated functional PIV-5 F proteins. The addition of mutations in the heptad-repeat domains led to both autonomous and hyperfusogenic phenotypes, despite the low cell surface expression of the corresponding mutants. Such engineering approach may prove useful not only for deciphering the fundamental mechanism behind viral-mediated membrane fusion but also in the development of potential therapeutic applications.

  1. Understanding the Role of Intrinsic Disorder of Viral Proteins in the Oncogenicity of Different Types of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, Elvira Regina; Giuliatti, Silvana

    2018-01-09

    Intrinsic disorder is very important in the biological function of several proteins, and is directly linked to their foldability during interaction with their targets. There is a close relationship between the intrinsically disordered proteins and the process of carcinogenesis involving viral pathogens. Among these pathogens, we have highlighted the human papillomavirus (HPV) in this study. HPV is currently among the most common sexually transmitted infections, besides being the cause of several types of cancer. HPVs are divided into two groups, called high- and low-risk, based on their oncogenic potential. The high-risk HPV E6 protein has been the target of much research, in seeking treatments against HPV, due to its direct involvement in the process of cell cycle control. To understand the role of intrinsic disorder of the viral proteins in the oncogenic potential of different HPV types, the structural characteristics of intrinsically disordered regions of high and low-risk HPV E6 proteins were analyzed. In silico analyses of primary sequences, prediction of tertiary structures, and analyses of molecular dynamics allowed the observation of the behavior of such disordered regions in these proteins, thereby proving a direct relationship of structural variation with the degree of oncogenicity of HPVs. The results obtained may contribute to the development of new therapies, targeting the E6 oncoprotein, for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases.

  2. Amidolysis of Oxirane: Effect of Protein Type, Oils, and ZnCl2 on the Rheological Properties of Cross-Linked Protein and Oxirane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amidolysis of oxirane group of epoxidized sesame, sunflower, and cottonseed oils was achieved by reaction with primary amide of millet and gluten proteins. Gluten is a coproduct of wheat starch industry and available commercially. Millet is a major part of the staple food of the semiarid region of the tropics. Gluten is a mixture of glutenins and gliadins rich in glutamine residues; however, millet is rich in glutamine and leucine. We have taken advantage of the available primary amide of glutamine for cross-linking with the oxirane of sunflower, sesame, and cottonseed oils under controlled conditions to give a resin of amidohydroxy of gluten and millet proteins. Cross-linking gave a resin with a wide range of textural properties. The texture of the resin was dependent on the source of the oxirane, the amide group, and the amount of the catalyst (ZnCl2. The thermal properties, textural, solubility, and rheological properties were determined as well as the reaction time. The data showed direct relationships between the ZnCl2, nature of oil, and protein type and the properties of the final resin. Consistently, the results pointed to similarity among the outcome of the reactions between sesame and sunflower oils. Depending on the amount of ZnCl2, the texture of the resin can range from viscose to rubbery. The reaction time was influenced by oxirane source, protein type, and catalyst and ranged from 30 min to 4 hr.

  3. The positivity of G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor is not different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayi; Yin, Yongxiang; Zhao, Min; Shen, Fang; Chen, Miaoxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-10-31

    It is well-known that the clinical outcomes are different between type 1 (estrogen dependent) and type 2 (estrogen independent) endometrial cancer. Studies have suggested that the estrogen receptor (ER) is positively correlated with endometrial cancer survival, however we previously reported that there is no difference in the positivity of ER as well as sex hormone levels between subtypes of cancer. G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor has been suggested to be negatively correlated with clinical outcomes of endometrial cancer. In this study we investigated whether the positivity of GPR30 is different between subtypes of cancer. The immunostaining of GPR30 and ER was examined and analysed in 128 cases taking into account menopausal status. Overall, 105 (82%) cases were GPR30 positive and 118 (92%) cases were ER positive. The positivity of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer (83%) was not statistically different to type 2 endometrial cancer (78%). In addition, intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer was also not different to type 2 endometrial cancer quantified by semi-quantitative analysis ( p = 0.268). Menopausal status was not associated with the positivity of GPR30 in both type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 were not correlated with the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of ER in endometrial cancer ( p = 0.689). Our data further confirm that type 2 endometrial cancer may not be completely estrogen independent, and suggest that type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer may have similar pathogenesis.

  4. In vitro availability of iron and zinc: Effects of the type, concentration and fractions of digestion products of the protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Llamas, F.; Diepenmaat-Wolters, M.G.E.; Zamora, S.

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro dialysis method was employed to determine the effect on the Fe and Zn absorption of the type (beef, pork and soyabean) and the amount (10 and 30 g/kg) of protein present. In addition, the effects of low- and high-molecular-weight (LMW and HMW respectively) digestion products were

  5. Bedside Heart Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP): Is an Early Predictive Marker of Cardiac Syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, B. M.; Yilmaz, F.; Durdu, T.; Hakbilir, O.; Ongar, M.; Ozturk, D.; Altinbilek, E.; Kavalci, C.; Turhan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between September 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, and comprised patients aged over 18 years who presented with syncope or presyncope. Patients presenting to emergency department within 4 hours of syncope or presyncope underwent a bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein test measurement. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis, Results: Of the 100 patients evaluated, 22(22 percent) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Of them, 13(59.1 percent) patients had a positive and 9(40.9 percent) had a negative heart-type fatty acid binding protein result. Consequently, the test result was 12.64 times more positive in patients with cardiac syncope compared to those without. Conclusions: Bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein, particularly at early phase of myocardial injury, reduces diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainity of cardiac origin in syncope patients. (author)

  6. Direct evidence for translational regulation by leader RNA and Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SenGupta, D. N.; Berkhout, B.; Gatignol, A.; Zhou, A. M.; Silverman, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Translational effects of the RNA leader and Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were investigated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Hybrid RNA species with natural or mutated HIV-1 leader fused to human interferon- gamma mRNA were produced in vitro from recombinant plasmids.

  7. Dss1 interaction with Brh2 as a regulatory mechanism for recombinational repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qingwen; Kojic, Milorad; Cao, Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    Brh2, the BRCA2 ortholog in Ustilago maydis, enables recombinational repair of DNA by controlling Rad51 and is in turn regulated by Dss1. Interplay with Rad51 is conducted via the BRC element located in the N-terminal region of the protein and through an unrelated domain, CRE, at the C terminus....... Mutation in either BRC or CRE severely reduces functional activity, but repair deficiency of the brh2 mutant can be complemented by expressing BRC and CRE on different molecules. This intermolecular complementation is dependent upon the presence of Dss1. Brh2 molecules associate through the region...... overlapping with the Dss1-interacting domain to form at least dimer-sized complexes, which in turn, can be dissociated by Dss1 to monomer. We propose that cooperation between BRC and CRE domains and the Dss1-provoked dissociation of Brh2 complexes are requisite features of Brh2's molecular mechanism...

  8. Typing of Typhoidal Salmonella Using Extraction of Water Soluble Whole Cell Proteins and Analysing by SDS-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yousefi Mashouf

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Salmonella is one of the most important genus of Enterobacteriacea family. The aim of this study was typing of typhoidal Salmonella by SDS-PAGE and comparing the results with those of serotyping method.Materials and Methods: In this study, 4 reference strains of Salmonella species, 5 reference strains of Enterobacteriacea family and 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella that were previously collected from laboratories of Hamadan medical centers were studied. Serotyping of strains were performed by Biomereux and Difco monovalent antisera. Whole-cell proteins of strains were also separated on 10% poly acrylamide gel. Gels were stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue and analyzed by densitometry. Results: Of 100 cases of Salmonella species, 43 cases (43% were S. typhi, 20 cases (20% were S. typhymurium, 12 cases (12% were S. para typhi B, 10 cases (10% were S. para typhi C, S. para typhi A 1 case (1% and other cases were non-typhoidal Salmonella. The results of serotyping were compared with the results obtained by SDS-PAGE. Many protein bands from 220 KDa to 18.5 KDa were detected by SDS-PAGE and they were used to differentiate the strains. S. typhi serotypes were divided into 5 sub-species and S. para typhi B and C were divided each into 3 sub-species. Protein profiles of the reference strains of Salmonella were compared with protein profiles of Enterobacteriaceae species and showed some differences in major protein bands, however, they had a very similar protein band in 43 KDa area. Conclusion: Since our data was able to divide Salmonella species to sub-types and differentiate them from Enterobacteriacea species, we concluded that analsying SDS-PAGE profile of water soluble whole-cell proteins can be used for typing of these organisms and it is comparble with serotyping, nevertheless, further researches are needed to establish SDS-PAGE method and to replace it with serotyping method.

  9. A Novel Feature Extraction Method with Feature Selection to Identify Golgi-Resident Protein Types from Imbalanced Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Lina

    2016-02-06

    The Golgi Apparatus (GA) is a major collection and dispatch station for numerous proteins destined for secretion, plasma membranes and lysosomes. The dysfunction of GA proteins can result in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate identification of protein subGolgi localizations may assist in drug development and understanding the mechanisms of the GA involved in various cellular processes. In this paper, a new computational method is proposed for identifying cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Based on the concept of Common Spatial Patterns (CSP), a novel feature extraction technique is developed to extract evolutionary information from protein sequences. To deal with the imbalanced benchmark dataset, the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) is adopted. A feature selection method called Random Forest-Recursive Feature Elimination (RF-RFE) is employed to search the optimal features from the CSP based features and g-gap dipeptide composition. Based on the optimal features, a Random Forest (RF) module is used to distinguish cis-Golgi proteins from trans-Golgi proteins. Through the jackknife cross-validation, the proposed method achieves a promising performance with a sensitivity of 0.889, a specificity of 0.880, an accuracy of 0.885, and a Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.765, which remarkably outperforms previous methods. Moreover, when tested on a common independent dataset, our method also achieves a significantly improved performance. These results highlight the promising performance of the proposed method to identify Golgi-resident protein types. Furthermore, the CSP based feature extraction method may provide guidelines for protein function predictions.

  10. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP3 is a lysophosphatidic acid-binding protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Tsukahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty-acid-binding protein 3, muscle and heart (FABP3, also known as heart-type FABP, is a member of the family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins. It is a small cytoplasmic protein with a molecular mass of about 15 kDa. FABPs are known to be carrier proteins for transporting fatty acids and other lipophilic substances from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where these lipids are released to a group of nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. In this study, using lysophosphatidic acid (LPA-coated agarose beads, we have identified FABP3 as an LPA carrier protein in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs. Administration of LPA to HCAECs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPARγ activation. Furthermore, the LPA-induced PPARγ activation was abolished when the FABP3 expression was reduced using small interfering RNA (siRNA. We further show that the nuclear fraction of control HCAECs contained a significant amount of exogenously added LPA, whereas FABP3 siRNA-transfected HCAECs had a decreased level of LPA in the nucleus. Taken together, these results suggest that FABP3 governs the transcriptional activities of LPA by targeting them to cognate PPARγ in the nucleus.

  11. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D/AUF1 interacts with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is composed of 558 amino acid residues and harbours four loosely conserved. RNP-consensus RNA-binding domains. In an attempt to characterize the interaction occurring between cellular proteins and hnRNP L, yeast two-hybrid screening was conducted using a HeLa cDNA ...

  12. Protein kinase C stimulation of phospholipid synthesis in a type II pneumocyte derived cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, M.E.; Finkelstein, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    In the Type II pneumocyte-derived cell line, A549, addition of 50 nM 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate more than doubled the rate of de novo synthesis of phophatidylcholine (PC). A similar increase was observed with the addition of the exogenous diacylglycerol, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol. These results suggest a role for the activation of protein kinase C(PKC) in the stimulation of PC biosynthesis. The modulation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidyltransferase activity was examined as the locus for TPA mediated effects. Pulse chase experiments showed TPA caused a significant increase in the rate of utilization of phosphocholine. The observed effect of TPA on CT activity may be due to its nonspecific promotion of binding of the enzyme to the endoplasmic reticulum or a specific consequence of PKC activation and phosphorylation. Preincubation of cells with Compound 48/80, an inhibitor of PKC, reduced TPA stimulation of PC synthesis by 40-45%. Incubation with 4α-phorbol 12,13 didecanoate (PDD) which does not activate PKC had little stimulatory effect. Treatment of intact cells with TPA for 60 min increased CT from 0.401 nmol/min/mg to 0.787 nmol/min/mg. Preincubation with 48/80 prior to TPA reduced the increase in CT activity over 50%. Incubation with PDD only increased CT by 17%. These results strongly suggest that the phorbol ester stimulation of phospholipid synthesis is a specific effect due to its ability to activate PKC

  13. Serum Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Levels in Patients with Overt Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Tutal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Overt hypothyroidism affects mostly women with an increasing prevalence with age. Hypothyroidism is associated with accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases possibly caused by the higher incidence of hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP is specific for cardiomyocytes and a sensitive marker of myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was examining the effect of hypothyroidism on H-FABP levels and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT. Material and Method: We measured serum H-FABP levels in 33 patients with overt hypothyroidism and age, gender, and body mass index-matched 39 control subjects. The patients were newly diagnosed with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All participants underwent high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography for the measurement of CIMT. Results: There was no significant difference in serum levels of H-FABP between the patient group and controls (1515.87±2143.0 pg/mL vs. 953.0±416.0 pg/mL, respectively; p=0.15. CIMT level was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (0.53±0.08 mm vs. 0.48±0.05 mm; p=0.02. However, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels did not differ between the two groups. Discussion: Based on the results of this study, we assume that H-FABP is not a useful marker in detecting preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with overt hypothyroidism associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, however, CIMT might be a useful marker in detecting early atherosclerosis.

  14. Structural Basis of Chaperone Recognition of Type III Secretion System Minor Translocator Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the “translocators”) are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development. PMID:20385547

  15. Temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phages expressing superinfection exclusion proteins of the Ltp type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya eAli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein Ltp encoded by temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 is the prototype of the wide-spread family of host cell surface-exposed lipoproteins involved in superinfection exclusion. When screening for other S. thermophilus phages expressing this type of lipoprotein, three temperate phages - TP-EW, TP-DSM20617 and TP-778 - were isolated. In this communication we present the total nucleotide sequences of TP-J34 and TP-778L. For TP-EW, a phage almost identical to TP-J34, besides the ltp gene only the two regions of deviation from TP-J34 DNA were analyzed: the gene encoding the tail protein causing an assembly defect in TP-J34 and the gene encoding the lysin, which in TP-EW contains an intron. For TP-DSM20617 only the sequence of the lysogeny module containing the ltp gene was determined. The region showed high homology to the same region of TP-778. For TP-778 we could show that absence of the attR region resulted in aberrant excision of phage DNA. The amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-EW was shown to be identical to that of mature LtpTP-J34, whereas the amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-778 was shown to differ from mature LtpTP-J34 in eight amino acid positions. LtpTP-DSM20617 was shown to differ from LtpTP-778 in just one amino acid position. In contrast to LtpTP-J34, LtpTP-778 did not affect infection of lactococcal phage P008 instead increased activity against phage P001 was noticed.

