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Sample records for two-stage dynamic model

  1. Dynamic Modelling of the Two-stage Gasification Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Houbak, Niels

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage gasification pilot plant was designed and built as a co-operative project between the Technical University of Denmark and the company REKA.A dynamic, mathematical model of the two-stage pilot plant was developed to serve as a tool for optimising the process and the operating conditions...... of the gasification plant.The model consists of modules corresponding to the different elements in the plant. The modules are coupled together through mass and heat conservation.Results from the model are compared with experimental data obtained during steady and unsteady operation of the pilot plant. A good...

  2. Complex Dynamics of a Continuous Bertrand Duopoly Game Model with Two-Stage Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a continuous Bertrand duopoly game model with two-stage delay. Our aim is to investigate the influence of delay and weight on the complex dynamic characteristics of the system. We obtain the bifurcation point of the system respect to delay parameter by calculating. In addition, the dynamic properties of the system are simulated by power spectrum, attractor, bifurcation diagram, the largest Lyapunov exponent, 3D surface chart, 4D Cubic Chart, 2D parameter bifurcation diagram, and 3D parameter bifurcation diagram. The results show that the stability of the system depends on the delay and weight, in order to maintain stability of price and ensure the firm profit, the firms must control the parameters in the reasonable region. Otherwise, the system will lose stability, and even into chaos, which will cause fluctuations in prices, the firms cannot be profitable. Finally, the chaos control of the system is carried out by a control strategy of the state variables’ feedback and parameter variation, which effectively avoid the damage of chaos to the economic system. Therefore, the results of this study have an important practical significance to make decisions with multi-stage delay for oligopoly firms.

  3. Two stage gear tooth dynamics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    The epicyclic gear dynamics program was expanded to add the option of evaluating the tooth pair dynamics for two epicyclic gear stages with peripheral components. This was a practical extension to the program as multiple gear stages are often used for speed reduction, space, weight, and/or auxiliary units. The option was developed for either stage to be a basic planetary, star, single external-external mesh, or single external-internal mesh. The two stage system allows for modeling of the peripherals with an input mass and shaft, an output mass and shaft, and a connecting shaft. Execution of the initial test case indicated an instability in the solution with the tooth paid loads growing to excessive magnitudes. A procedure to trace the instability is recommended as well as a method of reducing the program's computation time by reducing the number of boundary condition iterations.

  4. An improved two stages dynamic programming/artificial neural network solution model to the unit commitment of thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasy, N.H. [College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh (Kuwait); Elfayoumy, M.K. [Univ. of Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    An improved two stages solution model to the unit commitment of thermal units is developed in this paper. In the first stage a pre-schedule is generated using a high quality trained artificial neural net (ANN). A dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is implemented and applied in the second stage for the final determination of the commitment states. The developed solution model avoids the complications imposed by the generation of the variable window structure, proposed by other techniques. A unified approach for the treatment of the ANN is also developed in the paper. The validity of the proposed technique is proved via numerical applications to both sample and small practical power systems. 12 refs, 9 tabs

  5. Stability and multiattractor dynamics of a toggle switch based on a two-stage model of stochastic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten

    2012-01-04

    A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the

  6. Two Stage Gear Tooth Dynamics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    cordi - tions and associated iteration prooedure become more complex. This is due to both the increased number of components and to the time for a...solved for each stage in the two stage solution . There are (3 + ntrrber of planets) degrees of freedom fcr eacb stage plus two degrees of freedom...should be devised. It should be noted that this is not minor task. In general, each stage plus an input or output shaft will have 2 times (4 + number

  7. Two-Stage Modelling Of Random Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this publication was to present a two-stage algorithm of modelling random phenomena, based on multidimensional function modelling, on the example of modelling the real estate market for the purpose of real estate valuation and estimation of model parameters of foundations vertical displacements. The first stage of the presented algorithm includes a selection of a suitable form of the function model. In the classical algorithms, based on function modelling, prediction of the dependent variable is its value obtained directly from the model. The better the model reflects a relationship between the independent variables and their effect on the dependent variable, the more reliable is the model value. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed which comprises adjustment of the value obtained from the model with a random correction determined from the residuals of the model for these cases which, in a separate analysis, were considered to be the most similar to the object for which we want to model the dependent variable. The effect of applying the developed quantitative procedures for calculating the corrections and qualitative methods to assess the similarity on the final outcome of the prediction and its accuracy, was examined by statistical methods, mainly using appropriate parametric tests of significance. The idea of the presented algorithm has been designed so as to approximate the value of the dependent variable of the studied phenomenon to its value in reality and, at the same time, to have it "smoothed out" by a well fitted modelling function.

  8. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2013-07-31

    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  9. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG JianCheng; LI JianTao

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models. A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives. Under very mild conditions, the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known. The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations: the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations. However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions, its implementation is time-consuming. To reduce the computational burden, one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed. The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same efficiency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators, which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice. The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers. In addition, the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details. Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation, and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  10. Two-stage local M-estimation of additive models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies local M-estimation of the nonparametric components of additive models.A two-stage local M-estimation procedure is proposed for estimating the additive components and their derivatives.Under very mild conditions,the proposed estimators of each additive component and its derivative are jointly asymptotically normal and share the same asymptotic distributions as they would be if the other components were known.The established asymptotic results also hold for two particular local M-estimations:the local least squares and least absolute deviation estimations.However,for general two-stage local M-estimation with continuous and nonlinear ψ-functions,its implementation is time-consuming.To reduce the computational burden,one-step approximations to the two-stage local M-estimators are developed.The one-step estimators are shown to achieve the same effciency as the fully iterative two-stage local M-estimators,which makes the two-stage local M-estimation more feasible in practice.The proposed estimators inherit the advantages and at the same time overcome the disadvantages of the local least-squares based smoothers.In addition,the practical implementation of the proposed estimation is considered in details.Simulations demonstrate the merits of the two-stage local M-estimation,and a real example illustrates the performance of the methodology.

  11. A Two-stage Polynomial Method for Spectrum Emissivity Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Qirong; Liu, Shi; Teng, Jing; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Spectral emissivity is a key in the temperature measurement by radiation methods, but not easy to determine in a combustion environment, due to the interrelated influence of temperature and wave length of the radiation. In multi-wavelength radiation thermometry, knowing the spectral emissivity of the material is a prerequisite. However in many circumstances such a property is a complex function of temperature and wavelength and reliable models are yet to be sought. In this study, a two stages...

  12. Complex Dynamical Behavior of a Two-Stage Colpitts Oscillator with Magnetically Coupled Inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kamdoum Tamba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-dimensional (5D controlled two-stage Colpitts oscillator is introduced and analyzed. This new electronic oscillator is constructed by considering the well-known two-stage Colpitts oscillator with two further elements (coupled inductors and variable resistor. In contrast to current approaches based on piecewise linear (PWL model, we propose a smooth mathematical model (with exponential nonlinearity to investigate the dynamics of the oscillator. Several issues, such as the basic dynamical behaviour, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and frequency spectra of the oscillator, are investigated theoretically and numerically by varying a single control resistor. It is found that the oscillator moves from the state of fixed point motion to chaos via the usual paths of period-doubling and interior crisis routes as the single control resistor is monitored. Furthermore, an experimental study of controlled Colpitts oscillator is carried out. An appropriate electronic circuit is proposed for the investigations of the complex dynamics behaviour of the system. A very good qualitative agreement is obtained between the theoretical/numerical and experimental results.

  13. Stabilizing effect of cannibalism in a two stages population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Jonathan; Benoît, Eric; Gouzé, Jean-Luc

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we build a prey-predator model with discrete weight structure for the predator. This model will conserve the number of individuals and the biomass and both growth and reproduction of the predator will depend on the food ingested. Moreover the model allows cannibalism which means that the predator can eat the prey but also other predators. We will focus on a simple version with two weight classes or stage (larvae and adults) and present some general mathematical results. In the last part, we will assume that the dynamics of the prey is fast compared to the predator's one to go further in the results and eventually conclude that under some conditions, cannibalism can stabilize the system: more precisely, an unstable equilibrium without cannibalism will become almost globally stable with some cannibalism. Some numerical simulations are done to illustrate this result.

  14. Model and Two-stage Algorithm on Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem%一类动态车辆路径问题模型和两阶段算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶卫振; 金淳; 刘锋; 杨磊

    2015-01-01

    In order to effectively solve dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP), this paper analyzes the substantial effect of four main categories of dynamic information on classical vehicle routing problem, and transform DVRP into multiple static fleet size and mixed open vehicle routing problems (FSMOVRP). And FSMOVRP could be further converted to multiple capacitated vehicle routing problems (CVRP). The model based on CVRP is built up for DVRP. After that a two-stage algorithm is proposed to solve DVRP model according to the analysis of DVRP characteristics. In the first stage, a fast construction algorithm with merely O(nlogn) complexity is proposed on the basis of delivery region cutting strategy by K-d trees method. In the second stage, a hybrid local search algorithm is designed by analysis of structural principal of algorithm’s solution searching space. Finally for the purpose of algorithm verification, we design and solve 36 DVRP instances generated from 12 large scale CVRP benchmark instances. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and two-stage solving algorithm.%针对一类动态车辆路径问题,分析4种主要类型动态信息对传统车辆路径问题的本质影响,将动态车辆路径问题(Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem, DVRP)转化为多个静态的多车型开放式车辆路径问题(The Fleet Size and Mixed Open Vehicle Routing Problem, FSMOVRP),并进一步转化为多个带能力约束车辆路径问题(Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem, CVRP),基于CVRP模型建立了DVRP模型;然后,在分析DVRP问题特点基础上,提出两阶段算法,第一阶段基于利用K-d trees对配送区域进行分割的策略,提出了复杂度仅为O(nlogn)的快速构建型算法,第二阶段通过分析算法搜索解空间结构原理,设计混合局部搜索算法;最后,基于现有12个大规模CVRP标准算例,设计并求解36个DVRP算例。求解结果表明了模型和两阶段算法的有效性。

  15. A two-stage method to determine optimal product sampling considering dynamic potential market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhineng; Lu, Wei; Han, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops an optimization model for the diffusion effects of free samples under dynamic changes in potential market based on the characteristics of independent product and presents a two-stage method to figure out the sampling level. The impact analysis of the key factors on the sampling level shows that the increase of the external coefficient or internal coefficient has a negative influence on the sampling level. And the changing rate of the potential market has no significant influence on the sampling level whereas the repeat purchase has a positive one. Using logistic analysis and regression analysis, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all parameters, which provides a two-stage method to estimate the impact of the relevant parameters in the case of inaccuracy of the parameters and to be able to construct a 95% confidence interval for the predicted sampling level. Finally, the paper provides the operational steps to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation and an innovational way to estimate the sampling level.

  16. The Sausage Machine: A New Two-Stage Parsing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn; Fodor, Janet Dean

    1978-01-01

    The human sentence parsing device assigns phrase structure to sentences in two steps. The first stage parser assigns lexical and phrasal nodes to substrings of words. The second stage parser then adds higher nodes to link these phrasal packages together into a complete phrase marker. This model is compared with others. (Author/RD)

  17. TWO-STAGE DECISION MODEL OF SOY FOOD CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Moon, Wanki

    2004-01-01

    Our study examined the role of soy health benefits in consumers' soy consumption decision. Given the large number of respondents who reported no consumption of soy products per month, it was important to model the decision of whether or not to participate in soy market separately from the consumption intensity decision. Estimation results demonstrate that knowledge of health benefits affects both the likelihood of participation and consumption intensity. That is, consumers with higher soy hea...

  18. Loss Function Based Ranking in Two-Stage, Hierarchical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongheng; Louis, Thomas A.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Performance evaluations of health services providers burgeons. Similarly, analyzing spatially related health information, ranking teachers and schools, and identification of differentially expressed genes are increasing in prevalence and importance. Goals include valid and efficient ranking of units for profiling and league tables, identification of excellent and poor performers, the most differentially expressed genes, and determining “exceedances” (how many and which unit-specific true parameters exceed a threshold). These data and inferential goals require a hierarchical, Bayesian model that accounts for nesting relations and identifies both population values and random effects for unit-specific parameters. Furthermore, the Bayesian approach coupled with optimizing a loss function provides a framework for computing non-standard inferences such as ranks and histograms. Estimated ranks that minimize Squared Error Loss (SEL) between the true and estimated ranks have been investigated. The posterior mean ranks minimize SEL and are “general purpose,” relevant to a broad spectrum of ranking goals. However, other loss functions and optimizing ranks that are tuned to application-specific goals require identification and evaluation. For example, when the goal is to identify the relatively good (e.g., in the upper 10%) or relatively poor performers, a loss function that penalizes classification errors produces estimates that minimize the error rate. We construct loss functions that address this and other goals, developing a unified framework that facilitates generating candidate estimates, comparing approaches and producing data analytic performance summaries. We compare performance for a fully parametric, hierarchical model with Gaussian sampling distribution under Gaussian and a mixture of Gaussians prior distributions. We illustrate approaches via analysis of standardized mortality ratio data from the United States Renal Data System. Results show that SEL

  19. Modelling of two-stage anaerobic digestion using the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Keller, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study presented was to implement a process model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a pilot-scale process for anaerobic two-stage digestion of sewage sludge. The model implemented was initiated to support experimental investigations of the anaerobic two-stage digestion process. The model concept implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink is a derivative of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) that has been developed by the IWA task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic processes. In the present study the original model concept has been adapted and applied to replicate a two-stage digestion process. Testing procedures, including balance checks and 'benchmarking' tests were carried out to verify the accuracy of the implementation. These combined measures ensured a faultless model implementation without numerical inconsistencies. Parameters for both, the thermophilic and the mesophilic process stage, have been estimated successfully using data from lab-scale experiments described in literature. Due to the high number of parameters in the structured model, it was necessary to develop a customised procedure that limited the range of parameters to be estimated. The accuracy of the optimised parameter sets has been assessed against experimental data from pilot-scale experiments. Under these conditions, the model predicted reasonably well the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage digestion process in pilot scale.

  20. Prey-Predator Model with Two-Stage Infection in Prey: Concerning Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan Kumar Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prey-predator model system is developed; specifically the disease is considered into the prey population. Here the prey population is taken as pest and the predators consume the selected pest. Moreover, we assume that the prey species is infected with a viral disease forming into susceptible and two-stage infected classes, and the early stage of infected prey is more vulnerable to predation by the predator. Also, it is assumed that the later stage of infected pests is not eaten by the predator. Different equilibria of the system are investigated and their stability analysis and Hopf bifurcation of the system around the interior equilibriums are discussed. A modified model has been constructed by considering some alternative source of food for the predator population and the dynamical behavior of the modified model has been investigated. We have demonstrated the analytical results by numerical analysis by taking some simulated set of parameter values.

  1. Dynamics of installation way for the actuator of a two-stage active vibration-isolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li; HUANG Qi-bai; HE Xue-song; YUAN Ji-xuan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the behaviors of an active control system of two-stage vibration isolation with the actuator installed in parallel with either the upper passive mount or the lower passive isolation mount. We revealed the relationships between the active control force of the actuator and the parameters of the passive isolators by studying the dynamics of two-stage active vibration isolation for the actuator at the foregoing two positions in turn. With the actuator installed beside the upper mount, a small active force can achieve a very good isolating effect when the frequency of the stimulating force is much larger than the natural frequency of the upper mount; a larger active force is required in the low-frequency domain; and the active force equals the stimulating force when the upper mount works within the resonance region, suggesting an approach to reducing wobble and ensuring desirable installation accuracy by increasing the upper-mount stiffness. In either the low or the high frequency region far away from the resonance region, the active force is smaller when the actuator is beside the lower mount than beside the upper mount.

  2. The CSS and The Two-Staged Methods for Parameter Estimation in SARFIMA Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Egrioglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (SARFIMA models are used in the analysis of seasonal long memory-dependent time series. Two methods, which are conditional sum of squares (CSS and two-staged methods introduced by Hosking (1984, are proposed to estimate the parameters of SARFIMA models. However, no simulation study has been conducted in the literature. Therefore, it is not known how these methods behave under different parameter settings and sample sizes in SARFIMA models. The aim of this study is to show the behavior of these methods by a simulation study. According to results of the simulation, advantages and disadvantages of both methods under different parameter settings and sample sizes are discussed by comparing the root mean square error (RMSE obtained by the CSS and two-staged methods. As a result of the comparison, it is seen that CSS method produces better results than those obtained from the two-staged method.

  3. Focused ultrasound simultaneous irradiation/MRI imaging, and two-stage general kinetic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yao Huang

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated how to use focused ultrasound (FUS to temporarily disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to facilitate the delivery of medication into lesion sites in the brain. In this study, through the setup of a real-time system, FUS irradiation and injections of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA and Gadodiamide (Gd, an MRI contrast agent can be conducted simultaneously during MRI scanning. By using this real-time system, we were able to investigate in detail how the general kinetic model (GKM is used to estimate Gd penetration in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain resulting from UCA concentration changes after single FUS irradiation. Two-stage GKM was proposed to estimate the Gd penetration in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain under experimental conditions with repeated FUS irradiation combined with different UCA concentrations. The results showed that the focal increase in the transfer rate constant of Ktrans caused by BBB disruption was dependent on the doses of UCA. Moreover, the amount of in vivo penetration of Evans blue in the FUS irradiated area in a rat's brain under various FUS irradiation experimental conditions was assessed to show the positive correlation with the transfer rate constants. Compared to the GKM method, the Two-stage GKM is more suitable for estimating the transfer rate constants of the brain treated with repeated FUS irradiations. This study demonstrated that the entire process of BBB disrupted by FUS could be quantitatively monitored by real-time dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI.

  4. New higher-order Godunov code for modelling performance of two-stage light gas guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.; Miller, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new quasi-one-dimensional Godunov code for modeling two-stage light gas guns is described. The code is third-order accurate in space and second-order accurate in time. A very accurate Riemann solver is used. Friction and heat transfer to the tube wall for gases and dense media are modeled and a simple nonequilibrium turbulence model is used for gas flows. The code also models gunpowder burn in the first-stage breech. Realistic equations of state (EOS) are used for all media. The code was validated against exact solutions of Riemann's shock-tube problem, impact of dense media slabs at velocities up to 20 km/sec, flow through a supersonic convergent-divergent nozzle and burning of gunpowder in a closed bomb. Excellent validation results were obtained. The code was then used to predict the performance of two light gas guns (1.5 in. and 0.28 in.) in service at the Ames Research Center. The code predictions were compared with measured pressure histories in the powder chamber and pump tube and with measured piston and projectile velocities. Very good agreement between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions and measurements was obtained. Actual powder-burn rates in the gun were found to be considerably higher (60-90 percent) than predicted by the manufacturer and the behavior of the piston upon yielding appears to differ greatly from that suggested by low-strain rate tests.

  5. Two-stage estimation in copula models used in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2005-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for studying a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are derived, generalising the approach by...

  6. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were...

  7. Dynamic two-stage mechanism of versatile DNA damage recognition by xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Flurina C.; Camenisch, Ulrike; Fei, Jia; Kaczmarek, Nina; Mathieu, Nadine [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Naegeli, Hanspeter, E-mail: naegelih@vetpharm.uzh.ch [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich-Vetsuisse, Winterthurerstrasse 260, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-01

    The recognition and subsequent repair of DNA damage are essential reactions for the maintenance of genome stability. A key general sensor of DNA lesions is xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein, which recognizes a wide variety of helix-distorting DNA adducts arising from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, genotoxic chemicals and reactive metabolic byproducts. By detecting damaged DNA sites, this unique molecular sensor initiates the global genome repair (GGR) pathway, which allows for the removal of all the aforementioned lesions by a limited repertoire of excision factors. A faulty GGR activity causes the accumulation of DNA adducts leading to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, neurological degeneration and other traits of premature aging. Recent findings indicate that XPC protein achieves its extraordinary substrate versatility by an entirely indirect readout strategy implemented in two clearly discernible stages. First, the XPC subunit uses a dynamic sensor interface to monitor the double helix for the presence of non-hydrogen-bonded bases. This initial screening generates a transient nucleoprotein intermediate that subsequently matures into the ultimate recognition complex by trapping undamaged nucleotides in the abnormally oscillating native strand, in a way that no direct contacts are made between XPC protein and the offending lesion itself. It remains to be elucidated how accessory factors like Rad23B, centrin-2 or the UV-damaged DNA-binding complex contribute to this dynamic two-stage quality control process.

  8. Perceived Health Benefits and Soy Consumption Behavior: Two-Stage Decision Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Wanki; Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage decision model is developed to assess the effect of perceived soy health benefits on consumers' decisions with respect to soy food. The first stage captures whether or not to consume soy food, while the second stage reflects how often to consume. A conceptual/analytical framework is also employed, combining Lancaster's characteristics model and Fishbein's multi-attribute model. Results show that perceived soy health benefits significantly influence both decision stages. Further, c...

  9. A Two-Stage Algorithm for Origin-Destination Matrices Estimation Considering Dynamic Dispersion Parameter for Route Choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage algorithm to simultaneously estimate origin-destination (OD matrix, link choice proportion, and dispersion parameter using partial traffic counts in a congested network. A non-linear optimization model is developed which incorporates a dynamic dispersion parameter, followed by a two-stage algorithm in which Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimation and a Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE assignment model are iteratively applied until the convergence is reached. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the proposed approach is implemented in a hypothetical network using input data with high error, and tested under a range of variation coefficients. The root mean squared error (RMSE of the estimated OD demand and link flows are used to evaluate the model estimation results. The results indicate that the estimated dispersion parameter theta is insensitive to the choice of variation coefficients. The proposed approach is shown to outperform two established OD estimation methods and produce parameter estimates that are close to the ground truth. In addition, the proposed approach is applied to an empirical network in Seattle, WA to validate the robustness and practicality of this methodology. In summary, this study proposes and evaluates an innovative computational approach to accurately estimate OD matrices using link-level traffic flow data, and provides useful insight for optimal parameter selection in modeling travelers' route choice behavior.

  10. CFD Modelling of Bore Erosion in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A well-validated quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the analysis of the internal ballistics of two-stage light gas guns is modified to explicitly calculate the ablation of steel from the gun bore and the incorporation of the ablated wall material into the hydrogen working cas. The modified code is used to model 45 shots made with the NASA Ames 0.5 inch light gas gun over an extremely wide variety of gun operating conditions. Good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical piston velocities (maximum errors of +/-2% to +/-6%) and maximum powder pressures (maximum errors of +/-10% with good igniters). Overall, the agreement between the experimental and numerically calculated gun erosion values (within a factor of 2) was judged to be reasonably good, considering the complexity of the processes modelled. Experimental muzzle velocities agree very well (maximum errors of 0.5-0.7 km/sec) with theoretical muzzle velocities calculated with loading of the hydrogen gas with the ablated barrel wall material. Comparison of results for pump tube volumes of 100%, 60% and 40% of an initial benchmark value show that, at the higher muzzle velocities, operation at 40% pump tube volume produces much lower hydrogen loading and gun erosion and substantially lower maximum pressures in the gun. Large muzzle velocity gains (2.4-5.4 km/sec) are predicted upon driving the gun harder (that is, upon using, higher powder loads and/or lower hydrogen fill pressures) when hydrogen loading is neglected; much smaller muzzle velocity gains (1.1-2.2 km/sec) are predicted when hydrogen loading is taken into account. These smaller predicted velocity gains agree well with those achieved in practice. CFD snapshots of the hydrogen mass fraction, density and pressure of the in-bore medium are presented for a very erosive shot.

  11. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF MOBILE OBJECT PURSUIT PROBLEM SOLUTION WITH TWO-STAGE DYNAMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiselev Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of developing unmanned fighting vehicles indicates that the main challenge in this field reduces itself to creating the systems which can replace the pilot both as a sensor and as the operator of the flight. This problem can be partial- ly solved by introducing remote control, but there are certain flight segments where it can only be executed under fully inde- pendent control and data support due to various reasons, such as tight time, short duration, lack of robust communication, etc. Such stages also include close-range air combat maneuvering (CRACM - a key flight segment as far as the fighter's purpose is concerned, which also places the highest demands on the fighter's design. Until recently the creation of an unmanned fighter airplane has been a fundamentally impossible task due to the absence of sensors able to provide the necessary data support to control the fighter during CRACM. However, the development prospects of aircraft hardware (passive type flush antennae, op- tico-locating panoramic view stations are indicative of producing possible solutions to this problem in the nearest future. There- fore, presently the only fundamental impediment on the way to developing an unmanned fighting aircraft is the problem of cre- ating algorithms for automatic trajectory control during CRACM. This paper presents the strategy of automatic trajectory con- trol synthesis by a two-stage dynamic system aiming to reach the conditions specified with respect to an object in pursuit. It contains certain results of control algorithm parameters impact assessment in regards to the pursuit mission effectiveness. Based on the obtained results a deduction is drawn pertaining to the efficiency of the offered method and its possible utilization in au- tomated control of an unmanned fighting aerial vehicle as well as organizing group interaction during CRACM.

  12. Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terza, Joseph V; Basu, Anirban; Rathouz, Paul J

    2008-05-01

    The paper focuses on two estimation methods that have been widely used to address endogeneity in empirical research in health economics and health services research-two-stage predictor substitution (2SPS) and two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI). 2SPS is the rote extension (to nonlinear models) of the popular linear two-stage least squares estimator. The 2SRI estimator is similar except that in the second-stage regression, the endogenous variables are not replaced by first-stage predictors. Instead, first-stage residuals are included as additional regressors. In a generic parametric framework, we show that 2SRI is consistent and 2SPS is not. Results from a simulation study and an illustrative example also recommend against 2SPS and favor 2SRI. Our findings are important given that there are many prominent examples of the application of inconsistent 2SPS in the recent literature. This study can be used as a guide by future researchers in health economics who are confronted with endogeneity in their empirical work.

  13. A two-stage broadcast message propagation model in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Cheng, Shun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Message propagation in social networks is becoming a popular topic in complex networks. One of the message types in social networks is called broadcast message. It refers to a type of message which has a unique and unknown destination for the publisher, such as 'lost and found'. Its propagation always has two stages. Due to this feature, rumor propagation model and epidemic propagation model have difficulty in describing this message's propagation accurately. In this paper, an improved two-stage susceptible-infected-removed model is proposed. We come up with the concept of the first forwarding probability and the second forwarding probability. Another part of our work is figuring out the influence to the successful message transmission chance in each level resulting from multiple reasons, including the topology of the network, the receiving probability, the first stage forwarding probability, the second stage forwarding probability as well as the length of the shortest path between the publisher and the relevant destination. The proposed model has been simulated on real networks and the results proved the model's effectiveness.

  14. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  15. STOCHASTIC DISCRETE MODEL OF TWO-STAGE ISOLATION SYSTEM WITH RIGID LIMITERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hua; FENG Qi; SHEN Rong-ying; WANG Yu

    2006-01-01

    The possible intermittent impacts of a two-stage isolation system with rigid limiters have been investigated. The isolation system is under periodic external excitation disturbed by small stationary Gaussian white noise after shock. The maximal impact Then in the period after shock, the zero order approximate stochastic discrete model and the first order approximate stochastic model are developed. The real isolation system of an MTU diesel engine is used to evaluate the established model. After calculating of the numerical example, the effects of noise excitation on the isolation system are discussed.The results show that the property of the system is complicated due to intermittent impact. The difference between zero order model and the first order model may be great.The effect of small noise is obvious. The results may be expected useful to the naval designers.

  16. Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin

    2012-11-01

    This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production.

  17. Two-Stage Single-Compartment Models to Evaluate Dissolution in the Lower Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulos, Constantinos; Vertzoni, Maria; Symillides, Mira; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2015-09-01

    The purpose was to propose two-stage single-compartment models for evaluating dissolution characteristics in distal ileum and ascending colon, under conditions simulating the bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in fasted and fed state by using the mini-paddle and the compendial flow-through apparatus (closed-loop mode). Immediate release products of two highly dosed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), sulfasalazine and L-870,810, and one mesalamine colon targeting product were used for evaluating their usefulness. Change of medium composition simulating the conditions in distal ileum (SIFileum ) to a medium simulating the conditions in ascending colon in fasted state and in fed state was achieved by adding an appropriate solution in SIFileum . Data with immediate release products suggest that dissolution in lower intestine is substantially different than in upper intestine and is affected by regional pH differences > type/intensity of fluid convection > differences in concentration of other luminal components. Asacol® (400 mg/tab) was more sensitive to type/intensity of fluid convection. In all the cases, data were in line with available human data. Two-stage single-compartment models may be useful for the evaluation of dissolution in lower intestine. The impact of type/intensity of fluid convection and viscosity of media on luminal performance of other APIs and drug products requires further exploration.

  18. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extractin a two stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 οn the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were...... estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15 and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data...... was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10 d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation...

  19. Planning an Agricultural Water Resources Management System: A Two-Stage Stochastic Fractional Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in many regions and countries throughout the world. In this study, a two-stage stochastic fractional programming (TSFP method is developed for planning an agricultural water resources management system under uncertainty. TSFP can provide an effective linkage between conflicting economic benefits and the associated penalties; it can also balance conflicting objectives and maximize the system marginal benefit with per unit of input under uncertainty. The developed TSFP method is applied to a real case of agricultural water resources management of the Zhangweinan River Basin China, which is one of the main food and cotton producing regions in north China and faces serious water shortage. The results demonstrate that the TSFP model is advantageous in balancing conflicting objectives and reflecting complicated relationships among multiple system factors. Results also indicate that, under the optimized irrigation target, the optimized water allocation rate of Minyou Channel and Zhangnan Channel are 57.3% and 42.7%, respectively, which adapts the changes in the actual agricultural water resources management problem. Compared with the inexact two-stage water management (ITSP method, TSFP could more effectively address the sustainable water management problem, provide more information regarding tradeoffs between multiple input factors and system benefits, and help the water managers maintain sustainable water resources development of the Zhangweinan River Basin.

  20. Beyond two-stage models for lung carcinogenesis in the Mayak workers: implications for plutonium risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Zöllner

    Full Text Available Mechanistic multi-stage models are used to analyze lung-cancer mortality after Plutonium exposure in the Mayak-workers cohort, with follow-up until 2008. Besides the established two-stage model with clonal expansion, models with three mutation stages as well as a model with two distinct pathways to cancer are studied. The results suggest that three-stage models offer an improved description of the data. The best-fitting models point to a mechanism where radiation increases the rate of clonal expansion. This is interpreted in terms of changes in cell-cycle control mediated by bystander signaling or repopulation following cell killing. No statistical evidence for a two-pathway model is found. To elucidate the implications of the different models for radiation risk, several exposure scenarios are studied. Models with a radiation effect at an early stage show a delayed response and a pronounced drop-off with older ages at exposure. Moreover, the dose-response relationship is strongly nonlinear for all three-stage models, revealing a marked increase above a critical dose.

  1. A two-stage storage routing model for green roof runoff detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Sonnenwald, Fred; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Green roofs have been adopted in urban drainage systems to control the total quantity and volumetric flow rate of runoff. Modern green roof designs are multi-layered, their main components being vegetation, substrate and, in almost all cases, a separate drainage layer. Most current hydrological models of green roofs combine the modelling of the separate layers into a single process; these models have limited predictive capability for roofs not sharing the same design. An adaptable, generic, two-stage model for a system consisting of a granular substrate over a hard plastic 'egg box'-style drainage layer and fibrous protection mat is presented. The substrate and drainage layer/protection mat are modelled separately by previously verified sub-models. Controlled storm events are applied to a green roof system in a rainfall simulator. The time-series modelled runoff is compared to the monitored runoff for each storm event. The modelled runoff profiles are accurate (mean Rt(2) = 0.971), but further characterization of the substrate component is required for the model to be generically applicable to other roof configurations with different substrate.

  2. Modified landfill gas generation rate model of first-order kinetics and two-stage reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun CHEN; Hao WANG; Na ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to establish a new domestic landfill gas (LFG) generation rate model that takes into account the impact ofleachate recirculation. The first-order kinetics and two-stage reaction (FKTSR) model of the LFG generation rate includes mechanisms of the nutrient balance for biochemical reaction in two main stages. In this study, the FKTSR model was modified by the introduction of the outflow function and the organic acid conversion coefficient in order to represent the in-situ condition of nutrient loss through leachate. Laboratory experiments were carried out to simulate the impact of leachate recirculation and verify the modified FKTSR model. The model calibration was then calculated by using the experimental data. The results suggested that the new model was in line with the experimental data. The main parameters of the modified FKTSR model, including the LFG production potential (L0), the reaction rate constant in the first stage (K1), and the reaction rate constant in the second stage (K2) of 64.746 L, 0.202 d-1, and 0.338 d-1,respectively, were comparable to the old ones of 42.069 L,0.231 d-1, and 0.231 d-1. The new model is better able to explain the mechanisms involved in LFG generation.

  3. Adaptive Urban Stormwater Management Using a Two-stage Stochastic Optimization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, F.; Hobbs, B. F.; McGarity, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    In many older cities, stormwater results in combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and consequent water quality impairments. Because of the expense of traditional approaches for controlling CSOs, cities are considering the use of green infrastructure (GI) to reduce runoff and pollutants. Examples of GI include tree trenches, rain gardens, green roofs, and rain barrels. However, the cost and effectiveness of GI are uncertain, especially at the watershed scale. We present a two-stage stochastic extension of the Stormwater Investment Strategy Evaluation (StormWISE) model (A. McGarity, JWRPM, 2012, 111-24) to explicitly model and optimize these uncertainties in an adaptive management framework. A two-stage model represents the immediate commitment of resources ("here & now") followed by later investment and adaptation decisions ("wait & see"). A case study is presented for Philadelphia, which intends to extensively deploy GI over the next two decades (PWD, "Green City, Clean Water - Implementation and Adaptive Management Plan," 2011). After first-stage decisions are made, the model updates the stochastic objective and constraints (learning). We model two types of "learning" about GI cost and performance. One assumes that learning occurs over time, is automatic, and does not depend on what has been done in stage one (basic model). The other considers learning resulting from active experimentation and learning-by-doing (advanced model). Both require expert probability elicitations, and learning from research and monitoring is modelled by Bayesian updating (as in S. Jacobi et al., JWRPM, 2013, 534-43). The model allocates limited financial resources to GI investments over time to achieve multiple objectives with a given reliability. Objectives include minimizing construction and O&M costs; achieving nutrient, sediment, and runoff volume targets; and community concerns, such as aesthetics, CO2 emissions, heat islands, and recreational values. CVaR (Conditional Value at Risk) and

  4. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ETHYLBENZENE DEHYDROGENATION PROCESS KINETICS IN A TWO-STAGE ADIABATIC CONTINUOUS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation in a two-stage adiabatic reactor with a catalytic bed functioning on continuous technology. The analysis of chemical reactions taking place parallel to the main reaction of styrene formation has been carried out on the basis of which a number of assumptions were made proceeding from which a kinetic scheme describing the mechanism of the chemical reactions during the dehydrogenation process was developed. A mathematical model of the dehydrogenation process, describing the dynamics of chemical reactions taking place in each of the two stages of the reactor block at a constant temperature is developed. The estimation of the rate constants of direct and reverse reactions of each component, formation and exhaustion of the reacted mixture was made. The dynamics of the starting material concentration variations (ethyl benzene batch was obtained as well as styrene formation dynamics and all byproducts of dehydrogenation (benzene, toluene, ethylene, carbon, hydrogen, ect.. The calculated the variations of the component composition of the reaction mixture during its passage through the first and second stages of the reactor showed that the proposed mathematical description adequately reproduces the kinetics of the process under investigation. This demonstrates the advantage of the developed model, as well as loyalty to the values found for the rate constants of reactions, which enable the use of models for calculating the kinetics of ethyl benzene dehydrogenation under nonisothermal mode in order to determine the optimal temperature trajectory of the reactor operation. In the future, it will reduce energy and resource consumption, increase the volume of produced styrene and improve the economic indexes of the process.

  5. Predictive Modeling of a Two-Stage Gearbox towards Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Diehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic approach to the modeling and analysis of a benchmark two-stage gearbox test bed to characterize gear fault signatures when processed with harmonic wavelet transform (HWT analysis. The eventual goal of condition monitoring is to be able to interpret vibration signals from nonstationary machinery in order to identify the type and severity of gear damage. To advance towards this goal, a lumped-parameter model that can be analyzed efficiently is developed which characterizes the gearbox vibratory response at the system level. The model parameters are identified through correlated numerical and experimental investigations. The model fidelity is validated first by spectrum analysis, using constant speed experimental data, and secondly by HWT analysis, using nonstationary experimental data. Model prediction and experimental data are compared for healthy gear operation and a seeded fault gear with a missing tooth. The comparison confirms that both the frequency content and the predicted, relative response magnitudes match with physical measurements. The research demonstrates that the modeling method in combination with the HWT data analysis has the potential for facilitating successful fault detection and diagnosis for gearbox systems.

  6. Flexible distributions for triple-goal estimates in two-stage hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg; Lin, Rongheng; Louis, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Performance evaluations often aim to achieve goals such as obtaining estimates of unit-specific means, ranks, and the distribution of unit-specific parameters. The Bayesian approach provides a powerful way to structure models for achieving these goals. While no single estimate can be optimal for achieving all three inferential goals, the communication and credibility of results will be enhanced by reporting a single estimate that performs well for all three. Triple goal estimates [Shen and Louis, 1998. Triple-goal estimates in two-stage hierarchical models. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 60, 455–471] have this performance and are appealing for performance evaluations. Because triple-goal estimates rely more heavily on the entire distribution than do posterior means, they are more sensitive to misspecification of the population distribution and we present various strategies to robustify triple-goal estimates by using nonparametric distributions. We evaluate performance based on the correctness and efficiency of the robustified estimates under several scenarios and compare empirical Bayes and fully Bayesian approaches to model the population distribution. We find that when data are quite informative, conclusions are robust to model misspecification. However, with less information in the data, conclusions can be quite sensitive to the choice of population distribution. Generally, use of a nonparametric distribution pays very little in efficiency when a parametric population distribution is valid, but successfully protects against model misspecification. PMID:19603088

  7. A two-stage cascade model of BOLD responses in human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick N Kay

    Full Text Available Visual neuroscientists have discovered fundamental properties of neural representation through careful analysis of responses to controlled stimuli. Typically, different properties are studied and modeled separately. To integrate our knowledge, it is necessary to build general models that begin with an input image and predict responses to a wide range of stimuli. In this study, we develop a model that accepts an arbitrary band-pass grayscale image as input and predicts blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD responses in early visual cortex as output. The model has a cascade architecture, consisting of two stages of linear and nonlinear operations. The first stage involves well-established computations-local oriented filters and divisive normalization-whereas the second stage involves novel computations-compressive spatial summation (a form of normalization and a variance-like nonlinearity that generates selectivity for second-order contrast. The parameters of the model, which are estimated from BOLD data, vary systematically across visual field maps: compared to primary visual cortex, extrastriate maps generally have larger receptive field size, stronger levels of normalization, and increased selectivity for second-order contrast. Our results provide insight into how stimuli are encoded and transformed in successive stages of visual processing.

  8. A cooperation model based on CVaR measure for a two-stage supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinsheng; Meng, Zhiqing; Shen, Rui

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperation model (CM) for the two-stage supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. In this model, it is supposed that the objective of the manufacturer is to maximise his/her profit while the objective of the retailer is to minimise his/her CVaR while controlling the risk originating from fluctuation in market demand. In reality, the manufacturer and the retailer would like to choose their own decisions as to wholesale price and order quantity to optimise their own objectives, resulting the fact that the expected decision of the manufacturer and that of the retailer may conflict with each other. Then, to achieve cooperation, the manufacturer and the retailer both need to give some concessions. The proposed model aims to coordinate the decisions of the manufacturer and the retailer, and balance the concessions of the two in their cooperation. We introduce an s* - optimal equilibrium solution in this model, which can decide the minimum concession that the manufacturer and the retailer need to give for their cooperation, and prove that the s* - optimal equilibrium solution can be obtained by solving a goal programming problem. Further, the case of different concessions made by the manufacturer and the retailer is also discussed. Numerical results show that the CM is efficient in dealing with the cooperations between the supplier and the retailer.

  9. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  10. A two-stage logistic regression-ANN model for the prediction of distress banks: Evidence from 11 emerging countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu Ling Lin

    2010-01-01

      This paper proposes a new approach of two-stage hybrid model of logistic regression-ANN for the construction of a financial distress warning system for banking industry in emerging market during 1998-2006...

  11. A Two-Stage Queue Model to Optimize Layout of Urban Drainage System considering Extreme Rainstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainstorm is a main factor to cause urban floods when urban drainage system cannot discharge stormwater successfully. This paper investigates distribution feature of rainstorms and draining process of urban drainage systems and uses a two-stage single-counter queue method M/M/1→M/D/1 to model urban drainage system. The model emphasizes randomness of extreme rainstorms, fuzziness of draining process, and construction and operation cost of drainage system. Its two objectives are total cost of construction and operation and overall sojourn time of stormwater. An improved genetic algorithm is redesigned to solve this complex nondeterministic problem, which incorporates with stochastic and fuzzy characteristics in whole drainage process. A numerical example in Shanghai illustrates how to implement the model, and comparisons with alternative algorithms show its performance in computational flexibility and efficiency. Discussions on sensitivity of four main parameters, that is, quantity of pump stations, drainage pipe diameter, rainstorm precipitation intensity, and confidence levels, are also presented to provide guidance for designing urban drainage system.

  12. Two-stage collaborative global optimization design model of the CHPG microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qingfen; Xu, Yeyan; Tang, Fei; Peng, Sicheng; Yang, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    With the continuous developing of technology and reducing of investment costs, renewable energy proportion in the power grid is becoming higher and higher because of the clean and environmental characteristics, which may need more larger-capacity energy storage devices, increasing the cost. A two-stage collaborative global optimization design model of the combined-heat-power-and-gas (abbreviated as CHPG) microgrid is proposed in this paper, to minimize the cost by using virtual storage without extending the existing storage system. P2G technology is used as virtual multi-energy storage in CHPG, which can coordinate the operation of electric energy network and natural gas network at the same time. Demand response is also one kind of good virtual storage, including economic guide for the DGs and heat pumps in demand side and priority scheduling of controllable loads. Two kinds of storage will coordinate to smooth the high-frequency fluctuations and low-frequency fluctuations of renewable energy respectively, and achieve a lower-cost operation scheme simultaneously. Finally, the feasibility and superiority of proposed design model is proved in a simulation of a CHPG microgrid.

  13. Viroporins, Examples of the Two-Stage Membrane Protein Folding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martinez-Gil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroporins are small, α-helical, hydrophobic virus encoded proteins, engineered to form homo-oligomeric hydrophilic pores in the host membrane. Viroporins participate in multiple steps of the viral life cycle, from entry to budding. As any other membrane protein, viroporins have to find the way to bury their hydrophobic regions into the lipid bilayer. Once within the membrane, the hydrophobic helices of viroporins interact with each other to form higher ordered structures required to correctly perform their porating activities. This two-step process resembles the two-stage model proposed for membrane protein folding by Engelman and Poppot. In this review we use the membrane protein folding model as a leading thread to analyze the mechanism and forces behind the membrane insertion and folding of viroporins. We start by describing the transmembrane segment architecture of viroporins, including the number and sequence characteristics of their membrane-spanning domains. Next, we connect the differences found among viroporin families to their viral genome organization, and finalize focusing on the pathways used by viroporins in their way to the membrane and on the transmembrane helix-helix interactions required to achieve proper folding and assembly.

  14. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    OpenAIRE

    Kittikhun Taruyanon; Sarun Tejasen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT) were 12 and 70 hours, re...

