WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-sided vector spaces

  1. Two-sided bounds on the mean vector and covariance matrix in linear stochastically excited vibration systems with application of the differential calculus of norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kohaupt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For a linear stochastic vibration model in state-space form, $ \\dot{x}(t = A x(t+b(t, \\, x(0=x_0, $ with system matrix A and white noise excitation $ b(t $, under certain conditions, the solution $ x(t $ is a random vector that can be completely described by its mean vector, $ m_x(t:=m_{x(t} $, and its covariance matrix, $ P_x(t:=P_{x(t} $. If matrix $ A $ is asymptotically stable, then $ m_x(t \\rightarrow 0 \\, (t \\rightarrow \\infty $ and $ P_x(t \\rightarrow P \\, (t \\rightarrow \\infty $, where $ P $ is a positive (semi-definite matrix. As the main new points, in this paper, we derive two-sided bounds on $ \\Vert m_x(t\\Vert _2 $ and $ \\Vert P_x(t- P\\Vert _2 $ as well as formulas for the right norm derivatives $ D_+^k \\Vert P_x(t- P\\Vert _2, \\, k=0,1,2 $, and apply these results to the computation of the best constants in the two-sided bounds. The obtained results are of special interest to applied mathematicians and engineers.

  2. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  3. Topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Narici, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundTopology Valuation Theory Algebra Linear Functionals Hyperplanes Measure Theory Normed SpacesCommutative Topological GroupsElementary ConsiderationsSeparation and Compactness Bases at 0 for Group Topologies Subgroups and Products Quotients S-Topologies Metrizability CompletenessCompleteness Function Groups Total BoundednessCompactness and Total Boundedness Uniform Continuity Extension of Uniformly Continuous Maps CompletionTopological Vector SpacesAbsorbent and Balanced Sets Convexity-AlgebraicBasic PropertiesConvexity-Topological Generating Vector Topologies A Non-Locally Convex Spa

  4. Analysis in Vector Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Akcoglu, Mustafa A; Ha, Dzung Minh

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous introduction to calculus in vector spaces The concepts and theorems of advanced calculus combined with related computational methods are essential to understanding nearly all areas of quantitative science. Analysis in Vector Spaces presents the central results of this classic subject through rigorous arguments, discussions, and examples. The book aims to cultivate not only knowledge of the major theoretical results, but also the geometric intuition needed for both mathematical problem-solving and modeling in the formal sciences. The authors begin with an outline of key concepts, ter

  5. Synthetic Space Vector Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Modulation RF Radio Frequency SVM Space Vector Modulation VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator VSI Voltage Source Inverter xvi THIS PAGE...examining the literature, an NE566 voltage controlled oscillator ( VCO ) chip as seen in Figure 10 was used to design a circuit that produced the

  6. Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms

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    Mark Burgin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.

  7. Vector cross product in n-dimensional vector space

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiu-Lao; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yang; Tian, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The definition of vector cross product (VCP) introduced by Eckmann only exists in thethree- and the seven- dimensional vector space. In this paper, according to the orthogonal completeness, magnitude of basis vector cross product and all kinds of combinations of basis vector $\\hat{e}_i$, the generalized definition of VCP in the odd n-dimensional vector space is given by introducing a cross term $X_{AB}$. In addition, the definition is validated by reducing the generalization definition to the...

  8. Vector Spaces of Non-measurable Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco J. GARC(I)A-PACHECO; Juan B. SEOANE-SEP(U)LVEDA

    2006-01-01

    We show that there exists an infinite dimensional vector space every non-zero element of which is a non-measurable function. Moreover, this vector space can be chosen to be closed and to have dimensionβ for any cardinalityβ. Some techniques involving measure theory and density characters of Banach spaces are used.

  9. Affine conformal vectors in space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Tupper, B. O. J.

    1992-05-01

    All space-times admitting a proper affine conformal vector (ACV) are found. By using a theorem of Hall and da Costa, it is shown that such space-times either (i) admit a covariantly constant vector (timelike, spacelike, or null) and the ACV is the sum of a proper affine vector and a conformal Killing vector or (ii) the space-time is 2+2 decomposable, in which case it is shown that no ACV can exist (unless the space-time decomposes further). Furthermore, it is proved that all space-times admitting an ACV and a null covariantly constant vector (which are necessarily generalized pp-wave space-times) must have Ricci tensor of Segré type {2,(1,1)}. It follows that, among space-times admitting proper ACV, the Einstein static universe is the only perfect fluid space-time, there are no non-null Einstein-Maxwell space-times, and only the pp-wave space-times are representative of null Einstein-Maxwell solutions. Otherwise, the space-times can represent anisotropic fluids and viscous heat-conducting fluids, but only with restricted equations of state in each case.

  10. DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF SPACE VECTOR PWM TECHNIQUE BASED ON PLACEMENT OF ZERO-SPACE VECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.SAMBASIVA RAO,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of placement of zero-space vector for the implementation of space vector based Pulse Width Modulation techniques for 3-phase Voltage Source Inverter is presented. Several pulse width modulation (PWM control strategies have been proposed for 3-phase voltage source inverter (VSI in the past. It is known that space vector modulation (SVM offers a degree of freedom in its implementation with regard to the placement of the zero-space vector. Apart from constructing a consistent theoretical framework, simulation results with conventional continuous SVM and various discontinuous SVM techniques are presented and all the cases are compared in this paper.

  12. Probability Ranking in Vector Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The Probability Ranking Principle states that the document set with the highest values of probability of relevance optimizes information retrieval effectiveness given the probabilities are estimated as accurately as possible. The key point of the principle is the separation of the document set into two subsets with a given level of fallout and with the highest recall. The paper introduces the separation between two vector subspaces and shows that the separation yields a more effective performance than the optimal separation into subsets with the same available evidence, the performance being measured with recall and fallout. The result is proved mathematically and exemplified experimentally.

  13. Elements of mathematics topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1987 of the second edition of Bourbaki's Espaces Vectoriels Topologiques (1981). This second edition is a brand new book and completely supersedes the original version of nearly 30 years ago. But a lot of the material has been rearranged, rewritten, or replaced by a more up-to-date exposition, and a good deal of new material has been incorporated in this book, all reflecting the progress made in the field during the last three decades. Table of Contents. Chapter I: Topological vector spaces over a valued field. Chapter II: Convex sets and locally convex spaces. Chapter III: Spaces of continuous linear mappings. Chapter IV: Duality in topological vector spaces. Chapter V: Hilbert spaces (elementary theory). Finally, there are the usual "historical note", bibliography, index of notation, index of terminology, and a list of some important properties of Banach spaces. (Based on Math Reviews, 1983).

  14. Topological vector spaces and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, V I

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a compact exposition of the fundamentals of the theory of locally convex topological vector spaces. Furthermore it contains a survey of the most important results of a more subtle nature, which cannot be regarded as basic, but knowledge which is useful for understanding applications. Finally, the book explores some of such applications connected with differential calculus and measure theory in infinite-dimensional spaces. These applications are a central aspect of the book, which is why it is different from the wide range of existing texts on topological vector spaces. In addition, this book develops differential and integral calculus on infinite-dimensional locally convex spaces by using methods and techniques of the theory of locally convex spaces. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to infinite-dimensional analysis.

  15. Countable Fuzzy Topological Space and Countable Fuzzy Topological Vector Space

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    Apu Kumar Saha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with countable fuzzy topological spaces, a generalization of the notion of fuzzy topological spaces. A collection of fuzzy sets F on a universe X forms a countable fuzzy topology if in the definition of a fuzzy topology, the condition of arbitrary supremum is relaxed to countable supremum. In this generalized fuzzy structure, the continuity of fuzzy functions and some other related properties are studied. Also the class of countable fuzzy topological vector spaces as a generalization of the class of fuzzy topological vector spaces has been introduced and investigated.

  16. A vector space approach to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hausner, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of geometry and linear algebra on each other receive close attention in this examination of geometry's correlation with other branches of math and science. In-depth discussions include a review of systematic geometric motivations in vector space theory and matrix theory; the use of the center of mass in geometry, with an introduction to barycentric coordinates; axiomatic development of determinants in a chapter dealing with area and volume; and a careful consideration of the particle problem. 1965 edition.

  17. GENERALIZED VECTOR VARIATIONAL-TYPE INEQUALITIES IN FC-SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Min; DING Xie-ping

    2006-01-01

    A class of generalized vector variational-type inequality problems (GVVTIP) are studied in FC-spaces, which includes the most of vector equilibrium problems, vector variational inequality problems, generalized vector equilibrium problems and generalized vector variational inequality problem as special cases. By using F-KKM theorem,some new existence results for GVVTIP are established in noncompact FC-space. As consequences, some recent known results in literature are obtained under much weaker assumption.

  18. Vector bundles on complex projective spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz

    1980-01-01

    This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems.

  19. Topological vector spaces admissible in economic equilibrium theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In models of economic equilibrium in markets with infinitely many commodities, the commodity space is an ordered topological vector space endowed with additional structure. In the present paper, we consider ordered topological vector spaces which are admissible (for equilibrium analysis) in the s......In models of economic equilibrium in markets with infinitely many commodities, the commodity space is an ordered topological vector space endowed with additional structure. In the present paper, we consider ordered topological vector spaces which are admissible (for equilibrium analysis...

  20. Concircular $\\pi$-Vector Fields and Special Finsler Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Soleiman, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate intrinsically the notion of a concircular $\\pi$-vector field in Finsler geometry. This generalizes the concept of a concircular vector field in Riemannian geometry and the concept of a concurrent vector field in Finsler geometry. Some properties of concircular $\\pi$-vector fields are obtained. Different types of recurrence are discussed. The effect of the existence of a concircular $\\pi$-vector field on some important special Finsler spaces is in...

  1. Pasting and reversing operations over some vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta-Humanez, Primitivo; Chuquen, Adriana; Rodríguez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Pasting and Reversing operations have been used successfully over the set of integer numbers, simple permutations, rings and recently over a generalized vector product. In this paper, these operations are defined from a natural way to be applied over vector spaces. In particular we study Pasting and Reversing over vectors, matrices and we rewrite some properties for polynomials as vector space. Finally we study some properties of Reversing through linear transformations as for example an anal...

  2. Isometric Reflection Vectors and Characterizations of Hilbert Spaces

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    Donghai Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A known characterization of Hilbert spaces via isometric reflection vectors is based on the following implication: if the set of isometric reflection vectors in the unit sphere SX of a Banach space X has nonempty interior in SX, then X is a Hilbert space. Applying a recent result based on well-known theorem of Kronecker from number theory, we improve this by substantial reduction of the set of isometric reflection vectors needed in the hypothesis.

  3. The basic geometry of Witt vectors, II: Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Borger, James

    2010-01-01

    This is an account of the algebraic geometry of Witt vectors and related constructions. The theory of the usual, "p-typical" Witt vectors of p-adic schemes of finite type is already reasonably well understood. The main point here is to generalize this theory in two different ways. We allow not just p-typical Witt vectors but also, for example, those taken with respect to any set of primes in any ring of integers in any global field. In particular, this includes the "big" Witt vectors. We also allow not just p-adic schemes of finite type but arbitrary algebraic spaces over the ring of integers in the global field. We give similar generalizations of Buium's formal arithmetic jet spaces, which are dual to the Witt vector construction. We also give concrete geometric descriptions of Witt spaces and arithmetic jet spaces and investigate whether many standard geometric properties are preserved by these functors.

  4. Vector space model for document representation in information retrieval

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    Dan MUNTEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basics of information retrieval: the vector space model for document representation with Boolean and term weighted models, ranking methods based on the cosine factor and evaluation measures: recall, precision and combined measure.

  5. Fuzzy Generalized Variational Like Inequality problems in Topological Vector Spaces

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    M. K. Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the existence of solutions for generalized variational like inequalities with fuzzy mappings in topological vector spaces by using a particular form of the generalized KKM-Theorem.

  6. Total Harmonic Distortion of Dodecagonal Space Vector Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Space vector modulation technique is one of the best PWM technique which has been implemented to the Multilevel inverter circuit to get the purely sinusoidal cuurent .This is a important algorithm which is implemented in open wind induction motor.This type of I.M has great impact on Electric Drive system. SVM is nothing but the technique of switching algorithm .The Hexagonal space vector modulation has been implemented before , but elimination of higher order harmonics are not possible. Torqu...

  7. Surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector in complex space forms

    CERN Document Server

    Fetcu, Dorel

    2010-01-01

    We consider a quadratic form defined on the surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector of an any dimensional complex space form and prove that its $(2,0)$-part is holomorphic. When the complex dimension of the ambient space is equal to $2$ we define a second quadratic form with the same property and then determine those surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector on which the $(2,0)$-parts of both of them vanish. We also provide a reduction of codimension theorem and prove a non-existence result for $2$-spheres with parallel mean curvature vector.

  8. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

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    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  9. Grammars with two-sided contexts

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    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  10. Connectedness of approximate solutions set for vector equilibrium problems in Hausdorff topological vector spaces

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    Liu Qing-you

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a scalarization result of ε-weak efficient solution for a vector equilibrium problem (VEP is given. Using this scalarization result, the connectedness of ε-weak efficient and ε-efficient solutions sets for the VEPs are proved under some suitable conditions in real Hausdorff topological vector spaces. The main results presented in this paper improve and generalize some known results in the literature.

  11. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  12. Vector spaces on non-extendable holomorphic functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal-González, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the linear structure of the family $H_e(G)$ of holomorphic functions in a domain $G$ of the complex plane that are not analytically continuable beyond the boundary of $G$ is analyzed. We prove that $H_e(G)$ contains, except for zero, a dense algebra; and, under appropriate conditions, the subfamily of $H_e(G)$ consisting of boundary-regular functions contains dense vector spaces with maximal dimension, as well as infinite dimensional closed vector spaces and large algebras. The...

  13. Difference of Function on Vector Space over F

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    Arai Kenichi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In [11], the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference as difference operations for functions on R were formalized. However, the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference for functions on vector spaces over F have not been formalized. In cryptology, these definitions are very important in evaluating the security of cryptographic systems [3], [10]. Differential cryptanalysis [4] that undertakes a general purpose attack against block ciphers [13] can be formalized using these definitions. In this article, we formalize the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference for functions on vector spaces over F. Moreover, we formalize some facts about these definitions.

  14. Nonlinear Parabolic Equations with Singularities in Colombeau Vector Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirjana STOJANOVI(C)

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonlinear parabolic equations with nonlinear non-Lipschitz's term and singular initial data like Dirac measure, its derivatives and powers. We prove existence-uniqueness theorems in Colombeau vector space gC1,w2,2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3. Due to high singularity in a case of parabolic equation with nonlinear conservative term we employ the regularized derivative for the conservative term, in order to obtain the global existence-uniqueness result in Colombeau vector space gC1,L2([O,T),Rn),n ≤ 3.

  15. Some Common Fixed Point Theorems in Generalized Vector Metric Spaces

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    Rajesh Shrivastava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give some theorems on point of coincidence and common fixed point for two self mappings satisfying some general contractive conditions in generalized vector spaces. Our results generalize some well-known recent results in this direction.

  16. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    the motor torque performance is not good enough. This paper addresses a new control method, an asymmetrical space vector method with PWM modulation, also a three-phase inverter is used for the main winding and the auxiliary winding. This method with PWM modulation is implemented to control the motor speed...

  17. Dynamic Vector Space Secret Sharing Based on Certificates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chunxiang; LI Jiajia; LIU Dongsu

    2006-01-01

    A vector space secret sharing scheme based on certificates is proposed in this paper. The difficulties of solving discrete logarithm assure confidential information's security, and the use of each participant's certificate makes the dealer have no need to transfer secret information to the participants. The proposed scheme is dynamic. It can effectively check cheaters and does not have secure channel requirements.

  18. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  19. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be

  20. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  1. Model Based Defect Detection in Multi-Dimensional Vector Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Toshifumi; Obara, Kenji; Harada, Minoru; Igarashi, Hajime

    A highly sensitive inspection algorithm is proposed that extracts defects in multidimensional vector spaces from multiple images. The proposed algorithm projects subtraction vectors calculated from test and reference images to control the noise by reducing the dimensionality of vector spaces. The linear projection vectors are optimized using a physical defect model, and the noise distribution is calculated from the images. Because the noise distribution varies with the intensity or texture of the pixels, the target image is divided into small regions and the noise distribution of the subtraction images are calculated for each divided region. The bidirectional local perturbation pattern matching (BD-LPPM) which is an enhanced version of the LPPM, is proposed to increase the sensitivity when calculating the subtraction vectors, especially when the reference image contains more high-frequency components than the test image. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using defect samples for three different scanning electron microscopy images. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm increases the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 1.32 relative to that obtained using the Mahalanobis distance algorithm.

  2. Vectors, Cyclic Submodules and Projective Spaces Linked with Ternions

    CERN Document Server

    Havlicek, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Given a ring of ternions $R$, i. e., a ring isomorphic to that of upper triangular $2\\times 2$ matrices with entries from an arbitrary commutative field $F$, a complete classification is performed of the vectors from the free left $R$-module $R^{n+1}$, $n \\geq 1$, and of the cyclic submodules generated by these vectors. The vectors fall into $5 + |F|$ and the submodules into 6 distinct orbits under the action of the general linear group $\\GL_{n+1}(R)$. Particular attention is paid to {\\it free} cyclic submodules generated by \\emph{non}-unimodular vectors, as these are linked with the lines of $\\PG(n,F)$, the $n$-dimensional projective space over $F$. In the finite case, $F$ = $\\GF(q)$, explicit formulas are derived for both the total number of non-unimodular free cyclic submodules and the number of such submodules passing through a given vector. These formulas yield a combinatorial approach to the lines and points of $\\PG(n,q)$, $n\\geq 2$, in terms of vectors and non-unimodular free cyclic submodules of $R^{n...

  3. BOUNDEDNESS OF VECTOR-VALUED OPERATORS ON WEIGHTED HERZ SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Lin; Yang Dachun

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors establish the weighted weak and strong type norm inequalities in the set of weighted Herz-type spaces for a vector-valued analogue of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator;and using this ,the authors obtain the weightd inequalies for a wide class of sublinear singular operators definedon Rn which include the Calderón-Zygmund operators as special cases. The fractional versions of these resultsare also given.

  4. Topological Vector Space-Valued Cone Metric Spaces and Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Stojan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of topological vector space valued cone metric spaces with nonnormal cones. We prove three general fixed point results in these spaces and deduce as corollaries several extensions of theorems about fixed points and common fixed points, known from the theory of (normed-valued cone metric spaces. Examples are given to distinguish our results from the known ones.

  5. Total Harmonic Distortion of Dodecagonal Space Vector Modulation

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    Babita Nanda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Space vector modulation technique is one of the best PWM technique which has been implemented to the Multilevel inverter circuit to get the purely sinusoidal cuurent .This is a important algorithm which is implemented in open wind induction motor.This type of I.M has great impact on Electric Drive system. SVM is nothing but the technique of switching algorithm .The Hexagonal space vector modulation has been implemented before , but elimination of higher order harmonics are not possible. Torque pulsation arises. Speed control of Induction motor was not smooth .so Dodecagonal (12 structure developed. A 12 side polygonal space vector structure is meant for eliminating (6n±1 harmonics in the phase current waveform throughout the modulating range. A high resolution of PWM technique is proposed involving multiple 12 sided polygonal (Dodecagonal structure that can generate highly sinusoidal voltage at a reduced switching frequency. In this paper different values of frequencies have been taken for harmonic analysis. SVM method features a higher level of dc-bus voltage utilization compared to the conventional PWM.

  6. Two-sided and alternating Jacobi-Davidson

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two variants of a two-sided Jacobi-Davidson method, which have asymptotically cubic convergence for nonnormal matrices and aim to find both right and left eigenvectors. These methods can be seen as Jacobi-Davidson analogs of Ostrowski’s two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration. Some relations between (exact and inexact) two-sided Jacobi-Davidson and (exact and inexact) two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration are given, together with convergence rates. Furthermore, we introduce an altern...

  7. Generalized space vector control for current source inverters and rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline J. Anitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current source inverters (CSI is one of the widely used converter topology in medium voltage drive applications due to its simplicity, motor friendly waveforms and reliable short circuit protection. The current source inverters are usually fed by controlled current source rectifiers (CSR with a large inductor to provide a constant supply current. A generalized control applicable for both CSI and CSR and their extension namely current source multilevel inverters (CSMLI are dealt in this paper. As space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM features the advantages of flexible control, faster dynamic response, better DC utilization and easy digital implementation it is considered for this work. This paper generalizes SVPWM that could be applied for CSI, CSR and CSMLI. The intense computation involved in framing a generalized space vector control are discussed in detail. The algorithm includes determination of band, region, subregions and vectors. The algorithm is validated by simulation using MATLAB /SIMULINK for CSR 5, 7, 13 level CSMLI and for CSR fed CSI.

  8. Two-sided and alternating Jacobi-Davidson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two variants of a two-sided Jacobi-Davidson method, which have asymptotically cubic convergence for nonnormal matrices and aim to find both right and left eigenvectors. These methods can be seen as Jacobi-Davidson analogs of Ostrowski’s two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration. Some

  9. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be harmle

  10. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be

  11. Virtual-vector-based space vector pulse width modulation of the DC-AC multilevel-clamped multilevel converter (MLC2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) of a new multi-level converter topology. First, the proposed converter and its natural space vector diagram are presented. Secondly, a modified space vector diagram based on the virtual-vectors technique is show...

  12. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  13. Digital Simulation of Space Vector Modulation Based Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Siva Krishna Rao and T.S. Surendra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with simulation of Space vector modulated inverter fed induction motor drive. The drive system is modeled using matlab simulink and the results are presented. This drive has advantages like reduced harmonics and heating. Fixed AC is converted into DC and this DC is converted into variable voltage and variable frequency AC using SVM inverter. The output of SVM is applied to the stator of induction motor. The simulation results are compared with the analytical results. The FFT analysis shows that the current spectrum has reduced harmonics compared to the conventional system.

  14. A Group Oriented Cryptosystem for the Vector Space Access Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chun-xiang; MA Hua; ZHOU Jun-hui; XIAO Guo-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A group oriented cryptosystem for the vector space access structure was proposed. This cryptosystem adopts self-certified public keys. It allows the participants of an authorized subset to cooperatively access an en crypted message. All data delivered in the cryptosystem are public. Therefore it does not need a partial decrypting results combiner and any secure communication channel. The security of the group oriented cryptosystem is based on the intractability of the discrete log problem and difficulty of factoring large integers. The suspected attacks can not break it.

  15. Virtual-vector-based space vector pulse width modulation of the DC-AC multilevel-clamped multilevel converter (MLC2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Busquets-Monge, Sergio; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development of the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) of a new multi-level converter topology. First, the proposed converter and its natural space vector diagram are presented. Secondly, a modified space vector diagram based on the virtual-vectors technique is shown....... Simulation results by using a space vector approach are presented. Special emphasis is given on the total harmonic distortion (THD) by making a comparison with those of the classical NPC topologies....

  16. A New Vector-Valued Padé-Type Approximation in the Inner Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjing Li

    2006-01-01

    A new vector-valued Padé-type approximation is defined by introducing a generalized vector-valued linear functional from a scalar polynomial space to a vector space. Some proximants are provided with the generating function form and the determinant form.

  17. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration” is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space...

  18. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their

  19. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  20. Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Quantum theory has the property of "local tomography": the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by "bilocal tomography": the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a few auxiliary assumptions, we derive certain general features of such theories. In particular, we show how the number of state parameters can depend on the number of perfectly distinguishable states. We also show that real-vector-space quantum theory, while not locally tomographic, is bilocally tomographic.

  1. Limited Holism and Real-Vector-Space Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Wootters, William K.

    2012-03-01

    Quantum theory has the property of "local tomography": the state of any composite system can be reconstructed from the statistics of measurements on the individual components. In this respect the holism of quantum theory is limited. We consider in this paper a class of theories more holistic than quantum theory in that they are constrained only by "bilocal tomography": the state of any composite system is determined by the statistics of measurements on pairs of components. Under a few auxiliary assumptions, we derive certain general features of such theories. In particular, we show how the number of state parameters can depend on the number of perfectly distinguishable states. We also show that real-vector-space quantum theory, while not locally tomographic, is bilocally tomographic.

  2. Kakeya-type sets in finite vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparty, Swastik; Saraf, Shubhangi; Sudan, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    For a finite vector space $V$ and a non-negative integer $r\\le\\dim V$ we estimate the smallest possible size of a subset of $V$, containing a translate of every $r$-dimensional subspace. In particular, we show that if $K\\subset V$ is the smallest subset with this property, $n$ denotes the dimension of $V$, and $q$ is the size of the underlying field, then for $r$ bounded and $r

  3. Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.

  4. New space vector modulation technique for single-phase multilevel converters

    OpenAIRE

    León Galván, José Ignacio; Portillo Guisado, Ramón Carlos; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Vázquez Pérez, Sergio; Carrasco Solís, Juan Manuel; Domínguez, E

    2007-01-01

    Single-phase multilevel converters are suitable for medium power applications as photovoltaic systems and switched reluctance machines. An overview of possible modulation methods including carrier-based pulse width modulation and space vector modulation techniques for multilevel single-phase converters is presented. A new space vector modulation for this type of converters is proposed. This space vector modulation method is very simple presenting low computational cost. Different solutions fo...

  5. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  6. Harmony Search for Balancing Two-sided Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindriyanto Dwi Purnomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided assembly lines balancing problems are important problem for large-sized products such as cars and buses, in which, tasks operations can be performed in the two sides of the line. In this paper, Harmony Search algorithm is proposed to solve two-sided assembly lines balancing problems type-I (TALBP-I. The proposed method adopts the COMSOAL heuristic and specific features of TALBP in the Harmony operators – the harmony memory consideration, random selection and pitch adjustment – in order to maintain the local and global search. The proposed method is evaluated based on 6 benchmark problems that are commonly used in TALBP. The experiment results show that the proposed method work well and produces better solution than the heuristic method and genetic algorithm.

  7. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon

    2012-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we derive an exact, static, radially symmetric, two-sided mirror solution, which asymptotes the massless BTZ black hole background, and then probe the local structure of a massive mirror.

  8. Summability results for operator matrices on topological vector spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ronglu

    2001-01-01

    [1]Robinson, A., On functional transformations and summability, Proc. London Math. Soc., 1950, 52: 132—160.[2]Maddox, I. J., Infinite matrices of operators, Lecture Notes in Math., Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980, 786.[3]Swartz, C., The Schur and Hahn Theorems for operator matrices, Rocky Mountain J. Math., 1985, 15: 61—73.[4]Maddox, I. J., Uniform Toeplitz matrices, Inter. J. Math. & Math. Sci., 1990, 13: 227—232.[5]Swartz, C., Infinite Matrices and the Gliding Hump, Singapore-New Jersey-London-Hong Kong: World Scientific, 1996.[6]Li Ronglu, Swartz, C., A nonlinear Schur theorem, Acta Sci. Math., 1993, 58: 497—508.[7]Li Ronglu, A uniform convergence principle, J. Harbin Institute of Technology, 1992, 24(3): 107—108.[8]Wu Junde, Li Ronglu, An equivalent form of Antosik-Mikusinski basic matrix theorem, Advances in Math., 1999, 28(3): 268.[9]Khaleelulla, S. M., Counterexamples in topological vector spaces, Lecture Notes in Math., Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1982, 936.[10]Li Ronglu, Bu Qingying, Locally convex spaces containing no copy of c0, J. Math. Anal. Appl.,1993, 172: 205—211.[11]Li Ronglu, Cui Chengri, Chao Min-Hyung, Invariants on all admissible polar topologies, Chinese Annals of Math., 1998, 19A(3): 1—6.[12]Swartz, C., Stuart, C., Orlicz-Pettis theorems for multiplier convergent series, J. for Anal. and Its Appl., 1998, 17(4): 805—811.[13]Wu Junde, Li Ronglu, An Orlicz-Pettis theorem with applications to A-spaces, Studia Sci. Math. Hungar., 1999, 35: 353—358.

  9. Vectores

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Documento que contiene la explicación sobre las temáticas de Sistemas coordenados, Cantidades vectoriales y escalares, Algunas propiedades de los vectores, Componentes de un vector y vectores unitarios

  10. WEIGHT FINITE DIFFERENCE SCHEME FOR TWO-SIDED SPACE FRACTIONALLévy-Feller DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH RIESZ-FELLER POTENTIAL%含有Riesz-Feller位势的双边空间分数阶Lévy-Feller扩散方程的加权有限差分格式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮亮; 刘冬兵

    2014-01-01

    A finite difference problem for two-sided space fractional Lévy-Feller diffusion equation with Riesz-Feller potential is considered. By using the equivalent of fractional order differential operators, a weighted finite difference scheme for scattering the above diffusion equation is proposed. The stability and convergence of the scheme were analyzed. Finally, a numerical example was provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the difference scheme.%考虑了一类含有Riesz-Feller位势的两边空间分数阶Lévy-Feller扩散方程的差分问题。利用分数阶微分算子的等价性,提出了一种加权有限差分解法,并证明了所提出的差分格式是稳定和收敛的。最后通过一个数值例子说明了所提出的差分格式是有效和可靠的。

  11. New Space Vector Selection Scheme for VSI Supplied Dual Three-Phase Induction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICEVIC, D.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel space vector selection scheme applicable for the control of dual three-phase induction motor drives supplied from a six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI. The vector selection method is based on the vector space decomposition technique (VSD. Unique vector selection pattern simplifies problems related to complicated implementation of standard VSD in commercially available digital signals processors (DSP. The proposed vector selection scheme is verified through a theoretical analysis, computer simulations and practical experimental results conducted on a dual three-phase test rig prototype with control algorithm implemented in Texas Instrument?s TMS320F2808 DSP.

  12. The Two-Sided Mind: Teaching and Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper explores how Georgi Lozanov's Suggestopedia incorporates elements of modern right-brain research. For example, issues in Linda VerLee Williams's "Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind" that are applicable to Suggestopedia include visual thinking, fantasy, multisensory learning, music, and direct experience. In Robert Ornstein's "The…

  13. Two-sided reflection of Markov-modulated Brownian motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Auria, B.; Ivanovs, J.; Kella, O.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers a Markov-modulated Brownian motion with a two-sided reflection. For this doubly-reflected process we compute the Laplace transform of the stationary distribution, as well as the average loss rates at both barriers. Our approach relies on spectral properties of the matrix polyn

  14. Novel high torque bearingless two-sided rotary ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CHEN Wei-shan; XIE Tao; LIU Jun-kao

    2007-01-01

    Applications are limited at present because the currently available ultrasonic motors (USMs) do not provide sufficiently high torque and power. The conventional travelling-wave USM needs the bearing to support, which required lubricant. To solve the above problem, a bearingless travelling-wave USM is designed. First, a novel structure of the two-sided USM consisting ora two-sided teeth stator and two disk-type rotors is designed. And the excitation principle of the two-sided travelling-wave USM is analyzed. Then, using ANSYS software, we set up the model of the stator to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. The shape of the vibration mode was obtained. Last, the load characteristics of the USM are measured using experimental method. The maximum stall torque and the no-load speed were obtained. The results showed that the characteristics of the two-sided USM are better than those of the conventional one-sided USM.

  15. Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are t

  16. Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Gagliardi, Antonella; Santangelo, Floriana; Cacciotti, Fatima; Trancassini, Maria; Mancini, Carlo; Cicerone, Clelia; Corazziari, Enrico; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Schippa, Serena

    2016-01-01

    The microbial ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by a great number of microbial species living in balance by adopting mutualistic strategies. The eubiosis/dysbiosis condition of the gut microbiota strongly influences our healthy and disease status. This review briefly describes microbiota composition and functions, to then focus on eubiosis and dysbiosis status: the two sides of the microbiota.

  17. A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUShao-xian; WANGShun-qin; MAFei-fei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined. The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  18. Sistem Temu Kembali Informasi dengan Metode Vector Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatkhul Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The information retrieval system (IRS now provides  document  search results  with abundant results of  documents  (high recall and low accuracy  (low  precision.   The  objective  of  designing  IRS  with  Vector  Space  Model  (VSM  Method  is  to  facilitate  users  to  searchIndonesian  documents.  IRS  Software  is  designed  to  provide  search  results  with  the  optimum  number  of  documents  (low  recall  and accuracy (high precision with VSM method  that users  may  get fast and accurate  results.  VSM  method  provides a different  credit  for each  document  stored in  a  database  which in turns to determine  the  document most similar  to  the query,  where the documents with the highest credits are placed  on the top of  the  search results.  The evaluation  of  search results  with  IRS  is conducted under  recall  andprecision tests.  This study  fascinatingly creates  a system which can preprocess  (tokenizing,  filtering,  and  stemming  within  computation time  of four  minutes  forty-one seconds.  The system  can  search  the  documents  and  display  them in  the search results  with an averagecomputation time of 1.5 seconds, with  an average recall of 0.19, and an average precision of 0.54.  The system is equipped with a credit for each document, and the value is positioned on which a user may easily search the Indonesian text.Keywords: IRS, Vector Space Model, Recall, Precision

  19. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  20. An adaptive method of averaging the space-vectors location in DSP controlled drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debowski, A.; Chudzik, P. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Automatic Control, Lodz (Poland)

    2000-08-01

    In the paper a practical method of averaging the space- vector location for electrical drives controlled with digital signal processors (DSP) is demonstrated. This method enables to approximate the step movement of the given real space-vector with a smooth rotation of a conventional one in given time subintervals by any field rotation speed. The method is suitable for many practical applications in vector controlled electrical drives. In the paper some experimental examples of estimation the space-vectors of stator current and rotor flux in an inverter-fed induction motor drive are shown. (orig.)

  1. A Class of Cone Bounded Quasiconvex Mappings in Topological Vector Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-da Hu; Chen Ling

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of cone-ordered topological vector spaces, this paper introduces the concepts of cone bounded point and cone bounded set for vector set. With their aid, a class of new cone quasiconvex mappings in topological vector spaces is defined, and their fundamental properties are presented. The relationships between the cone bounded quasiconvex mapping defined in this paper and cone convex mapping, and other known cone quasiconvex mapping are also discussed.

  2. Estimates for Vector-valued Commutators on Weighted Morrey Space and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Guang SHI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce weighted vector-valued Morrey spaces and obtain some estimates for vector-valued commutators on these spaces.Applications to Calderón-Zygmund singular integral operators,oscillatory singular integral operators and parabolic difference equations are considered.

  3. Complex Vector Formalism of Harmonic Oscillator in Geometric Algebra: Particle Mass, Spin and Dynamics in Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, K.

    2014-03-01

    Elementary particles are considered as local oscillators under the influence of zeropoint fields. Such oscillatory behavior of the particles leads to the deviations in their path of motion. The oscillations of the particle in general may be considered as complex rotations in complex vector space. The local particle harmonic oscillator is analyzed in the complex vector formalism considering the algebra of complex vectors. The particle spin is viewed as zeropoint angular momentum represented by a bivector. It has been shown that the particle spin plays an important role in the kinematical intrinsic or local motion of the particle. From the complex vector formalism of harmonic oscillator, for the first time, a relation between mass and bivector spin has been derived in the form . Where, is the angular velocity bivector of complex rotations, is the velocity of light. The unit vector acts as an operator on the idempotents and to give the eigen values The constant represents two fold nature of the equation corresponding to particle and antiparticle states. Further the above relation shows that the mass of the particle may be interpreted as a local spatial complex rotation in the rest frame. This gives an insight into the nature of fundamental particles. When a particle is observed from an arbitrary frame of reference, it has been shown that the spatial complex rotation dictates the relativistic particle motion. The mathematical structure of complex vectors in space and spacetime is developed.

  4. Two-Sided Tests and One-Sided Confidence Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Based on the duality between tests and confidence sets we introduce a new method to derive one-sided confidence bounds following the rejection of a null hypothesis with two-sided alternatives. This method imputes that the experimenter is only interested in confidence bounds if the null hypothesis is rejected. Furthermore, we suppose that he is only interested in the direction and a lower confidence bound concerning the distance of the true parameter value to the parameter values in the null h...

  5. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we ...

  6. Strategic Trading in a Two-Sided Foreign Exchange Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Goldberg; Rafael Tenorio

    1995-01-01

    The market microstructure chosen for foreign exchange markets can influence trading volumes and equilibrium exchange rates. With emerging markets and developing countries increasingly utilizing two- sided auctions, we show that the choice of the discrete 'tƒtonnement' auction creates incentives for strategic behavior among market participants. We provide theoretical predictions on strategic under- revelation of demand or supply positions that are supported empirically using detailed data from...