  16. Carboxyl terminus heterogeneity of type IV fimbrial subunit protein of Pasteurella multocida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivachandra, Sathish Bhadravati; Kumar, Abhinendra; Yogisharadhya, Revanaiah; Ramakrishnan, M A; Viswas, K N

    2013-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, known to affect a wide range of domestic as well as wild animal and avian species throughout the world by causing either systemic or localized infections termed as 'pasteurellosis'. P. multocida isolates are known to possess type IV fimbriae (pili) as one of the major virulence factors based on their role in adhesion to host surfaces and subsequent pathogenesis. In the present study, ptfA gene of Indian P. multocida isolates (n = 8) originated from different animal (buffalo, sheep, goat, pig) and avian host species (chicken, turkey, duck, quail) were amplified, cloned, sequenced and compared with available ptfA/fimbrial protein sequences in GenBank/publications (n = 22) to understand its variability with respect to geography/host/serogroup/disease specific patterns. Multiple sequence alignment revealed highly conserved N-terminus α-1 helix region and heterogeneous C-terminus (68-137 aa) comprised of β-strand regions (β1, β2, β3, β4) with conserved two pairs of cysteine residues. Interestingly, an existence of absolute homogeneity among the P. multocida isolates that caused haemorrhagic septicaemia in bovines and septicaemic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats was noticed. Pig isolates had 99.3% homogeneity. On contrary, more diversity (35.8%) was observed among isolates that caused fowl cholera in avians irrespective of identical capsular/somatic serogroup and similar host species. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of ptfA gene revealed formation of mixed clusters with isolates representing different disease conditions as well as serogroups irrespective of country of origin which indicated the possible role of cross-species transmission among different animal/avian species. The study indicated highly conserved and host specific fimbriae among animal species than relatively divergent fimbriae among avian species.

  17. Serum levels of advanced glycation endproducts and other markers of protein damage in early diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Perkins

    Full Text Available To determine the role of markers of plasma protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in microalbuminuria onset or subsequent decline of glomerular filtration rate (termed "early GFR decline" in patients with type 1 diabetes.From the 1(st Joslin Kidney Study, we selected 30 patients with longstanding normoalbuminuria and 55 patients with new onset microalbuminuria. Patients with microalbuminuria had 8-12 years follow-up during which 33 had stable GFR and 22 early GFR decline. Mean baseline GFR(CYSTATIN C was similar between the three groups. Glycation, oxidation and nitration markers were measured in protein and ultrafiltrate at baseline by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using the most reliable methods currently available.Though none were significantly different between patients with microalbuminuria with stable or early GFR decline, levels of 6 protein damage adduct residues of plasma protein and 4 related free adducts of plasma ultrafiltrate were significantly different in patients with microalbuminuria compared to normoalbuminuria controls. Three protein damage adduct residues were decreased and 3 increased in microalbuminuria while 3 free adducts were decreased and one increased in microalbuminuria. The most profound differences were of N-formylkynurenine (NFK protein adduct residue and N(ω-carboxymethylarginine (CMA free adduct in which levels were markedly lower in microalbuminuria (P<0.001 for both.Complex processes influence levels of plasma protein damage and related proteolysis product free adducts in type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The effects observed point to the possibility that patients who have efficient mechanisms of disposal of damaged proteins might be at an increased risk of developing microalbuminuria but not early renal function decline. The findings support the concept that the mechanisms responsible for microalbuminuria may differ from the mechanisms involved in the initiation of early

  18. Biological properties of coral GFP-type proteins provide clues for engineering novel optical probes and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony W.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Wiedenmann, Joerg; Szymczak, Ron; Cox, Guy C.

    2004-06-01

    In recent years, a variety of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-like pigments have been discovered from corals and other marine organisms. They are widely used to expand the range of available GFP-type proteins in imaging applications, such as in vivo markers for gene expression and protein localization studies, FRET-based (Förster resonance energy transfer) multicolor imaging and biosensors. They have known diverse optical and biochemical properties but their in vivo spectral properties and biological function in marine organisms is only beginning to be understood. We have investigated their spectral diversity, optical properties and cellular microstructure in corals of the Great Barrier Reef with the aim of elucidating their photo-biological function/s as well as to identify novel proteins suitable for GFP-based technologies. We found numerous spectral variants, with emissions covering almost the full range of the visible spectrum. Many of these GFP-like proteins, especially in corals from the more extreme habitats, such as sun-exposed shallows or in deep water, showed a range of light-related spectral characteristics: high photostability, spectral tuning for energy transfer and dynamic photo-induced transformation properties. Intra-cellularly they were organized into spectral donor-acceptor pairs or even arrays, tuned for FRET. Coral color proteins thus offer an exciting potential to expand the use of the available GFPs in bio-imaging applications and as a basis for improved protein engineering.

  19. Immunization of mice by Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as carriers of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 ORF2 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui-Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is a primary etiological agent of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which is a disease of increasing importance to the pig industry worldwide. Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs have gained increasing interest for use in vaccines. Methods To study the potential of HMSNs for use as a protein delivery system or vaccine carriers. HMSNs were synthesized by a sol–gel/emulsion(oil-in-water/ethanol method, purified PCV2 GST-ORF2-E protein was loaded into HMSNs, and the resulting HMSN/protein mixture was injected into mice. The uptake and release profiles of protein by HMSNs in vitro were investigated. PCV2 GST-ORF2-E specific antibodies and secretion of IFN-γ were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, spleen lymphocyte proliferation was measured by the MTS method, and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ were determined by flow cytometry. Results HMSNs were found to yield better binding capacities and delivery profiles of proteins; the specific immune response induced by PCV2 GST-ORF2-E was maintained for a relatively long period of time after immunization with the HMSN/protein complex. Conclusion The findings suggest that HMSNs are good protein carriers and have high potential for use in future applications in therapeutic drug delivery.

  20. Novel negatively charged tentacle-type polymer coating for on-line preconcentration of proteins in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2009-02-01

    A novel negatively charged tentacle-type polymer-coated capillary column was fabricated and applied for on-line extraction and preconcentration of proteins. The polymer coating was prepared by glycidyl-methacrylate graft polymerization in a silanized capillary column and the following sulfonic acid group functionalization. It had high surface area and offered high phase ratio for protein adsorption. In addition, the polymer-coated capillary column provided more stable EOF than a bare uncoated capillary. These features of the polymer coating facilitated the extraction of proteins through electrostatic interactions. This was used to extract proteins. The extracted analytes were then desorbed and focused by EOF in the direction opposite to the sample injection flow for subsequent CE. With this procedure, over 1500-fold sensitivity enhancement was realized for myoglobin (MB) as compared with a normal capillary zone electrophoresis. By comparison of the peak areas of the enriched protein, it was found that the polymer-coated column could capture proteins about 30 times more than the uncoated column. In addition, the separation of a protein mixture containing 0.4 microg/mL of MB and 0.4 microg/mL of insulin was demonstrated by the on-line preconcentration and electrophoretic separation with the polymer-coated column.

  1. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shortridge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function.The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI.A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in ligand binding sites. These results demonstrate the unique opportunity

  2. Differential humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination using plasmid DNA and protein recombinant expressing the NS3 protein of dengue virus type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Melgoza, M L; Ramos-Ligonio, A; Álvarez-Rodríguez, L M; Meza-Menchaca, T; López-Monteon, A

    2016-12-01

    The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus. In the present work we evaluated the potential of the NS3 (protease domain) as a protective antigen by comparing the administration of a recombinant protein versus a DNA vaccine in the mouse model. BALB/c mice were immunized with the recombinant protein NS3-DEN3 via intraperitoneal and with plasmid pcDNA3/NS3-DEN3 intramuscularly and the immune response was evaluated. The activity of T lymphocytes was analyzed by the MTT assay, and cells of mice immunized with the recombinant protein showed no activity when stimulated with the homologous protein. However, cells from mice immunized with DNA, responded to stimulation with the recombinant protein. When the expression (RT-PCR) and cytokine production (ELISA) was evaluated in the splenocytes, different behavior depending on the type of immunization was observed, splenocytes of mice immunized with the recombinant protein expressed cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 and produced high concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα. Splenocytes from mice immunized with DNA expressed IL-2 and IFNγ and did not produce IL-6. In addition, immunization with the recombinant protein induced the production of antibodies that are detected up to a dilution 1:3200 by ELISA and Western blot assays, however, the serum of mice immunized with DNA presented no detectable antibody titers. The results obtained in this study show that administration of pcDNA3/NS3-DEN3 induces a favorable response in the activation of T lymphocytes with low production of specific

  3. Type and amount of dietary protein in the treatment of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison M; Harris Jackson, Kristina A; Roussell, Michael A; West, Sheila G; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-based dietary patterns emphasizing plant protein that were evaluated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and OmniHeart trials are recommended for the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the contribution of plant protein to total protein in these diets is proportionally less than that of animal protein. Objective: This study compared 3 diets varying in type (animal compared with plant) and amount of protein on MetS criteria. Design: Sixty-two overweight adults with MetS consumed a healthy American diet for 2 wk before being randomly allocated to either a modified DASH diet rich in plant protein (18% protein, two-thirds plant sources, n = 9 males, 12 females), a modified DASH diet rich in animal protein (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet: 18.4% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 9 males, 11 females), or a moderate-protein diet (Beef in an Optimal Lean Diet Plus Protein: 27% protein, two-thirds animal sources, n = 10 males, 11 females). Diets were compared across 3 phases of energy balance: 5 wk of controlled (all foods provided) weight maintenance (WM), 6 wk of controlled weight loss (minimum 500-kcal/d deficit) including exercise (WL), and 12 wk of prescribed, free-living weight loss (FL). The primary endpoint was change in MetS criteria. Results: All groups achieved ∼5% weight loss at the end of the WL phase and maintained it through FL, with no between-diet differences (WM compared with WL, FL, P diets, P = NS). All MetS criteria decreased independent of diet composition (main effect of phase, P diets, P = NS). After WM, all groups had a MetS prevalence of 80–90% [healthy American diet (HAD) compared with WM, P = NS], which decreased to 50–60% after WL and was maintained through FL (HAD, WM vs WL, FL, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Weight loss was the primary modifier of MetS resolution in our study population regardless of protein source or amount. Our findings demonstrate that heart-healthy weight-loss dietary

  4. Effects of bioethanol plant and coproduct type on the metabolic characteristics of the proteins in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez-Ortín, W G; Yu, P

    2010-08-01

    The dramatic increase in bioethanol production in Canada has resulted in millions of tonnes of different types of coproducts: wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), corn DDGS, and blend DDGS (e.g., wheat:corn 70:30). The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the effect of DDGS type and bioethanol plant on the metabolic characteristics of the proteins and the total truly digested and absorbed protein supply to dairy cattle using the DVE/OEB system and 2) to compare the metabolic characteristics of the proteins of original feedstock grains with their respective derived DDGS samples. The results showed that all types of DDGS are a good source of the truly digested and absorbed protein in the small intestine [DVE; 107 vs. 249 g/kg of dry matter (DM) for wheat and wheat DDGS; 108 vs. 251 g/kg of DM for corn and corn DDGS]. According to the DVE/OEB system, the predicted total DVE supply to dairy cattle differed among wheat DDGS (DVE=249 g/kg of DM), corn DDGS (DVE=251 g/kg of DM), and blend DDGS (DVE=281 g/kg of DM) and, to a lesser extent, between the different bioethanol plants (DVE: 277 vs. 230 g/kg of DM for bioethanol plants 1 and 2). The results indicated the superior protein value of blend DDGS as well as that of the more optimum degraded protein balance (DPB) value for corn DDGS (DPB: 11 g/kg of DM in corn DDGS vs. 72 g/kg of DM in wheat DDGS and 55 g/kg of DM in blend DDGS). In addition, differences in the acid detergent-insoluble crude protein content of wheat DDGS samples were reflected in differing protein DVE values. In conclusion, it is inappropriate to assume fixed protein values for DDGS without considering factors such as DDGS type and bioethanol plant origin. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleic acid aptamers stabilize proteins against different types of stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetani, Hardik C; Bhadra, Ankan Kumar; Jain, Nishant Kumar; Roy, Ipsita

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed that the same osmolyte cannot provide protection to a protein exposed to more than one stress condition. We wanted to study the effect of nucleic acid aptamers on the stabilization of proteins against a variety of stress conditions. Adjuvanted tetanus toxoid was exposed to thermal, freeze-thawing, and agitation stress. The stability and antigenicity of the toxoid were measured. Using nucleic acid aptamers selected against tetanus toxoid, we show that these specific RNA sequences were able to stabilize alumina-adsorbed tetanus toxoid against thermal-, agitation-, and freeze-thawing-induced stress. Binding affinity of the aptamer-protein complex did not show any significant change at elevated temperature as compared with that at room temperature, indicating that the aptamer protected the protein by remaining bound to it under stress conditions and did not allow either the protein to unfold or to promote protein-protein interaction. Thus, we show that by changing the stabilization strategy from a solvent-centric to a protein-centric approach, the same molecule can be employed as a stabilizer against more than one stress condition and thus probably reduce the cost of the product during its formulation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate whether UL43 protein, which is highly conserved in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses, and a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein, ... Generation of recombinant viruses. For generation of HSV-1 ΔUL43, the UL43 ORF was mutagenized with synthetic oligonucleotides. HUL43-MUT for ...

  7. Dengue Virus Type 2: Protein Binding and Active Replication in Human Central Nervous System Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Isabel Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased number of dengue cases with neurological complications have been reported in recent years. The lack of reliable animal models for dengue has hindered studies on dengue virus (DENV pathogenesis and cellular tropism in vivo. We further investigate the tropism of DENV for the human central nervous system (CNS, characterizing DENV interactions with cell surface proteins in human CNS cells by virus overlay protein binding assays (VOPBA and coimmunoprecipitations. In VOPBA, three membrane proteins (60, 70, and 130 kDa from the gray matter bound the entire virus particle, whereas only a 70 kDa protein bound in white matter. The coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed three proteins from gray matter consistently binding virus particles, one clearly distinguishable protein (~32 kDa and two less apparent proteins (100 and 130 kDa. Monoclonal anti-NS3 targeted the virus protein in primary cell cultures of human CNS treated with DENV-2, which also stained positive for NeuH, a neuron-specific marker. Thus, our results indicate (1 that DENV-2 exhibited a direct tropism for human neurons and (2 that human neurons sustain an active DENV replication as was demonstrated by the presence of the NS3 viral antigen in primary cultures of these cells treated with DENV-2.

  8. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether UL43 protein, which is highly conserved in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses, and a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein, is involved in virus entry and virus-induced cell fusion. Methods: Mutagenesis was accomplished by a markerless two-step Red recombination mutagenesis system ...

  9. Porcine circovirus type 2 ORF4 protein binds heavy chain ferritin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... bands were visualized by chemiluminescence using an en- hanced ECL western blotting analysis system (Thermo). Detection of cellular protein GAPDH served as an internal control. 2.6 Confocal microscopy. To examine the intracellular distribution of ORF4 and FHC proteins, ORF4 and FTH1 genes were ...

  10. The antiviral activity of the milk protein lactoferrin against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; Floris, René; Recio, Isidra; Visser, Servaas

    2004-01-01

    Milk forms a rich source of biologically interesting components and the protein fraction is known to facilitate many different biological functions. In this manuscript, we review the antiviral properties of the milk protein lactoferrin (LF). In particular, we will describe its antiviral activity

  11. New insights into structure and function of the different types of fatty acid-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Augusta Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. They may also modulate the effect of fatty acids on various metabolic enzymes and receptors and on cellular

  12. Heterochromatin protein 1 is recruited to various types of DNA damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Dinant, Christoffel; Lans, Hannes; Stap, Jan; Wiernasz, Elzbieta; Lagerwerf, Saskia; Warmerdam, Daniël O.; Lindh, Michael; Brink, Maartje C.; Dobrucki, Jurek W.; Aten, Jacob A.; Fousteri, Maria I.; Jansen, Gert; Dantuma, Nico P.; Vermeulen, Wim; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Verschure, Pernette J.; van Driel, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family members are chromatin-associated proteins involved in transcription, replication, and chromatin organization. We show that HP1 isoforms HP1-alpha, HP1-beta, and HP1-gamma are recruited to ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in

  13. Identification of novel type 1 diabetes candidate genes by integrating genome-wide association data, protein-protein interactions, and human pancreatic islet gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Regine; Brorsson, Caroline; Palleja, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have heralded a new era in susceptibility locus discovery in complex diseases. For type 1 diabetes, >40 susceptibility loci have been discovered. However, GWAS do not inevitably lead to identification of the gene or genes in a given locus associated with dis......-cells. Our results provide novel insight to the mechanisms behind type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and, thus, may provide the basis for the design of novel treatment strategies.......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have heralded a new era in susceptibility locus discovery in complex diseases. For type 1 diabetes, >40 susceptibility loci have been discovered. However, GWAS do not inevitably lead to identification of the gene or genes in a given locus associated...... with disease, and they do not typically inform the broader context in which the disease genes operate. Here, we integrated type 1 diabetes GWAS data with protein-protein interactions to construct biological networks of relevance for disease. A total of 17 networks were identified. To prioritize...