  15. Two-Stage orders sequencing system for mixed-model assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemczak, M.; Skolud, B.; Krenczyk, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper, the authors focus on the NP-hard problem of orders sequencing, formulated similarly to Car Sequencing Problem (CSP). The object of the research is the assembly line in an automotive industry company, on which few different models of products, each in a certain number of versions, are assembled on the shared resources, set in a line. Such production type is usually determined as a mixed-model production, and arose from the necessity of manufacturing customized products on the basis of very specific orders from single clients. The producers are nowadays obliged to provide each client the possibility to determine a huge amount of the features of the product they are willing to buy, as the competition in the automotive market is large. Due to the previously mentioned nature of the problem (NP-hard), in the given time period only satisfactory solutions are sought, as the optimal solution method has not yet been found. Most of the researchers that implemented inaccurate methods (e.g. evolutionary algorithms) to solving sequencing problems dropped the research after testing phase, as they were not able to obtain reproducible results, and met problems while determining the quality of the received solutions. Therefore a new approach to solving the problem, presented in this paper as a sequencing system is being developed. The sequencing system consists of a set of determined rules, implemented into computer environment. The system itself works in two stages. First of them is connected with the determination of a place in the storage buffer to which certain production orders should be sent. In the second stage of functioning, precise sets of sequences are determined and evaluated for certain parts of the storage buffer under certain criteria.

  16. Two Stage Secure Dynamic Load Balancing Architecture for SIP Server Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vennila

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol emerged with an aim to enhance the IP network capabilities in terms of complex service provision. SIP server scalability with load balancing has a greater concern due to the dramatic increase in SIP service demand. Load balancing of session method (request/response and security measures optimizes the SIP server to regulate of network traffic in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP. Establishing a honeywall prior to the load balancer significantly reduces SIP traffic and drops inbound malicious load. In this paper, we propose Active Least Call in SIP Server (ALC_Server algorithm fulfills objectives like congestion avoidance, improved response times, throughput, resource utilization, reducing server faults, scalability and protection of SIP call from DoS attacks. From the test bed, the proposed two-tier architecture demonstrates that the ALC_Server method dynamically controls the overload and provides robust security, uniform load distribution for SIP servers.

  17. A two-stage model for a day-ahead paratransit planning problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Maria L. A. G.; Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    We consider a dynamic planning problem for paratransit transportation. The focus is on a decision to take one day ahead: which requests to serve with own vehicles, and which requests to subcontract to taxis? We call this problem the day-ahead paratransit planning problem. The developed model is a

  18. A two-stage model for a day-ahead paratransit planning problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Maria L. A. G.; Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dynamic planning problem for paratransit transportation. The focus is on a decision to take one day ahead: which requests to serve with own vehicles, and which requests to subcontract to taxis? We call this problem the day-ahead paratransit planning problem. The developed model is a no

  19. Performance Evaluation of Two Node Tandem Communication Network with Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation having Two Stage Direct Bulk Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A two node tandem communication network with dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA having two stage direct bulk arrivals is developed and analyzed. The messages arriving to the source are packetized and stored in the buffers for forward transmission. Dynamic bandwidth allocation strategy is proposed by adjusting the transmission rate at every node just before transmission of each packet. The arrival and transmission processes at each node are characterized through compound Poisson and Poisson processes such that several of the statistical characteristics of communication networks identically matches. Using the difference - differential equations, the performance measures like the joint probability generating function of the content of two buffers, average buffer content, mean delays and throughput of nodes are derived and analyzed. It is observed that the bulk arrivals at two nodes and DBA have significant influence on performance measures. This network is much useful in Tele and Satellite communications.

  20. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Taruyanon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT were 12 and 70 hours, respectively. The model was developed based on ADM1 basic structure and implemented with the simulation software AQUASIM. The simulated results were compared with measured data obtained from using the laboratory-scale two-stage anaerobic treatment process to treat wastewater. The sensitivity analysis identified maximum specific uptake rate (km and half-saturation constant (Ks of acetate degrader and sulfate reducing bacteria as the kinetic parameters which highly affected the process behaviour, which were further estimated. The study concluded that the model could predict the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the ethanol distillery process wastewater with varying strength of influents with reasonable accuracy.

  1. A two-stage method for microcalcification cluster segmentation in mammography by deformable models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikidis, N.; Kazantzi, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Karahaliou, A.; Costaridou, L., E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Vassiou, K. [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41500 (Greece)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Segmentation of microcalcification (MC) clusters in x-ray mammography is a difficult task for radiologists. Accurate segmentation is prerequisite for quantitative image analysis of MC clusters and subsequent feature extraction and classification in computer-aided diagnosis schemes. Methods: In this study, a two-stage semiautomated segmentation method of MC clusters is investigated. The first stage is targeted to accurate and time efficient segmentation of the majority of the particles of a MC cluster, by means of a level set method. The second stage is targeted to shape refinement of selected individual MCs, by means of an active contour model. Both methods are applied in the framework of a rich scale-space representation, provided by the wavelet transform at integer scales. Segmentation reliability of the proposed method in terms of inter and intraobserver agreements was evaluated in a case sample of 80 MC clusters originating from the digital database for screening mammography, corresponding to 4 morphology types (punctate: 22, fine linear branching: 16, pleomorphic: 18, and amorphous: 24) of MC clusters, assessing radiologists’ segmentations quantitatively by two distance metrics (Hausdorff distance—HDIST{sub cluster}, average of minimum distance—AMINDIST{sub cluster}) and the area overlap measure (AOM{sub cluster}). The effect of the proposed segmentation method on MC cluster characterization accuracy was evaluated in a case sample of 162 pleomorphic MC clusters (72 malignant and 90 benign). Ten MC cluster features, targeted to capture morphologic properties of individual MCs in a cluster (area, major length, perimeter, compactness, and spread), were extracted and a correlation-based feature selection method yielded a feature subset to feed in a support vector machine classifier. Classification performance of the MC cluster features was estimated by means of the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az ± Standard Error) utilizing

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Model State Variables and Observation and Forecast Biases Using a Two-Stage Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the discrete Kalman filter, and the state variables using the ensemble Kalman filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware ensemble Kalman filter. Furthermore, minimal code modification in existing data assimilation software is needed to implement the method. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  3. Simultaneous estimation of model state variables and observation and forecast biases using a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. N. Pauwels

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a two-stage hybrid Kalman filter to estimate both observation and forecast bias in hydrologic models, in addition to state variables. The biases are estimated using the Discrete Kalman Filter, and the state variables using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. A key issue in this multi-component assimilation scheme is the exact partitioning of the difference between observation and forecasts into state, forecast bias and observation bias updates. Here, the error covariances of the forecast bias and the unbiased states are calculated as constant fractions of the biased state error covariance, and the observation bias error covariance is a function of the observation prediction error covariance. In a series of synthetic experiments, focusing on the assimilation of discharge into a rainfall-runoff model, it is shown that both static and dynamic observation and forecast biases can be successfully estimated. The results indicate a strong improvement in the estimation of the state variables and resulting discharge as opposed to the use of a bias-unaware Ensemble Kalman Filter. The results suggest that a better performance of data assimilation methods should be possible if both forecast and observation biases are taken into account.

  4. Modifications of some simple One-stage Randomized Response Models to Two-stage in complex surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rafiq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Warner (1965 introduced a Randomized Response Technique (RRT to minimize bias due to non- response or false response. Thereafter, several researchers have made significant contribution in the development and modification of different Randomized Response Models. We have modified a few one-stage Simple Randomized Response Models to two-stage randomized response models in complex surveys and found that our developed models are more efficient.

  5. An inexact mixed risk-aversion two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L

    2015-02-01

    Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy.

  6. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ruei-Hao [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chan, Chang-Chuan, E-mail: ccchan@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage dispersion models can estimate exposures to hazardous air pollutants. • Spatial distribution of V levels is derived for sources without known emission rates. • A distance-to-source gradient is found for V levels from a petrochemical complex. • Two-stage dispersion is useful for modeling air pollution in resource-limited areas. - Abstract: The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM{sub 10} filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040–0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398–0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents’ addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources.

  7. A multi-regional two-stage cournot model for analyzing competition in the German electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Ellersdorfer, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a model based analysis of competition in the German electricity market is presented. Applying a multi-regional two-stage model, which captures interregional transmission constraints and the impact of forward trading on spot market decisions, potential for exercising market power of the four dominant electricity producers has been found. Assuming Cournot behavior in the spot market, it has been shown to what extent network reinforcement between Germany and some of its neighboring...

  8. New numerical model for thermal quenching mechanism in quartz based on two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal quenching plays an important role in the thermoluminescence (TL of quartz on which many applications of TL are based. The studies of the stability and kinetics of the 325 °C thermoluminescence peak in quartz are described by Wintle (1975, which show the occurrence of thermal quenching, the decrease in luminescence efficiency with rise in temperature. The thermal quenching of thermoluminescence in quartz was studied experimentally by several authors. The simulations work presented in the literature is based on the single-stage thermal stimulation model of thermoluminescence, in spite of that the mechanisms of this effect remain incomplete. This paper presents a new numerical model for thermal quenching in quartz, using the previously published two-stage thermal stimulation of thermoluminescence model.

  9. A Computational Model for Two-stage 4K-Pulse Tube Cooler: Part I.Theoretical Model and Numerical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.L. Ju; A.T.A.M. de Waele

    2001-01-01

    A new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian computational model for simulating and visualizing the internal processes and the variations of dynamic parameters of a two-stage pulse tube cooler (PTC) operating at 4 K-temperature region has been developed. We use the Lagrangian method, a set of moving grids, to follow the exact tracks of gas particles as they move with pressure oscillation in the pulse tube to avoid any numerical false diffusion. The Eulerian approach, a set of fixed computational grids, is used to simulate the variations of dynamic parameters in the regenerator. A variety of physical factors, such as real thermal properties of helium, multi-layered magnetic regenerative materials, pressure drop and heat transfer in the regenerator, and heat exchangers, are taken into account in this model. The present modeling is very effective for visualizing the internal physical processes in 4 K-pulse tube coolers.

  10. A queuing-theory-based interval-fuzzy robust two-stage programming model for environmental management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Li, Y. P.; Huang, G. H.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a queuing-theory-based interval-fuzzy robust two-stage programming (QB-IRTP) model is developed through introducing queuing theory into an interval-fuzzy robust two-stage (IRTP) optimization framework. The developed QB-IRTP model can not only address highly uncertain information for the lower and upper bounds of interval parameters but also be used for analysing a variety of policy scenarios that are associated with different levels of economic penalties when the promised targets are violated. Moreover, it can reflect uncertainties in queuing theory problems. The developed method has been applied to a case of long-term municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. Interval solutions associated with different waste-generation rates, different waiting costs and different arriving rates have been obtained. They can be used for generating decision alternatives and thus help managers to identify desired MSW management policies under various economic objectives and system reliability constraints.

  11. Infinite horizon optimal control of affine nonlinear discrete switched systems using two-stage approximate dynamic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ning; Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Feng, Dezhi

    2012-09-01

    In this article, a novel iteration algorithm named two-stage approximate dynamic programming (TSADP) is proposed to seek the solution of nonlinear switched optimal control problem. At each iteration of TSADP, a multivariate optimal control problem is transformed to be a certain number of univariate optimal control problems. It is shown that the value function at each iteration can be characterised pointwisely by a set of smooth functions recursively obtained from TSADP, and the associated control policy, continuous control and switching control law included, is explicitly provided in a state-feedback form. Moreover, the convergence and optimality of TSADP is strictly proven. To implement this algorithm efficiently, neural networks, critic and action networks, are utilised to approximate the value function and continuous control law, respectively. Thus, the value function is expressed by the weights of critic networks pointwise. Besides, redundant weights are ruled out at each iteration to simplify the exponentially increasing computation burden. Finally, a simulation example is provided to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. A manufacturing quality assessment model based-on two stages interval type-2 fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Helmi Shintya Dewi, Intan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an assessment models for manufacturing quality using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (IT2-FL). The proposed model is developed based on one of building block in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), which is benefit of SCM, and focuses more on quality. The proposed model can be used to predict the quality level of production chain in a company. The quality of production will affect to the quality of product. Practically, quality of production is unique for every type of production system. Hence, experts opinion will play major role in developing the assessment model. The model will become more complicated when the data contains ambiguity and uncertainty. In this study, IT2-FL is used to model the ambiguity and uncertainty. A case study taken from a company in Yogyakarta shows that the proposed manufacturing quality assessment model can work well in determining the quality level of production.

  13. Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Power Coupling System with Two-stage Planetary Gear Trains for Hybrid System%混合动力两级行星机构动力耦合系统动力学建模及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉涛; 陈营生

    2012-01-01

    以基于双转子电机的混合动力传动系统的两级行星齿轮机构动力耦合系统为研究对象,考虑前后两级行星齿轮机构的齿轮副啮合刚度、中心构件的扭转支撑刚度、连接部分的扭转耦合刚度、各构件惯性等基本因素,详细推导并建立两级行星齿轮耦合系统的纯扭转动力学模型.利用两级行星齿轮机构的有关参数进行特征值问题求解,得到系统整体模型的固有特性,按照振型特点把系统的振动形式划分为三种模式:整体扭转振动模式、前排行星轮振动模式和后排行星轮振动模式.在整体模式下固有频率为单根,系统各构件均以一定幅度做扭转振动;前、后排行星轮模式下固有频率均为二重根,且除了其自身外,其他构件均无振动.归纳分析得到的各振动模式特征与前人有关结论相吻合.同时指出连接部分的耦合刚度对系统振动特性的影响,并作了初步分析.%A power coupling system with two-stage planetary gear trains is considered, which is a part of a novel hybrid power train system based on a double-rotor motor. Many fundamental factors are taken into account, such as mesh stiffness of gear pairs of the two-stage planetary gears, torsional stiffness of the central parts, torsional coupling stiffness of the connecting section, inertia of the system, etc. Purely torsional dynamic model of the coupling system is developed. The reduced-order eigenvalue problems are derived by using the related parameters of the system, and the natural characteristics of the system is shown. The vibration modes of the system are classified into three categories: overall rotational mode, front row planet mode, rear row planet mode. In overall mode, the natural frequency is a simple root and each part of the system has torsional vibration to some extent. However, the natural frequency is a double root in the other two modes and no part of system vibrates except the planet gears

  14. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  15. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  16. A Two-Stage Combining Classifier Model for the Development of Adaptive Dialog Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griol, David; Iglesias, José Antonio; Ledezma, Agapito; Sanchis, Araceli

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a statistical framework to develop user-adapted spoken dialog systems. The proposed framework integrates two main models. The first model is used to predict the user's intention during the dialog. The second model uses this prediction and the history of dialog up to the current moment to predict the next system response. This prediction is performed with an ensemble-based classifier trained for each of the tasks considered, so that a better selection of the next system can be attained weighting the outputs of these specialized classifiers. The codification of the information and the definition of data structures to store the data supplied by the user throughout the dialog makes the estimation of the models from the training data and practical domains manageable. We describe our proposal and its application and detailed evaluation in a practical spoken dialog system.

  17. Two-stage Turing model for generating pigment patterns on the leopard and the jaguar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. T.; Liaw, S. S.; Maini, P. K.

    2006-07-01

    Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, which showed that flecks are the primitive pattern of the felid family and all other patterns including rosettes and blotches develop from it, we construct a Turing reaction-diffusion model which generates spot patterns initially. Starting from this spotted pattern, we successfully generate patterns of adult leopards and jaguars by tuning parameters of the model in the subsequent phase of patterning.

  18. A Two-Stage Process Model of Sensory Discrimination: An Alternative to Drift-Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Landy, Michael S

    2016-11-02

    Discrimination of the direction of motion of a noisy stimulus is an example of sensory discrimination under uncertainty. For stimuli that are extended in time, reaction time is quicker for larger signal values (e.g., discrimination of opposite directions of motion compared with neighboring orientations) and larger signal strength (e.g., stimuli with higher contrast or motion coherence, that is, lower noise). The standard model of neural responses (e.g., in lateral intraparietal cortex) and reaction time for discrimination is drift-diffusion. This model makes two clear predictions. (1) The effects of signal strength and value on reaction time should interact multiplicatively because the diffusion process depends on the signal-to-noise ratio. (2) If the diffusion process is interrupted, as in a cued-response task, the time to decision after the cue should be independent of the strength of accumulated sensory evidence. In two experiments with human participants, we show that neither prediction holds. A simple alternative model is developed that is consistent with the results. In this estimate-then-decide model, evidence is accumulated until estimation precision reaches a threshold value. Then, a decision is made with duration that depends on the signal-to-noise ratio achieved by the first stage. Sensory decision-making under uncertainty is usually modeled as the slow accumulation of noisy sensory evidence until a threshold amount of evidence supporting one of the possible decision outcomes is reached. Furthermore, it has been suggested that this accumulation process is reflected in neural responses, e.g., in lateral intraparietal cortex. We derive two behavioral predictions of this model and show that neither prediction holds. We introduce a simple alternative model in which evidence is accumulated until a sufficiently precise estimate of the stimulus is achieved, and then that estimate is used to guide the discrimination decision. This model is consistent with the

  19. Assessing vanadium and arsenic exposure of people living near a petrochemical complex with two-stage dispersion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-04-30

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a two-stage dispersion model empirically for the purpose of estimating air pollution levels in the vicinity of petrochemical plants. We studied oil refineries and coal-fired power plants in the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, an area of 2,603-ha situated on the central west coast of Taiwan. The pollutants targeted were vanadium (V) from oil refineries and arsenic (As) from coal-fired power plants. We applied a backward fitting method to determine emission rates of V and As, with 192 PM10 filters originally collected between 2009 and 2012. Our first-stage model estimated emission rates of V and As (median and 95% confidence intervals at 0.0202 (0.0040-0.1063) and 0.1368 (0.0398-0.4782) g/s, respectively. In our second stage model, the predicted zone-average concentrations showed a strong correlation with V, but a poor correlation with As. Our findings show that two-stage dispersion models are relatively precise for estimating V levels at residents' addresses near the petrochemical complex, but they did not work as well for As levels. In conclusion, our model-based approach can be widely used for modeling exposure to air pollution from industrial areas in countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simplified mechanistic model for the two-stage anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Bravo, Andrés; Pérez-Elvira, Sara; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Two-phase anaerobic systems are being increasingly implemented for the treatment of both sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Despite the good amount of mathematical models in anaerobic digestion, few have been applied in two-phase systems. In this study, a three-reaction mechanistic model has been developed, implemented and validated by using experimental data from a long-term anaerobic two-phase (TPAD) digester treating sewage sludge. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most influential parameters of the model are the ones related to the hydrolysis reaction and the activity of methanogens in the thermophilic reactor. The calibration procedure highlights a noticeable growth rate of the thermophilic methanogens throughout the evaluation period. Overall, all the measured variables are properly predicted by the model during both the calibration and the cross-validation periods. The model's representation of the organic matter behaviour is quite good. The most important disagreements are observed for the biogas production especially during the validation period. The whole application procedure underlines the ability of the model to properly predict the behaviour of this bioprocess.

  1. Two-Stage Analysis on Models for Quantitative Differentiation of Early-Pathological Bladder States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kalyagina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical simulation method was developed for visualization of the diffuse reflected light on a surface of 3-layered models of urinary bladder wall. Five states, from normal to precancerous, of the urinary bladder epithelium were simulated. With the use of solutions of classical electrodynamics equations, scattering coefficients μs and asymmetry parameters g of the bladder epithelium were found in order to perform Monte Carlo calculations. The results, compared with the experimental studies, has revealed the influence of the changes in absorption and scattering properties on diffuse-reflectance signal distributions on the surfaces of the modelled media.

  2. A two-stage unsupervised learning algorithm reproduces multisensory enhancement in a neural network model of the corticotectal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Thomas J; Patton, Paul E

    2003-07-30

    Multisensory enhancement (MSE) is the augmentation of the response to sensory stimulation of one modality by stimulation of a different modality. It has been described for multisensory neurons in the deep superior colliculus (DSC) of mammals, which function to detect, and direct orienting movements toward, the sources of stimulation (targets). MSE would seem to improve the ability of DSC neurons to detect targets, but many mammalian DSC neurons are unimodal. MSE requires descending input to DSC from certain regions of parietal cortex. Paradoxically, the descending projections necessary for MSE originate from unimodal cortical neurons. MSE, and the puzzling findings associated with it, can be simulated using a model of the corticotectal system. In the model, a network of DSC units receives primary sensory input that can be augmented by modulatory cortical input. Connection weights from primary and modulatory inputs are trained in stages one (Hebb) and two (Hebb-anti-Hebb), respectively, of an unsupervised two-stage algorithm. Two-stage training causes DSC units to extract information concerning simulated targets from their inputs. It also causes the DSC to develop a mixture of unimodal and multisensory units. The percentage of DSC multisensory units is determined by the proportion of cross-modal targets and by primary input ambiguity. Multisensory DSC units develop MSE, which depends on unimodal modulatory connections. Removal of the modulatory influence greatly reduces MSE but has little effect on DSC unit responses to stimuli of a single modality. The correspondence between model and data suggests that two-stage training captures important features of self-organization in the real corticotectal system.

  3. Effects of Risk Aversion on Market Outcomes: A Stochastic Two-Stage Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different risk preferences of electricity producers alter the market-clearing outcomes. Toward this goal, we propose a stochastic equilibrium model for electricity markets with two settlements, i.e., day-ahead and balancing, in which a number of conventional and stochastic...... by its optimality conditions, resulting in a mixed complementarity problem. Numerical results from a case study based on the IEEE one-area reliability test system are derived and discussed....

  4. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting using a Two-Stage Spatial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-08

    decision via a truncation; the second process drives precipitation amounts via an anamorphosis or transformation function (Chilès and Delfiner 1999, p...spatially varying anamorphosis or transformation function (Chilès and Delfiner 1999, p. 381). The anamorphosis has the advantage of retaining the appro... Delfiner , P. (1999), Geostatistics: Modeling Spatial Uncertainty, Wiley, 695 pp. Diebold, F. X., Gunther, T. A., and Tay, A. S. (1998), “Evaluating density

  5. Two-stage model in perceptual learning: toward a unified theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Sagi, Dov; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-05-01

    Training or exposure to a visual feature leads to a long-term improvement in performance on visual tasks that employ this feature. Such performance improvements and the processes that govern them are called visual perceptual learning (VPL). As an ever greater volume of research accumulates in the field, we have reached a point where a unifying model of VPL should be sought. A new wave of research findings has exposed diverging results along three major directions in VPL: specificity versus generalization of VPL, lower versus higher brain locus of VPL, and task-relevant versus task-irrelevant VPL. In this review, we propose a new theoretical model that suggests the involvement of two different stages in VPL: a low-level, stimulus-driven stage, and a higher-level stage dominated by task demands. If experimentally verified, this model would not only constructively unify the current divergent results in the VPL field, but would also lead to a significantly better understanding of visual plasticity, which may, in turn, lead to interventions to ameliorate diseases affecting vision and other pathological or age-related visual and nonvisual declines.

  6. Research on Operation Strategy for Bundled Wind-thermal Generation Power Systems Based on Two-Stage Optimization Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Sanming; Jiang, Xiuchen; Sheng, Gehao; Liu, Tianyu

    2017-05-01

    Wind power has the advantages of being clean and non-polluting and the development of bundled wind-thermal generation power systems (BWTGSs) is one of the important means to improve wind power accommodation rate and implement “clean alternative” on generation side. A two-stage optimization strategy for BWTGSs considering wind speed forecasting results and load characteristics is proposed. By taking short-term wind speed forecasting results of generation side and load characteristics of demand side into account, a two-stage optimization model for BWTGSs is formulated. By using the environmental benefit index of BWTGSs as the objective function, supply-demand balance and generator operation as the constraints, the first-stage optimization model is developed with the chance-constrained programming theory. By using the operation cost for BWTGSs as the objective function, the second-stage optimization model is developed with the greedy algorithm. The improved PSO algorithm is employed to solve the model and numerical test verifies the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  7. A Mathematical Programming Model for Tactical Planning with Set-up Continuity in a Two-stage Ceramic Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez Perales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that capacity issues in tactical production plans in a hierarchical context are relevant since its inaccurate determination may lead to unrealistic or simply non-feasible plans at the operational level. Semi-continuous industrial processes, such as ceramic ones, often imply large setups and their consideration is crucial for accurate capacity estimation. However, in most of production planning models developed in a hierarchical context at this tactical (aggregated level, setup changes are not explicitly considered. Their consideration includes not only decisions about lot sizing of production, but also allocation, known as Capacitated Lot Sizing and Loading Problem (CLSLP. However, CLSLP does not account for set-up continuity, specially important in contexts with lengthy and costly set-ups and where product families minimum run length are similar to planning periods. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model for a two stage ceramic firm which accounts for lot sizing and loading decisions including minimum lot-sizes and set-up continuity between two consecutive periods is proposed. Set-up continuity inclusion is modelled just considering which product families are produced at the beginning and at the end of each period of time, and not the complete sequence. The model is solved over a simplified two-stage real-case within a Spanish ceramic firm. Obtained results confirm its validity.

  8. Two-stage dissipation in a superconducting microbridge: experiment and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, L; Altshuler, E [Superconductivity Laboratory, IMRE-Physics Faculty, University of Havana, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Niratisairak, S; Haugen, Oe; Johansen, T H [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Davidson, B A [INFM-TASC Area Science Park, Basovizza (Italy); Testa, G; Sarnelli, E [Cybernetic Institute of the CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Using fluorescent microthermal imaging we have investigated the origin of 'two-step' behavior in I-V curves for a current-carrying YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconducting bridge. High resolution temperature maps reveal that as the applied current increases the first step in the voltage corresponds to local dissipation (hot spot), whereas the second step is associated with the onset of global dissipation throughout the entire bridge. A quantitative explanation of the experimental results is provided by a simple model for an inhomogeneous superconductor, assuming that the hot spot nucleates at a location with slightly depressed superconducting properties.

  9. A GRASP model in network design for two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a capacitated facility location problem (CFLP which contains a production facility and distribution centers (DCs supplying retailers' demand. The primary purpose is to locate distribution centres in the network and the objective is the minimization of the sum of fixed facility location, pipeline inventory, safety stock and lost sales. We use Greedy randomized adaptive search procedures (GRASP to solve the model. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method of this paper could provide competitive results in reasonable amount time.

  10. 网络市场商标权侵权问题研究--基于一个两期动态交易模型%Study on Trademark Right Infringement in Network Market---Based on a Two-stage Dynamic Trading Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩沈超; 吴雯

    2014-01-01

    构建一个两期动态交易模型,分析在销售与不销售商标权侵权商品的情形下,网络市场三方主体网商平台、消费者和卖家如何权衡效用最大化,并结合“1号店”案例深入研究网络市场商标权侵权问题。结论表明:当网商平台的监管力度、惩罚成本控制在一定范围内,有助于抑制侵权行为发生;商标的品牌价值越高,侵权发生的可能性也相应增加;卖家商业道德的提升对于侵权活动发生亦有抑制作用。据此,提出了如何构建和谐网络市场、开展诚信交易活动的政策建议。%A two-stage dynamic trading model is built in this paper, to analyze how the three sides of main bodies in network mar-ket environment -online business platforms, consumers and sellers maximize their utilities in two different scenarios ( whether to sell goods that infringes the trademark right or not). Besides, a case study concerned with“the 1st Shop” is also adopted to do some dee-per analyses about trademark right infringement in network market. The result reflects that:in network market, the online platform will contribute to restrain infringing activities by controlling regulations as well as penalty cost to a certain level;the higher the trademark of the brand value is, the more chances that infringing activities occur;the improvement of business morality also helps the decreasing of infringing activities. On the basis, the paper puts forward some policy suggestions which are concerned with how to build a harmonious network market and to do honest trading online.

  11. Two-stage Hidden Markov Model in Gesture Recognition for Human Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Nguyen-Duc-Thanh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model (HMM is very rich in mathematical structure and hence can form the theoretical basis for use in a wide range of applications including gesture representation. Most research in this field, however, uses only HMM for recognizing simple gestures, while HMM can definitely be applied for whole gesture meaning recognition. This is very effectively applicable in Human‐Robot Interaction (HRI. In this paper, we introduce an approach for HRI in which not only the human can naturally control the robot by hand gesture, but also the robot can recognize what kind of task it is executing. The main idea behind this method is the 2‐stages Hidden Markov Model. The 1st HMM is to recognize the prime command‐like gestures. Based on the sequence of prime gestures that are recognized from the 1st stage and which represent the whole action, the 2nd HMM plays a role in task recognition. Another contribution of this paper is that we use the output Mixed Gaussian distribution in HMM to improve the recognition rate. In the experiment, we also complete a comparison of the different number of hidden states and mixture components to obtain the optimal one, and compare to other methods to evaluate this performance.

  12. Two-Stage Hidden Markov Model in Gesture Recognition for Human Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan Nguyen-Duc-Thanh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model (HMM is very rich in mathematical structure and hence can form the theoretical basis for use in a wide range of applications including gesture representation. Most research in this field, however, uses only HMM for recognizing simple gestures, while HMM can definitely be applied for whole gesture meaning recognition. This is very effectively applicable in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI. In this paper, we introduce an approach for HRI in which not only the human can naturally control the robot by hand gesture, but also the robot can recognize what kind of task it is executing. The main idea behind this method is the 2-stages Hidden Markov Model. The 1st HMM is to recognize the prime command-like gestures. Based on the sequence of prime gestures that are recognized from the 1st stage and which represent the whole action, the 2nd HMM plays a role in task recognition. Another contribution of this paper is that we use the output Mixed Gaussian distribution in HMM to improve the recognition rate. In the experiment, we also complete a comparison of the different number of hidden states and mixture components to obtain the optimal one, and compare to other methods to evaluate this performance.

  13. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extract in a two stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2012-02-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 on the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15, and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation less than 5% for all steady states. Therefore, the ADM1 is a valuable tool for process design in the case of a two-stage anaerobic process as well.

  14. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  15. Two-stage model of radon-induced malignant lung tumors in rats: effects of cell killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, E. G.; Curtis, S. B.; Cross, F. T.; Moolgavkar, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    A two-stage stochastic model of carcinogenesis is used to analyze lung tumor incidence in 3750 rats exposed to varying regimens of radon carried on a constant-concentration uranium ore dust aerosol. New to this analysis is the parameterization of the model such that cell killing by the alpha particles could be included. The model contains parameters characterizing the rate of the first mutation, the net proliferation rate of initiated cells, the ratio of the rates of cell loss (cell killing plus differentiation) and cell division, and the lag time between the appearance of the first malignant cell and the tumor. Data analysis was by standard maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Results indicate that the rate of the first mutation is dependent on radon and consistent with in vitro rates measured experimentally, and that the rate of the second mutation is not dependent on radon. An initial sharp rise in the net proliferation rate of initiated cell was found with increasing exposure rate (denoted model I), which leads to an unrealistically high cell-killing coefficient. A second model (model II) was studied, in which the initial rise was attributed to promotion via a step function, implying that it is due not to radon but to the uranium ore dust. This model resulted in values for the cell-killing coefficient consistent with those found for in vitro cells. An "inverse dose-rate" effect is seen, i.e. an increase in the lifetime probability of tumor with a decrease in exposure rate. This is attributed in large part to promotion of intermediate lesions. Since model II is preferable on biological grounds (it yields a plausible cell-killing coefficient), such as uranium ore dust. This analysis presents evidence that a two-stage model describes the data adequately and generates hypotheses regarding the mechanism of radon-induced carcinogenesis.

  16. A Decision-making Model for a Two-stage Production-delivery System in SCM Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ding-Zhong; Yamashiro, Mitsuo

    A decision-making model is developed for an optimal production policy in a two-stage production-delivery system that incorporates a fixed quantity supply of finished goods to a buyer at a fixed interval of time. First, a general cost model is formulated considering both supplier (of raw materials) and buyer (of finished products) sides. Then an optimal solution to the problem is derived on basis of the cost model. Using the proposed model and its optimal solution, one can determine optimal production lot size for each stage, optimal number of transportation for semi-finished goods, and optimal quantity of semi-finished goods transported each time to meet the lumpy demand of consumers. Also, we examine the sensitivity of raw materials ordering and production lot size to changes in ordering cost, transportation cost and manufacturing setup cost. A pragmatic computation approach for operational situations is proposed to solve integer approximation solution. Finally, we give some numerical examples.

  17. Microbial community structure and dynamics in two-stage vs single-stage thermophilic anaerobic digestion of mixed swine slurry and market bio-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Aurora; Schievano, Andrea; Tenca, Alberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Oberti, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2013-04-15

    The microbial community of a thermophilic two-stage process was monitored during two-months operation and compared to a conventional single-stage process. Qualitative and quantitative microbial dynamics were analysed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The bacterial community was dominated by heat-shock resistant, spore-forming clostridia in the two-stage process, whereas a more diverse and dynamic community (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistes) was observed in the single-stage process. A significant evolution of bacterial community occurred over time in the acidogenic phase of the two-phase process with the selection of few dominant species associated to stable hydrogen production. The archaeal community, dominated by the acetoclastic Methanosarcinales in both methanogen reactors, showed a significant diversity change in the single-stage process after a period of adaptation to the feeding conditions, compared to a constant stability in the methanogenic reactor of the two-stage process. The more diverse and dynamic bacterial and archaeal community of single-stage process compared to the two-stage process accounted for the best degradation activity, and consequently the best performance, in this reactor. The microbiological perspective proved a useful tool for a better understanding and comparison of anaerobic digestion processes.

  18. Acquisition of nonlinear forward optics in generative models: two-stage "downside-up" learning for occluded vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage learning method which implements occluded visual scene analysis into a generative model, a type of hierarchical neural network with bi-directional synaptic connections. Here, top-down connections simulate forward optics to generate predictions for sensory driven low-level representation, whereas bottom-up connections function to send the prediction error, the difference between the sensory based and the predicted low-level representation, to higher areas. The prediction error is then used to update the high-level representation to obtain better agreement with the visual scene. Although the actual forward optics is highly nonlinear and the accuracy of simulated forward optics is crucial for these types of models, the majority of previous studies have only investigated linear and simplified cases of forward optics. Here we take occluded vision as an example of nonlinear forward optics, where an object in front completely masks out the object behind. We propose a two-staged learning method inspired by the staged development of infant visual capacity. In the primary learning stage, a minimal set of object basis is acquired within a linear generative model using the conventional unsupervised learning scheme. In the secondary learning stage, an auxiliary multi-layer neural network is trained to acquire nonlinear forward optics by supervised learning. The important point is that the high-level representation of the linear generative model serves as the input and the sensory driven low-level representation provides the desired output. Numerical simulations show that occluded visual scene analysis can indeed be implemented by the proposed method. Furthermore, considering the format of input to the multi-layer network and analysis of hidden-layer units leads to the prediction that whole object representation of partially occluded objects, together with complex intermediate representation as a consequence of nonlinear transformation from non-occluded to

  19. TEMPERATURE FIELD MODEL OF TWO-STAGE UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION%两阶段煤炭地下气化温度场模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰和

    2001-01-01

    Two-stage underground coal gasification is an effective method which can produce water gas with high heating value,while the temperature is the key factor that determines on its producing process. On the basis of model test, the mathematical model for two dimensions, non-linear, unsteady temperature field is established through analyzing the distribution law of temperature field for combustion and gasification of coal seam in the stove, and outlining and treating the boundary conditions. A selection method of the model parameters has been introduced. The mathematical model is solved by the control volume method,and calculation results are analysed. The uniformity of calculation and real measurement value indicate that the numerical simulation of dynamic state temperature field for the coal seam medium in the gasification stove is correct.Thereby,it provides a necessarily theoretical base for further quantitative study on process of underground coal gasification.

  20. Two-stage-six-objective calibration of a hydrodynamic-based sediment transport model for the Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet Dung, Nguyen; Van Manh, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    formulate a two-stage calibration by firstly estimating parameters for the HD module to fit the three objective functions and then estimating the parameters for the AD module the fit the remaining three objective functions. We developed a wrapper code implementing the parallel version of NSGA II, controlling the whole calibration process of both stages. This reduces the computational time significantly and facilitates the calibration in due time. The calibration results imply that the proposed two-stage-six-objective calibration procedure provides meaningful parameter sets fulfilling the different objectives in a Pareto sense, even for such a large scale 2D quasi hydrodynamic-based sediment transport model within a highly complex study domain like the Mekong Delta.

  1. Two-Stage Nerve Graft in Severe Scar: A Time-Course Study in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Zadegan

    2015-04-01

    According to the EPT and WRL, the two-stage nerve graft showed significant improvement (P=0.020 and P =0.017 respectively. The TOA showed no significant difference between the two groups. The total vascular index was significantly higher in the two-stage nerve graft group (P

  2. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  3. Modelling the removal of volatile pollutants under transient conditions in a two-stage bioreactor using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M Estefanía; Rene, Eldon R; Boger, Zvi; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2017-02-15

    A two-stage biological waste gas treatment system consisting of a first stage biotrickling filter (BTF) and second stage biofilter (BF) was tested for the removal of a gas-phase methanol (M), hydrogen sulphide (HS) and α-pinene (P) mixture. The bioreactors were tested with two types of shock loads, i.e., long-term (66h) low to medium concentration loads, and short-term (12h) low to high concentration loads. M and HS were removed in the BTF, reaching maximum elimination capacities (ECmax) of 684 and 33 gm(-3)h(-1), respectively. P was removed better in the second stage BF with an ECmax of 130 gm(-3)h(-1). The performance was modelled using two multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) that employed the error backpropagation with momentum algorithm, in order to predict the removal efficiencies (RE, %) of methanol (REM), hydrogen sulphide (REHS) and α-pinene (REP), respectively. It was observed that, a MLP with the topology 3-4-2 was able to predict REM and REHS in the BTF, while a topology of 3-3-1 was able to approximate REP in the BF. The results show that artificial neural network (ANN) based models can effectively be used to model the transient-state performance of bioprocesses treating gas-phase pollutants.

  4. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  5. A two-stage approach in solving the state probabilities of the multi-queue M/G/1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Song; Yen, Hao-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The M/G/1 model is the fundamental basis of the queueing system in many network systems. Usually, the study of the M/G/1 is limited by the assumption of single queue and infinite capacity. In practice, however, these postulations may not be valid, particularly when dealing with many real-world problems. In this paper, a two-stage state-space approach is devoted to solving the state probabilities for the multi-queue finite-capacity M/G/1 model, i.e. q-M/G/1/Ki with Ki buffers in the ith queue. The state probabilities at departure instants are determined by solving a set of state transition equations. Afterward, an embedded Markov chain analysis is applied to derive the state probabilities with another set of state balance equations at arbitrary time instants. The closed forms of the state probabilities are also presented with theorems for reference. Applications of Little's theorem further present the corresponding results for queue lengths and average waiting times. Simulation experiments have demonstrated the correctness of the proposed approaches.

  6. FunSAV: predicting the functional effect of single amino acid variants using a two-stage random forest model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Wang

    Full Text Available Single amino acid variants (SAVs are the most abundant form of known genetic variations associated with human disease. Successful prediction of the functional impact of SAVs from sequences can thus lead to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of why a SAV may be associated with certain disease. In this work, we constructed a high-quality structural dataset that contained 679 high-quality protein structures with 2,048 SAVs by collecting the human genetic variant data from multiple resources and dividing them into two categories, i.e., disease-associated and neutral variants. We built a two-stage random forest (RF model, termed as FunSAV, to predict the functional effect of SAVs by combining sequence, structure and residue-contact network features with other additional features that were not explored in previous studies. Importantly, a two-step feature selection procedure was proposed to select the most important and informative features that contribute to the prediction of disease association of SAVs. In cross-validation experiments on the benchmark dataset, FunSAV achieved a good prediction performance with the area under the curve (AUC of 0.882, which is competitive with and in some cases better than other existing tools including SIFT, SNAP, Polyphen2, PANTHER, nsSNPAnalyzer and PhD-SNP. The sourcecodes of FunSAV and the datasets can be downloaded at http://sunflower.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/sjn/FunSAV.

  7. Prognostic meta-signature of breast cancer developed by two-stage mixture modeling of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Debashis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of studies have profiled tumor specimens using distinct microarray platforms and analysis techniques. With the accumulating amount of microarray data, one of the most intriguing yet challenging tasks is to develop robust statistical models to integrate the findings. Results By applying a two-stage Bayesian mixture modeling strategy, we were able to assimilate and analyze four independent microarray studies to derive an inter-study validated "meta-signature" associated with breast cancer prognosis. Combining multiple studies (n = 305 samples on a common probability scale, we developed a 90-gene meta-signature, which strongly associated with survival in breast cancer patients. Given the set of independent studies using different microarray platforms which included spotted cDNAs, Affymetrix GeneChip, and inkjet oligonucleotides, the individually identified classifiers yielded gene sets predictive of survival in each study cohort. The study-specific gene signatures, however, had minimal overlap with each other, and performed poorly in pairwise cross-validation. The meta-signature, on the other hand, accommodated such heterogeneity and achieved comparable or better prognostic performance when compared with the individual signatures. Further by comparing to a global standardization method, the mixture model based data transformation demonstrated superior properties for data integration and provided solid basis for building classifiers at the second stage. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in cell cycle and signal transduction activities were over-represented in the meta-signature. Conclusion The mixture modeling approach unifies disparate gene expression data on a common probability scale allowing for robust, inter-study validated prognostic signatures to be obtained. With the emerging utility of microarrays for cancer prognosis, it will be important to establish paradigms to meta

  8. Two-stage Lagrangian modeling of ignition processes in ignition quality tester and constant volume combustion chambers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-08-10

    The ignition characteristics of isooctane and n-heptane in an ignition quality tester (IQT) were simulated using a two-stage Lagrangian (TSL) model, which is a zero-dimensional (0-D) reactor network method. The TSL model was also used to simulate the ignition delay of n-dodecane and n-heptane in a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC), which is archived in the engine combustion network (ECN) library (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ecn). A detailed chemical kinetic model for gasoline surrogates from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was utilized for the simulation of n-heptane and isooctane. Additional simulations were performed using an optimized gasoline surrogate mechanism from RWTH Aachen University. Validations of the simulated data were also performed with experimental results from an IQT at KAUST. For simulation of n-dodecane in the CVCC, two n-dodecane kinetic models from the literature were utilized. The primary aim of this study is to test the ability of TSL to replicate ignition timings in the IQT and the CVCC. The agreement between the model and the experiment is acceptable except for isooctane in the IQT and n-heptane and n-dodecane in the CVCC. The ability of the simulations to replicate observable trends in ignition delay times with regard to changes in ambient temperature and pressure allows the model to provide insights into the reactions contributing towards ignition. Thus, the TSL model was further employed to investigate the physical and chemical processes responsible for controlling the overall ignition under various conditions. The effects of exothermicity, ambient pressure, and ambient oxygen concentration on first stage ignition were also studied. Increasing ambient pressure and oxygen concentration was found to shorten the overall ignition delay time, but does not affect the timing of the first stage ignition. Additionally, the temperature at the end of the first stage ignition was found to increase at higher ambient pressure

  9. A High-Resolution Two-Stage Satellite Model to Estimate PM2.5 Concentrations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Ma, Z.; Hu, X.; Yang, K.

    2014-12-01

    With the rapid economic development and urbanization, severe and widespread PM2.5 pollution in China has attracted nationwide attention. Study of the health impact of PM2.5 exposure has been hindered, however, by the limited coverage of ground measurements from recently established regulatory monitoring networks. Estimating ground-level PM2.5 from satellite remote sensing is a promising new method to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposure. We developed a two-stage spatial statistical model to estimate daily mean PM2.5 concentrations at 10 km resolution in 2013 in China using MODIS Collection 6 AOD, assimilated meteorology, population density, and land use parameters. A custom inverse variance weighting approach was developed to combine MODIS Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) AOD to optimize coverage. Compared with the AERONET AOD measurements, our combined AOD (R2=0.80, mean bias = 0.07) performs similarly to MODIS' combined AOD (R2=0.81, mean bias =0.07), but has 90% greater coverage. We used the first-stage linear mixed effect model to represent the temporal variability of PM2.5 and the second-stage generalized additive model to represent its spatial contrast. The overall model cross-validation R2 and relative prediction error are 0.80 and 30%, respectively. PM2.5 levels exhibit strong seasonal patterns, with the highest national mean concentrations in winter (75 µg/m3) and the lowest in summer (30 µg/m3). Elevated annual mean PM2.5 levels are predicted in North China Plain and Sichuan Basin, with the maximum annual PM2.5 concentrations higher than 130 µg/m3 and 110 µg/m3, respectively. Our results also indicates that over 94% of the Chinese population lives in areas that exceed the WHO Air Quality Interim Target-1 standard (35 μg/m3). The exceptions include Taiwan, Hainan, Yunnan, Tibet, and North Inner Mongolia.