  7. Propagation property of the non-paraxial vector Lissajous singularity beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui

    2016-12-01

    The analytic expressions for the free-space propagation of paraxial and non-paraxial vector Lissajous singularity beams are derived, and used to compare the propagation property of a Lissajous singularity carried by paraxial and non-paraxial vector beams in free space. It is found that the creation of a single Lissajous singularity, the creation and annihilation of pairs Lissajous singularities may take place for the both cases. However, after the annihilation of a pair of singularities, no Lissajous singularities appear in the output field for non-paraxial vector Lissajous singularity beams, which is different from the paraxial vector Lissajous singularity beams.

  8. Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Parker; Van Alstyne, Marshall W.

    2005-01-01

    How can firms profitably give away free products? This paper provides a novel answer and articulates trade-offs in a space of information product design. We introduce a formal model of two-sided network externalities based in textbook economics---a mix of Katz and Shapiro network effects, price discrimination, and product differentiation. Externality-based complements, however, exploit a different mechanism than either tying or lock-in even as they help to explain many recent strategies such ...

  9. Generalized Köthe-Toeplitz Duals of Some Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We know from the classical sequence spaces theory that there is a useful relationship between continuous and -duals of a scalar-valued FK-space originated by the AK-property. Our main interest in this work is to expose relationships between the operator space and and the generalized -duals of some -valued AK-space where and are Banach spaces and . Further, by these results, we obtain the generalized -duals of some vector-valued Orlicz sequence spaces.

  10. DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...

  11. DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Dariusz; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)......DSP Based Direct Torque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) using Space Vector Modulation (DTC-SVM)...

  12. State-Vector Space and Canonical Coherent States in Noncommutative Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the state-vector space of identical bosons in noncommutative spaces is investigated. To maintain Bose-Einstein statistics the commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include coordinate-coordinate non-commutativity and momentum-momentum non-commutativity, which leads to a kind of de-formed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. Although there is no ordinary number representation in this state-vector space, several set of orthogonal and complete state-vectors can be derived which are common eigenvectors of corresponding pairs of commuting Hermitian operators. As a simple application of this state-vector space, an explicit form of two-dimensional canonical coherent state is constructed and its properties are discussed.

  13. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  14. Wake flow behind two side-by-side square cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Shun C., E-mail: scyen@mail.ntou.edu.t [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jung H. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    This study investigates the flow structures, form drag coefficients and vortex-shedding characteristics behind a single-square cylinder and two side-by-side cylinders in an open-loop wind tunnel. The Reynolds number (Re) and gap ratio (g*) are 2262 < Re < 28,000 and 0 {<=} g* {<=} 12, respectively. The flow patterns around the square cylinders are determined using the smoke-wire scheme. Experimental results indicate that the flow structures behind two side-by-side square cylinders are classified into three modes -single mode, gap-flow mode and couple vortex-shedding. The gap-flow mode displays anti-phase vortex shedding induced from the interference between the two square cylinders. However, the couple vortex-shedding mode exhibits in-phase vortex shedding that is caused by the independent flow behavior behind each square cylinder. The surface-pressure profile, form drag coefficient for each square cylinder (C{sub D}-bar) and vortex-shedding frequency were measured and calculated using a pressure transducer and a hot-wire anemometer. For two side-by-side cylinder configurations, the maximum C{sub D}-bar of 2.24 occurs in the single mode, while the minimum C{sub D}-bar of 1.68 occurs in the gap-flow mode. Additionally, the C{sub D}-bar in the coupled vortex-shedding mode is intermediate and approximately equal to that of a single (isolated) square cylinder. Moreover, the single mode has the highest Strouhal number (St) and the gap-flow mode has the lowest St.

  15. Swarm's absolute magnetometer experimental vector mode, an innovative capability for space magnetometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, Gauthier; Vigneron, Pierre; Leger, Jean-Michel;

    2015-01-01

    ESA's Swarm satellites carry a new generation of 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Leti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the rst-ever space-born magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector r...... be monitored from space with such absolute vector magnetometers.......ESA's Swarm satellites carry a new generation of 4He absolute magnetometers (ASM), designed by CEA-Leti and developed in partnership with CNES. These instruments are the rst-ever space-born magnetometers to use a common sensor to simultaneously deliver 1Hz independent absolute scalar and vector...

  16. GENERALIZED VECTOR QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS IN LOCALLY G-CONVEX SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xie-ping

    2005-01-01

    Some classes of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems (in short,GVQEP) are introduced and studied in locally G-convex spaces which includes most of generalized vector equilibrium problems, generalized vector variational inequality problems,quasi-equilibrium problems and quasi-variational inequality problems as special cases. First,an equilibrium existence theorem for one person games is proved in locally G-convex spaces.As applications, some new existence theorems of solutions for the GVQEP are established in noncompact locally G-convex spaces. These results and argument methods are new and completely different from that in recent literature.

  17. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Scheme for a Seven-Phase Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Arif Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a simple space vector PWM (SVPWM scheme for a seven-phase voltage source inverter. At first the conventional method of producing sinusoidal output voltage  by utilizing six active and a zero space vectors are used to synthesis the input reference and then new PWM scheme called time equivalent space vector PWM is presented.  A comparison of the proposed scheme with the conventional scheme is presented based on various performance indices. Extensive Simulation results are provided to validate the findings

  18. Peace and development: two sides of the same coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveros Tafur, Memphis Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is the notion that peace and development are positively correlated, that peace drives development and that development drives peace, for Galtung (1985: 147 Peace and Development should be regarded as two sides of the same coin and considers development in relation to peace. This paper shows that peace and development are uncorrelated in several countries where there is peace without development or development without peace. The use of quantitative models as a tool for the analysis is a plus for the findings because most of the related theories are qualitative.

  19. Imageology and clinical examination: Two sides of the same coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous and rapid transition of techniques from research lab into clinical practice has been the pattern of development in radiology and imaging, and this has put the concept of clinical imaging into a different perspective. From a passive role of pattern recognition, distinguishing a radiograph from normal to abnormal, the task of a radiologist today has been elevated to reporting a comprehensive clinical imaging assay, giving information at a level profound enough to be useful for scientists working in allied fields. A peep into the literature shows how radiological and clinical examination can be two sides of the same coin.

  20. Fractionation of proteins with two-sided electro-ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppler, Tobias; Posten, Clemens

    2007-03-10

    Downstream processing is a major challenge in bioprocess industry due to the high complexity of bio-suspensions itself, the low concentration of the product and the stress sensitivity of the valuable target molecules. A multitude of unit operations have to be joined together to achieve an acceptable purity and concentration of the product. Since each of the unit operations leads to a certain product loss, one important aim in downstream-research is the combination of different separation principles into one unit operation. In the current work a dead-end membrane process is combined with an electrophoresis operation. In the past this concept has proven successfully for the concentration of biopolymers. The present work shows that using different ultrafiltration membranes in a two-sided electro-filter apparatus with flushed electrodes brought significant enhancement of the protein fractionation process. Due to electrophoretic effects, the filtration velocity could be kept on a very high level for a long time, furthermore, the selectivity of a binary separation process carried out exemplarily for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LZ) could be greatly increased; in the current case up to a value of more than 800. Thus the new two-sided electro-ultrafiltration technique achieves both high product purity and short separation times.

  1. GA SPEED AND DQ CURRNETS CONTROL OF PMSM WITH VECTOR CONTROL BASED SPACE VECTOR MODULATION USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Janati El Idrissi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM have gained variety industrial applications, because of simple structures, high efficiency and ease of maintenance. But these motors have a nonlinear mathematical model. To resolve this problem several studies have suggested the application of soft-computing technique. This paper presents vector control of PMSM fed by space vector modulation inverter using genetic algorithm (GA controllers to improve speed, currents and the electric torque by significantly reducing their ripples, which offer an extra advantage of this study. The proposed method effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a vector control using PI controllers for speed and current [1] and the second obtained with adaptive controller based speed estimation technique [2].

  2. Implicit functions from topological vector spaces to Fr\\'echet spaces in the presence of metric estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Glockner, Helge

    2006-01-01

    We prove an implicit function theorem for Keller C^k_c-maps from arbitrary real or complex topological vector spaces to Frechet spaces, imposing only a certain metric estimate on the partial differentials. As a tool, we show the C^k-dependence of fixed points on parameters for suitable families of contractions of a Frechet space. The investigations were stimulated by a recent metric approach to differentiability in Frechet spaces by Olaf Mueller. Our results also subsume generalizations of Mu...

  3. On the reproducing kernel of a Pontryagin space of vector valued polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ćurgus, B.; Dijksma, A.

    2012-01-01

    We give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the reproducing kernel of a Pontryagin space of d x 1 vector polynomials is determined by a generalized Nevanlinna pair of d x d matrix polynomials. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fixed Point Theorem of Half-Continuous Mappings on Topological Vector Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imchit Termwuttipong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some fixed point theorems of half-continuous mappings which are possibly discontinuous defined on topological vector spaces are presented. The results generalize the work of Philippe Bich (2006 and several well-known results.

  5. On the Statistics of Noisy Space Vector in Power Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bellan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the analysis of the impact of additive noise on the geometrical features of the space vector shape on the complex plane. The space vector shape is of great importance in the power quality analysis of modern three-phase power systems since its geometrical features are closely related to the voltage supply quality. In case of voltage sag or swell the space vector shape changes accordingly. In case of additive noise the geometrical parameters of the space vector shape can be treated as random variables. In the paper, the mean values and the variances of such parameters are derived in closed form as functions of the noise level and of the sampling conditions. Analytical results are validated through numerical simulation of the whole measurement process.

  6. Full Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters Including CF & DF Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan Dehnavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    converter. As a space vector modulation for DF mode has already been proposed by authors. This paper proposes a full space vector modulation (SVM) for both CF and DF modes. Also practical methods are presented for SVM proposed. In addition a special SVM is proposed that offers minimum total harmonic...... distortion (THD) in DF mode. The performance of the proposed SVM is verified by simulation results....

  7. Twistor quantization of the space of half-differentiable vector functions on the circle revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SERGEEV; Armen

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the twistor quantization problem for the classical system(Vd,Ad),represented by the phase space Vd,identified with the Sobolev space H 1/2 0 (S1,Rd)of half-differentiable vector functions on the circle,and the algebra of observables Ad,identified with the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg algebra of Vd and the algebra Vect(S1)of tangent vector fields on the circle.

  8. Analysis of Discontinuous Space Vector PWM Techniques for a Seven-Phase Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Arif Khan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents discontinuous space vector PWM (DPWM techniques for a seven-phase voltage source inverter (VSI. Space vector model of a seven-phase VSI shows that there exist 128 space vectors with different lengths and maps into fourteen sided polygons. A number of possibilities could arise to implement modulation of inverter legs due to large number of available space voltage vectors. Two strategies are adopted here; one utilising large and two middle sets of space vectors to implement discontinuous space vector PWM. Clamping of legs of inverter to either positive or negative dc bus leads to discontinuity in the switching and consequently offers reduced switching loss modulation strategy. A significant reduction in switching losses can be achieved while employing DPWM in a seven-phase VSI. A generalised method is also proposed to realize the DPWM in a seven-phase VSI. Comparison of continuous and discontinuous PWM is presented in terms of switching current ripple. The experimental set-up is illustrated and the experimental results are presented.

  9. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  10. Phase Space Prediction of Chaotic Time Series with Nu-Support Vector Machine Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mei-Ying; WANG Xiao-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A new class of support vector machine, nu-support vector machine, is discussed which can handle both classification and regression. We focus on nu-support vector machine regression and use it for phase space prediction of compares nu-support vector machine with back propagation (BP) networks in order to better evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. The experimental results show that the nu-support vector machine regression obtains lower root mean squared error than the BP networks and provides an accurate chaotic time series prediction. These results can be attributable to the fact that nu-support vector machine implements the structural risk minimization principle and this leads to better generalization than the BP networks.

  11. Vector-like deformations of Minkowski space and relativistic kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Loret, Niccoló; Mercati, Flavio; Pikutić, Danijel

    2016-01-01

    We study a family of noncommutative spacetimes constructed by one four-vector. The large set of coordinate commutation relations described in this way includes many cases that are widely studied in the literature. The Hopf-algebra symmetries of these noncommutative spacetimes, as well as the structures of star product and twist, are introduced and considered at first order in the deformation, described by four parameters. We also study the deformations to relativistic kinematics implied by this framework, and calculate the most general expression for the backreaction factors of momenta on boosts. At the end of the paper we analyse the phenomenological consequences of this large family of vector-like deformations on particles propagation in spacetime. This leads to a set of characteristic phenomenological effects.

  12. α-模糊向量空间%α-Fuzzy Vector Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刚家泰

    2001-01-01

    给出了α-模糊向量空间的定义,讨论了α-模糊向量空间的一些性质,给出了向量空间V的 一个模糊子集成为α-模糊向量空间的充分必要条件.最后给出了α-模糊线性无关的定义, 推广了有关文献中的结果.%Definition of α-fuzzy vector space is giv en. some properties of α-fuzzy vector space are discussed. Sufficient and nece ssary conditions that a fuzzy subset of a vector space makes a α-fuzzy vector s pace are proposed.Finally, concepts of α-fuzzy linear independe nce is given,which generalizes some results of related references.

  13. SYSTEM OF GENERALIZED VECTOR QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS ON PRODUCT FC-SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xieping

    2007-01-01

    By applying a maximal element theorem on product FC-space due to author, some new equilibrium existence theorems for generalized games with fuzzy constraint correspondences are proved in FC-spaces. By using these equilibrium existence theorems, some new existence theorems of solutions for the system of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems are established in noncompact product FC-spaces. These results improve and generalize some recent results in literature to product FC-spaces without any convexity structure.

  14. CYCLIC VECTORS AND CELLULAR INDECOMPOSABLE OPERATORS ON Qp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Shanli; Lou Zengjian

    2011-01-01

    We identify the functions whose polynomial multiples are weak* dense in Qp spaces and prove that if |f(z)|≥|g(z)| and g is cyclic in Qp, then f is cyclic in Qp. We also show that the multiplication operator Mz on Qp spaces is cellular indecomposable.

  15. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, A.; Alvarez, G.

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  16. Spectral functions with the density matrix renormalization group: Krylov-space approach for correction vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, A; Alvarez, G

    2016-11-01

    Frequency-dependent correlations, such as the spectral function and the dynamical structure factor, help illustrate condensed matter experiments. Within the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) framework, an accurate method for calculating spectral functions directly in frequency is the correction-vector method. The correction vector can be computed by solving a linear equation or by minimizing a functional. This paper proposes an alternative to calculate the correction vector: to use the Krylov-space approach. This paper then studies the accuracy and performance of the Krylov-space approach, when applied to the Heisenberg, the t-J, and the Hubbard models. The cases studied indicate that the Krylov-space approach can be more accurate and efficient than the conjugate gradient, and that the error of the former integrates best when a Krylov-space decomposition is also used for ground state DMRG.

  17. Two-sided Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe F. Mayer

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The (two-sided Mullins-Sekerka model is a nonlocal evolution model for closed hypersurfaces, which was originally proposed as a model for phase transitions of materials of negligible specific heat. Under this evolution the propagating interfaces maintain the enclosed volume while the area of the interfaces decreases. We will show by means of an example that the Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity in two space dimensions, where we consider both the Mullins-Sekerka model on a bounded domain, and the Mullins-Sekerka model defined on the whole plane.

  18. NEW DYNAMICS OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN TWO SIDES IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ortega Gil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains my own thoughts concerning what I have called new dynamics of the conflict between two sides in Schools. It begins by presenting the contrast between traditional conflicts, where both sides believed their argument was a private affair, and these new dynamics where one or both sides of the conflict tend to make it public and work to win support for their cause. The furious confrontation some people seek and the waves of indignation they set off bring to mind the frequent social media shitstorms we hear about. As a consequence, as the conflict festers, the inspector of education receives countless visits, phone calls and protest letters, an uproar designed to influence her decision. Next, some real cases are discussed, although no information is given of the people taking parts in the events to safeguard identities. Finally, I propose a checklist that involves a sequence of steps designed to protect the inspector from pressure and help her deal more efficiently with problems of this nature.

  19. Do the Kontsevich tetrahedral flows preserve or destroy the space of Poisson bi-vectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouisaghouane, Anass; Kiselev, Arthemy V.

    2017-01-01

    From the paper “Formality Conjecture” (Ascona 1996): I am aware of only one such a class, it corresponds to simplest good graph, the complete graph with 4 vertices (and 6 edges). This class gives a remarkable vector field on the space of bi-vector fields on ℝd . The evolution with respect to the time t is described by the following non-linear partial differential equation: …, where α = ∑i,j αij∂ / ∂ xi ∧ ∂ / ∂ xj is a bi-vector field on ℝd. It follows from general properties of cohomology that 1) this evolution preserves the class of ( real-analytic ) Poisson structures , … In fact, I cheated a little bit. In the formula for the vector field on the space of bivector fields which one get from the tetrahedron graph, an additional term is present. … It is possible to prove formally that if α is a Poisson bracket, i.e. if [α, α] = 0 ∈ T2(ℝ d ), then the additional term shown above vanishes . By using twelve Poisson structures with high-degree polynomial coefficients as explicit counter-examples, we show that both the above claims are false: neither does the first flow preserve the property of bi-vectors to be Poisson nor does the second flow vanish identically at Poisson bi-vectors. The counterexamples at hand suggest a correction to the formula for the “exotic” flow on the space of Poisson bi-vectors; in fact, this flow is encoded by the balanced sum involving both the Kontsevich tetrahedral graphs (that give rise to the flows mentioned above). We reveal that it is only the balance 1 : 6 for which the flow does preserve the space of Poisson bi-vectors.

  20. LAPLACE-RUNGE-LENZ VECTOR IN QUANTUM MECHANICS IN NONCOMMUTATIVE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Prešnajder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The object under scrutiny is the dynamical symmetry connected with conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector (LRL in the hydrogen atom problem solved by means of noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM. The considered noncommutative configuration space has such a “fuzzy”structure that the rotational invariance is not spoilt. An analogy with the LRL vector in the NCQM is brought to provide our results and also a comparison with the standard QM predictions.

  1. Revised single-spacecraft method for determining wave vector k and resolving space-time ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2016-09-01

    A practical method is proposed for determining the wave vector of waves from single-spacecraft measurements. This wave vector knowledge can then be used to remove the space-time ambiguity produced by frequency Doppler shift associated with spacecraft motion. The method involves applying the Wiener-Khinchin theorem to cross correlations of the current and magnetic field oscillations and to autocorrelations of the magnetic field oscillations. The method requires that each wave frequency component map to a unique wave vector, a condition presumed true in many spacecraft measurement situations. Examples validating the method are presented.

  2. Approximation of Besov vectors by Paley-Wiener vectors in Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pesenson, Isaac Z

    2011-01-01

    We develop an approximation theory in Hilbert spaces that generalizes the classical theory of approximation by entire functions of exponential type. The results advance harmonic analysis on manifolds and graphs, thus facilitating data representation, compression, denoising and visualization. These tasks are of great importance to machine learning, complex data analysis and computer vision.

  3. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  4. Hybrid Asymmetric Space Vector Modulation for inverter based direct torque control induction motor drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Sundararaju

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel hybrid asymmetric space vector modulation technique for inverter operated direct torque control induction motor drive. The hybridization process is performed by the combination of continuous asymmetric space vector modulation pulse width technique (ASVPWM and fuzzy operated discontinuous ASVPWM technique. Combination process is based on pulse mismatching technique. Pulse mismatching technique helps to reduce the active region of the switch. Finally, optimal pulses are applied to control the inverter. The optimal hybrid pulse condense switching losses of the inverter and also improves the operating performance of the direct torque control (DTC based drive system like smooth dynamic response in speed reversal, minimum torque error, settling time of speed. Simulation results of proposed hybrid asymmetric space vector pulse width modulation technique to direct torque control (HASVPWM-DTC approach has been carried out by using Matlab-Simulink environment.

  5. On vector autoregressive modeling in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giacinto, Valter

    2010-06-01

    Despite the fact that it provides a potentially useful analytical tool, allowing for the joint modeling of dynamic interdependencies within a group of connected areas, until lately the VAR approach had received little attention in regional science and spatial economic analysis. This paper aims to contribute in this field by dealing with the issues of parameter identification and estimation and of structural impulse response analysis. In particular, there is a discussion of the adaptation of the recursive identification scheme (which represents one of the more common approaches in the time series VAR literature) to a space-time environment. Parameter estimation is subsequently based on the Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) method, a standard approach in structural VAR analysis. As a convenient tool to summarize the information conveyed by regional dynamic multipliers with a specific emphasis on the scope of spatial spillover effects, a synthetic space-time impulse response function (STIR) is introduced, portraying average effects as a function of displacement in time and space. Asymptotic confidence bands for the STIR estimates are also derived from bootstrap estimates of the standard errors. Finally, to provide a basic illustration of the methodology, the paper presents an application of a simple bivariate fiscal model fitted to data for Italian NUTS 2 regions.

  6. Full Space Vectors Modulation for Nine-Switch Converters Including CF & DF Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan Dehnavi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, nine-switch inverter was presented as dual output inverter. Two constant frequency (CF) and different frequency (DF) modes are defined for nine-switch inverter. However CF mode is more interesting because reasonable rating. Several switching methods have been presented for nine switch...... converter. As a space vector modulation for DF mode has already been proposed by authors. This paper proposes a full space vector modulation (SVM) for both CF and DF modes. Also practical methods are presented for SVM proposed. In addition a special SVM is proposed that offers minimum total harmonic...... distortion (THD) in DF mode. The performance of the proposed SVM is verified by simulation results....

  7. Comparison of Performance of VSI and Z-Source Inverter for Space Vector PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sai Prateek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Z-Source Inverters have the ability to boost the dc link voltage, thus increasing the output ac voltage beyond the values reached by conventional inverters. The enhanced ratio from ac output voltage to dc link voltage is possible due to an impedance network connected between the dc power supply and the main converter. The space vector pulse width modulation techniques gives more dc bus utilisation and low harmonics than other pulse width modulation techniques. In this paper space vector pwm is implemented for conventional VSI and Zsource inverter. The results are supported by SIMULINK simulation

  8. Space Vector Based Generalized Dpwm Algorithms for Vsi Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Praveena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Space Vector based Generalized DiscontinuousPulse width modulation (GDPWM algorithms for VSI fed Induction motor drive. To avoid the complexity due to angle calculation and sector identification involved in Conventional space vector pulse width modulation (CSVPWM. The Proposed algorithms use the concept of Imaginary Switching times and a constant variable µ and modulation phase angle δ are used to generate modulating waveforms.The proposed algorithms results in reduced current ripple over CSVPWM. To validate the proposed methods, simulation is carried on V/f controlled Induction Motor drive in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the results are discussed.

  9. Formation of Vortex Structures in the Prenozzle Space of an Engine with a Vectorable Thrust Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Denisikhin, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic effects arising in the process of work of the vectorable thrust nozzle of a solid-propellant rocket engine has been performed. The fields of the flows of combustion products in the channel of a charge, the prenozzle space, and the nozzle unit were calculated for different angles of vectoring of the nozzle. The distributions of the gasdynamic parameters of the flow of combustion products in the prenozzle space, corresponding to their efflux from the cylindrical and star-shaped channels of charges, were compared. The formation of a vortex flow in the neighborhood of the back cover of the nozzle was considered.

  10. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  11. Mutational analysis a joint framework for Cauchy problems in and beyond vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations play a central role in science and have been extended to evolution equations in Banach spaces. For many applications, however, it is difficult to specify a suitable normed vector space. Shapes without a priori restrictions, for example, do not have an obvious linear structure. This book generalizes ordinary differential equations beyond the borders of vector spaces with a focus on the well-posed Cauchy problem in finite time intervals. Here are some of the examples: - Feedback evolutions of compact subsets of the Euclidean space - Birth-and-growth processes of random sets (not necessarily convex) - Semilinear evolution equations - Nonlocal parabolic differential equations - Nonlinear transport equations for Radon measures - A structured population model - Stochastic differential equations with nonlocal sample dependence and how they can be coupled in systems immediately - due to the joint framework of Mutational Analysis. Finally, the book offers new tools for modelling.

  12. DMPD: Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17405910 Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Bosshart H, Heinzelman...n M. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jan;1096:1-17. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Targeting bacterial endotoxin:... two sides of a coin. PubmedID 17405910 Title Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Authors Bo

  13. Vector Cascade Algorithms with Infinitely Supported Masks in Weighted L2-Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Bin YANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we shall study the solutions of functional equations of the form φ =Σ a(α) φ(M.-α),α∈Zswhere φ =(Φ1,...,Φr)T is an r × 1 column vector of functions on the s-dimensional Euclidean space,a:=(a(α))α∈zs is an exponentially decaying sequence of r × r complex matrices called refinement mask and M is an s × s integer matrix such that limn→∞ M-n =0.We are interested in the question,for a mask a with exponential decay,if there exists a solution Φ to the functional equation with each function Φj,j =1,...,r,belonging to L2(IRs) and having exponential decay in some sense? Our approach will be to consider the convergence of vector cascade algorithms in weighted L2 spaces.The vector cascade operator Qa,M associated with mask a and matrix M is defined by Qa,Mf:=Σ a(α)f(M.-α),f =(f1,...,fr)T ∈ (L2,μ(IRs))r.αα∈ZsThe iterative scheme (Qna,Mf)n=1,2 is called a vector cascade algorithm or a vector subdivision scheme.The purpose of this paper is to provide some conditions for the vector cascade algorithm to converge in (L2,μ(IRs))r,the weighted L2 space.Inspired by some ideas in [Jia,R.Q.,Li,S.:Refinable functions with exponential decay:An approach via cascade algorithms.J.Fourier Anal.Appl.,17,1008-1034 (2011)],we prove that if the vector cascade algorithm associated with a and M converges in (L2(IRs))r,then its limit function belongs to (L2,μ(IRs))r for some μ > 0.

  14. State vector solutions for nonaxisymmetric problem of multilayered half space piezoelectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国

    1999-01-01

    A state space formulation is established for the nonaxisymmetric space problem of transversely isotropic piezoelectric media in a system of cylindrical coordinate by introducing the state vector. Using the Hankel transform and the Fourier series, the state vector equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations. By the use of the matrix methods, the analytical solutions of a single piezoelectric layer are presented in the form of the product of initial state variables and transfer matrix. The applications of state vector solutions are discussed. An analytical solution for a semiinfinite piezoelectric medium subjected to the vertical point force P_z, horizontal point force P_x along x-direction and point electric charge Q at the origin of the surface is presented. According to the continuity conditions at the interfaces, the general solution formulation for N-layered transversely isotropic piezoelectric media is given.

  15. Composition Operators with Linear Fractional Symbols on Vector-Valued Bergman Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangMao-fa; UuPei-de; ZhouShao-bo

    2003-01-01

    Letψ and ψ be linear fractional self-maps of the unit disk D and X a separable Hilbert space. In this paper we completely characterize the weak compactness of the product operators of a composition operation Cψ with another one’s adjoint Cψ* on the vector-valued Bergman space B1(X) for forms CψCψ* and Cψ* Cψ.

  16. Composition Operators with Linear Fractional Symbols on Vector-Valued Bergman Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shao-bo

    2003-01-01

    Let ψ and ψ be linear fractional self-maps of the unit disk D and X a separable Hilbert space. In this paper we completely characterize the weak compactness of the product operators of a composition operation Cψ with another one' s adjoint C*ψ on the vector-valued Bergman space B1 (X) for forms CψC*ψ and C*ψ Cψ.

  17. Space vector-based modeling and control of a modular multilevel converter in HVDC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavoglia, M.; Casadei, G.; Zarri, L.;

    2013-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior...

  18. Behavior of solution set for bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problems in topological vector spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁协平

    2014-01-01

    A new bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problem (BGMEP) is introduced and studied in topological vector spaces. By using a minimax inequality, the existence of solutions and the behavior of solution set for the BGMEP are studied under quite mild conditions. These results are new and generalize some recent results in this field.

  19. Modular space-vector pulse-width modulation for nine-switch converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghan, Seyed Mohammad; Amiri, Arash; Mohamadian, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Recently, nine-switch inverter (NSI) has been presented as a dual-output inverter with constant frequency (CF) or different frequency (DF) operation modes. However, the CF mode is more interesting because of its lower switching device rating. This study proposes a new space-vector modulation (SVM...

  20. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  1. Unifying and generating of space vector modulation sequences for multilevel converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Space Vector Modulation (SVM) is a powerful method which enables some freedom to generate the modulation sequences and modify the performances of converter. However, in the multi-level converter structures, the number of switching state redundancies significantly increases, and the determination...

  2. Controller Design for Direct Torque Controlled Space Vector Modulated (DTC-SVM) Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelechowski, M.; Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper two different methods of PI controllers for direct torque controlled-space vector modulated induction motor drives have been studied. The first one is simple method based only on symmetric optimum criterion. The second approach takes into account the full model of induction motor in...

  3. On Rationality of Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles on Real Hirzebruch Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; Ronnie Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    Let be a real form of a Hirzebruch surface. Let $M_H(r,c_1,c_2)$ be the moduli space of vector bundles on . Under some numerical conditions on $r,c_1$ and $c_2$, we identify those $M_H(r,c_1,c_2)$ that are rational.

  4. Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N S P Venkatesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Power Quality problems encompass a wide range of disturbances such as voltage sags, swells, flicker,harmonics distortion and interruptions. The strategic deployment of custom power devices has been proposed asone of the means to protect sensitive loads from power quality problems such as voltage sags and swells. The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a power electronic device that is used to inject 3-phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the distribution feeder voltages in order to compensate voltage sag and similarly itreacts quickly to inject the appropriate voltage component (negative voltage magnitude in order to compensate voltage swell. The principal component of the DVR is a voltage source inverter that generates three phase voltages and provides the voltage support to a sensitive load during voltage sags and swells. Pulse Width Modulation Technique is very critical for proper control of DVR. Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM control techniques are used for controlling the DVR. Inthis work, the operation of DVR is presented and the control technique used for voltage source inverter is Space Vector PWM technique. Space vector PWM can utilize the better dc voltage and generates the fewer harmonic in inverter output voltage than Sinusoidal PWM technique. This work describes the DVR based on Space Vector PWM which provides voltage support to sensitive loads and is simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation results show that the control approach is able to compensate for any type of voltage sags and swells.

  5. Atmospheric correction of remote sensing imagery based on the surface spectrum's vector space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun; LIU ChengYu; ZHANG ShuQing

    2012-01-01

    Due to the atmosphere effect,the qualities of images decrease conspicuously,practically in the visible bands,in the processing of earth observation by the satellite-borne sensors.Thus,removing the atmosphere effects has become a key step to improve the qualities of images and to retrieve the actual reflectivity of surface features.An atmospheric correction approach,called ACVSS (Atmospheric Correction based Vector Space of Spectrum),is proposed here based on the vector space of the features'spectrum.The reflectance image of each band is retrieved first according to the radiative transfer equation,then the spectrum's vector space is constructed using the infrared bands,and finally the residual errors of the reflectance images in the visible bands are corrected based on the pixel position in the spectrum's vector space.The proposed methodology is verified through atmospheric correction on Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery.The experimental results show that our method is more accurate and the corrected image is more distinct,compared with those offered by current popular atmospheric correction software.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO SIDE-BY-SIDE CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SARVGHAD-MOGHADDAM Hesam; NOOREDIN Navid; GHADIRI-DEHKORDI Behzad

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper,the unsteady,viscous,incompressible and 2-D flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was simulated using a Cartesian-staggered grid finite volume based method.A great-source term technique was employed to identify the solid bodies (cylinders) located in the flow field and boundary conditions were enforced by applying the ghost-cell technique.Finally,the characteristics of the flow around two side-by-side cylinders were comprehensively obtained through several computational simulations.The computational simulations were performed for different transverse gap ratios (1.5≤T/D≤4) in laminar (Re =100,200 ) and turbulent (Re =104) regimes,where T and D are the distance between the centers of cylinders and the diameter of cylinders,respectively.The Reynolds number is based on the diameter of cylinders,D.The pressure field and vorticity distributions along with the associated streamlines and the time histories of hydrodynamic forces were also calculated and analyzed for different gap ratios.Generally,different flow patterns were observed as the gap ratio and Reynolds number varied.Accordingly,the hydrodynamic forces showed irregular variations for small gaps while they took a regular pattern at higher spacing ratios.

  7. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

  8. A Novel Space Vector Technique for the Direct Three-level Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Agees Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel Direct Torque Control (DTC method for the Direct Three level Matrix Converter (DTMC, which uses both the input phase voltage vectors (short vectors and the input line voltage vectors (long vectors. The problem of voltage imbalance at the input filter capacitance due to the use of the short vectors is addressed with an additional voltage hysteresis comparator. With the errors of torque, flux, sin Ψ and the neutral point voltage, an Optimum Switching Table (OST is designed for the DTMC. The OST generates the necessary switching signals for the DTC of the DTMC. The DTMC topology with the modified ISVM technique reduces the THD at the output. The proposed DTMC Indirect Space Vector pulse width Modulation (ISVM technique uses the idea of multilevel inverter SVM technique along with the proposed neutral current balancing strategy for generating the firing pulses. The switching loss model for the DTMC is developed and the performance of the DTMC is compared with that of the Conventional Matrix Converter (CMC. The performance of the proposed DTC technique for the DTMC is evaluated through simulation to explain the reduced torque ripple characteristics. To validate the proposed DTMC ISVM technique, a 3 kVA direct multilevel matrix converter prototype was developed.

  9. BOUNDEDNESS OF VECTOR-VALUED CALDER(O)N-ZYGMUND OPERATORS ON HERZ SPACES WITH NON-DOUBLING MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baode Li; Yinsheng Jiang; Hui Cao

    2007-01-01

    In the paper we obtain vector-valued inequalities for Calderon-Zygmund operator,simply CZO On Herz space and weak Herz space.In particular,we obtain vector-valued inequalities for CZO on Lq(Rd,│x│αdμ)space,with 1<q<∞,-n<α<n(q-1),and on L1,∞(Rd,│x│αdμ)space,with -n<α<0.

  10. On n-ary algebras, branes and poly-vector gauge theories in noncommutative Clifford spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, poly-vector-valued gauge field theories in noncommutative Clifford spaces are presented. They are based on noncommutative (but associative) star products that require the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. Using these star products allows the construction of actions for noncommutative p-branes (branes moving in noncommutative spaces). Noncommutative Clifford-space gravity as a poly-vector-valued gauge theory of twisted diffeomorphisms in Clifford spaces would require quantum Hopf algebraic deformations of Clifford algebras. We proceed with the study of n-ary algebras and find an important relationship among the n-ary commutators of the noncommuting spacetime coordinates [X1, X2, ..., Xn] with the poly-vector-valued coordinates X123sdotsdotsdotn in noncommutative Clifford spaces given by [X1, X2, ..., Xn] = n!X123sdotsdotsdotn. The large N limit of n-ary commutators of n hyper-matrices {\\bf X}_{i_1 i_2 \\cdots i_n} leads to Eguchi-Schild p-brane actions for p + 1 = n. A noncomutative n-ary • product of n functions is constructed which is a generalization of the binary star product * of two functions and is associated with the deformation quantization of n-ary structures and deformations of the Nambu-Poisson brackets.

  11. The Approach to the Covariance of the Outer Producter of Two Independent Random Vector in Inter Productor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金中; 李新

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present by using vector space methods,a formula as how to calculate the covariance of the outer product of two independent random vecters in inter product space and to makes a discussion on the covariance of the orthogonally invariant random vector and that of the weakly spherically distributed outer produt.

  12. Vector model for mapping of visual space to subjective 4-D sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuzevicius, Dalius; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2014-03-01

    Here we present a mathematical model of binocular vision that maps a visible physical world to a subjective perception of it. The subjective space is a set of 4-D vectors whose components are outputs of four monocular neurons from each of the two eyes. Monocular neurons have one of the four types of concentric receptive fields with Gabor-like weighting coefficients. Next this vector representation of binocular vision is implemented as a pool of neurons where each of them is selective to the object's particular location in a 3-D visual space. Formally each point of the visual space is being projected onto a 4-D sphere. Proposed model allows determination of subjective distances in depth and direction, provides computational means for determination of Panum's area and explains diplopia and allelotropia.

  13. Space-time properties of Gram-Schmidt vectors in classical Hamiltonian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jason R; Jellinek, Julius; Berry, R Stephen

    2009-12-01

    Not all tangent space directions play equivalent roles in the local chaotic motions of classical Hamiltonian many-body systems. These directions are numerically represented by basis sets of mutually orthogonal Gram-Schmidt vectors, whose statistical properties may depend on the chosen phase space-time domain of a trajectory. We examine the degree of stability and localization of Gram-Schmidt vector sets simulated with trajectories of a model three-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. Distributions of finite-time Lyapunov exponent and inverse participation ratio spectra formed from short-time histories reveal that ergodicity begins to emerge on different time scales for trajectories spanning different phase-space regions, in a narrow range of total energy and history length. Over a range of history lengths, the most localized directions were typically the most unstable and corresponded to atomic configurations near potential landscape saddles.