  14. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M

    2006-01-01

    activity was detected in the deeper layers of a P. aeruginosa biofilm using a PPA3309-gfp (green fluorescent protein gene) fusion and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. This is the first description of an Anr-dependent, anaerobically induced, and functional Usp-like protein in bacteria....... the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress...... proteins (Usp). Long-term survival of a PA3309 knockout mutant by pyruvate fermentation was found drastically reduced. The oxygen-sensing regulator Anr controls expression of the PPA3309-lacZ reporter gene fusion after a shift to anaerobic conditions and further pyruvate fermentation. PA3309 expression...

  15. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D/AUF1 interacts with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In an attempt to characterize the interaction occurring between cellular proteins and hnRNP L, yeast two-hybrid screening was conducted using a HeLa cDNA library. Some of the cDNA clones were found to harbour a partial human hnRNP D/AUF1 cDNA (GeneBank accession number NM_031369). In this study, we ...

  16. Disabling a Type I-E CRISPR-Cas Nuclease with a Bacteriophage-Encoded Anti-CRISPR Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Pawluk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas adaptive immune systems are prevalent defense mechanisms in bacteria and archaea. They provide sequence-specific detection and neutralization of foreign nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. One mechanism by which phages and other mobile genetic elements are able to overcome the CRISPR-Cas system is through the expression of anti-CRISPR proteins. Over 20 different families of anti-CRISPR proteins have been described, each of which inhibits a particular type of CRISPR-Cas system. In this work, we determined the structure of type I-E anti-CRISPR protein AcrE1 by X-ray crystallography. We show that AcrE1 binds to the CRISPR-associated helicase/nuclease Cas3 and that the C-terminal region of the anti-CRISPR protein is important for its inhibitory activity. We further show that AcrE1 can convert the endogenous type I-E CRISPR system into a programmable transcriptional repressor.

  17. The human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55 kDa protein obstructs inhibition of viral replication by type I interferon in normal human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdave S Chahal

    Full Text Available Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. We reported previously that the E1B 55 kDa protein inhibits expression of a set of cellular genes that is highly enriched for those associated with anti-viral defense and immune responses, and includes many interferon-sensitive genes. The sensitivity of replication of E1B 55 kDa null-mutants to exogenous interferon (IFN was therefore examined in normal human fibroblasts and respiratory epithelial cells. Yields of the mutants were reduced at least 500-fold, compared to only 5-fold, for wild-type (WT virus replication. To investigate the mechanistic basis of such inhibition, the accumulation of viral early proteins and genomes was compared by immunoblotting and qPCR, respectively, in WT- and mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the previously described transcriptional repression activity of the E1B 55 kDa protein is to block expression of IFN- inducible genes, and hence to facilitate formation of viral replication centers and genome replication.

  18. The 2.5 Å structure of the enterococcus conjugation protein TraM resembles VirB8 type IV secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Arends, Karsten; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Christian C; Gruber, Karl; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Kropec-Huebner, Andrea; Huebner, Johannes; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-01-18

    Conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important means of spreading antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among bacteria and therefore presents a serious threat to human health. The process requires direct cell-cell contact made possible by a multiprotein complex that spans cellular membranes and serves as a channel for macromolecular secretion. Thus far, well studied conjugative type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are of Gram-negative (G-) origin. Although many medically relevant pathogens (e.g., enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci) are Gram-positive (G+), their conjugation systems have received little attention. This study provides structural information for the transfer protein TraM of the G+ broad host range Enterococcus conjugative plasmid pIP501. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the protein localizes to the cell wall. We then used opsonophagocytosis as a novel tool to verify that TraM was exposed on the cell surface. In these assays, antibodies generated to TraM recruited macrophages and enabled killing of pIP501 harboring Enteroccocus faecalis cells. The crystal structure of the C-terminal, surface-exposed domain of TraM was determined to 2.5 Å resolution. The structure, molecular dynamics, and cross-linking studies indicated that a TraM trimer acts as the biological unit. Despite the absence of sequence-based similarity, TraM unexpectedly displayed a fold similar to the T4SS VirB8 proteins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Brucella suis (G-) and to the transfer protein TcpC from Clostridium perfringens plasmid pCW3 (G+). Based on the alignments of secondary structure elements of VirB8-like proteins from mobile genetic elements and chromosomally encoded T4SS from G+ and G- bacteria, we propose a new classification scheme of VirB8-like proteins.

  19. The conjugation protein TcpC from Clostridium perfringens is structurally related to the type IV secretion system protein VirB8 from Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Corrine J; Bantwal, Radhika; Bannam, Trudi L; Rosado, Carlos J; Pearce, Mary C; Adams, Vicki; Lyras, Dena; Whisstock, James C; Rood, Julian I

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is important for the acquisition of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated the mechanism of conjugation in Gram-positive pathogens using a model plasmid pCW3 from Clostridium perfringens. pCW3 encodes tetracycline resistance and contains the tcp locus, which is essential for conjugation. We showed that the unique TcpC protein (359 amino acids, 41 kDa) was required for efficient conjugative transfer, localized to the cell membrane independently of other conjugation proteins, and that membrane localization was important for its function, oligomerization and interaction with the conjugation proteins TcpA, TcpH and TcpG. The crystal structure of the C-terminal component of TcpC (TcpC(99-359)) was determined to 1.8-Å resolution. TcpC(99-359) contained two NTF2-like domains separated by a short linker. Unexpectedly, comparative structural analysis showed that each of these domains was structurally homologous to the periplasmic region of VirB8, a component of the type IV secretion system from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bacterial two-hybrid studies revealed that the C-terminal domain was critical for interactions with other conjugation proteins. The N-terminal region of TcpC was required for efficient conjugation, oligomerization and protein-protein interactions. We conclude that by forming oligomeric complexes, TcpC contributes to the stability and integrity of the conjugation apparatus, facilitating efficient pCW3 transfer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Molecular characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Linda; Madsen, P; Moestrup, S K

    1996-01-01

    the corresponding cDNA. The gene, designated SORL1, maps to chromosome 11q 23/24 and encodes a 2214-residue type 1 receptor containing a furin cleavage site immediately preceding the N terminus determined in the purified protein. The receptor, designated sorLA-1, has a short cytoplasmic tail containing a tyrosine...... but not in several major organs. Both RAP and an antibody against a synthetic peptide derived from a sequence determined in the mature protein detected sorLA-1 in crude human brain extracts. The domain structure suggests that sorLA-1 is an endocytic receptor possibly implicated in the uptake of lipoproteins...

  1. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  2. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growt...

  3. Tetrahymena thermophila acidic ribosomal protein L37 contains an archaebacterial type of C-terminus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T S; Andreasen, P H; Dreisig, H

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear gene (L37) encoding the acidic ribosomal protein (A-protein) L37. The gene contains a single intron located in the 3'-part of the coding region. Two major and three minor transcription start points (tsp) were mapped 39 to 63...... nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon. The uppermost tsp mapped to the first T in a putative T. thermophila RNA polymerase II initiator element, TATAA. The coding region of L37 predicts a protein of 109 amino acid (aa) residues. A substantial part of the deduced aa sequence was verified...

  4. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1988-01-01

    in contact allergic patients exposed to nickel showed a dominance of polymorphonuclear granulocytes throughout the study period, while mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils were detected at a much lower quantity and with a considerable delay. Further, we studied the kinetics of the leucocyte granule...... proteins: lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate fluid in a parallel test. A significant higher flux was found for all during the second day of allergen exposure compared to contact allergic patients without allergen challenge as well as normal volunteers....... The increased protein fluxes were not accompanied by an increased flux of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in the exudate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  5. Higher urine heat shock protein 70/creatinine ratio in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Alev; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Yuruk Yildirim, Zeynep; Pehlivanoglu, Cemile; Seker, Basak; Sucu, Aysegul; Bundak, Ruveyde; Emre, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Insidious progressive renal damage caused by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) begins in childhood before it becomes manifest in adult ages. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) regulate the cell response to any hazardous factors to prevent cell structure. The aim of the study is to determine whether urine levels of HSPs increase in diabetic children with time and indicate a progressive renal injury in T1DM. Thirty-three patients with T1DM and 24 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Renal function was normal in all patients. Urine levels of HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). The results were evaluated as urine HSP/creatinine ratios (uHSP/Cr). Mean urine HSP27/Cr, HSP40/Cr, HSP60/Cr, HSP70/Cr, HSP90/Cr in patient group were significantly higher than in controls in 2012 (uHSP27/Cr 460.12 ± 217.64 versus 270.02 ± 136.83 pg/mgCr; uHSP40/Cr 180.89 ± 118.59 versus 99.44 ± 62.49 pg/mgCr; uHSP60/Cr 114.40 ± 64.91 versus 70.50 ± 43.70 pg/mgCr; uHSP70/Cr 41.17 ± 28.42 versus 16.47 ± 7.32 pg/mgCr; uHSP90/Cr 175.64 ± 102.22 versus 107.61 ± 75.85 pg/mgCr) (p  0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for uHSP70/Cr (0.957) was significantly higher than the others. Using a cutoff 22.59 pg/mgCr for uHSP70/Cr to predict of diabetic damage, sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 96%, respectively. Our results suggest that uHSP70/Cr increases over time and may indicate early phases of progressive kidney damage in diabetic children.

  6. Food emulsion type oil in water prepared with high-protein from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads flour – SHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads with a high content of protein (SHF to stabilize food emulsions type oil in water (o/w is an alternative to take advantage of the by-products of the shrimp industry. The aim of this work was to prepare food emulsion type oil in water (o/w using the SHF due to the high percentage in proteins; for this procedure a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of flour of shrimps (Penaeus vannamei heads has been done, in which a percentage of protein 51 %, moisture of 11,82 %, fat 8,52 % and 22,23 % of ash has been obtained. The base emulsions may be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. The different emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using different concentrations of palm oil (20, 30 and 40%w/w and different concentrate of SHF (0,5, 1 and 2 % w/w. Therefore, we have obtained a food emulsion stable type oil in water (O/W with 2 % w/w of SHF, which presented a behavior non-Newtonian fluid type shear-thinning and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  7. An integrated protein localization and interaction map for Potato yellow dwarf virus, type species of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindya; Kopperud, Kristin; Anderson, Gavin; Martin, Kathleen; Goodin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV; Nucleorhabdovirus type species) was determined to be 12,875 nucleotides (nt). The antigenome is organized into seven open reading frames (ORFs) ordered 3'-N-X-P-Y-M-G-L-5', which likely encode the nucleocapsid, phospho, movement, matrix, glyco and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase proteins, respectively, except for X, which is of unknown function. The ORFs are flanked by a 3' leader RNA of 149 nt and a 5' trailer RNA of 97 nt, and are separated by conserved intergenic junctions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PYDV is closely related to other leafhopper-transmitted rhabdoviruses. Functional protein assays were used to determine the subcellular localization of PYDV proteins. Surprisingly, the M protein was able to induce the intranuclear accumulation of the inner nuclear membrane in the absence of any other viral protein. Finally, bimolecular fluorescence complementation was used to generate the most comprehensive protein interaction map for a plant-adapted rhabdovirus to date.

  8. Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in patients with chronic heart failure of different functional class with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchun, P; Narizhna, A; Ryndina, N

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the dynamics of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in patients with chronic heart failure of different functional classes depending on the presence or absence of concomitant type 2 diabetes. 95 patients with chronic heart failure II - III FC were examined due to coronary heart disease who were treated at the cardiological department of the Kharkiv City Clinical Hospital № 27 (mean age 65,13±8,66 years). The first group included 52 patients with CHF with type 2 diabetes, the second - 43 CHF patients without type 2 diabetes. Research was excluded patients with acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction. 71 patients of patients had II NYHA FC, 24 patients - III FC. Among the patients of first group 40 patients were diagnosed in CHF FC II, 12 - III FC. In II group 31 patients were with CHF class II, 12 patients - with III FC. Concentration of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and fibrosis factor monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were determined by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). In patients with chronic heart failure in presence or absence of type 2 diabetes increase in the profibrotic parameter monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β were increasing in parallel with NYHA FC increasing. Presence of type 2 diabetes negatively affects the work of cytokines and markers of fibrosis, as evidenced by higher levels of interleukin-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, compared with patients without diabetes in the presence of the same NYHA FC of chronic heart failure.

  9. Effects of three different types of antifreeze proteins on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewang Lee

    Full Text Available Ovarian tissue (OT cryopreservation is effective in preserving fertility in cancer patients who have concerns about fertility loss due to cancer treatment. However, the damage incurred at different steps during the cryopreservation procedure may cause follicular depletion; hence, preventing chilling injury would help maintain ovarian function.This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of different antifreeze proteins (AFPs on mouse ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation.Ovaries were obtained from 5-week-old B6D2F1 mice, and each ovary was cryopreserved using two-step vitrification and four-step warming procedures. In Experiment I, ovaries were randomly allocated into fresh, vitrification control, and nine experimental groups according to the AFP type (FfIBP, LeIBP, type III and concentration (0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL used. After vitrification and warming, 5,790 ovarian follicles were evaluated using histology and TUNEL assays, and immunofluorescence for τH2AX and Rad51 was used to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and repair (DDR, respectively. In Experiment II, 20 mice were randomly divided into two groups: one where the vitrification and warming media were supplemented with 10 mg/mL LeIBP, and the other where media alone were used (control. Ovaries were then autotransplanted under both kidney capsules 7 days after vitrification together with the addition of 10 mg/mL LeIBP in the vitrification-warming media. After transplantation, the ovarian follicles, the percentage of apoptotic follicles, the extent of the CD31-positive area, and the serum FSH levels of the transplanted groups were compared.In Experiment I, the percentage of total grade 1 follicles was significantly higher in the 10 mg/mL LeIBP group than in the vitrification control, while all AFP-treated groups had significantly improved grade 1 primordial follicle numbers compared with those of the vitrification control. The number of apoptotic (TUNEL

  10. Amelioration of angiotensin II-induced salt-sensitive hypertension by liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Ken; Suzuki, Yusuke; Sugaya, Takeshi; Tanifuji, Chiaki; Nishiyama, Akira; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Inappropriate activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system induces generation of reactive oxygen species and tubulointerstitial inflammation, which contribute to salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHT). Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein is expressed in proximal tubules in humans, but not in rodents, and may play an endogenous antioxidative role. The objective of the present study was to examine the antioxidative effect of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein on post-angiotensin II SSHT model in transgenic mice with selective overexpression of human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules. The transgenic mice showed marked protection against angiotensin II-induced SSHT. Overexpression of tubular liver-type fatty acid-binding protein prevented intrarenal T-cell infiltration and also reduced reactive oxygen species generation, intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression. We also performed an in vitro study using the murine proximal tubular cell lines with or without recombinant liver-type fatty acid-binding protein and murine proximal tubular cell lines transfected with human liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, and found that gene transfection of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein and, in part, recombinant liver-type fatty acid-binding protein administration had significantly attenuated angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species generation and the expression of angiotensinogen and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in murine proximal tubular cell lines. These findings indicated that liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules may protect against angiotensin II-induced SSHT by attenuating activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system and reducing oxidative stress and tubulointerstitial inflammation. Present data suggest that liver-type fatty acid-binding protein in the proximal tubules may be a novel therapeutic target for SSHT.