  10. A two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model for municipal solid waste management - a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage support-vector-regression optimization model (TSOM) is developed for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the urban districts of Beijing, China. It represents a new effort to enhance the analysis accuracy in optimizing the MSW management system through coupling the support-vector-regression (SVR) model with an interval-parameter mixed integer linear programming (IMILP). The developed TSOM can not only predict the city's future waste generation amount, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the MSW management system. Four kernel functions such as linear kernel, polynomial kernel, radial basis function, and multi-layer perception kernel are chosen based on three quantitative simulation performance criteria [i.e. prediction accuracy (PA), fitting accuracy (FA) and over all accuracy (OA)]. The SVR with polynomial kernel has accurate prediction performance for MSW generation rate, with all of the three quantitative simulation performance criteria being over 96%. Two cases are considered based on different waste management policies. The results are valuable for supporting the adjustment of the existing waste-allocation patterns to raise the city's waste diversion rate, as well as the capacity planning of waste management system to satisfy the city's increasing waste treatment/disposal demands.

  11. A Novel Two-Staged Decision Support based Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment Algorithm, Asset-based Dynamic Weapon Scheduling using Artificial Intelligence Techinques

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Huma; Hussain, Mukhtar; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    Surveillance control and reporting (SCR) system for air threats play an important role in the defense of a country. SCR system corresponds to air and ground situation management/processing along with information fusion, communication, coordination, simulation and other critical defense oriented tasks. Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) sits at the core of SCR system. In such a system, maximal or near maximal utilization of constrained resources is of extreme importance. Manual TEWA systems cannot provide optimality because of different limitations e.g.surface to air missile (SAM) can fire from a distance of 5Km, but manual TEWA systems are constrained by human vision range and other constraints. Current TEWA systems usually work on target-by-target basis using some type of greedy algorithm thus affecting the optimality of the solution and failing in multi-target scenario. his paper relates to a novel two-staged flexible dynamic decision support based optimal threat evaluation and weapon assignment...

  12. The construction of two-stage tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Jos J.

    1988-01-01

    Although two-stage testing is not the most efficient form of adaptive testing, it has some advantages. In this paper, linear programming models are given for the construction of two-stage tests. In these models, practical constraints with respect to, among other things, test composition, administrat

  13. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 sag accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins migrating gradually toward the south led to the collision and amalgamation between the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar 'block'. Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous to Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20 m, and these mantle-derived magmas consolidated the above-mentioned island arc-collaged blocks. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the Carboniferous lateral growth of island arcs and the latest Carboniferous to Early Permian vertical crustal growth related to emplacement and underplating of the mantle-derived magmas. In the Middle Permian, the Junggar Basin is dominated by a series of stable intra-continental sag basins from west to east, such as Mahu, Shawan, western Well Pen1, Dongdaohaizi-Wucaiwan-Dajing, Fukang-Jimusaer sag lake-basins and so on. The Middle Permian (e.g., Lower Wu'erhe, Lucaogou, and Pingdiquan Formations) thick source rocks developed in these basins, suggesting that the Junggar Basin had been entered 'intra-cratonic sag' basin evolution stage. Since then, no strong thermal tectonic event could result in crust growth. The present crustal thickness of Junggar Basin is 45-52 km, which was mainly formed before the latest Early Permian. Subsequently, the Junggar Basin experienced a rapid cooling process during the Late Permian to Triassic. These events constrain the formation timing of the Junggar basin basement to be before the latest Early

  14. Modeling and Implementing Two-Stage AdaBoost for Real-Time Vehicle License Plate Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kyou Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available License plate (LP detection is the most imperative part of the automatic LP recognition system. In previous years, different methods, techniques, and algorithms have been developed for LP detection (LPD systems. This paper proposes to automatical detection of car LPs via image processing techniques based on classifier or machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a real-time and robust method for LPD systems using the two-stage adaptive boosting (AdaBoost algorithm combined with different image preprocessing techniques. Haar-like features are used to compute and select features from LP images. The AdaBoost algorithm is used to classify parts of an image within a search window by a trained strong classifier as either LP or non-LP. Adaptive thresholding is used for the image preprocessing method applied to those images that are of insufficient quality for LPD. This method is of a faster speed and higher accuracy than most of the existing methods used in LPD. Experimental results demonstrate that the average LPD rate is 98.38% and the computational time is approximately 49 ms.

  15. Running Efficiency and S&T Contribution to Regional Wastes' Treatment in China based on Parallel and Two-stage DEA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply parallel and two-stage DEA models to measure the running efficiency and S&T contribution to regional wastes' treatment in China. The process of harshly development in industry often sacrificed natural living environment of human being. Because of greenhouse effect, poor air and water quality, improper disposed solid waste and other environmental pollution problems, regional environment are bearing tremendous pressure. To relieve pressure on environment and keep sustainable development in China, decision makers begin to focus on the optimal measures of ecological environment. A novel parallel and two-stage DEA models were applied to evaluate the efficiency of regional wastes' treatment in China. While the status of wastes can be divided into three types, i.e. waste water, gas and solid wastes, we classified different types of treatments into three modes. Then, the multiple parallel DEA methodology is applied to calculate the treatment efficiency of these three modes of wastes' treatment in 30 provincial regions in China. Taking S&T inputs as a pivotal effect on wastes' treatments, two-stage DEA model was applied to calculate S&T contribution rate to wastes' treatment in 30 provincial regions in China. Based on the calculation results, decision making information can be drawn for each region in China and.

  16. Dynamic Characteristics of Two Stages Planetary Gear of a Reducer%减速机二级行星轮系的动力学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继雄; 尹敏; 刘虎; 李清清; 余本钢

    2015-01-01

    In order to research the vibration and noise of EBZ 132 roadheader cutting reducer , the kinematics and dynamics parameters of two stage planetary gear transmission system of a reducer were theoretically calculated .And the dynamic analysis of the gear system was conduced with the application of the virtual prototype analysis software ADAMS .The characteristic curve of the gear pair meshing force with time and frequency change was obtained .The simulation results agree well with analytical re-sults.The study results have certain guiding significance for the vibration characteristics , reliability and life research of the plane-tary gear train .%为了研究EBZ132型悬臂式掘进机截割部减速机的振动与噪声问题,对该减速机的二级行星齿轮传动系统进行了运动学和动力学参数的理论计算,并应用虚拟样机分析软件ADAMS对该齿轮传动系统进行了动力学分析,得出了各级啮合齿轮对的啮合力随时间和频率变化的特性曲线图。其仿真结果与理论计算结果相吻合,对行星轮系的振动特性、可靠性,以及寿命等研究具有一定的指导意义。

  17. Consideration sets, intentions and the inclusion of "don't know" in a two-stage model for voter choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, R; van Nierop, E; van Heerde, HJ; Wedel, M; Franses, PH; Alsem, KJ

    2005-01-01

    We present a statistical model for voter choice that incorporates a consideration set stage and final vote intention stage. The first stage involves a multivariate probit (MVP) model to describe the probabilities that a candidate or a party gets considered. The second stage of the model is a

  18. Structured model of bacterial growth and tests with activated sludge in a one-stage and two-stage chemostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, A.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic model for a growing culture of micro-organisms was developed that correlated the biochemical structure of cells with quantitative physiological behaviour. The three-compartment model was adequate for simulation of continuous, batch and transient experiments with activated sludge fed on van

  19. Efficient posterior exploration of a high-dimensional groundwater model from two-stage MCMC simulation and polynomial chaos expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloy, E.; Rogiers, B.; Vrugt, J.A.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on two strategies for accelerating posterior inference of a highly parameterized and CPU-demanding groundwater flow model. Our method builds on previous stochastic collocation approaches, e.g., Marzouk and Xiu (2009) and Marzouk and Najm (2009), and uses generalized polynomial

  20. Bank Mergers Performance and the Determinants of Singaporean Banks’ Efficiency: An Application of Two-Stage Banking Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An event study window analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is employed in this study to investigate the effect of mergers and acquisitions on Singaporean domestic banking groups’ efficiency. The results suggest that the mergers have resulted in a higher post-merger mean overall efficiency of Singaporean banking groups. However, from the scale efficiency perspective, our findings do not support further consolidation in the Singaporean banking sector. We find mixed evidence of the efficiency characteristics of the acquirers and targets banks. Hence, the findings do not fully support the hypothesis that a more (less efficient bank becomes the acquirer (target. In most cases, our results further confirm the hypothesis that the acquiring bank’s mean overall efficiency improves (deteriorates post-merger resulted from the merger with a more (less efficient bank. Tobit regression model is employed to determine factors affecting bank performance, and the results suggest that bank profitability has a significantly positive impact on bank efficiency, whereas poor loan quality has a significantly negative influence on bank performance.

  1. The Presentation of a Two Stages Model for an Optimum Operation of a Hybrid System of Wind-Pumped Storage Power Plant in the Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Akbarpour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a new method in power market environment. One of the weaknesses in the utilization of wind units is severe dependence of output power level on wind. However, considering the high uncertainty in the prediction of wind speed and wind forecast unit production capacity is also having an error. Also, regarding to the uncontrollable generators of this type, it is better to use combined systems for utilization. This study presents a new model based on the a two stage for an optimum operation of a hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant in the power market environment that causes to provide a successful presentation condition in market environments for the producers of wind power. In the suggestive hybrid system of windpumped storage power plant of this study the modeling is done in two stages for the optimum presence in power market environment with the a most possible benefit. At first, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in the prediction of power price and producing the wind power, for presenting the suggestion of power to market, in order to gain the most benefit. At the second stage, the suggestive model is optimized regarding to uncertainty in producing wind power, in order to gain the most benefit and paying the least penalty for unbalancing in market for operation of the system. In this study, the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO is used for optimization. At the end of a model example for applying the results of the proposed model will be examined and analyzes the results. Results show that the model is an appropriate method for the operation of this combined system in market environment.

  2. A Two-Stage Algorithm for the Closed-Loop Location-Inventory Problem Model Considering Returns in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility location and inventory control are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a closed-loop location-inventory problem model considering returned merchandise to minimize the total cost which is produced in both forward and reverse logistics networks. To solve this nonlinear mixed programming model, an effective two-stage heuristic algorithm named LRCAC is designed by combining Lagrangian relaxation with ant colony algorithm (AC. Results of numerical examples show that LRCAC outperforms ant colony algorithm (AC on optimal solution and computing stability. The proposed model is able to help managers make the right decisions under e-commerce environment.

  3. Measuring demand for flat water recreation using a two-stage/disequilibrium travel cost model with adjustment for overdispersion and self-selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, John R.; Johnson, Donn; Taylor, R. Garth

    2003-04-01

    An alternate travel cost model is applied to an on-site sample to estimate the value of flat water recreation on the impounded lower Snake River. Four contiguous reservoirs would be eliminated if the dams are breached to protect endangered Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. The empirical method applies truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for endogenous stratification. The two-stage decision model assumes that recreationists allocate their time among work and leisure prior to deciding among consumer goods. The allocation of time and money among goods in the second stage is conditional on the predetermined work time and income. The second stage is a disequilibrium labor market which also applies if employers set work hours or if recreationists are not in the labor force. When work time is either predetermined, fixed by contract, or nonexistent, recreationists must consider separate prices and budgets for time and money.

  4. 消费者两阶段选择行为模型研究%An overview of consumers' two-stage choice behavior model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇

    2012-01-01

    This article surveys the research works on consumer two-stage choice behavior models. It introduces the theory, and discusses the main research contents as well as methods of these models in the context of brand marketing and revenue management. It also summarizes the main contributions and limitations of current researches. Finally it proposes some promising areas for future studies.%综述了消费者两阶段选择行为模型的相关文献,介绍了消费者两阶段选择的理论,探讨了在产品品牌营销与收益管理中消费者两阶段选择行为模型的主要研究内容与方法,总结了其学术贡献与局限,提出了未来研究方向.

  5. Efficient evaluation of small failure probability in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling via a two-stage Monte Carlo method: FAILURE PROBABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiangjiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Li, Weixuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Lin, Guang [Department of Mathematics and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette Indiana USA; Zeng, Lingzao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Institute of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou China; Wu, Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside California USA

    2017-03-01

    In decision-making for groundwater management and contamination remediation, it is important to accurately evaluate the probability of the occurrence of a failure event. For small failure probability analysis, a large number of model evaluations are needed in the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, which is impractical for CPU-demanding models. One approach to alleviate the computational cost caused by the model evaluations is to construct a computationally inexpensive surrogate model instead. However, using a surrogate approximation can cause an extra error in the failure probability analysis. Moreover, constructing accurate surrogates is challenging for high-dimensional models, i.e., models containing many uncertain input parameters. To address these issues, we propose an efficient two-stage MC approach for small failure probability analysis in high-dimensional groundwater contaminant transport modeling. In the first stage, a low-dimensional representation of the original high-dimensional model is sought with Karhunen–Loève expansion and sliced inverse regression jointly, which allows for the easy construction of a surrogate with polynomial chaos expansion. Then a surrogate-based MC simulation is implemented. In the second stage, the small number of samples that are close to the failure boundary are re-evaluated with the original model, which corrects the bias introduced by the surrogate approximation. The proposed approach is tested with a numerical case study and is shown to be 100 times faster than the traditional MC approach in achieving the same level of estimation accuracy.

  6. Generalized Spatial Two Stage Least Squares Estimation of Spatial Autoregressive Models with Autoregressive Disturbances in the Presence of Endogenous Regressors and Many Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the generalized spatial two stage least squares (GS2SLS estimation of spatial autoregressive models with autoregressive disturbances when there are endogenous regressors with many valid instruments. Using many instruments may improve the efficiency of estimators asymptotically, but the bias might be large in finite samples, making the inference inaccurate. We consider the case that the number of instruments K increases with, but at a rate slower than, the sample size, and derive the approximate mean square errors (MSE that account for the trade-offs between the bias and variance, for both the GS2SLS estimator and a bias-corrected GS2SLS estimator. A criterion function for the optimal K selection can be based on the approximate MSEs. Monte Carlo experiments are provided to show the performance of our procedure of choosing K.

  7. Optimizing the Two-Stage Supply Chain Inventory Model with Full Information Sharing and Two Backorders Costs Using Hybrid Geometric-Algebraic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of a two-stage serial supply chain system. This supply chain system involves a single vendor who supplies a single buyer with a single product. The vendor’s production rate is assumed finite. In addition, the demand at the buyer is assumed deterministic. In order to coordinate their replenishment policies and jointly optimize their operational costs, the two supply chain partners fully share their relevant information. For this purpose, we develop an integrated inventory replenishment model assuming linear and fixed backorders costs. Then, we use a hybrid geometric-algebraic method to drive the optimal replenishment policy and the minimum supply chain total cost in a closed form.

  8. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  9. On the robustness of two-stage estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Zhelonkin, Mikhail

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this note is to provide a general framework for the analysis of the robustness properties of a broad class of two-stage models. We derive the influence function, the change-of-variance function, and the asymptotic variance of a general two-stage M-estimator, and provide their interpretations. We illustrate our results in the case of the two-stage maximum likelihood estimator and the two-stage least squares estimator. © 2011.

  10. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  11. 可变线路式公交的两阶段车辆调度模型%Two-stage model for flex-route transit scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱丰; 李文权; 沈金星

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage scheduling model is designed for the flex-route transit to deal with predeter-mined requests and real-time requests.An optimal model for the vehicle routing problem,which minimizes passenger travel costs and vehicle operating costs,is built as the first-stage scheduling model to serve predetermined requests.The simulated annealing algorithm is developed to solve the first-stage model and an initial vehicle routing plan can be obtained.The second-stage scheduling model is established for real-time requests,and four types of passengers are arranged into the vehicle routing plan through the heuristic insertion algorithm.The simulation experiments based on a realistic case demonstrate the feasibility of this two-stage scheduling model,and the results indicate that there would be a better system performance if more passengers choose to make appointments for flex-route service.There is approximately a 10%improvement in system performance when demand reaches 25 passenger/h and 70%of passengers make appointments,compared with the scenario under pure real-time passenger demand.%针对可变线路式公交设计了一种可同时处理预约需求和实时需求的两阶段车辆调度模型。第1阶段模型以预约需求为服务对象,建立了以乘客出行成本和车辆运营成本最小为目标的路径优化模型,采用模拟退火算法对模型进行求解,获得车辆初始行驶路径方案。第2阶段模型以实时需求为服务目标,在原定行驶路径方案上利用启发式插入算法将4类乘客排入车辆行车计划中。基于实例的仿真试验验证了两阶段车辆调度模型的可行性,结果表明:通过提高乘客预约出行比例的方式可提升系统性能,本例中当乘客需求量达到25人/h、预约出行比例达到70%时,系统整体性能相较于纯动态需求条件下提升近10%。

  12. Immunohistochemical cellular distribution of proteins related to M phase regulation in early proliferative lesions induced by tumor promotion in rat two-stage carcinogenesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogens increases liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1/S checkpoint protein, and M phase proteins, i.e., nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, phosphorylated-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3) and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), in rats. To examine the roles of these markers in the early stages of carcinogenesis, we investigated their cellular distribution in several carcinogenic target organs using rat two-stage carcinogenesis models. Promoting agents targeting the liver (piperonyl butoxide and methapyrilene hydrochloride), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), and forestomach and glandular stomach (catechol) were administered to rats after initiation treatment for the liver with N-diethylnitrosamine, thyroid with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, urinary bladder with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine, and forestomach and glandular stomach with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Numbers of cells positive for nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, p-Histone H3 and HP1α increased within preneoplastic lesions as determined by glutathione S-transferase placental form in the liver or phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the thyroid, and hyperplastic lesions having no known preneoplastic markers in the urinary bladder, forestomach and glandular stomach. Immunoreactive cells for p21(Cip1) were decreased within thyroid preneoplastic lesions; however, they were increased within liver preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions in other organs. These results suggest that M phase disruption commonly occur during the formation of preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions. Differences in the expression patterns of p21(Cip1) between thyroid preneoplastic and proliferative lesions in other organs may reflect differences in cell cycle regulation involving G1/S checkpoint function between proliferative lesions in each organ.

  13. Inhibitory effect of α-lipoic acid on thioacetamide-induced tumor promotion through suppression of inflammatory cell responses in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yuta; Segawa, Risa; Kimura, Masayuki; Wang, Liyun; Ishii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Morita, Reiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2013-09-25

    To investigate the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (a-LA) on the hepatocarcinogenic process promoted by thioacetamide (TAA), we used a two-stage liver carcinogenesis model in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and TAA-promoted rats. We examined the modifying effect of co-administered a-LA on the liver tissue environment surrounding preneoplastic hepatocellular lesions, with particular focus on hepatic macrophages and the mechanism behind the decrease in apoptosis of cells surrounding preneoplastic hepatocellular lesions during the early stages of hepatocellular tumor promotion. TAA increased the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) liver cell foci and the numbers of proliferating and apoptotic cells in the liver. Co-administration with a-LA suppressed these effects. TAA also increased the numbers of ED2(+), cyclooxygenase-2(+), and heme oxygenase-1(+) hepatic macrophages as well as the number of CD3(+) lymphocytes. These effects were also suppressed by a-LA. Transcript levels of some inflammation-related genes were upregulated by TAA and downregulated by a-LA in real-time RT-PCR analysis. Outside the GST-P(+) foci, a-LA reduced the numbers of apoptotic cells, active caspase-8(+) cells and death receptor (DR)-5(+) cells. These results suggest that hepatic macrophages producing proinflammatory factors may be activated in TAA-induced tumor promotion. a-LA may suppress tumor-promoting activity by suppressing the activation of these macrophages and the subsequent inflammatory responses. Furthermore, a-LA may suppress tumor-promoting activity by suppressing the DR5-mediated extrinsic pathway of apoptosis and the subsequent regeneration of liver cells outside GST-P(+) foci.

  14. Reply to Aitchison and Ali: Reconciling Himalayan ophiolite and Asian magmatic arc records with a two-stage India-Asia collision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Lippert, P.C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine, P.V.; Spakman, W.; Torsvik, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    We recently presented a compilation of paleomagnetic data arguing for Cretaceous extension within Greater India. These data imply that a Tibetan Himalayan (TH) microcontinent rifted away from India, opening an oceanic Greater India Basin (GIB) in its wake. Consequently, we postulated a two-stage Ind

  15. Design, Modelling and Simulation of Two-Phase Two-Stage Electronic System with Orthogonal Output for Supplying of Two-Phase ASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Prazenica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two-stage two-phase electronic systems with orthogonal output voltages and currents - DC/AC/AC. Design of two-stage DC/AC/AC high frequency converter with two-phase orthogonal output using single-phase matrix converter is also introduced. Output voltages of them are strongly nonharmonic ones, so they must be pulse-modulated due to requested nearly sinusoidal currents with low total harmonic distortion. Simulation experiment results of matrix converter for both steady and transient states for IM motors are given in the paper, also experimental verification under R-L load, so far. The simulation results confirm a very good time-waveform of the phase current and the system seems to be suitable for low-cost application in automotive/aerospace industries and application with high frequency voltage sources.

  16. 考虑碳排放的两级供应链最优决策模型%Two-stage Supply Chain Optimal Model Considering Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 杨满; 李强

    2016-01-01

    随着全球化供应链环境复杂程度的提高,越来越多的企业也都在致力于解决企业面临的各种环境问题。基于传统的EOQ模型,构建由单个制造商和单个零售商组成的两级供应链。模型中分散决策由制造商决定产品的批发价格和碳排放量,由零售商决定产品的零售价格和订货批量。在算例数据中,分析了消费者低碳偏好系数和订货成本的变化对供应链分散决策和集中决策的影响,其中集中决策用粒子群算法进行求解,得出集中决策下供应链既可以拥有较高的市场需求,获得更多的利润,而且集中决策下的碳排放量更少,有利于环保。%With the improvement of complexity of global supply chain environment, more and more companies are working to solve the various environmental problems. Based on the traditional EOQ model, establishing the two-stage supply chain composed of a single manufacturer and single retailer. In decentralized decision-making, product's wholesale price and carbon emissions is determined by the manufacturer, and the retailer determine the retail price of the product and order quantity. In case data, this paper analyzes the changes of low carbon consumer preference coefficient and ordering cost impact on decentralized decision and centralized decision of supply chain, centralized decision-making uses particle swarm algorithm to solve the problem, and it is concluded that under the centralized decision-making supply chain can have high market demand, gain more profit, and have less carbon emissions, which is profit to environmental protection.

  17. LANGEVIN DYNAMICS OF THE TWO STAGE MELTING TRANSITION OF VORTEX MATTER IN Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} IN THE PRESENCE OF STRAIGHT AND OF TILTED COLUMNAR DEFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOLDSCHMIDT, YADIN Y.; LIU, Jin-Tao

    2007-08-07

    In this paper we use London Langevin molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the vortex matter melting transition in the highly anisotropic high-temperature superconductor material Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in the presence of low concentration of columnar defects (CDs). We reproduce with further details our previous results obtained by using Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations that showed that the melting of the nanocrystalline vortex matter occurs in two stages: a first stage melting into nanoliquid vortex matter and a second stage delocalization transition into a homogeneous liquid. Furthermore, we report on new dynamical measurements in the presence of a current that identifies clearly the irreversibility line and the second stage delocalization transition. In addition to CDs aligned along the c-axis we also simulate the case of tilted CDs which are aligned at an angle with respect to the applied magnetic field. Results for CDs tilted by 45{degree} with respect to c-axis show that the locations of the melting and delocalization transitions are not affected by the tilt when the ratio of flux lines to CDs remains constant. On the other hand we argue that some dynamical properties and in particular the position of the irreversibility line should be affected.

  18. 两阶段的贝叶斯模型选择与筛选试验分析%Two-stage Bayesian model choice and analysis of screening experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建均; 马义中; 汪新

    2011-01-01

    As for fractional factorial experiment design with non-normal responses, a method of two-stage Bayesian model choice was proposed in the paper when the number of the factors in screening experiments is large. Firstly, the MCMC method was used to simulate dynamically the Markov Chain of every parameter's posterior distribution in generalized linear models, and the significant level of the factors was identified according to the Bayesian posterior probability of every parameter which is more than or less than zero, then initial current model and candidate models were obtained by the significant level of these factors. Secondly, the significant factors were identified to establish a model with best short-term predictions by means of the Bayesian model assessment criterion based on the deviance information criterion (DIC), which was used to stepwise optimize the output from the current model and candidate models. Finally, a practical industrial example reveals that the proposed method can identify effectively significant factors in fractional factorial experiment design with non-normal responses.%针对非正态响应的部分因子试验设计,当筛选试验所涉及的因子数目较大时,提出了一种两阶段的贝叶斯模型选择方法.首先,运用蒙特卡洛(MCMC)方法模拟广义线性模型各参数的后验分布,并根据各参数大于零或小于零的后验概率考察各变量的显著性,得到初始的当前模型与候选模型;其次,利用贝叶斯模型评估准则DIC对当前模型与候选模型进行逐步迭代优化,筛选出显著性因子,得到了具有最佳短期预测性能的模型;最后,实际的工业案例说明此方法能够有效处理非正态响应部分因子试验中显著性因子筛选问题.

  19. Perception of successive brief objects as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony: model experiments based on two-stage synchronization of neuronal oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Talis; Kirt, Toomas

    2013-12-01

    Recently we introduced a new version of the perceptual retouch model incorporating two interactive binding operations-binding features for objects and binding the bound feature-objects with a large scale oscillatory system that acts as a mediary for the perceptual information to reach consciousness-level representation. The relative level of synchronized firing of the neurons representing the features of an object obtained after the second-stage synchronizing modulation is used as the equivalent of conscious perception of the corresponding object. Here, this model is used for simulating interaction of two successive featured objects as a function of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Model output reproduces typical results of mutual masking-with shortest and longest SOAs first and second object correct perception rate is comparable while with intermediate SOAs second object dominates over the first one. Additionally, with shortest SOAs misbinding of features to form illusory objects is simulated by the model.

  20. The role of outside-school factors in science education: a two-stage theoretical model linking Bourdieu and Sen, with a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokpinar, Tuba; Reiss, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The literature in science education highlights the potentially significant role of outside-school factors such as parents, cultural contexts and role models in students' formation of science attitudes and aspirations, and their attainment in science classes. In this paper, building on and linking Bourdieu's key concepts of habitus, cultural and social capital, and field with Sen's capability approach, we develop a model of students' science-related capability development. Our model proposes that the role of outside-school factors is twofold, first, in providing an initial set of science-related resources (i.e. habitus, cultural and social capital), and then in conversion of these resources to science-related capabilities. The model also highlights the distinction between science-related functionings (outcomes achieved by individuals) and science-related capabilities (ability to achieve desired functionings), and argues that it is necessary to consider science-related capability development in evaluating the effectiveness of science education. We then test our theoretical model with an account of three Turkish immigrant students' science-related capabilities and the role of outside-school factors in forming and extending these capabilities. We use student and parent interviews, student questionnaires and in-class observations to provide an analysis of how outside-school factors influence these students' attitudes, aspirations and attainment in science.

  1. The Role of Outside-School Factors in Science Education: A Two-Stage Theoretical Model Linking Bourdieu and Sen, with a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokpinar, Tuba; Reiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The literature in science education highlights the potentially significant role of outside-school factors such as parents, cultural contexts and role models in students' formation of science attitudes and aspirations, and their attainment in science classes. In this paper, building on and linking Bourdieu's key concepts of habitus, cultural and…

  2. The Role of Outside-School Factors in Science Education: A Two-Stage Theoretical Model Linking Bourdieu and Sen, with a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokpinar, Tuba; Reiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The literature in science education highlights the potentially significant role of outside-school factors such as parents, cultural contexts and role models in students' formation of science attitudes and aspirations, and their attainment in science classes. In this paper, building on and linking Bourdieu's key concepts of habitus, cultural and…

  3. A Two-Stage Algorithm for the Closed-Loop Location-Inventory Problem Model Considering Returns in E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhui Li; Mengmeng Lu; Bailing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Facility location and inventory control are critical and highly related problems in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Meanwhile, the return ratio in Internet sales was significantly higher than in the traditional business. Focusing on the existing problem in e-commerce logistics system, we formulate a closed-loop location-inventory problem model considering returned merchandise to minimize the total cost which is produced in both forward and reverse logistics networks. To solve t...

  4. Methane and Environmental Change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM Onset as a Two-stage Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, David A.; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric CH4 box model coupled to a global carbon cycle box model is used to constrain the carbon emission associated with the PETM and assess the role of CH4 during this event. A range of atmospheric and oceanic emission scenarios representing different amounts, rates, and isotopic signatures of emitted carbon are used to model the PETM onset. The first 3 kyr of the onset, a pre-isotope excursion stage, is simulated by the atmospheric release of 900 to 1100 Pg C CH4 with a delta C-13 of -22 to - 30 %. For a global average warming of 3 deg C, a release of CO2 to the ocean and CH4 to the atmosphere totalling 900 to 1400 Pg C, with a delta C-13 of -50 to -60%, simulates the subsequent 1 -kyr isotope excursion stage. To explain the observations, the carbon must have been released over at most 500 years. The first stage results cannot be associated with any known PETM hypothesis. However, the second stage results are consistent with a methane hydrate source. More than a single source of carbon is required to explain the PETM onset.

  5. Residential Two-Stage Gas Furnaces - Do They Save Energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Lutz, James

    2006-05-12

    Residential two-stage gas furnaces account for almost a quarter of the total number of models listed in the March 2005 GAMA directory of equipment certified for sale in the United States. Two-stage furnaces are expanding their presence in the market mostly because they meet consumer expectations for improved comfort. Currently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure serves as the method for reporting furnace total fuel and electricity consumption under laboratory conditions. In 2006, American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) proposed an update to its test procedure which corrects some of the discrepancies found in the DOE test procedure and provides an improved methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The objectives of this paper are to explore the differences in the methods for calculating two-stage residential gas furnace energy consumption in the DOE test procedure and in the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure and to compare test results to research results from field tests. Overall, the DOE test procedure shows a reduction in the total site energy consumption of about 3 percent for two-stage compared to single-stage furnaces at the same efficiency level. In contrast, the 2006 ASHRAE test procedure shows almost no difference in the total site energy consumption. The 2006 ASHRAE test procedure appears to provide a better methodology for calculating the energy consumption of two-stage furnaces. The results indicate that, although two-stage technology by itself does not save site energy, the combination of two-stage furnaces with BPM motors provides electricity savings, which are confirmed by field studies.

  6. Two-stage model for time-varying effects of discrete longitudinal covariates with applications in analysis of daily process data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanyu; Cranford, James A; Li, Runze; Buu, Anne

    2015-02-20

    This study proposes a generalized time-varying effect model that can be used to characterize a discrete longitudinal covariate process and its time-varying effect on a later outcome that may be discrete. The proposed method can be applied to examine two important research questions for daily process data: measurement reactivity and predictive validity. We demonstrate these applications using health risk behavior data collected from alcoholic couples through an interactive voice response system. The statistical analysis results show that the effect of measurement reactivity may only be evident in the first week of interactive voice response assessment. Moreover, the level of urge to drink before measurement reactivity takes effect may be more predictive of a later depression outcome. Our simulation study shows that the performance of the proposed method improves with larger sample sizes, more time points, and smaller proportions of zeros in the binary longitudinal covariate.

  7. The construction of customized two-stage tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Jos J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper mixed integer linear programming models for customizing two-stage tests are given. Model constraints are imposed with respect to test composition, administration time, inter-item dependencies, and other practical considerations. It is not difficult to modify the models to make them use

  8. Two-Stage Fuzzy Portfolio Selection Problem with Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a two-period portfolio selection problem. The problem is formulated as a two-stage fuzzy portfolio selection model with transaction costs, in which the future returns of risky security are characterized by possibility distributions. The objective of the proposed model is to achieve the maximum utility in terms of the expected value and variance of the final wealth. Given the first-stage decision vector and a realization of fuzzy return, the optimal value expression of the second-stage programming problem is derived. As a result, the proposed two-stage model is equivalent to a single-stage model, and the analytical optimal solution of the two-stage model is obtained, which helps us to discuss the properties of the optimal solution. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the new modeling idea and the effectiveness. The computational results provided by the proposed model show that the more risk-averse investor will invest more wealth in the risk-free security. They also show that the optimal invested amount in risky security increases as the risk-free return decreases and the optimal utility increases as the risk-free return increases, whereas the optimal utility increases as the transaction costs decrease. In most instances the utilities provided by the proposed two-stage model are larger than those provided by the single-stage model.

  9. 考虑内部激励随机性的两级分流式人字齿轮传动动力学特性%Dynamic characteristics of two-stage split herringbone gear trains considering the randomness of internal excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖映华; 秦大同; 刘长钊

    2015-01-01

    According to the configurational characteristics,a bearing-gear coupled non-linear dynamics model of two-stage split herringbone gear trains used in special equipment was presented.In the model,bearing stiffness,mesh stiffness,mesh errors and gear backlash were all included.Then the Runge-Kutta step-by-step integration method was used to solve the non-linear differential equations of motion,the time history curves and frequency spectrums of the dynamic meshing force and dynamic bearing force were obtained considering the random mesh stiffness and mesh error excitations, and further,their statistical characteristics were determined by Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the influences of the randomness of mesh stiffness and mesh errors on the dynamic mesh force and dynamic bearing force.The research results lay a foundation for the dynamic optimization and dynamic reliability optimization of two-stage split herringbone gear trains.%根据某特种装备用两级分流式人字齿轮传动系统的构型特点,考虑轴承变形、啮合刚度、啮合误差和齿侧间隙等因素,建立了两级分流式人字齿轮传动系统的轴承-齿轮耦合非线性动力学模型。采用 Runge-Kutta 逐步积分法求解系统的非线性动力学微分方程,从而获得随机啮合刚度和啮合误差激励作用下两级分流式人字齿轮传动系统的动态啮合力和动态支承力及其频谱,采用 Monte Carlo 仿真获得动态啮合力和动态支承力的统计特征,研究了啮合刚度和啮合误差随机性对动态啮合力和动态支承力的影响规律,为两级分流式人字齿轮传动系统动力学优化以及动态可靠性优化奠定基础。

  10. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are d...

  11. Econometric Modelling of the Variations of Norway’s Export Trade across Continents and over Time: The Two-Stage Non-Full Rank Hierarchical Linear Econometric Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yebabe Tesfay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the two-stage hierarchical non-full rank linear econometric model to make a deep analysis based on revenue generated from key Norwegian export items over the world’s continents. The model’s ability to analyse the variation of Norway’s export trade gives us the following interesting details: (1 for each continent intra- and intervariation of export items, (2 access to deep knowledge about the characteristics of the Norway’s export items revenue, (3 quantifying the economic importance and sustainability of export items within continents; and finally (4 comparing a given export item economic importance across continents. The results suggest the following important policy implications for Norway. First, Europe is the most important trade partner for Norway. In fact, 81.5% of Norwegian export items are transported to Europe. Second, there is a structural shift in Norwegian exports from North and Central America to Asia and Oceania. Third, the new importance of Asia and Oceania is also emphasized by the 85% increase in export revenues over the period 1988–2012. The trade pattern has changed and trade policy must change accordingly. The analysis has shown that in 2012 there are two important export continents for Norway: Europe and Asia and Oceania.

  12. Performance Analysis of Two-stage Series-connected Inerter-spring-damper Suspension Based on Half-car Model%基于半车模型的两级串联型ISD悬架性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 张孝良; 聂佳梅; 汪若尘

    2012-01-01

    Based on the real analogy between the inerter-spring-damper mechanical system and the capacitor-inductor-resistor electrical system, an inerter-spring-damper (ISD) vehicle suspension system with two stages connected in series is proposed according to the principle of cascaded filter. In such a suspension system, the first stage is a conventional passive suspension, and the second stage is a parallel inerter-spring-damper. A half-car vehicle model is built to analyze performance of the suspension system under random and pulse input, and to investigate effects of the second suspension stiffness on system performance. The results indicate that in contrast to conventional suspension, the proposed suspension has a better dynamic performance, and improvements of 81%, 81%, -79% and 82.8% are obtained for PSD peak values of vertical acceleration of the centre of body mass, pitch acceleration of body, dynamic tire load of front and rear wheels in lower-frequency stage. The results further show that the proposed suspension can effectively suppress body resonance, better ride comfort, and improve trade-offs of the ride and handling.%基于“惯容-弹簧-阻尼”机械系统与“电容-电感-电阻”电子系统之间严格的对应相似关系,根据级联滤波的基本原理,以并联的弹簧和阻尼为第一级,并联的惯容器、弹簧和阻尼为第二级,构建一种两级串联型“惯容-弹簧-阻尼”车辆悬架系统.建立悬架的半车模型,分析随机和脉冲激励下悬架系统的综合性能,探讨第二级弹簧刚度对系统性能的影响.结果表明,与传统悬架相比,两级串联型“惯容-弹簧-阻尼”悬架系统具有良好的动态性能,车身质心垂直加速度、车身俯仰加速度、前轮胎动载荷、后轮胎动载荷功率谱密度低频峰值分别减小了81%、81%、79%、82.8%,有效抑制了车身共振,明显改善了车辆的乘坐舒适性,协调了平顺性与安全性之间的矛盾.

  13. Two-stage sampling for acceptance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, C.L.; Bryan, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    Sometimes a regulatory requirement or a quality-assurance procedure sets an allowed maximum on a confidence limit for a mean. If the sample mean of the measurements is below the allowed maximum, but the confidence limit is above it, a very widespread practice is to increase the sample size and recalculate the confidence bound. The confidence level of this two-stage procedure is rarely found correctly, but instead is typically taken to be the nominal confidence level, found as if the final sample size had been specified in advance. In typical settings, the correct nominal [alpha] should be between the desired P(Type I error) and half that value. This note gives tables for the correct a to use, some plots of power curves, and an example of correct two-stage sampling.

  14. Two-stage sampling for acceptance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, C.L.; Bryan, M.F.

    1992-09-01

    Sometimes a regulatory requirement or a quality-assurance procedure sets an allowed maximum on a confidence limit for a mean. If the sample mean of the measurements is below the allowed maximum, but the confidence limit is above it, a very widespread practice is to increase the sample size and recalculate the confidence bound. The confidence level of this two-stage procedure is rarely found correctly, but instead is typically taken to be the nominal confidence level, found as if the final sample size had been specified in advance. In typical settings, the correct nominal {alpha} should be between the desired P(Type I error) and half that value. This note gives tables for the correct a to use, some plots of power curves, and an example of correct two-stage sampling.

  15. 采用两阶段优化模型的电动汽车充电站内有序充电策略%Two-Stage Optimization Model Based Coordinated Charging for EV Charging Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良; 严正; 冯冬涵; 许少伦; 李乃湖; 景雷

    2014-01-01

    Under the premise of satisfying the charging demand of electric vehicle (EV) and complying with the restriction of distribution transformer capacity, a first-stage optimal EV charging model, which takes the maximized charging revenue of the charging station as the objective, is established. Considering maximizing the incentive to reducing peak-valley difference given by grid corporation and taking the maximum charging revenue, which is not lower than that obtained by the first-stage optimization, as constraint, the second-stage optimization model is built. Based on the driving habits of EV users, the charging demand of EV users is simulated by Monte Carlo method, and the economic benefit of charging station and the load condition of distribution transformer under three situations, namely the uncoordinated charging, the charging under the first-stage optimization model and the charging under the two-stage optimization model, are simulated and analyzed. Research results show that using the first-stage optimization model and the second-stage optimization model the economic benefit of charging station can be evidently improved. However, under current time-of-use (TOU) mechanism, new peak load will occur when only the first-stage optimization model is used to control the charging of lots of EVs, and yet the improved two-stage optimization model can play a significant role in further increasing economic benefit of charging station, reducing peak-valley difference and smoothing the load curves, besides, the computational cost of the improved two-stage optimization model is still low, so it is suitable for practical application.%在满足电动汽车用户充电需求及配电变压器容量限制的前提下,建立了以充电站充电收益最大化为目标的第一阶段优化模型。考虑最大化电网公司对缩小峰谷差所给予的激励,以不低于第一阶段优化所求得的最大充电收益为约束,建立了第二阶段优化模型。根据用

  16. Two-stage approach to full Chinese parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Hailong; Zhao Tiejun; Yang Muyun; Li Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Natural language parsing is a task of great importance and extreme difficulty. In this paper, we present a full Chinese parsing system based on a two-stage approach. Rather than identifying all phrases by a uniform model, we utilize a divide and conquer strategy. We propose an effective and fast method based on Markov model to identify the base phrases. Then we make the first attempt to extend one of the best English parsing models i.e. the head-driven model to recognize Chinese complex phrases. Our two-stage approach is superior to the uniform approach in two aspects. First, it creates synergy between the Markov model and the head-driven model. Second, it reduces the complexity of full Chinese parsing and makes the parsing system space and time efficient. We evaluate our approach in PARSEVAL measures on the open test set, the parsing system performances at 87.53% precision, 87.95% recall.

  17. Condensate from a two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2000-01-01

    that the organic compounds and the inhibition effect are very low even before treatment with activated carbon. The moderate inhibition effect relates to a high content of ammonia in the condensate. The nitrifiers become tolerant to the condensate after a few weeks of exposure. The level of organic compounds......Condensate, produced when gas from downdraft biomass gasifier is cooled, contains organic compounds that inhibit nitrifiers. Treatment with activated carbon removes most of the organics and makes the condensate far less inhibitory. The condensate from an optimised two-stage gasifier is so clean...

  18. Two Stage Sibling Cycle Compressor/Expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    vol. 5, p. 424. 11. L. Bauwens and M.P. Mitchell, " Regenerator Analysis: Validation of the MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code," Proc. XVIIIth International...PL-TR--94-1051 PL-TR-- 94-1051 TWO STAGE SIBLING CYCLE COMPRESSOR/EXPANDER Matthew P. Mitchell . Mitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc. No\\ 1995...ty. THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED PL-TR-94-1051 This final report was prepared byMitchell/ Stirling Machines/Systems, Inc., Berkeley, CA under Contract

  19. Income and Poverty across SMSAs: A Two-Stage Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Two popular explanations of urban poverty are the "welfare-disincentive" and "urban-deindustrialization" theories. Using cross-sectional Census data, we develop a two-stage model to predict an SMSAs median family income and poverty rate. The model allows the city's welfare level and industrial structure to affect its median family income and poverty rate directly. It also allows welfare and industrial structure to affect income and poverty indirectly, through their effects on family structure...

  20. Power Frequency Oscillation Suppression Using Two-Stage Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller for Multigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Bhateshvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to develop a linearized model of automatic generation control (AGC for an interconnected two-area reheat type thermal power system in deregulated environment. A comparison between genetic algorithm optimized PID controller (GA-PID, particle swarm optimized PID controller (PSO-PID, and proposed two-stage based PSO optimized fuzzy logic controller (TSO-FLC is presented. The proposed fuzzy based controller is optimized at two stages: one is rule base optimization and other is scaling factor and gain factor optimization. This shows the best dynamic response following a step load change with different cases of bilateral contracts in deregulated environment. In addition, performance of proposed TSO-FLC is also examined for ±30% changes in system parameters with different type of contractual demands between control areas and compared with GA-PID and PSO-PID. MATLAB/Simulink® is used for all simulations.