  14. Fradkin-Bacry-Ruegg-Souriau vector in kappa-deformed space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Partha; S, Zuhair N

    2015-01-01

    We study presence of an additional symmetry of a generic central potential in the $\\kappa$-space-time. An explicit construction of Fradkin and Bacry, Ruegg, Souriau (FBRS) for a central potential is carried out and the piece-wise conserved nature of the vector is established. We also extend the study to Kepler systems with a drag term, particularly Gorringe-Leach equation is generalized to the $\\kappa$-deformed space. The possibility of mapping Gorringe-Leach equation to an equation with out drag term is exploited in associating a similar conserved vector to system with a drag term. An extension of duality between two class of central potential is introduced in the $\\kappa$-deformed space and is used to investigate the duality existing between two class of Gorringe-Leach equations. All the results obtained can be retraced to the correct commutative limit as we let $a \\rightarrow 0$.

  15. Fradkin-Bacry-Ruegg-Souriau vector in kappa-deformed space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Partha; Harikumar, E.; Zuhair, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    We study the presence of an additional symmetry of a generic central potential in the κ space-time. An explicit construction of Fradkin, Bacry, Ruegg and Souriau (FBRS) for a central potential is carried out and the piecewise conserved nature of the vector is established. We also extend the study to Kepler systems with a drag term, particularly the Gorringe-Leach equation is generalized to the κ-deformed space. The possibility of mapping a Gorringe-Leach equation to an equation without drag term is exploited associating a similar conserved vector to the system with a drag term. An extension of the duality between two classes of central potential is introduced in the κ-deformed space and is used to investigate the duality existing between two classes of Gorringe-Leach equations. All the results obtained can be retraced to the correct commutative limit as we let a → 0.

  16. Synchronized Scheme of Continuous Space-Vector PWM with the Real-Time Control Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes in details the basic peculiarities of a new method of feedforward synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) of three-phase voltage source inverters for adjustable speed ac drives. It is applied to a continuous scheme of voltage space vector modulation. The method is based...... on a representation of the pulse patterns as a function of the fundamental and switching frequencies of the drive system. Accurate trigonometric algorithms of vector PWM have been analysed, and also compared with the algebraic ones based on linear approximation of the durations of active switching states from...

  17. Space vector modulation strategy for neutral-point voltage balancing in three-level inverter systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a space vector modulation (SVM) strategy to balance the neutral-point voltage of three-level inverter systems. The proposed method is implemented by combining conventional symmetric SVM with nearest three-vector (NTV) modulation. The conventional SVM is converted to NTV...... modulation by properly adding or subtracting a minimum gate-on time. In addition, using this method, the switching frequency is reduced and a decrease of switching loss would be yielded. The neutral-point voltage is balanced by the proposed SVM strategy without additional hardware or complex calculations...

  18. Flows Associated to Cameron-martin Type Vector Fields on Path Spaces Over a Riemannian Manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-xiao ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    The flow on the Wiener space associated to a tangent process constructed by Cipriano and Cruzeiro,as well as by Gong and Zhang does not allow to recover Driver's Cameron-Martin theorem on Riemannian path space.The purpose of this work is to refine the method of the modified Picard iteration used in the previous work by Gong and Zhang and to try to recapture and extend the result of Driver.In this paper,we establish the existence and uniqueness of a flow associated to a Cameron-Martin type vector held on the path space over a Riemannian manifold.

  19. An Optimization of Granular Networks Based on PSO and Two-Sided Gaussian Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Chang Kwak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an optimization of GN (Granular Networks based on PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization and Information granulation. The GN is designed by the linguistic model using context-based fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm performing relationship between fuzzy sets defined in the input and output space. The contexts used in this paper are based on two-sided Gaussian membership functions. The main goal of optimization based on PSO is to find the number of clusters obtained in each context and weighting factor. Finally, we apply to coagulant dosing process in a water purification plant to evaluate the predication performance and compare the proposed approach with other previous methods.

  20. On Quadratic Scalarization of One Class of Vector Optimization Problems in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bogomaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study vector optimization problems in partially ordered Banach Spaces. We sup­pose that the objective mapping possesses a weakened property of lower semicontinuity and make no assumptions on the interior of the ordering cone. We discuss the ”clas­sical” scalarization of vector optimization problems in the form of weighted sum and also we propose other type of scalarization for vector optimization problem, the socalled adaptive scalarization, which inherits some ideas of Pascoletti-Serafini approach. As a result, we show that the scalar nonlinear optimization problems can byturn approxi­mated by the quadratic minimization problems. The advantage of such regularization is especially interesting from a numerical point of view because it gives a possibility to apply rather simple computational methods for the approximation of the whole set of efficient solutions.

  1. Reflection and transmission of full-vector X-waves normally incident on dielectric half spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    The reflection and transmission of full-vector X-Waves incident normally on a planar interface between two lossless dielectric half-spaces are investigated. Full-vector X-Waves are obtained by superimposing transverse electric and magnetic polarization components, which are derived from the scalar X-Wave solution. The analysis of transmission and reflection is carried out via a straightforward but yet effective method: First, the X-Wave is decomposed into vector Bessel beams via the Bessel-Fourier transform. Then, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the beams are obtained in the spectral domain. Finally, the transmitted and reflected X-Waves are obtained via the inverse Bessel-Fourier transform carried out on the X-wave spectrum weighted with the corresponding coefficient. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Hysteresis Current Control technique based on Space Vector Modulation for Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yun-liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hysteresis current control (HCC technique based on space vector modulation (SVM for shunt active power filter (APF is proposed. The switching control algorithms of the HCC based SVM manage to generate compensated current according to the reference current. Harmonics extraction is based on the instantaneous active and reactive power theorem in time domain by calculating the power compensation. A closed loop control system is carried out and the error current is the difference between the reference current which is obtained from the power compensation and the actual current needs to be injected back into the power grid. By implementing this control strategy, the APF manages to generate better compensated harmonics currents to the power grid. Keywords: active power filter, hysteresis current control, space vector modulation ,matlab/simulink

  3. A NEW FUZZY LOGIC BASED SPACE VECTOR MODULATION APPROACH ON DIRECT TORQUE CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Korkmaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The induction motors are indispensable motor types for industrial applications due to its wellknown advantages. Therefore, many kind of control scheme are proposed for induction motors over the past years and direct torque control has gained great importance inside of them due to fast dynamic torque response behavior and simple control structure. This paper suggests a new approach on the direct torque controlled induction motors, Fuzzy logic based space vector modulation, to overcome disadvantages of conventional direct torque control like high torque ripple. In the proposed approach, optimum switching states are calculated by fuzzy logic controller and applied by space vector pulse width modulator to voltage source inverter. In order to test and compare the proposed DTC scheme with conventional DTC scheme simulations, in Matlab/Simulink, have been carried out in different speed and load conditions. The simulation results showed that a significant improvement in the dynamic torque and speed responses when compared to the conventional DTC scheme.

  4. A DSP-based discrete space vector modulation direct torque control of sensorless induction machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoucha, F.; Marouani, K.; Kheloui, A.; Aliouane, K.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present a Direct Torque Control scheme of an induction motor operating without speed sensor. The estimation of the stator flux and the rotor speed is performed by an adaptive observer. In order to reduce the torque, flux, current and speed ripple a Discrete Space Vector Modulation (DSVM-DTC) strategy is implemented using a DSP-based hardware. To illustrate the performances of this control scheme, experimental results are presented. (author)

  5. Application of Space Vector Modulation in Direct Torque Control of PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Malek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an improvement of direct torque control method for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. Electrical torque distortion of the machine under original direct torque control is relatively high and if proper measures are taken it can be substantially decreased. The proposed solution here is to combine direct torque control with the space vector modulation technique. Such approach can eliminate torque distortion while preserving the simplicity of the original method.

  6. Perancangan Email Client Dengan Pengklasifikasian Email Menggunakan Algoritma Vector Space Model

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Moses

    2015-01-01

    On today's age of technology, widely used email to send information throughout the world. During the classification of the email is still done manually and less objective. So in this study, the authors apply the method of Vector Space Model (VSM) to make an automatic email classification and more objective. With this method of email classification can be done automatically based on address, subject, and body of an email that allows users to email in the organization of every incoming email in...

  7. Modelling of a double star induction motor for space vector PWM control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiouche, D.; Razik, H.; Rezzoug, A. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, G.R.E.E.N. - CNRS UPRES, University H. Poincare, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis and the modelling of a Double-Star Induction Motor (DSIM). A steady-state model is first established in order to analyse its harmonic behaviour. Then, a new transformation matrix is proposed in order to develop a suitable dynamic model. In both cases, the study is made using an arbitrary shift angle between the two stars. At last, a space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control or the DSIM is simulated. (orig.)

  8. Applying two channels to vector space secret sharing based multi-signature scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Qing-hua; PING Ling-di; CHEN Xiao-ping; PAN Xue-zeng

    2005-01-01

    Secret sharing and digital signature is an important research area in information security and has wide applications in such fields as safeguarding and legal use of confidential information, secure multiparty computation and electronic commerce. But up to now, study of signature based on general vector space secret sharing is very weak. Aiming at this drawback, the authors did some research on vector space secret sharing against cheaters, and proposed an efficient but secure vector space secret sharing based multi-signature scheme, which is implemented in two channels. In this scheme, the group signature can be easily produced if an authorized subset of participants pool their secret shadows and it is impossible for them to generate a group signature if an unauthorized subset of participants pool their secret shadows. The validity of the group signature can be verified by means of verification equations. A group signature of authorized subset of participants cannot be impersonated by any other set of participants. Moreover, the suspected forgery can be traced, and the malicious participants can be detected in the scheme. None of several possible attacks can successfully break this scheme.

  9. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF TWO-LEVEL SPACE VECTOR PWM INVERTER USING PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS AS DC SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse KOCALMIS BILHAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A space vector PWM method for a two level inverter is proposed in this paper. A two level inverter using space vector modulation strategy has been modeled and simulated with a passive R-L load. Photovoltaic cells are used as DC source for input of two-level inverter. Simulation results are presented for various operation conditions to verify the system model. In this paper, MATLAB/Simulink package program has been used for modeling and simulation of PV cells and two-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM inverter.

  10. The Bloch-vector space for N-level systems -- the spherical-coordinate point of view --

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, G

    2003-01-01

    The Bloch-vector spaces for $N$-level systems are investigated from the spherical-coordinate point of view. We find that the maximum radius in each direction, which is due to the construction of the Bloch-vector space, is determined by the minimum eigenvalue of the corresponding observable (generator of SU(N)). As one of the applications of this, we reveal the dual properties of the structure of the Bloch-vector space; if one of the direction of the Bloch vector reaches the large ball (pure state), the opposite direction can only reach the small ball, and vice versa. This also leads us to the new representation of quantum states which generalize the Bloch vector.

  11. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  12. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...... solving the coupling problem introduced by the common switching leg. The modulation method is similar to the well-known space vector modulation widely used with three-phase voltage source converters, which thus brings extra flexibility to the TL-UPQC system. Two optimized modulation modes with either...... reduced switching loss or harmonic distortion are derived, evaluated, and discussed, in order to demonstrate the flexibility brought by the space vector modulated TL-UPQC. Simulations and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed space vector modulation...

  13. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez

    2001-08-01

    Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  14. Classification of power quality combined disturbances based on phase space reconstruction and support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Power Quality (PQ) combined disturbances become common along with ubiquity of voltage flickers and harmonics. This paper presents a novel approach to classify the different patterns of PQ combined disturbances. The classification system consists of two parts, namely the feature extraction and the automatic recognition. In the feature extraction stage, Phase Space Reconstruction (PSR), a time series analysis tool, is utilized to construct disturbance signal trajectories. For these trajectories, several indices are proposed to form the feature vectors. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are then implemented to recognize the different patterns and to evaluate the efficiencies. The types of disturbances discussed include a combination of short-term disturbances (voltage sags, swells) and long-term disturbances (flickers, harmonics), as well as their homologous single ones. The feasibilities of the proposed approach are verified by simulation with thousands of PQ events. Comparison studies based on Wavelet Transform (WT) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) are also reported to show its advantages.

  15. Structure of Pareto Solutions of Generalized Polyhedral-Valued Vector Optimization Problems in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In general Banach spaces, we consider a vector optimization problem (SVOP in which the objective is a set-valued mapping whose graph is the union of finitely many polyhedra or the union of finitely many generalized polyhedra. Dropping the compactness assumption, we establish some results on structure of the weak Pareto solution set, Pareto solution set, weak Pareto optimal value set, and Pareto optimal value set of (SVOP and on connectedness of Pareto solution set and Pareto optimal value set of (SVOP. In particular, we improved and generalize, Arrow, Barankin, and Blackwell’s classical results in Euclidean spaces and Zheng and Yang’s results in general Banach spaces.

  16. Land-use/land-cover change detection using change-vector analysis in posterior probability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehong; Chen, Jin; Shen, Miaogen; Yang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    Land use/land cover change is an important field in global environmental change research. Remote sensing is a valuable data source from which land use/land cover change information can be extracted efficiently. A number of techniques for accomplishing change detection using satellite imagery have been formulated, applied, and evaluated, which can be generally grouped into two types. (1) Those based on spectral classification of the input data such as post-classification comparison and direct two-date classification; and (2) those based on radiometric change between different acquisition dates. The shortage of type 1 is cumulative error in image classification of an individual date. However, radiometric change approaches has a strict requirement for reliable image radiometry. In light of the above mentioned drawbacks of those two types of change detection methods, this paper presents a new method named change vector analysis in posterior probability space (CVAPS). Change-vector analysis (CVA) is one of the most successful radiometric change-based approaches. CVAPS approach incorporates post-classification comparison method and CVA approach, which is expected to inherit the advantages of two traditional methods and avoid their defects at the same time. CVAPS includes the following four steps. (1) Images in different periods are classified by certain classifier which can provide posterior probability output. Then, the posterior probability can be treated as a vector, the dimension of which is equal to the number of classes. (2) A procedure similar with CVA is employed. Compared with traditional CVA, new method analyzes the change vector in posterior probability space instead of spectral feature space. (3) A semiautomatic method, named Double-Window Flexible Pace Search (DFPS), is employed to determine the threshold of change magnitude. (4) Change category is discriminated by cosines of the change vectors. CVAPS approach was applied and validated by a case study of

  17. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  18. Utilizing Conceptual Indexing to Enhance the Effectiveness of Vector Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Al-Zoghby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of the semantic Web is to improve the retrieval performance of search systems. Unlike keyword based search systems, the semantic search systems aim to discover pages related to the query's concepts rather than merely collecting all pages instantiating its keywords. To that end, the concepts must be defined to be used as a semantic index instead of the traditional lexical one. In fact, The Arabic language is still far from being semantically searchable. Therefore, this paper proposed a model that exploits the Universal Word Net ontology for producing an Arabic Concepts-Space to be used as the index of Semantic Vector Space Model. The Vector Space Model is one of the most common information retrieval models due to its capability of expressing the documents' structure. However, like all keyword-based search systems, its sensitivity to the query's keywords reduces its retrieval effectiveness. The proposed model allows the VSM to represent Arabic documents by their topic, and thus classify them semantically. This, consequently, enhances the retrieval effectiveness of the search system.

  19. The Laplace-Stieltjes transformation on ordered topological vector space of generalized functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Mangalambal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have combined the Laplace transform and the Stieltjes transform of the form $hat{f} (x = int_0^infty frac{f(t}{(x^m+t^m^ho} dt$, $m,ho>0$ and applied it to an ordered vector space of generalized functions to which the topology of bounded convergence is assigned. Some of the order properties of the transform and its inverse are studied. Also we solve an initial value problem and compare different solutions of the problem.

  20. Mathematics for quantum mechanics an introductory survey of operators, eigenvalues, and linear vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, John David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying quantum mechanics will find this text a valuable guide to mathematical methods. Emphasizing the unity of a variety of different techniques, it is enduringly relevant to many physical systems outside the domain of quantum theory.Concise in its presentation, this text covers eigenvalue problems in classical physics, orthogonal functions and expansions, the Sturm-Liouville theory and linear operators on functions, and linear vector spaces. Appendixes offer useful information on Bessel functions and Legendre functions and spherical harmonics.

  1. DC link current simulation of voltage source inverter with random space vector pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at analysis complexity, a simulation model is built and presented to analyze and demonstrate the characteristics of the direct current (DC link current of the three-phase two-level inverter with the random space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM strategy. The developing procedure and key subsystems of the simulation model are given in detail. Several experiments are done using the simulation model. The results verify the efficiency and convenience of the simulation model and show that the random SVPWM scheme, especially the random switching frequency scheme, can efficiently suppress the harmonic peaks of the DC link current.

  2. Control Strategy for Three Phase Voltage Source PWM Rectifier Based on the Space Vector Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOUD, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM control scheme for three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier. The control system based on SVPWM includes two PI controllers which are used to regulate the AC currents and DC-link voltage. The proposed control can stabilize the minimum of the systems storage function at the desired equilibrium point determined by unity power factor and sinusoidal current on the AC side, and constant output voltage on the DC side. So the stable state performance and robustness against the load�s disturbance of PWM rectifiers are both improved. The simulation result shows feasibility of this strategy.

  3. Improved Switching Performance Analysis of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation on Field Programmable Gate Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalingam RAJESWARAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration technology is being successfully implemented by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM in applications like power electronics and drives. The main problems in PWM viz. harmonic distortion and switching speed are overcome by implementing the Space-Vector PWM (SVPWM technique by using the Xilinx tool VHDL (Verilog High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC Hardware Description Language and tested in programmable Integrated Circuits of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The results are provided along with simulation analysis in terms of hardware utilization and schematic, power report, computing time and usage of memory.

  4. New conserved currents for vacuum space-times in dimension four with a Killing vector

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso García-Parrado

    2016-01-01

    A new family of conserved currents for vacuum space-times with a Killing vector is presented. The currents are constructed from the superenergy tensor of the Mars-Simon tensor and using the positivity properties of the former we find that the conserved charges associated to the currents have natural positivity properties in certain cases. Given the role played by the Mars-Simon tensor in local and semi-local characterisations of the Kerr solution, the currents presented in this work are useful to construct non-negative scalar quantities characterising Kerr initial data (known in the literature as non-Kerrness) which in addition are conserved charges.

  5. New conserved currents for vacuum space-times in dimension four with a Killing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso García-Parrado

    2016-10-01

    A new family of conserved currents for vacuum space-times with a Killing vector is presented. The currents are constructed from the superenergy tensor of the Mars-Simon tensor and using the positivity properties of the former we find that the conserved charges associated to the currents have natural positivity properties in certain cases. Given the role played by the Mars-Simon tensor in local and semi-local characterisations of the Kerr solution, the currents presented in this work are useful to construct non-negative scalar quantities characterising Kerr initial data (known in the literature as non-Kerrness) which in addition are conserved charges.

  6. Vector bundles on complex projective spaces with an appendix by S. I. Gelfand

    CERN Document Server

    Okonek, Christian; Spindler, Heinz

    1980-01-01

    This expository treatment is based on a survey given by one of the authors at the Séminaire Bourbaki in November 1978 and on a subsequent course held at the University of Göttingen. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the topical question of classification of holomorphic vector bundles on complex projective spaces, and can easily be read by students with a basic knowledge of analytic or algebraic geometry. Short supplementary sections describe more advanced topics, further results, and unsolved problems. This is a corrected third printing with an Appendix by S. I. Gelfand.  ------   The present book is the first one, within the extensive literature on algebraic vector bundles, to give both a self-contained introduction to the basic methods and an exposition of the current state of the classification theory of algebraic vector bundles over Pn(C). (…) The reviewer thinks that readers should be grateful to the authors for presenting the first detailed, self-contained and systematic textbook on ve...

  7. Equivalence classes of the 3rd Grassman space over a 5-dimensional vector space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Singh

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence relation is defined on ΛrV, the rth Grassman space over V and the problem of the determnation of the equivalence classes defined by this relation is considered. For any r and V, the decomposable elements form an equivalence class. For r=2, the length of the element determines the equivalence class that it is in. Elements of the same length are equivalent, those of unequal lengths are inequivalent. When r≥3, the length is no longer a sufficient indicator, except when the length is one. Besides these general questions, the equivalence classes of Λ3V, when dimV=5 are determined.

  8. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle-comparison based PWM for voltage source inverter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar Modi; S Venugopal; G Narayanan

    2013-06-01

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM during overmodulation from a space vector point of view. The average voltage vector produced by TCPWM during overmodulation is studied in the stationary (a–b) reference frame. This is compared and contrasted with the average voltage vector corresponding to the well-known standard two-zone algorithm for space vector modulated inverters. It is shown that the two-zone overmodulation algorithm itself can be derived from the variation of average voltage vector with TCPWM. The average voltage vector is further studied in a synchronously revolving (d-q) reference frame. The RMS value of low-order voltage ripple can be estimated, and can be used to compare harmonic distortion due to different PWM methods during overmodulation. The measured values of the total harmonic distortion (THD) in the line currents are presented at various fundamental frequencies. The relative values of measured current THD pertaining to different PWM methods tally with those of analytically evaluated RMS voltage ripple.

  9. METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING BORNOLOGICAL SPACES FROM L*-VECTOR SPACES%从L-空间构造包囿空间的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志尧

    2001-01-01

    讨论了一种在向量空间上构造包囿拓扑的新方法.收敛序列和有界集一般是拓扑空间中的概念,文章首先引入序列收敛C和L-空间(给出某种序列收敛关系的向量空间),然后在其中定义有界集.设C为一序列收敛关系,T(C)是由C确定的拓扑,B(C)是由C确定的有界集族,则有B(C)=B(T(C)),并进一步从L*-空间构造了包囿拓扑向量空间.%A new method of constructing bornological vector topologies for vector spaces is discussed.In general,the convergent sequence and bounded set are concepts only in topological spaces.However,in this paper,it is first introduced sequential convergence C and L*- space which is a vector space giving some relation:xmCx between sequences and points in it,then the bounded set is defined in vector space.Let C be a sequential convergence,T(C) be a vector topology on X determined by C and B(C) be the collection of bounded sets determined by C.Then B(C)=B(T(C)).Furthermore,the bornological locally convex topological vector space is constructed by L*-vector space.

  10. All ASD complex and real 4-dimensional Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudecki, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Anti-self-dual (ASD) 4-dimensional complex Einstein spaces with nonzero cosmological constant Λ equipped with a nonnull Killing vector are considered. It is shown that any conformally nonflat metric of such spaces can be always brought to a special form and the Einstein field equations can be reduced to the Boyer-Finley-Plebański equation (Toda field equation). Some alternative forms of the metric are discussed. All possible real slices (neutral, Euclidean and Lorentzian) of ASD complex Einstein spaces with Λ≠0 admitting a nonnull Killing vector are found.

  11. Generalization of Phelps' Lemma to Bornological Vector Spaces%有界线性空间中的Phelps引理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺飞; 丘京辉

    2011-01-01

    将Phelps引理推广到有界线性空间.一个直接的应用是获得了Wong推广到有界线性空间中的Ekeland变分原理.而且Ng和郑在拓扑线性空间中的有效点存在性定理也容易得到.同时,给出了一个局部凸空间中的Phelps引理.%Phelps' lemma is extended to bornological vector spaces. An immediate application is to re-establish Wong's generalization of Ekeland variational principle to bornological vector spaces. And Ng and Zheng's result on existence of efficient points in topological vector spaces is easily achieved. Meanwhile, a Phelps' lemma in locally convex spaces is obtained.

  12. Beyond gauge theory: Hilbert space positivity and causal localization in the presence of vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Schroer, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The Hilbert space formulation of interacting spin 1 vector-potentials stands in an interesting contrast with the point-local Krein space setting.of gauge theory. Already in the absence of interactions the Wilson loop in a Hilbert space setting has a topological property which is missing in the gauge theoretic description (Haag duality, Aharonov-Bohm effect); the conceptual differences increase in the presence of interactions. The Hilbert space positivity weakens the causal localization properties if interacting fields from point- to string-like, but it also improves the short distance properties in that the scale dimensions of string-local fields fields is independent of spin. This makes it possible to find interaction densities within the power-counting bound of renormalizability for any spin, But for string-local interacting fields there is a new requirement (existence of a L,V pair) which has no analog for point-local fields.It insures the preservation of string-localization in higher orders and secures th...

  13. A Class of Semilocal E-Preinvex Maps in Banach Spaces with Applications to Nondifferentiable Vector Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of semilocal E-preinvex and related maps in Banach spaces is introduced for a nondifferentiable vector optimization problem with restrictions of inequalities and some of its basic properties are studied. Furthermore, as its applications, some optimality conditions and duality results are established for a nondifferentiable vector optimization under the aforesaid maps assumptions.

  14. Intrinsic features of flow around two side-by-side square cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Zhou, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The wake of two side-by-side square cylinders is investigated in detail based on flow visualization at a Reynolds number (Re) of 300. The cylinder center-to-center spacing ratio T* (= T/W, W is the cylinder width) is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The intrinsic features of the wake are explored, including the gap vortices, flow switch, stability, merging of two streets into one, etc. The qualitative information on these features is further complemented by the quantitative information extracted from hotwire data at Re = 4.7 × 104 using both spectral and cross-wavelet analyses. Four flow regimes are identified: (i) the single bluff body regime (T* 2.4). The gap flow is found to switch at two distinct time scales, referred to as macro and micro switches. Macro switch occurs at 1.2 gap flow is slim in width and biased for a long duration ranging from several vortex shedding periods in the wide street to several hours. Micro switch is observed at 2.1 gap flow is thick in width and switches at a frequency of twice the frequency of vortex shedding from the free-stream side of the cylinders. The two streets formed immediately behind the cylinders merge to a single street at a downstream location x_c^* that depends on T*. A larger T* corresponds to a larger x_c^*. Regime (iv) is characterized by two streets either inphased or antiphased. The antiphased streets persist longer than the inphased.

  15. 2T/5T Two-Axis Cryogen Free Superconducting Vector Magnet With Variable Temperature Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demikhov, E. I.; Demikhov, T. E.; Kostrov, E. A.; Lysenko, V. V.; Piskunov, N. A.

    2014-05-01

    A conduction cooled 2T / 5T superconducting vector magnetic system with a variable temperature space was developed and tested. The system is based on a commercial two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler with the cooling power of 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The cool down time of the magnet from room temperature to 3.2 K is 17 hours. The system provides sample temperature range of 6.0-300 K. The clear diameter of variable temperature space is 39 mm. A 5 T solenoid generates magnetic field in the vertical axis and a 2 T split coil generates field in the horizontal axis. The magnets are made of niobium-titanium wire wound on a copper former. A PC controlled rotary drive is applied to rotate a sample holder around the vertical axis. Thus the measured sample can be exposed to the magnetic field in any desired direction. A helium gas gap heat switch is used as a controllable thermal link between the variable temperature space and the 2nd stage to avoid overheating of the magnet at high temperatures of the sample. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.

  16. Quantization of the minimal and non-minimal vector field in curved space

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, David J

    2015-01-01

    The local momentum space method is used to study the quantized massive vector field (the Proca field) with the possible addition of non-minimal terms. Heat kernel coefficients are calculated and used to evaluate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action. It is shown that the naive expression for the effective action that one would write down based on the minimal coupling case needs modification. We adopt a Faddeev-Jackiw method of quantization and consider the case of an ultrastatic spacetime for simplicity. The operator that arises for non-minimal coupling to the curvature is shown to be non-minimal in the sense of Barvinsky and Vilkovisky. It is shown that when a general non-minimal term is added to the theory the result is not renormalizable with the addition of a local Lagrangian counterterm.

  17. European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Balaceanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European integration and cooperation, basic vectors of European space of freedom, security and justiceAbstract: The European countries joining to the Schengen area had the effect elimination of internal border controls between Schengen member countries, that use permenent provisions of the Schengen acquis, being a single external border where operational checks are carried out according to a set of clear rules on immigration, visas, the asylum, as well as some decisions concerning police cooperation, judicial or customs. This means that the border crossing can be made at any time through many places, and citizens of member countries who are traveling in the Schengen area must present a valid ID. Overcoming internal border can be equated with a journey through the country.

  18. Space Vector Modulation Based Direct Matrix Converter for Stand-Alone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Ajin Sekhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG is used for wind power generation in standalone system due to their feature of high efficiency and low maintenance cost, which was fed with smart direct matrix converter for direct AC-AC conversion, It provides sinusoidal output waveforms with minimal higher order harmonics and no sub harmonics and also it eliminate the usage of dc-link and other passive elements. Space vector modulation (SVM controlled technique is used for matrix converter switching which can eliminate the switching loses by selected switching states.Proposed work are often seen as a future concept for variable speed drives technology.The  proposed model for RL load was analysed and verified by varying the resistor and inductance value and analysed using MATLAB simulation.

  19. Vector Nonlocal Euclidean Median: Principal Bundle Captures The Nature of Patch Space

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chen-Yun; Qi, Xin Jessica; Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2016-01-01

    We extensively study the rotational group structure inside the patch space by introducing the fiber bundle structure. The rotational group structure leads to a new image denoising algorithm called the \\textit{vector non-local Euclidean median} (VNLEM). The theoretical aspect of VNLEM is studied, which explains why the VNLEM and traditional non-local mean/non-local Euclidean median (NLEM) algorithm work. The numerical issue of the VNLEM is improved by taking the orientation feature in the commonly applied scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), and a theoretical analysis of the robustness of the orientation feature in the SIFT is provided. The VNLEM is applied to an image database of 1,361 images and compared with the NLEM. Different image quality assessments based on the error-sensitivity or the human visual system are applied to evaluate the performance. The results confirmed the potential of the VNLEM algorithm.

  20. High Performance Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Drives Using Space Vector Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Allirani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple approach to design and implement Direct Torque Control technique for voltage source inverter fed induction motor drives. The direct torque control is one of the excellent strategies available for torque control of induction machine. It is considered as an alternative to field oriented control technique. The Direct Torque Control scheme is characterized by the absence of PI regulators, co-ordinate transformations, current regulators and pulse width modulated signal generators. Direct Torque Control allows a good torque control in steady state and transient operating conditions. The direct torque control technique based on space vector modulation and switching table has been developed and presented in this paper.

  1. Groups, matrices, and vector spaces a group theoretic approach to linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2017-01-01

    This unique text provides a geometric approach to group theory and linear algebra, bringing to light the interesting ways in which these subjects interact. Requiring few prerequisites beyond understanding the notion of a proof, the text aims to give students a strong foundation in both geometry and algebra. Starting with preliminaries (relations, elementary combinatorics, and induction), the book then proceeds to the core topics: the elements of the theory of groups and fields (Lagrange's Theorem, cosets, the complex numbers and the prime fields), matrix theory and matrix groups, determinants, vector spaces, linear mappings, eigentheory and diagonalization, Jordan decomposition and normal form, normal matrices, and quadratic forms. The final two chapters consist of a more intensive look at group theory, emphasizing orbit stabilizer methods, and an introduction to linear algebraic groups, which enriches the notion of a matrix group. Applications involving symm etry groups, determinants, linear coding theory ...

  2. PSCAD modeling of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm for power electronics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design details of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm in PSCAD that is able to generate pulses for three-phase two-level DC/AC converters with two different switching patterns. The presented FORTRAN code is generic and can be easily modified to meet many other kinds of space vector modulation strategies. The code is also editable for hardware programming. The new component is tested and verified by comparing its output as six gating signals with those of a similar component in MATLAB library. Moreover the component is used to generate digital signals for closed-loop control of STATCOM for reactive power compensation in PSCAD. This add-on can be an effective tool to give students better understanding of the space vector modulation algorithm for different control tasks in power electronics area, and can motivate them for learning.

  3. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Tan, Soonkeat; Wang, Xikun; Hao, Zhiyong

    2010-10-01

    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  4. A New Approach To Focused Crawling: Combination of Text summarizing With Neural Networks and Vector Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Mohammadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Focused crawlers are programs designed to browse the Web anddownload pages on a specific topic. They are used for answeringuser queries or for building digital libraries on a topic specifiedby the user. In this article we will show how summarizing of webpages is needed for improving performance of a crawler whichuses vector space model to rank the web pages. A neural networkis trained to learn the relevant characteristics of sentences thatshould be included in the summary of a web page. Then theneural network will be used as a filter to summarize web pages.Finally, the crawler will use vector space model to ranksummaries instead of web pages.

  5. On revenue and welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes in two-sided markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets.......A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets....

  6. On sets of vectors of a finite vector space in which every subset of basis size is a basis II

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a proof of the MDS conjecture for $k \\leq 2p-2$. That is, that if $S$ is a set of vectors of ${\\mathbb F}_q^k$ in which every subset of $S$ of size $k$ is a basis, where $q=p^h$, $p$ is prime and $q$ is not and $k \\leq 2p-2$, then $|S| \\leq q+1$. It also contains a short proof of the same fact for $k\\leq p$, for all $q$.

  7. Analytic formulation of derivative coupling vectors for complete active space configuration interaction wavefunctions with floating occupation molecular orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Edward G.

    2016-11-01

    The floating occupation molecular orbital complete active space configuration interaction (FOMO-CASCI) method is quite promising for the study of nonadiabatic processes. Use of this method directly in nonadiabatic dynamics simulations has been limited by the lack of available first-order nonadiabatic coupling vectors. Here, an analytic formulation of these derivative coupling vectors is presented for FOMO-CASCI wavefunctions using a simple Lagrangian-based approach. The derivative coupling vectors are applied in the optimization of minimum energy conical intersections of an aqueously solvated model compound for the chromophore of the green fluorescent protein (including 100 water molecules). The computational cost of the FOMO-CASCI derivative coupling vector is shown to scale quadratically, O ( N 2 ) , with system size and is applied to systems with up to 1000 atoms.

  8. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools.

  9. Dengue Fever Occurrence and Vector Detection by Larval Survey, Ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: A Space-Time Clusters Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools. PMID:22848729

  10. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Portella Ornelas de Melo

    Full Text Available The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil, dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days, the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools.

  11. Meta-heuristic algorithm to solve two-sided assembly line balancing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, A. D.; Maruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    Two-sided assembly line is a set of sequential workstations where task operations can be performed at two sides of the line. This type of line is commonly used for the assembly of large-sized products: cars, buses, and trucks. This paper propose a Decoding Algorithm with Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO), a recently developed nature-inspired search method to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem (TALBP). The algorithm aims to minimize the number of mated-workstations for the given cycle time without violating the synchronization constraints. The correlation between the input parameters and the emergence point of objective function value is tested using scenarios generated by design of experiments. A two-sided assembly line operated in an Indonesia's multinational manufacturing company is considered as the object of this paper. The result of the proposed algorithm shows reduction of workstations and indicates that there is negative correlation between the emergence point of objective function value and the size of population used.

  12. Prices and Network Externalities in Two-Sided Markets: The Belgian Newspaper Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the newspaper industry in Belgium from a two-sided market perspective. The reader and advertizing market for printed media are closely interlinked with each other by bilateral network externalities. This requires a specific structural model to estimate demand parameters for both

  13. A SSNIP Test for Two-sided Markets : The Case of Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the design and implementation of a SSNIP test in order to identify the relevant market in a media market. I argue that in such a two-sided market the traditional SSNIP test cannot be applied as it is usually conceived but rather should be modified in order to take into account indirect net

  14. A SSNIP Test for Two-sided Markets : The Case of Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the design and implementation of a SSNIP test in order to identify the relevant market in a media market. I argue that in such a two-sided market the traditional SSNIP test cannot be applied as it is usually conceived but rather should be modified in order to take into account indirect

  15. Merger Simulation in a Two-Sided Market : The Case of the Dutch Daily Newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a structural econometric framework that allows us to simulate the effects of mergers among two-sided platforms selling differentiated products. We apply the proposed methodology to the Dutch newspaper industry. Our structural model encompasses demands for differentiated products on both s

  16. Computer program determines exact two-sided tolerance limits for normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. A.; Webb, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program determines by numerical integration the exact statistical two-sided tolerance limits, when the proportion between the limits is at least a specified number. The program is limited to situations in which the underlying probability distribution for the population sampled is the normal distribution with unknown mean and variance.

  17. A space vector control stradegy for improvement of control speed and reduction of sensitivity of phase jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a full space vector control stradegy. The synchronisation used to improveboth the control speed of reactive power and reduce the sensitivity to large phase jumps in the grid caused by switching arge loads. The control stradegy is tested with a 5-level 10kvar laboratory model....