  11. Isoforms of wild type proteins often appear as low molecular weight bands on SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Lou, Xiaomin; Shen, Haihong; Zellmer, Lucas; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D Joshua

    2014-08-01

    Immunoblotting, after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE), is a technique commonly used to detect specific proteins. SDS-PAGE often results in the visualization of protein band(s) in addition to the one expected based on the theoretical molecular mass (TMM) of the protein of interest. To determine the likelihood of additional band(s) being nonspecific, we used liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry to identify proteins that were extracted from bands with the apparent molecular mass (MM) of 40 and 26 kD, originating from protein extracts derived from non-malignant HEK293 and cancerous MDA-MB231 (MB231) cells separated using SDS-PAGE. In total, approximately 57% and 21% of the MS/MS spectra were annotated as peptides in the two cell samples, respectively. Moreover, approximately 24% and 36.2% of the identified proteins from HEK293 and MB231 cells matched their TMMs. Of the identified proteins, 8% from HEK293 and 26% from MB231 had apparent MMs that were larger than predicted, and 67% from HEK293 and 37% from MB231 exhibited smaller MM values than predicted. These revelations suggest that interpretation of the positive bands of immunoblots should be conducted with caution. This study also shows that protein identification performed by mass spectrometry on bands excised from SDS-PAGE gels could make valuable contributions to the identification of cancer biomarkers, and to cancer-therapy studies. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Identifying common metalloprotease inhibitors by protein fold types using Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer K; Pitcher, Desley; McArdle, Bernadette M; Alnefelt, Terese; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky; Quinn, Ronald J

    2007-12-01

    Fourteen natural products, known to inhibit other proteins of the Zincin-like fold class, were screened for inhibition of the Zincin-like fold metalloprotease thermolysin using mass spectrometry. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry was successful in identifying actinonin, a known inhibitor of astacin and stromelysin, to be an inhibitor of thermolysin. Molecular modelling studies have shown that specificity within the Zincin-like fold is determined by Protein Fold Topology.

  13. Effect of Solvent Type and Drying Method on Protein Retention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There appears to be a link between the pKa of the acids and the degree of chitosan–solvent interaction on the one hand, and protein retention on the other hand. Increase in elution pH from 1.2 to 5.0 did not significantly (P>0.05) affect protein retention. Furthermore, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the ...

  14. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein by aptamer-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Uda; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to detect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein using interdigitated electrodes. The measurements and images of the IDEs' finger gaps and the images of chitosan-carbon nanotubes deposited on top of the interdigitated electrodes were taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The detection of HIV-1 Tat protein was done using split aptamers and aptamer tail. Biosensors were chosen as diagnostic equipment due to their rapid diagnostic capabilities.

  15. Potassium-transporting proteins in skeletal muscle: cellular location and fiber-type differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    , but is suggested primarily to participate in K+ release to the interstitium. Because there is restricted diffusion of K+ to the interstitium, K+ released to the T-tubules during AP propagation will be removed primarily by reuptake mediated by transport proteins located in the T-tubule membrane. The most important....... The relative content of the different K+-transporting proteins differs in oxidative and glycolytic muscles, and might explain the different [K+]e tolerance observed....

  16. Tissue- and cell type-specific modification of prion protein (PrP)-like protein Doppel, which affects PrP endoproteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2011-01-07

    A prion protein (PrP)-like protein, Doppel (Dpl) is a homologue of cellular PrP (PrP(C)). Immunoblotting revealed heterogeneous glycosylation patterns of Dpl and PrP(C) in several cell lines and tissues, including brain and testis. To investigate whether the glycosylation and modification of Dpl and PrP(C) could influence each other, PrP gene (Prnp)-deficient neuronal cells, transfected with Prnp and/or the Dpl gene (Prnd), were analyzed by deglycosylation with peptide N-glycosidase F. The modification of Dpl was not influenced by PrP(C), whereas an N-terminally truncated fragment of PrP(C) was reduced by Dpl expression. These results indicated that Dpl was glycosylated in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner regardless of PrP(C), while PrP(C) endoproteolysis was modulated by Dpl expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 5'AMP activated protein kinase expression in human skeletal muscle: effects of strength training and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Frøsig, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Strength training enhances insulin sensitivity and represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may mediate adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training; however, little is known about...... adaptations within the AMPK system itself. We investigated the effect of strength training and T2DM on the isoform expression and the heterotrimeric composition of the AMPK in human skeletal muscle. Ten patients with T2DM and seven healthy subjects strength trained (T) one leg for 6 weeks, while the other leg...... remained untrained (UT). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period. Basal AMPK activity and protein/mRNA expression of both catalytic (alpha1 and alpha2) and regulatory (beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2a, gamma2b and gamma3) AMPK isoforms were independent of T2DM, whereas the protein...

  18. Type II cGMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibits the migration, invasion and proliferation of several types of human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Wu, Yan; Qian, Hai; Tao, Yan; Pang, Ji; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yongchang

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)‑dependent protein kinase (PKG II) could inhibit the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells. However, the effects of PKG II on the biological functions of other types of cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PKG II on cancer cells derived from various types of human tissues, including A549 lung, HepG2 hepatic, OS‑RC‑2 renal, SW480 colon cancer cells and U251 glioma cells. Cancer cells were infected with adenoviral constructs coding PKG II (Ad‑PKG II) to up‑regulate PKG II expression, and treated with 8‑(4‑chlorophenylthio) (8‑pCPT)‑cGMP to activate the kinase. A Cell Counting kit 8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration was measured using a Transwell assay, whereas a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'‑deoxyuridine, 5'‑triphosphate nick‑end labeling assay was used to detect cell apoptosis. A pull‑down assay was used to investigate the activation of Ras‑related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) 1 and western blotting was used to detect the expression of proteins of interest. The present results demonstrated that EGF (100 ng/ml, 24 h) promoted the proliferation and migration of cancer cells, and it suppressed their apoptosis. In addition, treatment with EGF enhanced the activation of Rac1, and up‑regulated the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP7 and B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑2, whereas it down‑regulated the expression of Bcl‑2‑associated X protein. Transfection of cancer cells with Ad‑PKG II, and PKG II activation with 8‑pCPT‑cGMP, was identified to counteract the effects triggered by EGF. The present results suggested that PKG II may exert inhibitory effects on the proliferation and migration of various types of cancer cells.

  19. Lifestyle and clinical factors associated with elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Mor, Anil; Rungby, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    % male) with newly diagnosed Type 2 DM included in the prospective nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. We assessed the prevalence of elevated CRP and calculated relative risks (RR) examining the association of CRP with lifestyle and clinical factors......BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with elevated C-reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in men and women with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) in a population-based setting. METHODS: CRP was measured in 1,037 patients (57...... showed consistent results with the full analysis. The linear regression analysis conveyed an association between high CRP and increased fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Among newly diagnosed Type 2 DM patients, 40% had elevated CRP levels. Important modifiable risk factors for elevated CRP may vary...

  20. Genetic Disruption of Protein Kinase STK25 Ameliorates Metabolic Defects in a Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Chursa, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular networks controlling ectopic lipid deposition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity is essential to identifying new pharmacological approaches to treat type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a negative regulator...... of glucose and insulin homeostasis based on observations in myoblasts with acute depletion of STK25 and in STK25-overexpressing transgenic mice. Here, we challenged Stk25 knockout mice and wild-type littermates with a high-fat diet and showed that STK25 deficiency suppressed development of hyperglycemia...... and hyperinsulinemia, improved systemic glucose tolerance, reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis, and increased insulin sensitivity. Stk25−/− mice were protected from diet-induced liver steatosis accompanied by decreased protein levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a key regulator of both lipid oxidation and synthesis. Lipid...

  1. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  2. Effects of divergent resistance exercise contraction mode and dietary supplementation type on anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Farup, Jean; Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Holm, Lars; Jessen, Niels; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-10-01

    Greater force produced with eccentric (ECC) compared to concentric (CONC) contractions, may comprise a stronger driver of muscle growth, which may be further augmented by protein supplementation. We investigated the effect of differentiated contraction mode with either whey protein hydrolysate and carbohydrate (WPH + CHO) or isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on regulation of anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Twenty-four human participants performed unilateral isolated maximal ECC versus CONC contractions during exercise habituation, single-bout exercise and 12 weeks of training combined with WPH + CHO or CHO supplements. In the exercise-habituated state, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-rpS6 increased by approximately 42, 206 and 213 %, respectively, at 1 h post-exercise, with resistance exercise per se; whereas, the phosphorylation was exclusively maintained with ECC at 3 and 5 h post-exercise. This acute anabolic signalling response did not differ between the isocaloric supplement types, neither did protein fractional synthesis rate differ between interventions. Twelve weeks of ECC as well as CONC resistance training augmented hypertrophy with WPH + CHO group compared to the CHO group (7.3 ± 1.0 versus 3.4 ± 0.8 %), independently of exercise contraction type. Training did not produce major changes in basal levels of Akt-mTOR pathway components. In conclusion, maximal ECC contraction mode may constitute a superior driver of acute anabolic signalling that may not be mirrored in the muscle protein synthesis rate. Furthermore, with prolonged high-volume resistance training, contraction mode seems less influential on the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy, whereas protein and carbohydrate supplementation augments muscle hypertrophy as compared to isocaloric carbohydrate supplementation .

  3. Does low protein concentration of tissue-type plasminogen activator predict a low risk of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J

    1995-01-01

    Many reports have demonstrated an abnormal fibrinolysis in a subset of patients with deep vein thrombosis. We have studied systemic global fibrinolytic activity and protein concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in plasma of 25...... young patients with a previous instance of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis documented by phlebography and in 50 healthy controls. The two populations were comparable with respect to a number of base-line variables (age, height, weight, etc.), while the patients had significantly lower fibrinolytic...

  4. The mechanism of dehydration in chromophore maturation of wild-type green fluorescent protein: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingying; Yu, Jian-Guo; Sun, Qiao; Li, Zhen; Smith, Sean C.

    2015-07-01

    An interesting aspect of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is its autocatalytic chromophore maturation. Numerous experimental studies have indicated that dehydration is the last step in the chromophore maturation process of wild-type GFP. Based on the crystal structure of wild-type GFP, the mechanism of the reverse reaction of dehydration was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) in this study. Our results proposed that the dehydration is exothermic. Moreover, the rate-limiting step of the mechanism is the proton on guanidinium of Arg96 transferring to the β-carbon anion of Tyr66, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  5. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Structure and RNA-binding properties of the type III-A CRISPR-associated protein Csm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrle, Ajla; Su, Andreas A H; Ebert, Judith; Benda, Christian; Randau, Lennart; Conti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    The prokaryotic adaptive immune system is based on the incorporation of genome fragments of invading viral genetic elements into clusters of regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). The CRISPR loci are transcribed and processed into crRNAs, which are then used to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The large family of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins mediates this interference response. We have characterized Methanopyrus kandleri Csm3, a protein of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas complex. The 2.4 Å resolution crystal structure shows an elaborate four-domain fold organized around a core RRM-like domain. The overall architecture highlights the structural homology to Cas7, the Cas protein that forms the backbone of type I interference complexes. Csm3 binds unstructured RNAs in a sequence non-specific manner, suggesting that it interacts with the variable spacer sequence of the crRNA. The structural and biochemical data provide insights into the similarities and differences in this group of Cas proteins.

  7. Vang-like protein 2 and rac1 interact to regulate adherens junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindqvist, M.; Horn, Z.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Schulte, G.; Papachristou, P.; Ajima, R.; Dyberg, C.; Arenas, E.; Yamaguchi, T.P.; Lagercrantz, H.; Ringstedt, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2010), s. 472-483 ISSN 0021-9533 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cell adhesion * neurulation * PCP Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.290, year: 2010

  8. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    not take place anymore. Subcellular localization experiments involving CK2 subunits and FAF1 show a co-localization of both CK2 subunits and FAF1 in the peri-nuclear cytoplasm. The majority of CK2 subunits is found in the nucleus. FAF1 is also found in the nucleoli. The results obtained further support...

  9. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    agents. Interestingly this effect is only seen in cell lines with an embryonic origin and not when cells have entered a differentiated state. It is further shown that the CK2 specific phosphorylation sites in the FAF1 molecule, i.e. serines 289 and 291 influence this complex formation. Mutation of the CK...

  10. Neurodevelopmental protein Musashi-1 interacts with the Zika genome and promotes viral replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavali, P.L.; Stojic, L.; Meredith, L.W.; Joseph, N.; Nahorski, M.S.; Sanford, T.J.; Sweeney, T.R.; Krishna, B.A.; Hosmillo, M.; Firth, A.E.; Bayliss, R.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Lindsay, S.; Goodfellow, I.; Woods, C.G.; Gergely, F.

    2017-01-01

    A recent outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil has led to a simultaneous increase in reports of neonatal microcephaly. Zika targets cerebral neural precursors, a cell population essential for cortical development, but the cause of this neurotropism remains obscure. Here we report that the neural

  11. Polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies exhibit antigenic mimicry of limited type 1 fimbrial proteins of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Paque, R E; Miller, R; Thomas, V

    1990-01-01

    Polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids)(fim) developed against idiotypes on antibodies (Ab-1s) that specifically bind structural, organelle fimbrial proteins of Escherichia coli were able to modulate immune function in anti-Id(fim)-immunized mice. Proliferation or suppression of splenic lymphoid cell responses by polyclonal anti-Ids in tissue culture appeared to be dose dependent. Anti-Ids were able to induce a dose-dependent T-cell-mediated immunity specific for type 1 fimbrial antig...

  12. The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein family in rat ovary cell types during the estrous cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Gregory F; Shimasaki, Shunichi

    2003-01-01

    Abstract In the mammalian ovary, great interest in the expression and function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family has been recently generated from evidence of their critical role in determining folliculogenesis and female fertility. Despite extensive work, there is a need to understand the cellular sites of expression of these important regulatory molecules, and how their gene expression changes within the basic ovary cell types through the cycle. Here we have performed a detailed...

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-05-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growth is uncertain. However, E7 binding to pRB inhibits binding of cellular proteins to pRB and appears to block the growth-suppressive activity of pRB. We have found that E7 also inhibits binding of pRB to DNA. A 60-kDa version of pRB (pRB60) produced in reticulocyte translation reactions or in bacteria bound quantitatively to DNA-cellulose. Recombinant E7 protein used at a 1:1 or 10:1 molar ratio with pRB60 blocked 50 or greater than 95% of pRB60 DNA-binding activity, respectively. A mutant E7 protein (E7-Ala-24) with reduced pRB60-binding activity exhibited a parallel reduction in its blocking of pRB60 binding to DNA. An E7(20-29) peptide that blocks binding of E7 protein to pRB60 restored the DNA-binding activity of pRB60 in the presence of E7. Peptide E7(2-32) did not block pRB60 binding to DNA, while peptide E7(20-57) and an E7 fragment containing residues 1 to 60 partially blocked DNA binding. E7 species containing residues 3 to 75 were fully effective at blocking pRB60 binding to DNA. These studies indicate that E7 protein specifically blocks pRB60 binding to DNA and suggest that the E7 region responsible for this property lies between residues 32 and 75. The functional significance of these observations is unclear. However, we have found that a point mutation in pRB60 that impairs DNA-binding activity also blocks the ability of pRB60 to inhibit cell growth. This correlation suggests that the DNA-binding activity of retinoblastoma proteins contributes to their biological

  14. Effects of knot type in the folding of topologically complex lattice proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; Nunes, Ana; Faísca, Patrícia F. N.