  1. Recursive algorithm for the two-stage EFOP estimation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO GuiMing; HUANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    A recursive algorithm for the two-stage empirical frequency-domain optimal param-eter (EFOP) estimation method Was proposed. The EFOP method was a novel sys-tem identificallon method for Black-box models that combines time-domain esti-mation and frequency-domain estimation. It has improved anti-disturbance perfor-mance, and could precisely identify models with fewer sample numbers. The two-stage EFOP method based on the boot-strap technique was generally suitable for Black-box models, but it was an iterative method and takes too much computation work so that it did not work well online. A recursive algorithm was proposed for dis-turbed stochastic systems. Some simulation examples are included to demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  2. Classification in two-stage screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T

    2015-11-10

    Decision theory is applied to the problem of setting thresholds in medical screening when it is organised in two stages. In the first stage that involves a less expensive procedure that can be applied on a mass scale, an individual is classified as a negative or a likely positive. In the second stage, the likely positives are subjected to another test that classifies them as (definite) positives or negatives. The second-stage test is more accurate, but also more expensive and more involved, and so there are incentives to restrict its application. Robustness of the method with respect to the parameters, some of which have to be set by elicitation, is assessed by sensitivity analysis.

  3. Modelos lineares e não lineares inteiros para problemas da mochila bidimensional restrita a 2 estágios Linear and nonlinear integer models for constrained two-stage two-dimensional knapsack problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Hideki Yanasse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho revemos alguns modelos lineares e não lineares inteiros para gerar padrões de corte bidimensionais guilhotinados de 2 estágios, incluindo os casos exato e não exato e restrito e irrestrito. Esses problemas são casos particulares do problema da mochila bidimensional. Apresentamos também novos modelos para gerar esses padrões de corte, baseados em adaptações ou extensões de modelos para gerar padrões de corte bidimensionais restritos 1-grupo. Padrões 2 estágios aparecem em diferentes processos de corte, como, por exemplo, em indústrias de móveis e de chapas de madeira. Os modelos são úteis para a pesquisa e o desenvolvimento de métodos de solução mais eficientes, explorando estruturas particulares, a decomposição do modelo, relaxações do modelo etc. Eles também são úteis para a avaliação do desempenho de heurísticas, já que permitem (pelo menos para problemas de tamanho moderado uma estimativa do gap de otimalidade de soluções obtidas por heurísticas. Para ilustrar a aplicação dos modelos, analisamos os resultados de alguns experimentos computacionais com exemplos da literatura e outros gerados aleatoriamente. Os resultados foram produzidos usando um software comercial conhecido e mostram que o esforço computacional necessário para resolver os modelos pode ser bastante diferente.In this work we review some linear and nonlinear integer models to generate two stage two-dimensional guillotine cutting patterns, including the constrained, non constrained, exact and non exact cases. These problems are particular cases of the two dimensional knapsack problems. We also present new models to generate these cutting patterns, based on adaptations and extensions of models that generate one-group constrained two dimensional cutting patterns. Two stage patterns arise in different cutting processes like, for instance, in the furniture industry and wooden hardboards. The models are useful for the research and

  4. An inexact two-stage stochastic model for water resource management under uncertainty%基于水质模拟的不确定条件下两阶段随机水资源规划模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐毅; 汤烨; 付殿峥; 解玉磊

    2012-01-01

    针对流域内不同企业的水资源分配及企业生产污染排放导致的水环境问题,运用区间两阶段随机规划的方法,耦合区间两阶段模型(ITSP)和区间水质模型(IS-P),建立不确定两阶段随机水质-水量耦合规划模型(ITSP-SP).该模型以流域内系统利益最大为目标函数,模拟了流域内各个企业的水量分配及排污过程中河道水质变化,并在保证河流水质达标前提下优化预计分配水量,调整企业生产规模.通过模型运算得到区间解,为管理者提供了多样的决策方案.并且,该模型充分考虑不确定因素对系统利益的影响,能够有效的规避系统决策失误及方案缺失现象.%In order to solve the water allocation and water pollution problems during different industries production process in a river basin,an inexact twostage stochastic programming integrated with water quality simulation model was developed for water resources management and water quality improvement act planning under uncertainty.The model was coupled with an inexact two-stage stochastic programming (ITSP) and an inexact Streeter-Phelps model (IS-P).The model optimized water resources quantity to each industrial plants with maximization of benefits of the system as an objective function by simulating water quality change trends under different inflow levels.Interactive algorithms were utilized for finding solutions to the ITSP-SP model.The solutions can provide multiple decision-making patterns for water resource managers.Meanwhile,this model has capability of analyzing the impacts of various uncertainty factors on benefits of the system,and avoiding the mistake of decision-making and the lack of decision-alternatives.

  5. A Two-stage Robust Optimization Model for Emergency Facility Location Problems under Uncertainties%不确定环境下应急设施选址问题两阶段鲁棒优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜博; 周泓

    2016-01-01

    For emergency logistics management,decision making of supply distribution facility location is important. According to the uncertainties in emergencies,a two-stage robust optimization model for emer-gency facility location problems to achieve coordination between“pre-location”and“re-location”is pro-posed. In the first stage when demand,cost and facility disruption is uncertain,in the consideration of dif-ferent needs of pre-disaster planning,post-disaster response and facility re-location,a robust“pre-loca-tion”model is presented based on p-center model. In the second stage,with the acquisition of post-disas-ter information,a“re-location”model for building new facilities is presented based on reactive repairing and adjustment for previous strategies. A numerical study shows the model is more effective than traditional p-center model for emergency facility location.%对于应急物流管理而言,应急物资集散中心选址是一个重要的决策要素。针对应急突发事件的不确定性特征,本文提出了一个应急设施选址问题两阶段鲁棒优化模型,以实现“预选址—重选址”两者的协同优化。第一阶段在需求和成本变动、设施损毁存在不确定因素的情况下,综合考虑选址策略在灾前规划、灾后反应、设施重建阶段的不同需求,建立了一种基于p-center的鲁棒“预选址”模型;第二阶段针对灾后新信息的获得,建立了一种基于反应式修复和调整策略的新建设施“重选址”模型。算例分析表明,本文模型对于应急设施选址问题比传统p-center模型更为合理有效。

  6. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  7. Two-Stage Aggregate Formation via Streams in Myxobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Mark; Kiskowski, Maria; Jiang, Yi

    2005-03-01

    In response to adverse conditions, myxobacteria form aggregates which develop into fruiting bodies. We model myxobacteria aggregation with a lattice cell model based entirely on short range (non-chemotactic) cell-cell interactions. Local rules result in a two-stage process of aggregation mediated by transient streams. Aggregates resemble those observed in experiment and are stable against even very large perturbations. Noise in individual cell behavior increases the effects of streams and result in larger, more stable aggregates. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93: 068301 (2004).

  8. Gerenciamento de resultados em bancos com uso de TVM: validação de modelo de dois estágios Securities-based earnings management in nanks: validation of a two-stage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alves Dantas

    2013-04-01

    menor porte e nos controlados por capital privado.Studies investigating earnings management in banks have been particularly concerned with the use of Loan Loss Provisions (LLP and mainly use two-stage models to identify discretionary management actions. Another type of record that has received attention from researchers in identifying discretionary management actions is the classification and measurement of the fair value of securities. In this case, however, one-stage models have prevailed. The present study aims to develop and validate a two-stage model for the identification of discretionary management actions using gains obtained from securities. Our model incorporates macroeconomic indicators and specific attributes of the securities portfolios to the traditional parameters used in models previously utilized in the literature. To validate the proposed model, the results are compared with the results from the estimation of a one-stage model - a methodology widely used in the literature. Tests conducted with the two models reveal evidence of income smoothing using securities and the classification of available-for-sale securities among the actions taken by management. The consistency of the results across the two models validates the proposed model, thereby contributing to the development of research on the topic that is not only concerned with determining whether earnings management is practiced but also whether it can be associated with other variables. We also find that securities-based earnings management is more significant in smaller-sized banks and in banks controlled by private capital.

  9. An Equilibrium-Correction Model for Dynamic Network Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Dekker (David); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D. Krackhardt (David)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a two-stage MRQAP to analyze dynamic network data, within the framework of an equilibrium-correction (EC) model. Extensive simulation results indicate practical relevance of our method and its improvement over standard OLS. An empirical illustration additionally shows that the

  10. An equilibrium-correction model for dynamic network data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D. Krackhardt (David)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a two-stage MRQAP to analyze dynamic network data, within the framework of an equilibrium-correction (EC) model. Extensive simulation results indicate practical relevance of our method and its improvement over standard OLS. An empirical illustration additionally shows that the

  11. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2002-01-01

    Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs......Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs...

  12. Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm for Aircraft Recovery Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the aircraft recovery problem (ARP. In real-life operations, disruptions always cause schedule failures and make airlines suffer from great loss. Therefore, the main objective of the aircraft recovery problem is to minimize the total recovery cost and solve the problem within reasonable runtimes. An aircraft recovery model (ARM is proposed herein to formulate the ARP and use feasible line of flights as the basic variables in the model. We define the feasible line of flights (LOFs as a sequence of flights flown by an aircraft within one day. The number of LOFs exponentially grows with the number of flights. Hence, a two-stage heuristic is proposed to reduce the problem scale. The algorithm integrates a heuristic scoring procedure with an aggregated aircraft recovery model (AARM to preselect LOFs. The approach is tested on five real-life test scenarios. The computational results show that the proposed model provides a good formulation of the problem and can be solved within reasonable runtimes with the proposed methodology. The two-stage heuristic significantly reduces the number of LOFs after each stage and finally reduces the number of variables and constraints in the aircraft recovery model.

  13. 两级行星齿轮传动非线性啮合力频率耦合与动态特性研究%Frequency coupling and dynamic characteristics of nonlinear meshing force for two-stage planetary gears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 蔡仲昌; 项昌乐

    2015-01-01

    Based on Lagrange's equation,the translational-torsional coupled nonlinear dynamic model of two stage planetary gears was established considering backlash,time-varying mesh stiffness and its phase difference,gear mesh composite errors,time-varying planet wheel position angle,and torsional and bending stiffnesses of connectors among different stages.According to the relationship among torques of connection shafts and vibration displacements of parts,the meshing frequency coupling phenomenon of mesh force for different stages was studied.Under different excitation conditions,the forms of meshing frequency coupling were analyzed.At the same time,the dynamic load coefficient and the load sharing coefficient of meshing force for different stages,and the dynamic characteristics of torques of connection shafts were calculated.The results provided a reference for design and dynamic analysis of multi-stage planetary gears.%利用拉格朗日方程推导了两级行星齿轮传动的平移-扭转非线性振动模型,模型考虑了齿侧间隙、时变啮合刚度及其相位差、综合啮合误差、行星轮位置角时变性以及各行星排级间连接件的弯曲和扭转刚度。从行星排级间连接轴的力与变形耦合关系出发,研究了两个行星排啮合力产生的啮合频率耦合现象。通过数值仿真对不同激励条件下啮合频率耦合的表现形式进行了研究,对不同行星排的动载系数、均载系数、连接轴转矩的动态特性进行了分析,为多级行星齿轮传动系统动力学分析与设计提供指导。

  14. Two-Stage Model of Stereotype Activation Based on Face Perception%基于面孔知觉的刻板印象激活两阶段模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓斌; 佐斌

    2012-01-01

    previous research paradigm was not suitable to explore the processing process of stereotype activation. The other reason was that, under the framework of social cognition, researchers have neglected the effects of perceptual processing to stereotype activation. Based on the above analysis, from the more ecological validity perspective of person construal, the authors proposed two-stage model of stereotype activation and verified it through two experiments. In Experiment 1, 32 participants were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental treatments. The authors compared the reaction time of gender categorization, the judgment of stereotype match in priming paradigm and the judgment of stereotype match in simultaneous presentation paradigm. In Experiment 2, 33 participants were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental treatments. Based on simultaneous presentation paradigm, operating the difficulty of extracting social category from faces by the face deformation, the authors explored the effect of face perception on stereotype activation. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the reaction time of the judgment of stereotype match under simultaneous presentation paradigm was significantly longer than the reaction time of gender categorization and the judgment of stereotype match in priming paradigm respectively, and it was equal to the sum of the reaction time of gender categorization and the judgment of stereotype match under priming paradigm. The effect of face presentation (inverted) to stereotype activation was different between priming paradigm and simultaneous presentation paradigm. The results of Experiment 2 showed that, with the increase of the difficulty to extract social category from faces, the reaction time of stereotype activation became longer. The results of two experiments confirmed two-stage model of stereotype activation proposed by the authors, that is, the stage of social category activation based on face perception and the stage of

  15. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavalli, Rajasri; Heggers, Goutham Rao Venkata Naga

    2013-12-19

    Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer.

  16. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  17. Two-stage Security Controls Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yevseyeva, I.; Basto, Fernandes V.; Moorsel, van A.; Janicke, H.; Michael, Emmerich T. M.

    2016-01-01

    To protect a system from potential cyber security breaches and attacks, one needs to select efficient security controls, taking into account technical and institutional goals and constraints, such as available budget, enterprise activity, internal and external environment. Here we model the security

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  20. Two-stage effects of awareness cascade on epidemic spreading in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quantong; Jiang, Xin; Lei, Yanjun; Li, Meng; Ma, Yifang; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Human awareness plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the control of propagation patterns. The dynamic process with human awareness is called awareness cascade, during which individuals exhibit herd-like behavior because they are making decisions based on the actions of other individuals [Borge-Holthoefer et al., J. Complex Networks 1, 3 (2013), 10.1093/comnet/cnt006]. In this paper, to investigate the epidemic spreading with awareness cascade, we propose a local awareness controlled contagion spreading model on multiplex networks. By theoretical analysis using a microscopic Markov chain approach and numerical simulations, we find the emergence of an abrupt transition of epidemic threshold βc with the local awareness ratio α approximating 0.5 , which induces two-stage effects on epidemic threshold and the final epidemic size. These findings indicate that the increase of α can accelerate the outbreak of epidemics. Furthermore, a simple 1D lattice model is investigated to illustrate the two-stage-like sharp transition at αc≈0.5 . The results can give us a better understanding of why some epidemics cannot break out in reality and also provide a potential access to suppressing and controlling the awareness cascading systems.

  1. A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ito, Kazufumi

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer support, and one resolution enhancing step with nonsmooth mixed regularization. The first step is strictly direct and of sampling type, and it faithfully detects the scatterer support. The second step is an innovative application of nonsmooth mixed regularization, and it accurately resolves the scatterer size as well as intensities. The nonsmooth model can be efficiently solved by a semi-smooth Newton-type method. Numerical results for two- and three-dimensional examples indicate that the new approach is accurate, computationally efficient, and robust with respect to data noise. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Analysis of a Delayed Epidemic Model with Two Stage-Structure and Saturation Incidence%具饱和传染率和时滞两阶段结构的传染病模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑾; 唐蕾; 武佳; 崔然

    2013-01-01

      A SIS Epidemic model with saturation incidence and two stage‐structure is discussed in this paper .Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map ,the threshold is obtained . If the threshold less than one ,sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the infection‐free equilib‐rium is obtained ,Moreover ,we show that the endemic equilibrium is local asymptotic stability and perma‐nence if the threshold is larger than one .%  讨论了一类具饱和传染率和时滞两阶段结构传染病模型,利用离散动力系统频闪映射理论,得到了传染病最终消除和成为地方病的阈值,当它小于1时,无病平衡点是全局渐近稳定的,此时疾病消除。当它大于1时,地方病平衡点是局部渐近稳定的,此时传染病成为地方病。

  3. Models for Dynamic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    be applied to formulate, analyse and solve these dynamic problems and how in the case of the fuel cell problem the model consists of coupledmeso and micro scale models. It is shown how data flows are handled between the models and how the solution is obtained within the modelling environment....

  4. Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Ghenaiet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic performances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or separately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while downstream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevailing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.

  5. Characterization of component interactions in two-stage axial turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Ghenaiet; Kaddour Touil

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the characterization of both the steady and unsteady flows and the analysis of stator/rotor interactions of a two-stage axial turbine. The predicted aerodynamic perfor-mances show noticeable differences when simulating the turbine stages simultaneously or sepa-rately. By considering the multi-blade per row and the scaling technique, the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produced better results concerning the effect of pitchwise positions between vanes and blades. The recorded pressure fluctuations exhibit a high unsteadiness characterized by a space–time periodicity described by a double Fourier decomposition. The Fast Fourier Transform FFT analysis of the static pressure fluctuations recorded at different interfaces reveals the existence of principal harmonics and their multiples, and each lobed structure of pressure wave corresponds to the number of vane/blade count. The potential effect is seen to propagate both upstream and downstream of each blade row and becomes accentuated at low mass flow rates. Between vanes and blades, the potential effect is seen to dominate the quasi totality of blade span, while down-stream the blades this effect seems to dominate from hub to mid span. Near the shroud the prevail-ing effect is rather linked to the blade tip flow structure.

  6. Treatment of cadmium dust with two-stage leaching process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The treatment of cadmium dust with a two-stage leaching process was investigated to replace the existing sulphation roast-leaching processes. The process parameters in the first stage leaching were basically similar to the neutralleaching in zinc hydrometallurgy. The effects of process parameters in the second stage leaching on the extraction of zincand cadmium were mainly studied. The experimental results indicated that zinc and cadmium could be efficiently recoveredfrom the cadmium dust by two-stage leaching process. The extraction percentages of zinc and cadmium in two stage leach-ing reached 95% and 88% respectively under the optimum conditions. The total extraction percentage of Zn and Cdreached 94%.

  7. Dynamic term structure models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Meldrum, Andrew

    This paper studies whether dynamic term structure models for US nominal bond yields should enforce the zero lower bound by a quadratic policy rate or a shadow rate specification. We address the question by estimating quadratic term structure models (QTSMs) and shadow rate models with at most four...

  8. LOGISTICS SCHEDULING: ANALYSIS OF TWO-STAGE PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chia CHANG; Chung-Yee LEE

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the coordination effects between stages for scheduling problems where decision-making is a two-stage process. Two stages are considered as one system. The system can be a supply chain that links two stages, one stage representing a manufacturer; and the other, a distributor.It also can represent a single manufacturer, while each stage represents a different department responsible for a part of operations. A problem that jointly considers both stages in order to achieve ideal overall system performance is defined as a system problem. In practice, at times, it might not be feasible for the two stages to make coordinated decisions due to (i) the lack of channels that allow decision makers at the two stages to cooperate, and/or (ii) the optimal solution to the system problem is too difficult (or costly) to achieve.Two practical approaches are applied to solve a variant of two-stage logistic scheduling problems. The Forward Approach is defined as a solution procedure by which the first stage of the system problem is solved first, followed by the second stage. Similarly, the Backward Approach is defined as a solution procedure by which the second stage of the system problem is solved prior to solving the first stage. In each approach, two stages are solved sequentially and the solution generated is treated as a heuristic solution with respect to the corresponding system problem. When decision makers at two stages make decisions locally without considering consequences to the entire system,ineffectiveness may result - even when each stage optimally solves its own problem. The trade-off between the time complexity and the solution quality is the main concern. This paper provides the worst-case performance analysis for each approach.

  9. Bayesian and frequentist two-stage treatment strategies based on sequential failure times subject to interval censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thall, Peter F; Wooten, Leiko H; Logothetis, Christopher J; Millikan, Randall E; Tannir, Nizar M

    2007-11-20

    For many diseases, therapy involves multiple stages, with the treatment in each stage chosen adaptively based on the patient's current disease status and history of previous treatments and clinical outcomes. Physicians routinely use such multi-stage treatment strategies, also called dynamic treatment regimes or treatment policies. We present a Bayesian framework for a clinical trial comparing two-stage strategies based on the time to overall failure, defined as either second disease worsening or discontinuation of therapy. Each patient is randomized among a set of treatments at enrollment, and if disease worsening occurs the patient is then re-randomized among a set of treatments excluding the treatment received initially. The goal is to select the two-stage strategy having the largest average overall failure time. A parametric model is formulated to account for non-constant failure time hazards, regression of the second failure time on the patient's first worsening time, and the complications that the failure time in either stage may be interval censored and there may be a delay between first worsening and the start of the second stage of therapy. Four different criteria, two Bayesian and two frequentist, for selecting a best strategy are considered. The methods are applied to a trial comparing two-stage strategies for treating metastatic renal cancer, and a simulation study in the context of this trial is presented. Advantages and disadvantages of this design compared to standard methods are discussed.

  10. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  11. Discrete dynamical models

    CERN Document Server

    Salinelli, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the analysis of discrete dynamical systems. The content is presented by an unitary approach that blends the perspective of mathematical modeling together with the ones of several discipline as Mathematical Analysis, Linear Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Systems Theory and Probability. After a preliminary discussion of several models, the main tools for the study of linear and non-linear scalar dynamical systems are presented, paying particular attention to the stability analysis. Linear difference equations are studied in detail and an elementary introduction of Z and Discrete Fourier Transform is presented. A whole chapter is devoted to the study of bifurcations and chaotic dynamics. One-step vector-valued dynamical systems are the subject of three chapters, where the reader can find the applications to positive systems, Markov chains, networks and search engines. The book is addressed mainly to students in Mathematics, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Economic...

  12. Modeling dynamic swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the problem of modeling video sequences of dynamic swarms (DSs). We define a DS as a large layout of stochastically repetitive spatial configurations of dynamic objects (swarm elements) whose motions exhibit local spatiotemporal interdependency and stationarity, i.e., the motions are similar in any small spatiotemporal neighborhood. Examples of DS abound in nature, e.g., herds of animals and flocks of birds. To capture the local spatiotemporal properties of the DS, we present a probabilistic model that learns both the spatial layout of swarm elements (based on low-level image segmentation) and their joint dynamics that are modeled as linear transformations. To this end, a spatiotemporal neighborhood is associated with each swarm element, in which local stationarity is enforced both spatially and temporally. We assume that the prior on the swarm dynamics is distributed according to an MRF in both space and time. Embedding this model in a MAP framework, we iterate between learning the spatial layout of the swarm and its dynamics. We learn the swarm transformations using ICM, which iterates between estimating these transformations and updating their distribution in the spatiotemporal neighborhoods. We demonstrate the validity of our method by conducting experiments on real and synthetic video sequences. Real sequences of birds, geese, robot swarms, and pedestrians evaluate the applicability of our model to real world data. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic causal modelling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, K J; Preller, Katrin H; Mathys, Chris; Cagnan, Hayriye; Heinzle, Jakob; Razi, Adeel; Zeidman, Peter

    2017-02-17

    This paper revisits the dynamic causal modelling of fMRI timeseries by replacing the usual (Taylor) approximation to neuronal dynamics with a neural mass model of the canonical microcircuit. This provides a generative or dynamic causal model of laminar specific responses that can generate haemodynamic and electrophysiological measurements. In principle, this allows the fusion of haemodynamic and (event related or induced) electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, it enables Bayesian model comparison of competing hypotheses about physiologically plausible synaptic effects; for example, does attentional modulation act on superficial or deep pyramidal cells - or both? In this technical note, we describe the resulting dynamic causal model and provide an illustrative application to the attention to visual motion dataset used in previous papers. Our focus here is on how to answer long-standing questions in fMRI; for example, do haemodynamic responses reflect extrinsic (afferent) input from distant cortical regions, or do they reflect intrinsic (recurrent) neuronal activity? To what extent do inhibitory interneurons contribute to neurovascular coupling? What is the relationship between haemodynamic responses and the frequency of induced neuronal activity? This paper does not pretend to answer these questions; rather it shows how they can be addressed using neural mass models of fMRI timeseries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser

    2007-08-01

    BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.

  15. Corruption dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafeyev, O. A.; Nemnyugin, S. A.; Rylow, D.; Kolpak, E. P.; Awasthi, Achal

    2017-07-01

    The corruption dynamics is analyzed by means of the lattice model which is similar to the three-dimensional Ising model. Agents placed at nodes of the corrupt network periodically choose to perfom or not to perform the act of corruption at gain or loss while making decisions based on the process history. The gain value and its dynamics are defined by means of the Markov stochastic process modelling with parameters established in accordance with the influence of external and individual factors on the agent's gain. The model is formulated algorithmically and is studied by means of the computer simulation. Numerical results are obtained which demonstrate asymptotic behaviour of the corruption network under various conditions.

  16. Dynamic Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available System Dynamics was introduced by Jay W. Forrester in the 1960s. Since then the methodology was adopted in many areas of natural or social sciences. This article tries to present briefly how this methodology works, both as Systems Thinking and as Modelling with Vensim computer software.

  17. Dynamic modelling of windmills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An empirical dynamic model of windmills is set up based on analysis of measured Fourier spectra of the active electric power from a wind farm. The model is based on the assumption that eigenswings of the mechanical construction of the windmills excited by the phenomenon of vortex tower interaction...... will be transferred through the shaft to the electrical generator and result in disturbances of the active electric power supplied by the windmills. The results of the model are found to be in agreement with measurements in the frequency range of the model that is from 0.1 to 10 Hz....

  18. Dynamic Network Models

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze random networks that change over time. First we analyze a dynamic Erdos-Renyi model, whose edges change over time. We describe its stationary distribution, its convergence thereto, and the SI contact process on the network, which has relevance for connectivity and the spread of infections. Second, we analyze the effect of node turnover, when nodes enter and leave the network, which has relevance for network models incorporating births, deaths, aging, and other demographic factors.

  19. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  20. Efficient Two-Stage Group Testing Algorithms for DNA Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Group testing algorithms are very useful tools for DNA library screening. Building on recent work by Levenshtein (2003) and Tonchev (2008), we construct in this paper new infinite classes of combinatorial structures, the existence of which are essential for attaining the minimum number of individual tests at the second stage of a two-stage disjunctive testing algorithm.

  1. High Performance Gasification with the Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøbel, Benny; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars. In the ......Based on more than 15 years of research and practical experience, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and COWI Consulting Engineers and Planners AS present the two-stage gasification process, a concept for high efficiency gasification of biomass producing negligible amounts of tars....... In the two-stage gasification concept, the pyrolysis and the gasification processes are physical separated. The volatiles from the pyrolysis are partially oxidized, and the hot gases are used as gasification medium to gasify the char. Hot gases from the gasifier and a combustion unit can be used for drying...... a cold gas efficiency exceeding 90% is obtained. In the original design of the two-stage gasification process, the pyrolysis unit consists of a screw conveyor with external heating, and the char unit is a fixed bed gasifier. This design is well proven during more than 1000 hours of testing with various...

  2. FREE GRAFT TWO-STAGE URETHROPLASTY FOR HYPOSPADIAS REPAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-jin Yue; Ling-jun Zuo; Jia-ji Wang; Gan-ping Zhong; Jian-ming Duan; Zhi-ping Wang; Da-shan Qin

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of free graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty for hypospadias repair.Methods Fifty-eight cases with different types of hypospadias including 10 subcoronal, 36 penile shaft, 9 scrotal, and 3 perineal were treated with free full-thickness skin graft or (and) buccal mucosal graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty. Of 58 cases, 45 were new cases, 13 had history of previous failed surgeries. Operative procedure included two stages: the first stage is to correct penile curvature (chordee), prepare transplanting bed, harvest and prepare full-thickness skin graft, buccal mucosal graft, and perform graft transplantation. The second stage is to complete urethroplasty and glanuloplasty.Results After the first stage operation, 56 of 58 cases (96.6%) were successful with grafts healing well, another 2foreskin grafts got gangrened. After the second stage operation on 56 cases, 5 cases failed with newly formed urethras opened due to infection, 8 cases had fistulas, 43 (76.8%) cases healed well.Conclusions Free graft transplantation two-stage urethroplasty for hypospadias repair is a kind of effective treatment with broad indication, comparatively high success rate, less complicationsand good cosmatic results, indicative of various types of hypospadias repair.

  3. A two-stage rank test using density estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1995-01-01

    For the one-sample problem, a two-stage rank test is derived which realizes a required power against a given local alternative, for all sufficiently smooth underlying distributions. This is achieved using asymptotic expansions resulting in a precision of orderm −1, wherem is the size of the first

  4. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  5. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  6. Method of oxygen-enriched two-stage underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hongtao; Chen Feng; Pan Xia; Yao Kai; Liu Shuqin

    2011-01-01

    Two-stage underground coal gasification was studied to improve the caloric value of the syngas and to extend gas production times. A model test using the oxygen-enriched two-stage coal gasification method was carried out. The composition of the gas produced, the time ratio of the two stages, and the role of the temperature field were analysed. The results show that oxygen-enriched two-stage gasification shortens the time of the first stage and prolongs the time of the second stage. Feed oxygen concentrations of 30%,35%, 40%, 45%, 60%, or 80% gave time ratios (first stage to second stage) of 1:0.12, 1:0.21, 1:0.51, 1:0.64,1:0.90, and 1:4.0 respectively. Cooling rates of the temperature field after steam injection decreased with time from about 19.1-27.4 ℃/min to 2.3-6.8 ℃/min. But this rate increased with increasing oxygen concentrations in the first stage. The caloric value of the syngas improves with increased oxygen concentration in the first stage. Injection of 80% oxygen-enriched air gave gas with the highest caloric value and also gave the longest production time. The caloric value of the gas obtained from the oxygenenriched two-stage gasification method lies in the range from 5.31 MJ/Nm3 to 10.54 MJ/Nm3.

  7. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Jamshidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with two-stage technique using an appropriate tray. To measure the marginal gap, the distance between the restoration margin and preparation finish line of plaster dies was vertically determined in mid mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual (MDBL regions by a stereomicroscope using a standard method. Results. The results of independent test showed that the mean value of the marginal gap obtained by one-stage impression technique was higher than that of two-stage impression technique. Further, there was no significant difference between one- and two-stage impression techniques in mid buccal region, but a significant difference was reported between the two impression techniques in MDL regions and in general. Conclusion. The findings of the present study indicated higher accuracy for two-stage impression technique than for the one-stage impression technique.

  8. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  9. Modelling of Dynamic Strain Aging with a Dislocation-Based Isotropic Hardening Model and Investigation of Orthogonal Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berisha, B.; Hora, P.; Tong, L.; Wahlen, A.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Based on experimental results, a dislocation material model describing the dynamic strain aging effect at different temperatures is presented. One and two stage loading tests were performed in order to investigate the influence of the loading direction as well as the temperature influence due to the

  10. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by analytical as well as by numerical studies. The dynamic wake meandering philosophy has been verified by comparing model predictions with extensive full-scale measurements. These comparisons have demonstrated good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, concerning both flow characteristics and turbine load characteristics. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the dynamic wake meandering approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as

  11. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Bingöl, Ferhat;

    , are an integrated part the model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. Two computationally low cost models are developed for this purpose. The character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed......We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however......, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture...

  12. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  13. Square Kilometre Array station configuration using two-stage beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Jiwani, Aziz; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Hall, Peter J; Padhi, Shantanu; de Vaate, Jan Geralt bij

    2012-01-01

    The lowest frequency band (70 - 450 MHz) of the Square Kilometre Array will consist of sparse aperture arrays grouped into geographically-localised patches, or stations. Signals from thousands of antennas in each station will be beamformed to produce station beams which form the inputs for the central correlator. Two-stage beamforming within stations can reduce SKA-low signal processing load and costs, but has not been previously explored for the irregular station layouts now favoured in radio astronomy arrays. This paper illustrates the effects of two-stage beamforming on sidelobes and effective area, for two representative station layouts (regular and irregular gridded tile on an irregular station). The performance is compared with a single-stage, irregular station. The inner sidelobe levels do not change significantly between layouts, but the more distant sidelobes are affected by the tile layouts; regular tile creates diffuse, but regular, grating lobes. With very sparse arrays, the station effective area...

  14. Two stage sorption type cryogenic refrigerator including heat regeneration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Wen, Liang-Chi; Bard, Steven

    1989-01-01

    A lower stage chemisorption refrigeration system physically and functionally coupled to an upper stage physical adsorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Waste heat generated by the lower stage cycle is regenerated to fuel the upper stage cycle thereby greatly improving the energy efficiency of a two-stage sorption refrigerator. The two stages are joined by disposing a first pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a first refrigerant for the lower stage refrigeration cycle within a second pressurization chamber providing a high pressure flow of a second refrigerant for the upper stage refrigeration cycle. The first pressurization chamber is separated from the second pressurization chamber by a gas-gap thermal switch which at times is filled with a thermoconductive fluid to allow conduction of heat from the first pressurization chamber to the second pressurization chamber.

  15. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...... problem....

  16. Development of a heavy-duty diesel engine with two-stage turbocharging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, L.; Kruithof, J.

    2001-01-01

    A mean value model was developed by using Matrixx/ Systembuild simulation tool for designing real-time control algorithms for the two-stage engine. All desired characteristics are achieved, apart from lower A/F ratio at lower engine speeds and Turbocharger matches calculations. The CANbus is used to

  17. Two-stage, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of wood : an investigation of fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Harris; Andrew J. Baker; Anthony H. Conner; Thomas W. Jeffries; James L. Minor; Roger C. Pettersen; Ralph W. Scott; Edward L Springer; Theodore H. Wegner; John I. Zerbe

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental analysis of the processing steps in the production of methanol from southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.) by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Data for hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis are correlated using models. This information is used to develop and evaluate a process design.

  18. A two-stage model for blog feed search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider blog feed search: identifying relevant blogs for a given topic. An individual's search behavior often involves a combination of exploratory behavior triggered by salient features of the information objects being examined plus goal-directed in-depth information seeking behavior. We presen

  19. Optimizing electricity distribution using two-stage integer recourse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    2000-01-01

    We consider two planning problems faced by an electricity distributor. Electricity can be ob-tained both from power plants and small generators such as hospitals and greenhouses, whereas the future demand for electricity is uncertain. The price of electricity obtained from the power plants depends o

  20. Optimizing electricity distribution using two-stage integer recourse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; van der Vlerk, M.H.; Uryasev, SP; Pardalos, PM

    2001-01-01

    We consider two planning problems faced by an electricity distributor. Electricity can be obtained both from power plants and small generators such as hospitals and greenhouses, whereas the future demand for electricity is uncertain. The price of electricity obtained from the power plants depends on

  1. A two-stage model for blog feed search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider blog feed search: identifying relevant blogs for a given topic. An individual's search behavior often involves a combination of exploratory behavior triggered by salient features of the information objects being examined plus goal-directed in-depth information seeking behavior. We

  2. Optimizing electricity distribution using two-stage integer recourse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Van der Vlerk, M.H.

    2000-05-01

    We consider two planning problems faced by an electricity distributor. Electricity can be obtained both from power plants and small generators such as hospitals and greenhouses, whereas the future demand for electricity is uncertain. The price of electricity obtained from the power plants depends on quota that are to be determined in a yearly contract, whereas the (given) contracts with small generators contain various constraints on switching them on or off. 14 refs.

  3. Measuring the Learning from Two-Stage Collaborative Group Exams

    CERN Document Server

    Ives, Joss

    2014-01-01

    A two-stage collaborative exam is one in which students first complete the exam individually, and then complete the same or similar exam in collaborative groups immediately afterward. To quantify the learning effect from the group component of these two-stage exams in an introductory Physics course, a randomized crossover design was used where each student participated in both the treatment and control groups. For each of the two two-stage collaborative group midterm exams, questions were designed to form matched near-transfer pairs with questions on an end-of-term diagnostic which was used as a learning test. For learning test questions paired with questions from the first midterm, which took place six to seven weeks before the learning test, an analysis using a mixed-effects logistic regression found no significant differences in learning-test performance between the control and treatment group. For learning test questions paired with questions from the second midterm, which took place one to two weeks prio...

  4. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Kundra

    2000-06-01

    Structural dynamic modification techniques attempt to reduce dynamic design time and can be implemented beginning with spatial models of structures, dynamic test data or updated models. The models assumed in this discussion are mathematical models, namely mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of the equations of motion of a structure. These models are identified/extracted from dynamic test data viz. frequency response functions (FRFs). Alternatively these models could have been obtained by adjusting or updating the finite element model of the structure in the light of the test data. The methods of structural modification for getting desired dynamic characteristics by using modifiers namely mass, beams and tuned absorbers are discussed.

  5. Forty-five-degree two-stage venous cannula: advantages over standard two-stage venous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D R; Desai, J B

    1997-01-01

    We present a 45-degree two-stage venous cannula that confers advantage to the surgeon using cardiopulmonary bypass. This cannula exits the mediastinum under the transverse bar of the sternal retractor, leaving the rostral end of the sternal incision free of apparatus. It allows for lifting of the heart with minimal effect on venous return and does not interfere with the radially laid out sutures of an aortic valve replacement using an interrupted suture technique.

  6. An intracooling system for a novel two-stage sliding-vane air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Stefano; Valenti, Gianluca; Costanzo, Ida; Colletta, Daniele; Contaldi, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Lube-oil injection is used in positive-displacement compressors and, among them, in sliding-vane machines to guarantee the correct lubrication of the moving parts and as sealing to prevent air leakage. Furthermore, lube-oil injection allows to exploit lubricant also as thermal ballast with a great thermal capacity to minimize the temperature increase during the compression. This study presents the design of a two-stage sliding-vane rotary compressor in which the air cooling is operated by high-pressure cold oil injection into a connection duct between the two stages. The heat exchange between the atomized oil jet and the air results in a decrease of the air temperature before the second stage, improving the overall system efficiency. This cooling system is named here intracooling, as opposed to intercooling. The oil injection is realized via pressure-swirl nozzles, both within the compressors and inside the intracooling duct. The design of the two-stage sliding-vane compressor is accomplished by way of a lumped parameter model. The model predicts an input power reduction as large as 10% for intercooled and intracooled two-stage compressors, the latter being slightly better, with respect to a conventional single-stage compressor for compressed air applications. An experimental campaign is conducted on a first prototype that comprises the low-pressure compressor and the intracooling duct, indicating that a significant temperature reduction is achieved in the duct.

  7. Two-stage open-loop velocity compensating method applied to multi-mass elastic transmission system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Deli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel vibration-suppression open-loop control method for multi-mass system is proposed, which uses two-stage velocity compensating algorithm and fuzzy I + P controller. This compensating method is based on model-based control theory in order to provide a damping effect on the system mechanical part. The mathematical model of multi-mass system is built and reduced to estimate the velocities of masses. The velocity difference between adjacent masses is calculated dynamically. A 3-mass system is regarded as the composition of two 2-mass systems in order to realize the two-stage compensating algorithm. Instead of using a typical PI controller in the velocity compensating loop, a fuzzy I + P controller is designed and its input variables are decided according to their impact on the system, which is different from the conventional fuzzy PID controller designing rules. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed velocity compensating method is effective in suppressing vibration on a 3-mass system and it has a better performance when the designed fuzzy I + P controller is utilized in the control system.

  8. Depth-dependent extension, two-stage breakup and depleted lithospheric counterflow at rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huismans, Ritske S.; Beaumont, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Uniform lithospheric extension predicts basic properties of non-volcanic rifted margins but fails to explain other important characteristics. Significant discrepancies are observed at 'type I' margins (such as the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugates), where large tracts of continental mantle lithosphere are exposed at the sea floor, and 'type II' margins (such as some ultrawide central South Atlantic margins), where thin continental crust spans wide regions below which continental lower crust and mantle lithosphere have apparently been removed. Neither corresponds to uniform extension. Instead, either crust or mantle lithosphere has been preferentially removed. Using dynamical models, we demonstrate that these margins are opposite end members: in type I, depth-dependent extension results in crustal-necking breakup before mantle-lithosphere breakup and in type II, the converse is true. These two-layer, two-stage breakup behaviours explain the discrepancies and have implications for the styles of the associated sedimentary basins. Laterally flowing lower-mantle lithosphere may underplate both type I and type II margins, thereby contributing to their anomalous characteristics.

  9. On Two-stage Seamless Adaptive Design in Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shein-Chung Chow

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in clinical research and development based on accrued data has become very popular because of its efficiency and flexibility in modifying trial and/or statistical procedures of ongoing clinical trials. One of the most commonly considered adaptive designs is probably a two-stage seamless adaptive trial design that combines two separate studies into one single study. In many cases, study endpoints considered in a two-stage seamless adaptive design may be similar but different (e.g. a biomarker versus a regular clinical endpoint or the same study endpoint with different treatment durations. In this case, it is important to determine how the data collected from both stages should be combined for the final analysis. It is also of interest to know how the sample size calculation/allocation should be done for achieving the study objectives originally set for the two stages (separate studies. In this article, formulas for sample size calculation/allocation are derived for cases in which the study endpoints are continuous, discrete (e.g. binary responses, and contain time-to-event data assuming that there is a well-established relationship between the study endpoints at different stages, and that the study objectives at different stages are the same. In cases in which the study objectives at different stages are different (e.g. dose finding at the first stage and efficacy confirmation at the second stage and when there is a shift in patient population caused by protocol amendments, the derived test statistics and formulas for sample size calculation and allocation are necessarily modified for controlling the overall type I error at the prespecified level.

  10. Two-stage series array SQUID amplifier for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J. G.; DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.; Welty, R. P.; Radparvar, M.

    We present test results for a two-stage integrated SQUID amplifier which uses a series array of d.c. SQUIDS to amplify the signal from a single input SQUID. The device was developed by Welty and Martinis at NIST and recent versions have been manufactured by HYPRES, Inc. Shielding and filtering techniques were employed during the testing to minimize the external noise. Energy resolution of 300 h was demonstrated using a d.c. excitation at frequencies above 1 kHz, and better than 500 h resolution was typical down to 300 Hz.

  11. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, Latesh

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight line for shirorekha and spine. This approach has been tested for 50000 samples and we got 89.12% success

  12. Straw Gasification in a Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jens Dall; Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    Additive-prepared straw pellets were gasified in the 100 kW two-stage gasifier at The Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The fixed bed temperature range was 800-1000°C. In order to avoid bed sintering, as observed earlier with straw gasification...... residues were examined after the test. No agglomeration or sintering was observed in the ash residues. The tar content was measured both by solid phase amino adsorption (SPA) method and cold trapping (Petersen method). Both showed low tar contents (~42 mg/Nm3 without gas cleaning). The particle content...

  13. Two-Stage Fan I: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, H. E.; Kennedy, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    A two-stage, highly-loaded fan was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 2.8 with an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent. At the first rotor inlet, design flow per unit annulus area is 42 lbm/sec/sq ft (205 kg/sec/sq m), hub/tip ratio is 0.4 with a tip diameter of 31 inches (0.787 m), and design tip speed is 1450 ft/sec (441.96 m/sec). Other features include use of multiple-circular-arc airfoils, resettable stators, and split casings over the rotor tip sections for casing treatment tests.

  14. Two-Stage Eagle Strategy with Differential Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of an optimization process is largely determined by the search algorithm and its fundamental characteristics. In a given optimization, a single type of algorithm is used in most applications. In this paper, we will investigate the Eagle Strategy recently developed for global optimization, which uses a two-stage strategy by combing two different algorithms to improve the overall search efficiency. We will discuss this strategy with differential evolution and then evaluate their performance by solving real-world optimization problems such as pressure vessel and speed reducer design. Results suggest that we can reduce the computing effort by a factor of up to 10 in many applications.

  15. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi

    2017-04-01

    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  16. Thermal design of two-stage evaporative cooler based on thermal comfort criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Neda; Poshtiri, Amin Haghighi

    2016-09-01

    Performance of two-stage evaporative coolers at various outdoor air conditions was numerically studied, and its geometric and physical characteristics were obtained based on thermal comfort criteria. For this purpose, a mathematical model was developed based on conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy to determine heat and mass transfer characteristics of the system. The results showed that two-stage indirect/direct cooler can provide the thermal comfort condition when outdoor air temperature and relative humidity are located in the range of 34-54 °C and 10-60 %, respectively. Moreover, as relative humidity of the ambient air rises, two-stage evaporative cooler with the smaller direct and larger indirect cooler will be needed. In building with high cooling demand, thermal comfort may be achieved at a greater air change per hour number, and thus an expensive two-stage evaporative cooler with a higher electricity consumption would be required. Finally, a design guideline was proposed to determine the size of required plate heat exchangers at various operating conditions.

  17. Optimisation of two-stage screw expanders for waste heat recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. G.; Smith, I. K.; Stosic, N.