  18. A support vector machine based test for incongruence between sets of trees in tree space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use of multi-locus data sets for phylogenetic reconstruction has increased the need to determine whether a set of gene trees significantly deviate from the phylogenetic patterns of other genes. Such unusual gene trees may have been influenced by other evolutionary processes such as selection, gene duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Results Motivated by this problem we propose a nonparametric goodness-of-fit test for two empirical distributions of gene trees, and we developed the software GeneOut to estimate a p-value for the test. Our approach maps trees into a multi-dimensional vector space and then applies support vector machines (SVMs) to measure the separation between two sets of pre-defined trees. We use a permutation test to assess the significance of the SVM separation. To demonstrate the performance of GeneOut, we applied it to the comparison of gene trees simulated within different species trees across a range of species tree depths. Applied directly to sets of simulated gene trees with large sample sizes, GeneOut was able to detect very small differences between two set of gene trees generated under different species trees. Our statistical test can also include tree reconstruction into its test framework through a variety of phylogenetic optimality criteria. When applied to DNA sequence data simulated from different sets of gene trees, results in the form of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that GeneOut performed well in the detection of differences between sets of trees with different distributions in a multi-dimensional space. Furthermore, it controlled false positive and false negative rates very well, indicating a high degree of accuracy. Conclusions The non-parametric nature of our statistical test provides fast and efficient analyses, and makes it an applicable test for any scenario where evolutionary or other factors can lead to trees with different multi-dimensional distributions. The

  19. A High Performance Space Vector Modulation - Direct Torque Controlled Induction Machine Drive based on Stator Flux Orientation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELMADANI, B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and implementation of a novel direct torque controlled induction machine drive system. The control system enjoys the advantages of stator vector control and conventional direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. The stator vector control principal is used to keep constant the amplitude of stator flux vector at rated value, and to develop the relationship between the machine torque and the rotating speed of the stator flux vector. Thus, the machine torque can be regulated to generate the stator angular speed, which becomes a command signal and permits to overcome the problem of its estimation. Furthermore, with the combined control methods, the reference stator voltage vector can be generated and proportional-integral controllers and space vector modulation technique can be used to obtain fixed switching frequency and low torque ripple. Simulation experiments results indicate that, with the proposed scheme, a precise control of the stator flux and machine torque can be achieved. Compared to conventional direct torque control, presented method is easily implemented, and the steady performances of ripples of both torque and flux are considerably improved.

  20. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for space habitation and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kevin R; Vasquez, Rebecca A; Middleton, Akil J; Hansberry, Mitchell L; Newman, Dava J; Jacobs, Shane E; West, John J

    2015-01-01

    The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs) and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a "viscous resistance" during movements against a specified direction of "down"-initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from "down" initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  1. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  2. Phytoplankton global mapping from space with a support vector machine algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, Florian; Menkes, Christophe; Dupouy, Cécile; Rodier, Martin; Bonnet, Sophie; Mangeas, Morgan; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in global mapping of phytoplankton from space. Two main trends have emerged, the recognition of phytoplankton functional types (PFT) based on reflectance normalized to chlorophyll-a concentration, and the recognition of phytoplankton size class (PSC) based on the relationship between cell size and chlorophyll-a concentration. However, PFTs and PSCs are not decorrelated, and one approach can complement the other in a recognition task. In this paper, we explore the recognition of several dominant PFTs by combining reflectance anomalies, chlorophyll-a concentration and other environmental parameters, such as sea surface temperature and wind speed. Remote sensing pixels are labeled thanks to coincident in-situ pigment data from GeP&CO, NOMAD and MAREDAT datasets, covering various oceanographic environments. The recognition is made with a supervised Support Vector Machine classifier trained on the labeled pixels. This algorithm enables a non-linear separation of the classes in the input space and is especially adapted for small training datasets as available here. Moreover, it provides a class probability estimate, allowing one to enhance the robustness of the classification results through the choice of a minimum probability threshold. A greedy feature selection associated to a 10-fold cross-validation procedure is applied to select the most discriminative input features and evaluate the classification performance. The best classifiers are finally applied on daily remote sensing datasets (SeaWIFS, MODISA) and the resulting dominant PFT maps are compared with other studies. Several conclusions are drawn: (1) the feature selection highlights the weight of temperature, chlorophyll-a and wind speed variables in phytoplankton recognition; (2) the classifiers show good results and dominant PFT maps in agreement with phytoplankton distribution knowledge; (3) classification on MODISA data seems to perform better than on SeaWIFS data

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center's Tower Vector Magnetograph: Upgrades, Hardware, and Operations for the HESSI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Hagyard, M. J.; West, E. A.; Smith, J. E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) solar group announces the successful upgrade of our tower vector magnetograph. In operation since 1973, the last major alterations to the system (which includes telescope, filter, polarizing optics, camera, and data acquisition computer) were made in 1982, when we upgraded from an SEC Vidicon camera to a CCD. In 1985, other changes were made which increased the field-of-view from 5 x 5 arc min (2.4 arc sec per pixel) to 6 x 6 arc min with a resolution of 2.81 arc sec. In 1989, the Apollo Telescope Mount H-alpha telescope was coaligned with the optics of the magnetograph. The most recent upgrades (year 2000), funded to support the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission, have resulted in a pixel size of 0.64 arc sec over a 7 x 5.2 arc min field-of-view (binning 1x1). This poster describes the physical characteristics of the new system and compares spatial resolution, timing, and versatility with the old system. Finally, we provide a description of our Internet web site, which includes images of our most recent observations, and links to our data archives, as well as the history of magnetography at MSFC and education outreach pages.

  4. Development and evaluation of a biomedical search engine using a predicate-based vector space model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Myungjae; Leroy, Gondy; Martinez, Jesse D; Harwell, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Although biomedical information available in articles and patents is increasing exponentially, we continue to rely on the same information retrieval methods and use very few keywords to search millions of documents. We are developing a fundamentally different approach for finding much more precise and complete information with a single query using predicates instead of keywords for both query and document representation. Predicates are triples that are more complex datastructures than keywords and contain more structured information. To make optimal use of them, we developed a new predicate-based vector space model and query-document similarity function with adjusted tf-idf and boost function. Using a test bed of 107,367 PubMed abstracts, we evaluated the first essential function: retrieving information. Cancer researchers provided 20 realistic queries, for which the top 15 abstracts were retrieved using a predicate-based (new) and keyword-based (baseline) approach. Each abstract was evaluated, double-blind, by cancer researchers on a 0-5 point scale to calculate precision (0 versus higher) and relevance (0-5 score). Precision was significantly higher (psearching than keywords, laying the foundation for rich and sophisticated information search.

  5. A NOVEL ARTIFICIAL HYDROCARBON NETWORKS BASED SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION CONTROLLER FOR INDUCTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Ponce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of machine-operated industrial processes implement electric machinery as their work sources, implying the necessary improvement of control techniques and power electronics drivers. Many years have passed since the control conflicts related to induction motors have been overcome through torque-flux control techniques so their advantages over direct current motors have made them to be the most common electric actuator found behind industrial automation. In fact, induction motors can be easily operated using a Direct Torque Control (DTC. Since, it is based on a hysteresis control of the torque and flux errors, its performance is characterized by a quick reaching of the set point, but also a high ripple on both torque and flux. In order to enhance that technique, this study introduces a novel hybrid fuzzy controller with artificial hydrocarbon networks (FMC that is used in a Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM technique, so-called FMC-SVPWM-DTC. In fact, this study describes the proposal and its design method. Experimental results over a velocity-torque cascade topology proved that the proposed FMC-SVPWM-DTC responses highly effective almost suppressing rippling in torque and flux. It also performed a faster speed response than in a conventional DTC. In that sense, the proposed FMC-SVPWM-DTC can be used an alternative approach for controlling induction motors.

  6. Transfer positive hemicontinuity and zeros, coincidences, and fixed points of maps in topological vector spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a real Hausdorff topological vector space. In the present paper, the concepts of the transfer positive hemicontinuity and strictly transfer positive hemicontinuity of set-valued maps in are introduced (condition of strictly transfer positive hemicontinuity is stronger than that of transfer positive hemicontinuity and for maps and defined on a nonempty compact convex subset of , we describe how some ideas of K. Fan have been used to prove several new, and rather general, conditions (in which transfer positive hemicontinuity plays an important role that a single-valued map has a zero, and, at the same time, we give various characterizations of the class of those pairs and maps that possess coincidences and fixed points, respectively. Transfer positive hemicontinuity and strictly transfer positive hemicontinuity generalize the famous Fan upper demicontinuity which generalizes upper semicontinuity. Furthermore, a new type of continuity defined here essentially generalizes upper hemicontinuity (the condition of upper demicontinuity is stronger than the upper hemicontinuity. Comparison of transfer positive hemicontinuity and strictly transfer positive hemicontinuity with upper demicontinuity and upper hemicontinuity and relevant connections of the results presented in this paper with those given in earlier works are also considered. Examples and remarks show a fundamental difference between our results and the well-known ones.

  7. Space-geodetic estimation of the nazca-south america euler vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, D.; Klotz, J.; Reigber, C.

    1999-09-01

    GPS data from four sites in the Nazca Plate (Easter Island, Galapagos, Robinson Crusoe and San Felix Islands) and from five sites in the stable core of the South American Plate enabled us to estimate the Euler vector of the Nazca Plate with respect to South America. The observed velocities of Easter Island (6.6 cm/yr at 102.3°), Galapagos (5.1 cm/yr at 90.0°), Robinson Crusoe (6.6 cm/yr at 80.1°) and San Felix (6.0 cm/yr at 82.1°) are significantly slower than the global plate model NUVEL-1A velocites for those four sites. Our estimated Euler pole is located at 48.8°N, 91.7°W with a rate of 0.59°/m.y. The NUVEL-1A and earlier space-geodetic studies give rotation rates that are 20% faster.

  8. A SCATTERING MATRIX MODEL OF SEMICONDUCTOR SUPERLATTICES IN MULTIDIMENSIONAL WAVE-VECTOR SPACE AND ITS DIFFUSION LIMIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The authors first establish a quantum microscopic scattering matrix model in multidimen-sional wave-vector space, which relates the phase space density of each superlattice cell withthat of the neighbouring cells. Then, in the limit of a large number of cells, a SHE (SphericalHarmonics Expansion)-type model of diffusion equations for the particle number density in theposition-energy space is obtained. The crucial features of diffusion constants on retaining thememory of the quantum scattering characteristics of the superlattice elementary cell (like e.g.transmission resonances) are shown in order. Two examples are treated with the analyticallycomputation of the diffusion constants.

  9. Two-sided reflected Markov-modulated Brownian motion with applications to fluid queues and dividend payouts

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study a reflected Markov-modulated Brownian motion with a two sided reflection in which the drift, diffusion coefficient and the two boundaries are (jointly) modulated by a finite state space irreducible continuous time Markov chain. The goal is to compute the stationary distribution of this Markov process, which in addition to the complication of having a stochastic boundary can also include jumps at state change epochs of the underlying Markov chain because of the boundary changes. We give the general theory and then specialize to the case where the underlying Markov chain has two states. Moreover, motivated by an application of optimal dividend strategies, we consider the case where the lower barrier is zero and the upper barrier is subject to control. In this case we generalized earlier results from the case of a reflected Brownian motion to the Markov modulated case.

  10. A Two-Sided Market Model of Optimal Price Structure for Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger (IM is one of the most popular Internet applications all over the world. This paper examines the pricing problem of IM based on two-sided market model. IM serves as a two-sided platform, which gets both Internet users and advertisers on board. This paper concludes that IM operator adopts a heavily skewed price structure that favors IM users both under monopolistic case and under horizontal differentiated duopolistic case. When advertising revenue is large enough relatively to marginal cost for serving IM users, IM users can enjoy free service provided by IM operators. The competitive equilibrium of duopolistic case is not necessarily symmetric when advertisers choose singlehoming. Even in the symmetric equilibrium platform would rather deter all advertisers.

  11. Sparse two-sided rank-one updates for nonlinear equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The two-sided rank-one (TR1) update method was introduced by Griewank and Walther (2002) for solving nonlinear equations. It generates dense approximations of the Jacobian and thus is not applicable to large-scale sparse problems. To overcome this difficulty, we propose sparse extensions of the TR1 update and give some convergence analysis. The numerical experiments show that some of our extensions are superior to the TR1 update method. Some convergence analysis is also presented.

  12. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  13. Reproduced Giant Localization Length of Two-Side Surface Disordered Nanowires with Long-Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; DING Jian-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We numerically investigate the normalized localization length of two-side rough nanowires as functions of energy, magnetic field and correlation strength by using modular recursive Green's function method. It is found that in the absence of correlation, while in the presence of magnetic Reid, the localization length increases linearly for two-side roughness, which is different to diverging exponentially for one-side roughness. Moreover, the localization of electrons is suppressed in the low energy region, but enhanced in the high energy region. In the presence of correlation, especially, an exponential enhancement in the localization length resumes in high energy region, in contrast to that in low energy region, the long-range correlations abnormally enhance the localization of electrons. A competitive mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior.%We numerically investigate the normalized localization length of two-side rough nanowires as functions of energy,magnetic field and correlation strength by using modular recursive Green's function method.It is found that in the absence of correlation,while in the presence of magnetic field,the localization length increases linearly for two-side roughness,which is different to diverging exponentially for one-side roughness.Moreover,the localization of electrons is suppressed in the low energy region,but enhanced in the high energy region.In the presence of correlation,especially,an exponential enhancement in the localization length resumes in high energy region,in contrast to that in low energy region,the long-range correlations abnormally enhance the localization of electrons.A competitive mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior.Quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in random media has been a field of extensive study since the pioneering work by Anderson,[1] who argued that quasiparticle states become localized for sufficiently large disorder,thus giving rise to a localizationdelocalization transition (LDT) in three

  14. A Two-Sided Matching Decision Model Based on Uncertain Preference Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided matching is a hot issue in the field of operation research and decision analysis. This paper reviews the typical two-sided matching models and their limitations in some specific contexts, and then puts forward a new decision model based on uncertain preference sequences. In this model, we first design a data processing method to get preference ordinal value in uncertain preference sequence, then compute the preference distance of each matching pair based on these certain preference ordinal values, set the optimal objectives as maximizing matching number and minimizing total sum of preference distances of all the matching pairs under the lowest threshold constraint of matching effect, and then solve it with branch-and-bound algorithm. Meanwhile, we take two numeral cases as examples and analyze the different matching solutions with one-norm distance, two-norm distance, and positive-infinity-norm distance, respectively. We also compare our decision model with two other approaches, and summarize their characteristics on two-sided matching.

  15. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yangyang; Yu Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tan, Soonkeat [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang Xikun [Maritime Research Center, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hao Zhiyong, E-mail: gaoyangyangouc@163.co [Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  16. Design and simulation of the space vector modulation and applied to a load RL powered by a voltage inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane El Azzaoui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The vector control performance applied to rotating machines depends largely on static and dynamic characteristics of the inverter associated with it. The development of the pulse-width modulation (PWM provided greater flexibility in the control of the converters. The objective of this work is to construct a simplified and practical space vector modulation (SVM based on the selection of the sequence and the calculation of the conduction time or extinction. We have presented the blocks of the simulation vector modulation on the Matlab / Simulink with a new method for determining conduction time and analyzed its application on a load RL supplied by a voltage inverter. The performance of the proposed method has been presented by the simulation results.

  17. A Note on Classification of Spatially Homogeneous Rotating Space-Times According to Their Teleparallel Killing Vector Fields in Teleparallel Theory of Gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Shabbir; Suhail Khan; Amjad Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we classify spatially homogeneous rotating space-times according to their teleparallel Killing vector fields using direct integration technique.It turns out that the dimension of the teleparallel Killing vector fields is 5 or 10.In the case of 10 teleparallel Killing vector fields the space-time becomes Minkowski and all the torsion components are zero.Teleparallel Killing vector fields in this case are exactly the same as in general relativity.In the cases of 5 teleparallel Killing vector fields we get two more conservation laws in the teleparallel theory of gravitation.Here we also discuss some well-known examples of spatially homogeneous rotating space-times according to their teleparallel Killing vector fields.

  18. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance of the inver......This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance...... of the inverter, the strategy was compared the traditional pulse-width modulation. It is shown that the approach proposed has fewer switching states and does not suffer from neutral point misbalance....

  19. Improvement of Direct Torque Control by using a Space Vector Modulation Control of Three-Level Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achalhi, A.; Bezza, M.; Belbounaguia, N.; Boujoudi, B.

    2017-03-01

    The performances of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction machine are highly related to the inverter used therewith. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the efficiency of the space vector modulation (SVM) control of three level inverter associated with the direct torque control. The first part of this work is devoted to present the mathematical models of the DTC associated with 2-levels inverter then 3-levels inverter. Simulations on Matlab/Simulink will allow a comparative study to highlight advantages of the use of three levels inverter. The second part is devoted to the improvement of the DTC associated with a 3-levels inverter by application of the space vector modulation strategy (SVM) in order to manage the switching frequency and reduce harmonics. The efficiency of this solution will be attested by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

  20. Design and Analysis of Sliding Mode Controller and Simplified Space Vector Modulation for Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Elangovan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to control a multivariable coupled system by choosing sliding mode switching function. A Sliding mode control approach is developed to control a three phase three wire voltage source inverter operating as a shunt active power filter. Hence, no need to divide the system model developed in the synchronous ‘dq’ reference frame into two separate loops. Furthermore, the proposed control strategy allows a better stability and robustness over a wide range of operation. When sine PWM is used for generation of pulses for the switches, a variable switching nature is exhibited. The pulses for the active filter are fed by a Space Vector Modulation in order to have a constant switching of converter switches. But, the conventional space vector modulation, if implemented practically, needs a complicated algorithm which uses the trigonometric functions such as arctan, Sine and Cosine functions which in turn needs look up tables to store the pre-calculated trigonometric values. In this study, a very simplified algorithm is proposed for generating Space vector modulated pulse for all six switches without the use of look up tables and only by sensing the voltages and currents of the voltage source inverter acting as shunt active filter. The simulation using PSIM and MATLAB software verifies the results very well.

  1. A note on P-values for two-sided tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Helmut; Strassburger, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Based on uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) tests for two-sided hypotheses and a short note in Lehmann (1959) on critical levels for randomized tests, Meulepas (1998, 1999) proposed (two-tailed) P -values taking into account the randomization constant(s) of the UMPU-tests. While UMPU-tests need an extra uniform observation if randomization is required, the P -values proposed by Meulepas need no extra uniform observation. At first glance, his idea looks very promising in order to define a suitable and powerful P -value. Unfortunately, such P -values are generally too conservative.

  2. Irradiance tailoring with two-sided Fresnel-type freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneton, Adrien; Bäuerle, Axel; Traub, Martin; Wester, Rolf; Loosen, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Based on the Monge-Kantorovich theory of optimal mass transport, the computation of a ray mapping between source and target irradiances is used to design two-sided freeform lenses fulfilling the constraints of an automotive application: compactness and sharp bright-dark cutoff. A generic segmentation technic resulting in Fresnel-type optics is presented and the whole procedure is illustrated with the design of a fog light lens. Finally Monte Carlo simulation of the virtual model and measurements of a polycarbonate prototype are presented.

  3. (α,β)-空间中的Killing向量场%Killing vector fields on(α,β)-space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈斌; 康琳

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, it is proved that the maximum dimension of the Killing vector space in a non-Riemannian (α,β)-space is n(n -1)/2+1. The non-Riemannian (α,β)-metric which admits the maximum dimension of Killing vector space is determined. At last, if we further assume that α is a homogenious Riemannian metric, the first gap is given. The examples of different dimensions of Killing vetor space in low dimensisional case can be determined. It shows the gap phenomenon almost disappear in the (α,β)-space.%本文证明了非Riemannian(α,β)-空间中的Killing向量场最大维数是n(n-1)/2+1.并且给出了具有最大维数Killing向量场的非Riemannian (α,β)-空间的度量形式.最后,若进一步假定α是一个齐性Riemannian度量,则可确定(α,β)-空间的第二空隙.最后给出几个低维流形上Killing场空间维数的例子,这表明在(α,β)情形下Killing场空间维数的空隙被压缩.

  4. Solving the Poisson partial differential equation using vector space projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marendic, Boris

    This research presents a new approach at solving the Poisson partial differential equation using Vector Space Projection (VSP) methods. The work attacks the Poisson equation as encountered in two-dimensional phase unwrapping problems, and in two-dimensional electrostatic problems. Algorithms are developed by first considering simple one-dimensional cases, and then extending them to two-dimensional problems. In the context of phase unwrapping of two-dimensional phase functions, we explore an approach to the unwrapping using a robust extrapolation-projection algorithm. The unwrapping is done iteratively by modification of the Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) extrapolation algorithm, and the solution is refined by projecting onto the available global data. An important contribution to the extrapolation algorithm is the formulation of the algorithm with the relaxed bandwidth constraint, and the proof that such modified GP extrapolation algorithm still converges. It is also shown that the unwrapping problem is ill-posed in the VSP setting, and that the modified GP algorithm is the missing link to pushing the iterative algorithm out of the trap solution under certain conditions. Robustness of the algorithm is demonstrated through its performance in a noisy environment. Performance is demonstrated by applying it to phantom phase functions, as well as to the real phase functions. Results are compared to well known algorithms in literature. Unlike many existing unwrapping methods which perform unwrapping locally, this work approaches the unwrapping problem from a globally, and eliminates the need for guiding instruments, like quality maps. VSP algorithm also very effectively battles problems of shadowing and holes, where data is not available or is heavily corrupted. In solving the classical Poisson problems in electrostatics, we demonstrate the effectiveness and ease of implementation of the VSP methodology to solving the equation, as well as imposing of the boundary conditions

  5. Detection of two-sided alternatives in a Brownian motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiliadis, Olympia

    2007-01-01

    This work examines the problem of sequential detection of a change in the drift of a Brownian motion in the case of two-sided alternatives. Applications to real life situations in which two-sided changes can occur are discussed. Traditionally, 2-CUSUM stopping rules have been used for this problem due to their asymptotically optimal character as the mean time between false alarms tends to $\\infty$. In particular, attention has focused on 2-CUSUM harmonic mean rules due to the simplicity in calculating their first moments. In this paper, we derive closed-form expressions for the first moment of a general 2-CUSUM stopping rule. We use these expressions to obtain explicit upper and lower bounds for it. Moreover, we derive an expression for the rate of change of this first moment as one of the threshold parameters changes. Based on these expressions we obtain explicit upper and lower bounds to this rate of change. Using these expressions we are able to find the best 2-CUSUM stopping rule with respect to the exten...

  6. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jawahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E. Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.

  7. First Direct Two-Sided Bound on the B_s^0 Oscillation Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, K; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V

    2006-01-01

    We report the first direct two-sided bound on the $B^0_s$ oscillation frequency using a large sample of $B^0_s$ semileptonic decays corresponding to approximately 1 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected by the \\dzer\\ experiment in 2002--2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The flavor (i.e., $B^0_s$ or $\\bar{B}^0_s$) of the \\bs meson at the time of production was found using an opposite-side tagging technique, and the flavor at the time of decay was determined from the charge of the muon in the partially reconstructed decay $\\bs\\to \\mu^{+}D_{s}^{-}X$, $D_{s}^{-}\\to \\phi \\pi^{-}$, $\\phi\\to K^{+}K^{-}$. A likelihood scan over the oscillation frequency, $\\Delta m_s$, gives a most probable value of 19 ps$^{-1}$ and a range of $17 < \\Delta m_s < 21$ ps$^{-1}$ at the 90% C.L. At $\\Delta m_s=19$ ps$^{-1}$, the amplitude method yields a result that deviates from the hypothesis of an oscillation amplitude of zero by 2.5 standard deviations, corresponding to a two-sided C.L. of 1%.

  8. Interaction of Gap Flow With Flapping Dynamics of Two Side-by-Side Elastic Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli, Pardha S.; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical analysis on the interaction between two side-by-side elastic foils with their leading edges clamped and the gap flow between them. We perform systematic parametric direct numerical simulations as a function of nondimensional bending rigidity, KB ∈ [ 1 ×10-4 , 3 ×10-3 ] and mass-ratio, m* ∈ [ 0 . 05 , 0 . 2 ] , for a fixed gap, dp = 0 . 2 / L , at the leading edge and Reynolds number, Re = 1000 to explain the underlying physical mechanism behind the in-phase and out-of-phase coupled flapping modes. The parametric simulations show that the parallel foil system exhibits predominant out-of-phase coupling for low mass-ratio m* 0 . 1 . We also show that the two side-by-side elastic foils always exhibit out-of-phase coupling initially irrespective of whether the fully developed flapping show out-of-phase or in-phase coupled mode. Finally, we show that the transition from the initial out-of-phase to stable in-phase is characterized by loss of gap flow symmetric stability to undergo oscillations at the gap exit.

  9. Voltage space vector's computation for current control in three phase converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Berzoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta dos técnicas de control de corriente para convertidores trifásicos de voltaje trabajando como rectificadores controlados, operando con factor de potencia unitario. El primer algoritmo está basado en la escogencia del mejor vector natural, entre los 7 vectores espaciales naturales del convertidor de dos niveles de voltaje trifásico, mediante una función de costo. El segundo está basado en el cómputo y síntesis del vector espacial óptimo de convertidores trifásicos tal que el se obtiene el vector que proporciona un mínimo absoluto de la función de costo. El primer algoritmo es un método sencillo que controla muy bien el factor de potencia y presenta una considerable compensación del contenido armónico. El segundo algoritmo provee una nueva formula cerrada para calcular el vector de voltaje óptimo aplicado al convertidor. Para este segundo método se necesita generar la señal de control con un modulador de ancho de pulso para así controlar directamente la corriente de línea permitiendo seguir la referencia de corriente. Las simulaciones y resultados experimentales muestran las ventajas del algoritmo propuesto.

  10. Brief Communication: Breeding vectors in the phase space reconstructed from time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Erin; Kaufman, Daniel; Surjalal Sharma, A.; Kalnay, Eugenia; Ide, Kayo

    2016-06-01

    Bred vectors characterize the nonlinear instability of dynamical systems and so far have been computed only for systems with known evolution equations. In this article, bred vectors are computed from a single time series data using time-delay embedding, with a new technique, nearest-neighbor breeding. Since the dynamical properties of the standard and nearest-neighbor breeding are shown to be similar, this provides a new and novel way to model and predict sudden transitions in systems represented by time series data alone.

  11. A much larger class of Frolicher spaces than that of convenient vector spaces may embed into the Cahier topos

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the category of Frolicher spaces and smooth mappings is Cartesian-closed. The principal objective in this paper is to show that the full subcategory of Frolicher spaces that believe that every Weil functor is really an exponentiation by the corresponding infinitesimal object in fantasy is also Cartesian-closed. Under the assumption that a conjecture holds, it is shown that these Frolicher spaces embed into the Cahier topos with the Cartesian-closed structure preserved.

  12. Sliding Mode Control of Three Levels Back-To-Back VSC-HVDC System Using Space Vector Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouafia Saber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a sliding mode strategy proposed to control a three levels Back-to-Back High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC system based on the three-level voltage source converter (VSC. The voltage-balancing control of two split DC capacitors of the VSC-HVDC system is achieved using three-level space vector modulation with balancing strategy based on the effective use of the redundant switching states of the inverter voltage vectors. Finally, a complete simulation of the VSC-HVDC system validates the efficiency of the proposed strategy law. Compared to the conventional control, Sliding Mode Control scheme for the VSC-HVDC system shows the attractive advantages such as offering high tracking accuracy, fast dynamic response and good robustness.

  13. Improving the Drive System of Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor Based on Direct Thrust Force Control Applying Space Vector Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Manoochehri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Applying the direct thrust force control (DFC method in permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM leads to some important problems. The most important disadvantages of applying this method are electromagnetic force and linkage flux big ripple and variable switching frequency. In this paper space vector modulation (SVM technique is applied for removing the disadvantages of classic DFC method. SVM technique makes the switching frequency constant and provides continues Voltage space compared with discrete space in classic method. Simulation results confirmed the theory. They show that combining the DFC method with SVM technique removes lots of the disadvantages of classic DFC method like big ripples and variable switching and remains the benefits of this method.

  14. 基于FPGA的空间矢量PWM的实现%A Realization of FPGA-based Space-vector PWM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文焕; 程善美; 秦忆

    2000-01-01

    本文详述了空间矢量SVPWM的算法,并提出用FPGA实现SVPWM的方法,最后分析了使用FPGA的优点。%This paper reviews an arithmetic of the space-vector PWM in detail,and advances a realization of FPGA-based space-vector PWM ,finally analyses the merit of FPGA-based strategy.

  15. Massless correlators of vector, scalar and tensor currents in position space at orders alpha_s^3 and alpha_s^4: explicit analytical results

    OpenAIRE

    Chetyrkin, K. G.; Maier, A

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results both in momentum and position space for the massless correlators of the vector and scalar currents to order alpha_s^4 as well as for the tensor currents to order alpha_s^3. The evolution equations for the correlators together with all relevant anomalous dimensions are discussed in detail. As an application we present explicit conversion formulas relating the MSbar-renormalized vector, scalar and tensor currents to their counterparts renormalized in the X-space re...

  16. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  17. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Matthias; Vykoukal, Jody; Recio Boiles, Alejandro; Coleman, Michael; Alt, Eckhard

    2014-07-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and other origins have recently received much attention as potential therapeutic agents with beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. In their native tissue environment, however, such cells also appear to have essential functions in building and supporting tumor microenvironments, providing metastatic niches, and maintaining cancer hallmarks. Here, we consider the varied roles of these tissue-resident stroma-associated cells, synthesize recent and emerging discoveries, and discuss the role, potential, and clinical applications of MSCs in cancer and regenerative medicine.-Ilmer, M., Vykoukal, J., Recio Boiles, A., Coleman, M., Alt, E. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  18. Indirect-drive inertial fusion targets for two-sided heavy-ion illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, G. N.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Ryabikina, N. A.; Shagaliev, R. M.; Vakhlamova, L. L.; Vatulin, V. V.; Vinokurov, O. A.; Bock, R.; Kang, K.-H.; Maruhn, J. A.

    The properties of heavy-ion induced fusion targets with two-sided illumination and with the converters placed completely inside the hohlraum have been investigated using integrated simulations based on the SATURN and MIMOZA code packages in order to check the results obtained with the view factor method in previous work, which is briefly reviewed. Separate converter simulations show the importance of an accurate treatment of radiation transport and also demonstrate that a converter efficiency of 40 - 80% can be achieved easily depending on the detailed converter material and geometry. For the complete target, a gas fill is shown to be necessary and it turned out to be very important to allow some of the radiation shields to become partially transparent during the evolution. In the most favorable case, an asymmetry in the temperature on the capsule of about 5% was achieved, leading to a reduction of the neutron yield by a factor of 7 compared to an ideally symmetric situation.

  19. The deinkability improvement of offset prints made from a two-side coated substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Barbaric-Mikocevic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the improved removal of impurities (coating, ink/toner from offset prints produced by digital printing of two-side coated paper. The substrates were printed by conventional and digital offset processes. Based on image analysis results it was established that deinking flotation is an inefficient method for ink particle removal from digital offset printed paper, but it is efficient for ink removal from conventional offset printed paper. On the other hand, pre-treatment with hydrogen peroxide solution gives better results for ink particle removal from digital offset prints than from conventional offset prints. Optimal parameters for hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment for both offset prints were chosen based on unprinted substrate mass loss results in the preliminary investigation. These results showed that hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment is more successful at removal of impurities in comparison with flotation deinking without pre-treatment.

  20. Measured Data Processing Method For Relative Motions Between Two Side-by-side Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-an Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and implement a wave compensation system to reduce the relative motion between two side-by-side ships in waves, a new method to process measured data of ship model test with contact measurement to study the characteristics of relative motion was presented. The reference co-ordinate systems and relative motions were defined, and the scheme of the model test was described. Then the Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD adaptive filter were designed, the frequency domain integration transform method based upon Fast Fourier Transform(FFT were established. The procedure to transform acceleration signal into displacement was proposed and verified, and the processing results with and without EMD adaptive filter were compared. Finally, the relative motions consistent with reality were acquired, which indicates this method is effective for measured data processing.

  1. Coupled resonator induced transparency in surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide with two side-coupled cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengren, E-mail: zhrenzhang@126.com [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Liwei [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Yin, Pengfei; Han, Xiangyu [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation process of coupled resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide system containing two side-coupled cavities, which locate at a symmetric position. The CRIT is original from the destructive interference of the two detuned cavities. In contrast with the existing electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes, the occurrence of the CRIT is caused by the two radiative cavities in waveguide, instead of interference between a dark cavity and radiative cavity. This behavior mimics the quantum interference between two direct excitation pathways in a three-level V-type atom. The transmission lineshape can be tuned between an EIT-like resonant peak and a Lorentzian-like resonant dip by tailoring the detuning of the two cavities. Moreover, we also find that the transparency peak moves to high frequency with a line shift and its Q factor decreases with the increase of coupling distance between the cavities and waveguide.

  2. Weak Precompactness in the Space of Vector-Valued Measures of Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ghenciu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a Banach space X and a measure space (Ω,Σ, let M(Ω,X be the space of all X-valued countably additive measures on (Ω,Σ of bounded variation, with the total variation norm. In this paper we give a characterization of weakly precompact subsets of M(Ω,X.

  3. NOISE REDUCTION FOR FAST FADING CHANNEL BY RECURRENT LEAST SQUARES SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES IN EMBEDDING PHASE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zheng; Zhang Taiyi; Sun Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    A new strategy for noise reduction of fast fading channel is presented. Firstly, more information is acquired utilizing the reconstructed embedding phase space. Then, based on the Recurrent Least Squares Support Vector Machines (RLS-SVM), noise reduction of the fast fading channel is realized. This filtering technique does not make use of the spectral contents of the signal. Based on the stability and the fractal of the chaotic attractor, the RLS-SVM algorithm is a better candidate for the nonlinear time series noise-reduction. The simulation results shows that better noise-reduction performance is acquired when the signal to noise ratio is 12dB.

  4. Multiple-output support vector machine regression with feature selection for arousal/valence space emotion assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Valencia, Cristian A; Álvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco-Gutiérrez, Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    Human emotion recognition (HER) allows the assessment of an affective state of a subject. Until recently, such emotional states were described in terms of discrete emotions, like happiness or contempt. In order to cover a high range of emotions, researchers in the field have introduced different dimensional spaces for emotion description that allow the characterization of affective states in terms of several variables or dimensions that measure distinct aspects of the emotion. One of the most common of such dimensional spaces is the bidimensional Arousal/Valence space. To the best of our knowledge, all HER systems so far have modelled independently, the dimensions in these dimensional spaces. In this paper, we study the effect of modelling the output dimensions simultaneously and show experimentally the advantages in modeling them in this way. We consider a multimodal approach by including features from the Electroencephalogram and a few physiological signals. For modelling the multiple outputs, we employ a multiple output regressor based on support vector machines. We also include an stage of feature selection that is developed within an embedded approach known as Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), proposed initially for SVM. The results show that several features can be eliminated using the multiple output support vector regressor with RFE without affecting the performance of the regressor. From the analysis of the features selected in smaller subsets via RFE, it can be observed that the signals that are more informative into the arousal and valence space discrimination are the EEG, Electrooculogram/Electromiogram (EOG/EMG) and the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR).

  5. Modeling Interferometric Structures with Birefringent Elements: A Linear Vector-Space Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    the conventional representation, state |si〉 is repre- sented by the 3D vector ~si as well as a “fiducial paddle ” which permits an overall phase to be...which is represented by a fiducial paddle attached to ~s. Thus, in rotating through angle φ, the orientation of the initial fiducial paddle at ~si is...changed to the grey shaded paddle at ~sf . The overall phase change is represented by a rotation of the fiducial paddle by an additional Modeling

  6. HERO: a space based low frequency interferometric observatory for heliophysicsenabled by novel vector sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-07

    simultane-225 ously provide loop and dipole modes [ King , 1959; Robey et al., 2016]. A perimeter loop226 provides the third loop antenna along with mechanical... Stephen White, Kamen Kozarev, Sarah Klein, Sara Seager, Fash Azad, Will287 Rogers, Tom Brown.288 Generous support for the development of the vector...20th National Solar Physics Meeting, held 31 May - 4 June, 2010 in310 Papradno, Slovakia, p. 108-130, pp. 108–130, 2010.311 King , R. The rectangular

  7. An explicit Ricci potential for the Universal Moduli Space of Vector Bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Poulsen, Niccolo Skovgård

    In this paper we modify the coordinate construction in [5] on the universal moduli space of pair consisting of a Riemann Surfaces and a stable holomorphic bundles on the Riemann Surface, so as to produce a new set of coordinates, which are in fact Kähler coordinates on this universal moduli space....... Further, we give a functional determinant formula for the Ricci potential of the universal moduli space....