    2014-07-01

    The folding properties of a protein whose native structure contains a 52 knot are investigated by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a simple lattice model and compared with those of a 31 knot. A 52 knot embedded in the native structure enhances the kinetic stability of the carrier lattice protein in a way that is clearly more pronounced than in the case of the 31 knot. However, this happens at the expense of a severe loss in folding efficiency, an observation that is consistent with the relative abundance of 31 and 52 knots in the Protein Data Bank. The folding mechanism of the 52 knot shares with that of the 31 knot the occurrence of a threading movement of the chain terminus that lays closer to the knotted core. However, co-concomitant knotting and folding in the 52 knot occurs with negligible probability, in sharp contrast to what is observed for the 31 knot. The study of several single point mutations highlights the importance in the folding of knotted proteins of the so-called structural mutations (i.e., energetic perturbations of native interactions between residues that are critical for knotting but not for folding). On the other hand, the present study predicts that mutations that perturb the folding transition state may significantly enhance the kinetic stability of knotted proteins provided they involve residues located within the knotted core.

  15. HSPD1 interacts with IRF3 to facilitate interferon-beta induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lin

    Full Text Available The production of IFN- I (IFN-α/β is one of the earliest and most important host-protective responses. Interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 is a critical transcriptional factor in the IFN-β signaling pathway. Although significant progress has been achieved in the regulation of IRF3, the process may be more complicated than previously considered. In the present study, heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HSPD1 was identified as a novel IRF3-interacting protein. Overexpression of HSPD1 facilitated the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 and enhanced IFN-β induction induced by SeV infection. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous HSPD1 significantly inhibited the signaling pathway. Furthermore, HSPD1 enhanced activation of the IFN-β promoter mediated by RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1 and IKKε but not IRF3/5D, a mock phosphorylated form of IRF3. The present study indicated that HSPD1 interacted with IRF3 and it contributed to the induction of IFN-β.

  16. Proteome analysis reveals phosphorylation of ATP synthase beta -subunit in human skeletal muscle and proteins with potential roles in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Larsen, Peter Mose

    2003-01-01

    quantitate a large number of proteins and their post-translational modifications simultaneously and is a powerful tool to study polygenic diseases like type 2 diabetes. Using this approach on human skeletal muscle biopsies, we have identified eight potential protein markers for type 2 diabetes in the fasting...

  17. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but

  18. The fusion protein of wild-type canine distemper virus is a major determinant of persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattet, Philippe; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Zuber, BenoIt; Brunner, Jean-Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Wittek, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The wild-type A75/17 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain induces a persistent infection in the central nervous system but infects cell lines very inefficiently. In contrast, the genetically more distant Onderstepoort CDV vaccine strain (OP-CDV) induces extensive syncytia formation. Here, we investigated the roles of wild-type fusion (F WT ) and attachment (H WT ) proteins in Vero cells expressing, or not, the canine SLAM receptor by transfection experiments and by studying recombinants viruses expressing different combinations of wild-type and OP-CDV glycoproteins. We show that low fusogenicity is not due to a defect of the envelope proteins to reach the cell surface and that H WT determines persistent infection in a receptor-dependent manner, emphasizing the role of SLAM as a potent enhancer of fusogenicity. However, importantly, F WT reduced cell-to-cell fusion independently of the cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating that the fusion protein of the neurovirulent A75/17-CDV strain plays a key role in determining persistent infection

  19. Metformin activates type I interferon signaling against HCV via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Sun, Wei-Chi; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wu, Chun-Ching; Hsu, Ping-I; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2017-11-03

    Activation of the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway is essential for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Metformin can activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to reduce insulin resistance. Cross talks between AMPK and IFN signaling remain unclear. To understand the influence of metformin on the type I IFN signaling pathway and HCV infection, the full-length HCV replicon OR6 cells and the infectious HCV clones JFH1 were used to assess the anti-HCV effect of the insulin sensitizers, metformin and pioglitazone. Immunofluorescence staining and the immunoblotting of HCV viral protein demonstrated that metformin, but not pioglitazone, inhibited HCV replication in OR-6 and JFH-1-infected Huh 7.5.1 cells. Immunoblotting data showed that metformin activated the phosphorylation of STAT-1 and STAT-2 in OR-6 and JFH-1 infected Huh 7.5.1 cells. Metformin enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK, and the metformin-activated IFN signaling was down-regulated by AMPK inhibitor. After treatment of AMPK inhibitor, the level of HCV core protein decreased by metformin can be rescued. In conclusion, metformin activates type I interferon signaling and inhibits the replication of HCV via activation of AMPK.

  20. Purification and Characteriztion of the Type III Secretion System Protein from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    North America, glanders has been eradicated, but it persists in other areas. The two major bacterial virulence systems, the type III ( T3SS ) and type...major virulence systems, the type III secretion system ( T3SS ) and the type VI secretion system (T6SS). 3,4 The T3SS is found in many Gram-negative...bacteria including Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. 5–9 All pathogens that contain T3SS are of interest to the U.S

  1. Binding properties of HABA-type azo derivatives to avidin and avidin-related protein 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Susanna; Paldanius, Tiina A; Hytönen, Vesa P; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Halling, Katrin K; Huuskonen, Juhani; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Rissanen, Kari; Slotte, J Peter; Airenne, Tomi T; Salminen, Tiina A; Kulomaa, Markku S; Johnson, Mark S

    2006-10-01

    The chicken genome encodes several biotin-binding proteins, including avidin and avidin-related protein 4 (AVR4). In addition to D-biotin, avidin binds an azo dye compound, 4-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA), but the HABA-binding properties of AVR4 are not yet known. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and molecular modeling were used to analyze the binding of 15 azo molecules to avidin and AVR4. Significant differences are seen in azo compound preferences for the two proteins, emphasizing the importance of the loop between strands beta3 and beta4 for azo ligand recognition; information on these loops is provided by the high-resolution (1.5 A) X-ray structure for avidin reported here. These results may be valuable in designing improved tools for avidin-based life science and nanobiotechnology applications.

  2. Invitro Synthesis of Barley Endosperm Proteins on Wild Type and Mutant Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, A.; Ingversen, J.

    1976-01-01

    Membrane bound and free polyribosomes were isolated from 20 day old barley endosperms. Sucrose gradient analysis revealed distinct polysomal peaks up to heptamers. The isolated polysomes were active in a cell-free protein synthesizing system employing wheat germ extract. SDS-polyacrylamide gel...... electrophoresis showed that proteins with molecular weights ranging from 200,000 to 10,000 daltons were synthesized. A substantial part of the polypeptides coded for by the template associated with the membrane bound polysomes was identified as hordeins by their solubility in 55% isopropanol and by their co......-migration with native hordein on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Membrane bound endosperm polysomes from a barley mutant defective in hordein synthesis produced in the cell-free protein synthesizing system only a small amount of hordein. Conversely membrane bound polysomes from the endosperm of a mutant giving rise...

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinaa, L; Wulff, A M; Saermark, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide (aa 138-152) from HIV-1 Nef protein were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the synthetic peptide were generated by fusion between P3-X63 Ag8.653 myeloma cells and BALB/c splenocytes from...... mice immunized with the synthetic peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The hybridomas were screened and selected by ELISA with the peptide coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilized to the polystyrene surface and specificity for the peptide was confirmed by competitive ELISA...... with the peptide free in solution. The reactions of the MAbs with a 5-aa motif (WCYKL) included in the sequence were examined with synthetic peptides and two of the MAbs reacted with the motif. The recognitions of recombinant full-length Nef protein were also tested. One MAb reacted with the protein in both ELISA...

  4. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon......: The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...

  5. Identification and characterization of riproximin, a new type II ribosome-inactivating protein with antineoplastic activity from Ximenia americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Ergül; Frank, Martin; von der Lieth, Claus-W; Berger, Martin R

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the active component(s) of Ximenia americana plant material used to treat cancer in African traditional medicine. By a combination of preextraction, extraction, ion exchange and affinity chromatography, a mixture of two cytotoxic proteins was isolated. Using degenerated primers designed on the de novo sequence of two tryptic peptides from one of these proteins, a DNA fragment was amplified and the sequence obtained was used to determine the complete cDNA sequence by the RACE method. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling showed that the new protein, riproximin, belongs to the family of type II ribosome inactivating proteins. These results are in good agreement with the ability of riproximin to inhibit protein synthesis in a cell-free system, as well as with the cytotoxicity of riproximin, as demonstrated by its IC50 value of 0.5 pM in MCF7, 1.1 pM in HELA and 0.6 pM in CC531-lacZ cells. To assess the antineoplastic efficacy of the purified riproximin in vivo, the CC531-lacZ colorectal cancer rat metastasis model was used. Significant anticancer activity was found after administration of total dosages of 100 (perorally) and 10 (intraperitoneally) pmol riproximin/kg. These results suggest that riproximin has distinct potential for cancer treatment.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gis2 interacts with the translation machinery and is orthogonal to myotonic dystrophy type 2 protein ZNF9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Morgan A; Samir, Parimal; Link, Andrew J

    2011-03-04

    The myotonic dystrophy type 2 protein ZNF9/CNBP is a small nucleic acid binding protein proposed to act as a regulator of transcription and translation. The precise functions and activity of this protein are poorly understood. Previous studies suggested that ZNF9 regulates translation and facilitates the process of cap-independent translation through interactions with mRNA and the translating ribosome. To help determine the role played by ZNF9 in the activation of translation initiation, we combined genetic and biochemical analysis of the putative ZNF9 ortholog GIS2, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification of the Gis2p protein followed by mass spectrometry based-proteomic analysis identified a large number of co-purifying ribosomal subunits and translation factors, strongly suggesting that Gis2p interacts with the protein translation machinery. Polysome profiling and ribosome isolation experiments confirm that Gis2p physically interacts with the translating ribosome. Interestingly, expression of yeast Gis2p in HEK293T cells activates cap-independent translation driven by the 5'UTR of the ODC gene. These data suggest that Gis2 is functionally orthologous to ZNF9 and acts as a cap-independent translation factor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dairy foods and dairy proteins in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasin, Gonca; Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health concern affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide and costing the global economy hundreds of billions of dollars annually. This chronic disease damages the blood vessels and increases the risk of other cardiometabolic ailments such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. If left unmanaged it can also lead to nerve damage, kidney damage, blindness, and amputation. For the most part, many of these symptoms can be prevented or reduced through simple dietary modifications and proper nutrition. Therefore, identifying relatively inexpensive and easily implementable dietary modifications for the prevention and management of T2DM is of considerable value to human health and healthcare modalities around the globe. Protein-rich dairy products have consistently been shown in epidemiologic studies to be beneficial for reducing the risk of developing T2DM. The clinical evidence regarding both dairy foods and dairy proteins (i.e., casein and whey protein) have shown promise for improving insulin secretion in individuals with T2DM. However, the clinical research on dairy protein supplementation in subjects with T2DM has been limited to acute studies. These studies have been mostly descriptive and have not been focused on important T2DM endpoints such as prevention, management, or treatment. Long-term studies are clearly needed to help researchers and medical professionals better understand the effects of consistent dairy protein intake on the metabolic health of humans with T2DM. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. BipC, a Predicted Burkholderia pseudomallei Type 3 Secretion System Translocator Protein with Actin Binding Activity

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    Charles W. Vander Broek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. Like other clinically important Gram-negative bacteria, fundamental to B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is the Bsa Type III Secretion System. The Bsa system injects bacterial effector proteins into the cytoplasm of target host cells subverting cellular pathways for the benefit of the bacteria. It is required for invasion of non-phagocytic host cells, escape from the endocytic compartment into the host cell cytoplasm, and for virulence in murine models of melioidosis. We have recently described the repertoire of effector proteins secreted by the B. pseudomallei Bsa system, however the functions of many of these effector proteins remain an enigma. One such protein is BipC, a homolog of the translocator/effector proteins SipC and IpaC from Salmonella spp. and Shigella flexneri respectively. SipC and IpaC each have separate and distinct roles acting both as translocators, involved in creating a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane through which effector proteins can transit, and as effectors by interacting with and polymerizing host cell actin. In this study, pull-down assays demonstrate an interaction between BipC and actin. Furthermore, we show that BipC directly interacts with actin, preferentially with actin polymers (F-actin and has the ability to polymerize actin in a similar manner as that described for SipC. Yet unlike SipC, BipC does not stabilize F-actin filaments, indicating a functionally distinct interaction with actin. Expression of Myc-tagged BipC in HeLa cells induces the formation of pseudopodia similar to that seen for IpaC. This study explores the effector function of BipC and reveals that actin interaction is conserved within the BipC/SipC/IpaC family of translocator/effector proteins.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 Early-expressed Proteins Differentially Modulate the Cellular Redox State and DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gregorio, Alfredo; Manzo-Merino, Joaquín; Gonzaléz-García, María Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Sastre, María Alexandra; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; Lizano, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a risk factor for cervical cancer development. However, few studies have evaluated the redox state associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of this work was to determine the role of the early expressed viral proteins E1, E2, E6 and E7 from HPV types 16 and 18 in the modulation of the redox state in an integral form. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), levels and activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, were analysed in epithelial cells ectopically expressing the viral proteins. Our research shows that E6 oncoproteins decreased GSH and catalase protein levels, as well as its enzymatic activity, which was associated with an increase in ROS production and DNA damage. In contrast, E7 oncoproteins increased GSH, as well as catalase protein levels and its activity, which correlated with a decrease in ROS without affecting DNA integrity. The co-expression of both E6 and E7 oncoproteins neutralized the effects that were independently observed for each of the viral proteins. Additionally, the combined expression of E1 and E2 proteins increased ROS levels with the subsequent increase in the marker for DNA damage phospho-histone 2AX (γH2AX). A decrease in GSH, as well as SOD2 levels and activity were also detected in the presence of E1 and E2, even though catalase activity increased. This study demonstrates that HPV early expressed proteins differentially modulate cellular redox state and DNA damage. PMID:29483822

  10. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

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    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity

  11. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  12. TRIM32 protein modulates type I interferon induction and cellular antiviral response by targeting MITA/STING protein for K63-linked ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Hu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Yan-Yi; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2012-08-17

    Viral infection activates several transcription factors including NF-κB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and innate antiviral response. MITA (also called STING) is a critical adaptor protein that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation upon infection by both RNA and DNA pathogens. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) ubiquitinated MITA and dramatically enhanced MITA-mediated induction of IFN-β. Overexpression of TRIM32 potentiated virus-triggered IFNB1 expression and cellular antiviral response. Consistently, knockdown of TRIM32 had opposite effects. TRIM32 interacted with MITA, and was located at the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. TRIM32 targeted MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination at K20/150/224/236 through its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, which promoted the interaction of MITA with TBK1. These findings suggest that TRIM32 is an important regulatory protein for innate immunity against both RNA and DNA viruses by targeting MITA for K63-linked ubiquitination and downstream activation.

  13. Loss of prion protein induces a primed state of type I interferon-responsive genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malachin, Giulia; Reiten, Malin R.; Salvesen, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the Pr...