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been shown that the use of two-phase screw expanders in power generation cycles can achieve an increase in the utilisation of available energy from a low temperature heat source when compared with more conventional single-phase turbines. However, screw expander efficiencies are more sensitive to expansion volume ratio than turbines, and this increases as the expander inlet vapour dryness fraction decreases. For singlestage screw machines with low inlet dryness, this can lead to under expansion of the working fluid and low isentropic efficiency for the expansion process. The performance of the cycle can potentially be improved by using a two-stage expander, consisting of a low pressure machine and a smaller high pressure machine connected in series. By expanding the working fluid over two stages, the built-in volume ratios of the two machines can be selected to provide a better match with the overall expansion process, thereby increasing efficiency for particular inlet and discharge conditions. The mass flow rate though both stages must however be matched, and the compromise between increasing efficiency and maximising power output must also be considered. This research uses a rigorous thermodynamic screw machine model to compare the performance of single and two-stage expanders over a range of operating conditions. The model allows optimisation of the required intermediate pressure in the two- stage expander, along with the rotational speed and built-in volume ratio of both screw machine stages. The results allow the two-stage machine to be fully specified in order to achieve maximum efficiency for a required power output.

  18. Comparing different dynamic stall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holierhoek, J.G. [Unit Wind Energy, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ZG, Petten (Netherlands); De Vaal, J.B.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; Bijl, H. [Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-07-16

    The dynamic stall phenomenon and its importance for load calculations and aeroelastic simulations is well known. Different models exist to model the effect of dynamic stall; however, a systematic comparison is still lacking. To investigate if one is performing better than another, three models are used to simulate the Ohio State University measurements and a set of data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames experimental study of dynamic stall and compare results. These measurements were at conditions and for aerofoils that are typical for wind turbines, and the results are publicly available. The three selected dynamic stall models are the ONERA model, the Beddoes-Leishman model and the Snel model. The simulations show that there are still significant differences between measurements and models and that none of the models is significantly better in all cases than the other models. Especially in the deep stall regime, the accuracy of each of the dynamic stall models is limited.

  19. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  20. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  1. Dynamic Linear Models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.

  2. Two-Stage Part-Based Pedestrian Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Prioletti, Antonio; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting pedestrians is still a challenging task for automotive vision system due the extreme variability of targets, lighting conditions, occlusions, and high speed vehicle motion. A lot of research has been focused on this problem in the last 10 years and detectors based on classifiers has...... gained a special place among the different approaches presented. This work presents a state-of-the-art pedestrian detection system based on a two stages classifier. Candidates are extracted with a Haar cascade classifier trained with the DaimlerDB dataset and then validated through part-based HOG...... of several metrics, such as detection rate, false positives per hour, and frame rate. The novelty of this system rely in the combination of HOG part-based approach, tracking based on specific optimized feature and porting on a real prototype....

  3. Laparoscopic management of a two staged gall bladdertorsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder torsion (GBT) is a relatively uncommonentity and rarely diagnosed preoperatively. A constantfactor in all occurrences of GBT is a freely mobilegall bladder due to congenital or acquired anomalies.GBT is commonly observed in elderly white females.We report a 77-year-old, Caucasian lady who wasoriginally diagnosed as gall bladder perforation butwas eventually found with a two staged torsion of thegall bladder with twisting of the Riedel's lobe (partof tongue like projection of liver segment 4A). Thistogether, has not been reported in literature, to thebest of our knowledge. We performed laparoscopiccholecystectomy and she had an uneventful postoperativeperiod. GBT may create a diagnostic dilemmain the context of acute cholecystitis. Timely diagnosisand intervention is necessary, with extra care whileoperating as the anatomy is generally distorted. Thefundus first approach can be useful due to alteredanatomy in the region of Calot's triangle. Laparoscopiccholecystectomy has the benefit of early recovery.

  4. Lightweight Concrete Produced Using a Two-Stage Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The type of lightweight aggregate and its volume fraction in a mix determine the density of lightweight concrete. Minimizing the density obviously requires a higher volume fraction, but this usually causes aggregates segregation in a conventional mixing process. This paper proposes a two-stage casting process to produce a lightweight concrete. This process involves placing lightweight aggregates in a frame and then filling in the remaining interstitial voids with cementitious grout. The casting process results in the lowest density of lightweight concrete, which consequently has low compressive strength. The irregularly shaped aggregates compensate for the weak point in terms of strength while the round-shape aggregates provide a strength of 20 MPa. Therefore, the proposed casting process can be applied for manufacturing non-structural elements and structural composites requiring a very low density and a strength of at most 20 MPa.

  5. TWO-STAGE OCCLUDED OBJECT RECOGNITION METHOD FOR MICROASSEMBLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huaming; ZHU Jianying

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage object recognition algorithm with the presence of occlusion is presented for microassembly. Coarse localization determines whether template is in image or not and approximately where it is, and fine localization gives its accurate position. In coarse localization, local feature, which is invariant to translation, rotation and occlusion, is used to form signatures. By comparing signature of template with that of image, approximate transformation parameter from template to image is obtained, which is used as initial parameter value for fine localization. An objective function, which is a function of transformation parameter, is constructed in fine localization and minimized to realize sub-pixel localization accuracy. The occluded pixels are not taken into account in objective function, so the localization accuracy will not be influenced by the occlusion.

  6. Two-stage designs for cross-over bioequivalence trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Meinhard; Rauch, Geraldine

    2015-07-20

    The topic of applying two-stage designs in the field of bioequivalence studies has recently gained attention in the literature and in regulatory guidelines. While there exists some methodological research on the application of group sequential designs in bioequivalence studies, implementation of adaptive approaches has focused up to now on superiority and non-inferiority trials. Especially, no comparison of the features and performance characteristics of these designs has been performed, and therefore, the question of which design to employ in this setting remains open. In this paper, we discuss and compare 'classical' group sequential designs and three types of adaptive designs that offer the option of mid-course sample size recalculation. A comprehensive simulation study demonstrates that group sequential designs can be identified, which show power characteristics that are similar to those of the adaptive designs but require a lower average sample size. The methods are illustrated with a real bioequivalence study example.

  7. The hybrid two stage anticlockwise cycle for ecological energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyklis Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticlockwise cycle is commonly used for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps applications. The application of refrigerant in the compression cycle is within the temperature limits of the triple point and the critical point. New refrigerants such as 1234yf or 1234ze have many disadvantages, therefore natural refrigerants application is favourable. The carbon dioxide and water can be applied only in the hybrid two stages cycle. The possibilities of this solutions are shown for refrigerating applications, as well some experimental results of the adsorption-compression double stages cycle, powered with solar collectors are shown. As a high temperature cycle the adsorption system is applied. The low temperature cycle is the compression stage with carbon dioxide as a working fluid. This allows to achieve relatively high COP for low temperature cycle and for the whole system.

  8. Study on the Control Algorithm of Two-Stage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhao Piao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast response, high efficiency, and good reliability are very important characteristics to electric vehicles (EVs dc/dc converters. Two-stage dc-dc converter is a kind of dc-dc topologies that can offer those characteristics to EVs. Presently, nonlinear control is an active area of research in the field of the control algorithm of dc-dc converters. However, very few papers research on two-stage converter for EVs. In this paper, a fixed switching frequency sliding mode (FSFSM controller and double-integral sliding mode (DISM controller for two-stage dc-dc converter are proposed. And a conventional linear control (lag is chosen as the comparison. The performances of the proposed FSFSM controller are compared with those obtained by the lag controller. In consequence, the satisfactory simulation and experiment results show that the FSFSM controller is capable of offering good large-signal operations with fast dynamical responses to the converter. At last, some other simulation results are presented to prove that the DISM controller is a promising method for the converter to eliminate the steady-state error.

  9. Two Stage Assessment of Thermal Hazard in An Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenda, Jan; Sułkowski, Józef; Pach, Grzegorz; Różański, Zenon; Wrona, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    The results of research into the application of selected thermal indices of men's work and climate indices in a two stage assessment of climatic work conditions in underground mines have been presented in this article. The difference between these two kinds of indices was pointed out during the project entitled "The recruiting requirements for miners working in hot underground mine environments". The project was coordinated by The Institute of Mining Technologies at Silesian University of Technology. It was a part of a Polish strategic project: "Improvement of safety in mines" being financed by the National Centre of Research and Development. Climate indices are based only on physical parameters of air and their measurements. Thermal indices include additional factors which are strictly connected with work, e.g. thermal resistance of clothing, kind of work etc. Special emphasis has been put on the following indices - substitute Silesian temperature (TS) which is considered as the climatic index, and the thermal discomfort index (δ) which belongs to the thermal indices group. The possibility of the two stage application of these indices has been taken into consideration (preliminary and detailed estimation). Based on the examples it was proved that by the application of thermal hazard (detailed estimation) it is possible to avoid the use of additional technical solutions which would be necessary to reduce thermal hazard in particular work places according to the climate index. The threshold limit value for TS has been set, based on these results. It was shown that below TS = 24°C it is not necessary to perform detailed estimation.

  10. A Two-stage Tuning Method of Servo Parameters for Feed Drives in Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the evaluation of dynamic performance for feed drives in machine tools, this paper presents a two-stage tuning method of servo parameters. In the first stage, the evaluation of dynamic performance, parameter tuning and optimization on a mechatronic integrated system simulation platform of feed drives are performed. As a result, a servo parameter combination is acquired. In the second stage, the servo parameter combination from the first stage is set and tuned further in a real machine tool whose dynamic performance is measured and evaluated using the cross grid encoder developed by Heidenhain GmbH. A case study shows that this method simplifies the test process effectively and results in a good dynamic performance in a real machine tool.

  11. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

  12. Matching tutor to student: rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Existing models of birdsong learning assume that brain area LMAN introduces variability into song for trial-and-error learning. Recent data suggest that LMAN also encodes a corrective bias driving short-term improvements in song. These later consolidate in area RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using a stochastic gradient descent approach, we derive how 'tutor' circuits should match plasticity mechanisms in 'student' circuits for efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework with which the tutor can build its teaching signal. We show that mismatching the tutor signal and plasticity mechanism can impair or abolish learning. Applied to birdsong, our results predict the temporal structure of the corrective bias from LMAN given a plasticity rule in RA. Our framework can be applied predictively to other paired brain areas showing two-stage learning.

  13. Dynamic causal modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, K J; Harrison, L; Penny, W

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the identification of nonlinear input-state-output systems. By using a bilinear approximation to the dynamics of interactions among states, the parameters of the implicit causal model reduce to three sets. These comprise (1) parameters that mediate the influence of extrinsic inputs on the states, (2) parameters that mediate intrinsic coupling among the states, and (3) [bilinear] parameters that allow the inputs to modulate that coupling. Identification proceeds in a Bayesian framework given known, deterministic inputs and the observed responses of the system. We developed this approach for the analysis of effective connectivity using experimentally designed inputs and fMRI responses. In this context, the coupling parameters correspond to effective connectivity and the bilinear parameters reflect the changes in connectivity induced by inputs. The ensuing framework allows one to characterise fMRI experiments, conceptually, as an experimental manipulation of integration among brain regions (by contextual or trial-free inputs, like time or attentional set) that is revealed using evoked responses (to perturbations or trial-bound inputs, like stimuli). As with previous analyses of effective connectivity, the focus is on experimentally induced changes in coupling (cf., psychophysiologic interactions). However, unlike previous approaches in neuroimaging, the causal model ascribes responses to designed deterministic inputs, as opposed to treating inputs as unknown and stochastic.

  14. Hybrid staging of a Lysholm positive displacement engine with two Westinghouse two stage impulse Curtis turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The University of California at Berkeley has tested and modeled satisfactorly a hybrid staged Lysholm engine (positive displacement) with a two stage Curtis wheel turbine. The system operates in a stable manner over its operating range (0/1-3/1 water ratio, 120 psia input). Proposals are made for controlling interstage pressure with a partial admission turbine and volume expansion to control mass flow and pressure ratio for the Lysholm engine.

  15. Noncausal two-stage image filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vishnevyy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is necessary to develop adaptive algorithms, which allow to detect such regions and to apply filter with respective parameters for suppression of anomalous noises for the purposes of image filtration, which consist of regions with anomalous errors. Development of adaptive algorithm for non-causal two-stage images filtration at pres-ence of observations with anomalous errors. The adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is developed. On the first stage the adaptive one-dimensional algorithm for causal filtration is used for independent processing along rows and columns of image. On the second stage the obtained data are united and a posteriori estimations are calculated. Results of experimental investigations. The developed adaptive algorithm for noncausal images filtration at presence of observations with anomalous errors is investigated on the model sample by means of statistical modeling on PC. The image is modeled as a realization of Gaussian-Markov random field. The modeled image is corrupted with uncorrelated Gaussian noise. Regions of image with anomalous errors are corrupted with uncorrelated Gaussian noise which has higher power than normal noise on the rest part of the image. Conclusions. The analysis of adaptive algorithm for noncausal two-stage filtration is done. The characteristics of accuracy of computed estimations are shown. The comparisons of first stage and second stage of the developed adaptive algorithm are done. Adaptive algorithm is compared with known uniform two-stage algorithm of image filtration. According to the obtained results the uniform algorithm does not suppress anomalous noise meanwhile the adaptive algorithm shows good results.

  16. An Otto Engine Dynamic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu; Relly Victoria Virgil Petrescu

    2016-01-01

    Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. One uses then the Lagrange equation. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft) with inertial masses. One uses and elastic constant of...

  17. Differentiating the persistency and permanency of some two stages DNA splicing language via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaber, M. H.; Yusof, Y.; Mohamad, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Predicting the existence of restriction enzymes sequences on the recombinant DNA fragments, after accomplishing the manipulating reaction, via mathematical approach is considered as a convenient way in terms of DNA recombination. In terms of mathematics, for this characteristic of the recombinant DNA strands, which involve the recognition sites of restriction enzymes, is called persistent and permanent. Normally differentiating the persistency and permanency of two stages recombinant DNA strands using wet-lab experiment is expensive and time-consuming due to running the experiment at two stages as well as adding more restriction enzymes on the reaction. Therefore, in this research, by using Yusof-Goode (Y-G) model the difference between persistent and permanent splicing language of some two stages is investigated. Two theorems were provided, which show the persistency and non-permanency of two stages DNA splicing language.

  18. Direct Torque Control of Sensorless Induction Machine Drives: A Two-Stage Kalman Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Kalman filter (EKF has been widely applied for sensorless direct torque control (DTC in induction machines (IMs. One key problem associated with EKF is that the estimator suffers from computational burden and numerical problems resulting from high order mathematical models. To reduce the computational cost, a two-stage extended Kalman filter (TEKF based solution is presented for closed-loop stator flux, speed, and torque estimation of IM to achieve sensorless DTC-SVM operations in this paper. The novel observer can be similarly derived as the optimal two-stage Kalman filter (TKF which has been proposed by several researchers. Compared to a straightforward implementation of a conventional EKF, the TEKF estimator can reduce the number of arithmetic operations. Simulation and experimental results verify the performance of the proposed TEKF estimator for DTC of IMs.

  19. Experiment and surge analysis of centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yituan HE; Chaochen MA

    2008-01-01

    To study a centrifugal two-stage turbocharging system's surge and influencing factors, a special test bench was set up and the system surge test was performed. The test results indicate that the measured parameters such as air mass flow and rotation speed of a high pressure (HP) stage compressor can be converted into corrected para-meters under a standard condition according to the Mach number similarity criterion, because the air flow in a HP stage compressor has entered the Reynolds number (Re) auto-modeling range. Accordingly, the reasons leading to a two-stage turbocharging system's surge can be analyzed according to the corrected mass flow characteristic maps and actual operating conditions of HP and low pressure (LP) stage compressors.

  20. Effect of Silica Fume on two-stage Concrete Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgader, H. S.; El-Baden, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Two-stage concrete (TSC) is an innovative concrete that does not require vibration for placing and compaction. TSC is a simple concept; it is made using the same basic constituents as traditional concrete: cement, coarse aggregate, sand and water as well as mineral and chemical admixtures. As its name suggests, it is produced through a two-stage process. Firstly washed coarse aggregate is placed into the formwork in-situ. Later a specifically designed self compacting grout is introduced into the form from the lowest point under gravity pressure to fill the voids, cementing the aggregate into a monolith. The hardened concrete is dense, homogeneous and has in general improved engineering properties and durability. This paper presents the results from a research work attempt to study the effect of silica fume (SF) and superplasticizers admixtures (SP) on compressive and tensile strength of TSC using various combinations of water to cement ratio (w/c) and cement to sand ratio (c/s). Thirty six concrete mixes with different grout constituents were tested. From each mix twenty four standard cylinder samples of size (150mm×300mm) of concrete containing crushed aggregate were produced. The tested samples were made from combinations of w/c equal to: 0.45, 0.55 and 0.85, and three c/s of values: 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Silica fume was added at a dosage of 6% of weight of cement, while superplasticizer was added at a dosage of 2% of cement weight. Results indicated that both tensile and compressive strength of TSC can be statistically derived as a function of w/c and c/s with good correlation coefficients. The basic principle of traditional concrete, which says that an increase in water/cement ratio will lead to a reduction in compressive strength, was shown to hold true for TSC specimens tested. Using a combination of both silica fume and superplasticisers caused a significant increase in strength relative to control mixes.

  1. A two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with a cold inertance tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Z. H.; Fan, B. Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, X. J.; Chen, G. B.

    2010-06-01

    A thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) with inertance tubes as phase shifters has been designed, manufactured and tested. In order to obtain a larger phase shift at the low acoustic power of about 2.0 W, a cold inertance tube as well as a cold reservoir for the second stage, precooled by the cold end of the first stage, was introduced into the system. The transmission line model was used to calculate the phase shift produced by the cold inertance tube. Effect of regenerator material, geometry and charging pressure on the performance of the second stage of the two-stage PTC was investigated based on the well known regenerator model REGEN. Experimental results of the two-stage PTC were carried out with an emphasis on the performance of the second stage. A lowest cooling temperature of 23.7 K and 0.50 W at 33.9 K were obtained with an input electric power of 150.0 W and an operating frequency of 40 Hz.

  2. Two stages kinetics of municipal solid waste inoculation composting processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Bei-dou1; HUANG Guo-he; QIN Xiao-sheng; LIU Hong-liang

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the key mechanisms of the composting processes, the municipal solid waste(MSW) composting processes were divided into two stages, and the characteristics of typical experimental scenarios from the viewpoint of microbial kinetics was analyzed. Through experimentation with advanced composting reactor under controlled composting conditions, several equations were worked out to simulate the degradation rate of the substrate. The equations showed that the degradation rate was controlled by concentration of microbes in the first stage. The degradation rates of substrates of inoculation Run A, B, C and Control composting systems were 13.61 g/(kg·h), 13.08 g/(kg·h), 15.671 g/(kg·h), and 10.5 g/(kg·h), respectively. The value of Run C is around 1.5 times higher than that of Control system. The decomposition rate of the second stage is controlled by concentration of substrate. Although the organic matter decomposition rates were similar to all Runs, inoculation could reduce the values of the half velocity coefficient and could be more efficient to make the composting stable. Particularly. For Run C, the decomposition rate is high in the first stage, and is low in the second stage. The results indicated that the inoculation was efficient for the composting processes.

  3. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  4. Generalized Yule-walker and two-stage identification algorithms for dual-rate systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng DING

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches are developed for directly identifying single-rate models of dual-rate stochastic systems in which the input updating frequency is an integer multiple of the output sampling frequency. The first is the generalized Yule-Walker algorithm and the second is a two-stage algorithm based on the correlation technique. The basic idea is to directly identify the parameters of underlying single-rate models instead of the lifted models of dual-rate systems from the dual-rate input-output data, assuming that the measurement data are stationary and ergodic. An example is given.

  5. Development of Two-Stage Stirling Cooler for ASTRO-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Ootsuka, K.; Kyoya, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Murakami, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    2004-06-01

    A two-stage small Stirling cooler has been developed and tested for the infrared astronomical satellite ASTRO-F that is planned to be launched by Japanese M-V rocket in 2005. ASTRO-F has a hybrid cryogenic system that is a combination of superfluid liquid helium (HeII) and two-stage Stirling coolers. The mechanical cooler has a two-stage displacer driven by a linear motor in a cold head and a new linear-ball-bearing system for the piston-supporting structure in a compressor. The linear-ball-bearing supporting system achieves the piston clearance seal, the long piston-stroke operation and the low frequency operation. The typical cooling power is 200 mW at 20 K and the total input power to the compressor and the cold head is below 90 W without driver electronics. The engineering, the prototype and the flight models of the cooler have been fabricated and evaluated to verify the capability for ASTRO-F. This paper describes the design of the cooler and the results from verification tests including cooler performance test, thermal vacuum test, vibration test and lifetime test.

  6. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF A TWO STAGE SOLAR ADSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAIJU. V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the performance of a two stage solar adsorption refrigeration system with activated carbon-methanol pair investigated experimentally. Such a system was fabricated and tested under the conditions of National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India. The system consists of a parabolic solar concentrator,two water tanks, two adsorbent beds, condenser, expansion device, evaporator and accumulator. In this particular system the second water tank is act as a sensible heat storage device so that the system can be used during night time also. The system has been designed for heating 50 litres of water from 25oC to 90oC as well ascooling 10 litres of water from 30oC to 10oC within one hour. The performance parameters such as specific cooling power (SCP, coefficient of performance, solar COP and exergetic efficiency are studied. The dependency between the exergetic efficiency and cycle COP with the driving heat source temperature is also studied. The optimum heat source temperature for this system is determined as 72.4oC. The results show that the system has better performance during night time as compared to the day time. The system has a mean cycle COP of 0.196 during day time and 0.335 for night time. The mean SCP values during day time and night time are 47.83 and 68.2, respectively. The experimental results also demonstrate that the refrigerator has cooling capacity of 47 to 78 W during day time and 57.6 W to 104.4W during night time.

  7. Computer Modelling of Dynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rybakin

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical modeling of dynamic problems are summed in the article up. These problems are characteristic for various areas of human activity, in particular for problem solving in ecology. The following problems are considered in the present work: computer modeling of dynamic effects on elastic-plastic bodies, calculation and determination of performances of gas streams in gas cleaning equipment, modeling of biogas formation processes.

  8. Two-Stage Orthogonal Least Squares Methods for Neural Network Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Li, Kang; Bai, Er-Wei; Irwin, George W

    2015-08-01

    A number of neural networks can be formulated as the linear-in-the-parameters models. Training such networks can be transformed to a model selection problem where a compact model is selected from all the candidates using subset selection algorithms. Forward selection methods are popular fast subset selection approaches. However, they may only produce suboptimal models and can be trapped into a local minimum. More recently, a two-stage fast recursive algorithm (TSFRA) combining forward selection and backward model refinement has been proposed to improve the compactness and generalization performance of the model. This paper proposes unified two-stage orthogonal least squares methods instead of the fast recursive-based methods. In contrast to the TSFRA, this paper derives a new simplified relationship between the forward and the backward stages to avoid repetitive computations using the inherent orthogonal properties of the least squares methods. Furthermore, a new term exchanging scheme for backward model refinement is introduced to reduce computational demand. Finally, given the error reduction ratio criterion, effective and efficient forward and backward subset selection procedures are proposed. Extensive examples are presented to demonstrate the improved model compactness constructed by the proposed technique in comparison with some popular methods.

  9. Two-stage bargaining with coverage extension in a dual labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Mark A.; Stæhr, Karsten; Tranæs, Torben

    2000-01-01

    in extending coverage of a minimum wage to the non-union sector. Furthermore, the union sector does not seek to increase the non-union wage to a level above the market-clearing wage. In fact, it is optimal for the union sector to impose a market-clearing wage on the non-union sector. Finally, coverage......This paper studies coverage extension in a simple general equilibrium model with a dual labour market. The union sector is characterized by two-stage bargaining whereas the firms set wages in the non-union sector. In this model firms and unions of the union sector have a commonality of interest...

  10. The global stability of a delayed predator-prey system with two stage-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)

    2009-04-30

    Based on the classical delayed stage-structured model and Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, we introduce and study a delayed predator-prey system, where prey and predator have two stages, an immature stage and a mature stage. The time delays are the time lengths between the immature's birth and maturity of prey and predator species. Results on global asymptotic stability of nonnegative equilibria of the delay system are given, which generalize and suggest that good continuity exists between the predator-prey system and its corresponding stage-structured system.

  11. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. Generative models of conformational dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmead, Christopher James

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term 'generative' refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GRAPHICAL MODELS OF ENERGY LANDSCAPES), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc.) from long timescale simulation data.

  13. Fractal Models of Earthquake Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Kamal,; Samanta, Debashis

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of earthquakes is based on the theory of plate tectonics. Earthquake dynamics is the study of the interactions of plates (solid disjoint parts of the lithosphere) which produce seismic activity. Over the last about fifty years many models have come up which try to simulate seismic activity by mimicking plate plate interactions. The validity of a given model is subject to the compliance of the synthetic seismic activity it produces to the well known empirical laws which describe the statistical features of observed seismic activity. Here we present a review of two such models of earthquake dynamics with main focus on a relatively new model namely The Two Fractal Overlap Model.

  14. Experimental analysis of vehicle-bridge interaction using a wireless monitoring system and a two-stage system identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2012-04-01

    Deterioration of bridges under repeated traffic loading has called attention to the need for improvements in the understanding of vehicle-bridge interaction. While analytical and numerical models have been previously explored to describe the interaction that exists between a sprung mass (i.e., a moving vehicle) and an elastic beam (i.e., bridge), comparatively less research has been focused on the experimental observation of vehicle-bridge interaction. A wireless monitoring system with wireless sensors installed on both the bridge and moving vehicle is proposed to record the dynamic interaction between the bridge and vehicle. Time-synchronized vehicle-bridge response data is used within a two-stage system identification methodology. In the first stage, the free-vibration response of the bridge is used to identify the dynamic characteristics of the bridge. In the second stage, the vehicle-bridge response data is used to identify the time varying load imposed on the bridge from the vehicle. To test the proposed monitoring and system identification strategy, the 180 m long Yeondae Bridge (Icheon, Korea) was selected. A dense network of wireless sensors was installed on the bridge while wireless sensors were installed on a multi-axle truck. The truck was driven across the bridge at constant velocity with bridge and vehicle responses measured. Excellent agreement between the measured Yeondae Bridge response and that predicted by an estimated vehicle-bridge interaction model validates the proposed strategy.

  15. Dynamic programming models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denardo, Eric V

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.

  16. Building dynamic spatial environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    An environmental model is a representation or imitation of complex natural phenomena that can be discerned by human cognitive processes. This thesis deals with the type of environmental models referred to as dynamic spatial environmental models. The word ‘spatial’ refers to the geographic domain whi

  17. Dynamical models of the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan P.J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the importance of dynamical models for exploiting survey data, focusing on the advantages of “torus” models. I summarize a number of applications of these models to the study of the Milky Way, including the determination of the peculiar Solar velocity and investigation of the Hyades moving group.

  18. Right Axillary Sweating After Left Thoracoscopic Sypathectomy in Two-Stage Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkant Ozpolat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One stage bilateral or two stage unilateral video assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy could be performed in the treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis. Here we present a case with compensatory sweating of contralateral side after a two stage operation.

  19. The Two-stage Constrained Equal Awards and Losses Rules for Multi-Issue Allocation Situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo-Freire, S.; Casas-Mendez, B.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers two-stage solutions for multi-issue allocation situations.Characterisations are provided for the two-stage constrained equal awards and constrained equal losses rules, based on the properties of composition and path independence.

  20. Metamodeling and Optimization of a Blister Copper Two-Stage Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Kusiak, Jan; Małecki, Stanisław; Morkisz, Paweł; Oprocha, Piotr; Pietrucha, Wojciech; Sztangret, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to estimate parameters for a two-stage production process of blister copper (containing 99.4 wt.% of Cu metal) as well as those for most industrial processes with high accuracy, which leads to problems related to process modeling and control. The first objective of this study was to model flash smelting and converting of Cu matte stages using three different techniques: artificial neural networks, support vector machines, and random forests, which utilized noisy technological data. Subsequently, more advanced models were applied to optimize the entire process (which was the second goal of this research). The obtained optimal solution was a Pareto-optimal one because the process consisted of two stages, making the optimization problem a multi-criteria one. A sequential optimization strategy was employed, which aimed for optimal control parameters consecutively for both stages. The obtained optimal output parameters for the first smelting stage were used as input parameters for the second converting stage. Finally, a search for another optimal set of control parameters for the second stage of a Kennecott-Outokumpu process was performed. The optimization process was modeled using a Monte-Carlo method, and both modeling parameters and computed optimal solutions are discussed.

  1. Two-stage estimation for multivariate recurrent event data with a dependent terminal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chyong-Mei; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Shen, Pao-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent event data arise in longitudinal follow-up studies, where each subject may experience the same type of events repeatedly. The work in this article is motivated by the data from a study of repeated peritonitis for patients on peritoneal dialysis. Due to the aspects of medicine and cost, the peritonitis cases were classified into two types: Gram-positive and non-Gram-positive peritonitis. Further, since the death and hemodialysis therapy preclude the occurrence of recurrent events, we face multivariate recurrent event data with a dependent terminal event. We propose a flexible marginal model, which has three characteristics: first, we assume marginal proportional hazard and proportional rates models for terminal event time and recurrent event processes, respectively; second, the inter-recurrences dependence and the correlation between the multivariate recurrent event processes and terminal event time are modeled through three multiplicative frailties corresponding to the specified marginal models; third, the rate model with frailties for recurrent events is specified only on the time before the terminal event. We propose a two-stage estimation procedure for estimating unknown parameters. We also establish the consistency of the two-stage estimator. Simulation studies show that the proposed approach is appropriate for practical use. The methodology is applied to the peritonitis cohort data that motivated this study. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Two-stage image segmentation based on edge and region information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage method for image segmentation based on edge and region information is proposed. Different deformation schemes are used at two stages for segmenting the object correctly in image plane. At the first stage, the contour of the model is divided into several segments hierarchically that deform respectively using affine transformation. After the contour is deformed to the approximate boundary of object, a fine match mechanism using statistical information of local region to redefine the external energy of the model is used to make the contour fit the object's boundary exactly. The algorithm is effective, as the hierarchical segmental deformation makes use of the globe and local information of the image, the affine transformation keeps the consistency of the model, and the reformative approaches of computing the internal energy and external energy are proposed to reduce the algorithm complexity. The adaptive method of defining the search area at the second stage makes the model converge quickly. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model is effective and robust to local minima and able to search for concave objects.

  3. Validated dynamic flow model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The purpose with this deliverable 2.5 is to use fresh experimental data for validation and selection of a flow model to be used for control design in WP3-4. Initially the idea was to investigate the models developed in WP2. However, in the project it was agreed to include and focus on a additive...... model turns out not to be useful for prediction of the flow. Moreover, standard Box Jenkins model structures and multiple output auto regressive models proves to be superior as they can give useful predictions of the flow....

  4. Predictive models of forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Drew; Pacala, Stephen

    2008-06-13

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have shown that forest dynamics could dramatically alter the response of the global climate system to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide over the next century. But there is little agreement between different DGVMs, making forest dynamics one of the greatest sources of uncertainty in predicting future climate. DGVM predictions could be strengthened by integrating the ecological realities of biodiversity and height-structured competition for light, facilitated by recent advances in the mathematics of forest modeling, ecological understanding of diverse forest communities, and the availability of forest inventory data.

  5. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  6. Two-Stage Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TSMLE for MT-CDMA Signals in the Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesay Abu B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-stage maximum likelihood estimation (TSMLE technique suited for multitone code division multiple access (MT-CDMA system. Here, an analytical framework is presented in the indoor environment for determining the average bit error rate (BER of the system, over Rayleigh and Ricean fading channels. The analytical model is derived for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK modulation technique by taking into account the number of tones, signal bandwidth (BW, bit rate, and transmission power. Numerical results are presented to validate the analysis, and to justify the approximations made therein. Moreover, these results are shown to agree completely with those obtained by simulation.

  7. Accuracy of the One-Stage and Two-Stage Impression Techniques: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Jamshidy; Hamid Reza Mozaffari; Payam Faraji; Roohollah Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the main steps of impression is the selection and preparation of an appropriate tray. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze and compare the accuracy of one- and two-stage impression techniques. Materials and Methods. A resin laboratory-made model, as the first molar, was prepared by standard method for full crowns with processed preparation finish line of 1 mm depth and convergence angle of 3-4°. Impression was made 20 times with one-stage technique and 20 times with ...

  8. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage...

  9. Two-stage coordination multi-radio multi-channel mac protocol for wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Bingxuan

    2011-01-01

    Within the wireless mesh network, a bottleneck problem arises as the number of concurrent traffic flows (NCTF) increases over a single common control channel, as it is for most conventional networks. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes a two-stage coordination multi-radio multi-channel MAC (TSC-M2MAC) protocol that designates all available channels as both control channels and data channels in a time division manner through a two-stage coordination. At the first stage, a load balancing breadth-first-search-based vertex coloring algorithm for multi-radio conflict graph is proposed to intelligently allocate multiple control channels. At the second stage, a REQ/ACK/RES mechanism is proposed to realize dynamical channel allocation for data transmission. At this stage, the Channel-and-Radio Utilization Structure (CRUS) maintained by each node is able to alleviate the hidden nodes problem; also, the proposed adaptive adjustment algorithm for the Channel Negotiation and Allocation (CNA) sub-interval is ab...

  10. Two-Stage Exams Improve Student Learning in an Introductory Geology Course: Logistics, Attendance, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine; Turner, Henry; Davis, Ralph K.

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage exams--where students complete part one of an exam closed book and independently and part two is completed open book and independently (two-stage independent, or TS-I) or collaboratively (two-stage collaborative, or TS-C)--provide a means to include collaborative learning in summative assessments. Collaborative learning has been shown to…

  11. Efficiency Analysis of Agricultural Listed Companies with Concept of Land Circulation Based on DEA-Tobit Two-stage Model%土地流转概念板块农业上市企业效率研究--基于 DEA-Tobit 两阶段模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴未双; 刘文

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the operational efficiency and its influencing factors of ten agricultural listed companies with the concept of land circulation during 2010~2013 based on the DEA-Tobit two-stage model, and found that: the overall average com-prehensive efficiency value of these companies was relatively high , but there were differences in the efficiency among various compa -nies; the main business growth rate and total asset turnover had significantly positive influences on the operational efficiency of com -panies; the degree of diversification and the per capita cost had significantly negative influences on the operational efficiency , but the asset-liability ratio had no significant influence on it . On the basis of the above results , the author gave several related suggestions to the agricultural listed companies involving in land circulation for reference.%基于 DEA-Tobit 两阶段模型对10家土地流转概念板块农业上市企业2010~2013年的经营效率及其影响因素进行分析。研究发现:企业总体平均综合效率值较高,但企业间效率存在差异;企业主营业务增长率和总资产周转率对企业的效率呈显著正向影响,多元化程度和人均成本对企业的效率呈显著负向影响,资产负债率对企业的经营效率影响不显著,最后,提出了相关建议,为参与土地流转的农业上市企业提供参考。

  12. Dynamic Boolean models

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, Aad; Meester, R.; White, Damien

    1997-01-01

    Consider an ordinary Boolean model, that is, a homogeneous Poisson point process in Rd, where the points are all centres of random balls with i.i.d. radii. Now let these points move around according to i.i.d. stochastic processes. It is not hard to show that at each xed time t we again have a Boolean model with the original distribution. Hence if the original model is supercritical then, for any t, the probability of having an unbounded occupied component at time t equals 1. We show that unde...

  13. Multiobjective Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Problems with Interval Discrete Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Barik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the real-life decision-making problems have more than one conflicting and incommensurable objective functions. In this paper, we present a multiobjective two-stage stochastic linear programming problem considering some parameters of the linear constraints as interval type discrete random variables with known probability distribution. Randomness of the discrete intervals are considered for the model parameters. Further, the concepts of best optimum and worst optimum solution are analyzed in two-stage stochastic programming. To solve the stated problem, first we remove the randomness of the problem and formulate an equivalent deterministic linear programming model with multiobjective interval coefficients. Then the deterministic multiobjective model is solved using weighting method, where we apply the solution procedure of interval linear programming technique. We obtain the upper and lower bound of the objective function as the best and the worst value, respectively. It highlights the possible risk involved in the decision-making tool. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed solution procedure.

  14. An integrated two-stage support vector machine approach to forecast inundation maps during typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Bing-Chen; Wang, Jhih-Huang; Lin, Gwo-Fong

    2017-04-01

    During typhoons, accurate forecasts of hourly inundation depths are essential for inundation warning and mitigation. Due to the lack of observed data of inundation maps, sufficient observed data are not available for developing inundation forecasting models. In this paper, the inundation depths, which are simulated and validated by a physically based two-dimensional model (FLO-2D), are used as a database for inundation forecasting. A two-stage inundation forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed to yield 1- to 6-h lead-time inundation maps during typhoons. In the first stage (point forecasting), the proposed approach not only considers the rainfall intensity and inundation depth as model input but also simultaneously considers cumulative rainfall and forecasted inundation depths. In the second stage (spatial expansion), the geographic information of inundation grids and the inundation forecasts of reference points are used to yield inundation maps. The results clearly indicate that the proposed approach effectively improves the forecasting performance and decreases the negative impact of increasing forecast lead time. Moreover, the proposed approach is capable of providing accurate inundation maps for 1- to 6-h lead times. In conclusion, the proposed two-stage forecasting approach is suitable and useful for improving the inundation forecasting during typhoons, especially for long lead times.

  15. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual...... makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias...

  16. Modeling Cultural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabora, Liane

    2008-01-01

    EVOC (for EVOlution of Culture) is a computer model of culture that enables us to investigate how various factors such as barriers to cultural diffusion, the presence and choice of leaders, or changes in the ratio of innovation to imitation affect the diversity and effectiveness of ideas. It consists of neural network based agents that invent ideas for actions, and imitate neighbors' actions. The model is based on a theory of culture according to which what evolves through culture is not memes or artifacts, but the internal models of the world that give rise to them, and they evolve not through a Darwinian process of competitive exclusion but a Lamarckian process involving exchange of innovation protocols. EVOC shows an increase in mean fitness of actions over time, and an increase and then decrease in the diversity of actions. Diversity of actions is positively correlated with population size and density, and with barriers between populations. Slowly eroding borders increase fitness without sacrificing diver...

  17. Swimmers’ Collective Dynamics Modelization

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré Porta, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    English: We describe a new model in order to study the properties of collections of self-propelled particles swimming in a two-dimensional fluid. Our model consist in two types of particles, the first interacting with each other with a soft potential and thus representing the fluid while the second type are self-propelled particles of biological nature capable of changing its orientation following the velocity field of the fluid. The results of the simulations show how a super-diffusive regim...

  18. Model of THz Magnetization Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocklage, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics can be coherently controlled by THz laser excitation, which can be applied in ultrafast magnetization control and switching. Here, transient magnetization dynamics are calculated for excitation with THz magnetic field pulses. We use the ansatz of Smit and Beljers, to formulate dynamic properties of the magnetization via partial derivatives of the samples free energy density, and extend it to solve the Landau-Lifshitz-equation to obtain the THz transients of the magnetization. The model is used to determine the magnetization response to ultrafast multi- and single-cycle THz pulses. Control of the magnetization trajectory by utilizing the THz pulse shape and polarization is demonstrated. PMID:26956997

  19. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Ladino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested.

  20. Modeling Internet Topology Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, H.; Uhlig, S.; Moore, A.; Mortier, R.; Rio, M.

    Despite the large number of papers on network topology modeling and inference, there still exists ambiguity about the real nature of the Internet AS and router level topology. While recent findings have illustrated the inaccuracies in maps inferred from BGP peering and traceroute measurements, exist

  1. A cause and effect two-stage BSC-DEA method for measuring the relative efficiency of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmaeel Najafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration of balanced score card (BSE with two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA. The proposed model of this paper uses different financial and non-financial perspectives to evaluate the performance of decision making units in different BSC stages. At each stage, a two-stage DEA method is implemented to measure the relative efficiency of decision making units and the results are monitored using the cause and effect relationships. An empirical study for a banking sector is also performed using the method developed in this paper and the results are briefly analyzed.

  2. On bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MURAD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the optimum distribution of goods between sources and destinations is one of the important topics in projects economics. This importance comes as a result of minimizing the transportation cost, deterioration, time, etc. The classical transportation problem constitutes one of the major areas of application for linear programming. The aim of this problem is to obtain the optimum distribution of goods from different sources to different destinations which minimizes the total transportation cost. From the practical point of view, the transportation problems may differ from the classical form. It may contain one or more objective function, one or more stage to transport, one or more type of commodity with one or more means of transport. The aim of this paper is to construct an optimization model for transportation problem for one of mill-stones companies. The model is formulated as a bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem with a special structure depending on the capacities of suppliers, warehouses and requirements of the destinations. A solution algorithm is introduced to solve this class of bi-criteria two-stage transportation problem to obtain the set of non-dominated extreme points and the efficient solutions accompanied with each one that enables the decision maker to choose the best one. The solution algorithm mainly based on the fruitful application of the methods for treating transportation problems, theory of duality of linear programming and the methods of solving bi-criteria linear programming problems.

  3. Configuration Consideration for Expander in Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Two-Stage Compression Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yitai; YANG Junlan; GUAN Haiqing; LI Minxia

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the configuration consideration of expander in transcritical carbon dioxide two-stage compression cycle, the best place in the cycle should be searched for to reinvest the recovery work so as to improve the system efficiency. The expander and the compressor are connected to the same shaft and integrated into one unit, with the latter being driven by the former, thus the transfer loss and leakage loss can be decreased greatly. In these systems, the expander can be either connected with the first stage compressor (shortened as DCDL cycle) or the second stage compressor (shortened as DCDH cycle), but the two configuration ways can get different performances. By setting up theoretical model for two kinds of expander configuration ways in the transcritical carbon dioxide two-stage compression cycle, the first and the second laws of thermodynamics are used to analyze the coefficient of performance, exergy efficiency, inter-stage pressure, discharge temperature and exergy losses of each component for the two cycles. From the model results, the performance of DCDH cycle is better than that of DCDL cycle. The analysis results are indispensable to providing a theoretical basis for practical design and operating.

  4. Two staged incentive contract focused on efficiency and innovation matching in critical chain project management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to define the relative optimal incentive contract to effectively encourage employees to improve work efficiency while actively implementing innovative behavior. Design/methodology/approach: This paper analyzes a two staged incentive contract coordinated with efficiency and innovation in Critical Chain Project Management using learning real options, based on principle-agent theory. The situational experiment is used to analyze the validity of the basic model. Finding: The two staged incentive scheme is more suitable for employees to create and implement learning real options, which will throw themselves into innovation process efficiently in Critical Chain Project Management. We prove that the combination of tolerance for early failure and reward for long-term success is effective in motivating innovation. Research limitations/implications: We do not include the individual characteristics of uncertain perception, which might affect the consistency of external validity. The basic model and the experiment design need to improve. Practical Implications: The project managers should pay closer attention to early innovation behavior and monitoring feedback of competition time in the implementation of Critical Chain Project Management. Originality/value: The central contribution of this paper is the theoretical and experimental analysis of incentive schemes for innovation in Critical Chain Project Management using the principal-agent theory, to encourage the completion of CCPM methods as well as imitative free-riding on the creative ideas of other members in the team.

  5. Vehicle dynamics modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Dieter; Bardini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine in detail the fundamentals and mathematical descriptions of the dynamics of automobiles. In this context different levels of complexity will be presented, starting with basic single-track models up to complex three-dimensional multi-body models. A particular focus is on the process of establishing mathematical models on the basis of real cars and the validation of simulation results. The methods presented are explained in detail by means of selected application scenarios.