  8. Vector-Valued almost Convergence and Classical Properties in Normed Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Aizpuru; R Armario; F J Garcia-Pacheco; F J Perez-Fernandez

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we study the almost convergence and the almost summability in normed spaces. Among other things, spaces of sequences defined by the almost convergence and the almost summability are proved to be complete if the basis normed space is so. Finally, some classical properties such as completeness, reflexivity, Schur property, Grothendieck property, and the property of containing a copy of 0 are characterized in terms of the almost convergence.

  9. The approximation property of some vector valued Sobolev-Slobodeckij spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bosch

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Sobolev-Slobodeckij spaces Wm,p(ℜn,E where E is a strict (LF-space, m∈(0,∞\\ℕ and p∈[1,∞. We prove that Wm,p(ℜn,E has the approximation property provided E has it, furthermore if E is a Banach space with the strict approximation property then Wm,p(ℜn,E has this property.

  10. 新型SVPWM调制方法研究%Research on a Novel Space Vector PWM Modulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐传芳; 张可畏; 王英; 李东辉

    2012-01-01

    在阐述传统SVPWM调制方式的基础上,推导出了SVPWM的一种新型调制方法.该方法直接利用三相相电压的大小进行简单的大小判断即可得到空间矢量所在扇区,同时利用三相相电压的简单加减运算就可以得到非零矢量的导通时间,避免了传统SVPWM算法中三相到两相的Clark坐标变换、三角函数计算等过程,简化了SVPWM算法步骤,实现方式简单快速,实时性强.最后利用该算法对一台三相异步电动机进行了仿真,仿真结果验证了该算法的正确性.%A novel modulation algorithm of space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) was proposed based on the conventional SVPWM. In the algorithm, the sector of space vector was determined by simple comparison of the value of three-phase voltage and the duty cycle of non-zero vector was calculated simply by addition and subtraction to the phase voltage. The complexity was reduced by avoiding the Clark coordinate transformations and trigonometric function calculation in the conventional SVPWM. The simulation of a three-phase asynchronous motor was built by using the novel SVPWM. The results verify the validity of the algorithm.

  11. Back-to-back three-level converter controlled by a novel space-vector hysteresis current control for wind conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghennam, Tarak [Laboratoire d' Electronique de Puissance (LEP), UER: Electrotechnique, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique d' Alger, BP 17, Bordj EL Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Berkouk, El-Madjid [Laboratoire de Commande des Processus (LCP), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d' Alger, BP 182, 10 avenue Hassen Badi, 16200 el Harrach (Algeria)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a novel space-vector hysteresis current control (SVHCC) is proposed for a back-to-back three-level converter which is used as an electronic interface in a wind conversion system. The proposed SVHCC controls the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid by the doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) through the control of its rotor currents. In addition, it controls the neutral point voltage by using the redundant inverter switching states. The three rotor current errors are gathered into a single space-vector quantity. The magnitude of the error vector is limited within boundary areas of a square shape. The control scheme is based firstly on the detection of the area and sector in which the vector tip of the current error can be located. Then, an appropriate voltage vector among the 27 voltage vectors of the three-level voltage source inverter (VSI) is applied to push the error vector towards the hysteresis boundaries. Simple look-up tables are required for the area and sector detection, and also for vector selection. The performance of the proposed control technique has been verified by simulations. (author)

  12. The stratified two-sided jet of Cygnus A. Acceleration and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, B; Bach, U; Mertens, F; Ros, E; Alef, W; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry observations of relativistic jets are essential to constrain fundamental parameters of jet formation models. At a distance of 249 Mpc, Cygnus A is a unique target for such studies, being the only Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxy for which a detailed sub-parsec scale imaging of the base of both jet and counter-jet can be obtained. Observing at millimeter wavelengths unveils those regions which appear self-absorbed at longer wavelengths and enables an extremely sharp view towards the nucleus to be obtained. We performed 7 mm Global VLBI observations, achieving ultra-high resolution imaging on scales down to 90 $\\mu$as. This resolution corresponds to a linear scale of only ${\\sim}$400 Schwarzschild radii (for $M_{\\mathrm{BH}}=2.5 \\times 10^9 M_{\\odot}$). We studied the kinematic properties of the main emission features of the two-sided flow and probed its transverse structure through a pixel-based analysis. We suggest that a fast and a slow layer, with differ...

  13. Chaotic-periodic transition in a two-sided minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Guang; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Phase transitions are being used increasingly to probe the collective behaviors of social human systems. In this study, we propose a different way of investigating such transitions in a human system by establishing a two-sided minority game model. A new type of agents who can actively transfer resources are added to our artificial bipartite resource-allocation market. The degree of deviation from equilibria is characterized by the entropy-like quantity of market complexity. Under different threshold values, Q th , two phases are found by calculating the exponents of the associated power spectra. For large values of Q th , the general motion of strategies for the agents is relatively periodic whereas for low values of Q th , the motion becomes chaotic. The transition occurs abruptly at a critical value of Q th . Our simulation results were also tested based on human experiments. The results of this study suggest that a chaotic-periodic transition related to the quantity of market information should exist in most bipartite markets, thereby allowing better control of such a transition and providing a better understanding of the endogenous emergence of business cycles from the perspective of quantum mechanics.

  14. Three--dimensional Instability in the Wake of Two Side--by--side Square Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Choon-Bum; Jang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional instability in the flow past two square cylinders in side-by-side arrangements has been numerically studied via a Floquet stability analysis. The distance between the neighboring faces of the two cylinders (G) is the key parameter which affects the secondary instability under consideration. In this talk, we present the critical Reynolds number for the 3D instability and the spanwise wave number corresponding to the most unstable (or least stable) wave for each G. When the two cylinders are close to each other, the Floquet mode resembles mode A of flow past a single cylinder. For large G, the Floquet mode for each cylinder is independent of the neighboring cylinder as expected. In the range of intermediate G, interference of the two wakes is clearly reflected in the Floquet mode. We also discuss about the effect of gap flow, and visualization of the dominant 3D vortical structures is provided by using Q contours. Our results shed light on a complete understanding of the onset of 3D instability in the presence of two side-by-side square cylinders. This work was supported by Korea Railroad Research Institute (Research Title: The study of standardization for urban railway facilities (SW 11002)).

  15. Low contrast detectability of a new CR system with two-sided reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katou, Toyoyuki; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Emi; Shinkai, Eishu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    A new imaging plate (IP) with a transparent support and reading system that can detect emissions from both sides of the IP has been developed and has already been introduced in some facilities. In this study, low contrast threshold detectability was investigated experimentally for a CR system with a two-sided reading system (new CR) and for a conventional CR system. Images of a Contrast-Detail phantom were obtained with the new and conventional CR systems at dose levels corresponding to 26%, 49%, 82%, 103%, and 164% of the dose used for the screen-film system. Using an observer performance study of Contrast-Detail phantom images, the threshold contrast of disk-shaped objects ranging from 0.3 mm to 4.0 mm in diameter was determined. We also calculated image quality figure (IQF) from the results of observation. The new CR system showed significantly better contrast detectability than the conventional CR system. The use of a new CR system provided a reduction of approximately 25% in radiographic dose while providing comparable IQF. (author)

  16. Housing Programs as Vectors of Urban Space Production - Their Impact on Families in Socio-Environmental Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Scheffer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary results of the research of doctorate on urban space production in relation to housing in Ponta Grossa, Brazil, regarding the support to families in socio-environmental risk. The soil use and occupation are historically produced and reveal the dynamics of each society and the interaction between several social segments. Public policies foster the production of urban space, more specifically the housing policy, through the implementation of programs that define characteristics of space concentration and determine the population profile. In March 2009, the Program “My House My Life” was launched, this is a Federal Program that in one of its income groups aims to prioritize the support to families living in risky or unhealthy areas or that have become homeless, therefore, are exposed to socio-environmental risk. This study presents preliminary results regarding the analysis of urban space production, under the perspective of sustainability and considering the implementation of the Housing Program in the city of Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, from 2010 to 2013. This city is relevant for the study as it received high investment of Federal resources to build housing units. The city also presents a large number of precarious settlements with families living in socio-environmental risk and who demand housing. The methodology adopted is the Henri Lefebvre Method, called regressive-progressive, which helps to reflect on the historicity of the space production. Research preliminary data was gathered from governmental organizations documents. The housing policy is shown as a vector of space production in which some distancing of the individuals involved might occur regarding the moments of the policy conception and its implementation.Key words: Families in socio-environmental risk, housing policy, space production

  17. Space optical remote sensor image motion velocity vector computational modeling, error budget and synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqi Wang; Ping Yu; Changxiang Yan; Jianyue Ren; Bin He

    2005-01-01

    @@ For space optical remote sensor (SORS) with either film or time delay and integrate charge coupled device (TDI-CCD) imaging, in order to achieve higher resolution it requires more accurate real-time image motion compensation.

  18. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  19. Colorings of simplicial complexes and vector bundles over Davis-Januszkiewicz spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Notbohm, D.R.A.W.

    2009-01-01

    We show that coloring properties of a simplicial complex K are reflected by splitting properties of a bundle over the associated Davis-Januszkiewicz space whose Chern classes are given by the elementary symmetric polynomials in the generators of the Stanley-Reisner algebra of K.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel control design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC. This design is enabled by a control framework that employs Genetic Algorithm which determines optimum points and angle for filtering and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique (SVPWM to offer significant flexibility to optimize waveform. In addition the same framework integrates the major functions of the UPQC with ease to unify the treatments of several power quality problems including system harmonics in the supply voltage and load current, sags/swells in the supply voltage, variations in the load demands and poor power factor at the supply side. Simulation studies on a three phase power distribution system are used to verify the performance and implementation of this control design with the UPQC.

  1. A Novel Technique on Simulation of A Space Vector PWM Controller for a Three Level Inverter FED Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radha Krishna Reddy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverters are increasingly being used in high-power medium voltage applications due to their superior performance compared to two-level inverters. Among various modulation techniques for a multilevel inverter, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM is widely used. This paper deals with the three-phase three-level inverter fed induction motor drive. The proposed scheme deals with the development and implementation of three phase three level inverter to improve the efficiency and reliability of the inverter. Simulation tests have been carried out to examine the operating characteristics of the completed three-phase three-level inverter driving induction motor and an RL load with different switching devices and are compared

  2. Cosmological Solutions of Tensor–Vector Theories of Gravity by Varying the Space-Time–Matter Coupling Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Izadi; A. Shojai; M. Nouradini

    2013-03-01

    We consider tensor–vector theories by varying the space-time–matter coupling constant (varying Einstein velocity) in a spatially flat FRW universe.We examine the dynamics of this model by dynamical system method assuming a CDM background and we find some exact solutions by considering the character of critical points of the theory and their stability conditions. Then we reconstruct the potential (2) and the coupling (2) by demanding a background CDM cosmology. Also we set restrictions on the varying Einstein velocity to solve the horizon problem. This gives a selection rule for choosing the appropriate stable solution. We will see that it is possible to produce the background expansion history () indicated by observations. Finally we will discuss the behavior of the speed of light (E) for those solutions.

  3. Nonlocal multi-scale traffic flow models: analysis beyond vector spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Kloeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Realistic models of traffic flow are nonlinear and involve nonlocal effects in balance laws. Flow characteristics of different types of vehicles, such as cars and trucks, need to be described differently. Two alternatives are used here, $$L^p$$ L p -valued Lebesgue measurable density functions and signed Radon measures. The resulting solution spaces are metric spaces that do not have a linear structure, so the usual convenient methods of functional analysis are no longer applicable. Instead ideas from mutational analysis will be used, in particular the method of Euler compactness will be applied to establish the well-posedness of the nonlocal balance laws. This involves the concatenation of solutions of piecewise linear systems on successive time subintervals obtained by freezing the nonlinear nonlocal coefficients to their values at the start of each subinterval. Various compactness criteria lead to a convergent subsequence. Careful estimates of the linear systems are needed to implement this program.

  4. Laboratory Research on Effective Test Area of Short-Crested Waves Generated by Two-Sided Segmented Wavemakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 陈刚; 杨建民; 彭涛

    2014-01-01

    The size and shape of the effective test area are crucial to consider when short-crested waves are created by segmented wavemakers. The range of the effective test area of short-crested waves simulated by two-sided segmented wavemakers is analyzed in this paper. The experimental investigation on the wave field distribution of short-crested waves generated by two-sided segmented wavemakers is conducted by using an array of wave gauges. Wave spectra and directional spreading function are analyzed and the results show that when the main direction is at a certain angle with the normal line of wave generators, the wave field of 3D short-crested waves generated by two-sided segmented wavemakers has good spatial uniformity within the model test area. The effective test area can provide good wave environments for seakeeping model tests of various ocean engineering structures in the deep ocean engineering basin.

  5. On a vector space representation in genetic algorithms for sensor scheduling in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, F V C; Carrano, E G; Wanner, E F; Takahashi, R H C; Mateus, G R; Nakamura, F G

    2014-01-01

    Recent works raised the hypothesis that the assignment of a geometry to the decision variable space of a combinatorial problem could be useful both for providing meaningful descriptions of the fitness landscape and for supporting the systematic construction of evolutionary operators (the geometric operators) that make a consistent usage of the space geometric properties in the search for problem optima. This paper introduces some new geometric operators that constitute the realization of searches along the combinatorial space versions of the geometric entities descent directions and subspaces. The new geometric operators are stated in the specific context of the wireless sensor network dynamic coverage and connectivity problem (WSN-DCCP). A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for the WSN-DCCP using the proposed operators, being compared with a formulation based on integer linear programming (ILP) which is solved with exact methods. That ILP formulation adopts a proxy objective function based on the minimization of energy consumption in the network, in order to approximate the objective of network lifetime maximization, and a greedy approach for dealing with the system's dynamics. To the authors' knowledge, the proposed GA is the first algorithm to outperform the lifetime of networks as synthesized by the ILP formulation, also running in much smaller computational times for large instances.

  6. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Corey J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A.; Lenahan, Patrick M.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  7. Vectorized magnetometer for space applications using electrical readout of atomic scale defects in silicon carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Corey J; Blacksberg, Jordana; Anders, Mark A; Lenahan, Patrick M

    2016-11-28

    Magnetometers are essential for scientific investigation of planetary bodies and are therefore ubiquitous on missions in space. Fluxgate and optically pumped atomic gas based magnetometers are typically flown because of their proven performance, reliability, and ability to adhere to the strict requirements associated with space missions. However, their complexity, size, and cost prevent their applicability in smaller missions involving cubesats. Conventional solid-state based magnetometers pose a viable solution, though many are prone to radiation damage and plagued with temperature instabilities. In this work, we report on the development of a new self-calibrating, solid-state based magnetometer which measures magnetic field induced changes in current within a SiC pn junction caused by the interaction of external magnetic fields with the atomic scale defects intrinsic to the semiconductor. Unlike heritage designs, the magnetometer does not require inductive sensing elements, high frequency radio, and/or optical circuitry and can be made significantly more compact and lightweight, thus enabling missions leveraging swarms of cubesats capable of science returns not possible with a single large-scale satellite. Additionally, the robustness of the SiC semiconductor allows for operation in extreme conditions such as the hot Venusian surface and the high radiation environment of the Jovian system.

  8. Effect of gold nanoparticles on structure and dynamics of binary Lennard-Jones liquid: Wave-vector space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separdar, L.; Davatolhagh, S.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations at constant (N , V , T) are used to study the mutual effects of gold nanoparticles on the structure and dynamics of Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones (BLJ) liquid within the framework of mode coupling theory of dynamic glass transition in the reciprocal space. The results show the 'softening' effect of the gold nanoparticles on the liquid dynamics in terms of (i) reducing the mode coupling crossover temperature Tc with respect to that of the bulk BLJ (i.e. BLJ without nanoparticles), (ii) decreasing the time interval of β-relaxation, and (iii) decreasing the exponent γ characterizing the power-law behavior of the α-relaxation time. This softening effect is explained in terms of the van der Waals attraction between the gold atoms comprising the nanoparticle and the BLJ host atoms, such that adsorption of host atoms onto the nanoparticle surface creates more space or free-volume for the other atoms to diffuse. By the same token interactions of purely excluded-volume-type are expected to result in the opposite effect. It is also noted that, much unlike BLJ host particles, the dynamics of gold nanoparticles is much less dependent on the wave-vector and that it exhibits a nearly exponential behavior in the α-relaxation regime.

  9. The Momentum 4-Vector in Bulk Viscous Bianchi Type-V Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Aydogdu, O; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Using the Einstein and Bergmann-Thomson prescriptions, the energy and momentum distributions for the Bianchi type-V bulk viscous space-time are evaluated in both general relativity and the teleparallel gravity (the tetrad theory of gravity). It is shown that for the Bianchi type-V bulk viscous solution, the energy and momentum due to matter and fields including gravity are the same in both the methods used. This paper indicates an important point that these energy-momentum definitions agree with each other not only in general relativity but also in teleparallel gravity and sustains the results obtained by some physicist who show that the energy-momentum definitions of Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Papapetrou, Weinberg, Penrose and Bergmann-Thomson complexes give the same energy expression in general relativity.

  10. The generalized vector convex-like mappings on real linear spaces%实线性空间中的广义向量类凸性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国林; 刘三阳

    2008-01-01

    By using the concept of vector closure,a property of the generalized vector convexlike maps on real linear spaces is presented and it is showed that the Slater constraint qualification for vector optimization holds if the constraint mapping is the generalized vector convexlike. Furthermore, characterization of proper effi-ciency is established in terms of saddle-point criterion.%作者利用向量闭包给出了实线性空间上广义向量类凸映射的一个性质,并依此说明在向量优化问题中,如果约束映射是广义向量类凸的则Slater约束品性成立.另外,作者利用鞍点准则刻画了实线性空问中的真有效性.

  11. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Scope of Free Speech and Hate Speech in the College Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Faye

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the Two Sides interviews, which confront the serious and immediate conflict between free speech and hate speech on college campuses. Dr. Robert O' Neil discusses the scope of free speech in the college community, while Dr. Timothy Shiell focuses on hate speech on campuses. Contains 12 references. (VWC)

  12. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Scope of Free Speech and Hate Speech in the College Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Faye

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the Two Sides interviews, which confront the serious and immediate conflict between free speech and hate speech on college campuses. Dr. Robert O' Neil discusses the scope of free speech in the college community, while Dr. Timothy Shiell focuses on hate speech on campuses. Contains 12 references. (VWC)

  13. Assessing Unilateral Merger Effects in a Two-Sided Market : An Application to the Dutch Daily Newspaper Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2011-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. For this, we first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products on both the readership and the advertisin

  14. 双边Prequantale中的Frame核映射%A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少贤; 王顺钦; 马菲菲

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined.The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  15. Classification of gap flow regimes in two side-by-side circular cylinders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Atkins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the flow around two circular cylinders arranged in a side-by-side configuration strongly depends on the transverse center-to-center gap spacing ratio (T/D) where D is the cylinder diameter. Based on the observed wake structure [13...

  16. Open loop control of an induction motor's velocity using PWM with space vectors; Control en lazo abierto de la velocidad de un motor de induccion utilizando PWM con vectores espaciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, Manuel

    2001-10-15

    This work describes the design and implementation of an open loop speed controller for an induction motor. This controller is based on a DSP TMS320F240 chip from Texas Instruments. Speed control is achieved by maintaining the magnetic flux constant through the regularization of stator voltage/frequency relationship. Voltage and frequency variation are achieved using the strategy of pulse width modulation with space vectors. Hardware design is presented (current source and the printed circuit for the intelligent power module) and the software (control algorithms and the modulation strategy using space vectors). The algorithms given were implement using the TMS320F240 language. [Spanish] Este trabajo describe el diseno y la implementacion de un control de la velocidad en lazo abierto de un motor de induccion, basado en el DSP TMS320F240 de Texas Instruments. El control de la velocidad se logra manteniendo el flujo en el entre hierro constante, lo cual es realizado al regular el valor de la relacion voltaje/frecuencia en el estator. La variacion del voltaje y la frecuencia se realiza utilizando la estrategia de modulacion del ancho de los pulsos con vectores espaciales. Se presenta el diseno de los circuitos (fuente de corriente continua y circuito impreso para el modulo inteligente de potencia) y de los programas (algoritmos de control y de la estrategia de modulacion con vectores espaciales) necesarios que se utilizaron durante la implementacion del accionamiento del motor. Los algoritmos dados fueron implementados en el lenguaje ensamblador del TMS320F240.

  17. On the stability of the first order linear recurrence in topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Moslehian, Mohammad Sal

    2010-01-01

    Suppose that $\\mathcal{X}$ is a sequentially complete Hausdorff locally convex space over a scalar field $\\mathbb{K}$, $V$ is a bounded subset of $\\mathcal{X}$, $(a_n)_{n\\ge 0}$ is a sequence in $\\mathbb{K}\\setminus\\{0\\}$ with the property\\ $\\ds\\liminf_{n\\to\\infty} |a_n|>1$ and $(b_n)_{n\\ge 0}$ is a sequence in $\\mathcal{X}$. We show that for every sequence $(x_n)_{n\\ge 0}$ in $\\mathcal{X}$ satisfying \\begin{eqnarray*} x_{n+1}-a_nx_n-b_n\\in V\\q(n\\geq 0) \\end{eqnarray*} there exists a unique sequence $(y_n)_{n\\ge 0}$ satisfying the recurrence $y_{n+1}=a_ny_n+b_n\\,\\,(n\\geq 0)$ and for every $q$ with $1

  18. Research and Realization of Space Vector Information Progressive Transmission%空间矢量信息渐进传输研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素悦

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of transfering a great deal of space vector data, this paper puts forward a solution of space vector information progressive transmission. It expounds the basic idea of space vector information progressive transmission which includes space vector information of integration, selection, summarization, simplification, and designs the saving mode of database. From the progressive transmission realization of Guangdong administrative map, it proves that the method can make the user have no network delay feeling, when it disposes the processing of data transmission, and reduces the occupied network bandwidth.%为解决大量空间矢量数据的传输问题,提出一种空间矢量信息渐进传输解决方法.阐述空间矢量信息渐进传输的基本思想,包括空间矢量信息的综合、选取、概括、简化,设计数据库存储模式.以广东省行政区域图渐进传输的实现,证明该方法在处理大数据量传输时能使用户无网络延时感,且减少占用的网络带宽.

  19. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  20. 基于向量空间的中文概念检索技术研究%Research on the Vector Space- based Chinese Concept Retrieval Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗威

    2003-01-01

    Concept retrieval can achieve better results as it deals with the user's request on the concept level. This article introduces the vector space-based concept retrieval technology. Firstly, it explains why this technology is adopted. Then, it describes how to implement this technology. Finally, the article puts forward some measures to improve retrieval performance.

  1. Modeling and space vector control of a novel multilevel matrix converter for variable-speed wind power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naseem, Osama Abdulrahman

    A novel multilevel matrix converter is developed to efficiently transfer energy between a three-phase variable-speed generator of a wind turbine and a three-phase ac utility network. Optimizing the energy transfer efficiency at light load is critical in variable-speed wind generators. Laboratory experiment suggests that converter efficiency at light load may be increased via soft-switching and multilevel switching techniques. The new converter includes the advantages of multilevel converters, such as reduced harmonic content, increased power handling capability without additional switching loss, and high efficiency at low machine voltages. It also features the characteristics of conventional matrix converters, such as space vector control and improved efficiency via auxiliary resonant commutation soft-switching techniques. Similar to a conventional matrix converter, the novel multilevel matrix converter uses a nine-switch matrix with four-quadrant switches to connect input phases at one side of the converter with output phases at the other side of the converter. However, the switches of the new converter are configured differently from those used in the conventional matrix converter. Each switch of the new converter is a cell that resembles a full-bridge inverter topology and can assume three voltage levels while used. Semiconductor devices in a switch cell are always clamped to a known constant do voltage of a capacitor. This is a typical characteristic of multilevel converters where device voltage stresses are reduced by clamping the main transistor voltages to low levels. With reduced voltage stresses, switching frequency can be increased to allow for reduced size of filter magnetics. Unlike conventional matrix converter, the multilevel matrix converter uses inductors on both input and output sides of the converter. This symmetry allows for both step up and step down operations. Each switch cell features double the power handling capability compared to the four

  2. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  3. Control de un restaurador dinámico de tensión basado en la transformada de Fourier del Vector Espacial. Dynamic voltage restorer control based on the Space-Vector Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesyani Teresa León Viltre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El gran desarrollo de la automatización industrial, como resultado de la modernización y el progreso de los equipos con microprocesador y electrónica de potencia, ha hecho que las cargas en la actualidad sean más sensibles a las caídas de tensión de corta duración. Estos trastornos, incluso en tiempos muy cortos, pueden detener procesos enteros causando enormes pérdidas. Por esta razón en el presente trabajo se propone un Restaurador Dinámico de Tensión (dynamic voltaje restorer- DVR, para mantener la operación ininterrumpida de una carga industrial, sensible a huecos de tensión. El control propuesto para el DVR está basado en la transformada de Fourier del vector espacial (space vector Fourier transform- SVFT. El vector controlado es implementado en los ejes de referencia estacionarios alfa y beta. Se obtienen resultados satisfactorios ante señales distorsionadas. Se realizan simulaciones en el Matlab del sistema propuesto para huecos de tensión balanceados y desbalanceados.  The great development of industrial automation, as a result of modernization and progress of equipment with microprocessor and power electronics has made loads now more sensitive to voltage drops. These disorders, even in very short time, can stop the whole process causing huge losses. For this reason a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR is proposed in this paper for keeping uninterrupted operation of sensitive industrial load during voltages sags. The proposed DVR controller is based on the Space Vector Fourier Transform (SVFT. The vector controller is implemented in the stationary reference frames. Satisfactory results are obtained for distorted signals.The proposed system is simulated in Matlab for voltage dips balanced and unbalanced.

  4. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengjun, E-mail: wufengjun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cui, Yuan [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan, Hongbin [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Huajian [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Bin [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohui [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply. - Highlights: • Applying SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply improves its grid-side performance. • New Topology and its control strategies make an accelerator power supply have bidirectional power flow ability. • Hardware and software of controller provide a good reference for design of this new type of power supply.

  5. A new type of accelerator power supply based on voltage-type space vector PWM rectification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengjun; Gao, Daqing; Shi, Chunfeng; Huang, Yuzhen; Cui, Yuan; Yan, Hongbin; Zhang, Huajian; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    To solve the problems such as low input power factor, a large number of AC current harmonics and instable DC bus voltage due to the diode or thyristor rectifier used in an accelerator power supply, particularly in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), we designed and built up a new type of accelerator power supply prototype base on voltage-type space vector PWM (SVPWM) rectification technology. All the control strategies are developed in TMS320C28346, which is a digital signal processor from TI. The experimental results indicate that an accelerator power supply with a SVPWM rectifier can solve the problems above well, and the output performance such as stability, tracking error and ripple current meet the requirements of the design. The achievement of prototype confirms that applying voltage-type SVPWM rectification technology in an accelerator power supply is feasible; and it provides a good reference for design and build of this new type of power supply.

  6. High Performance of Space Vector Modulation Direct Torque Control SVM-DTC Based on Amplitude Voltage and Stator Flux Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Farhan Rashag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects related to controlling induction motor are investigated. Direct torque control is an original high performance control strategy in the field of AC drive. In this proposed method, the control system is based on Space Vector Modulation (SVM, amplitude of voltage in direct- quadrature reference frame (d-q reference and angle of stator flux. Amplitude of stator voltage is controlled by PI torque and PI flux controller. The stator flux angle is adjusted by rotor angular frequency and slip angular frequency. Then, the reference torque and the estimated torque is applied to the input of PI torque controller and the control quadrature axis voltage is determined. The control d-axis voltage is determined from the flux calculator. These q and d axis voltage are converted into amplitude voltage. By applying polar to Cartesian on amplitude voltage and stator flux angle, direct voltage and quadratures voltage are generated. The reference stator voltages in d-q are calculated based on forcing the stator voltage error to zero at next sampling period. By applying inverse park transformation on d-q voltages, the stator voltages in &alpha and &beta frame are generated and apply to SVM. From the output of SVM, the motor control signal is generated and the speed of the induction motor regulated toward the rated speed. The simulation Results have demonstrated exceptional performance in steady and transient states and shows that decrease of torque and flux ripples is achieved in a complete speed range.

  7. Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space-vector modulated neutral-point-clamped inverters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopalakrishnan K S; G Narayanan

    2015-08-01

    The voltage ripple and power loss in the DC-capacitor of a voltage source inverter depend on the harmonic currents flowing through the capacitor. This paper presents a double Fourier series based analysis of the harmonic contents of the DC capacitor current in a three-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter, modulated with sine-triangle pulse-width modulation (SPWM) or conventional space vector pulse-width modulation (CSVPWM) schemes. The analytical results are validated experimentally on a 3-kVA three-level inverter prototype. The capacitor current in an NPC inverter has a periodicity of 120º at the fundamental or modulation frequency. Hence, this current contains third-harmonic and triplen-frequency components, apart from switching frequency components. The harmonic components vary with modulation index and power factor for both PWM schemes. The third harmonic current decreases with increase in modulation index and also decreases with increase in power factor in case of both PWM methods. In general, the third harmonic content is higher with SPWM than with CSVPWM at a given operating condition. Also, power loss and voltage ripple in the DC capacitor are estimated for both the schemes using the current harmonic spectrum and equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the capacitor.

  8. Design and Simulation of Control Technique for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor; Yong, Wang; Mustafa, Ehtasham

    2017-07-01

    After the rapid advancement in the field of power electronics devices and drives for last few decades, there are different kinds of Pulse Width Modulation techniques which have been brought to the market. The applications ranging from industrial appliances to military equipment including the home appliances. The vey common application for the PWM is three phase voltage source inverter, which is used to convert DC to AC in the homes to supply the power to the house in case electricity failure, usually named as Un-interrupted Power Supply. In this paper Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation techniques is discussed and analysed under the control technique named as Field Oriented Control. The working and implementation of this technique has been studied by implementing on the three phase bridge inverter. The technique is used to control the Permanente Magnet Synchronous Motor. The drive system is successfully implemented in MATLAB/Simulink using the mathematical equation and algorithm to achieve the satisfactory results. PI type of controller is used to tuned ers of the motothe parametr i.e. torque and current.

  9. Research on Space Vector PWM Based on RBF Neural Network%基于RBF神经网络的SVPWM研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣光银; 胡丹; 车畅

    2011-01-01

    论述了电压空间矢量脉宽调制( SVPWM)的基本原理,提出利用径向基(RBF)网络实现SVPWM的方法;并在Matlab下结合神经网络工具箱进了仿真研究.仿真结果表明,RBF-SVPWM收敛速度快、误差精度高,使用该方法建立的异步电动机控制系统具有更小的定子电流谐波和转矩脉动.%The basic principle of space voltage vector PWM was discussed,and a new algorithm for SVPWM based on radial basis function neural network( RBF-SVPWM) was proposed. The emulation of RBF-SVPWM was carried out in Mat-lab together with Nntoolbox. The results indicate that RBF-SVPWM has a fast convergence and high accurate error,and the induction motor control system using RBF-SVPWM also has less stator current harmonics and torque pulsation.

  10. Analysis on Granular Two-sided Market%颗粒化双边市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钰碧; 徐晓峰; 朱卫未

    2016-01-01

    The common value orientation makes the main reason that maintains stickiness of social network platform user. User with powerful stickiness creates granular two-sided market by design the business model elaborates on the social network. This thesis research the granular two-sided market,try discusses its generation, development, prospective and business model.%在社交平台中共同的价值取向是保持用户黏性的主要原因。在精确设计的商业模式引导下,具有强黏性的用户会通过社交平台形成颗粒化的双边市场。文章探讨了颗粒化双边市场的产生、发展以及前景,并对其商业模式进行了阐述。

  11. The role of two-sided splinting for recalcitrant paediatric post-burn hand flexion contracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyono, Toh; Caroline, I

    2017-07-01

    A 2-year-old boy presented to the plastic and reconstructive surgery outpatient clinic with bilateral post-burn hand flexion contracture. The contracture had been released twice elsewhere. The third surgical repair on one hand at a time was conducted by the author (TOHP). However, inadeq.uate compliance to the postoperative splinting and exercise led to the recurrence of the contracture in the following year. A customised two-sided splint was therefore created to ensure proper placement and compliance. Reinforcement to the parents to encourage the boy to practise active exercise on demand was also an integral part of the management. Good functional and cosmetic outcome were presented at 1-year follow-up. This case highlights the value of a two-sided splint for the management of post-burn hand flexion contracture in children whose compliance is inevitably cannot be guaranteed.

  12. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  13. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  16. Criticality of flow transition behind two side-by-side elliptic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y. F.; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.; Hsieh, Chih-Min

    2012-03-01

    In this study, near-critical bifurcations of low Reynolds number (Re) flows past a pair of elliptic cylinders in the side-by-side arrangement are numerically investigated, and onsets of several distinct transition scenarios are addressed. A nested Cartesian-grid formulation, in combination with an effective immersed boundary method and a two-step fractional-step procedure, has been adopted to simulate the flows. The transition scenarios associated with various periodic, quasi-periodic, and biased flows, their bifurcation characteristics, corresponding critical Reynolds numbers, and phase-portraits are exploited to better understand the governing physics. From the global point of view, there appear variety of flow patterns within the investigated parameter space, 40 ⩽ Re ⩽ 300, 0.2 ⩽ G ⩽ 3.0 (G being the gap-ratio of the cylinders), and 1.5 ⩽ A ⩽ 3 (A is the cylinder aspect-ratio), which include, symmetric vortex shedding mode, semi-single/twin vortex street formations, asymmetric/deflected flows, stationary/biased flip-flopped-type vortex shedding, weakly-chaotic flows, and in-phase/anti-phase vortex synchronizations. We numerically present these flows by tuning Re quasi-stationary, and provide a broader understanding of the entire transition process. A comprehensive analysis of effects of Reynolds number, the gap-ratio, and the angle of incidence on different flow-induced forces on the cylinders is included in this regard. On the other hand, our simulated wakes with various non-zero incidence-angles are found to reveal a rich variety of instability induced weakly synchronized physical evolution characteristics, which remained virtually unexplored.

  17. A general modelling and control algorithm of a three-phase multilevel diode clamped inverter by means of a direct space vector control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhali, O.; Francois, B.; Berkouk, E. M.; Saudemont, C.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and general direct modulation strategy that enables to copy directly modulated waveforms onto output voltages of a multilevel three-phase Diode Clamped Inverter (DCI). A general modelling of this converter is presented. A space vector scheme is developed without using Park transforms. Based on this algorithm, the location of the reference voltage vector is determined and the voltage vectors for the modulation are deduced. Simultaneously, their durations are calculated. The proposed algorithm is general and can be directly applied to a (n+1) levels inverter independently on its topology (Diode Clamped Inverter, Neutral Point Clamped, Flying Capacitor Inverter...). To verify this algorithm, both control algorithms of a 5-level DCI and a 11-level DCI are considered and simulation results are given.

  18. Polarimetric signatures of a layer of random nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half-space based on first- and second-order vector radiative transfer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Leung; Ding, Kung-Hau

    1991-01-01

    Complete polarimetric signatures of a layer of random, nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half space are studied with the first- and second-order solutions of the vector radiative transfer theory. Some of the salient features of the numerical results are as follows: (1) the inclusion of the nondiagonal extinction matrix in the vector radiative transfer theory accounts for an appreciable phase difference between vv and hh polarizations, particularly for aligned scatterers; (2) the ensemble-averaged scattered Stokes vector is generally partially polarized, with the degree of polarization less than unity; (3) there generally exists a pedestal in the copolarization return when plotted as a function of ellipticity and orientation angles, which may be due to heterogeneity of scattering objects and/or multiple scattering effects; and (4) multiple scattering effects generally enhance the pedestal in copolarization return, decrease the degree of polarization, affect phase difference, and also enhance the depolarization return.

  19. Vector spaces and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Thrall, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    This volume is suitable as a primary or supplementary text for college-level courses in linear algebra. It possesses the distinct advantage of approaching the subject simultaneously at two levels, the concrete and the axiomatic. Students thus receive the benefits of axiom-based mathematical reasoning as well as a grasp of concrete formulations. 1957 edition.

  20. "Water bombs" and seismic areas: two sides to the same problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino; Casati, Michele; Cataldi, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    area can release gaseous and particulate compounds into the atmosphere (climate drivers), such as ozone, methane, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, which exert an influence on the amount of solar energy, including heat, that the Earth traps, as well as the solar energy it reflects back into space. The considerations made in this study hold true for variations in atmospheric pressure at ground level, since this does not happen on the seabeds where the water moves to offset pressure differences. Given that friction is proportional to pressure acting perpendicularly to the fault plane, it can be concluded that even a modest variation may affect the friction within rocks if constantly repeated.