  14. Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Brain Myristoyl-CoA:Protein N-Myristoyltransferase Type 2

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    Ponniah Selvakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein N-myristoylation is a lipidic modification which refers to the covalent attachment of myristate, a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, to the N-terminal glycine residue of a number of mammalian, viral, and fungal proteins. In this paper, we have cloned the gene coding for myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT from Bos tarus brain. The open reading frame codes for a 410-amino-acid protein and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Kinetic studies suggested that bovine brain NMT2 and human NMT1 show significant differences in their peptide substrate specificities. The metal ion Ca2+ had stimulatory effects on NMT2 activity while Mn2+ and Zn2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. In addition, NMT2 activity was inhibited by various organic solvents and other detergents while NMT1 had a stimulatory effect. Biochemical characterization suggested that both forms of NMT have unique characteristics. Further analysis towards functional role NMT2 will lead the development of therapeutic target for the progression of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Effect of Plasmid Design and Type of Integration Event on Recombinant Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Thomas; Gebbie, Leigh; Palfreyman, Robin W; Speight, Robert

    2018-03-15

    Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii ) is one of the most common eukaryotic expression systems for heterologous protein production. Expression cassettes are typically integrated in the genome to obtain stable expression strains. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae , where short overhangs are sufficient to target highly specific integration, long overhangs are more efficient in P. pastoris and ectopic integration of foreign DNA can occur. Here, we aimed to elucidate the influence of ectopic integration by high-throughput screening of >700 transformants and whole-genome sequencing of 27 transformants. Different vector designs and linearization approaches were used to mimic the most common integration events targeted in P. pastoris Fluorescence of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter protein was highly uniform among transformants when the expression cassettes were correctly integrated in the targeted locus. Surprisingly, most nonspecifically integrated transformants showed highly uniform expression that was comparable to specific integration, suggesting that nonspecific integration does not necessarily influence expression. However, a few clones (integrated cassettes showed a greater variation spanning a 25-fold range, surpassing specifically integrated reference strains up to 6-fold. High-expression strains showed a correlation between increased gene copy numbers and high reporter protein fluorescence levels. Our results suggest that for comparing expression levels between strains, the integration locus can be neglected as long as a sufficient numbers of transformed strains are compared. For expression optimization of highly expressible proteins, increasing copy number appears to be the dominant positive influence rather than the integration locus, genomic rearrangements, deletions, or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). IMPORTANCE Yeasts are commonly used as biotechnological production hosts for proteins and metabolites. In the yeast

  16. Drosophila proteins involved in metabolism of uracil-DNA possess different types of nuclear localization signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merényi, Gábor; Kónya, Emese; Vértessy, Beáta G

    2010-05-01

    Adequate transport of large proteins that function in the nucleus is indispensable for cognate molecular events within this organelle. Selective protein import into the nucleus requires nuclear localization signals (NLS) that are recognized by importin receptors in the cytoplasm. Here we investigated the sequence requirements for nuclear targeting of Drosophila proteins involved in the metabolism of uracil-substituted DNA: the recently identified uracil-DNA degrading factor, dUTPase, and the two uracil-DNA glycosylases present in Drosophila. For the uracil-DNA degrading factor, NLS prediction identified two putative NLS sequences [PEKRKQE(320-326) and PKRKKKR(347-353)]. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis using YFP reporter constructs showed that only one of these basic stretches is critically required for efficient nuclear localization in insect cells. This segment corresponds to the well-known prototypic NLS of SV40 T-antigen. An almost identical NLS segment is also present in the Drosophila thymine-DNA glycosylase, but no NLS elements were predicted in the single-strand-specific monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog protein. This latter protein has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, which may allow NLS-independent transport. For Drosophila dUTPase, two isoforms with distinct features regarding molecular mass and subcellular distribution were recently described. In this study, we characterized the basic PAAKKMKID(10-18) segment of dUTPase, which has been predicted to be a putative NLS by in silico analysis. Deletion studies, using YFP reporter constructs expressed in insect cells, revealed the importance of the PAA(10-12) tripeptide and the ID(17-18) dipeptide, as well as the role of the PAAK(10-13) segment in nuclear localization of dUTPase. We constructed a structural model that shows the molecular basis of such recognition in three dimensions.

  17. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jer-Chuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5% had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels (P<0.001 than those without MetS. Female DM persons had higher A-FABP level than man (P<0.001. No statistically significant differences in A-FABP levels were found in use of statin, fibrate, or antidiabetic drugs. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that body fat mass (P<0.001, logarithmically transformed creatinine (log-creatinine; P<0.001, female DM patients (P<0.001, and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P=0.013 were positively correlated, while albumin (P=0.004 and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.043 were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients.

  18. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jer-Chuan; Wu, Du-An; Hou, Jia-Sian; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Chen, Hsin-Dean; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5%) had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels ( P creatinine (log-creatinine; P < 0.001), female DM patients ( P < 0.001), and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P = 0.013) were positively correlated, while albumin ( P = 0.004) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P = 0.043) were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients.

  19. Antigen sequence typing of outer membrane protein (fetA gene of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A from Delhi & adjoining areas

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    S Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a fatal disease. Meningococcal meningitis is an endemic disease in Delhi and irregular pattern of outbreaks has been reported in India. All these outbreaks were associated with serogroup A. Detailed molecular characterization of N. meningitidis is required for the management of this fatal disease. In this study, we characterized antigenic diversity of surface exposed outer membrane protein (OMP FetA antigen of N. meningitidis serogroup A isolates obtained from cases of invasive meningococcal meningitis in Delhi, India. Methods: Eight isolates of N. meningitidis were collected from cerebrospinal fluid during October 2008 to May 2011 from occasional cases of meningococcal meningitis. Seven isolates were from outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in 2005-2006 in Delhi and its adjoining areas. These were subjected to molecular typing of fetA gene, an outer membrane protein gene. Results: All 15 N. meningitides isolates studied were serogroup A. This surface exposed porin is putatively under immune pressure. Hence as a part of molecular characterization, genotyping was carried out to find out the diversity in outer membrane protein (FetA gene among the circulating isolates of N. meningitidis. All 15 isolates proved to be of the same existing allele type of FetA variable region (VR when matched with global database. The allele found was F3-1 for all the isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: There was no diversity reported in the outer membrane protein FetA in the present study and hence this protein appeared to be a stable molecule. More studies on molecular characterization of FetA antigen are required from different serogroups circulating in different parts of the world.

  20. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  1. Systematic review of the impact of feed protein type and degree of hydrolysis on gastric emptying in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan; Foong, Ru-Xin Melanie; Thapar, Nikhil; Kritas, Stamatiki; Shah, Neil

    2015-10-15

    The choice of infant formula is thought to play an important role on gastric emptying (GE) in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. It is known that many ingredients impact on GE, including the type of protein and level of hydrolysis. In clinical practice, feeds are often recommended due to putative improved GE related to the type of protein and level of hydrolysis, however whether this is scientifically justified still needs to be established. A systematic review comparing the impact of protein type and hydrolysis on GE in children was therefore performed. The Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome system was used. A structured literature search was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, searching PubMed, Cochrane databases and Google Scholar from 1990 to 2014. We only included articles published in full text English language using specific search terms, including both scintigraphy and C13-octanoic acid breath test. We identified 126 publications of which 20 were eligible for inclusion but only 8 were included. Studies reviewed GE in both healthy children as well as those with neurodevelopmental delay and reflux. Two studies investigating GE of breast milk versus formula indicated a faster GE for breast milk. Four studies found that feeds containing whole whey in varying amounts emptied faster than predominant whole casein feeds and one study found no difference in GE. Five studies investigated a mix of whole versus hydrolysed protein and found conflicting results related to study population and hydrolysis. Breast milk has a faster GE than formula milk. Although there seems to be a trend towards whey feeds emptying faster, different methodologies, feed compositions and patient groups makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Future studies should be performed with comparable feeds in populations where increased GE may be of clinical benefit.

  2. A substrate-fusion protein is trapped inside the Type III Secretion System channel in Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dohlich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Type III Secretion System (T3SS is a macromolecular complex used by Gram-negative bacteria to secrete effector proteins from the cytoplasm across the bacterial envelope in a single step. For many pathogens, the T3SS is an essential virulence factor that enables the bacteria to interact with and manipulate their respective host. A characteristic structural feature of the T3SS is the needle complex (NC. The NC resembles a syringe with a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and a long needle-like structure that protrudes from the bacterium. Based on the paradigm of a syringe-like mechanism, it is generally assumed that effectors and translocators are unfolded and secreted from the bacterial cytoplasm through the basal body and needle channel. Despite extensive research on T3SS, this hypothesis lacks experimental evidence and the mechanism of secretion is not fully understood. In order to elucidate details of the T3SS secretion mechanism, we generated fusion proteins consisting of a T3SS substrate and a bulky protein containing a knotted motif. Because the knot cannot be unfolded, these fusions are accepted as T3SS substrates but remain inside the NC channel and obstruct the T3SS. To our knowledge, this is the first time substrate fusions have been visualized together with isolated NCs and we demonstrate that substrate proteins are secreted directly through the channel with their N-terminus first. The channel physically encloses the fusion protein and shields it from a protease and chemical modifications. Our results corroborate an elementary understanding of how the T3SS works and provide a powerful tool for in situ-structural investigations in the future. This approach might also be applicable to other protein secretion systems that require unfolding of their substrates prior to secretion.

  3. The Xanthomonas euvesicatoria type III effector XopAU is an active protein kinase that manipulates plant MAP kinase signaling.

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    Doron Teper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato. Xe delivers effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion system to promote disease. Here, we show that the Xe effector XopAU, which is conserved in numerous Xanthomonas species, is a catalytically active protein kinase and contributes to the development of disease symptoms in pepper plants. Agrobacterium-mediated expression of XopAU in host and non-host plants activated typical defense responses, including MAP kinase phosphorylation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and elicitation of cell death, that were dependent on the kinase activity of the effector. XopAU-mediated cell death was not dependent on early signaling components of effector-triggered immunity and was also observed when the effector was delivered into pepper leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, but not by Xe. Protein-protein interaction studies in yeast and in planta revealed that XopAU physically interacts with components of plant immunity-associated MAP kinase cascades. Remarkably, XopAU directly phosphorylated MKK2 in vitro and enhanced its phosphorylation at multiple sites in planta. Consistent with the notion that MKK2 is a target of XopAU, silencing of the MKK2 homolog or overexpression of the catalytically inactive mutant MKK2K99R in N. benthamiana plants reduced XopAU-mediated cell death and MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, yeast co-expressing XopAU and MKK2 displayed reduced growth and this phenotype was dependent on the kinase activity of both proteins. Together, our results support the conclusion that XopAU contributes to Xe disease symptoms in pepper plants and manipulates host MAPK signaling through phosphorylation and activation of MKK2.

  4. Genetic parameters for linear type traits and milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cows in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  5. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY, fat yield (FY and protein yield (PY in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms, common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29 with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30 with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  6. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly...

  7. G protein-independent effects of the Angiotensin II type I receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund

    2010-01-01

    involveret i regulering af genekspression. Alligevel observerer vi at SII Ang II markant potentierer Isoproterenol og den β-adrenerge receptors evne til at inducere transkription, hvilket kan tyde på at G protein uafhængig signalering har en modulatorisk rolle i regulering af genekspression. Studierne der...... uafhængig signalering ikke har en selvstændig inducerende men måske en modulatorisk rolle i regulering af gentranskription....

  8. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  9. Activities of Fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae Type II Topoisomerases Purified as Recombinant Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Ian; George, John

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase have been purified from a fluoroquinolone-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae strain, from first-step mutants showing low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin, and from two clinical isolates showing intermediate- and high-level fluoroquinolone resistance by a gene cloning method that produces recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxac...

  10. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidat...

  11. Role of Tax protein in human T-cell leukemia virus type-I leukemogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboud Mordechai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL, the neurological syndrome TSP/HAM and certain other clinical disorders. The viral Tax protein is considered to play a central role in the process leading to ATL. Tax modulates the expression of many viral and cellular genes through the CREB/ATF-, SRF- and NF-κB-associated pathways. In addition, Tax employs the CBP/p300 and p/CAF co-activators for implementing the full transcriptional activation competence of each of these pathways. Tax also affects the function of various other regulatory proteins by direct protein-protein interaction. Through these activities Tax sets the infected T-cells into continuous uncontrolled replication and destabilizes their genome by interfering with the function of telomerase and topoisomerase-I and by inhibiting DNA repair. Furthermore, Tax prevents cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that would otherwise be induced by the unrepaired DNA damage and enables, thereby, accumulation of mutations that can contribute to the leukemogenic process. Together, these capacities render Tax highly oncogenic as reflected by its ability to transform rodent fibroblasts and primary human T-cells and to induce tumors in transgenic mice. In this article we discuss these effects of Tax and their apparent contribution to the HTLV-1 associated leukemogenic process. Notably, however, shortly after infection the virus enters into a latent state, in which viral gene expression is low in most of the HTLV-1 carriers' infected T-cells and so is the level of Tax protein, although rare infected cells may still display high viral RNA. This low Tax level is evidently insufficient for exerting its multiple oncogenic effects. Therefore, we propose that the latent virus must be activated, at least temporarily, in order to elevate Tax to its effective level and that during this transient activation state the infected cells may acquire some oncogenic mutations which can enable them to

  12. Protein crystals in Adenovirus type 5-infected cells: requirements for intranuclear crystallogenesis, structural and functional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Franqueville

    Full Text Available Intranuclear crystalline inclusions have been observed in the nucleus of epithelial cells infected with Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 at late steps of the virus life cycle. Using immuno-electron microscopy and confocal microscopy of cells infected with various Ad5 recombinants modified in their penton base or fiber domains, we found that these inclusions represented crystals of penton capsomers, the heteromeric capsid protein formed of penton base and fiber subunits. The occurrence of protein crystals within the nucleus of infected cells required the integrity of the fiber knob and part of the shaft domain. In the knob domain, the region overlapping residues 489-492 in the FG loop was found to be essential for crystal formation. In the shaft, a large deletion of repeats 4 to 16 had no detrimental effect on crystal inclusions, whereas deletion of repeats 8 to 21 abolished crystal formation without altering the level of fiber protein expression. This suggested a crucial role of the five penultimate repeats in the crystallisation process. Chimeric pentons made of Ad5 penton base and fiber domains from different serotypes were analyzed with respect to crystal formation. No crystal was found when fiber consisted of shaft (S from Ad5 and knob (K from Ad3 (heterotypic S5-K3 fiber, but occurred with homotypic S3K3 fiber. However, less regular crystals were observed with homotypic S35-K35 fiber. TB5, a monoclonal antibody directed against the Ad5 fiber knob was found by immunofluorescence microscopy to react with high efficiency with the intranuclear protein crystals in situ. Data obtained with Ad fiber mutants indicated that the absence of crystalline inclusions correlated with a lower infectivity and/or lower yields of virus progeny, suggesting that the protein crystals might be involved in virion assembly. Thus, we propose that TB5 staining of Ad-infected 293 cells can be used as a prognostic assay for the viability and productivity of fiber-modified Ad5

  13. The Structure of the Poxvirus A33 Protein Reveals a Dimer of Unique C-Type Lectin-Like Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Singh, Kavita; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Garboczi, David N. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The current vaccine against smallpox is an infectious form of vaccinia virus that has significant side effects. Alternative vaccine approaches using recombinant viral proteins are being developed. A target of subunit vaccine strategies is the poxvirus protein A33, a conserved protein in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae that is expressed on the outer viral envelope. Here we have determined the structure of the A33 ectodomain of vaccinia virus. The structure revealed C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) that occur as dimers in A33 crystals with five different crystal lattices. Comparison of the A33 dimer models shows that the A33 monomers have a degree of flexibility in position within the dimer. Structural comparisons show that the A33 monomer is a close match to the Link module class of CTLDs but that the A33 dimer is most similar to the natural killer (NK)-cell receptor class of CTLDs. Structural data on Link modules and NK-cell receptor-ligand complexes suggest a surface of A33 that could interact with viral or host ligands. The dimer interface is well conserved in all known A33 sequences, indicating an important role for the A33 dimer. The structure indicates how previously described A33 mutations disrupt protein folding and locates the positions of N-linked glycosylations and the epitope of a protective antibody.