  6. Two-stage melting of Au-Pd nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Rosales, Sergio J; Fernandez-Navarro, Carlos; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martín; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2006-07-06

    Several series of molecular dynamics runs were performed to simulate the melting transition of bimetallic cuboctahedral nanoparticles of gold-palladium at different relative concentrations to study their structural properties before, in, and after the transition. The simulations were made in the canonical ensemble, each series covering a range of temperatures from 300 to 980 K, using the Rafii-Tabar version of the Sutton and Chen interatomic potential for metallic alloys. We found that the melting transition temperature has a strong dependence on the relative concentrations of the atomic species. We also found that, previous to the melting transition, the outer layer of the nanoparticle gets disordered in what can be thought as a premelting stage, where Au atoms near the surface migrate to the surface and remain there after the particle melts as a whole. The melting of the surface below Tm is consistent with studies of the interaction of a TEM electron beam with Au and Au-Pd nanoparticles.

  7. Dynamic Characteristics and Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Vibration levels of flooring-systems are generally difficult to predict. Nevertheless an estimate may be needed for flooring-systems that are prone to vibrate to actions of humans in motion (e.g. grandstands, footbridges or long-span office floors). One reason for the difficulties...... and the paper therefore looks into this mechanism which is done by carrying out controlled modal identification tests on a test floor. The paper describes the experimental investigations and the basic principles adopted for modal identification. Since there is an interest in being able to model the scenario...

  8. 中国与主要创新经济体创新绩效的国际比较--两阶段创新模型的实证分析%International Comparison of Innovation Performance Between China and Other Innovation Economies:An Analysis Based on Two-Stage Innovation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维军; 陈凤; 罗玉

    2014-01-01

    Based on two-stage innovation model, this paper analyzed innovation performance of 58 countries and compared performance between China and other innovation economies, include America, Japan, European Union and other BRICS countries. Study showed that: (1)There were obvious gap between China and America, Japan and European Union, obvious difference between China and other three BRICS countries in terms of innovation in-put and output; (2)Innovation performance of China had advantages in the first stage of innovation model, stron-ger than America, Japan, European Union and other three BRICS countries; (3)China's innovation performance was well below America, Japan and European Union, and were significantly lower than Russian and Brazil. This research is meaningful to understand the current status of innovation-oriented country construction of China.%通过构建两阶段创新模型,运用DEA分析方法从研究开发和商业化过程两个阶段分析了58个国家的创新绩效,比较分析了中国与美国、日本和欧盟等主要经济体的差距,分析了中国与俄罗斯、南非和巴西三个金砖国家的差异。研究结果表明:(1)中国在创新投入与创新产出方面与美国、欧盟和日本有明显差距,与俄罗斯、南非和巴西三个金砖国家也存在差异;(2)中国在第一阶段的创新绩效优势明显,强于美国、日本、欧盟以及其他三个金砖国家;(3)中国在第二阶段的创新绩效大大低于美国、日本和欧盟,也明显低于俄罗斯和巴西。

  9. Study on technological efficiency of listed companies in coal industry based on two-stage DEA model%基于两阶段 DEA 模型的煤炭行业上市公司科技效率研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜伟

    2015-01-01

    将煤炭行业的科技创新过程分解为科技研发和科技转化两个子过程,构建链式两阶段数据包络分析(DEA)模型,针对每个子过程设置具体的投入产出观测指标,收集煤炭行业上市公司2013年数据,计算其整体科技创新效率及分阶段的科技研发效率和科技转化效率,并与经典的数据包络分析 CCR 模型结果进行对比分析。结果表明,尽管科技转化效率较高,但是由于低效的科技研发投入使得科技资源运用仍然处于无效状态,因此,煤炭行业上市公司的整体科技效率比较低。%The process of technology innovation is decomposed into two sub-processes,in-cluding process of technology research & development (R&D)and process of technology trans-formation,based on the existing research results,in order to build two-stage tandem data enve-lope analysis model.Then the specific inputs and outputs are set up corresponding to each stage to calculate efficiency of the whole system and the two sub-processes independently including effi-ciency of technology R&D as well as efficiency of technology transformation,after collecting the datum from annual reports of listed companies.The results are also made a comparative analysis with those from the classical data envelope analysis CCR model,which shows that although tech-nology transformation efficiencies of listed companiesare generally high,consumption of technol-ogy resources are still in invalid state due to inefficient technology R&D inputs.As a result,the overall technology efficiency of coal industry is still low.

  10. A Two-Stage Multi-Agent Based Assessment Approach to Enhance Students' Learning Motivation through Negotiated Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, Abdelhafid; Bendella, Fatima; Tranvouez, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an Agent-based evaluation approach in a context of Multi-agent simulation learning systems. Our evaluation model is based on a two stage assessment approach: (1) a Distributed skill evaluation combining agents and fuzzy sets theory; and (2) a Negotiation based evaluation of students' performance during a training…

  11. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  12. A dynamical model of terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Udwadia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a dynamical model of terrorism. We consider the population in a given region as being made up of three primary components: terrorists, those susceptible to both terrorist and pacifist propaganda, and nonsusceptibles, or pacifists. The dynamical behavior of these three populations is studied using a model that incorporates the effects of both direct military/police intervention to reduce the terrorist population, and nonviolent, persuasive intervention to influence the susceptibles to become pacifists. The paper proposes a new paradigm for studying terrorism, and looks at the long-term dynamical evolution in time of these three population components when such interventions are carried out. Many important features—some intuitive, others not nearly so—of the nature of terrorism emerge from the dynamical model proposed, and they lead to several important policy implications for the management of terrorism. The different circumstances in which nonviolent intervention and/or military/police intervention may be beneficial, and the specific conditions under which each mode of intervention, or a combination of both, may be useful, are obtained. The novelty of the model presented herein is that it deals with the time evolution of terrorist activity. It appears to be one of the few models that can be tested, evaluated, and improved upon, through the use of actual field data.

  13. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  14. Numerical simulation of municipal solid waste combustion in a novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, X L; Xu, W L; Qu, Z Y; Li, Z G; Zhang, F P; Xiang, G M; Zhu, S Y; Chen, G

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model was presented in this paper for the combustion of municipal solid waste in a novel two-stage reciprocating grate furnace. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the temperature, the flow and the species distributions in the furnace, with practical operational conditions taken into account. The calculated results agree well with the test data, and the burning behavior of municipal solid waste in the novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator can be demonstrated well. The thickness of waste bed, the initial moisture content, the excessive air coefficient and the secondary air are the major factors that influence the combustion process. If the initial moisture content of waste is high, both the heat value of waste and the temperature inside incinerator are low, and less oxygen is necessary for combustion. The air supply rate and the primary air distribution along the grate should be adjusted according to the initial moisture content of the waste. A reasonable bed thickness and an adequate excessive air coefficient can keep a higher temperature, promote the burnout of combustibles, and consequently reduce the emission of dioxin pollutants. When the total air supply is constant, reducing primary air and introducing secondary air properly can enhance turbulence and mixing, prolong the residence time of flue gas, and promote the complete combustion of combustibles. This study provides an important reference for optimizing the design and operation of municipal solid wastes furnace.

  15. Rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teşileanu, Tiberiu; Ölveczky, Bence; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Trial-and-error learning requires evaluating variable actions and reinforcing successful variants. In songbirds, vocal exploration is induced by LMAN, the output of a basal ganglia-related circuit that also contributes a corrective bias to the vocal output. This bias is gradually consolidated in RA, a motor cortex analogue downstream of LMAN. We develop a new model of such two-stage learning. Using stochastic gradient descent, we derive how the activity in ‘tutor’ circuits (e.g., LMAN) should match plasticity mechanisms in ‘student’ circuits (e.g., RA) to achieve efficient learning. We further describe a reinforcement learning framework through which the tutor can build its teaching signal. We show that mismatches between the tutor signal and the plasticity mechanism can impair learning. Applied to birdsong, our results predict the temporal structure of the corrective bias from LMAN given a plasticity rule in RA. Our framework can be applied predictively to other paired brain areas showing two-stage learning. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20944.001 PMID:28374674

  16. Two-stage numerical simulation for temperature profile in furnace of tangentially fired pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nai-jun; XU Qiong-hui; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Considering the fact that the temperature distribution in furnace of a tangential fired pulverized coal boiler is difficult to be measured and monitored, two-stage numerical simulation method was put forward. First, multi-field coupling simulation in typical work conditions was carried out off-line with the software CFX-4.3, and then the expression of temperature profile varying with operating parameter was obtained. According to real-time operating parameters, the temperature at arbitrary point of the furnace can be calculated by using this expression. Thus the temperature profile can be shown on-line and monitoring for combustion state in the furnace is realized. The simul-ation model was checked by the parameters measured in an operating boiler, DG130-9.8/540. The maximum of relative error is less than 12% and the absolute error is less than 120 ℃, which shows that the proposed two-stage simulation method is reliable and able to satisfy the requirement of industrial application.

  17. Two-stage high temperature sludge gasification using the waste heat from hot blast furnace slags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, disposal of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants and recovery of waste heat from steel industry, become two important environmental issues and to integrate these two problems, a two-stage high temperature sludge gasification approach was investigated using the waste heat in hot slags herein. The whole process was divided into two stages, i.e., the low temperature sludge pyrolysis at ⩽ 900°C in argon agent and the high temperature char gasification at ⩾ 900°C in CO2 agent, during which the heat required was supplied by hot slags in different temperature ranges. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms were identified and it was indicated that an Avrami-Erofeev model could best interpret the stage of char gasification. Furthermore, a schematic concept of this strategy was portrayed, based on which the potential CO yield and CO2 emission reduction achieved in China could be ∼1.92∗10(9)m(3) and 1.93∗10(6)t, respectively.

  18. 耐用品垄断厂商经营策略的选择--一个两阶段博弈模型的拓展%Durable Goods Monopolist’s Business Strategy Choice:Development of A Two-Stage Game Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 钱成济; 杨胤轩

    2014-01-01

    By using a two-stage game model,this paper analyses durable goods monopolist’s business strategy choice,and makes a reasonable explanation on the realistic question.It turns out that compared with sale,monopolist prefers to lease.But in reality,there are three factors against leasing.The first one is moral hazard,which makes monopolist bear the additional costs when leasing durable goods,and greatly reduces the enthusiasm of leasing.The second one is potential entrant that would lead to the choice to sell durable goods for monopolist,in order to capture the market share and to prevent potential competitors entering the market.The last one is credible commitment,if monopolist is able to make a credible commitment to resist cutting its prices,it can improve the profit of selling durable goods and accelerate cash flow.%通过运用传统的两阶段博弈模型对垄断厂商出租和出售耐用品进行对比分析可知,与出售相比,垄断厂商更加偏好出租。石磊-寇宗来模型也有一定不足,需着重分析加入道德风险、进入威胁和可置信承诺的条件后,耐用品垄断厂商出租和出售耐用品的最优选择问题。研究结果说明:首先,道德风险使垄断厂商在出租耐用品时承担额外的成本,在该成本大于临界道德风险成本时,垄断厂商将选择出售;反之亦然。其次,进入威胁会促使垄断厂商选择出售耐用品以占领部分市场,阻碍潜在竞争者进入。最后,垄断厂商做出不降价的可置信承诺能提高出售耐用品时的利润,加速资金流转。

  19. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    An engineering course, Simulation and Experimental Modeling, has been developed that is based on a method for direct estimation of physical parameters in dynamic systems. Compared with classical system identification, the method appears to be easier to understand, apply, and combine with physical...

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Model Explains The Solar Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuman, Maria

    Nonlinear mathematical model in torus representation describes the solar dynamic. Its graphic presentation shows that without perturbing force the orbits of the planets would be circles; only perturbing force could elongate the circular orbits into ellipses. Since the Hubble telescope found that the planetary orbits of other stars in the Milky Way are also ellipses, powerful perturbing force must be present in our galaxy. Such perturbing force is the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy with its heavy Black Hole and leftover stars, which we see orbiting around the center of our galaxy. Since observations of NASA's SDO found that magnetic fields rule the solar activity, we can expect when the planets align and their magnetic moments sum up, the already perturbed stars to reverse their magnetic parity (represented graphically as periodic looping through the hole of the torus). We predict that planets aligned on both sides of the Sun, when their magnetic moments sum-up, would induce more flares in the turbulent equatorial zone, which would bulge. When planets align only on one side of the Sun, the strong magnetic gradient of their asymmetric pull would flip the magnetic poles of the Sun. The Sun would elongate pole-to-pole, emit some energy through the poles, and the solar activity would cease. Similar reshaping and emission was observed in stars called magnetars and experimentally observed in super-liquid fast-spinning Helium nanodroplets. We are certain that NASA's SDO will confirm our predictions.

  1. Dynamic blade row compression component model for stability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a generalized dynamic model which has been developed for use in compression component aerodynamic stability studies. The model is a one-dimensional, pitch-line, blade row, lumped volume system. Arbitrary placement of blade free volumes upstream, within, and downstream of the compression component as well as the removal of bleed flow from the exit of any rotor or stator are model options. The model has been applied to a two-stage fan and an eight-stage compressor. The clean inlet pressure ratio/flow maps and the surge line have been reproduced, thereby validating the capability of the dynamic model to reproduce the steady-flow characteristics of the compression component. A method for determining the onset of an aerodynamic instability which is associated with surge is described. Sinusoidally time-varying inlet and exit boundary conditions have been applied to the eight stage compressor as examples of the manner in which this model may be used for stability studies.

  2. An Otto Engine Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Otto engine dynamics are similar in almost all common internal combustion engines. We can speak so about dynamics of engines: Lenoir, Otto, and Diesel. The dynamic presented model is simple and original. The first thing necessary in the calculation of Otto engine dynamics, is to determine the inertial mass reduced at the piston. One uses then the Lagrange equation. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses. One uses and elastic constant of the crank shaft, k. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Finally it makes a dynamic analysis of the mechanism with discussion and conclusions. The ratio between the crank length r and the length of the connecting-rod l is noted with landa. When landa increases the mechanism dynamics is deteriorating. For a proper operation is necessary the reduction of the ratio landa, especially if we want to increase the engine speed. We can reduce the acceleration values by reducing the dimensions r and l.

  3. Two-Stage Over-the-Air (OTA Test Method for LTE MIMO Device Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Jing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With MIMO technology being adopted by the wireless communication standards LTE and HSPA+, MIMO OTA research has attracted wide interest from both industry and academia. Parallel studies are underway in COST2100, CTIA, and 3GPP RAN WG4. The major test challenge for MIMO OTA is how to create a repeatable scenario which accurately reflects the MIMO antenna radiation performance in a realistic wireless propagation environment. Different MIMO OTA methods differ in the way to reproduce a specified MIMO channel model. This paper introduces a novel, flexible, and cost-effective method for measuring MIMO OTA using a two-stage approach. In the first stage, the antenna pattern is measured in an anechoic chamber using a nonintrusive approach, that is without cabled connections or modifying the device. In the second stage, the antenna pattern is convolved with the chosen channel model in a channel emulator to measure throughput using a cabled connection.

  4. Heuristic for Critical Machine Based a Lot Streaming for Two-Stage Hybrid Production Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, P.; Saravanan, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Pugazhenthi, R.

    2017-03-01

    Lot streaming in Hybrid flowshop [HFS] is encountered in many real world problems. This paper deals with a heuristic approach for Lot streaming based on critical machine consideration for a two stage Hybrid Flowshop. The first stage has two identical parallel machines and the second stage has only one machine. In the second stage machine is considered as a critical by valid reasons these kind of problems is known as NP hard. A mathematical model developed for the selected problem. The simulation modelling and analysis were carried out in Extend V6 software. The heuristic developed for obtaining optimal lot streaming schedule. The eleven cases of lot streaming were considered. The proposed heuristic was verified and validated by real time simulation experiments. All possible lot streaming strategies and possible sequence under each lot streaming strategy were simulated and examined. The heuristic consistently yielded optimal schedule consistently in all eleven cases. The identification procedure for select best lot streaming strategy was suggested.

  5. Business model dynamics and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Sergio Andre; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to discuss the need to dynamize the existing conceptualization of business model, and proposes a new typology to distinguish different types of business model change. Design/methodology/approach – The paper integrates basic insights of innovation, business process...... and routine research into the concept of business model. The main focus of the paper is on strategic and terminological issues. Findings – The paper offers a new, process-based conceptualization of business model, which recognizes and integrates the role of individual agency. Based on this, it distinguishes...... and specifies four different types of business model change: business model creation, extension, revision, and termination. Each type of business model change is associated with specific challenges. Practical implications – The proposed typology can serve as a basis for developing a management tool to evaluate...

  6. DYNAMIC TEACHING RATIO PEDAGOGIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiaying

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines an innovative pedagogic model, Dynamic Teaching Ratio (DTR Pedagogic Model, for learning design and teaching strategy aimed at the postsecondary technical education. The model draws on the theory of differential learning, which is widely recognized as an important tool for engaging students and addressing the individual needs of all students. The DTR model caters to the different abilities, interest or learning needs of students and provides different learning approaches based on a student’s learning ability. The model aims to improve students’ academic performance through increasing the lecturer-to-student ratio in the classroom setting. An experimental case study on the model was conducted and the outcome was favourable. Hence, a large-scale implementation was carried out upon the successful trial run. The paper discusses the methodology of the model and its application through the case study and the large-scale implementation.

  7. Condition monitoring of distributed systems using two-stage Bayesian inference data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Víctor H.; Ottewill, James R.; Dudek, Rafał; Lepiarczyk, Dariusz; Pawlik, Paweł

    2017-03-01

    In industrial practice, condition monitoring is typically applied to critical machinery. A particular piece of machinery may have its own condition monitoring system that allows the health condition of said piece of equipment to be assessed independently of any connected assets. However, industrial machines are typically complex sets of components that continuously interact with one another. In some cases, dynamics resulting from the inception and development of a fault can propagate between individual components. For example, a fault in one component may lead to an increased vibration level in both the faulty component, as well as in connected healthy components. In such cases, a condition monitoring system focusing on a specific element in a connected set of components may either incorrectly indicate a fault, or conversely, a fault might be missed or masked due to the interaction of a piece of equipment with neighboring machines. In such cases, a more holistic condition monitoring approach that can not only account for such interactions, but utilize them to provide a more complete and definitive diagnostic picture of the health of the machinery is highly desirable. In this paper, a Two-Stage Bayesian Inference approach allowing data from separate condition monitoring systems to be combined is presented. Data from distributed condition monitoring systems are combined in two stages, the first data fusion occurring at a local, or component, level, and the second fusion combining data at a global level. Data obtained from an experimental rig consisting of an electric motor, two gearboxes, and a load, operating under a range of different fault conditions is used to illustrate the efficacy of the method at pinpointing the root cause of a problem. The obtained results suggest that the approach is adept at refining the diagnostic information obtained from each of the different machine components monitored, therefore improving the reliability of the health assessment of

  8. DYNAMIC MODELING OF METAMORPHIC MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of metamorphic mechanism is put forward according to the change of configurations from one state to another. Different configurations of metamorphic mechanism are described through the method of Huston lower body arrays. Kinematics analyses for metamorphic mechanism with generalized topological structure, including the velocity, angular velocity, acceleration and angular acceleration, are given. Dynamic equations for an arbitrary configuration, including close-loop constraints, are formed by using Kane's equations. For an arbitrary metamorphic mechanism, the transformation matrix of generalized speeds between configuration (*)and(*)+1 is obtained for the first time. Furthermore, configuration-complete dynamic modeling of metamorphic mechanism including all configurations is completely established.

  9. Stochastic Model of Microtubule Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniv, Ostap; Martínez Esteban, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a continuous time stochastic process on strings made of two types of particle, whose dynamics mimics that of microtubules in a living cell. The long term behaviour of the system is described in terms of the velocity v of the string end. We show that v is an analytic function of its parameters and study its monotonicity properties. We give a complete characterisation of the phase diagram of the model and derive several criteria of the growth (v>0) and the shrinking (v<0) regimes of the dynamics.

  10. Two Stage Battery System for the ROSETTA Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, André

    2002-01-01

    The ROSETTA mission, lead by ESA, will be launched by Ariane V from Kourou in January 2003 and after a long trip, the spacecraft will reach the comet Wirtanen 46P in 2011. The mission includes a lander, built under the leadership of DLR, on which CNES has a large participation and is concerned by providing a part of the payload and some lander systems. Among these, CNES delivers a specific battery system in order to comply with the mission environment and the mission scenario, avoiding particularly the use of radio-isotopic heaters and radio-isotopic electrical generators usually used for such missions far from the Sun. The battery system includes : - a pack of primary batteries of lithium/thionyl chloride cells, this kind of generator - a secondary stage, including rechargeable lithium-ion cells, used as redundancy for the - a specific electronic system dedicated to the battery handling and to secondary battery - a mechanical and thermal (insulation, and heating devices) structures permitting the The complete battery system has been designed, built and qualified in order to comply with the trip and mission requirements, keeping within low mass and low volume limits. This battery system is presently integrated into the Rosetta Lander flight model and will leave the Earth at the beginning of next year. Such a development and experience could be re-used in the frame of cometary and planetary missions.

  11. Dynamical Modelling of Meteoroid Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David; Wiegert, P. A.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate simulations of meteoroid streams permit the prediction of stream interaction with Earth, and provide a measure of risk to Earth satellites and interplanetary spacecraft. Current cometary ejecta and meteoroid stream models have been somewhat successful in predicting some stream observations, but have required questionable assumptions and significant simplifications. Extending on the approach of Vaubaillon et al. (2005)1, we model dust ejection from the cometary nucleus, and generate sample particles representing bins of distinct dynamical evolution-regulating characteristics (size, density, direction, albedo). Ephemerides of the sample particles are integrated and recorded for later assignment of frequency based on model parameter changes. To assist in model analysis we are developing interactive software to permit the “turning of knobs” of model parameters, allowing for near-real-time 3D visualization of resulting stream structure. With this tool, we will revisit prior assumptions made, and will observe the impact of introducing non-uniform cometary surface attributes and temporal activity. The software uses a single model definition and implementation throughout model verification, sample particle bin generation and integration, and analysis. It supports the adjustment with feedback of both independent and independent model values, with the intent of providing an interface supporting multivariate analysis. Propagations of measurement uncertainties and model parameter precisions are tracked rigorously throughout. We maintain a separation of the model itself from the abstract concepts of model definition, parameter manipulation, and real-time analysis and visualization. Therefore we are able to quickly adapt to fundamental model changes. It is hoped the tool will also be of use in other solar system dynamics problems. 1 Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Jorda, L. (2005) A new method to predict meteor showers. I. Description of the model. Astronomy and

  12. Dynamic Model of Mesoscale Eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovikov, Mikhail S.

    2003-04-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies which are analogs of well known synoptic eddies (cyclones and anticyclones), are studied on the basis of the turbulence model originated by Dubovikov (Dubovikov, M.S., "Dynamical model of turbulent eddies", Int. J. Mod. Phys.B7, 4631-4645 (1993).) and further developed by Canuto and Dubovikov (Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: I. General formalism", Phys. Fluids8, 571-586 (1996a) (CD96a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: II. Sheardriven flows", Phys. Fluids8, 587-598 (1996b) (CD96b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S., Cheng, Y. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: III. Numerical results", Phys. Fluids8, 599-613 (1996c)(CD96c); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "A dynamical model for turbulence: IV. Buoyancy-driven flows", Phys. Fluids9, 2118-2131 (1997a) (CD97a); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: V. The effect of rotation", Phys. Fluids9, 2132-2140 (1997b) (CD97b); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Wielaard, D.J., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VI. Two dimensional turbulence", Phys. Fluids9, 2141-2147 (1997c) (CD97c); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Physical regimes and dimensional structure of rotating turbulence", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 666-669 (1997d) (CD97d); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Dienstfrey, A., "Turbulent convection in a spectral model", Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 662-665 (1997e) (CD97e); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A new approach to turbulence", Int. J. Mod. Phys.12, 3121-3152 (1997f) (CD97f); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "Two scaling regimes for rotating Raleigh-Benard convection", Phys. Rev. Letters78, 281-284, (1998) (CD98); Canuto, V.M. and Dubovikov, M.S., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VII. The five invariants for shear driven flows", Phys. Fluids11, 659-664 (1999a) (CD99a); Canuto, V.M., Dubovikov, M.S. and Yu, G., "A dynamical model for turbulence: VIII. IR and UV

  13. Meta-analysis using individual participant data: one-stage and two-stage approaches, and why they may differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Danielle L; Ensor, Joie; Riley, Richard D

    2017-02-28

    Meta-analysis using individual participant data (IPD) obtains and synthesises the raw, participant-level data from a set of relevant studies. The IPD approach is becoming an increasingly popular tool as an alternative to traditional aggregate data meta-analysis, especially as it avoids reliance on published results and provides an opportunity to investigate individual-level interactions, such as treatment-effect modifiers. There are two statistical approaches for conducting an IPD meta-analysis: one-stage and two-stage. The one-stage approach analyses the IPD from all studies simultaneously, for example, in a hierarchical regression model with random effects. The two-stage approach derives aggregate data (such as effect estimates) in each study separately and then combines these in a traditional meta-analysis model. There have been numerous comparisons of the one-stage and two-stage approaches via theoretical consideration, simulation and empirical examples, yet there remains confusion regarding when each approach should be adopted, and indeed why they may differ. In this tutorial paper, we outline the key statistical methods for one-stage and two-stage IPD meta-analyses, and provide 10 key reasons why they may produce different summary results. We explain that most differences arise because of different modelling assumptions, rather than the choice of one-stage or two-stage itself. We illustrate the concepts with recently published IPD meta-analyses, summarise key statistical software and provide recommendations for future IPD meta-analyses. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dynamic queuing transmission model for dynamic network loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raovic, Nevena; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new macroscopic multi-class dynamic network loading model called Dynamic Queuing Transmission Model (DQTM). The model utilizes ‘good’ properties of the Dynamic Queuing Model (DQM) and the Link Transmission Model (LTM) by offering a DQM consistent with the kinematic wave theory...... and allowing for the representation of multiple vehicle classes, queue spillbacks and shock waves. The model assumes that a link is split into a moving part plus a queuing part, and p that traffic dynamics are given by a triangular fundamental diagram. A case-study is investigated and the DQTM is compared...

  15. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems,

  16. Reconstruction of Gene Regulatory Networks Based on Two-Stage Bayesian Network Structure Learning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xia Liu; Wei Feng; Han Wang; Lei Liu; Chun-guang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    In the post-genomic biology era, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from microarray gene expression data is very important to understand the underlying biological system, and it has been a challenging task in bioinformatics. The Bayesian network model has been used in reconstructing the gene regulatory network for its advantages, but how to determine the network structure and parameters is still important to be explored. This paper proposes a two-stage structure learning algorithm which integrates immune evolution algorithm to build a Bayesian network .The new algorithm is evaluated with the use of both simulated and yeast cell cycle data. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can find many of the known real regulatory relationships from literature and predict the others unknown with high validity and accuracy.

  17. A Two-Stage Approach for Medical Supplies Intermodal Transportation in Large-Scale Disaster Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhu Ruan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a two-stage approach for the “helicopters and vehicles” intermodal transportation of medical supplies in large-scale disaster responses. In the first stage, a fuzzy-based method and its heuristic algorithm are developed to select the locations of temporary distribution centers (TDCs and assign medial aid points (MAPs to each TDC. In the second stage, an integer-programming model is developed to determine the delivery routes. Numerical experiments verified the effectiveness of the approach, and observed several findings: (i More TDCs often increase the efficiency and utility of medical supplies; (ii It is not definitely true that vehicles should load more and more medical supplies in emergency responses; (iii The more contrasting the traveling speeds of helicopters and vehicles are, the more advantageous the intermodal transportation is.

  18. Fast Image Segmentation Based on a Two-Stage Geometrical Active Contour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昌炎; 张素; 陈亚珠

    2005-01-01

    A fast two-stage geometric active contour algorithm for image segmentation is developed. First, the Eikonal equation problem is quickly solved using an improved fast sweeping method, and a criterion of local minimum of area gradient (LMAG) is presented to extract the optimal arrival time. Then, the final time function is passed as an initial state to an area and length minimizing flow model, which adjusts the interface more accurately and prevents it from leaking. For object with complete and salient edge, using the first stage only is able to obtain an ideal result, and this results in a time complexity of O(M), where M is the number of points in each coordinate direction. Both stages are needed for convoluted shapes, but the computation cost can be drastically reduced. Efficiency of the algorithm is verified in segmentation experiments of real images with different feature.

  19. Evaluation of a Two-Stage Approach in Trans-Ethnic Meta-Analysis in Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jaeyoung; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dupuis, Josée; Liu, Ching-Ti

    2016-05-01

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has achieved great success in detecting loci underlying human diseases. Incorporating GWAS results from diverse ethnic populations for meta-analysis, however, remains challenging because of the possible heterogeneity across studies. Conventional fixed-effects (FE) or random-effects (RE) methods may not be most suitable to aggregate multiethnic GWAS results because of violation of the homogeneous effect assumption across studies (FE) or low power to detect signals (RE). Three recently proposed methods, modified RE (RE-HE) model, binary-effects (BE) model and a Bayesian approach (Meta-analysis of Transethnic Association [MANTRA]), show increased power over FE and RE methods while incorporating heterogeneity of effects when meta-analyzing trans-ethnic GWAS results. We propose a two-stage approach to account for heterogeneity in trans-ethnic meta-analysis in which we clustered studies with cohort-specific ancestry information prior to meta-analysis. We compare this to a no-prior-clustering (crude) approach, evaluating type I error and power of these two strategies, in an extensive simulation study to investigate whether the two-stage approach offers any improvements over the crude approach. We find that the two-stage approach and the crude approach for all five methods (FE, RE, RE-HE, BE, MANTRA) provide well-controlled type I error. However, the two-stage approach shows increased power for BE and RE-HE, and similar power for MANTRA and FE compared to their corresponding crude approach, especially when there is heterogeneity across the multiethnic GWAS results. These results suggest that prior clustering in the two-stage approach can be an effective and efficient intermediate step in meta-analysis to account for the multiethnic heterogeneity.

  20. Dynamics Modeling of Heavy Special Driving Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the dynamical characteristic parameters of the real vehicle, the modeling approach and procedure of dynamics of vehicles are expatiated. The layout of vehicle dynamics is proposed, and the sub-models of the diesel engine, drivetrain system and vehicle multi-body dynamics are introduced. Finally, the running characteristic data of the virtual and real vehicles are compared, which shows that the dynamics model is similar closely to the real vehicle system.

  1. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Tingting, E-mail: tingtingzhao@mednet.ucla.edu; Ruan, Dan, E-mail: druan@mednet.ucla.edu [The Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors

  2. Preemptive scheduling in a two-stage supply chain to minimize the makespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Jun; Fan, Wenjuan; Pardalos, Panos M.; Liu, Xinbao; Goldengorin, Boris; Yang, Shanlin

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of preemptive scheduling in a two-stage supply chain framework. The supply chain environment contains two stages: production and transportation. In the production stage jobs are processed on a manufacturer's bounded serial batching machine, preemptions are allowed,

  3. Models of ungulate population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Eberhardt

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available A useful theory for analyzing ungulate population dynamics is available in the form of equations based on the work of A. J. Lotka. Because the Leslie matrix model yields identical results and is widely known, it is convenient to label the resulting equations as the "Lotka-Leslie" model. The approach is useful for assessing population trends and attempting to predict the outcomes of various management actions. A broad list of applications to large mammals, and two examples specific to caribou are presented with a simple spreadsheet approach to calculations.

  4. Dynamical model of brushite precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristina; Georgieva, Petia; Rocha, Fernando; Ferreira, António; Feyo de Azevedo, Sebastião

    2007-07-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. From academic point of view the aim is to build a dynamical macro model to fit the material balance and explain the main kinetic mechanisms that govern the transformation of the hydroxyapatite (HAP) into brushite and the growth of brushite, based on laboratory experiments and collected database. From practical point of view, the aim is to design a reliable process simulator that can be easily imbedded in industrial software for model driven monitoring, optimization and control purposes. Based upon a databank of laboratory measurements of the calcium concentration in solution (on-line) and the particle size distribution (off-line) a reliable dynamical model of the dual nature of brushite particle formation for a range of initial concentrations of the reagents was derived as a system of ordinary differential equations of time. The performance of the model is tested with respect to the predicted evolution of mass of calcium in solution and the average (in mass) particle size along time. Results obtained demonstrate a good agreement between the model time trajectories and the available experimental data for a number of different initial concentrations of reagents.

  5. Decentralized combined heat and power production by two-stage biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate options for increasing the electrical efficiency of decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants fuelled with biomass compared to conventional technology, this research explored the performance of an alternative plant design based on thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide...... fuel cells (SOFC). Based on experimental data from a demonstrated 0.6 MWth two-stage gasifier, a model of the gasifier plant was developed and calibrated. Similarly, an SOFC model was developed using published experimental data. Simulation of a 3 MWth plant combining two-stage biomass gasification......, carbon conversion factor in the gasifier and the efficiency of the DC/AC inverter were the most influential parameters in the model. Thus, a detailed study of the practical values of these parameters was conducted to determine the performance of the plant with the lowest possible uncertainty. The SOFC...

  6. Train Stop Scheduling in a High-Speed Rail Network by Utilizing a Two-Stage Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most commonly used methods of scheduling train stops are practical experience and various “one-step” optimal models. These methods face problems of direct transferability and computational complexity when considering a large-scale high-speed rail (HSR network such as the one in China. This paper introduces a two-stage approach for train stop scheduling with a goal of efficiently organizing passenger traffic into a rational train stop pattern combination while retaining features of regularity, connectivity, and rapidity (RCR. Based on a three-level station classification definition, a mixed integer programming model and a train operating tactics descriptive model along with the computing algorithm are developed and presented for the two stages. A real-world numerical example is presented using the Chinese HSR network as the setting. The performance of the train stop schedule and the applicability of the proposed approach are evaluated from the perspective of maintaining RCR.

  7. A New Two-Stage Approach to Short Term Electrical Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tasić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the deregulated energy market, the accuracy of load forecasting has a significant effect on the planning and operational decision making of utility companies. Electric load is a random non-stationary process influenced by a number of factors which make it difficult to model. To achieve better forecasting accuracy, a wide variety of models have been proposed. These models are based on different mathematical methods and offer different features. This paper presents a new two-stage approach for short-term electrical load forecasting based on least-squares support vector machines. With the aim of improving forecasting accuracy, one more feature was added to the model feature set, the next day average load demand. As this feature is unknown for one day ahead, in the first stage, forecasting of the next day average load demand is done and then used in the model in the second stage for next day hourly load forecasting. The effectiveness of the presented model is shown on the real data of the ISO New England electricity market. The obtained results confirm the validity advantage of the proposed approach.

  8. Dynamic pricing models for electronic business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Narahari; C V L Raju; K Ravikumar; Sourabh Shah

    2005-04-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending upon the value these customers attribute to a product or service. Today’s digital economy is ready for dynamic pricing; however recent research has shown that the prices will have to be adjusted in fairly sophisticated ways, based on sound mathematical models, to derive the benefits of dynamic pricing. This article attempts to survey different models that have been used in dynamic pricing. We first motivate dynamic pricing and present underlying concepts, with several examples, and explain conditions under which dynamic pricing is likely to succeed. We then bring out the role of models in computing dynamic prices. The models surveyed include inventory-based models, data-driven models, auctions, and machine learning. We present a detailed example of an e-business market to show the use of reinforcement learning in dynamic pricing.

  9. Design and Characterization of two stage High-Speed CMOS Operational Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaudhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A method described in this paper is to design a Two Stage CMOS operational amplifier and analyze the effect of various aspect ratios on the characteristics of this Op-Amp, which operates at 1.8V power supply using tsmc 0.18μm CMOS technology. In this paper trade-off curves are computed between all characteristics such as Gain, PM, GBW, ICMRR, CMRR, Slew Rate etc. The OPAMP designed is a two-stage CMOS OPAMP. The OPAMP is designed to exhibit a unity gain frequency of 14MHz and exhibits a gain of 59.98dB with a 61.235 phase margin. Design has been carried out in Mentor graphics tools. Simulation results are verified using Model Sim Eldo and Design Architect IC. The task of CMOS operational amplifiers (Op-Amps design optimization is investigated in this work. This Paper focused on the optimization of various aspect ratios, which gave the result of different parameter. When this task is analyzed as a search problem, it can be translated into a multi-objective optimization application in which various Op-Amps’ specifications have to be taken into account, i.e., Gain, GBW (gain-bandwidth product, phase margin and others. The results are compared with respect to standard characteristics of the op-amp with the help of graph and table. Simulation results agree with theoretical predictions. Simulations confirm that the settling time can be further improved by increasing the value of GBW, the settling time is achieved 19ns. It has been demonstrated that when W/L increases the parameters GBW increases and settling time reduces.

  10. Two-Stage Robust Security-Constrained Unit Commitment with Optimizable Interval of Uncertain Wind Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because wind power spillage is barely considered, the existing robust unit commitment cannot accurately analyze the impacts of wind power accommodation on on/off schedules and spinning reserve requirements of conventional generators and cannot consider the network security limits. In this regard, a novel double-level robust security-constrained unit commitment formulation with optimizable interval of uncertain wind power output is firstly proposed in this paper to obtain allowable interval solutions for wind power generation and provide the optimal schedules for conventional generators to cope with the uncertainty in wind power generation. The proposed double-level model is difficult to be solved because of the invalid dual transform in solution process caused by the coupling relation between the discrete and continuous variables. Therefore, a two-stage iterative solution method based on Benders Decomposition is also presented. The proposed double-level model is transformed into a single-level and two-stage robust interval unit commitment model by eliminating the coupling relation, and then this two-stage model can be solved by Benders Decomposition iteratively. Simulation studies on a modified IEEE 26-generator reliability test system connected to a wind farm are conducted to verify the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed model and solution method.

  11. A Two-Stage Bayesian Network Method for 3D Human Pose Estimation from Monocular Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuan-Kai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a novel human motion capture method that locates human body joint position and reconstructs the human pose in 3D space from monocular images. We propose a two-stage framework including 2D and 3D probabilistic graphical models which can solve the occlusion problem for the estimation of human joint positions. The 2D and 3D models adopt directed acyclic structure to avoid error propagation of inference. Image observations corresponding to shape and appearance features of humans are considered as evidence for the inference of 2D joint positions in the 2D model. Both the 2D and 3D models utilize the Expectation Maximization algorithm to learn prior distributions of the models. An annealed Gibbs sampling method is proposed for the two-stage method to inference the maximum posteriori distributions of joint positions. The annealing process can efficiently explore the mode of distributions and find solutions in high-dimensional space. Experiments are conducted on the HumanEva dataset with image sequences of walking motion, which has challenges of occlusion and loss of image observations. Experimental results show that the proposed two-stage approach can efficiently estimate more accurate human poses.

  12. Modelling of the Manifold Filling Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Chevalier, Alain Marie Roger; Jensen, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Mean Value Engine Models (MVEMs) are dynamic models which describe dynamic engine variable (or state) responses on time scales slightly longer than an engine event. This paper describes a new model of the intake manifold filling dynamics which is simple and easy to calibrate for use in engine con...

  13. Multiscale modeling of pedestrian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, Emiliano; Tosin, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This book presents mathematical models and numerical simulations of crowd dynamics. The core topic is the development of a new multiscale paradigm, which bridges the microscopic and macroscopic scales taking the most from each of them for capturing the relevant clues of complexity of crowds. The background idea is indeed that most of the complex trends exhibited by crowds are due to an intrinsic interplay between individual and collective behaviors. The modeling approach promoted in this book pursues actively this intuition and profits from it for designing general mathematical structures susceptible of application also in fields different from the inspiring original one. The book considers also the two most traditional points of view: the microscopic one, in which pedestrians are tracked individually, and the macroscopic one, in which pedestrians are assimilated to a continuum. Selected existing models are critically analyzed. The work is addressed to researchers and graduate students.

  14. DYNAMICAL MODEL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the dynamic model of the rocket motor electromagnetic type, consisting of a source of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency band and a conical cavity in which electromagnetic waves are excited. The processes of excitation of electromagnetic oscillations in a cavity with conducting walls, as well as the waves of the YangMills field have been investigated. Multi-dimensional transient numerical model describing the processes of establishment of electromagnetic oscillations in a cavity with the conducting wall was created Separately, the case of standing waves in the cavity with conducting walls been tested. It is shown that the oscillation mode in the conducting resonator different from that in an ideal resonator, both in the steady and unsteady processes. The mechanism of formation of traction for the changes in the space-time metric, the contribution of particle currents, the Yang-Mills and electromagnetic field proposed. It is shown that the effect of the Yang-Mills field calls change the dielectric properties of vacuum, which leads to a change in capacitance of the resonator. Developed a dynamic model, which enables optimal traction on a significant number of parameters. It was found that the thrust increases in the Yang-Mills field parameters near the main resonance frequency. In the presence of thermal fluctuations and the Yang-Mills field as well the traction force changes sign, indicating the presence of various oscillation modes

  15. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2006-06-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H(2)/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH(4)/g VS added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. pH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary. Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase.

  16. SUCCESS FACTORS IN GROWING SMBs: A STUDY OF TWO INDUSTRIES AT TWO STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Jarl Trondsen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to identify factors for growing SMBs. An evolutionary phase approach has been used. The study also aims to find out if there are common and different denominators for newer and older firms that can affect their profitability. The study selects a sampling frame that isolates two groups of firms in two industries at two stages of development. A variety of organizational and structural data was collected and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions that may be drawn from the study are that it is not easy to find a common definition of success, it is important to stratify SMBs when studying them, an evolutionary stage approach helps to compare firms with roughly the same external and internal dynamics and each industry has its own set of success variables.The study has identified three success variables for older firms that reflect contemporary strategic thinking such as crafting a good strategy and changing it only incrementally, building core competencies and outsourcing the rest, and keeping up with innovation and honing competitive skills.

  17. An adaptive two-stage energy-efficiency mechanism for the doze mode in EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoukar, AliAkbar; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Su, Yu-Min; Liem, Andrew Tanny

    2016-07-01

    Sleep and doze power-saving modes are the common ways to reduce power consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in Ethernet passive optical network (EPON). The doze mode turns off the ONU transmitter when there is no traffic in the upstream direction while the sleep mode turns off the ONU transmitter and receiver. As the result, the sleep mode is more efficient compared to the doze mode, but it introduces additional complexity of scheduling and signaling, losses the clock synchronization and requires long clock recovery time; furthermore, it requires the cooperation of the optical line terminal (OLT) in the downstream direction to queue frames. To improve the energy-saving in the doze mode, a new two-stage mechanism is introduced that the doze sleep duration is extended for longer time with acceptable quality-of-services (QoS) metrics when ONU is idle in the current cycle. By this way the ONU enters the doze mode even in the high load traffic; moreover, the green dynamic bandwidth allocation (GBA) is proposed to calculate the doze sleep duration based on the ONU queue state and incoming traffic ratio. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism significantly improves the energy-saving 74% and 54% when traffic load is from the light load to the high load in different traffic situations, and also promises the QoS performance.

  18. New Grapheme Generation Rules for Two-Stage Modelbased Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Kheang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise conversion of arbitrary text into its  corresponding phoneme sequence (grapheme-to-phoneme or G2P conversion is implemented in speech synthesis and recognition, pronunciation learning software, spoken term detection and spoken document retrieval systems. Because the quality of this module plays an important role in the performance of such systems and many problems regarding G2P conversion have been reported, we propose a novel two-stage model-based approach, which is implemented using an existing weighted finite-state transducer-based G2P conversion framework, to improve the performance of the G2P conversion model. The first-stage model is built for automatic conversion of words  to phonemes, while  the second-stage  model utilizes the input graphemes and output phonemes obtained from the first stage to determine the best final output phoneme sequence. Additionally, we designed new grapheme generation rules, which enable extra detail for the vowel and consonant graphemes appearing within a word. When compared with previous approaches, the evaluation results indicate that our approach using rules focusing on the vowel graphemes slightly improved the accuracy of the out-of-vocabulary dataset and consistently increased the accuracy of the in-vocabulary dataset.