  1. NMR in metabolomics and natural products research: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Steven L; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Schroeder, Frank C; Edison, Arthur S

    2012-02-21

    Small molecules are central to biology, mediating critical phenomena such as metabolism, signal transduction, mating attraction, and chemical defense. The traditional categories that define small molecules, such as metabolite, secondary metabolite, pheromone, hormone, and so forth, often overlap, and a single compound can appear under more than one functional heading. Therefore, we favor a unifying term, biogenic small molecules (BSMs), to describe any small molecule from a biological source. In a similar vein, two major fields of chemical research,natural products chemistry and metabolomics, have as their goal the identification of BSMs, either as a purified active compound (natural products chemistry) or as a biomarker of a particular biological state (metabolomics). Natural products chemistry has a long tradition of sophisticated techniques that allow identification of complex BSMs, but it often fails when dealing with complex mixtures. Metabolomics thrives with mixtures and uses the power of statistical analysis to isolate the proverbial "needle from a haystack", but it is often limited in the identification of active BSMs. We argue that the two fields of natural products chemistry and metabolomics have largely overlapping objectives: the identification of structures and functions of BSMs, which in nature almost inevitably occur as complex mixtures. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a central analytical technique common to most areas of BSM research. In this Account, we highlight several different NMR approaches to mixture analysis that illustrate the commonalities between traditional natural products chemistry and metabolomics. The primary focus here is two-dimensional (2D) NMR; because of space limitations, we do not discuss several other important techniques, including hyphenated methods that combine NMR with mass spectrometry and chromatography. We first describe the simplest approach of analyzing 2D NMR spectra of unfractionated mixtures to

  2. 基于空间矢量调制的直接转矩控制%Direct torque control based on space vector modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晓东; 高赟; 李燕涛; 王坤

    2013-01-01

    针对传统的直接转矩控制存在较大的转矩和磁链脉动问题,提出了一种基于空间矢量调制的直接转矩控制策略.该控制策略采用磁链、转矩PI控制器代替传统直接转矩控制系统中的滞环比较器,以空间矢量脉宽调制代替电压矢量开关表合成电压矢量,来补偿磁链误差和转矩误差,达到消除滞环脉动的目的.Matlab/Simulink仿真结果表明,基于空间矢量调制的电动机控制系统相对于传统的直接转矩控制系统,磁链轨迹更接近圆形,转矩、磁链和电流响应脉动更小.%In view of problems of big ripple of torque and flux linkage of traditional direct torque control,the paper proposed a control strategy of direct torque control based on space vector modulation.The control strategy uses flux and torque PI controller to instead of hysteresis comparator of traditional direct torque control system,and adopts space vector pulse width modulation to instead of voltage vector switch to synthetic voltage vector which can compensate for flux error and torque error to avoid hysteresis ripple.The Matlab/Simulink simulation result shows that the flux truck of control system of motor based on space vector pulse width modulation is more closed to round,and its torque and flux and current ripple is smaller compared with the traditional direct torque control system.

  3. 4 X 20 Gbit/s mode division multiplexing over free space using vector modes and a q-plate mode (de)multiplexer

    CERN Document Server

    Milione, Giovanni; Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Nguyen, Thien An; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Nolan, Daniel A; Alfano, Robert R; Willner, Alan E

    2014-01-01

    Vector modes are spatial modes that have spatially inhomogeneous states of polarization, such as, radial and azimuthal polarization. They can produce smaller spot sizes and stronger longitudinal polarization components upon focusing. As a result, they are used for many applications, including optical trapping and nanoscale imaging. In this work, vector modes are used to increase the information capacity of free space optical communication via the method of optical communication referred to as mode division multiplexing. A mode (de)multiplexer for vector modes based on a liquid crystal technology referred to as a q-plate is introduced. As a proof of principle, using the mode (de)multiplexer four vector modes each carrying a 20 Gbit/s quadrature phase shift keying signal on a single wavelength channel (~1550nm), comprising an aggregate 80 Gbit/s, were transmitted ~1m over the lab table with <-16.4 dB (<2%) mode crosstalk. Bit error rates for all vector modes were measured at the forward error correction t...

  4. An Efficient Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation with BFO Based Self Tuning PI Controller for Shunt Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saravanan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research study mainly focuses on using an efficient control strategy for extracting reference currents of shunt active filters under non linear load conditions. In recent decades, the utilization of highly automatic electric equipments has resulted in enormous economic loss. Thus, the power suppliers as well as the power consumers are very much concerned about the power quality issues and compensation approaches. In order to deal with this issue, Active Power Filter (APF has been considered as an attractive solution due to its significant harmonic compensation. But, the performance of APF is not consistent and is varies based on the output of the controller techniques. An efficient (id-id control strategy is used in this approach for attaining utmost profit from grid-interfacing inverters installed in transmission systems. The voltages are controlled through the PI controller which is further tuned by an optimization approach. Bacterial Forge Optimization (BFO is used in this approach for tuning the PI controller for the optimal value. The inverter used in this approach can be considered as a Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF to compensate non linear load current harmonics. In order to improve the overall performance of the system, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM is used in this proposed approach which regulates power frequency and produces good circularity through DC-AC part. SVPWM also eliminates the 3rd order harmonics and minimizes the 5th order harmonics effectively. The integration of (id-id control strategy and SVPWM has been proposed in this research study. Simulation results are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink and the performance of the proposed approach is compared with other control strategies. This research studies shows unique approach for attaining maximum benefits from RES with suppression of current harmonics.

  5. A Weighted Inner Product Estimator in the Geometric Algebra of Euclidean 3-Space for Source Localization Using an EM Vector-sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jingfei; ZHANG Jianqiu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the source localization by utilizing the measurements of a single electromagnetic (EM) vector-sensor is investigated in the framework of the geometric algebra of Euclidean 3-space.In order to describe the orthogonality among the electric and magnetic measurements,two multivectors of the geometric algebra of Euclidean 3-space (G3) are used to model the outputs of a spatially collocated EM vector-sensor.Two estimators for the wave propagation vector estimation are then formulated by the inner product between a vector and a bivector in the G3.Since the information used by the two estimators is different,a weighted inner product estimator is then proposed to fuse the two estimators together in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE).Analytical results show that the statistical performances of the weighted inner product estimator are always better than its traditional cross product counterpart.The efficacy of the weighted inner product estimator and the correctness of the analytical predictions are demonstrated by simulation results.

  6. Conformal Field Theory Correlators from Classical Field Theory on Anti-de Sitter Space; 2, Vector and Spinor Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mück, W

    1998-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to calculate CFT correlation functions of vector and spinor fields. The connection between the AdS and boundary fields is properly treated via a Dirichlet boundary value problem.

  7. Influence of Feed Speed on the Content of Fine Dust during Cutting of Two-Side-Laminated Particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luďka Hlásková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of wood dust production during the sawing of two-side-laminated particleboards. It points out the dangerous impact of wood dust particles on people´s health and other unfavourable influences in the working environment. The aim of the paper was to introduce the research of dustiness, to determine the content of fine particles in sawdust and analyse the influence of feed rate on the granularity of sawdust created in the process of sawing two-side-laminated particleboards using modern circular saw. Sawing parameters were chosen for the optimal cutting speed of the circular-saw blade Pilana TFZL, vc = 84.3 m·s-1 and for three feed rates of a workpiece with the cut vf = 10, 15, 20 m·min-1. The collected sawdust particles were subjected to the particle-size analysis under exactly defined conditions by sieving and the basic granulometric analysis was made. Sieve analysis gives only a general particle-size distribution without any information considering the mass concentration of fine fraction of dust. Therefore, laser particle sizer Analysette 22 Microtec Plus was used to specify details concerning the size of dust particles smaller than 63 μm, which were collected in the bottom collector.

  8. Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Pollution Status of Farmland Soil at Two Sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli; DUAN; Shuangyan; WANG; Zumin; ZHANG; Zhouping; YANG; Hua; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    The heavy metal content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is measured to make a preliminary evaluation on its heavy metal pollution status.After digestion and volume fixation of the soil samples collected,measure the Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb and Cr content with atomic absorption spectrophotometry and evaluate the measured data according to Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard to obtain the contamination status.Cu,Zn and Cd content of the farmland soil for sections of Cheng-Guan Expressway goes beyond Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard,while the Pb and Cr content meets Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard.Pb and Cr content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is in safe state,while the Cu,Zn and Cd content is in a mild contamination state.Cu,Zn and Cd are the main pollution elements.

  9. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  10. Identifying regulational alterations in gene regulatory networks by state space representation of vector autoregressive models and variational annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Fujita, André; Yamauchi, Mai; Gotoh, Noriko; Miyano, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    In the analysis of effects by cell treatment such as drug dosing, identifying changes on gene network structures between normal and treated cells is a key task. A possible way for identifying the changes is to compare structures of networks estimated from data on normal and treated cells separately. However, this approach usually fails to estimate accurate gene networks due to the limited length of time series data and measurement noise. Thus, approaches that identify changes on regulations by using time series data on both conditions in an efficient manner are demanded. We propose a new statistical approach that is based on the state space representation of the vector autoregressive model and estimates gene networks on two different conditions in order to identify changes on regulations between the conditions. In the mathematical model of our approach, hidden binary variables are newly introduced to indicate the presence of regulations on each condition. The use of the hidden binary variables enables an efficient data usage; data on both conditions are used for commonly existing regulations, while for condition specific regulations corresponding data are only applied. Also, the similarity of networks on two conditions is automatically considered from the design of the potential function for the hidden binary variables. For the estimation of the hidden binary variables, we derive a new variational annealing method that searches the configuration of the binary variables maximizing the marginal likelihood. For the performance evaluation, we use time series data from two topologically similar synthetic networks, and confirm that our proposed approach estimates commonly existing regulations as well as changes on regulations with higher coverage and precision than other existing approaches in almost all the experimental settings. For a real data application, our proposed approach is applied to time series data from normal Human lung cells and Human lung cells treated by

  11. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  12. Introducing Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John

    1997-01-01

    Suggests an approach to teaching vectors that promotes active learning through challenging questions addressed to the class, as opposed to subtle explanations. Promotes introducing vector graphics with concrete examples, beginning with an explanation of the displacement vector. Also discusses artificial vectors, vector algebra, and unit vectors.…

  13. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  14. Determinants of effective tax rates for firms listed on Chinese stock market: Panel models with two-sided censors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ching Chiou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate the determinants effective tax rate for the firms listed on China’s stock markets. The panel data consists of 481 firms from 2007 to 2009 as our empirical data. In order to illustrate a country’s tax policies on firms’ real tax burdens, the dependent variable, ETR, is left-censored at 0 and right-censored at 1, the estimation for panel data model with two-sided censoring suggested by Alan, Honor´e, and Leth-Petersen (2014 is implemented in this paper. There are two important findings are obtained: first, this model can add more observations especially the observations with tax preferences. Second, theories suggest that ETR reflects outcomes of tax preference and this paper is the first time to consider the effective tax rates set between 0 and 1 and this range is more meaningful for the ETRs.

  15. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  16. Vector-space-model text categorization method based on quotient space theory%基于商空间的向量空间模型文本分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄剑韬

    2011-01-01

    为了降低基于向量空间模型(VSM)的文本分类方法的向量维数,并减少噪声对分类的影响,现利用商空间的粒度理论对基于VSM的分类模型进行改进,提出了一种基于商空间的新的VSM分类方法,该方法降低了基于VSM文本分类的向量维数,提高了不同文本之间的辨别能力.%To reduce the vector dimension of Text Categorization (TC) based on Vector Space Model (VSM) and the impact of noise on classification, by using granularity computing based on quotient space theory, the authors provided a new method text categorization based on quotient space theory. The experimental results show the method reduces the vector dimension of text categorization based on VSM and increases the discriminating ability among different texts.

  17. On Generalized Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-hua Wan; Jun-yi Fu; Wei-hua Mao

    2006-01-01

    A new generalized vector equilibrium problem involving set-valued mappings and the proper quasi-concavity of set-valued mappings in topological vector spaces are introduced; its existence theorems and the convexity of the solution sets are established.

  18. Topological analysis of the periodic structures in a harmonically driven bubble oscillator near Blake's critical threshold: Infinite sequence of two-sided Farey ordering trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedűs, Ferenc, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.hu

    2016-03-06

    The topology of the stable periodic orbits of a harmonically driven bubble oscillator, the Rayleigh–Plesset equation, in the space of the excitation parameters (pressure amplitude and frequency) has been revealed numerically. This topology is governed by a hierarchy of two-sided Farey trees initiated from a unique primary structure defined also by a simple asymmetric Farey tree. The sub-topology of each of these building blocks is driven by a homoclinic tangency of a periodic saddle. This self-similar organisation is a suitable basis for a general description, since it is in good agreement with partial results obtained in other periodically forced oscillators and iterated maps. The applied ambient pressure in the model is near but still below Blake's critical threshold. Therefore, this paper is also a straightforward continuation of the work of Hegedűs [1], who first found numerical evidence for the existence of stable, period 1 solutions beyond Blake's threshold. The present findings are crucial for the extension of the available numerical results from period 1 to arbitrary periodicity. - Highlights: • Spherical gas/vapour bubble in water has been examined numerically. • The bubble model was the Rayleigh–Plesset equation excited harmonically. • Topology of stable periodic solutions has been found near Blake's threshold.

  19. Compound control method of neutral point voltage of three level NPC inverter based on the vector method of virtual space and hysteresis control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengping; Xiao, Fangfei

    2017-03-01

    Current control methods include hardware control and software control corresponding to the inherent unbalance problem of neutral point voltage in three level NPC inverter. The hardware control is rarely used due to its high cost. In this paper, a new compound control method has been presented based on the vector method of virtual space and traditional hysteresis control of neutral point voltage, which can make up the shortcoming of the virtual control without the feedback control system of neutral point voltage and the blind area of hysteresis control and control the deviation and wave of neutral point voltage. The accuracy of this method has been demonstrated by simulation.

  20. L'espace articulaire de la Robotique Industrielle est un espace vectorielIndustrial Robotics joint space is a vector space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondu, Bertrand

    2003-05-01

    The mathematical modelling of industrial robots is based on the vectorial nature of the n-dimensional joint space of the robot, defined as a kinematic chain with n degrees of freedom. However, in our opinion, the vectorial nature of the joint space has been insufficiently discussed in the literature. We establish the vectorial nature of the joint space of an industrial robot from the fundamental studies of B. Roth on screws. To cite this article: B. Tondu, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  1. Insecticide resistance and, efficacy of space spraying and larviciding in the control of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, S H P P; Weeraratne, T C; Perera, M D B; Surendran, S N

    2013-09-01

    Unprecedented incidence of dengue has been recorded in Sri Lanka in recent times. Source reduction and use of insecticides in space spraying/fogging and larviciding, are the primary means of controlling the vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the island nation. A study was carried out to understand insecticide cross-resistance spectra and mechanisms of insecticide resistance of both these vectors from six administrative districts, i.e. Kandy, Kurunegala, Puttalam, Gampaha, Ratnapura and Jaffna, of Sri Lanka. Efficacy of the recommended dosages of frequently used insecticides in space spraying and larviciding in dengue vector control programmes was also tested. Insecticide bioassay results revealed that, in general, both mosquito species were highly resistant to DDT but susceptible to propoxur and malathion except Jaffna Ae. aegypti population. Moderate resistance to malathion shown by Jaffna Ae. aegypti population correlated with esterase and malathion carboxylesterase activities of the population. High levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insensitivity in the absence of malathion and propoxur resistance may be due to non-synaptic forms of AChE proteins. Moderate pyrethroid resistance in the absence of high monooxygenase levels indicated the possible involvement of 'kdr' type resistance mechanism in Sri Lankan dengue vectors. Results of the space spraying experiments revealed that 100% mortality at a 10 m distance and >50% mortality at a 50 m distance can be achieved with malathion, pesguard and deltacide even in a ground with dense vegetation. Pesguard and deltacide spraying gave 100% mortality up to 50 m distance in open area and areas with little vegetation. Both species gave >50% mortalities for deltacide at a distance of 75 m in a dense vegetation area. Larval bioassays conducted in the laboratory showed that a 1 ppm temephos solution can maintain a larval mortality rate of 100% for ten months, and the mortality rate declined to 0% in the

  2. LMMSE Image Denoising Algorithm on Vector Space Model Context%矢量空间上下文模型的LMMSE图像去噪算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡银珊

    2011-01-01

    Linear minimum mean square error estimation-LMMSE(wavelet-based multiscale linear minimum mean square-error estimation) is currently a hot topic of wavelet denoising field.Vector space discussed below is the minimum mean square error estimation of the new algorithm.Considering the image more the relationship between layers and the linear MMSE applied to the vector space,blurring the edges of the image denoising have been greatly improved.%线性最小均方误差估计LMMSE(wavelet-based multiscale linear minimum mean squareerror estimation)目前是小波去噪领域的热门课题,讨论了矢量空间的最小均方误差估计的新算法,主要考虑图像各层间的关系,将线性MMSE运用到矢量空间,对去噪图像边缘模糊问题有较大改善。

  3. First 3 mm-VLBI imaging of the two-sided jet in Cygnus A. Zooming into the launching region

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, B; Bach, U; Bremer, M; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present for the first time Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry images of the radio galaxy Cygnus A at the frequency of $86$ $\\rm GHz$. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of only ${\\sim}200$ Schwarzschild radii ($R_{\\bf S}$), such observations provide an extremely detailed view of the nuclear regions in this archetypal object and allow us to derive important constraints for theoretical models describing the launching of relativistic jets. A pixel-based analysis of the jet outflow, which still appears two-sided on the scales probed, was performed. By fitting Gaussian functions to the transverse intensity profiles, we could determine the jet width in the nuclear region. The base of the jets appears wide. The minimum measured transverse width of ${\\sim} (227\\pm98)$ $R_{\\bf S}$ is significantly larger than the radius of the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit, suggesting that the outer accretion disk is contributing to the jet launching. The existence of a faster and Doppler de-boosted inner section, powered eithe...

  4. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  5. Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.

  6. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  7. VECTOR BUNDLE, KILLING VECTOR FIELD AND PONTRYAGIN NUMBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建伟

    1991-01-01

    Let E be a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold M. We construct a natural metric on the bundle space E and discuss the relationship between the killing vector fields of E and M. Then we give a proof of the Bott-Baum-Cheeger Theorem for vector bundle E.

  8. 仅根据Proximity数据构建向量空间模型的方法%An Approach to Constructing Vector Space Models from Proximity Data Alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐硕; 乔晓东; 朱礼军; 郭怀恩

    2011-01-01

    In real-world applications, there are lots and lots of abstract research objects that cannot be represented asfeature vectors, therefore many mature data mining and machine learning methods cannot be utilized directly. Nevertheless, it is often not difficult to obtain a proximity matrix, which indicates some "comparison" relationship between objects. To overcome this problem, this study puts forward to obtain corresponding feature vectors for objects only from proximity data matrix by multidimensional scaling (MDS) , that is, to construct a vector space model. Finally, the clustering analysis is conducted on words from Chinese Scientific & Technical Vocabulary System. Experimental results show that the clustering performance from vector space model construction is obviously better than that from clustering analysis directly on proximity data, which verifies the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.%在实际应用中,许多研究对象都是抽象的,难以用某种特征向量的形式表示,这使得许多成熟的数据挖掘和机器学习方法难以被采用.不过,通常可将其转化成一个Proximity数据矩阵,使得矩阵中的元素表示两个对象间某种"比较"关系.针对该问题,本文提出仅根据Proximity数据矩阵利用多维尺度分析法(MDS)将研究对象进行向量化表示,即构建了一种向量空间模型.最后,对汉语科技词系统中的词语进行了聚类分析,结果表明,向量空间模型构建后再聚类的结果明显优于直接针对Proximity数据进行聚类分析的结果,从而验证了该方法的可行性和有效性.

  9. Two side liquid-cooled and passively Q-switched disk oscillator with nanosheets in flowing CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    A passively Q-switched and two side liquid-cooled Nd:YAG disk oscillator is demonstrated, which is operated at a pump pulse width of 300 μs and a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. The coolant flows over the two large surfaces of the disk and will be passed through by laser beam, so it can also serve as a saturable absorber. For the unmodulated laser, the pure CCl4 was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 15 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 795 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 27.4 % and the slope efficiency of 30 %; for the graphene Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with graphene nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 40 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 376 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 13 % and the slope efficiency of 18 %. The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 385 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 116 ns; for the MoS2 Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with MoS2 nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 30 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 486 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 17 % and the slope efficiency of 22 %.The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 470 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 137 ns.

  10. 基于模糊滞环空间矢量的变换器控制策略%Fuzzy hysteresis space vector based control scheme for converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元岗; 李宏; 石文龙

    2015-01-01

    采用滞环空间矢量控制的三相电压型变换器电压外环调节主要依赖于传统比例积分(PI)调节器,所以当系统状态或者自身参数变化时,将难以使系统获得满意的动态性能。针对该问题,在电压外环引入模糊PI调节器,根据工程经验在线调整P、I参数,以应对系统变化。同时给出电流内环滞环空间矢量控制中开关状态的选择原则。仿真和实验结果表明,所提控制策略能够有效保证系统稳态性。此外,与采用传统PI调节器的滞环空间矢量控制策略的对比结果表明,所提控制策略可以将变换器的暂态响应时间减少55%以上,使系统获得更为出色的暂态性能。%It is difficult for the classical proportional-integral (PI) regulator employed in the outer voltage loop to satisfy the system performance requirement, when the system states or its parameters are changed in the three-phase voltage source converter using the hysteresis space vector control. The fuzzy based PI regulator is therefore introduced. The coefficients of P and I are adjusted online based on the engineering experience to deal with the system change. A hysteresis space vector control is adopted in the inner current loop. Its principle for selecting the switching states is provided. Finally, the simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed control method can guarantee the system stability effectively. Moreover, compared with the hysteresis space vector control with the classical PI regulator, the proposed control method can reduce the transient setting time more than 55% and ensure the better transient performance.

  11. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Napadol; Sudsom; Kuaanan; Techato; Suwich; Thammapalo; Virasakdi; Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol; Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the resurgence rate, house density index(HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team,and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume(SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team.Methods: Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters(6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared.Results: The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups.Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations.However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  12. High resurgence of dengue vector populations after space spraying in an endemic urban area of Thailand:A cluster randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Napadol Sudsom; Kuaanan Techato; Suwich Thammapalo; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong; Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To examine the resurgence rate, house density index (HDI) and parous rate of the Aedes aegypti vector after space spraying carried out by the routine spraying team, and compare with the rates after standard indoor ultra low volume (SID-ULV) spraying carried out by the trained research spraying team. Methods:Between March and September 2014, a cluster randomized controlled trial including 12 clusters (6 regular ULV, 6 SID-ULV) with totally 4 341 households was conducted, and around 20–31 houses in each cluster were selected for assessment. The parous rate and HDI of collected mosquitoes 2 days before and 1, 2 and 6 days after spraying were obtained and compared. Results:The HDI dropped significantly from the baseline 1 and 2 days after spraying to a non-zero value in the SID-ULV treated locations but not in the regular ULV group locations. However, by 6 days after spraying, the HDI of both groups had returned to the base value measured 2 days before spraying. There were no statistically significant differences in the parous rate between groups. Conclusions: SID-ULV is more effective in reducing Aedes aegypti populations. However, rapid resurgence of dengue vector after spraying in urban areas was observed in both groups.

  13. 基于SVPWM的VIENNA整流器研究%Study on the VIENNA Rectifier Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正; 谭国俊; 曾维俊; 柳萌

    2011-01-01

    分析了三相三开关三电平(VIENNA)整流器的工作原理,研究了其空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)的实现方法,提出了此整流器的矢量控制策略.采用电压外环和电流内环的双闭环控制,实现了VIENNA整流器的高性能特性.基于Matlab仿真平台,搭建了VIENNA整流器的仿真模型,仿真结果表明,该整流器能实现良好的动态性能和稳态性能.%The working principle of three-phase three-switch three-level (VIENNA) rectifier was analyzed, and its implement method of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) was researched. On that basis, the vector control strategy of VIENNA was proposed. It achieved the high performance characteristics of VIENNA rectifier by using dual closed loop with voltage outer loop and current inner loop. Furthermore, based on the platform of Matlab simulation,the simulation model of VIENNA rectifier was built. The simulation results show that the rectifier can achieve both good dynamic performance and good static performance.

  14. DC-bus voltage control of grid-connected voltage source converter by using space vector modulated direct power control under unbalanced network conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Lei; Huang, Shoudao; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load. In this......Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load....... In this study, a new proportional-integral-resonant (PI-RES) controller-based, space vector modulated direct power control topology is proposed to suppress the dc-bus voltage ripple and in the same time, controlling effectively the instantaneous power of the VSC. A special ac reactive power reference component...

  15. Analysis and Speed Ripple Mitigation of a Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation-Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for reducing speed ripple of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs controlled by space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM. A flux graph and mathematics are used to analyze the speed ripple characteristics of the PMSM. Analysis indicates that the 6P (P refers to pole pairs of the PMSM time harmonic of rotor mechanical speed is the main harmonic component in the SVPWM control PMSM system. To reduce PMSM speed ripple, harmonics are superposed on a SVPWM reference signal. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal phase and multiplier coefficient of the superposed harmonics. The results of a Fourier decomposition and an optimized simulation model verified the accuracy of the analysis as well as the effectiveness of the speed ripple reduction methods, respectively.

  16. Comparative study of SVPWM (space vector pulse width modulation) & SPWM (sinusoidal pulse width modulation) based three phase voltage source inverters for variable speed drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waheed; Usman Ali, Syed M.

    2013-12-01

    We have performed comparative studies of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) and Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) techniques utilizing MATLAB tools. During these investigations, we carried out intensive simulations, comprehensively analyzed the obtained results and compared the harmonic density, power factor (PF), & switching losses of SVPWM and SPWM. It has been observed during investigations that if the switching frequency is high then losses due to harmonics are negligible, thus based on obtained results we suggested that the SVPWM technique is a more reliable solution. Because SVPWM utilizes DC bus voltage more efficiently, generates less Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and has higher output quality it provides flexible control of output voltage and output frequency for Variable Speed Drive (VSD).

  17. 电压空间矢量脉宽调制的简单算法%A Simple Algorithm of Voltage Space Vector PWM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁帆

    2015-01-01

    在电压空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)控制技术原理的基础上,提出了一种简单快速算法,该算法只有普通的四则运算,计算变得非常简单,消除了常规的空间矢量控制算法中由于三角函数和无理数的近似计算而带来的计算误差及影响计算精度和速度的缺点,使结果更加准确。因而更适合应用于基于DSP 的数字化控制。理论分析和大量的MATLAB仿真结果表明,该算法具有谐波含量低、直流电压利用率高的优点。%Based on the the principle of space vector pulse width modulation technology. A novel algorithm of space vector PWM was put forward. The algorithm has only normal arithmetic operations. The algorithm needs only four arith-metic operations ,so that the algorithm may become very easy and it eliminates the calculation errors resulted from the ap-proximate calculation of trigonometric functions and irrational numbers and the defects impacting calculation accuracy and speed ,thus the result would be more precise and be more applicable to the digital control based on DSP,theoretical analy-ses and large numbers of MATLAB simulations have proved that the algorithm has the advantages of little harmonic content and high utilization coefficient of DC voltage.

  18. 二极管钳位式三电平逆变器SVPWM控制策略研究%Control Strategy Study of Diode-Clamp Three-Level Inverter Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佩炯

    2011-01-01

    空间矢量脉宽调制在多电平逆变器的控制中应用广泛,但是随着电平数增加,控制算法渐趋复杂化。提出了三电平空间矢量脉宽调制控制方法,将三电平电压矢量区变换为由两电平空间矢量区构成,从而通过使用两电平空间矢量脉宽调制方法简化了控制算法。该方法理论上可应用于更高电平逆变器的控制中,仿真验证了方法的可行性。%Space vector pulse width modulation is widely applied in control of multi-level inverters, but following increasing of level number, the control algorithm becomes more and more complicated. Three-level space vector pulse width modulation control method was raised to transfer three-level voltage vector zone to two-level space vector zones, so as to simplify the control algorithm with two-level space vector pulse modulation method. The method on the theory can be used to control much higher level inverters and simulation has verified feasibility of the method.

  19. Half space albedo problem for the nonconservative vector equation of transfer with a combination of Rayleigh and isotropic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenyiğit, M.

    2016-09-01

    The half-space albedo problem has been solved for a combination of Rayleigh and isotropic scattering using HN method which is developed for the neutron transport studies. The numerical results are compared with exact values obtained using variational method and Chandrasekhar's equation for the {H}-matrix. The analytical solutions of HN method are easy to handle in comparison with the other methods. The numerical results are in good agreement with previous works in literature.

  20. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  1. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  2. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  3. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  4. Minkowski spacetime and Lorentz invariance: The cart and the horse or two sides of a single coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    unnecessary, and that it actually obscures our understanding of the explanatory nature and power of the theory.Second, I argue that rather than a debate about what is the cart and what is the horse, the discussion between Brown and Janssen is an instance of the dispute about what was first, the egg or the chicken. I claim that Minkowski structure and Lorentz invariance need not be conceived in such a way that one must explain the other. Instead, they are better understood as the two sides of a single coin: the arrow between them is not explanatory, but analytic (in a sense that I explain below). Furthermore, I argue that this conception of the link between Lorentz invariance and Minkowski chronogeometry, unlike the conception that motivates the Janssen-Brown debate, sheds light on our understanding of the explanatory nature and power of special relativity. I claim that the aforementioned analytic connection between Minkowski structure and Lorentz grounds the explanatory foundations of Einstein's theory.The structure of this article is the following. In Section 2, I provide an overview of the debate, paying special attention to the aspects that are most relevant for my critical assessment. In Section 3, I underscore two crucial assumptions endorsed by Brown and Janssen-that the discussion is independent of questions about spacetime ontology, and that the arrow of explanation at stake must be constructive-and I ponder about the justification that the authors offer (and implicitly assume) for them. In Section 4, I show that both these assumptions are problematic and unjustified, thus tainting the whole debate. In Section 5, I argue that Minkowski structure and Lorentz invariance are analytically linked, and that this link-that is not itself explanatory-clarifies the source of the chronogeometric explanations of physical phenomena that special relativity provides. In Section 6, I conclude and value the lessons that we can draw from Janssen's and Brown's arguments in the light of

  5. Spectral Anisotropy of Els\\"asser Variables in Two Dimensional Wave-vector Space as Observed in the Fast Solar Wind Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Limei; Zhang, Lei; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Xin; Wang, Linghua; Wicks, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Intensive studies have been conducted to understand the anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. However, the anisotropy of Els\\"asser variables ($\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$) in 2D wave-vector space has yet to be investigated. Here we first verify the transformation based on the projection-slice theorem between the power spectral density PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ and the spatial correlation function CF$_{2D} (r_\\parallel,r_\\perp )$. Based on the application of the transformation to the magnetic field and the particle measurements from the WIND spacecraft, we investigate the spectral anisotropy of Els\\"asser variables ($\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$), and the distribution of residual energy E$_{R}$, Alfv\\'en ratio R$_{A}$ and Els\\"asser ratio R$_{E}$ in the $(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp)$ space. The spectra PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ of $\\textbf{B}$, $\\textbf{V}$, and $\\textbf{Z}_{major}$ (the larger of $\\textbf{Z}^\\pm$) show a similar pattern that PSD$_{2D}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp )$ is mainly distributed along a ridge inclined toward t...

  6. 基于向量空间模型的信息检索技术研究%Information retrieval technology based on vector space model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏娜

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize the text classification in information retrieval, the space model algorithm is adopted in this paper. The weight document search results were obtained by means of the documentation testing in the lab, In a retrieval process, the vector space model is used according to the similarity between documents to calculate which one conforms to user's input key words. It has the characteristics of text similarity display according to the weight classification in the information retrieval.%为了能够实现对信息检索中的文本分类策略,采用了空间模型算法,做了实验文档测试,获得了各自的权重文档搜索结果,得到在检索过程中,向量空间模型根据文档之间的相似度,计算哪个文档最符合用户输入的关键字的结论,具有信息检索中文本相似度根据权值大小分类显示的特点.

  7. A dissimilarity based kernel space for support vector machines%基于相异度核空间的支持向量机算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 孙树栋

    2013-01-01

    提出基于相异度核空间的混合流形学习与支持向量机(SVMs)算法用于解决高维数据分类问题.该算法使用SVMs对流形学习降维后的低维嵌入做分类.通过加常数方法构造了衡量数据点相异度的特征空间.证明了该特征空间不仅能够衡量数据点之间的相异度,还满足Mercer条件对于支持向量机分类核空间的半正定性的要求.在仿真实验中,采用UCI机器学习数据库上标准分类数据集为样本.对比构造的相异度核空间与常用核函数如线性核、多项式核、高斯核在支持向量机分类时的分类精度来验证有效性和优越性.%A dissimilarity based kernel space for hybrid manifold learning and support vector machines (SVMs) classification algorithm is proposed to solve the high-dimensional data classification problem.The SVMs classify the low-dimensional embedding of the manifold learning method in the algorithm.The dissimilarity based kernel space is constructed by using a constant additive method for SVMs.The constructed kernel space is guaranteed to be positive semi-definite in dissimilarity description and meet the Mercer condition.The simulation compares the kernel space with several common kernel including linear,polynomial and Gaussian kernel on data sets selected from UCI benchmark repository to validate its effectiveness and the dissimilarity based kernel space is an optimized kernel space for hybrid manifold learning and SVMs classification problem.

  8. Interpolation of Vector Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo del CAMPO; Antonio FERN(A)NDEZ; Fernando MAYORAL; Francisco NARANJO; Enrique A. S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ

    2011-01-01

    Let (Ω, ∑) be a measurable space and m0: ∑→ X0 and m1: ∑ -→ X1 be positive vector measures with values in the Banach K(o)the function spaces X0 and X1. If 0 < α < 1, we define a X10-αXα1 and we analyze the space of integrable functions with respect to measure [m0, m1]α in order to prove suitable extensions of the classical Stein-Weiss formulas that hold for the complex interpolation of Lp-spaces.Since each p-convex order continuous K(o)the function space with weak order unit can be represented as a space of p-integrable functions with respect to a vector measure, we provide in this way a technique to obtain representations of the corresponding complex interpolation spaces. As applications, we provide a Riesz-Thorin theorem for spaces of p-integrable functions with respect to vector measures and a formula for representing the interpolation of the injective tensor product of such spaces.

  9. Extended vector-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.

  10. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  11. Roads may act as barriers to flying insects: species composition of bees and wasps differs on two sides of a large highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andersson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads may act as barriers to animal movements, but direct barrier effects on insects have rarely been studied. In this study we collected data on bees and wasps along two sides of a large road in Sweden using yellow pan traps. We then analyzed if the species composition differed between the two sides of the road; first for the whole community, and then only for the smallest species (which typically are poorer dispersers. As a complement, we analyzed if different vegetation variables differed between the two sides of the road, as this may also affect differences in species composition. Finally, we analyzed if species richness and abundance in general differed between the two sides and how these two response variables were explained by the vegetation variables. There was a significant difference in species composition between the eastern and the western side of the road when analyzing the whole community, and this relationship became even stronger when the largest species were excluded. The vegetation variables did not strongly differ between the two sides, and there was no difference in species richness and abundance of bees and wasps either. Abundance was, however, explained by the number of flowering plants in the surroundings of the trap. Even though using a rather limited data set, our results indicate that large roads may act as barriers on the movement of bees and wasps, especially for small species with poor dispersal ability. On the other hand, road verges may be important habitat for many species, which leads to a potential conflict that is important to consider in the planning of green infrastructure.

  12. The Duality on Vector Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Long-guang

    2012-01-01

    Duality framework on vector optimization problems in a locally convex topological vector space are established by using scalarization with a cone-strongly increasing function.The dualities for the scalar convex composed optimization problems and for general vector optimization problems are studied.A general approach for studying duality in vector optimization problems is presented.