  14. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-02-26

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution.

  15. A novel Dps-type protein from insect gut bacteria catalyses hydrolysis and synthesis of N-acyl amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Liyan; Büchler, Rita; Mithöfer, Axel; Svatos, Ales; Spiteller, Dieter; Dettner, Konrad; Gmeiner, Sophie; Piel, Jörn; Schlott, Bernhard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2007-06-01

    A novel type of a microbial N-acyl amino acid hydrolase (AAH) from insect gut bacteria was purified, cloned and functionally characterized. The enzyme was obtained from Microbacterium arborescens SE14 isolated from the foregut of larvae of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera exigua. The substrates of AAH are N-acyl-glutamines previously reported to elicit plant defence reactions after introduction into the leaf during feeding. The isolated AAH catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond (K(m) = 36 micromol l(-1)) and, less efficient, the formation (K(m) = 3 mmol l(-1)) of the elicitor active N-acyl amino acids. The AAH from M. arborescens SE14 shows no homology to known fatty acyl amidases (EC 3.5.1.4) but belongs to the family of Dps proteins (DNA-binding protein from starved cell). In line with other DPS proteins AAH is a homododecamer (monomer 17 181 Da) and contains iron atoms (c. 1-16 iron atoms per subunit). Unlike genuine DPS proteins the enzyme does not significantly bind DNA. Amino acid hydrolase is the first member of the DPS family that catalyses the cleavage or formation of amide bonds. The participation of a microbial enzyme in the homeostasis of N-acyl-glutamines in the insect gut adds further complexity to the interaction between plants and their herbivores.

  16. Peanut allergen Ara h 1 interacts with proanthocyanidins into higher molecular weight complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mildly extracted peanut allergen Ara h 1 was previously reported to occur as an oligomeric complex. In this paper we describe how the protein in this oligomeric complex interacts noncovalently with phenolic compounds of the proanthocyanidin type. These interactions are being disrupted during anion

  17. Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 Interacts with Proanthocyanidins into Higher Molecular Weight Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mildly extracted peanut allergen Ara h 1 was previously reported to occur as an oligomeric complex. In this paper we describe how the protein in this oligomeric complex interacts noncovalently with phenolic compounds of the proanthocyanidin type. These interactions are being disrupted during anion

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Interaction with Myeloid Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Lawler, Clara; Milho, Ricardo; Stevenson, Philip G

    2016-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) enters mice via olfactory epithelial cells and then colonizes the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Most TG nerve endings are subepithelial, so this colonization implies subepithelial viral spread, where myeloid cells provide an important line of defense. The outcome of infection of myeloid cells by HSV-1 in vitro depends on their differentiation state; the outcome in vivo is unknown. Epithelial HSV-1 commonly infected myeloid cells, and Cre-Lox virus marking showed nose and lung infections passing through LysM-positive (LysM(+)) and CD11c(+) cells. In contrast, subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) exposed to lymph-borne HSV-1 were permissive only when type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling was blocked; normally, their infection was suppressed. Thus, the outcome of myeloid cell infection helped to determine the HSV-1 distribution: subepithelial myeloid cells provided a route of spread from the olfactory epithelium to TG neurons, while SSMs blocked systemic spread. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects most people and can cause severe disease. This reflects its persistence in nerve cells that connect to the mouth, nose, eye, and face. Established infection seems impossible to clear. Therefore, we must understand how it starts. This is difficult in humans, but mice show HSV-1 entry via the nose and then spread to its preferred nerve cells. We show that this spread proceeds in part via myeloid cells, which normally function in host defense. Myeloid infection was productive in some settings but was efficiently suppressed by interferon in others. Therefore, interferon acting on myeloid cells can stop HSV-1 spread, and enhancing this defense offers a way to improve infection control. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Attenuated Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus as a bacterial vector for expression of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zigong; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Xiaohong; Chen, Yaosheng

    2012-07-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection and other concurrent factors is associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is becoming a major problem for the swine industry worldwide. Coinfection of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) and PCV2 in swine has necessitated demand for a recombinant vaccine against these two pathogens. A recombinant SEZ-Cap strain expressing the major immunogenic capsid protein of PCV2 in place of the szp gene of acapsular SEZ C55138 ΔhasB was constructed. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses indicated that the capsid protein is expressed on the surface of the recombinant strain. Experiments in mice demonstrated that strain SEZ-Cap was less virulent than the parental strain and that it induced significant anti-PCV2 antibodies when administered intraperitoneally, which is worthy of further investigation in swine. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, contains a new type of lipid-like post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Lerche, Mathilde H.; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2001-01-01

    the formation of cutin and involvement in stress and pathogen responses, but there is yet no direct demonstration of an in vivo function. We have found and characterized a novel post-translational modification of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein, LTP1. The protein-modification bond is of a new type...... in which an aspartic acid in LTP1 is bound to the modification through what most likely is an ester bond. The chemical structure of the modification has been characterized by means of two-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry and is found...... to be lipid-like in nature. The modification does not resemble any standard lipid post-translational modification but is similar to a compound with known antimicrobial activity....

  1. Functional roles and clinical values of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 in different types of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güllü, Gökçe; Karabulut, Sevgi; Akkiprik, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins(IGFBPs) are critical regulators of the mitogenic activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5, one of these IGFBPs, has special structural features, including a nuclear transport domain, heparin-binding motif, and IGF/extracellular matrix/acid-labile subunit-binding sites. Furthermore, IGFBP5 has several functional effects on carcinogenesis and even normal cell processes, such as cell growth, death, motility, and tissue remodeling. These biological effects are sometimes related with IGF (IGF-dependent effects) and sometimes not (IGF-independent effects). The functional role of IGFBP5 is most likely determined in a cell-type and tissue-type specific manner but also depends on cell context, especially in terms of the diversity of interacting proteins and the potential for nuclear localization. Clinical findings show that IGFBP5 has the potential to be a useful clinical biomarker for predicting response to therapy and clinical outcome of cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the functional diversity and clinical importance of IGFBP5 in different types of cancers.

  2. SepD/SepL-dependent secretion signals of the type III secretion system translocator proteins in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; Li, Yuling; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-04-01

    The type III protein secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for the pathogenesis of attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. These pathogens use the T3SS to sequentially secrete three categories of proteins: the T3SS needle and inner rod protein components; the EspA, EspB, and EspD translocators; and many LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. SepD and SepL are essential for translocator secretion, and mutations in either lead to hypersecretion of effectors. However, how SepD and SepL control translocator secretion and secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors is poorly understood. In this report, we show that the secreted T3SS components, the translocators, and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors all carry N-terminal type III secretion and translocation signals. These signals all behave like those of the effectors and are sufficient for mediating type III secretion and translocation by wild-type EPEC and hypersecretion by the sepD and sepL mutants. Our results extended previous observations and suggest that the secretion hierarchy of the different substrates is determined by a signal other than the N-terminal secretion signal. We identified a domain located immediately downstream of the N-terminal secretion signal in the translocator EspB that is required for SepD/SepL-dependent secretion. We further demonstrated that this EspB domain confers SepD/SepL- and CesAB-dependent secretion on the secretion signal of effector EspZ. Our results thus suggest that SepD and SepL control and regulate secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors by recognizing translocator-specific export signals. Many bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like protein secretion apparatus, termed the type III protein secretion system (T3SS), to secrete and inject numerous proteins directly into the host cells to

  3. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1±0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2±0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  4. Structural Analysis of the Essential Self-Cleaving Type III Secretion Proteins EscU And SpaS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarivach, R.; Deng, W.; Vuckovic, M.; Felise, H.B.; Nguyen, H.V.; Miller, S.I.; Finlay, B.B.; Strynadka, N.C.J.

    2009-05-28

    During infection by Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is assembled to allow for the direct transmission of bacterial virulence effectors into the host cell. The T3SS system is characterized by a series of prominent multi-component rings in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as a translocation pore in the host cell membrane. These are all connected by a series of polymerized tubes that act as the direct conduit for the T3SS proteins to pass through to the host cell. During assembly of the T3SS, as well as the evolutionarily related flagellar apparatus, a post-translational cleavage event within the inner membrane proteins EscU/FlhB is required to promote a secretion-competent state. These proteins have long been proposed to act as a part of a molecular switch, which would regulate the appropriate chronological secretion of the various T3SS apparatus components during assembly and subsequently the transported virulence effectors. Here we show that a surface type II -turn in the Escherichia coli protein EscU undergoes auto-cleavage by a mechanism involving cyclization of a strictly conserved asparagine residue. Structural and in vivo analysis of point and deletion mutations illustrates the subtle conformational effects of auto-cleavage in modulating the molecular features of a highly conserved surface region of EscU, a potential point of interaction with other T3SS components at the inner membrane. In addition, this work provides new structural insight into the distinct conformational requirements for a large class of self-cleaving reactions involving asparagine cyclization.

  5. Delivery of an enzyme-IGFII fusion protein to the mouse brain is therapeutic for mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shih-Hsin; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; Le, Steven Q; Vincelette, Jon; Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Bullens, Sherry; Wendt, Daniel J; Christianson, Terri M; Tiger, Pascale M N; Brown, Jillian R; Lawrence, Roger; Yip, Bryan K; Holtzinger, John; Bagri, Anil; Crippen-Harmon, Danielle; Vondrak, Kristen N; Chen, Zhi; Hague, Chuck M; Woloszynek, Josh C; Cheung, Diana S; Webster, Katherine A; Adintori, Evan G; Lo, Melanie J; Wong, Wesley; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; LeBowitz, Jonathan H; Crawford, Brett E; Bunting, Stuart; Dickson, Patricia I; Neufeld, Elizabeth F

    2014-10-14

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB, Sanfilippo syndrome type B) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by profound intellectual disability, dementia, and a lifespan of about two decades. The cause is mutation in the gene encoding α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), deficiency of NAGLU, and accumulation of heparan sulfate. Impediments to enzyme replacement therapy are the absence of mannose 6-phosphate on recombinant human NAGLU and the blood-brain barrier. To overcome the first impediment, a fusion protein of recombinant NAGLU and a fragment of insulin-like growth factor II (IGFII) was prepared for endocytosis by the mannose 6-phosphate/IGFII receptor. To bypass the blood-brain barrier, the fusion protein ("enzyme") in artificial cerebrospinal fluid ("vehicle") was administered intracerebroventricularly to the brain of adult MPS IIIB mice, four times over 2 wk. The brains were analyzed 1-28 d later and compared with brains of MPS IIIB mice that received vehicle alone or control (heterozygous) mice that received vehicle. There was marked uptake of the administered enzyme in many parts of the brain, where it persisted with a half-life of approximately 10 d. Heparan sulfate, and especially disease-specific heparan sulfate, was reduced to control level. A number of secondary accumulations in neurons [β-hexosaminidase, LAMP1(lysosome-associated membrane protein 1), SCMAS (subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase), glypican 5, β-amyloid, P-tau] were reduced almost to control level. CD68, a microglial protein, was reduced halfway. A large amount of enzyme also appeared in liver cells, where it reduced heparan sulfate and β-hexosaminidase accumulation to control levels. These results suggest the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IIIB.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinaa, L; Wulff, A M; Saermark, T

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide (aa 138-152) from HIV-1 Nef protein were produced and characterized. Three hybridoma lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the synthetic peptide were generated by fusion between P3-X63 Ag8.653 myeloma cells and BALB/c splenocytes from...... mice immunized with the synthetic peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). The hybridomas were screened and selected by ELISA with the peptide coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilized to the polystyrene surface and specificity for the peptide was confirmed by competitive ELISA...

  7. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microbiol 102, 65 76. Butzin, X.Y., Troiano, A.J., Coleman , W.H., Griffiths , K.K., Doona, C.J., Feeherry, F.E., Wang, G., Li, Y. Q. et al. (2012...germination, possibly because it is essential for organization of GRs in a complex in spores’ inner membrane ( Griffiths et aL 2011). Journal of... Griffiths , K.K., Zhang, J., Cowan, A.E., Yu, J. and Setlow, P. (2011) Germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores

  8. Effects of gentiana scabra bage on expression of hepatic type I, III collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhao-Xia; Li, Fang; Ma, Chao-Dong; Liu, Jun; Li, Shu-De; Wang, Wen-Lin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of gentiana scabra bage on the expression of hepatic collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis. Immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the changes of content of hepatic type I, III collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis before and after the gentiana scabra bage treatmeat. Comparing with the model group, changes of hepatic type I and type III collagen proteins in gentiana scabra bage treated group were significantly weakened. Gentiana scabra bage treatment can reduce the content of hepatic type III and type I collagen protein significantly in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis, thereby, playing the role against hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Staphylococcal Protein A Typing Revealed Novel and Diverse Clones of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Seafood and the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugadas, V; Toms, C Joseph; Reethu, Sara A; Lalitha, K V

    2017-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a global health concern since the 1960s, and isolation of this pathogen from food-producing animals has been increasing. However, little information is available on the prevalence of MRSA and its clonal characteristics in seafood and the aquatic environment. In this study, 267 seafood and aquatic environment samples were collected from three districts of Kerala, India. Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for 65 MRSA strains isolated from 20 seafood and aquatic environment samples. The MRSA clonal profiles were t657-ST772, t002-ST5, t334-ST5, t311-ST5, t121-ST8, t186-ST88, t127-ST1, and two non-spa assignable strains. Whole spa gene sequence analysis along with MLST confirmed one strain as t711-ST6 and another as a novel MRSA clone identified for the first time in seafood and the aquatic environment with a t15669 spa type and a new MLST profile of ST420-256-236-66-82-411-477. The MRSA strains were clustered into five clonal complexes based on the goeBURST algorithm, indicating high diversity among MRSA strains in seafood and the aquatic environment. The novel clone formed a separate clonal complex with matches to three loci. This study recommends large-scale spa typing and MLST of MRSA isolates from seafood and the aquatic environment to determine the prevalence of new MRSA clones. This monitoring process can be useful for tracing local spread of MRSA isolates into the seafood production chain in a defined geographical area.