  19. Eigenvalue dynamics for multimatrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Gossman, David; Nkumane, Lwazi; Tribelhorn, Laila

    2017-07-01

    By performing explicit computations of correlation functions, we find evidence that there is a sector of the two matrix model defined by the S U (2 ) sector of N =4 super Yang-Mills theory that can be reduced to eigenvalue dynamics. There is an interesting generalization of the usual Van der Monde determinant that plays a role. The observables we study are the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield operators of the S U (2 ) sector and include traces of products of both matrices, which are genuine multimatrix observables. These operators are associated with supergravity solutions of string theory.

  20. Eigenvalue Dynamics for Multimatrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Robert de Mello; Nkumane, Lwazi; Tribelhorn, Laila

    2016-01-01

    By performing explicit computations of correlation functions, we find evidence that there is a sector of the two matrix model defined by the $SU(2)$ sector of ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory, that can be reduced to eigenvalue dynamics. There is an interesting generalization of the usual Van der Monde determinant that plays a role. The observables we study are the BPS operators of the $SU(2)$ sector and include traces of products of both matrices, which are genuine multi matrix observables. These operators are associated to supergravity solutions of string theory.

  1. Bayesian Estimation of Categorical Dynamic Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Nesselroade, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic factor models have been used to analyze continuous time series behavioral data. We extend 2 main dynamic factor model variations--the direct autoregressive factor score (DAFS) model and the white noise factor score (WNFS) model--to categorical DAFS and WNFS models in the framework of the underlying variable method and illustrate them with…

  2. Dynamical models of NGC 3115

    CERN Document Server

    Emsellem, E; Bacon, R; Emsellem, Eric; Dejonghe, Herwig; Bacon, Roland

    1998-01-01

    We present new dynamical models of the S0 galaxy N3115, making use of the available published photometry and kinematics as well as of two-dimensional TIGER spectrography. We first examined the kinematics in the central 40 arcsec in the light of two integral f(E,J) models. Jeans equations were used to constrain the mass to light ratio, and the central dark mass whose existence was suggested by previous studies. The even part of the distribution function was then retrieved via the Hunter & Qian formalism. We thus confirmed that the velocity and dispersion profiles in the central region could be well fit with a two-integral model, given the presence of a central dark mass of ~10^9 Msun. However, no two integral model could fit the h_3 profile around a radius of 25 arcsec where the outer disc dominates the surface brightness distribution. Three integral analytical models were therefore built using a Quadratic Programming technique. These models showed that three integral components do indeed provide a reasona...

  3. CoDCon Dynamic Modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Co-Decontamination (CoDCon) Demonstration project is designed to test the separation of a mixed U and Pu product from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The primary purpose of the project is to quantify the accuracy and precision to which a U/Pu mass ratio can be achieved without removing a pure Pu product. The system includes an on-line monitoring system using spectroscopy to monitor the ratios throughout the process. A dynamic model of the CoDCon flowsheet and on-line monitoring system was developed in order to expand the range of scenarios that can be examined for process control and determine overall measurement uncertainty. The model development and initial results are presented here.

  4. Characterizing and modeling citation dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Young-Ho; 10.1371/journal.pone.0024926

    2011-01-01

    Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts...

  5. Assortment Planning Considering Consumers' Two-stage Choice Behavior%考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the assortment planning problem considering consumers' two-stage choice behavior in the context of network revenue management. A two-stage choice model based on consumer preferences is proposed, and a dynamic programming model for assortment planning is developed. The choice deterministic linear programming method (CDLP) is used to approximate the optimal offer sets. Finally,through numerical examples,the effects of consumers' two-stage choice behavior on firm's average expected revenues are discussed.%在网络收益管理框架下,研究了考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划问题.提出了基于消费者产品偏好的两阶段选择行为模型,并建立了品类规划问题的动态规划模型.利用选择确定性线性规划方法对模型进行了近似求解,推导了最优的产品组合.最后通过数值算例讨论了消费者两阶段选择行为对厂商平均期望收益与产品组合选择的影响.

  6. Numerical simulation of a step-piston type series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Nogawa, Masafumi; Inoue, Tatsuo

    2007-09-01

    A two-stage pulse tube refrigerator has a great advantage in that there are no moving parts at low temperatures. The problem is low theoretical efficiency. In an ordinary two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, the expansion work of the first stage pulse tube is rather large, but is changed to heat. The theoretical efficiency is lower than that of a Stirling refrigerator. A series two-stage pulse tube refrigerator was introduced for solving this problem. The hot end of the regenerator of the second stage is connected to the hot end of the first stage pulse tube. The expansion work in the first stage pulse tube is part of the input work of the second stage, therefore the efficiency is increased. In a simulation result for a step-piston type two-stage series pulse tube refrigerator, the efficiency is increased by 13.8%.

  7. Theory and calculation of two-stage voltage stabilizer on zener diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Veksler

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-stage stabilizer is compared with one-stage. There have been got formulas, which give the possibility to make an engineering calculation. There is an example of the calculation.

  8. Two-stage fungal pre-treatment for improved biogas production from sisal leaf decortication residues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthangya, Mutemi; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Kivaisi, Amelia Kajumulo

    2009-01-01

    .... Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors...

  9. Experiment research on two-stage dry-fed entrained flow coal gasifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The process flow and the main devices of a new two-stage dry-fed coal gasification pilot plant with a throughout of 36 t/d are introduced in this paper. For comparison with the traditional one-stage gasifiers, the influences of the coal feed ratio between two stages on the performance of the gasifier are detailedly studied by a series of experiments. The results reveal that the two-stage gasification decreases the temperature of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, simplifies the gasification process, and reduces the size of the syngas cooler. Moreover, the cold gas efficiency of the gasifier can be improved by using the two-stage gasification. In our experiments, the efficiency is about 3%-6% higher than the existing one-stage gasifiers.

  10. TWO-STAGE CHARACTER CLASSIFICATION : A COMBINED APPROACH OF CLUSTERING AND SUPPORT VECTOR CLASSIFIERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.; Schomaker, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a two-stage classification method for (1) classification of isolated characters and (2) verification of the classification result. Character prototypes are generated using hierarchical clustering. For those prototypes known to sometimes produce wrong classification results, a

  11. A Two-Stage Waste Gasification Reactor for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a two-stage waste processing reactor for space applications. Our proposed technology converts waste from space missions into...

  12. A new multi-motor drive system based on two-stage direct power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    The two-stage AC to AC direct power converter is an alternative matrix converter topology, which offers the benefits of sinusoidal input currents and output voltages, bidirectional power flow and controllable input power factor. The absence of any energy storage devices, such as electrolytic capacitors, has increased the potential lifetime of the converter. In this research work, a new multi-motor drive system based on a two-stage direct power converter has been proposed, with two motors c...

  13. Maximally efficient two-stage screening: Determining intellectual disability in Taiwanese military conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chang Chien

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia-Chang Chien1, Shu-Fen Huang1,2,3,4, For-Wey Lung1,2,3,41Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Calo Psychiatric Center, Pingtung County, TaiwanObjective: The purpose of this study was to apply a two-stage screening method for the large-scale intelligence screening of military conscripts.Methods: We collected 99 conscripted soldiers whose educational levels were senior high school level or lower to be the participants. Every participant was required to take the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R assessments.Results: Logistic regression analysis showed the conceptual level responses (CLR index of the WCST was the most significant index for determining intellectual disability (ID; FIQ ≤ 84. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the optimum cut-off point of CLR. The optimum one cut-off point of CLR was 66; the two cut-off points were 49 and 66. Comparing the two-stage window screening with the two-stage positive screening, the area under the curve and the positive predictive value increased. Moreover, the cost of the two-stage window screening decreased by 59%.Conclusion: The two-stage window screening is more accurate and economical than the two-stage positive screening. Our results provide an example for the use of two-stage screening and the possibility of the WCST to replace WAIS-R in large-scale screenings for ID in the future.Keywords: intellectual disability, intelligence screening, two-stage positive screening, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised

  14. Two-Stage Conversion of Land and Marine Biomass for Biogas and Biohydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nkemka, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by renewable fuels such as biogas and biohydrogen will require efficient and economically competitive process technologies together with new kinds of biomass. A two-stage system for biogas production has several advantages over the widely used one-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). However, it has not yet been widely implemented on a large scale. Biohydrogen can be produced in the anaerobic two-stage system. It is considered to be a useful fuel for t...

  15. Dynamical Modeling of Mars' Paleoclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark I.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes work undertaken under a one-year grant from the NASA Mars Fundamental Research Program. The goal of the project was to initiate studies of the response of the Martian climate to changes in planetary obliquity and orbital elements. This work was undertaken with a three-dimensional numerical climate model based on the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Skyhi General Circulation Model (GCM). The Mars GCM code was adapted to simulate various obliquity and orbital parameter states. Using a version of the model with a basic water cycle (ice caps, vapor, and clouds), we examined changes in atmospheric water abundances and in the distribution of water ice sheets on the surface. This work resulted in a paper published in the Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets. In addition, the project saw the initial incorporation of a regolith water transport and storage scheme into the model. This scheme allows for interaction between water in the pores of the near subsurface (<3m) and the atmosphere. This work was not complete by the end of the one-year grant, but is now continuing within the auspices of a three-year grant of the same title awarded by the Mars Fundamental Research Program in late 2003.

  16. Cooperative Hierarchical PSO With Two Stage Variable Interaction Reconstruction for Large Scale Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hongwei; Sun, Liang; Tan, Guozhen; Chen, Zheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2017-09-01

    Large scale optimization problems arise in diverse fields. Decomposing the large scale problem into small scale subproblems regarding the variable interactions and optimizing them cooperatively are critical steps in an optimization algorithm. To explore the variable interactions and perform the problem decomposition tasks, we develop a two stage variable interaction reconstruction algorithm. A learning model is proposed to explore part of the variable interactions as prior knowledge. A marginalized denoising model is proposed to construct the overall variable interactions using the prior knowledge, with which the problem is decomposed into small scale modules. To optimize the subproblems and relieve premature convergence, we propose a cooperative hierarchical particle swarm optimization framework, where the operators of contingency leadership, interactional cognition, and self-directed exploitation are designed. Finally, we conduct theoretical analysis for further understanding of the proposed algorithm. The analysis shows that the proposed algorithm can guarantee converging to the global optimal solutions if the problems are correctly decomposed. Experiments are conducted on the CEC2008 and CEC2010 benchmarks. The results demonstrate the effectiveness, convergence, and usefulness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Design and Analysis of a Split Deswirl Vane in a Two-Stage Refrigeration Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Min Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigated the influence of using the second row of a double-row deswirl vane as the inlet guide vane of the second stage on the performance of the first stage in a two-stage refrigeration centrifugal compressor. The working fluid was R134a, and the turbulence model was the Spalart-Allmaras model. The parameters discussed included the cutting position of the deswirl vane, the staggered angle of two rows of vane, and the rotation angle of the second row. The results showed that the performance of staggered angle 7.5° was better than that of 15° or 22.5°. When the staggered angle was 7.5°, the performance of cutting at 1/3 and 1/2 of the original deswirl vane length was slightly different from that of the original vane but obviously better than that of cutting at 2/3. When the staggered angle was 15°, the cutting position influenced the performance slightly. At a low flow rate prone to surge, when the second row at a staggered angle 7.5° cutting at the half of vane rotated 10°, the efficiency was reduced by only about 0.6%, and 10% of the swirl remained as the preswirl of the second stage, which is generally better than other designs.

  18. A Two-Stage Framework for 3D Face Reconstruction from RGBD Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangkan; Wang, Xianwang; Pan, Zhigeng; Liu, Kai

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for 3D face reconstruction with RGBD images from an inexpensive commodity sensor. The challenges we face are: 1) substantial random noise and corruption are present in low-resolution depth maps; and 2) there is high degree of variability in pose and face expression. We develop a novel two-stage algorithm that effectively maps low-quality depth maps to realistic face models. Each stage is targeted toward a certain type of noise. The first stage extracts sparse errors from depth patches through the data-driven local sparse coding, while the second stage smooths noise on the boundaries between patches and reconstructs the global shape by combining local shapes using our template-based surface refinement. Our approach does not require any markers or user interaction. We perform quantitative and qualitative evaluations on both synthetic and real test sets. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to produce high-resolution 3D face models with high accuracy, even if inputs are of low quality, and have large variations in viewpoint and face expression.

  19. A Novel Two-Stage Illumination Estimation Framework for Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical issues for facial expression recognition is to eliminate the negative effect caused by variant poses and illuminations. In this paper a two-stage illumination estimation framework is proposed based on three-dimensional representative face and clustering, which can estimate illumination directions under a series of poses. First, 256 training 3D face models are adaptively categorized into a certain amount of facial structure types by k-means clustering to group people with similar facial appearance into clusters. Then the representative face of each cluster is generated to represent the facial appearance type of that cluster. Our training set is obtained by rotating all representative faces to a certain pose, illuminating them with a series of different illumination conditions, and then projecting them into two-dimensional images. Finally the saltire-over-cross feature is selected to train a group of SVM classifiers and satisfactory performance is achieved when estimating a number of test sets including images generated from 64 3D face models kept for testing, CAS-PEAL face database, CMU PIE database, and a small test set created by ourselves. Compared with other related works, our method is subject independent and has less computational complexity O(C×N without 3D facial reconstruction.

  20. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  1. TWO-STAGE PRODUCTION SCHEDULING WITH AN OPTION OF OUTSOURCING FROM A REMOTE SUPPLIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangtong QI

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a two-stage production system with n job orders where each job needs two sequential operations. In addition to the two in-house production facilities, the manufacturer has another option of outsourcing some stage-one operations to a remote outside supplier. The jobs with their stage-one operations outsourced are subject to a batch transportation delay from the outside supplier before their respective stage-two operations can be started in-house. The problem is to design an integrated schedule that considers both the in-house production and the outsourcing with the aim of optimally balancing the outsourcing cost and the makespan. The problem is NP-hard. We have developed an optimal algorithm and a heuristic algorithm to solve the problem, and conducted computational experiments to validate our model and algorithms. Our modeling and algorithm framework can be extended to handle other more general cases such as when the outside supplier has a production facility with a different processing efficiency and when there are many outside suppliers on a spot market.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on two-stage combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshfar, Eshan

    2012-07-01

    fate of the main corrosive compounds, in particular chlorine, was determined in an experimental campaign using fuel mixtures. The corrosion risk associated with three fuel mixtures was quite different. Grot (Norwegian term used for tree's tops and branches) was found to be a poor corrosion-reduction additive and could not serve as an alternative fuel for co-firing with straw. Peat was found to reduce the corrosive compounds only at high peat additions (50 wt%). Sewage sludge was the best alternative for corrosion reduction as 10 wt% addition almost eliminated chlorine from the fly ash. Numerical studies were also performed to estimate the emission level in the flue gas using a comprehensive mechanism in a configuration which simulated two-stage combustion of biomass. Furthermore, a reduction of the comprehensive chemical mechanism was performed since the mechanism is still complex and needs very long computational time and powerful hardware resources. The selected detailed mechanism in this study contains 81 species and 703 elementary reactions. Necessity analysis was used to determine which species and reactions that are of less importance for the predictability of the final result and, hence, can be discarded. For validation, numerical results using the derived reduced mechanism were compared with the results obtained with the original detailed mechanism. The reduced mechanism contains 35 species and 198 reactions, corresponding to 72% reduction in the number of reactions and, therefore, improving the computational time considerably. Yet the model based on the reduced mechanism predicts correctly concentrations of NOx and CO that are essentially identical to those of the complete mechanism in the range of reaction conditions of interest. The modeling conditions are selected in a way to mimic values in the different ranges of temperature, excess air ratio and residence time, since these variables are the main affecting parameters on NOx emission. (Author)

  3. Two-Stage Multi-Objective Collaborative Scheduling for Wind Farm and Battery Switch Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to deal with the uncertainties of wind power, wind farm and electric vehicle (EV battery switch station (BSS were proposed to work together as an integrated system. In this paper, the collaborative scheduling problems of such a system were studied. Considering the features of the integrated system, three indices, which include battery swapping demand curtailment of BSS, wind curtailment of wind farm, and generation schedule tracking of the integrated system are proposed. In addition, a two-stage multi-objective collaborative scheduling model was designed. In the first stage, a day-ahead model was built based on the theory of dependent chance programming. With the aim of maximizing the realization probabilities of these three operating indices, random fluctuations of wind power and battery switch demand were taken into account simultaneously. In order to explore the capability of BSS as reserve, the readjustment process of the BSS within each hour was considered in this stage. In addition, the stored energy rather than the charging/discharging power of BSS during each period was optimized, which will provide basis for hour-ahead further correction of BSS. In the second stage, an hour-ahead model was established. In order to cope with the randomness of wind power and battery swapping demand, the proposed hour-ahead model utilized ultra-short term prediction of the wind power and the battery switch demand to schedule the charging/discharging power of BSS in a rolling manner. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed models was validated by case studies. The simulation results indicated that the proposed model could realize complement between wind farm and BSS, reduce the dependence on power grid, and facilitate the accommodation of wind power.

  4. Simulation, design and proof-of-concept of a two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor for synthesis of functionalized nano-sized inorganic composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations were employed to evaluate several mixer geometries for a novel two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor. The addition of a second stage holds the promise of allowing the synthesis of functionalized nano-materials as for example core...

  5. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Removal of cesium from simulated liquid waste with countercurrent two-stage adsorption followed by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Guang-Hui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Gu, Ping, E-mail: guping@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption isotherm of cesium by copper ferrocyanide followed a Freundlich model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decontamination factor of cesium was higher in lab-scale test than that in jar test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A countercurrent two-stage adsorption-microfiltration process was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cesium concentration in the effluent could be calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a new cesium removal process with a higher decontamination factor. - Abstract: Copper ferrocyanide (CuFC) was used as an adsorbent to remove cesium. Jar test results showed that the adsorption capacity of CuFC was better than that of potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate. Lab-scale tests were performed by an adsorption-microfiltration process, and the mean decontamination factor (DF) was 463 when the initial cesium concentration was 101.3 {mu}g/L, the dosage of CuFC was 40 mg/L and the adsorption time was 20 min. The cesium concentration in the effluent continuously decreased with the operation time, which indicated that the used adsorbent retained its adsorption capacity. To use this capacity, experiments on a countercurrent two-stage adsorption (CTA)-microfiltration (MF) process were carried out with CuFC adsorption combined with membrane separation. A calculation method for determining the cesium concentration in the effluent was given, and batch tests in a pressure cup were performed to verify the calculated method. The results showed that the experimental values fitted well with the calculated values in the CTA-MF process. The mean DF was 1123 when the dilution factor was 0.4, the initial cesium concentration was 98.75 {mu}g/L and the dosage of CuFC and adsorption time were the same as those used in the lab-scale test. The DF obtained by CTA-MF process was more than three times higher than the single-stage adsorption in the jar test.

  7. On Simon's two-stage design for single-arm phase IIA cancer clinical trials under beta-binomial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe

    2010-05-10

    Simon (Control. Clin. Trials 1989; 10:1-10)'s two-stage design has been broadly applied to single-arm phase IIA cancer clinical trials in order to minimize either the expected or the maximum sample size under the null hypothesis of drug inefficacy, i.e. when the pre-specified amount of improvement in response rate (RR) is not expected to be observed. This paper studies a realistic scenario where the standard and experimental treatment RRs follow two continuous distributions (e.g. beta distribution) rather than two single values. The binomial probabilities in Simon's (Control. Clin. Trials 1989; 10:1-10) design are replaced by prior predictive Beta-binomial probabilities that are the ratios of two beta functions and domain-restricted RRs involve incomplete beta functions to induce the null hypothesis acceptance probability. We illustrate that Beta-binomial mixture model based two-stage design retains certain desirable properties for hypothesis testing purpose. However, numerical results show that such designs may not exist under certain hypothesis and error rate (type I and II) setups within maximal sample size approximately 130. Furthermore, we give theoretical conditions for asymptotic two-stage design non-existence (sample size goes to infinity) in order to improve the efficiency of design search and to avoid needless searching.

  8. Human Cough as a Two-Stage Jet and Its Role in Particle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-01

    The human cough is a significant vector in the transmission of respiratory diseases in indoor environments. The cough flow is characterized as a two-stage jet; specifically, the starting jet (when the cough starts and flow is released) and interrupted jet (after the source supply is terminated). During the starting-jet stage, the flow rate is a function of time; three temporal profiles of the exit velocity (pulsation, sinusoidal and real-cough) were investigated in this study, and our results showed that the cough flow’s maximum penetration distance was in the range of a 50.6–85.5 opening diameter (D) under our experimental conditions. The real-cough and sinusoidal cases exhibited greater penetration ability than the pulsation cases under the same characteristic Reynolds number (Rec) and normalized cough expired volume (Q/AD, with Q as the cough expired volume and A as the opening area). However, the effects of Rec and Q/AD on the maximum penetration distances proved to be more significant; larger values of Rec and Q/AD reflected cough flows with greater penetration distances. A protocol was developed to scale the particle experiments between the prototype in air, and the model in water. The water tank experiments revealed that although medium and large particles deposit readily, their maximum spread distance is similar to that of small particles. Moreover, the leading vortex plays an important role in enhancing particle transport. PMID:28046084

  9. Prediction of syngas quality for two-stage gasification of selected waste feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Paolo; Borgianni, Carlo; Paolucci, Martino; Pochetti, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the syngas produced from methane with the syngas obtained from the gasification, in a two-stage reactor, of various waste feedstocks. The syngas composition and the gasification conditions were simulated using a simple thermodynamic model. The waste feedstocks considered are: landfill gas, waste oil, municipal solid waste (MSW) typical of a low-income country, the same MSW blended with landfill gas, refuse derived fuel (RDF) made from the same MSW, the same RDF blended with waste oil and a MSW typical of a high-income country. Energy content, the sum of H2 and CO gas percentages, and the ratio of H2 to CO are considered as measures of syngas quality. The simulation shows that landfill gas gives the best results in terms of both H2+CO and H2/CO, and that the MSW of low-income countries can be expected to provide inferior syngas on all three quality measures. Co-gasification of the MSW from low-income countries with landfill gas, and the mixture of waste oil with RDF from low-income MSW are considered as options to improve gas quality.

  10. Solar Impulsive Hard X-Ray Emission and Two-Stage Electron Acceleration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xi Zhang; Arjun Tan; Shi Tsan Wu

    2006-01-01

    Heating and acceleration of electrons in solar impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) flares are studied according to the two-stage acceleration model developed by Zhang for solar 3Herich events. It is shown that electrostatic H-cyclotron waves can be excited at a parallel phase velocity less than about the electron thermal velocity and thus can significantly heat the electrons (up to 40 MK) through Landau resonance. The preheated electrons with velocities above a threshold are further accelerated to high energies in the flare-acceleration process. The flareproduced electron spectrum is obtained and shown to be thermal at low energies and power law at high energies. In the non-thermal energy range, the spectrum can be double power law if the spectral power index is energy dependent or related. The electron energy spectrum obtained by this study agrees quantitatively with the result derived from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) HXR observations in the flare of 2002 July 23. The total flux and energy flux of electrons accelerated in the solar flare also agree with the measurements.

  11. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2009-12-01

    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. Moringa oleifera is used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide range of various ailments. To understand the mechanism of pharmacological actions, antioxidant properties of the Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were tested in two stages of maturity using standard in vitro models. The successive aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, superoxide, nitric oxide radical and inhibition of lipid per oxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract was comparable with that of the reference antioxidants. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extracts of Moringa oleifera both mature and tender leaves have potent antioxidant activity against free radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and afford significant protection against oxidative damage.

  12. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronalt, Manfred; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Due to its environmentally sustainable and energy-saving characteristics, railway transportation nowadays plays a fundamental role in delivering passengers and goods. Emerged in the area of transportation planning, the crew (workforce) sizing problem and the crew scheduling problem have been attached great importance by the railway industry and the scientific community. In this paper, we aim to solve the two problems by proposing a novel two-stage optimization approach in the context of the electric multiple units (EMU) depot shunting driver assignment problem. Given a predefined depot shunting schedule, the first stage of the approach focuses on determining an optimal size of shunting drivers. While the second stage is formulated as a bi-objective optimization model, in which we comprehensively consider the objectives of minimizing the total walking distance and maximizing the workload balance. Then we combine the normalized normal constraint method with a modified Pareto filter algorithm to obtain Pareto solutions for the bi-objective optimization problem. Furthermore, we conduct a series of numerical experiments to demonstrate the proposed approach. Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers. PMID:28704489

  13. Two-stage seasonal streamflow forecasts to guide water resources decisions and water rights allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, P. J.; Gonzalez, E.; Bonnafous, L.

    2011-12-01

    Decision-making in water resources is inherently uncertain producing copious risks, ranging from operational (present) to planning (season-ahead) to design/adaptation (decadal) time-scales. These risks include human activity and climate variability/change. As the risks in designing and operating water systems and allocating available supplies vary systematically in time, prospects for predicting and managing such risks become increasingly attractive. Considerable effort has been undertaken to improve seasonal forecast skill and advocate for integration to reduce risk, however only minimal adoption is evident. Impediments are well defined, yet tailoring forecast products and allowing for flexible adoption assist in overcoming some obstacles. The semi-arid Elqui River basin in Chile is contending with increasing levels of water stress and demand coupled with insufficient investment in infrastructure, taxing its ability to meet agriculture, hydropower, and environmental requirements. The basin is fed from a retreating glacier, with allocation principles founded on a system of water rights and markets. A two-stage seasonal streamflow forecast at leads of one and two seasons prescribes the probability of reductions in the value of each water right, allowing water managers to inform their constituents in advance. A tool linking the streamflow forecast to a simple reservoir decision model also allows water managers to select a level of confidence in the forecast information.

  14. Two-stage scheduling algorithm based on priority table for clusters with inaccurate system parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU An-feng; CHEN Zhi-gang; XIONG Ce

    2006-01-01

    A new two-stage soft real-time scheduling algorithm based on priority table was proposed for task dispatch and selection in cluster systems with inaccurate parameters. The inaccurate characteristics of the system were modeled through probability analysis. By taking into account the multiple important system parameters, including task deadline, priority, session integrity and memory access locality, the algorithm is expected to achieve high quality of service. Lots of simulation results collected under different load conditions demonstrate that the algorithm can not only effectively overcome the inaccuracy of the system state, but also optimize the task rejected ratio, value realized ratio, differentiated service guaranteed ratio, and session integrity ensured ratio with the average improvement of 3.5%, 5.8%, 7.6% and 5.5%, respectively. Compared with many existing schemes that cannot deal with the inaccurate parameters of the system, the proposed scheme can achieve the best system performance by carefully adjusting scheduling probability. The algorithm is expected to be promising in systems with soft real-time scheduling requirement such as E-commerce applications.

  15. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran;

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...

  16. Dynamical model for virus spread

    CERN Document Server

    Camelo-Neto, G

    1995-01-01

    The steady state properties of the mean density population of infected cells in a viral spread is simulated by a general forest fire like cellular automaton model with two distinct populations of cells ( permissive and resistant ones) and studied in the framework of the mean field approximation. Stochastic dynamical ingredients are introduced in this model to mimic cells regeneration (with probability {\\it p}) and to consider infection processes by other means than contiguity (with probability {\\it f}). Simulations are carried on a L \\times L square lattice considering the eight first neighbors. The mean density population of infected cells (D_i) is measured as function of the regeneration probability {\\it p}, and analyzed for small values of the ratio {\\it f/p } and for distinct degrees of the cell resistance. The results obtained by a mean field like approach recovers the simulations results. The role of the resistant parameter R (R \\geq 2) on the steady state properties is investigated and discussed in com...

  17. Characterizing and modeling citation dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available Citation distributions are crucial for the analysis and modeling of the activity of scientists. We investigated bibliometric data of papers published in journals of the American Physical Society, searching for the type of function which best describes the observed citation distributions. We used the goodness of fit with Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics for three classes of functions: log-normal, simple power law and shifted power law. The shifted power law turns out to be the most reliable hypothesis for all citation networks we derived, which correspond to different time spans. We find that citation dynamics is characterized by bursts, usually occurring within a few years since publication of a paper, and the burst size spans several orders of magnitude. We also investigated the microscopic mechanisms for the evolution of citation networks, by proposing a linear preferential attachment with time dependent initial attractiveness. The model successfully reproduces the empirical citation distributions and accounts for the presence of citation bursts as well.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of small-scale dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol plants based on the efficient two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Models of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol synthesis plants have been designed by combining the features of the simulation tools DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME or methanol by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of woody biomass. Electricity is co......-produced in the plants by a gas engine utilizing the unconverted syngas. A two-stage gasifier with a cold gas efficiency of 93% is used, but because of the design of this type of gasifier, the plants have to be of small-scale (5 MWth biomass input). The plant models show energy efficiencies from biomass to DME/methanol...

  19. High magnetostriction parameters for low-temperature sintered cobalt ferrite obtained by two-stage sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaja Mohaideen, K.; Joy, P.A., E-mail: pa.joy@ncl.res.in

    2014-12-15

    From the studies on the magnetostriction characteristics of two-stage sintered polycrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} made from nanocrystalline powders, it is found that two-stage sintering at low temperatures is very effective for enhancing the density and for attaining higher magnetostriction coefficient. Magnetostriction coefficient and strain derivative are further enhanced by magnetic field annealing and relatively larger enhancement in the magnetostriction parameters is obtained for the samples sintered at lower temperatures, after magnetic annealing, despite the fact that samples sintered at higher temperatures show larger magnetostriction coefficients before annealing. A high magnetostriction coefficient of ∼380 ppm is obtained after field annealing for the sample sintered at 1100 °C, below a magnetic field of 400 kA/m, which is the highest value so far reported at low magnetic fields for sintered polycrystalline cobalt ferrite. - Highlights: • Effect of two-stage sintering on the magnetostriction characteristics of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. • Two-stage sintering is very effective for enhancing the density and the magnetostriction parameters. • Higher magnetostriction for samples sintered at low temperatures and after magnetic field annealing. • Highest reported magnetostriction of 380 ppm at low fields after two-stage, low-temperature sintering.

  20. 13 K thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ke; CHEN Guobang; THUMMES Günter

    2005-01-01

    Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators have attracted academic and commercial interest in recent years due to their more compact configuration and higher efficiency than those of G-M type pulse tube refrigerators. In order to achieve a no-load cooling temperature below 20 K, a thermally coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator has been built. The thermally coupled arrangement was expected to minimize the interference between the two stages and to simplify the adjustment and optimization of the phase shifters. A no-load cooling temperature of 14.97 K has been realized with the two-stage cooler driven by one linear compressor of 200 W electric input. When the two stages are driven by two compressors respectively, with total electric input of 400 W, the prototype has attained a no-load cooling temperature of 12.96 K, which is the lowest temperature ever reported with two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators.

  1. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t

  2. Modelling the dynamics of youth subcultures

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, P; Holme, Petter; Gronlund, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    What are the dynamics behind youth subcultures such as punk, hippie, or hip-hop cultures? How does the global dynamics of these subcultures relate to the individual's search for a personal identity? We propose a simple dynamical model to address these questions and find that only a few assumptions of the individual's behaviour are necessary to regenerate known features of youth culture.

  3. Experimental Measurements of System Dynamics Between Two Stages of Wire Drawing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasevski Goce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wzrost wydajności ciągarek wielostopniowych można osiągnąć przy wyższych prędkościach jeśli zapobiega się zrywaniu drutu w trakcie procesu ciągnienia. Jedną z niedogodności ciągnienia przy dużych szybkościach jest wymaganie, by dynamika systemu zapewniała stabilność i nieza­wodność działania maszyny. Siły rozciągające w drucie muszą być utrzymane na stałym poziomie przez szybką synchronizację prędkości wszystkich bębnów. Główną rolę w tym procesie pełnią czujniki przemieszczenia, które działają w pętli sprzężenia zwrotnego systemu sterującego dostar­czając informacji o stanie drutu. W pracy analizowano oddziaływania między czujnikami i bębna­mi napędzanymi przez serwomotory i badano doświadczalnie koncepcję zastosowania rolkowego czujnika przemieszczenia w ciągarce wielostopniowej. W tym celu wykonano pomiary na dwu stopniach ciągarki przy różnych prędkościach ciągnienia, a rezultaty zaprezentowano w pracy. Pokazują one, że zmiany prędkości bębnów i przemieszczeń kątowych mechanizmu rolkowego, który utrzymuje drut w napięciu, są bardzo szybkie, co potwierdza dobrą dynamikę sterowania ciągarki.

  4. Dynamic stall model for wind turbine airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.W.; Nielsen, S.R.K.; Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    A model is presented for aerodynamic lift of wind turbine profiles under dynamic stall. The model combines memory delay effects under attached flow with reduced lift due to flow separation under dynamic stall conditions. The model is based on a backbone curve in the form of the static lift...... conditions, nonstationary effects are included by three mechanisms: a delay of the lift coefficient of fully attached flow via a second-order filter, a delay of the development of separation represented via a first-order filter, and a lift contribution due to leading edge separation also represented via...... during dynamic stall conditions. The proposed model is compared with five other dynamic stall models including, among others, the Beddoes-Leishman model and the ONERA model. It is demonstrated that the proposed model performs equally well or even better than more complicated models and that the included...

  5. Design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Con

    1995-01-01

    This report outlines the design and construction of the X-2 two-stage free piston driven expansion tube. The project has completed its construction phase and the facility has been installed in the new impulsive research laboratory where commissioning is about to take place. The X-2 uses a unique, two-stage driver design which allows a more compact and lower overall cost free piston compressor. The new facility has been constructed in order to examine the performance envelope of the two-stage driver and how well it couple to sub-orbital and super-orbital expansion tubes. Data obtained from these experiments will be used for the design of a much larger facility, X-3, utilizing the same free piston driver concept.

  6. Analysis of performance and optimum configuration of two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai-Zhen; Liang Rui-Sheng; Wei Zheng-Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the theoretical analysis and simulating calculation were conducted for a basic two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module, which contains one thermocouple in the second stage and several thermocouples in the first stage. The study focused on the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric cooler, especially investigating the influences of some parameters, such as the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of every thermocouple and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage, on the cooling performance of the module. The obtained results of analysis indicate that changing the current I1 of the first stage, the area A1 of thcrmocouples and the number n of thermocouples in the first stage can improve the cooling performance of the module. These results can be used to optimize the configuration of the two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module and provide guides for the design and application of thermoelectric cooler.

  7. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  8. Two-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Bone Grafting Technique Using an Allograft Bone Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S; Cram, Tyler R; Civitarese, David; O'Brien, Luke; Moulton, Samuel G; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    Outcomes of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have been reported to be far superior to those of revision reconstruction. However, as the incidence of ACL reconstruction is rapidly increasing, so is the number of failures. The subsequent need for revision ACL reconstruction is estimated to occur in up to 13,000 patients each year in the United States. Revision ACL reconstruction can be performed in one or two stages. A two-stage approach is recommended in cases of improper placement of the original tunnels or in cases of unacceptable tunnel enlargement. The aim of this study was to describe the technique for allograft ACL tunnel bone grafting in patients requiring a two-stage revision ACL reconstruction.

  9. Model dynamics for quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakin, Frank

    2017-08-01

    A model master equation suitable for quantum computing dynamics is presented. In an ideal quantum computer (QC), a system of qubits evolves in time unitarily and, by virtue of their entanglement, interfere quantum mechanically to solve otherwise intractable problems. In the real situation, a QC is subject to decoherence and attenuation effects due to interaction with an environment and with possible short-term random disturbances and gate deficiencies. The stability of a QC under such attacks is a key issue for the development of realistic devices. We assume that the influence of the environment can be incorporated by a master equation that includes unitary evolution with gates, supplemented by a Lindblad term. Lindblad operators of various types are explored; namely, steady, pulsed, gate friction, and measurement operators. In the master equation, we use the Lindblad term to describe short time intrusions by random Lindblad pulses. The phenomenological master equation is then extended to include a nonlinear Beretta term that describes the evolution of a closed system with increasing entropy. An external Bath environment is stipulated by a fixed temperature in two different ways. Here we explore the case of a simple one-qubit system in preparation for generalization to multi-qubit, qutrit and hybrid qubit-qutrit systems. This model master equation can be used to test the stability of memory and the efficacy of quantum gates. The properties of such hybrid master equations are explored, with emphasis on the role of thermal equilibrium and entropy constraints. Several significant properties of time-dependent qubit evolution are revealed by this simple study.

  10. A two-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland for high-rate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Guenter; Leroch, Klaus; Pressl, Alexander; Rohrhofer, Roland; Haberl, Raimund

    2008-01-01

    By using a two-stage constructed wetland (CW) system operated with an organic load of 40 gCOD.m(-2).d(-1) (2 m2 per person equivalent) average nitrogen removal efficiencies of about 50% and average nitrogen elimination rates of 980 g N.m(-2).yr(-1) could be achieved. Two vertical flow beds with intermittent loading have been operated in series. The first stage uses sand with a grain size of 2-3.2 mm for the main layer and has a drainage layer that is impounded; the second stage sand with a grain size of 0.06-4 mm and a drainage layer with free drainage. The high nitrogen removal can be achieved without recirculation thus it is possible to operate the two-stage CW system without energy input. The paper shows performance data for the two-stage CW system regarding removal of organic matter and nitrogen for the two year operating period of the system. Additionally, its efficiency is compared with the efficiency of a single-stage vertical flow CW system designed and operated according to the Austrian design standards with 4 m2 per person equivalent. The comparison shows that a higher effluent quality could be reached with the two-stage system although the two-stage CW system is operated with the double organic load or half the specific surface area requirement, respectively. Another advantage is that the specific investment costs of the two-stage CW system amount to 1,200 EUR per person (without mechanical pre-treatment) and are only about 60% of the specific investment costs of the singe-stage CW system. IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  12. Methane production from sweet sorghum residues via a two-stage process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelatou, K.; Dravillas, K.; Lyberatos, G. [University of Patras (Greece). Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The start-up of a two-stage reactor configuration for the anaerobic digestion of sweet sorghum residues was evaluated. The sweet sorghum residues were a waste stream originating from the alcoholic fermentation of sweet sorghum and the subsequent distillation step. This waste stream contained high concentration of solid matter (9% TS) and thus could be characterized as a semi-solid, not easily biodegradable wastewater with high COD (115 g/l). The application of the proposed two-stage configuration (consisting of one thermophilic hydrolyser and one mesophilic methaniser) achieved a methane production of 16 l/l wastewater under a hydraulic retention time of 19 d. (author)

  13. Two Stage Fully Differential Sample and Hold Circuit Using .18µm Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Dongardiye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a well-established Fully Differential sample & hold circuitry, implemented in 180-nm CMOS technology. In this two stage method the first stage give us very high gain and second stage gives large voltage swing. The proposed opamp provides 149MHz unity-gain bandwidth , 78 degree phase margin and a differential peak to peak output swing more than 2.4v. using the improved fully differential two stage operational amplifier of 76.7dB gain. Although the sample and hold circuit meets the requirements of SNR specifications.

  14. One-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Barbagli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the reader with the detailed description of current techniques of one-stage and two-stage penile buccal mucosa urethroplasty. The paper provides the reader with the preoperative patient evaluation paying attention to the use of diagnostic tools. The one-stage penile urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft with the application of glue is preliminary showed and discussed. Two-stage penile urethroplasty is then reported. A detailed description of first-stage urethroplasty according Johanson technique is reported. A second-stage urethroplasty using buccal mucosa graft and glue is presented. Finally postoperative course and follow-up are addressed.

  15. Development of a linear compressor for two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-da YAN; Wei-li GAO; Guo-bang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A valveless linear compressor was built up to drive a self-made two-stage pulse tube cryocooler. With a designed maximum swept volume of 60 cm~3, the compressor can provide the cryocooler with a pressure volume (PV) power of 400 W.Preliminary measurements of the compressor indicated that both an efficiency of 35%~55% and a pressure ratio of 1.3~1.4 could be obtained. The two-stage pulse tube cryocooler driven by this compressor achieved the lowest temperature of 14.2 K.

  16. Terephthalic acid wastewater treatment by using two-stage aerobic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on the tests between anoxic and aerobic process, the two-stage aerobic process with a biological selector was chosen to treat terephthalic acid wastewater (PTA). By adopting the two- stage aerobic process, the CODCr in PTA wastewater could be reduced from 4000-6000 mg/L to below 100 mg/L; the COD loading in the first aerobic tank could reach 7.0-8.0 kgCODCr/(m3.d) and that of the second stage was from 0.2 to 0.4 kgCODCr/(m3.d). Further researches on the kinetics of substrate degradation were carried out.

  17. Workflow-Based Dynamic Enterprise Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄双喜; 范玉顺; 罗海滨; 林慧萍

    2002-01-01

    Traditional systems for enterprise modeling and business process control are often static and cannot adapt to the changing environment. This paper presents a workflow-based method to dynamically execute the enterprise model. This method gives an explicit representation of the business process logic and the relationships between the elements involved in the process. An execution-oriented integrated enterprise modeling system is proposed in combination with other enterprise views. The enterprise model can be established and executed dynamically in the actual environment due to the dynamic properties of the workflow model.

  18. Dynamical model of the kinesin protein motor

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterov, Alexander I; Ramírez, Mónica F

    2016-01-01

    We model and simulate the stepping dynamics of the kinesin motor including electric and mechanical forces, environmental noise, and the complicated potentials produced by tracking and neighboring protofilaments. Our dynamical model supports the hand-over-hand mechanism of the kinesin stepping. Our theoretical predictions and numerical simulations include the off-axis displacements of the kinesin heads while the steps are performed. The results obtained are in a good agreement with recent experiments on the kinesin dynamics.

  19. A simplified model of software project dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Carreira, Mercedes; Ramos Román, Isabel; Toro Bonilla, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    The simulation of a dynamic model for software development projects (hereinafter SDPs) helps to investigate the impact of a technological change, of different management policies, and of maturity level of organisations over the whole project. In the beginning of the 1990s, with the appearance of the dynamic model for SDPs by Abdel-Hamid and Madnick [Software Project Dynamics: An Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991], a significant advance took place in the field of p...

  20. First Law Analysis of a Two-stage Ejector-vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle working with R404A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feiza Memet; Daniela-Elena Mitu

    2011-01-01

    The traditional two-stage vapor compression refrigeration cycle might be replaced by a two-stage ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle if it is aimed the decrease of irreversibility during expansion...

  1. Explicit models for dynamic software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosloper, Ivor; Siljee, Johanneke; Nijhuis, Jos; Nord, R; Medvidovic, N; Krikhaar, R; Khrhaar, R; Stafford, J; Bosch, J

    2006-01-01

    A key aspect in creating autonomous dynamic software systems is the possibility of reasoning about properties of runtime variability and dynamic behavior, e.g. when and how to reconfigure the system. Currently these properties are often not made explicit in the software architecture. We argue that

  2. Explicit models for dynamic software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosloper, Ivor; Siljee, Johanneke; Nijhuis, Jos; Nord, R; Medvidovic, N; Krikhaar, R; Khrhaar, R; Stafford, J; Bosch, J

    2006-01-01

    A key aspect in creating autonomous dynamic software systems is the possibility of reasoning about properties of runtime variability and dynamic behavior, e.g. when and how to reconfigure the system. Currently these properties are often not made explicit in the software architecture. We argue that h

  3. Comparative dynamics in a health investment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenring, C

    1999-10-01

    The method of comparative dynamics fully exploits the inter-temporal structure of optimal control models. I derive comparative dynamic results in a simplified demand for health model. The effect of a change in the depreciation rate on the optimal paths for health capital and investment in health is studied by use of a phase diagram.

  4. Dynamic Heat Transfer Model of Refrigerated Foodstuff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    their temperature relation. This paper discusses the dynamic heat transfer model of foodstuff inside the display cabinet, one-dimensional dynamic model is developed, and the Explicit Finite Difference Method is applied, to handle the unsteady heat transfer problem with phase change, as well as time varying boundary...

  5. System dynamics modelling of situation awareness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . The feedback loops and delays in the Command and Control system also contribute to the complex dynamic behavior. This paper will build on existing situation awareness models to develop a System Dynamics model to support a qualitative investigation through...

  6. The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N

    2006-06-23

    Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.