  13. 基于向量空间模型的维吾尔文文本过滤方法%Uyghur Text Filtering Based on Vector Space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚力青·阿里玛斯; 哈力旦·阿布都热依木; 陈洋

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of large-scale text information retrieval technology, presented Uyghur text filtering model and implementation method. On the basis of vector space model (VSM), using three methods of similarity measure to calculate the similarity of input text with user templates as decision-making tools for Uyghur text filtering experiments. As to the problem of high dimensionality feature space of Uyghur texts, by stemming, stop words filtering, feature selection methods to reduce the dimension of feature space. Finally, analysis the text filtering results by value of F1 presented by Precision and Recall.%在大规模的文本信息检索技术背景下,提出了维吾尔文本过滤模型及实现方法。文本表示模型在向量空间模型(VSM)的基础上,采用三种相似度度量方法计算输入文本与用户模板相似度作为决策手段,对维吾尔文本进行了过滤实验。对于维吾尔文特征空间的高维性问题,通过词干提取,停用词过滤,特征选择等方法降低了特征空间维数。最后利用准确率(Precision)和召回率(Recall)综合函数F1值作为评价指标分析了维吾尔文文本过滤实验结果。

  14. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavianty, Ressa, E-mail: ressa-octavianty@ed.tmu.ac.jp; Asai, Masahito, E-mail: masai@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  15. 遥感影像边缘增强的L2向量空间范数算法%Edge Enhancement for Remote Sensing Image Using Norm Algorithm in L2 Vector Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 马建文

    2007-01-01

    The Householder transformation-norm structure function in L2 vector space of linear algebra is introduced, and the edge enhancement for remote sensing images is realized. The experiment result is compared with traditional Laplacian and Sobel edge enhancements and it shows that the effect of the new method is better than that of the traditional algorithms.

  16. Technology Licensing in Two-Sided Markets%双边市场条件下的技术许可策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀祖; 熊中楷; 黄俊

    2011-01-01

    Two-sided markets include a system platform and two groups of clients who interact with each other via two-sided network externalities-the expansion of one market can increase customers' utilities in the other market. Technology licensing decisions are important in the network economy because two-sided network externalities are prevalent. The purpose of the paper is to investigate innovators' optimal technology licensing strategies under two-sided markets.We assume that an innovator has major patented technologies that are manufactured for Product I market, but licensed in Product II market. The scenario shows that two-sided network externalities between the two markets exist. We explore how factors, such as the intensity of two-sided network externalities, the number of potential licensees and the potential demand effect, can influence the technology licensing strategies of innovators. We establish a two-stage game model and adopt the fulfilled expectation equilibrium theory to analyze market equilibrium.First, we discuss the fixed-fee licensing strategy and analyze the optimal number of licenses for an innovator. We find that an innovator will not restrict the number of licenses in the licensed product market when the following conditions exist: strong two-sided network externalities, small potential licensee numbers, and relatively small potential demand scale in the licensed product market. Without the presence of these conditions, an innovator will restrict the number of licensees. Second, we discuss the royalty licensing strategy. We find that the innovator will decrease the royalty rate when two-sided network externalities and the potential number of licensees increase, and when the potential demand in the licensed product market decreases. Third, we discuss the probability of technological subsidies provided by innovators. An innovator may subsidize licensees with negative royalty rates. Furthermore, an innovator' s subsidizing strategy may promote

  17. Comparison of Two Fast Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Algorithms%两种快速的空间矢量脉宽调制算法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范必双; 谭冠政; 樊绍胜; 王玉凤

    2014-01-01

    A comparison is made between two fast space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithms: the 60° non-orthogonal coordinate SVPWM and the 45° rotating coordinate SVPWM. New general methods of the 60° and 45° algorithms for any level SVPWM are also provided, which need only the angle and the modulation depth to generate and arrange the final vector sequence. The analysis shows the latter offers better flexibility with fewer calculations and is well suited for digital implementation. Both methods are implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) and compared on the basis of implementation complexity and logic resources required. Simulation results show the overwhelm in advantages of the 45° rotating coordinate SVPWM in brevity and efficiency. Finally, the experimental test results for a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter are presented.%对60°非正交坐标系和45°旋转坐标系这两种快速空间矢量脉宽调制算法(space vector pulse width modulation, SVPWM)进行比较,目的是为工程技术人员在这两种SVPWM算法之间选择时提供一个理论和实践的参考。提出了一种新的针对这两种方法的任意多电平调制通用算法,只需角度和调制比两个信号就能够决定最终的矢量开关顺序。理论分析结果表明,45°旋转坐标系 SVPWM 比60°非正交坐标系SVPWM更简单,计算量小,更适合于数字实现。两种算法都以硬件的方式在FPGA上用VHDL语言编程实现,并对实现的复杂度和逻辑资源占用这两方面进行比较。仿真结果表明,45°旋转坐标系下的SVPWM算法比60°坐标系下的SVPWM算法在简洁性和资源占用方面具有明显的优势。最后,在一个三电平中点箝位型逆变器上对所提的两种通用算法进行了实验验证。

  18. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  19. Definition of Linear Color Models in the RGB Vector Color Space to Detect Red Peaches in Orchard Images Taken under Natural Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the detection of red peaches in orchard images based on the definition of different linear color models in the RGB vector color space. The classification and segmentation of the pixels of the image is then performed by comparing the color distance from each pixel to the different previously defined linear color models. The methodology proposed has been tested with images obtained in a real orchard under natural light. The peach variety in the orchard was the paraguayo (Prunus persica var. platycarpa peach with red skin. The segmentation results showed that the area of the red peaches in the images was detected with an average error of 11.6%; 19.7% in the case of bright illumination; 8.2% in the case of low illumination; 8.6% for occlusion up to 33%; 12.2% in the case of occlusion between 34 and 66%; and 23% for occlusion above 66%. Finally, a methodology was proposed to estimate the diameter of the fruits based on an ellipsoidal fitting. A first diameter was obtained by using all the contour pixels and a second diameter was obtained by rejecting some pixels of the contour. This approach enables a rough estimate of the fruit occlusion percentage range by comparing the two diameter estimates.

  20. Fast Twin Support Vector Regression Algorithm in Primal Space%快速原空间孪生支持向量回归算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新俊; 王翼飞

    2011-01-01

    Twin support vector regression (TSVR) efficiently determines its objective regression function by optimizing a pair of smaller sized SVM-type problems. The objective functions of TSVR in the primal space are directly optimized by introducing the well-known Newton algorithm. This method effectively overcomes the shortcoming of TSVR that its regressor is aplroximated by the dual quadratic programming problems. Numerical studies show that the proposed method provides good performance and obtains less learning time compared with TSVR.%孪生支持向量回归(TSVR)通过快速优化--对较小规模的支持向量机问题获得回归函数.文中提出在原始输入空间中采用Newton法直接优化TSVR的目标函数,从而有效克服TSVR通过对偶二次规划问题求得近似最优解导致性能上的损失.数值模拟实验表明该方法不仅能提高TSVR的性能,并且可降低学习时间.

  1. Two Sides of the Same Coin? Analysis of the Web-Based Social Media with Regard to the Image of the Agri-Food Sector in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Boehm

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  Never before has food been as safe and secure as it is today, but simultaneously, society has become increasingly critical towards agricultural and food related issues. This two-sided development between society and agribusiness will be analyzed using Framing Theory. A quantitative semantic analysis was applied to evaluate the web-based social media in Germany. 50,931 web posts were collected covering 21 issues identified as relevant for the agri-food sector. The results show that all contentious issues are mainly framed in a two-sided way. The modern productivity-driven industry is judged as a negative development, trends returning to a more natural food production are seen as positive.

  2. Vectors Point Toward Pisa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard A.

    1971-01-01

    The author shows that the set of all sequences in which each term is the sum of the two previous terms forms a vector space of dimension two. He uses this result to obtain the formula for the Fibonacci sequence and applies the same technique to other linear recursive relations. (MM)

  3. Lock-on characteristics behind two side-by-side cylinders of diameter ratio two at small gap ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Petry Y.R.; Lu, Wei-Ting; Chou, Shy-Tsin; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiung [National Chung Hsing University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2012-10-15

    The lock-on characteristics, the detailed interactions and downstream evolutions of the wakes behind side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter (D/d = 2), spaced by a gap ratio 0.75 (G/D = 0.75), are investigated at Reynolds number 600 by the dye flow visualization, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimeter (PIV) velocity measurements. The lock-on frequency bands are studied by LDA and PIV at Reynolds number 2,000. The D, d and G are the diameters of the large, the small cylinders and the net gap between two cylinders, respectively. Periodic excitations, in form of rotary oscillation about the cylinder center, are applied to the large cylinder with the same amplitude. It is found that while the large cylinder is excited, two lock-on frequency bands of the wake behind the large cylinder are detected. These two lock-on frequency bands correspond to the primary and the one-third sub-harmonic lock-on of the wake behind large cylinder, respectively. These two lock-on frequency bands distribute symmetrically about the fundamental and the third superharmonic of the natural shedding frequency behind a single cylinder at the same Reynolds number. The left-shifted frequency band (1.8 {<=} f{sub e} /f{sub os} {<=} 2.0) is not considered as a locked-on frequency band because the phase difference between two excitation frequencies across f{sub e} /f{sub os} = 2.0 vary significantly. While the wake behind the large cylinder is locked-on at f{sub e} /3 (or f{sub os}), the gap flow becomes unbiased and the frequency of the wake behind small cylinder remains around the natural shedding frequency. Thus, the frequency band of 3.0 {<=} f{sub e} /f{sub os} {<=} 3.22 is also not locked-on because the phase difference in the narrow wake excited at f{sub e} /f{sub os} = 2.93 and 3.07 changes significantly. Note f{sub e} and f{sub os} denote the excitation frequency and the natural shedding frequency behind a single large cylinder, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Lock-on characteristics behind two side-by-side cylinders of diameter ratio two at small gap ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Petry Y. R.; Lu, Wei-Ting; Chou, Shy-Tsin; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiung

    2012-10-01

    The lock-on characteristics, the detailed interactions and downstream evolutions of the wakes behind side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter ( D/ d = 2), spaced by a gap ratio 0.75 ( G/ D = 0.75), are investigated at Reynolds number 600 by the dye flow visualization, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimeter (PIV) velocity measurements. The lock-on frequency bands are studied by LDA and PIV at Reynolds number 2,000. The D, d and G are the diameters of the large, the small cylinders and the net gap between two cylinders, respectively. Periodic excitations, in form of rotary oscillation about the cylinder center, are applied to the large cylinder with the same amplitude. It is found that while the large cylinder is excited, two lock-on frequency bands of the wake behind the large cylinder are detected. These two lock-on frequency bands correspond to the primary and the one-third sub-harmonic lock-on of the wake behind large cylinder, respectively. These two lock-on frequency bands distribute symmetrically about the fundamental and the third superharmonic of the natural shedding frequency behind a single cylinder at the same Reynolds number. The left-shifted frequency band (1.8 ≤ f e / f os ≤ 2.0) is not considered as a locked-on frequency band because the phase difference between two excitation frequencies across f e / f os = 2.0 vary significantly. While the wake behind the large cylinder is locked-on at f e /3 (or f os ), the gap flow becomes unbiased and the frequency of the wake behind small cylinder remains around the natural shedding frequency. Thus, the frequency band of 3.0 ≤ f e / f os ≤ 3.22 is also not locked-on because the phase difference in the narrow wake excited at f e / f os = 2.93 and 3.07 changes significantly. Note f e and f os denote the excitation frequency and the natural shedding frequency behind a single large cylinder, respectively.

  5. 三电平NPC逆变器的一种空间分区矢量提取的SHEPWM调制策略%A Kind of Three-level NPC Inverter SHEPWM Technique Based on Space Division and Vector Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周熙炜; 梅芳; 陈金平; 林海

    2016-01-01

    深入分析基本空间矢量SV与特定谐波消去SHEPWM之间的内在联系,提出三电平NPC逆变器的一种基于空间分区矢量提取的SHEPWM调制策略,推导出空间电压矢量PWM的三相等效调制波规则采样的开关角矩阵,得出基本空间矢量SV的选用与规则采样的运算关系以及SHEPWM的脉冲状态由基本SV组成的矢量序列特殊解。在此基础上,在三电平NPC逆变器的矢量空间六边形所分区的两电平六边形中,研究SHEPWM脉冲序列的空间电压矢量组成的扇区分布,并提取相应的基本SV,求解作用时间。 SHEPWM的脉冲状态由空间分区提取的基本SV矢量序列运算合成而实现,避开了其开关角非线性超越方程组的求解,并具有同样的消谐效果且便于实现。%According to the studies of internal relation for the basic space vector(SV) and the selective harmonic elimination PWM (SHEPWM), this paper puts forward a kind of SHEPWM implementation strategy based on the space partition vector SV extraction to the three-level NPC inverter, deduces the space voltage vector switch angle matrix of the three-phase equivalent modulation wave regulation sampling and the operation relationship. So, on the basis of the switch angle trajectory characteristics of SHEPWM and its realization by regulation sampling, the SHEPWM waveform pulse state can be gained by the vectors sequence special solution which composed of basic SV vector. To the three-level inverter, on the Two level small hexagon which be partitioned from space vector hexagon, the work sector allocation of SHEPWM pulse state be researched, and the corresponding basic SV vector and its action time also be achieved by the experiment and FFT analysis. This method avoid the solution of SHEPWM switch angle nonlinear transcendental equations, and it has the same effect of harmonic elimination and to facilitate online implementation.

  6. All optical vector magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  7. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  8. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  9. Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Based on Space Vector Modulation%异步电动机的SVM-DTC控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建虎; 姬宣德

    2011-01-01

    针对基本直接转矩控制(BASIC-DTC)转矩和磁链脉动大的缺点,采用空间电压矢量调制与直接转矩控制相结合(SVM-DTC)的方法,以减小转矩和磁链脉动;为了提高定子磁链的观测精度,利用全阶磁链观测器观测定子磁链,并提出一种单自由度极点配置方法实现磁链观测器的极点配置.仿真结果表明,系统不但实现了转矩和磁链的定量控制,降低了转矩脉动和磁链脉动,提高了定子磁链的观测精度,而且同时使得逆变器开关周期恒定,更易于数字化实现.%For the disadvantage of the basic direct torque control (BASIC-DTC) 's torque and flux ripple when it runs, the direct torque control combined with space vector modulation (SVM-DTC) was used to reduce the torque and flux ripple. To improve the accuracy of the stator flux observation,the full order flux observer was used to achieve the stator flux observation. The new method of pole placement was proposed to achieve the configuration of the flux full order observer gain matrix parameters. The simulation results show that the torque ripple and flux ripple is reduced and the accuracy of the stator flux observation is improved,and in this method the invertor has constant switching period and is easy to realizing digital.

  10. Systems of Simultaneous Generalized Vector Quasi-equilibrium Problems in Locally FC-uniform Spaces%局部FC-一致空间内的联立广义矢量拟平衡问题组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁协平

    2009-01-01

    Some new systems of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems and simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equihbrium problems are introduced and studied in locally FC-uniform spaces. By using a KKM type theorem and a Himmelberg type fixed point theorem in locally FC-uniform spaces due to author, a new coincidence point theorem for two families of set-valuod mappings is first proved in locally FC-uniform spaces. As applications,some new existence theorems of solutions for the systems of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems and the systems of simultaneous generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems are obtained in locally FC-unfform spaces.These results generalize some known results in literature.%在局部FC-一致空间内引入和研究了某些新的广义矢量拟平衡问题组和联立广义矢量拟平衡问题组.应用KKM型定理和作者在局部FC-一致空间得到的Himmelberg型不动点定理,首先在局部FC-一致空间内对两族集值映象证明了一个新的重合点定理.作为应用,在局部FC-一致空间内得到了广义矢量拟平衡问题组和联立广义矢量拟平衡问题组的解的某些新的存在性定理.这些结果推广了文献中某些已知结果.

  11. 双边市场中的搭售:问题与规制思路%Tying in Two-sided Markets:Problems and Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少南

    2016-01-01

    The unique market structure and operating mechanism of two-sided markets place great challenges on traditional ty-ing theories based on unilateral markets. It calls for a rational analysis to the tying subject’ s dominant market position and behav-ior characteristics, in terms of crossing network effects, non-neutral price structures, the mutual dependence and complementar-ity of platform products in two-sided markets. The key to regulating tying in two-sided markets by means of anti-monopoly laws is to take full account of both positive and negative competition effects. It is critically important that China take full advanta-ges of two-sided markets for technological innovation in the anti-monopoly legal practice, and to upgrade industrial develop-ment and promote consumer welfare by means of protecting innovation.%双边市场特有的结构和运行机制对基于传统单边市场的搭售理论提出了全新的挑战。应该围绕双边市场的交叉网络效应、非中性的价格结构及平台产品的相互依赖性和互补性等特征,理性分析搭售行为的主体市场支配地位和具体行为特征。反垄断法规制双边市场中的搭售行为的关键在于综合考量其积极的竞争效果和消极的竞争效果。我国在反垄断法实践中应充分注重双边市场在技术创新方面的突出优势,通过保护创新来促进产业发展和提升消费者福利。

  12. Vector fields on nonorientable surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ghisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-to-one correspondence is established between the germs of functions and tangent vectors on a NOS X and the bi-germs of functions, respectively, elementary fields of tangent vectors (EFTV on the orientable double cover of X. Some representation theorems for the algebra of germs of functions, the tangent space at an arbitrary point of X, and the space of vector fields on X are proved by using a symmetrisation process. An example related to the normal derivative on the border of the Möbius strip supports the nontriviality of the concepts introduced in this paper.

  13. Solutions for Set-valued System in Local Convex Hausdorff Topological Vector Space%Hausdorff局部凸线性拓扑空间集值系统的解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林强

    2001-01-01

    在Hausdorff局部凸线性拓扑空间中讨论集值系统x∈F(x,y),y∈G(x,y)解的存在性,推广了Rzepechi B在一致凸Banach空间中相应的结论。%This paper deals with existence of solutions for set-valued system x∈F(x,y),y∈G(x,y) in local convex Hausdorff topological vector space. The results obtained are generalization of Rzepechi theorem in uniform convex Banach space.

  14. Completeness of the System of Root Vectors of 2 × 2 Upper Triangular Infinite-Dimensional Hamiltonian Operators in Symplectic Spaces and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; ALATANCANG; Junjie HUANG

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate the completeness of the system of eigen or root vectors of the 2 x 2 upper triangular infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian operator H0.First,the geometrical multiplicity and the algebraic index of the eigenvalue of H0 are considered.Next,some necessary and sufficient conditions for the completeness of the system of eigen or root vectors of H0 are obtained. Finally,the obtained results are tested in several examples.

  15. Filtering With Two Sided Filtrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    anid (4.12) must be the same. Equating the bounded variation terms we have -i = H(At(h(x,) + (t))) - 17(At)(Ifh(xt) + IfH(t)). (4.13) Similarly, forming...TRATIONS 535 Again, the decompositions (4.11) and (4.14) must be the same, so equating their bounded variation terms we see =H(Ait((t) - h(xj_,))) + fl...h (1 - 2t) -(B1 -B_) so dividing by h > 0 and letting h -+ 0 we see at = (-2t)(1 - 2t) Furthermore, because the quadratic variation of bounded

  16. Vector and tensor analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A

    1979-01-01

    Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

  17. One-Dimensional Space Vector Modulation for Single-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter%单相级联型多电平逆变器一维空间矢量调制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡应宏; 王建赜; 申科; 佘禄平; 纪延超

    2012-01-01

    In allusion to such defects in traditional voltage space vector pulse width modulation algorithm as complex calculation and weak expansibility when it is applied in multilevel converter, based on sampling time staggered space vector modulation theory a simplified one-dimensional space vector modulation algorithm for single-phase cascaded multilever inverter is proposed. Through simple operation the selection of one-dimensional voltage vector can be chosen and corrsponding action time can be obtained, and the optimized firing sequence of the valves can be reasonably selected; redundant switch status is utlized to implement the dead zone is achieved to effectively avoid the danger of short-circuit "of bridge arms. Simulation results show that the proposed modulation method is correct and feasible.%电压空间矢量脉宽调制算法在应用于多电平变换器场合时存在计算复杂、扩展性差的缺点.针对单相级联型多电平逆变器,结合错时采样原理,提出一种简化一维空间矢量调制算法.通过简单运算可以得到一维电压矢量的选取和相应的作用时间,并合理选择优化的开关导通序列,同时利用冗余开关状态实现死区,有效地避免了桥臂直通的危险.仿真和实验结果证明了本文提出调制方法的正确性和可行性.

  18. General scan in flavor parameter space in models with vector quark doublets and an enhancement in the B → Xsγ process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Xiong, Zhao-Hua; Zhao, Xin-Yan

    2016-09-01

    In models with vector-like quark doublets, the mass matrices of up and down type quarks are related. Precise diagonalization of the mass matrices has become an obstacle in numerical studies. In this work we first propose a diagonalization method. As its application, in the Standard Model with one vector-like quark doublet we present the quark mass spectrum and Feynman rules for the calculation of B → Xsγ. We find that i) under the constraints of the CKM matrix measurements, the mass parameters in the bilinear term are constrained to a small value by the small deviation from unitarity; ii) compared with the fourth generation extension of the Standard Model, there is an enhancement to the B → Xsγ process in the contribution of vector-like quarks, resulting in a non-decoupling effect in such models. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11375001) and Talents Foundation of Education Department of Beijing

  19. General scan in flavor parameter space in the models with vector quark doublets and an enhancement in $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenyu; Zhao, Xin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the models with vector like quark doublets, the mass matrices of up and down type quarks are related. Precise diagonalization for the mass matrices became an obstacle in the numerical studies. In this work we propose a diagonalization method at first. As its application, in the standard model with one vector like quark doublet we present quark mass spectrum, Feynman rules for the calculation of $B\\to X_s\\gamma$. We find that i) under the constraints of the CKM matrix measurements, the mass parameters in the bilinear term are constrained to a small value by the small deviation from unitarity; ii) compared with the fourth generation extension of the standard model, there is an enhancement to $B\\to X_s\\gamma$ process in the contribution of vector like quark, resulting a non-decoupling effect in such models.

  20. One-sided or Two-sided Fee: The Choice of Pricing Modes in Media Two-sided Markets%单边收费还是双边收费:双边市场中媒体定价模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程贵孙

    2011-01-01

    向一边用户收费还是向两边用户同时收费,是双边市场中众多平台企业在制定价格策略时面临的两难选择.本文以垄断媒体平台为例,考察了垄断媒体对单边收费和双边收费的最优定价模式选择问题.研究发现,媒体订阅量给广告商带来的网络效应强度和媒体内容产品质量参数,它们所形成的广告商与消费者之间的"相对价值比效应指数",将影响到垄断媒体对定价模式的选择.%Platform firms play an important role in e-business. Platform firms charge two groups of agents in exchange for their product and service offerings. Any platform firms in a two-sided market need to deal with the pricing dilemma of charging one-sided user or two-sided users. Advertisement can cause a negative externality on customers because customers usually dislike advertising. Different pricing models can be formulated to compare media platforms using advertisement, with platforms not using advertisement. This paper will present a model of a two-sided vertically differentiated market and use a model to find an optimal pricing model for charging onesided user or two-sided users in a monopolist media platform.This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 discusses related literature and research objectives. Section 2 describes our proposed model. Section 3 discusses the consumer payment pricing model and price equilibrium solutions. Media platforms do not use any advertisements and charge consumers a subscription fee in the consumer payment pricing model. Section 4 discusses the advertiser's payment pricing model and the price equilibrium solutions. In the advertiser's payment pricing model, media platforms allow advertisements and charge the advertisers an advertising fee. Consumers can subscribe to the advertising service for free. Section 5 discusses the two-sided payment pricing model and price equilibrium solutions. In this pricing model, media platforms charge consumers different

  1. MILP model for integrated balancing and sequencing mixed-model two-sided assembly line with variable launching interval and assignment restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. I. L. Mohd; Ahmad, R.; Zainuddin, Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    This research explores the Mixed-Model Two-Sided Assembly Line (MMTSAL). There are two interrelated problems in MMTSAL which are line balancing and model sequencing. In previous studies, many researchers considered these problems separately and only few studied them simultaneously for one-sided line. However in this study, these two problems are solved simultaneously to obtain more efficient solution. The Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with objectives of minimizing total utility work and idle time is generated by considering variable launching interval and assignment restriction constraint. The problem is analysed using small-size test cases to validate the integrated model. Throughout this paper, numerical experiment was conducted by using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) with the solver CPLEX. Experimental results indicate that integrating the problems of model sequencing and line balancing help to minimise the proposed objectives function.

  2. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  3. 基于电压空间矢量的滞环电流控制方法和APF的系统设计%Hysteresis current control based on voltage space vector and APF system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建勇; 王杰; 梅军; 王磊

    2011-01-01

    A hysteresis current control based on voltage space vector is proposed,which obtains three groups of current error vector by importing the phase current error to the hysteresis comparator and outputs the optimal voltage space by determining the distribution of current error vector and reference voltage vector. Therefore,the current error is limited in the hysteresis width. It can efficiently eliminate the interference and restrict the current error under a lower switching frequency. A fully digital control system based on DSP-FPGA is designed,with quicker current response,better current tracking performance and enhanced system stability. Simulative and experimental results verify the correctness of the given control strategy.%提出了一种基于电压空间矢量的滞环电流控制方法.该方法将相电流误差通过滞环比较器得到3组电流误差矢量,并通过对电流误差矢量和参考电压矢量扇区的判别输出最优电压矢量,从而使电流误差控制在滞环宽度内.该方法能有效地消除相间影响,并且能够在较低的开关频率下有效地限制电流误差,既有较好的电流响应速度,又有较好的电流跟踪性能.设计了基于DSP-FPGA的全数字控制系统,极大提高整个系统的稳定性.仿真和实验结果验证了控制策略的正确性.

  4. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...... detector element signal when the fringe pattern formed by the interfering signal beam and reference beam moves across the first detector array; and a signal processor that is adapted for generation of a velocity signal corresponding to a first velocity component of movement of the object in the measurement...

  5. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  6. 空间矢量脉宽调制( SVPWM)技术的仿真与分析%Simulation and Analysis of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成; 王心坚; 李良璋; 孙泽昌

    2012-01-01

      By analyzing the basic principle of flux tracking and voltage space vector synthesis , the DC voltage utilization ratio of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) was analyzed theoretically.The PMSM speed regulating system model adopting SVPWM technique was built in Matlab /Simulink environment.And the simulation results show that SVPWM yields a circular magnetic field in motor space .The harmonics of output voltage distribute mainly around integer multiples of carrier frequency , and higher modulation index yields a low-er voltage total harmonic distortion.%  基于SVPWM的磁链跟踪和电压矢量合成原理,理论分析了SVPWM的直流电压利用率,在Matlab/Simulink中建立SVPWM及永磁同步电机调速系统的仿真模型。仿真结果表明, SVPWM可在电机空间实现圆形磁场,输出电压谐波集中在载波频率整数倍附近,较高的调制比可获得较小的电压谐波畸变。

  7. Noncircular-PARAFAC for 2D-DOA estimation of noncircular signals in arbitrarily spaced acoustic vector-sensor array subjected to unknown locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Cao, Renzheng; Zhou, Ming

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a noncircular-parallel factor (NC-PARAFAC) algorithm for two-dimensional direction of arrival (DOA) estimation of noncircular signals for acoustic vector-sensor array. The proposed algorithm enhances the angle estimation performance via utilizing the noncircularity of the signals, and it can be suitable for arbitrary array subjected to unknown locations and achieve automatically paired two-dimensional angle estimation. The proposed algorithm has better angle estimation performance than estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique, PARAFAC algorithm, and propagator method. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has a lower computational complexity than the PARAFAC algorithm. We also derive the Crámer-Rao bound of DOA estimation of noncircular signal in acoustic vector-sensor array. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  8. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  9. Platform strategy in vertically differentiated two-sided markets%纵向差异化双边市场中平台策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万兴; 高觉民

    2013-01-01

    基于抽象函数建立了纵向差异化双边市场的一般模型,并利用一般模型讨论了垄断与双寡头情形下的市场均衡特征以及在双寡头情形下价格变动的战略效应.进一步在均匀分布的假设下分析了网络外部性参数与质量差距变量对市场均衡时价格与利润的影响.研究发现,在一般模型中,垄断平台能够比双寡头平台更加有效地协调两边的价格结构;双寡头平台的竞争呈现强者更强的效应;双寡头平台竞争中价格具有战略互补效应,而下游市场的战略互补效应要高于上游市场的战略互补效应.基于均匀分布假设可以得到,低质量平台宜采取“分而治之”的策略,高质量平台则宜“因时而动”.%A general-purpose model associated with vertically differentiated two-sided markets is established based on an function. Using the general-purpose model, the paper discusses the features of market equilibriums in both a monopoly and a duopoly markets, and explores strategic effects of price change in the duopoly market. The paper further studies the impact of the parameters of network externality and the variable of quality gap on equilibrium prices and profits under the assumption of uniform distribution of consumer preference. The following conclusions are obtained by using the general-purpose model. Firstly, a monopoly platform can coordinate the price structure of the two sides more effectively than duopoly platforms. Secondly, a positive feedback exists in competition between duopoly platforms. Thirdly, prices have strategic complementary effect in duopoly competition, and this effect is stronger on the downstream side than on the upstream side. Under the assumption of uniform distribution, the paper finds that the low-quality platform should take the strategy of "divide and conquer", while the high-quality platform should exert the strategy of "act according to circumstances".

  10. 基于脉冲跳变的空间矢量脉冲宽度调制策略%Novel space vector pulse width modulation based on pulse-shifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林城美; 王公宝; 汪光森; 李卫超; 崔小鹏

    2016-01-01

    针对二极管钳位型单相九电平逆变器,分析其工作原理,提取了逆变器工作的有效开关状态。根据伏秒平衡原理和两矢量三段式调制规律,提出了一种基于脉冲跳变的空间矢量脉冲宽度调制( space vector pulse width modulation,SVPWM)策略。通过分析所有开关周期脉冲的跳变情况,给出了脉冲类型的判断条件,并根据脉冲类型计算起始和终止电压矢量及其作用时间;同时,应用FPGA设计了模块化SVPWM控制系统,并对该控制系统进行了时钟与资源消耗评估。性能分析结果表明,该调制策略计算速度快、资源消耗小。最后,仿真与实验结果验证了所提调制策略的正确性和有效性,而且能够有效地均衡电容电压。%The operating principle of diode-clamped single phase 9-level inverter was analyzed firstly, and its useful switching vectors of the inverter were obtained. A novel space vector pulse width modulation ( SVPWM) was presented based on pulse-shifting, according to volt-second balance principle and two-vector modulation rule. By analyzing the pulse-shifting condition within one normal switching period, the criterion for judging pulse type was also proposed. Based on different pulse type, the computing method of the start and end voltage vector were different, and their dwell time were also different. The SVPWM control system was implemented using a field programmable gate array ( FPGA) circuit as the hardware simulation platform, whose clock and resource utilization are evaluated. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the presented control strategy has good control effect, and balances the capacitor voltages better.

  11. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of the Nanofluids in Two-Sided Lid-Driven Square Cavity with a Pair of Triangular Heating Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubair Boulahia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is carried out concerning mixed convection of the nanofluid in two-sided lid-driven square cavity with a pair of triangular heat sources. The upper and bottom moving walls are thermally insulated while the left and right walls are cooled at constant temperature. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved using the finite volume discretization method with SIMPLE algorithm. The method used is validated against previous works. Two cases were considered depending on the direction of moving walls. Effects of various design parameters such as Richardson number (0.1≤Ri≤100, nanoparticle volume fraction (0≤φ≤0.05, and size (25 nm≤dp≤145 nm and type (Cu,Al2O3,TiO2 of nanoparticles on the heat transfer rate are investigated. The results of this investigation illustrate that, by reducing the diameter of the nanoparticles and Ri, the heat transfer rate increases. Moreover, it is found that by changing horizontal direction of the moving walls the heat transfer rate variation is negligible.

  12. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  13. Space shuttle engineering and operations support: Study of the effects of multiple ground updates on the accuracy of the onboard state vector with IMU only navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, R.

    1977-01-01

    There are six cases considered: (1) no updates made during the flight, (2) one ground update in the vertical components only at the first practice separation minus 15 minutes, (3) one ground update in all components at the first practice separation minus 5 minutes, (4) updates 2 and 3 applied successively, (5) Case 4 plus an update in all components at the second separation attempt minus 3 minutes, and (6) one ground update at first separation attempt minus 5 minutes and a second update at second separation minus two minutes. The mission control simulation program, GROPER, was run using as radar input a tape containing radar derived state vectors for the trajectory.

  14. 电压空间矢量PWM控制技术的探讨%Discussion of Space Voltage Vector PWM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, SVPWM control technology is utilized method is employed by inserting zero voltage vectors between SVPWM w'aves and the basic knowledge of Fourier series, the the fundamental frequency, which the inverter output U/f is a to produce hexagonal rotating magnetic field, and a the basic voltage vectors skillfully. Using the above proof is given when adjusting motor's speed under constant. It is important for students to understand and master the knowledge of SVPWM technology and AC drive system accurately and comprehensively.%本文利用SVPWM控制技术产生的正六边形旋转磁场,在基本电压矢量之间插入零电压矢量。利用得到的SVPWM波及傅立叶级数基本知识,证明了基频以下调速时,逆变器输出电压一频率比为恒值这一结论。这对准确而全面理解SVPWM控制技术、深刻掌握交流调速系统有关内容具有重要意义。

  15. Vector nematicons

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    Families of soliton pairs, namely vector solitons, are found within the context of a coupled nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger system of equations, as appropriate for modeling beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals. In the focusing case, bright soliton pairs have been found to exist provided their amplitudes satisfy a specific condition. In our analytical approach, focused on the defocusing regime, we rely on a multiscale expansion methods, which reveals the existence of dark-dark and antidark-antidark solitons, obeying an effective Korteweg-de Vries equation, as well as dark-bright solitons, obeying an effective Mel'nikov system. These pairs are discriminated by the sign of a constant that links all physical parameters of the system to the amplitude of the stable continuous wave solutions, and, much like the focusing case, the solitons' amplitudes are linked leading to mutual guiding.

  16. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  17. 双边多工位装配线平衡问题%Heuristic algorithm of two-sided with multi-parallel stations assembly line balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏林; 殷复鹏; 吴爱华

    2013-01-01

    针对装配线上一个位置左右两边各有多个工位的装配线平衡问题建立数学模型,提出一种启发式平衡算法.该算法分为两个阶段,阶段1从未分配的作业元素中找出能够分配给某一位置的作业,构成集合W;阶段2按照不违背作业优先关系、方位约束和工位时间不超过节拍的原则,把W中的部分或全部作业元素分配到该位置内的各工位上;依此循环,直至所有作业元素分配完毕.以某重型汽车装配翻车前的装配线平衡为例,说明了所提算法的有效性.%To study the complex assembly line balancing problem, such as two-sided with multi-stations assembly line balancing problem, a mathematical model based on some assumptions to this problem was set up and a heuristic balancing algorithm was proposed. The algorithm had two phases. Phase one was to find out the operations which could be assigned to one position, corresponding to the constraint conditions in the mathematical model, and set up the set W with them. And phase two was to select and assign operations from W to the right station of the position without violating rules as precedence, position constraint and station time. All operations' assignments were completed based on this cycle. Finally, a truck assembly line balancing problem was provided as example to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  18. Study on Platform Ownership in Two-sided Markets%基于双边市场的平台所有权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭慧; 张洪

    2011-01-01

    There are many markets in which two groups of users interact with each other via electronic platforms. These platforms enable markets to have two - sided network externality. These platforms include payment systems, portals, search engines, Internet shops, operating systems, etc. The platform of two-sided markets may be owned by independent third parties, or vertically integrated buyers or suppliers. Different ownerships can lead to differences in platform size, profit distribution and social welfare. It is important to understand different forms of platform ownership structure and their external effects.This paper is to study the impact of different platform ownership arrangements on the market structure in two-sided markets. Two ownership structures and three market structures are examined in this study. The two examined ownership structures are the independent third party-owned platform and the supplier-owned platform. The three examined market structures are monopoly, duopoly with single-homing and multi-homing. This study compares the rankings of market size, consumer surplus, supplier's profit and social welfare for these two ownership structures and three market structures.Our findings show that in the monopoly market structure suppliers are motivated for profit to own platform if the density of suppliers is more than 1.0457. The ownership is not socially preferable and government should intervene in markets. Duopoly market structure has single-homing and multi-homing forms. Three cases were compared with each other: (1) two competing platforms owned by independent third parties, (2) one common platform jointly owned by two different suppliers, (3) one platform owned by an independent third party and the other co-owned by suppliers. Our analysis results show that independent third party ownership is a socially optimal ownership structure. Supplier-ownership should be regulated in order to maximize social welfare. Interactions between two platform ownership

  19. 五相电压源逆变器的空间矢量脉宽调制方法研究%Research of Space Vector PWM Techniques for Five-phase Voltage Source Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏伟; 杨贵杰; 刘剑

    2014-01-01

    To improve the DC bus voltage utilization of five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and reduce the harmonic component of output phase voltages, a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm of five-phase VSI based on adjacent four voltage vectors was proposed. According to the value of modulation index, the modulation range could be divided into sine modulation region and non-sine modulation region. In sine modulation region, the output phase voltages are standard sine waves without any harmonic component through allocating the action time of space vector appropriately. In non-sine modulation region, through optimizing the voltage vector in harmonic subspace, not only the DC bus voltage utilization is improved effectively, but also the harmonic component of output phase voltages is minimized. Simulation and experimental results verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm.%为提高五相电压源逆变器(voltage source inverter,VSI)的直流母线电压利用率,减少输出相电压中所含的谐波分量,提出一种改进的基于最近四矢量的五相 VSI 空间矢量脉宽调制算法。根据调制系数的不同,将整个调制范围分为正弦调制区和非正弦调制区。在正弦调制区,通过合理分配空间矢量的作用时间,使得输出相电压为标准正弦波形,不含有任何谐波成分;在非正弦调制区,通过对谐波子空间内的电压矢量进行优化控制,在进一步提高直流母线电压利用率的同时,保证输出相电压中所含谐波分量更少,使逆变器工作在最优状态。仿真和实验结果验证了所提算法的正确性和可行性。

  20. Higgs Decays and Brane Gravi-vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, T. E.; Liu, B. Y.; Love, S. T.; Xiong, C.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2008-01-01

    Higgs boson decays in flexible brane world models with stable, massive gravi-vectors are considered. Such vectors couple bilinearly to the Standard Model fields through either the Standard Model energy-momentum tensor, the weak hypercharge field strength or the Higgs scalar. The role of the coupling involving the extrinsic curvature is highlighted. It is found that within the presently allowed parameter space, the decay rate of the Higgs into two gravi-vectors (which would appear as an invisi...