  10. Zebrafish Collagen Type I: Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Major Structural Protein in Bone and Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gistelinck, C.; Gioia, R.; Gagliardi, A.; Tonelli, F.; Marchese, L.; Bianchi, L.; Landi, C.; Bini, L.; Huysseune, A.; Witten, P. E.; Staes, A.; Gevaert, K.; De Rocker, N.; Menten, B.; Malfait, F.; Leikin, S.; Carra, S.; Tenni, R.; Rossi, A.; De Paepe, A.; Coucke, P.; Willaert, A.; Forlino, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years the zebrafish imposed itself as a powerful model to study skeletal diseases, but a limit to its use is the poor characterization of collagen type I, the most abundant protein in bone and skin. In tetrapods collagen type I is a trimer mainly composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, encoded by COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes, respectively. In contrast, in zebrafish three type I collagen genes exist, col1a1a, col1a1b and col1a2 coding for α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains. During embryonic and larval development the three collagen type I genes showed a similar spatio-temporal expression pattern, indicating their co-regulation and interdependence at these stages. In both embryonic and adult tissues, the presence of the three α(I) chains was demonstrated, although in embryos α1(I) was present in two distinct glycosylated states, suggesting a developmental-specific collagen composition. Even though in adult bone, skin and scales equal amounts of α1(I), α3(I) and α2(I) chains are present, the presented data suggest a tissue-specific stoichiometry and/or post-translational modification status for collagen type I. In conclusion, this data will be useful to properly interpret results and insights gained from zebrafish models of skeletal diseases. PMID:26876635

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 enhances the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründer, Tatiana; Gaissmaier, Christoph; Fritz, Jürgen; Stoop, Reinout; Hortschansky, Peter; Mollenhauer, Jürgen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2004-07-01

    For autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) chondrocytes are expanded in vitro. During expansion these cells may dedifferentiate. This change in phenotype is characterized by a raised expression of type I collagen and a decrease in type II collagen expression. Since high expression of type II collagen is of central importance for the properties of hyaline cartilage, we investigated if the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) may modulate the chondrogenic phenotype in monolayer cell cultures and in three-dimensional culture systems. Chondrocytes from articular knee cartilage of 11 individuals (average age: 39.8 years) with no history of joint disease were isolated and seeded either in monolayer cultures or embedded in alginate beads in presence or absence of human recombinant BMP-2 (hr-BMP-2). Then, cells were harvested and analysis of the chondrogenic phenotype was performed using quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and ELISA. Addition of BMP-2 to chondrocytes expanded in two-dimensional (2D) cultures during the first subculture (P1) had no effect on mRNA amounts encoding type II collagen and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). In contrast, seeding chondrocytes in three-dimensional (3D) alginate cultures raised type II collagen expression significantly and addition of BMP-2 enhanced this effect. We conclude that chondrocytes during expansion for ACT may benefit from BMP-2 activation only when seeded in an appropriate 3D culture system. Copyright 2004 OsteoArthritis Research Society International

  12. Type 2 diabetes-related proteins derived from an in vitro model of inflamed fat tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Sotiriou, Alexandros; Boeren, Sjef; Vaessen, Stefan; Vervoort, Jacques; Pieters, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6,

  13. Novel lean type 2 diabetic rat model using gestational low-protein programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in lean individuals is not well studied and up to 26% of diabetes occurs in these individuals. Although the cause is not well understood, it has been primarily attributed to nutritional issues during early development. Our objective was to develop a lean T2D model using gestati...

  14. Sensing of Bacterial Type IV Secretion via the Unfolded Protein Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Starr, Tregei; Winter, Maria G.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Child, Robert; Knodler, Leigh A.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Host cytokine responses to Brucella abortus infection are elicited predominantly by the deployment of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, the mechanism by which the T4SS elicits inflammation remains unknown. Here we show that translocation of the T4SS substrate VceC into host cells induces

  15. Serum C-Reactive Protein in Nigerians With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetics are at increased risk for coronary heart disease, data from the Framingham Study showed a two-to three-fold elevation in the risk of clinically evident atherosclerotic disease in patients with type II diabetes compared to those without diabetes. However, but data regarding CRP in Nigerian diabetic is lacking.

  16. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... raw material for processing rice refreshments or pastries and the raw material for making the famous Chinese. “rice-flour noodles”. However, the .... Transgenic rice with two anti- Waxy gene copies was translucent and looked like pearls, whose clarity lies between the wild type and glutinous rice. Table 2.

  17. Vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphisms and risk of type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors participate in its development. Many cellular and epidemiological studies suggest a role for vitamin D in pathogenesis and prevention of T1DM. Polymorphisms of the genes involved in the ...

  18. Impact of cell type and epitope tagging on heterologous expression of G protein-coupled receptor: a systematic study on angiotensin type II receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    Full Text Available Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2 receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression.

  19. Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile barn owls readily adapt to prismatic spectacles, whereas adult owls living under standard aviary conditions do not. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII in both juveniles and adults. In contrast to CREB, we found no differences in pCaMKII expression between prism-wearing and control juveniles within the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX, the major site of plasticity. For prism-wearing adults that hunted live mice and are capable of adaptation, expression of pCaMKII was increased relative to prism-wearing adults that fed passively on dead mice and are not capable of adaptation. This effect did not bear the hallmarks of instructive information: it was not localized to rostral ICX and did not exhibit a patchy distribution reflecting discrete bimodal stimuli. These data are consistent with a role for CaMKII as a permissive rather than an instructive factor. In addition, the paucity of pCaMKII expression in passively fed adults suggests that the permissive default setting is “off” in adults.

  20. Expression analysis of the type I keratin protein keratin 33A in goat coat hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yuta; Yokohama, Michinari; Wada, Kenta; Fujita, Masaru; Kotani, Mai; Nagura, Yoshio; Kanno, Masako; Nomura, Kou; Amano, Takashi; Kikkawa, Yoshiaki

    2011-12-01

    The coat of a goat, like that of many mammalian species, consists of an outer coat of coarse hairs and an under coat of fine, downy hairs. The coarse guard hairs are produced by primary follicles and the finer cashmere hairs by secondary follicles. We previously reported that hair keratins are components of cashmere hair, and proteomic analysis revealed that their expression is elevated in winter coat hair. To determine detailed characterization, we have cloned keratin 33A gene, a major highly expressed keratin in winter, and then analyzed the expression of goat hair coat. By Western analysis, we detected that keratin 33A protein is expressed only in hair coat among the various goat tissues. Moreover, the expression level in winter has increased in cashmere high-producing Korean native breed, whereas the expression levels between summer and winter had not changed in cashmere low-producing Saanen. In addition, by immunohistochemistry we determined that keratin 33A is localized in the major cortex portion of cashmere fiber. These results confirm that keratin 33A is a structural protein of goat cashmere hair fiber. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Expression Profiles of Cellular Retinol-binding Protein, Type II (CRBP II in Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Yin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular retinol-binding protein II (CRBP II belongs to the family of cellular retinol-binding proteins and plays a major role in absorption, transport, and metabolism of vitamin A. In addition, because vitamin A is correlated with reproductive performance, we measured CRBP II mRNA abundance in erlang mountainous chickens by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The expression of CRBP II showed a tissue-specific pattern and egg production rate-dependent changes. The expression was very high (p<0.05 in jejunum and liver, intermediate in kidney, ovary, and oviduct, and lowest (p<0.05 in heart, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In the hypothalamus, oviduct, ovary, and pituitary, CRBP II mRNA abundance were correlated to egg production rate, which increased from 12 wk to 32 wk, peaked at 32 wk relative to the other time points, and then decreased from 32 wk to 45 wk. In contrast, the expression of CRBP II mRNA in heart, jejunum, kidney, and liver was not different at any of the ages evaluated in this study. These data may help to understand the genetic basis of vitamin A metabolism, and suggest that CRBP II may be a candidate gene to affect egg production traits in chickens.

  2. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ying; Mao, Yingji; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua; Yang, Minglei; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted

  3. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan (China); Mao, Yingji [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Yang, Minglei, E-mail: yml888@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu, Lifang, E-mail: lfwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China)

    2015-08-07

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted.

  4. Identification of candidate protein markers of Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 infection using an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Darren W; Welsh, Michael D; Doherty, Simon; Mooney, Mark H

    2017-05-01

    Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections. This study utilised a proteomic approach to investigate in vitro cellular responses during BPI3V infection to enhance the current understanding of intracellular host-virus interactions and identify putative markers of in vivo infection. Through 2D gel electrophoresis proteomic analysis, BPI3V Phosphoprotein P and host T-complex Protein 1 subunit theta were found to be accumulated at the latter stages of infection within bovine fibroblasts. These proteins were subsequently detected using targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry in the plasma of animals challenged with BPI3V, with differential protein level profiles observed dependant on animal vaccination status. Potential mechanisms by which BPI3V overcomes host cellular immune response mechanisms allowing for replication and production of viral proteins were also revealed. Assessment of circulating protein marker levels identified through an in vitro approach as described may enable more effective diagnosis of active viral infection and diseased or damaged respiratory tissue in animals and allow for more effective utilisation of preventative therapeutic interventions prior to bacterial disease onset and significantly aid the management and control of BRD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A C-reactive protein promoter polymorphism is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolford, Johanna K; Gruber, Jonathan D; Ossowski, Victoria M

    2003-01-01

    Linkage analysis has identified a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on chromosome 1q21-q23 in several populations. Results from recent prospective studies indicate that increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of immune system activation, are predictive...... disequilibrium clusters. We genotyped representative SNPs in approximately 1300 Pima samples and found a single variant in the CRP promoter (SNP 133552) that was associated with T2DM (P=0.014), as well as a common haplotype (CGCG) that was associated with both T2DM (P=0.029) and corrected insulin response...

  6. Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver Fat and Inflammation in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Mariya; Pivovarova, Olga; Hornemann, Silke; Sucher, Stephanie; Frahnow, Turid; Wegner, Katrin; Machann, Jürgen; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Hierholzer, Johannes; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Herder, Christian; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Roden, Michael; Rudovich, Natalia; Klaus, Susanne; Thomann, Ralph; Schneeweiss, Rosemarie; Rohn, Sascha; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2017-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat, but can induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein (AP) vs plant protein (PP), which differ in levels of methionine and BCAAs, in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue. We performed a prospective study of individuals with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD at a tertiary medical center in Germany from June 2013 through March 2015. We analyzed data from 37 subjects placed on a diet high in AP (rich in meat and dairy foods; n = 18) or PP (mainly legume protein; n = 19) without calorie restriction for 6 weeks. The diets were isocaloric with the same macronutrient composition (30% protein, 40% carbohydrates, and 30% fat). Participants were examined at the start of the study and after the 6-week diet period for body mass index, body composition, hip circumference, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient. Body fat and intrahepatic fat were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, respectively. Levels of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, and inflammation markers, as well as individual free fatty acids and free amino acids, were measured in collected blood samples. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were performed to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression patterns and phosphorylation of signaling proteins. Postprandial levels of BCAAs and methionine were significantly higher in subjects on the AP vs the PP diet. The AP and PP diets each reduced liver fat by 36%-48% within 6 weeks (for AP diet P = .0002; for

  7. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically expl...

  8. Synthesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 neoglycoproteins varying in oligosaccharide chain length, loading and carrier protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Lefeber, D.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The preparation is described of a range of neoglycoproteins containing synthesised fragments of the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3, that is beta-D-GlcpA-(1->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1->O)-(CH2)3NH2 (1), beta-D-Glcp-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1->4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1->O)-(CH2)3NH2 (2), and

  9. Direct control of type IIA topoisomerase activity by a chromosomally encoded regulatory protein

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Seychelle M.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hershey, David M.; Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Sengupta, Sugopa; Nagaraja, Valakunja; Berger, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Topoisomerases are central regulators of DNA supercoiling; how these enzymes are regulated to suit specific cellular needs is poorly understood. Vos et al. now report the structure of E. coli gyrase, a type IIA topoisomerase bound to an inhibitor, YacG. YacG represses gyrase through steric occlusion of its DNA-binding site. Further studies show that YacG engages two spatially segregated regions associated with small-molecule inhibitor interactions—fluoroquinolone antibiotics and a gyrase agon...

  10. Prevention of interference by dextran with biuret-type assay of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, C P; Woollen, J W

    1984-04-01

    In assay of serum proteins by use of the biuret reaction, dextran can cause turbidity by formation of an insoluble complex of dextran with copper and tartrate (or EDTA) in strongly alkaline solution. Whether or not the turbidity occurs depends on the tartrate concentration: turbidity is maximal at about 10 g/L, absent at 20 g/L or more, and only slight and delayed at 4 g/L. Two biuret reagents, containing respectively 5.6 and 22.5 g of tartrate per liter, obviate the interference, but the former is suitable only when a short (5 min) incubation is used. Both reagents show linear calibration curves and yield virtually identical results.

  11. Glycan Reader is improved to recognize most sugar types and chemical modifications in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jumin; Patel, Dhilon S; Ma, Hongjing; Lee, Hui Sun; Jo, Sunhwan; Im, Wonpil

    2017-10-01

    Glycans play a central role in many essential biological processes. Glycan Reader was originally developed to simplify the reading of Protein Data Bank (PDB) files containing glycans through the automatic detection and annotation of sugars and glycosidic linkages between sugar units and to proteins, all based on atomic coordinates and connectivity information. Carbohydrates can have various chemical modifications at different positions, making their chemical space much diverse. Unfortunately, current PDB files do not provide exact annotations for most carbohydrate derivatives and more than 50% of PDB glycan chains have at least one carbohydrate derivative that could not be correctly recognized by the original Glycan Reader. Glycan Reader has been improved and now identifies most sugar types and chemical modifications (including various glycolipids) in the PDB, and both PDB and PDBx/mmCIF formats are supported. CHARMM-GUI Glycan Reader is updated to generate the simulation system and input of various glycoconjugates with most sugar types and chemical modifications. It also offers a new functionality to edit the glycan structures through addition/deletion/modification of glycosylation types, sugar types, chemical modifications, glycosidic linkages, and anomeric states. The simulation system and input files can be used for CHARMM, NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, GENESIS, LAMMPS, Desmond, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. Glycan Fragment Database in GlycanStructure.Org is also updated to provide an intuitive glycan sequence search tool for complex glycan structures with various chemical modifications in the PDB. http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/glycan and http://www.glycanstructure.org. wonpil@lehigh.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Multiple {gamma}-glutamylation: A novel type of post-translational modification in a diapausing Artemia cyst protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Mai [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ikeda, Yuka [Institute of High Polymer Research, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Kanzawa, Hideaki [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Sakamoto, Mika [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Goto, Mina [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsunasawa, Susumu [Analytical and Measuring Instruments Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Nishinokyo Kuwabaracho 1, Nakagyo-Ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan); Uchiumi, Toshio, E-mail: uchiumi@bio.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, Shoji [Bioscience Course, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-Ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    A highly hydrophilic, glutamate-rich protein was identified in the aqueous phenol extract from the cytosolic fraction of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) diapausing cysts and termed Artemia phenol soluble protein (PSP). Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of many protein peaks around m/z 11,000, separated by 129 atomic mass units; this value corresponds to that of glutamate, which is strongly suggestive of heterogeneous polyglutamylation. Polyglutamylation has long been known as the functionally important post-translational modification of tubulins, which carry poly(L-glutamic acid) chains of heterogeneous length branching off from the main chain at the {gamma}-carboxy groups of a few specific glutamate residues. In Artemia PSP, however, Edman degradation of enzymatic peptides revealed that at least 13, and presumably 16, glutamate residues were modified by the attachment of a single L-glutamate, representing a hitherto undescribed type of post-translational modification: namely, multiple {gamma}-glutamylation or the addition of a large number of glutamate residues along the polypeptide chain. Although biological significance of PSP and its modification is yet to be established, suppression of in vitro thermal aggregation of lactate dehydrogenase by glutamylated PSP was observed.

  13. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet acutely decreases postprandial and diurnal glucose excursions in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkani, Amirsalar; Skytte, Mads J; Kandel, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether a simple substitution of carbohydrate in the conventionally recommended diet with protein and fat would result in a clinically meaningful reduction in postprandial hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In all, sixteen subjects......-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet. Macronutrient contents of the CRHP/CD diets consisted of 31/54 % energy from carbohydrate, 29/16 % energy from protein and 40/30 % energy from fat, respectively. Each diet was consumed on 2 consecutive days in a randomised order. Postprandial glycaemia, pancreatic and gut...... with T2DM treated with metformin only, fourteen male, with a median age of 65 (43-70) years, HbA1c of 6·5 % (47 mmol/l) (5·5-8·3 % (37-67 mmol/l)) and a BMI of 30 (sd 4·4) kg/m2 participated in the randomised, cross-over study. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet was compared with an iso...

  14. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was