  7. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01

    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces.

  8. A two-stage combined trickle bed reactor/biofilter for treatment of styrene/acetone vapor mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Tomas; Halecky, Martin; Paca, Jan; Zapotocky, Lubos; Gelbicova, Tereza; Vadkertiova, Renata; Kozliak, Evguenii; Jones, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Performance of a two-stage biofiltration system was investigated for removal of styrene-acetone mixtures. High steady-state acetone loadings (above C(in)(Ac) = 0.5 g.m(-3) corresponding to the loadings > 34.5 g.m(-3).h(-1)) resulted in a significant inhibition of the system's performance in both acetone and styrene removal. This inhibition was shown to result from the acetone accumulation within the upstream trickle-bed bioreactor (TBR) circulating mineral medium, which was observed by direct chromatographic measurements. Placing a biofilter (BF) downstream to this TBR overcomes the inhibition as long as the biofilter has a sufficient bed height. A different kind of inhibition of styrene biodegradation was observed within the biofilter at very high acetone loadings (above C(in)(Ac) = 1.1 g.m(-3) or 76 g.m(-3).h(-1) loading). In addition to steady-state measurements, dynamic tests confirmed that the reactor overloading can be readily overcome, once the accumulated acetone in the TBR fluids is degraded. No sizable metabolite accumulation in the medium was observed for either TBR or BF. Analyses of the biodegradation activities of microbial isolates from the biofilm corroborated the trends observed for the two-stage biofiltration system, particularly the occurrence of an inhibition threshold by excess acetone.

  9. Dynamic Factor Models for the Volatility Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Michel; Ozturk, Sait R.; Dijk, Dick van

    The implied volatility surface is the collection of volatilities implied by option contracts for different strike prices and time-to-maturity. We study factor models to capture the dynamics of this three-dimensional implied volatility surface. Three model types are considered to examine desirable...... features for representing the surface and its dynamics: a general dynamic factor model, restricted factor models designed to capture the key features of the surface along the moneyness and maturity dimensions, and in-between spline-based methods. Key findings are that: (i) the restricted and spline......-based models are both rejected against the general dynamic factor model, (ii) the factors driving the surface are highly persistent, (iii) for the restricted models option Delta is preferred over the more often used strike relative to spot price as measure for moneyness....

  10. Comprehensive Survey on Dynamic Graph Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Zaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the critical real-world networks are con-tinuously changing and evolving with time. Motivated by the growing importance and widespread impact of this type of networks, the dynamic nature of these networks have gained a lot of attention. Because of their intrinsic and special characteristics, these networks are best represented by dynamic graph models. To cope with their evolving nature, the representation model must keep the historical information of the network along with its temporal time. Storing such amount of data, poses many problems from the perspective of dynamic graph data management. This survey provides an in-depth overview on dynamic graph related problems. Novel categorization and classification of the state of the art dynamic graph models are also presented in a systematic and comprehensive way. Finally, we discuss dynamic graph processing including the output representation of its algorithms.

  11. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning: electrophysiological evidence for a two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamé, Carlos M; Cosmelli, Diego; Henriquez, Rodrigo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2011-04-26

    Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d') and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP) components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.

  12. Neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning: electrophysiological evidence for a two-stage process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Hamamé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans and other animals change the way they perceive the world due to experience. This process has been labeled as perceptual learning, and implies that adult nervous systems can adaptively modify the way in which they process sensory stimulation. However, the mechanisms by which the brain modifies this capacity have not been sufficiently analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the neural mechanisms of human perceptual learning by combining electroencephalographic (EEG recordings of brain activity and the assessment of psychophysical performance during training in a visual search task. All participants improved their perceptual performance as reflected by an increase in sensitivity (d' and a decrease in reaction time. The EEG signal was acquired throughout the entire experiment revealing amplitude increments, specific and unspecific to the trained stimulus, in event-related potential (ERP components N2pc and P3 respectively. P3 unspecific modification can be related to context or task-based learning, while N2pc may be reflecting a more specific attentional-related boosting of target detection. Moreover, bell and U-shaped profiles of oscillatory brain activity in gamma (30-60 Hz and alpha (8-14 Hz frequency bands may suggest the existence of two phases for learning acquisition, which can be understood as distinctive optimization mechanisms in stimulus processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are reorganizations in several neural processes that contribute differently to perceptual learning in a visual search task. We propose an integrative model of neural activity reorganization, whereby perceptual learning takes place as a two-stage phenomenon including perceptual, attentional and contextual processes.

  13. The influence of Thomson effect in the performance optimization of a two stage thermoelectric cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Manikandan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The exoreversible and irreversible thermodynamic models of a two stage thermoelectric cooler (TTEC) considering Thomson effect in conjunction with Peltier, Joule and Fourier heat conduction effects have been investigated using exergy analysis. New expressions for the interstage temperature, optimum current for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions, energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of a TTEC are derived as well. The number of thermocouples in the first and second stages of a TTEC for the maximum cooling power, energy and exergy efficiency conditions are optimized. The results show that the exergy efficiency is lower than the energy efficiency e.g., in an irreversible TTEC with total 30 thermocouples, heat sink temperature (TH) of 300 K and heat source temperature (TC) of 280 K, the obtained maximum cooling power, maximum energy and exergy efficiency are 20.37 W, 0.7147 and 5.10% respectively. It has been found that the Thomson effect increases the cooling power and energy efficiency of the TTEC system e.g., in the exoreversible TTEC the cooling power and energy efficiency increased from 14.87 W to 16.36 W and from 0.4079 to 0.4998 respectively for ΔTC of 40 K when Thomson effect is considered. It has also been found that the heat transfer area at the hot side of an irreversible TTEC should be higher than the cold side for maximum performance operation. This study will help in the designing of the actual multistage thermoelectric cooling systems.

  14. Overcoming the bottlenecks of anaerobic digestion of olive mill solid waste by two-stage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Elitza; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bochmann, Günther; Fuchs, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) was applied for reducing the inhibiting factors by optimizing the acidification stage. Single-stage AD and co-fermentation with chicken manure were conducted coinstantaneous for direct comparison. Degradation of the polyphenols up to 61% was observed during the methanogenic stage. Nevertheless the concentration of phenolic substances was still high; the two-stage fermentation remained stable at OLR 1.5 kgVS/m³day. The buffer capacity of the system was twice as high, compared to the one-stage fermentation, without additives. The two-stage AD was a combined process - thermophilic first stage and mesophilic second stage, which pointed out to be the most profitable for AD of OMSW for the reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 230 to 150 days, and three times faster than the single-stage and the co-fermentation start-up of the fermentation. The optimal HRT and incubation temperature for the first stage were determined to four days and 55°C. The performance of the two-stage AD concerning the stability of the process was followed by the co-digestion of OMSW with chicken manure as a nitrogen-rich co-substrate, which makes them viable options for waste disposal with concomitant energy recovery.

  15. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2003-01-01

    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output a...... of the reactor had to be constructed in some other material....

  16. Treatment of corn ethanol distillery wastewater using two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráduly, B; Gyenge, L; Szilveszter, Sz; Kedves, A; Crognale, S

    In this study the mesophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of corn bioethanol distillery wastewater is investigated in laboratory-scale reactors. Two-stage AD technology separates the different sub-processes of the AD in two distinct reactors, enabling the use of optimal conditions for the different microbial consortia involved in the different process phases, and thus allowing for higher applicable organic loading rates (OLRs), shorter hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and better conversion rates of the organic matter, as well as higher methane content of the produced biogas. In our experiments the reactors have been operated in semi-continuous phase-separated mode. A specific methane production of 1,092 mL/(L·d) has been reached at an OLR of 6.5 g TCOD/(L·d) (TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand) and a total HRT of 21 days (5.7 days in the first-stage, and 15.3 days in the second-stage reactor). Nonetheless the methane concentration in the second-stage reactor was very high (78.9%); the two-stage AD outperformed the reference single-stage AD (conducted at the same reactor loading rate and retention time) by only a small margin in terms of volumetric methane production rate. This makes questionable whether the higher methane content of the biogas counterbalances the added complexity of the two-stage digestion.

  17. A two-stage ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    A two-stage enzymatic process for producing fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) in a packed bed reactor is reported. The process uses an experimental immobilized lipase (NS 88001) and Novozym 435 to catalyze transesterification (first stage) and esterification (second stage), respectively. Both stages...

  18. Use a Log Splitter to Demonstrate Two-Stage Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    The two-stage hydraulic pump is commonly used in many high school and college courses to demonstrate hydraulic systems. Unfortunately, many textbooks do not provide a good explanation of how the technology works. Another challenge that instructors run into with teaching hydraulic systems is the cost of procuring an expensive real-world machine…

  19. Two-Stage Sampling Procedures for Comparing Means When Population Distributions Are Non-Normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen

    Two-stage sampling procedures for comparing two population means when variances are heterogeneous have been developed by D. G. Chapman (1950) and B. K. Ghosh (1975). Both procedures assume sampling from populations that are normally distributed. The present study reports on the effect that sampling from non-normal distributions has on Type I error…

  20. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, S.L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant transconductan

  1. Capacity Analysis of Two-Stage Production lines with Many Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractWe consider two-stage production lines with an intermediate buffer. A buffer is needed when fluctuations occur. For single-product production lines fluctuations in capacity availability may be caused by random processing times, failures and random repair times. For multi-product producti

  2. Kinetics analysis of two-stage austenitization in supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Villa, Matteo; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    The martensite-to-austenite transformation in X4CrNiMo16-5-1 supermartensitic stainless steel was followed in-situ during isochronal heating at 2, 6 and 18 K min−1 applying energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction at the BESSY II facility. Austenitization occurred in two stages, separated...

  3. Two-stage data envelopment analysis technique for evaluating internal supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisakorn Somsuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA which uses mathematical linear programming techniques is applied to evaluate the efficiency of a system composed of two relational sub-processes, by which the outputs from the first sub-process (as the intermediate outputs of the system are the inputs for the second sub-process. The relative efficiencies of the system and its sub-processes can be measured by applying the two-stage DEA. According to the literature review on the supply chain management, this technique can be used as a tool for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain composed of two relational sub-processes. The technique can help to determine the inefficient sub-processes. Once the inefficient sub-process was improved its efficiency, it would result in better aggregate efficiency of the supply chain. This paper aims to present a procedure for evaluating the efficiency of the supply chain by using the two-stage DEA, under the assumption of constant returns to scale, with an example of internal supply chain efficiency measurement of insurance companies by applying the two-stage DEA for illustration. Moreover, in this paper the authors also present some observations on the application of this technique.

  4. Innovative two-stage anaerobic process for effective codigestion of cheese whey and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Grilli, Selene; Spagni, Alessandro; Fava, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The valorisation of agroindustrial waste through anaerobic digestion represents a significant opportunity for refuse treatment and renewable energy production. This study aimed to improve the codigestion of cheese whey (CW) and cattle manure (CM) by an innovative two-stage process, based on concentric acidogenic and methanogenic phases, designed for enhancing performance and reducing footprint. The optimum CW to CM ratio was evaluated under batch conditions. Thereafter, codigestion was implemented under continuous-flow conditions comparing one- and two-stage processes. The results demonstrated that the addition of CM in codigestion with CW greatly improved the anaerobic process. The highest methane yield was obtained co-treating the two substrates at equal ratio by using the innovative two-stage process. The proposed system reached the maximum value of 258 mL(CH4) g(gv(-1), which was more than twice the value obtained by the one-stage process and 10% higher than the value obtained by the two-stage one.

  5. Extraoral implants for orbit rehabilitation: a comparison between one-stage and two-stage surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, M C L M P; Guedes, R; de Oliveira, J A P; Pecorari, V A; Abrahão, M; Dib, L L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the osseointegration success rate and time for delivery of the prosthesis among cases treated by two-stage or one-stage surgery for orbit rehabilitation between 2003 and 2011. Forty-five patients were included, 31 males and 14 females; 22 patients had two-stage surgery and 23 patients had one-stage surgery. A total 138 implants were installed, 42 (30.4%) on previously irradiated bone. The implant survival rate was 96.4%, with a success rate of 99.0% among non-irradiated patients and 90.5% among irradiated patients. Two-stage patients received 74 implants with a survival rate of 94.6% (four implants lost); one-stage surgery patients received 64 implants with a survival rate of 98.4% (one implant lost). The median time interval between implant fixation and delivery of the prosthesis for the two-stage group was 9.6 months and for the one-stage group was 4.0 months (P < 0.001). The one-stage technique proved to be reliable and was associated with few risks and complications; the rate of successful osseointegration was similar to those reported in the literature. The one-stage technique should be considered a viable procedure that shortens the time to final rehabilitation and facilitates appropriate patient follow-up treatment.

  6. Validation of Continuous CHP Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2006-01-01

    The Viking gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark was built to demonstrate a continuous combined heat and power operation of a two-stage gasifier fueled with wood chips. The nominal input of the gasifier is 75 kW thermal. To validate the continuous operation of the plant, a 9-d...

  7. High rate treatment of terephthalic acid production wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Beckers, J.; Pol, L.W.H.; Lettinga, G.

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of anaerobic treatment of wastewater generated during purified terephthalic acid (PTA) production in two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system. The artificial influent of the system contained the main organic substrates of PTA-wastewater: acetate, be

  8. A Two-Stage Exercise on the Binomial Distribution Using Minitab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibli, M. Abdullah

    1990-01-01

    Describes a two-stage experiment that was designed to explain binomial distribution to undergraduate statistics students. A manual coin flipping exercise is explained as the first stage; a computerized simulation using MINITAB software is presented as stage two; and output from the MINITAB exercises is included. (two references) (LRW)

  9. The rearrangement process in a two-stage broadcast switching network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren B.

    1988-01-01

    The rearrangement process in the two-stage broadcast switching network presented by F.K. Hwang and G.W. Richards (ibid., vol.COM-33, no.10, p.1025-1035, Oct. 1985) is considered. By defining a certain function it is possible to calculate an upper bound on the number of connections to be moved...

  10. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Iwashita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both post-operative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  11. Two-stage laparoscopic resection of colon cancer and metastatic liver tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashita Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the case of 70-year-old woman in whom colon cancer and a synchronous metastatic liver tumour were successfully resected laparoscopically. The tumours were treated in two stages. Both postoperative courses were uneventful, and there has been no recurrence during the 8 months since the second procedure.

  12. Modelling the dynamics of turbulent floods

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Z; Li, Z; Li, Zhenquan

    1999-01-01

    Consider the dynamics of turbulent flow in rivers, estuaries and floods. Based on the widely used k-epsilon model for turbulence, we use the techniques of centre manifold theory to derive dynamical models for the evolution of the water depth and of vertically averaged flow velocity and turbulent parameters. This new model for the shallow water dynamics of turbulent flow: resolves the vertical structure of the flow and the turbulence; includes interaction between turbulence and long waves; and gives a rational alternative to classical models for turbulent environmental flows.

  13. SU-E-J-128: Two-Stage Atlas Selection in Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In the new era of big data, multi-atlas-based image segmentation is challenged by heterogeneous atlas quality and high computation burden from extensive atlas collection, demanding efficient identification of the most relevant atlases. This study aims to develop a two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve computational economy with performance guarantee. Methods: We develop a low-cost fusion set selection scheme by introducing a preliminary selection to trim full atlas collection into an augmented subset, alleviating the need for extensive full-fledged registrations. More specifically, fusion set selection is performed in two successive steps: preliminary selection and refinement. An augmented subset is first roughly selected from the whole atlas collection with a simple registration scheme and the corresponding preliminary relevance metric; the augmented subset is further refined into the desired fusion set size, using full-fledged registration and the associated relevance metric. The main novelty of this work is the introduction of an inference model to relate the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, based on which the augmented subset size is rigorously derived to ensure the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance and complexity of the proposed two-stage atlas selection method were assessed using a collection of 30 prostate MR images. It achieved comparable segmentation accuracy as the conventional one-stage method with full-fledged registration, but significantly reduced computation time to 1/3 (from 30.82 to 11.04 min per segmentation). Compared with alternative one-stage cost-saving approach, the proposed scheme yielded superior performance with mean and medium DSC of (0.83, 0.85) compared to (0.74, 0.78). Conclusion: This work has developed a model-guided two-stage atlas selection scheme to achieve significant cost reduction while guaranteeing high segmentation accuracy. The benefit

  14. Flapping Wing Flight Dynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    von Karman, T. and Burgers, J. M., Gerneral Aerodynamic Theory - Perfect Fluids , Vol. II, Julius Springer , Berlin, 1935. [24] Pesavento, U. and Wang...L., Methods of Analytical Dynamics , McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1970. [34] Deng, X., Schenato, L., Wu, W. C., and Sastry, S. S., Flapping...Micro air vehicle- motivated computational biomechanics in bio ights: aerodynamics, ight dynamics and maneuvering stability, Acta Mechanica

  15. The Bracka two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh S Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical correction of severe proximal hypospadias represents a significant surgical challenge and single-stage corrections are often associated with complications and reoperations. Bracka two-stage repair is an attractive alternative surgical procedure with superior, reliable, and reproducible results. Purpose: To study the feasibility and applicability of Bracka two-stage repair for the severe proximal hypospadias and to analyze the outcomes and complications of this surgical technique. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2013. Bracka two-stage repair was performed using inner preputial skin as a free graft in subjects with proximal hypospadias in whom severe degree of chordee and/or poor urethral plate was present. Only primary cases were included in this study. All subjects received three doses of intra-muscular testosterone 3 weeks apart before first stage. Second stage was performed 6 months after the first stage. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 24 months. Results: A total of 43 patients operated for Bracka repair, out of which 30 patients completed two-stage repair. Mean age of the patients was 4 years and 8 months. We achieved 100% graft uptake and no revision was required. Three patients developed fistula, while two had metal stenosis. Glans dehiscence, urethral stricture and the residual chordee were not found during follow-up and satisfactory cosmetic results with good urinary stream were achieved in all cases. Conclusion: The Bracka two-stage repair is a safe and reliable approach in select patients in whom it is impractical to maintain the axial integrity of the urethral plate, and, therefore, a full circumference urethral reconstruction become necessary. This gives good results both in terms of restoration of normal function with minimal complication.

  16. Modeling Mitochondrial Bioenergetics with Integrated Volume Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bazil, Jason N.; Buzzard, Gregery T.; Ann E Rundell

    2010-01-01

    Author Summary Mathematically modeling biological systems challenges our current understanding of the physical and biochemical events contributing to the observed dynamics. It requires careful consideration of hypothesized mechanisms, model development assumptions and details regarding the experimental conditions. We have adopted a modeling approach to translate these factors that explicitly considers the thermodynamic constraints, biochemical states and reaction mechanisms during model devel...

  17. Dynamical CP violation in composite Higgs models

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, S.; Inagaki, Tomohiro; Muta, Taizo

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical origin of the CP violation in electroweak theory is investigated in composite Higgs models. The mechanism of the spontaneous CP violation proposed in other context by Dashen is adopted to construct simple models of the dynamical CP violation. Within the models the size of the neutron electric dipole moment is estimated and the constraint on the $\\varepsilon$-parameter in K-meson decays is discussed.

  18. Mixed effect regression analysis for a cluster-based two-stage outcome-auxiliary-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangli; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-09-01

    Two-stage design is a well-known cost-effective way for conducting biomedical studies when the exposure variable is expensive or difficult to measure. Recent research development further allowed one or both stages of the two-stage design to be outcome dependent on a continuous outcome variable. This outcome-dependent sampling feature enables further efficiency gain in parameter estimation and overall cost reduction of the study (e.g. Wang, X. and Zhou, H., 2010. Design and inference for cancer biomarker study with an outcome and auxiliary-dependent subsampling. Biometrics 66, 502-511; Zhou, H., Song, R., Wu, Y. and Qin, J., 2011. Statistical inference for a two-stage outcome-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome. Biometrics 67, 194-202). In this paper, we develop a semiparametric mixed effect regression model for data from a two-stage design where the second-stage data are sampled with an outcome-auxiliary-dependent sample (OADS) scheme. Our method allows the cluster- or center-effects of the study subjects to be accounted for. We propose an estimated likelihood function to estimate the regression parameters. Simulation study indicates that greater study efficiency gains can be achieved under the proposed two-stage OADS design with center-effects when compared with other alternative sampling schemes. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a dataset from the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

  19. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  20. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  1. A Stochastic Cobweb Dynamical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Brianzoni

    2008-01-01

    _,__0__1, and the forward predictor with probability (1−, so that the expected price at time is a random variable and consequently the dynamics describing the price evolution in time is governed by a stochastic dynamical system. The dynamical system becomes a Markov process when the memory rate vanishes. In particular, we study the Markov chain in the cases of discrete and continuous time. Using a mixture of analytical tools and numerical methods, we show that, when prices take discrete values, the corresponding Markov chain is asymptotically stable. In the case with continuous prices and nonnecessarily zero memory rate, numerical evidence of bounded price oscillations is shown. The role of the memory rate is studied through numerical experiments, this study confirms the stabilizing effects of the presence of resistant memory.

  2. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    potential risks caused by feedstock seasonality and demand uncertainty. Facility spatiality, time variation of feedstock yields, and demand uncertainty are integrated into a two-stage stochastic programming (SP) framework. In the study of Transitional Energy System Modeling under Uncertainty, a multistage stochastic dynamic programming is established to optimize the process of building and operating fuel production facilities during the transition. Dynamics due to the evolving technologies and societal changes and uncertainty due to demand fluctuations are the major issues to be addressed.

  3. Modeling the Dynamics of an Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Unold

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on the nature of a social subsystem of an information system. It analyzes the nature of information processes of collectivity within an IS and introduces a model of IS dynamics. The model is based on the assumption that a social subsystem of an information system works as a nonlinear dynamic system. The model of IS dynamics is verified on the indexes of the stock market. It arises from the basic assumption of the technical analysis of the markets, that is, the index chart reflects the play of demand and supply, which in turn represents the crowd sentiment on the market.

  4. Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    34 D FILE COPY AD-A198 053 *.CC Technical Report 1009 Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot "DTIC SELEC T E 0 Alfonso Garcia Reynoso MIT...COVERED Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot technical report G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUM9ER 7. AUTHO0R(@) S. CONTRACT On GRANT NUMSER...8217 %S S Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot by Alfonso Garcia Reynoso BSME Instituto Tecnol6gico de Veracruz (1967) MSME Instituto Tecnol6gico

  5. Equivalent dynamic model of DEMES rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Wang, Shu; Xing, Zhiguang; McCoul, David; Niu, Junyang; Huang, Bo; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure (DEMES) can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer (DE), so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Dynamic analysis is necessary for some applications, but the dynamic response of DEMESs is difficult to model because of the complicated morphology and viscoelasticity of the DE film. In this paper, a method composed of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement is presented to model the dynamic response of a DEMES rotary joint under an alternating voltage. Based on measurements of equivalent driving force and damping of the DEMES, the model can be derived. Some experiments were carried out to validate the equivalent dynamic model. The maximum angle error between model and experiment is greater than ten degrees, but it is acceptable to predict angular velocity of the DEMES, therefore, it can be applied in feedforward-feedback compound control.

  6. Two-stage crossed beam cooling with ⁶Li and ¹³³Cs atoms in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Yao, Hepeng; Wang, Lu; Li, Chen; Yang, Shifeng; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2015-05-04

    Applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method developed for ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture gases research, we study the sympathetic cooling process of 6Li and 133Cs atoms in a crossed optical dipole trap. The obstacles to producing 6Li Fermi degenerate gas via direct sympathetic cooling with 133Cs are also analyzed, by which we find that the side-effect of the gravity is one of the main obstacles. Based on the dynamic nature of 6Li and 133Cs atoms, we suggest a two-stage cooling process with two pairs of crossed beams in microgravity environment. According to our simulations, the temperature of 6Li atoms can be cooled to T = 29.5 pK and T/TF = 0.59 with several thousand atoms, which propose a novel way to get ultracold fermion atoms with quantum degeneracy near pico-Kelvin.

  7. Modeling microbial growth and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Daniel S; Leveau, Johan H J; Meyer, Katrin M

    2015-11-01

    Modeling has become an important tool for widening our understanding of microbial growth in the context of applied microbiology and related to such processes as safe food production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, or microbe-mediated mining. Various modeling techniques, such as primary, secondary and tertiary mathematical models, phenomenological models, mechanistic or kinetic models, reactive transport models, Bayesian network models, artificial neural networks, as well as agent-, individual-, and particle-based models have been applied to model microbial growth and activity in many applied fields. In this mini-review, we summarize the basic concepts of these models using examples and applications from food safety and wastewater treatment systems. We further review recent developments in other applied fields focusing on models that explicitly include spatial relationships. Using these examples, we point out the conceptual similarities across fields of application and encourage the combined use of different modeling techniques in hybrid models as well as their cross-disciplinary exchange. For instance, pattern-oriented modeling has its origin in ecology but may be employed to parameterize microbial growth models when experimental data are scarce. Models could also be used as virtual laboratories to optimize experimental design analogous to the virtual ecologist approach. Future microbial growth models will likely become more complex to benefit from the rich toolbox that is now available to microbial growth modelers.

  8. Forecasting house prices in the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2015-01-01

    We examine house price forecastability across the 50 states using Dynamic Model Averaging and Dynamic Model Selection, which allow for model change and parameter shifts. By allowing the entire forecasting model to change over time and across locations, the forecasting accuracy improves...

  9. Phone Routing using the Dynamic Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Claus Nicolaj; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies a genetic algorithm (GA) extended with the dynamic memory model has shown remarkable performance on real-world-like problems. In this paper we experiment with routing in communication networks and show that the dynamic memory GA performs remarkable well compared to ant colony o...

  10. System Dynamics Modelling for a Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To construct a dynamic model/framework inspired by a case study based on an international company. As described by the theory, one of the main difficulties of BSC is to foresee the time lag dimension of different types of indicators and their combined dynamic effects. Design/methodology...

  11. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...

  12. The construction and use of bacterial DNA microarrays based on an optimized two-stage PCR strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesta David

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool with important applications such as global gene expression profiling. Construction of bacterial DNA microarrays from genomic sequence data using a two-stage PCR amplification approach for the production of arrayed DNA is attractive because it allows, in principal, the continued re-amplification of DNA fragments and facilitates further utilization of the DNA fragments for additional uses (e.g. over-expression of protein. We describe the successful construction and use of DNA microarrays by the two-stage amplification approach and discuss the technical challenges that were met and resolved during the project. Results Chimeric primers that contained both gene-specific and shared, universal sequence allowed the two-stage amplification of the 3,168 genes identified on the genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, an important prokaryotic model organism for the study of oxygenic photosynthesis. The gene-specific component of the primer was of variable length to maintain uniform annealing temperatures during the 1st round of PCR synthesis, and situated to preserve full-length ORFs. Genes were truncated at 2 kb for efficient amplification, so that about 92% of the PCR fragments were full-length genes. The two-stage amplification had the additional advantage of normalizing the yield of PCR products and this improved the uniformity of DNA features robotically deposited onto the microarray surface. We also describe the techniques utilized to optimize hybridization conditions and signal-to-noise ratio of the transcription profile. The inter-lab transportability was demonstrated by the virtual error-free amplification of the entire genome complement of 3,168 genes using the universal primers in partner labs. The printed slides have been successfully used to identify differentially expressed genes in response to a number of environmental conditions, including salt stress. Conclusions The technique detailed

  13. A new dynamics model for traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    As a study method of traffic flow, dynamics models were developedand applied in the last few decades. However, there exist some flaws in most existing models. In this note, a new dynamics model is proposed by using car-following theory and the usual connection method of micro-macro variables, which can overcome some ubiquitous problems in the existing models. Numerical results show that the new model can very well simulate traffic flow conditions, such as congestion, evacuation of congestion, stop-and-go phenomena and phantom jam.

  14. MODELING MICROBUBBLE DYNAMICS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAHINE Georges L.; HSIAO Chao-Tsung

    2012-01-01

    Controlling mierobubble dynamics to produce desirable biomedical outcomes when and where necessary and avoid deleterious effects requires advanced knowledge,which can be achieved only through a combination of experimental and numerical/analytical techniques.The present communication presents a multi-physics approach to study the dynamics combining viscousinviseid effects,liquid and structure dynamics,and multi bubble interaction.While complex numerical tools are developed and used,the study aims at identifying the key parameters influencing the dynamics,which need to be included in simpler models.

  15. Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen; Nahon, Meyer; Sharf, Inna

    2011-04-01

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities adapted to these lighter-than-air vehicles. However, the modeling techniques for airship dynamics have lagged behind and are less systematic than those for fixed-wing aircraft. A state-of-the-art literature review is presented on airship dynamics modeling, aiming to provide a comprehensive description of the main problems in this area and a useful source of references for researchers and engineers interested in modern airship applications. The references are categorized according to the major topics in this area: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, incorporation of structural flexibility, incorporation of atmospheric turbulence, and effects of ballonets. Relevant analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on how the main differences between lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft have been addressed in the modeling. Directions are suggested for future research on each of these topics.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter deals with the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in reducing yarn hairiness during the ring spinning process and thereby “engineering” yarn with desired properties. Hairiness significantly affects the appearance...

  17. Molecular dynamics model of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, B.; Halley, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-11-02

    We report a molecular dynamics model of the monomeric liquid dimethyl ether. The united atom approach is used to treat CH{sub 3} groups as point source centers. Partial charges are derived from the experimental dipole moment. Harmonic force constants are used for intramolecular interactions, and their values are so chosen that the model`s fundamental frequencies agree with experimental results. Because we are interested in solvation properties, the model contains flexible molecules, allowing molecular distortion and internal dynamical quantities. We report radial distribution functions and the static structure factors as well as some dynamical quantities such as the dynamical structure factor, infrared absorption, and Raman scattering spectra. Calculated results agree reasonably well with experimental and other simulation results. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. Two-stage precipitation process of iron and arsenic from acid leaching solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.J.BOLIN; J.E.SUNDKVIST

    2008-01-01

    A leaching process for base metals recovery often generates considerable amounts of impurities such as iron and arsenic into the solution.It is a challenge to separate the non-valuable metals into manageable and stable waste products for final disposal,without loosing the valuable constituents.Boliden Mineral AB has patented a two-stage precipitation process that gives a very clean iron-arsenic precipitate by a minimum of coprecipitation of base metals.The obtained product shows to have good sedimentation and filtration properties,which makes it easy to recover the iron-arsenic depleted solution by filtration and washing of the precipitate.Continuos bench scale tests have been done,showing the excellent results achieved by the two-stage precipitation process.

  20. S-band gain-flattened EDFA with two-stage double-pass configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Wei; Xu, Shi-Chao; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Jia, Zhen-An; Liu, Ying-Gang; Zhou, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A gain-flattened S-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) using standard erbium-doped fiber (EDF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed amplifier with two-stage double-pass configuration employs two C-band suppressing filters to obtain the optical gain in S-band. The amplifier provides a maximum signal gain of 41.6 dB at 1524 nm with the corresponding noise figure of 3.8 dB. Furthermore, with a well-designed short-pass filter as a gain flattening filter (GFF), we are able to develop the S-band EDFA with a flattened gain of more than 20 dB in 1504-1524 nm. In the experiment, the two-stage double-pass amplifier configuration improves performance of gain and noise figure compared with the configuration of single-stage double-pass S-band EDFA.

  1. A two-stage scheme for multi-view human pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Sun, Bing; Liu, Yuncai

    2010-08-01

    We present a two-stage scheme integrating voxel reconstruction and human motion tacking. By combining voxel reconstruction with human motion tracking interactively, our method can work in a cluttered background where perfect foreground silhouettes are hardly available. For each frame, a silhouette-based 3D volume reconstruction method and hierarchical tracking algorithm are applied in two stages. In the first stage, coarse reconstruction and tracking results are obtained, and then the refinement for reconstruction is applied in the second stage. The experimental results demonstrate our approach is promising. Although our method focuses on the problem of human body voxel reconstruction and motion tracking in this paper, our scheme can be used to reconstruct voxel data and infer the pose of many specified rigid and articulated objects.

  2. Toward Improving Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric Verification using Mobile Sensors: A Two-Stage Classifier Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Robin; Perkowski, Marek

    2017-02-20

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals sensed from mobile devices pertain the potential for biometric identity recognition applicable in remote access control systems where enhanced data security is demanding. In this study, we propose a new algorithm that consists of a two-stage classifier combining random forest and wavelet distance measure through a probabilistic threshold schema, to improve the effectiveness and robustness of a biometric recognition system using ECG data acquired from a biosensor integrated into mobile devices. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a mixed dataset from 184 subjects under different health conditions. The proposed two-stage classifier achieves a total of 99.52% subject verification accuracy, better than the 98.33% accuracy from random forest alone and 96.31% accuracy from wavelet distance measure algorithm alone. These results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for biometric identification, hence supporting its practicality in areas such as cloud data security, cyber-security or remote healthcare systems.

  3. Effect of two-stage aging on superplasticity of Al-Li alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhi-hui; ZHANG Xin-ming; DU Yu-xuan; YE Ling-ying

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two-stage aging on the microstructures and superplasticity of 01420 Al-Li alloy was investigated by means of OM, TEM analysis and stretching experiment. The results demonstrate that the second phase particles distributed more uniformly with a larger volume fraction can be observed after the two-stage aging (120 ℃, 12 h+300 ℃, 36 h) compared with the single-aging(300 ℃, 48 h). After rolling and recrystallization annealing, fine grains with size of 8-10 μm are obtained, and the superplastic elongation of the specimens reaches 560% at strain rate of 8×10-4 s-1 and 480 ℃. Uniformly distributed fine particles precipitate both on grain boundaries and in grains at lower temperature. When the sheet is aged at high temperature, the particles become coarser with a large volume fraction.

  4. Two stage bioethanol refining with multi litre stacked microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnaux, Marc; Happe, Manuel; Cachelin, Christian Pierre; Gloriod, Olivier; Huguenin, Gérald; Blatter, Maxime; Fischer, Fabian

    2016-12-01

    Ethanol, electricity, hydrogen and methane were produced in a two stage bioethanol refinery setup based on a 10L microbial fuel cell (MFC) and a 33L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MFC was a triple stack for ethanol and electricity co-generation. The stack configuration produced more ethanol with faster glucose consumption the higher the stack potential. Under electrolytic conditions ethanol productivity outperformed standard conditions and reached 96.3% of the theoretically best case. At lower external loads currents and working potentials oscillated in a self-synchronized manner over all three MFC units in the stack. In the second refining stage, fermentation waste was converted into methane, using the scale up MEC stack. The bioelectric methanisation reached 91% efficiency at room temperature with an applied voltage of 1.5V using nickel cathodes. The two stage bioethanol refining process employing bioelectrochemical reactors produces more energy vectors than is possible with today's ethanol distilleries.

  5. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Performance measurement of insurance firms using a two-stage DEA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Jalili Sabet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative performance of insurance firms plays an important role in this industry. In this paper, we present a two-stage data envelopment analysis to measure the performance of insurance firms, which were active over the period of 2006-2010. The proposed study of this paper performs DEA method in two stages where the first stage considers five inputs and three outputs while the second stage considers the outputs of the first stage as the inputs of the second stage and uses three different outputs for this stage. The results of our survey have indicated that while there were 4 efficient insurance firms most other insurances were noticeably inefficient. This means market was monopolized mostly by a limited number of insurance firms and competition was not fare enough to let other firms participate in economy, more efficiently.

  7. Syme's two-stage amputation in insulin-requiring diabetics with gangrene of the forefoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzur, M S; Morrison, C; Sage, R; Stuck, R; Osterman, H; Vrbos, L

    1991-06-01

    Thirty-five insulin-requiring adult diabetic patients underwent 38 Syme's Two-Stage amputations for gangrene of the forefoot with nonreconstructible peripheral vascular insufficiency. All had a minimum Doppler ischemic index of 0.5, serum albumin of 3.0 gm/dl, and total lymphocyte count of 1500. Thirty-one (81.6%) eventually healed and were uneventfully fit with a prosthesis. Regional anesthesia was used in all of the patients, with 22 spinal and 16 ankle block anesthetics. Twenty-seven (71%) returned to their preamputation level of ambulatory function. Six (16%) had major, and fifteen (39%) minor complications following the first stage surgery. The results of this study support the use of the Syme's Two-Stage amputation in adult diabetic patients with gangrene of the forefoot requiring amputation.

  8. Low-noise SQUIDs with large transfer: two-stage SQUIDs based on DROSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podt, M.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    2002-08-01

    We have realized a two-stage integrated superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system with a closed loop bandwidth of 2.5 MHz, operated in a direct voltage readout mode. The corresponding flux slew rate was 1.3×10 5Φ0/s and the measured white flux noise was 1.3 μ Φ0/√Hz at 4.2 K. The system is based on a conventional dc SQUID with a double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS) as the second stage. Because of the large flux-to-voltage transfer, the sensitivity of the system is completely determined by the sensor SQUID and not by the DROS or the room-temperature preamplifier. Decreasing the Josephson junction area enables a further improvement of the sensitivity of the two-stage SQUID systems.

  9. Interval estimation of binomial proportion in clinical trials with a two-stage design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Yann; Chi, Yunchan; Chen, Chia-Min

    2008-01-15

    Generally, a two-stage design is employed in Phase II clinical trials to avoid giving patients an ineffective drug. If the number of patients with significant improvement, which is a binomial response, is greater than a pre-specified value at the first stage, then another binomial response at the second stage is also observed. This paper considers interval estimation of the response probability when the second stage is allowed to continue. Two asymptotic interval estimators, Wald and score, as well as two exact interval estimators, Clopper-Pearson and Sterne, are constructed according to the two binomial responses from this two-stage design, where the binomial response at the first stage follows a truncated binomial distribution. The mean actual coverage probability and expected interval width are employed to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators. According to the comparison results, the score interval is recommended for both Simon's optimal and minimax designs.

  10. Stochastic population dynamic models as probability networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. and D.C. Lee. Borsuk

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a population and its response to environmental change depend on the balance of birth, death and age-at-maturity, and there have been many attempts to mathematically model populations based on these characteristics. Historically, most of these models were deterministic, meaning that the results were strictly determined by the equations of the model and...

  11. System Identification by Dynamic Factor Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); W. Scherrer; M. Destler

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper concerns the modelling of stochastic processes by means of dynamic factor models. In such models the observed process is decomposed into a structured part called the latent process, and a remainder that is called noise. The observed variables are treated in a symmetric way, so

  12. Damping mechanisms and models in structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2002-01-01

    Several aspects of damping models for dynamic analysis of structures are investigated. First the causality condition for structural response is used to identify rules for the use of complex-valued frequency dependent material models, illustrated by the shortcomings of the elastic hysteretic model...

  13. Bayesian semiparametric dynamic Nelson-Siegel model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Cakmakli

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the Bayesian semiparametric dynamic Nelson-Siegel model where the density of the yield curve factors and thereby the density of the yields are estimated along with other model parameters. This is accomplished by modeling the error distributions of the factors according to a Diric

  14. Probabilistic Modeling in Dynamic Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic modeling is used to design systems that are adaptive to their changing environment and is currently poorly understood in information retrieval systems. Common elements in the information retrieval methodology, such as documents, relevance, users and tasks, are dynamic entities that may evolve over the course of several interactions, which is increasingly captured in search log datasets. Conventional frameworks and models in information retrieval treat these elements as static, or only...

  15. Two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K Ghritlaharey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review our experience with two-staged management for all types of congenital pouch colon (CPC. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included CPC cases that were managed with two-staged procedures in the Department of Paediatric Surgery, over a period of 12 years from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Results: CPC comprised of 13.71% (97 of 707 of all anorectal malformations (ARM and 28.19% (97 of 344 of high ARM. Eleven CPC cases (all males were managed with two-staged procedures. Distribution of cases (Narsimha Rao et al.′s classification into types I, II, III, and IV were 1, 2, 6, and 2, respectively. Initial operative procedures performed were window colostomy (n = 6, colostomy proximal to pouch (n = 4, and ligation of colovesical fistula and end colostomy (n = 1. As definitive procedures, pouch excision with abdomino-perineal pull through (APPT of colon in eight, and pouch excision with APPT of ileum in three were performed. The mean age at the time of definitive procedures was 15.6 months (ranges from 3 to 53 months and the mean weight was 7.5 kg (ranges from 4 to 11 kg. Good fecal continence was observed in six and fair in two cases in follow-up periods, while three of our cases lost to follow up. There was no mortality following definitive procedures amongst above 11 cases. Conclusions: Two-staged procedures for all types of CPC can also be performed safely with good results. The most important fact that the definitive procedure is being done without protective stoma and therefore, it avoids stoma closure, stoma-related complications, related cost of stoma closure and hospital stay.

  16. Full noise characterization of a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falferi, P [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Mezzena, R [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Sezione di Padova, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vinante, A [INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: falferi@science.unitn.it

    2009-07-15

    From measurements performed on a low-noise two-stage SQUID amplifier coupled to a high- Q electrical resonator we give a complete noise characterization of the SQUID amplifier around the resonator frequency of 11 kHz in terms of additive, back action and cross-correlation noise spectral densities. The minimum noise temperature evaluated at 135 mK is 10 {mu}K and corresponds to an energy resolution of 18{Dirac_h}.

  17. A covariate adjusted two-stage allocation design for binary responses in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Uttam; Biswas, Atanu; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2007-10-30

    In the present work, we develop a two-stage allocation rule for binary response using the log-odds ratio within the Bayesian framework allowing the current allocation to depend on the covariate value of the current subject. We study, both numerically and theoretically, several exact and limiting properties of this design. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by using some data set. We compare this rule with some of the existing rules by computing various performance measures.

  18. Development of a Novel Type Catalyst SY-2 for Two-Stage Hydrogenation of Pyrolysis Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Linmei; Zhang Xuejun; Zhang Zhihua; Wang Fucun

    2004-01-01

    By using the group ⅢB or groupⅦB metals and modulating the characteristics of electric charges on carrier surface, improving the catalyst preparation process and techniques for loading the active metal components, a novel type SY-2 catalyst earmarked for two-stage hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline has been developed. The catalyst evaluation results have indicated that the novel catalyst is characterized by a better hydrogenation reaction activity to give higher aromatic yield.

  19. Investigation on a two-stage solvay refrigerator with magnetic material regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobang; Zheng, Jianyao; Zhang, Fagao; Yu, Jianping; Tao, Zhenshi; Ding, Cenyu; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Peiyi; Long, Yi

    This paper describes experimental results that the no-load temperature of a two-stage Solvay refrigerator has been reached in liquid helium temperature region from the original 11.5 K by using magnetic regenerative material instead of lead. The structure and technological characteristics of the prototype machine are presented. The effects of operating frequency and pressure on the refrigerating temperature have been discussed in this paper.

  20. Biological hydrogen production from olive mill wastewater with two-stage processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela; Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work two novel two-stage hydrogen production processes from olive mill wastewater (OMW) have been introduced. The first two-stage process involved dark-fermentation followed by a photofermentation process. Dark-fermentation by activated sludge cultures and photofermentation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 were both performed in 55ml glass vessels, under anaerobic conditions. In some cases of dark-fermentation, activated sludge was initially acclimatized to the OMW to provide the adaptation of microorganisms to the extreme conditions of OMW. The highest hydrogen production potential obtained was 29l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW} after photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with activated sludge. Photofermentation with 50% (v/v) effluent of dark fermentation with acclimated activated sludge had the highest hydrogen production rate (0.008ll{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The second two-stage process involved a clay treatment step followed by photofermentation by R. sphaeroides O.U.001. Photofermentation with the effluent of the clay pretreatment process (4% (v/v)) gives the highest hydrogen production potential (35l{sub H{sub 2}}/l{sub OMW}), light conversion efficiency (0.42%) and COD conversion efficiency (52%). It was concluded that both pretreatment processes enhanced the photofermentative hydrogen production process. Moreover, hydrogen could be produced with highly concentrated OMW. Two-stage processes developed in the present investigation have a high potential for solving the environmental problems caused by OMW. (author)