  1. The vector algebra war: A historical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, James M; Hartnett, John G; Abbott, Derek

    2015-01-01

    There are a wide variety of different vector formalisms currently utilized in science. For example, Gibbs three-vectors, spacetime four-vectors, complex spinors for quantum mechanics, quaternions used for rigid body rotations and Clifford multivectors. With such a range of vector formalisms in use, it thus appears that there is as yet no general agreement on a vector formalism suitable for the whole of science. This surprising situation exists today, despite the fact that one of the main goals of nineteenth century science was to correctly describe vectors and the algebra of three-dimensional space. This situation has also had the unfortunate consequence of fragmenting knowledge across many disciplines and requiring a very significant amount of time and effort in learning the different formalisms. We thus review historically the development of our various vector systems and conclude that the Clifford algebra multivector fulfills the goal of correctly describing vectorial quantities in three dimensions.

  2. Bifurcations of optimal vector fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.; Wagener, F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the structure of the solution set of a class of infinite-horizon dynamic programming problems with one-dimensional state spaces, as well as their bifurcations, as problem parameters are varied. The solutions are represented as the integral curves of a multivalued optimal vector field on sta

  3. Sentiment Vector Space Model Based Music Emotion Tag Prediction%基于情感向量空间模型的歌曲情感标签预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 林鸿飞; 李瑞敏

    2012-01-01

    Music emotion tag prediction algorithm plays an important role in music sentiment analysis. This paper presents a sentiment vector space model (s-VSM) based music emotion tag prediction algorithm. Firstly, we extract the emotion words to build the sentiment vector space model. Then, we use SVM classifier to generate training samples, and to get the collection which shares the same main emotion category with the predicted music. Finally, by finding the nearest k songs, we can get the emotion tag for recommendation. Experimental results show that s-VSM and the "emotional words-emotional label" co-occurrence based feature reduction method perform better than traditionally word-based vector space model in mood classification. Meanwhile, the emotion tag prediction based on the result of classification can effectively prevent the music "main mood drift", thus achieving better tag predict accuracy than k-nearest neighbors method.%音乐的情感标签预测对音乐的情感分析有着重要的意义.该文提出了一种基于情感向量空间模型的歌曲情感标签预测算法,首先,提取歌词中的情感特征词构建情感空间向量模型,然后利用SVM分类器对已知情感标签的音乐进行训练,通过分类技术找到与待预测歌曲情感主类一致的歌曲集合,最后,通过歌词的情感相似度计算找到最邻近的k首歌曲,将其标签推荐给待预测歌曲.实验发现本文提出的情感向量空间模型和“情感词—情感标签”共现的特征降维方法比传统的文本特征向量模型能够更好地提高歌曲情感分类准确率.同时,在分类基础上进行的情感标签预测方法可以有效地防止音乐“主类情感漂移”,比最近邻居方法达到更好的标签预测准确率.

  4. Unsupervised learning of binary vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli Lopes da Silva, Mauro

    In this thesis, unsupervised learning of binary vectors from data is studied using methods from Statistical Mechanics of disordered systems. In the model, data vectors are distributed according to a single symmetry-breaking direction. The aim of unsupervised learning is to provide a good approximation to this direction. The difference with respect to previous studies is the knowledge that this preferential direction has binary components. It is shown that sampling from the posterior distribution (Gibbs learning) leads, for general smooth distributions, to an exponentially fast approach to perfect learning in the asymptotic limit of large number of examples. If the distribution is non-smooth, then first order phase transitions to perfect learning are expected. In the limit of poor performance, a second order phase transition ("retarded learning") is predicted to occur if the data distribution is not biased. Using concepts from Bayesian inference, the center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble is shown to have maximal average (Bayes-optimal) performance. This upper bound for continuous vectors is extended to a discrete space, resulting in the clipped center of mass of the Gibbs ensemble having maximal average performance among the binary vectors. To calculate the performance of this best binary vector, the geometric properties of the center of mass of binary vectors are studied. The surprising result is found that the center of mass of infinite binary vectors which obey some simple constraints, is again a binary vector. When disorder is taken into account in the calculation, however, a vector with continuous components is obtained. The performance of the best binary vector is calculated and shown to always lie above that of Gibbs learning and below the Bayes-optimal performance. Making use of a variational approach under the replica symmetric ansatz, an optimal potential is constructed in the limits of zero temperature and mutual overlap 1. Minimization of this potential

  5. Role of two-sided crosstalk between NO and H2S on improvement of mineral homeostasis and antioxidative defense in Sesamum indicum under lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Zangene-Madar, Faezeh; Enteshari, Shekoofeh

    2017-05-01

    H2S and NO are two important gasotransmitters that modulate stress responses in plants. There are the contradictory data on crosstalk between NO and H2S in the studies. Hence, in the present study, the role of interplay between NO and H2S was assessed on the Pb tolerance of Sesamum indicum using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Results revealed that Pb stress reduced the plant growth and the content of photosynthetic pigments and Fv/Fm ratio, increased the lipid peroxidation and the H2O2 content, elevated the endogenous contents of nitric oxide (NO), H2S and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (except APX). Additionally, concentrations of most mineral ions (K, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn) in both shoots and roots decreased. Pb accumulation in roots was more than it in shoots. Both sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as a donor of H2S) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP as an NO donor) improved the plant growth, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and PSII efficiency, reduced oxidative damage, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the proline content in Pb-stressed plants. Furthermore, both NaHS and SNP significantly restricted the uptake and translocation of Pb, thereby minimizing antagonistic effects of Pb on essential mineral contents in sesame plants. NaHS increased the NO generation and many NaHS-induced responses were completely reversed by cPTIO, as the specific NO scavenger. Applying SNP also enhanced H2S release levels in roots of Pb-stressed plants and only some NO-driven effects were partially weakened by hypotuarine (HT), as the scavenger of H2S.These findings proposed for the first time that two-sided interplay between H2S and NO might confer an increased tolerance to Pb stress via activating the antioxidant systems, reducing the uptake and translocation of Pb, and harmonizing the balance of mineral nutrient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bifurcation Diagrams and Quotient Topological Spaces Under the Action of the Affine Group of a Family of Planar Quadratic Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerba Diaconescu, Oxana; Schlomiuk, Dana; Vulpe, Nicolae

    In this article, we consider the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, ∞ } of all real quadratic differential systems (dx)/(dt) = p(x, y), (dy)/(dt) = q(x, y) with gcd(p, q) = 1, having invariant lines of total multiplicity four and two complex and one real infinite singularities. We first construct compactified canonical forms for the class QSL4{u +vc+w^c, ∞ } so as to include limit points in the 12-dimensional parameter space of this class. We next construct the bifurcation diagrams for these compactified canonical forms. These diagrams contain many repetitions of phase portraits and we show that these are due to many symmetries under the group action. To retain the essence of the dynamics we finally construct the quotient spaces under the action of the group G = Aff(2, ℝ) × ℝ* of affine transformations and time homotheties and we place the phase portraits in these quotient spaces. The final diagrams retain only the necessary information to capture the dynamics under the motion in the parameter space as well as under this group action. We also present here necessary and sufficient conditions for an affine line to be invariant of multiplicity k for a quadratic system.

  7. Research of Hysteresis Current Control Method Based on Voltage Space Vector%基于空间矢量的滞环电流跟踪控制策略仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志华; 曹以龙; 张海

    2013-01-01

    研究了一种基于电压空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)的不定频滞环电流控制方法.设计了基于该控制策略的PWM整流器和有源电力滤波器的Simulink仿真模型,仿真结果表明了该控制策略的可行性.%A variable-frequency hysteresis current control method based on voltage space vector pulse width modulation ( SVPWM) was proposed, and the Simulink model for PWM rectifier and active power filter was designed based on this control strategy. The simulation results prove the feasibility of this controlling strategy.

  8. Low Power, Self Calibrated Vector Magnetometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project investigates a novel approach to vector magnetometry based on high precision measurements of the total magnetic field. The calibration is...

  9. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ivan Kausz

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich’s and Vistoli’s twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  10. Numerical Simulation of the vortex shedding from two side-by-side square cylinders in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. L.; Deng, D.

    2010-03-01

    Considering the turbulence deduced by shearing stress and air bubble, and based on two-fluid model, gas-liquid two-phase flow around two square cylinders in side-by-side arrangement in vertical tube with different void fraction different spacing ratio is numerically simulated by using the finite volume method in this paper. It is found that the gap flow with the spacing ratio smaller than 2.0 is not only biased to one side, resulting in the formation of a narrower wake behind one cylinder and a wider wake behind the other, but also not-biased to neither of them; vortex shedding from the two cylinders with the spacing ratio larger than or equal to 2.0 is synchronized. But when the spacing ratio is equal to 2.0, In-phase mode is the predominant mode while anti-phase mode predominates when the spacing ratio is 2.5, 3.0, 5.0. In bias pattern, the cylinder with wide wake has smaller resistance, the cylinder with narrow wake has larger resistance, and the cylinders with middle wake have equality resistance. Meanwhile the spacing ratio has tremendous influence on pulsating lift, amplitude spectrum and so on. The volume of void fraction in the incident flow influence the vortex production, falling off & development heavily. When the volume of void fraction increases to 0.12, the stable vortex street does not produce.

  11. An Algorithm for Chinese Plagiarism Detection Based on Left Align Word Frequency Vector Space Model%基于左归词频向量空间模型的中文文本抄袭检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢松山; 唐雁

    2015-01-01

    提出一种基于左归词频向量空间模型的抄袭检测算法 .通过左归处理将抄袭文本的指代还原 ,借助同义词链对所有同义词统一左对齐于同义词链首词 ,然后以直接统计词频构造文本词频特征 ,抛弃词频统计抄袭检测算法中以TF-IDF多步计算相对词频的处理 ,最后以词频特征构造向量空间模型 ,用余弦相似计算文本相似度 .实验表明 ,算法在各种抄袭类型的数据集上综合性能更优、稳定性更好、效率更高 .%In this paper ,an algorithm for plagiarism detection based on left align word frequency vector space model is proposed .First ,left align treatment is made to recover the reference in the copied text . Next ,all synonyms are unified with the synonym chain by left-justifying them with the first word at their synonym chain .Then ,a text word frequency features are constructed directly with statistical method ,a-bandoning the multi-step process of TF-IDF to calculate the relative word frequency in other word frequen-cy plagiarism detection algorithms .Finally ,a vector space model is constructed ,using the word frequency features ,and the text similarity is calculated using the cosine similarity .Experimental results show that this algorithm on various types of plagiarism data sets has better overall performance ,better stability and greater efficiency .

  12. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  13. Hyperorthogonal family of vectors and the associated Gram matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Bent

    2014-01-01

    A family of non-zero vectors in Euclidean n -space is termed hyperorthogonal if the angle between any two distinct vectors of the family is at least π/2 . Any hyperorthogonal family is finite and contains at most 2n vectors. It decomposes uniquely into the union of mutually orthogonal irreducible...

  14. A novel space vector hysteresis control for three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier%一种新型三相电压型PWM整流器滞环空间矢量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武云

    2014-01-01

    The improved space vector hysteresis control was introduced for the disadvantage of poor current tracking caused by the traditional control strategy in the three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier. The improved strategy choose the hysteresis loop width and the switch state through the judgment of the AC error current vector modulus, and the selection principle of the switch state was provided in order to reduce the switching losses. Final y, the simulation model was established under matlab/simulink to compare AC current quality between the traditional and the improved control strategies, the simulation results further demonstrated the superiority of the improved control scheme.%提出了一种改进的滞环空间矢量控制,用于解决三相电压型PWM整流器采用传统滞环空间矢量控制时,电流跟踪效果不佳的问题。改进后的控制策略通过对交流侧误差电流矢量模值大小判断后,选择滞环环宽和对应的开关状态,同时总结出最佳的开关状态选择原则,以最大限度地低开关损耗,提高系统响应速度。最后在matlab/simulink下建立系统的仿真模型,通过对改进前后两种控制策略下交流侧电流质量的对比,进一步验证了改进后控制策略的优越性。

  15. Black holes with vector hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  16. 一种带约束的电压空间矢量脉宽调制方法%A Novel Method of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation With Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德会; 夏晓昊; 李钷

    2013-01-01

    为解决传统调制方法中的最小脉宽问题,提出了一种带约束的电压空间矢量脉宽调制(space vector pulse width modulation,SVPWM)方法。首先,建立新的三相桥臂坐标,取消了扇区的划分和判断;其次,将基本电压空间矢量由8个减小为3个,并将其作用时间与三相桥臂的导通时间一一对应;再次,通过增加约束条件,将传统 SVPWM 方法的调制过程及其结果离散化,从而避免了窄脉宽的出现;最后,给出了一种快速的计算策略,其计算量仅与 SVPWM方法一个扇区的计算量基本相同。相对于 SVPWM 方法,所提方法调制的基波与杂波在频谱上的分布更清晰,低次谐波较少,有利于进行低通滤波处理,更适合较高电压和较大电流的逆变要求。仿真及实验结果均验证了该方法的可行性。%To solve the problem of the minimum pulse width in traditional modulation methods, a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method with constraints is proposed. Firstly, a three-phase bridge-arm coordinate is established to cancel the traditional sector division and the judgment;secondly, the number of basic voltage space vectors is reduced from 8 to 3, and their actuation durations correspond to the on-times of three-phase bridge-arms respectively;thirdly, by means of adding constraint conditions the modulation process of traditional SVPWM and modulation results are discretized to prevent the appearance of narrow pulse width;finally a fast computational strategy is given and its calculated amount is basically same as to the calculated amount for one sector by SVPWM method. Relative to SVPWM method, the distribution of the fundamental wave and clutters modulated by the proposed method on the frequency spectrum is more clear and there are less low-order harmonics, so it is favorable to implement low-pass filtering, thus the proposed method is more suitable for PV inverters with higher voltage and

  17. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  18. 具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡问题研究%Study on balancing problem of two sided assembly line with concurrent operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 鲁建厦; 孔令革

    2011-01-01

    介绍了双边装配线以及双边装配线平衡问题的概念;阐述了并发操作的概念,以及在双边装配线上存在的并发操作情况;分析了并发操作对双边装配线平衡问题产生的重要性以及复杂性;指出前人对双边装配线平衡问题研究的不足,并在此基础上,追加考虑并发操作影响,建立了具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡模型;介于遗传算法全局搜索能力强、具有潜在的并行性、允许使用复杂的适应度函数等优点,采用遗传算法研究了具有并发操作的双边装配线平衡模型的求解过程,并给出了详细的求解步骤;最后,将研究成果应用于某企业冰箱装配线,实例证明了模型及其算法的有效性.%The concept of two sided assembly line and its balancing problem is introduced and the concept of concurrent operation is described, and its situation which is existed on two sided assembly line is also explained. Then the importance and the complexity which is concurrent operation on two sided assembly line balancing problem is analyzed and the lack of the predecessors' researches on two sided assembly line balancing problem is pointed out, based on which a two sided assembly line with concurrent operation balancing model is built considering the impact of concurrent operation. Since genetic algorithm has the advantages of strong global search ability, potential parallelism and allows to use a complex fitness function, it is used to solve two sided assembly line with concurrent operation balancing model, where the solving steps are given in detail. Finally the research results is applied on a company refrigerator assembly line, which proves the effectiveness of model and its algorithm.

  19. Research of high frequency link matrix rectifier based on current space vector predictive control%基于电流空间矢量预测控制的HFLMR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文浪; 齐庭庭; 李辉; 龙美志; 崔贵平; 毛勇; 郭有贵

    2013-01-01

      高频链矩阵整流器是一种新型的电力电子变换器,具有体积小、重量轻、转换级数少和可靠性高等特点。分析了高频链矩阵整流器的双极性空间矢量调制策略,提出了基于参考输入电流空间矢量的预测控制算法,建立了基于该预测控制算法的高频链矩阵整流器系统仿真模型。该预测控制算法具有计算量小,开关频率固定,可靠性高等特点,能实现高频链矩阵整流器输入侧电流正弦、单位输入功率因数和稳定的输出直流电流。仿真结果验证了所提控制策略的有效性。%High frequency link matrix rectifier is a new type power electronic converter with smaller size, lighter weight, less stages of conversion and high reliability, etc. The high frequency link matrix rectifier’s bipolar space vector modulation strategy is analyzed at first, and then a predictive control algorithm based on the referenced input current space vector is proposed. Based on the predictive control algorithm, the system simulation model of high frequency link matrix rectifier is established. The proposed predictive control algorithm shows the advantages of small computation, fixed switch frequency and high reliability, what’s more, it can realize sine waveform of input currents, unity input power factor and stable output DC current. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277156 and No. 50977080).

  20. A Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Optimization Control Strategy for Hybrid Cascaded 7-Level Inverter%基于SVPWM调制的混合级联七电平逆变器优化控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿俊利; 梁晖; 金渊

    2015-01-01

    The working modes of hybrid cascaded 7-level inverter with dead zone are analyzed and analysis results show that there are different jumping situations of inverter voltage under different working modes. On this basis, based on space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) strategy an optimal control method is proposed. In the premise that the supporting capacitor voltage is under the control, through analyzing the jumping of output voltage level and the valve action times corresponding to the charging/discharging process of supporting capacity voltage switching in each interval an optimal control strategy to reduce the jumping of output voltage is put forward; besides, the output voltage loss due to the existence of dead zone time is analyzed and calculated according to the principle of volt-second balance, and the dead zone compensation for its modulation wave is performed. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated by results of simulation and experiments.%分析混合级联七电平逆变器带死区时的工作模式,不同工作模式下其逆变器电压的跳变情况不同。在此基础上,提出了基于空间矢量脉冲调制(space vector pulse width modulation,SVPWM)策略的优化控制方法。以控制支撑电容电压为前提,通过对每个区间支撑电容充放电切换过程所对应的开关动作次数、输出电压电平跳变情况的分析,提出了一种减小输出电压跳变的优化控制策略;此外,分析了死区时间的存在所带来的输出电压损失,根据伏秒平衡原理进行计算,并对其调制波进行死区补偿。仿真及实验结果验证了该控制策略的有效性。

  1. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  2. Light axial vector mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the abundant experimental observation of axial vector states, we study whether the observed axial vector states can be categorized into the conventional axial vector meson family. In this paper we carry out analysis based on the mass spectra and two-body Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-allowed decays. Besides testing the possible axial vector meson assignments, we also predict abundant information for their decays and the properties of some missing axial vector mesons, which are valuable to further experimental exploration of the observed and predicted axial vector mesons.

  3. Technical Regulations Comparative Analysis of Food Contact Materials in the Two Sides of the Taiwan Strait%海峡两岸食品接触材料技术法规对比分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖莺; 林睿; 普旭力; 董清木; 黄宗平

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the framework, sanitary standards, testing methodologies, etc. of technical regulations for food contact materials in the two sides of the Taiwan Strait were described. And differences on hygiene standards, material classification, food simulants, limited requirements and other aspects of food contact materials between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait were studied.%本文介绍了海峡两岸食品接触材料技术法规的框架、卫生标准和检验方法体系等情况,并对二者在食品接触材料卫生标准体系、材质分类、食品模拟物和限量要求等方面的差异进行了分析研究。

  4. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichegkuev, M S [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator K:l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X)→l{sub α}{sup p}(Z......athscrKx)(n)=Bx(n−1),  n∈Z,  x∈l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that K acts in the weighted space l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), 1≤p≤∞, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum σ(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces are given. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  5. Study of the transmission of two-side internal level gear and spur gear%双联内锥齿轮和圆柱齿轮传动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镇; 沈际春; 王飞

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the contact lines of tooth surface of the transmission of two-sides level gear and spur gear and analyses the property of engagement.%计算和研究了双联锥形齿轮和圆柱齿轮啮合时的齿面接触线,并分析了啮合时的特点和性能。

  6. 单面与双面信息广告重复效应的实证研究%An Empirical Study on One-sided VS Two-sided Advertising's Repetition Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代祺; 梁樑

    2011-01-01

    By introducing the variable of business ethics perception and integrating Optimal Arousal Theory, Processing Fluency Model, Attribution Theory and Two Factor Theory, the study compares the repetition effects differences between one and two-sided advertisements. Using inter-group experiment design, the results suggest that two-sided advertisements are processed less fluently than one-sided ones, but the percentage of accurate recall and advertisement response are higher than its counterpart. The repetition effects are inverted U shape for one-side advertisements and monotonic increase for two-sided advertisements. Thus, the wearing out effects of two-sided advertisements is delayed. The diversity in perception of business ethics play important role in determining this differences.%通过引入企业道德感知变量,并在整合最优唤醒理论、加工流畅模型、归因理论和两因素理论的基础上,深入剖析了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.研究结果表明:双面信息广告比单面信息广告加工更困难,但消费者对其广告正确回忆率更高,广告反应也更积极.单面信息广告的重复效应呈现先增后减的倒U趋势,而双面信息广告的重复效应呈单调递增趋势,疲劳效应延迟出现.消费者对企业道德感知的差异在很大程度上决定了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.

  7. Overview of Space Vector Pulse Width Algorithm of Dual Three-phase Motor%双三相感应电机空间矢量脉冲宽度调制算法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪亮; 贺诚; 田明; 许奔

    2013-01-01

      空间矢量脉冲宽度(SVPWM)调制算法将逆变器和电动机视为一个整体,着眼于使电动机获得幅值恒定的旋转磁场。与正弦脉冲宽度(SPWM)算法相比,SVPWM 可使功率开关器件的开关次数减少1/3,直流电压利用率提高15%,能获得较好的谐波抑制效果。本文分析了双三相感应电机常用的SVPWM调制算法,讨论了它们各自的优缺点,并给出了仿真和实验验证。%The algorithm of space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) regards the inverter and motor as a whole model to make the motor acquire a rotating magnetic field with constant amplitude. Comparing with the algorithm of sine pulse width modulation (SPWM), SVPWM can achieve a good harmonic control effect with less than 30 percent action times of the power switching devices and more than 15 percent DC voltage utilization. This paper analyzes the SVPWM’s common modulation algorithm of the three-phase motor and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Simulation and experimental verification are given in the last.

  8. Direct Torque Control of Asynchronism Motor Based on Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation%基于SVPWM的感应电机直接转矩控制方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高中臣; 张爱玲; 陈晨

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the low speed torque ripple of induction motor and keep constant switch frequency, this paper proposed a new control strategy on the basis of direct torque control (DTC),which uses Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation instead of switch table.The experiment and simulation results show that it can reduce the torque ripple,and improve the waveform of stator flux and current.%针对传统直接转矩控制开关频率不恒定及低速时的转矩脉动大的缺点,采用了基于SVPWM的直接转矩控制方法.根据转矩和定子磁链的误差确定应该施加的参考电压矢量,然后利用电压空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)的方法合成该矢量.仿真和实验结果表明,基于SVPWM的直接转矩控制(SVPWM-DTC)能够有效减小转矩脉动,改善磁链和电流波形.

  9. Study of Single-phase Three-level NPC Rectifier Based on Space Vector PWM%基于SVPWM的单相三电平NPC整流器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄嘉鹏; 丛林; 许建平; 张斐; 陈章勇

    2012-01-01

    介绍了单相三电平中点箝位(Neutral Point Clamped,NPC)整流器的工作原理,推导了空间矢量脉宽调制(Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation,SVPWM)与正弦脉宽调制(Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation,SPWM)之间的关系,并在此基础上把基于SPWM的中点电压平衡算法推广至SVPWM.计算机仿真和试验结果表明,在支撑电容参数不相等的恶劣情况下,基于SVPWM的中点电压平衡方法仍能有效地抑制单相三电平中点箝位整流器的中点电压不平衡问题.%Working principle of single-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) rectifier was discussed, and the relation between SVPWM and carrier-based PWM was established, thereby, balance control method based on SPWM for single phase three-level NPC rectifier was presented. Computer simulation and experiment results demonstrated that the proposed neutral-point voltage balance control method could solve the neutral-point voltage unbalance problem effectively even if the parameiers of the two capacitors were different.

  10. Space vector control strategy fixed-frequency hysteresis loop APF%有源电力滤波器的定频滞环空间矢量控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛博文

    2015-01-01

    本文通过基于空间电压矢量(SVPWM)滞环电流控制策略,搭建了以DSP2407控制芯片为控制核心、定频滞环SVPWM为控制策略的有源电力滤波器控制系统,针对两种负载做了无功补偿实验,同时分析了在该控制策略下有源电力滤波器的补偿效果。实验结果验证了定频滞环SVPWM控制策略理论的正确性及可行性。%In this paper, based on space voltage vector (SVPWM) hysteresis current control strategy, built to DSP2407 control chip to control the core, fixed-frequency hysteresis SVPWM control strategy for active power filter control system, made for two kinds of load reactive power compensation experiments, and analyzes the compensation effect of the control strategy under APF. The experimental results demonstrate the fixed-frequency hysteresis SVPWM control strategy correctness and feasibility of the theory.

  11. HE CONTROL OF HYSTERESIS SPACE VECTOR OF PARALLEL ACTIVE POWER FILTER%并联型有源电力滤波器的滞环空间矢量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润和; 武海涛; 杜超; 张丽荣

    2009-01-01

    本文分析了与滞环相结合的空间矢量PWM的基本控制原理,并将该方法应用到并联型有源电力滤波器的控制中.利用Matlab进行了仿真研究,结果表明有源滤波器在任一时刻输出的补偿电流均能实时地跟踪指令电流,有效减小电流补偿误差,达到消除非线性负载所引起的谐波电流对电网污染的目的.%An analysis on the basic control principle of space vector PWM combined with hysteresis is made and a method is devised for implementing the control over the parallel active power filter (APF).Results of simulation by means of Matlab show that the output compensation current given at any time can track the instruction current of the APF at real-time.Thus,the current compensation error can be reduced effectively.Consequently,the harmonic current pollution on the grid caused by nonlinear load is eliminated.

  12. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  13. Vector Diffusion Maps and the Connection Laplacian

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We introduce {\\em vector diffusion maps} (VDM), a new mathematical framework for organizing and analyzing massive high dimensional data sets, images and shapes. VDM is a mathematical and algorithmic generalization of diffusion maps and other non-linear dimensionality reduction methods, such as LLE, ISOMAP and Laplacian eigenmaps. While existing methods are either directly or indirectly related to the heat kernel for functions over the data, VDM is based on the heat kernel for vector fields. VDM provides tools for organizing complex data sets, embedding them in a low dimensional space, and interpolating and regressing vector fields over the data. In particular, it equips the data with a metric, which we refer to as the {\\em vector diffusion distance}. In the manifold learning setup, where the data set is distributed on (or near) a low dimensional manifold $\\MM^d$ embedded in $\\RR^{p}$, we prove the relation between VDM and the connection-Laplacian operator for vector fields over the manifold.

  14. Axial Vector $Z'$ and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Whilst the prospect of new $Z'$ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that the masses of these new states must generally be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  15. Axial vector Z‧ and anomaly cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2017-05-01

    Whilst the prospect of new Z‧ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that in a large class of models masses of these new states are expected to be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  16. Are Bred Vectors The Same As Lyapunov Vectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Corazza, M.; Cai, M.

    Regional loss of predictability is an indication of the instability of the underlying flow, where small errors in the initial conditions (or imperfections in the model) grow to large amplitudes in finite times. The stability properties of evolving flows have been studied using Lyapunov vectors (e.g., Alligood et al, 1996, Ott, 1993, Kalnay, 2002), singular vectors (e.g., Lorenz, 1965, Farrell, 1988, Molteni and Palmer, 1993), and, more recently, with bred vectors (e.g., Szunyogh et al, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). Bred vectors (BVs) are, by construction, closely related to Lyapunov vectors (LVs). In fact, after an infinitely long breeding time, and with the use of infinitesimal ampli- tudes, bred vectors are identical to leading Lyapunov vectors. In practical applications, however, bred vectors are different from Lyapunov vectors in two important ways: a) bred vectors are never globally orthogonalized and are intrinsically local in space and time, and b) they are finite-amplitude, finite-time vectors. These two differences are very significant in a dynamical system whose size is very large. For example, the at- mosphere is large enough to have "room" for several synoptic scale instabilities (e.g., storms) to develop independently in different regions (say, North America and Aus- tralia), and it is complex enough to have several different possible types of instabilities (such as barotropic, baroclinic, convective, and even Brownian motion). Bred vectors share some of their properties with leading LVs (Corazza et al, 2001a, 2001b, Toth and Kalnay, 1993, 1997, Cai et al, 2001). For example, 1) Bred vectors are independent of the norm used to define the size of the perturba- tion. Corazza et al. (2001) showed that bred vectors obtained using a potential enstro- phy norm were indistinguishable from bred vectors obtained using a streamfunction squared norm, in contrast with singular vectors. 2) Bred vectors are independent of the length of the rescaling period as long as the

  17. On Double Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo CHEN; Zhang Ju LIU; Yun He SHENG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  18. On Double Vector Bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Zhangju; Sheng, Yunhe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a category of short exact sequences of vector bundles and prove that it is equivalent to the category of double vector bundles. Moreover, operations on double vector bundles can be transferred to operations on the corresponding short exact sequences. In particular, we study the duality theory of double vector bundles in term of the corresponding short exact sequences. Examples including the jet bundle and the Atiyah algebroid are discussed.

  19. Vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams using Hertz vector potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxun; Dou, Wenbin; Meng, Hongfu

    2014-04-07

    Using the transverse Hertz vector potentials, vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams of arbitrary orders are presented in this paper. Expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of vector Bessel beams in free space that are rigorous solutions to the vector Helmholtz equation are derived. Their respective time averaged energy density and Poynting vector are also obtained, in order to exhibit their non-diffracting properties. Polarization patterns and magnitude profiles with different parameters are displayed. Particular emphasis is placed on the cases where the ratio of wave number over its transverse component k/kt approximately equals to one and largely exceeds it, which corresponding to the nonparaxial and paraxial condition, respectively. These results allow us to recognize that the vector Bessel beams exhibit new and important features, compared with the scalar fields.

  20. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  1. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  2. Real Hypersurfaces of a Complex Projective Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharief Deshmukh

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we classify real hypersurfaces in the complex projective space $CP\\frac{n+1}{2}$ whose structure vector field is a -analytic vector field (a notion similar to analytic vector fields on complex manifolds). We also define Jacobi-type vector fields on a Riemannian manifold and classify real hypersurfaces whose structure vector field is a Jacobi-type vector field.

  3. New Wheel-rail Contact Point Algorithm Method Based on the Space Vector Mapping Principle%基于空间矢量映射的新型轮轨接触点算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干锋; 戴焕云

    2015-01-01

    A new geometric wheel-rail contact algorithm,the space vector mapping method, is presented to solve the railway vehicle dynamic wheel-rail contact problem. Based on the space vector mapping principle and the basic characteristics of wheel-rail shape, this method regards the wheel-rail contact as space surface contact, chooses the track cross-section as a reference and views the track surface width as the possible maximum contact range of the wheel-rail. Then it adopts certain contact point search and verifying principles so that the dynamic contact point of the wheel in postures of different lateral displacement and yaw angle can be accurately located. With a set of self-composed wheel-rail interaction software TPLWRSim, taking LMA wheel tread as an example, a three-dimensional models of wheel/rail, wheel/roller and wheel/trough type rail are established respectively, which can simulate the wheel-rail contact state under different conditions. Comparing the results with the geometry shape of wheel-rail contact and the geometry contact relationship of worn tread verifies the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm can solve the problem of wheel-rail and wheel-wheel contact and quickly and accurately determine the contact point between the wheel and the track in any postures, and also verify a good adaptability to treads and rail with different shapes.%针对铁道车辆动态轮轨接触问题提出一种新的轮轨几何接触算法——空间矢量映射法.空间矢量映射法根据空间矢量映射原理和轮轨外形的基本特征,将轮轨接触视为空间曲面接触,以轨道截面为基准,以轨面宽度作为轮轨可能接触的最大范围,采用一定的接触点寻找和判定原则,准确地找到车轮在不同横移量和摇头角下的轮轨接触点.并自编一套轮轨关系软件TPLWRSim,以LMA型车轮踏面为例,分别建立轮对与轨道、轮对与滚轮和轮对与槽型轨的三

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  6. ELVIS - ELectromagnetic Vector Information Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, J E S; Thidé, B; Ananthakrishnan, S; Wahlund, J E; Karlsson, R L; Puccio, W; Carozzi, T D; Kale, P

    2005-01-01

    The ELVIS instrument was recently proposed by the authors for the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon and is presently under consideration by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The scientific objective of ELVIS is to explore the electromagnetic environment of the moon. ELVIS samples the full three-dimensional (3D) electric field vector, E(x,t), up to 18 MHz, with selective Nyqvist frequency bandwidths down to 5 kHz, and one component of the magnetic field vector, B(x,t), from a few Hz up to 100 kHz.As a transient detector, ELVIS is capable of detecting pulses with a minimum pulse width of 5 ns. The instrument comprises three orthogonal electric dipole antennas, one magnetic search coil antenna and a four-channel digital sampling system, utilising flexible digital down conversion and filtering together with state-of-the-art onboard digital signal processing.

  7. Solar imaging vector magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an instrument which has been constructed at the University of Hawaii to make observations of the magnetic field in solar active regions. Detailed knowledge of active region magnetic structures is crucial to understanding many solar phenomena, because the magnetic field both defines the morphology of structures seen in the solar atmosphere and is the apparent energy source for solar flares. The new vector magnetograph was conceived in response to a perceived discrepancy between the capabilities of X ray imaging telescopes to be operating during the current solar maximum and those of existing magnetographs. There were no space-based magnetographs planned for this period; the existing ground-based instruments variously suffered from lack of sensitivity, poor time resolution, inadequate spatial resolution or unreliable sites. Yet the studies of flares and their relationship to the solar corona planned for the 1991-1994 maximum absolutely required high quality vector magnetic field measurements. By 'vector' measurements we mean that the observation attempts to deduce the complete strength and direction of the field at the measurement site, rather than just the line of sight component as obtained by a traditional longitudinal magnetograph. Knowledge of the vector field permits one to calculate photospheric electric currents, which might play a part in heating the corona, and to calculate energy stored in coronal magnetic fields as the result of such currents. Information about the strength and direction of magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere can be obtained in a number of ways, but quantitative data is best obtained by observing Zeeman-effect polarization in solar spectral lines. The technique requires measuring the complete state of polarization at one or more wavelengths within a magnetically sensitive line of the solar spectrum. This measurement must be done for each independent spatial point for which one wants magnetic field data. All the

  8. Entanglement of Vector-Polarization States of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Ling-Jun; Si, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-01-01

    Photons may have homogeneous polarization and may carry quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM). Photon entanglement has been realized in various degrees of freedom such as polarization and OAM. Using a pair of orthogonally polarized states carrying opposite-handedness quantized OAMs could create "quantized" vector polarization states with space-variant polarization structures. It is thus possible to extend the polarization degree of freedom from two dimensional space to indefinite dimensional discrete Hilbert space. We present a class of vector-polarization entangled Bell states, which use the spatial modes of the vector fields with space-variant polarization structure. We propose a scheme of creating the vector-polarization entangled Bell states using a Sagnac interferometer. We also design an analyzer for identifying the vector-polarization entangled Bell states. Such a class of entanglement is important for quantum information science and technology, and fundamental issues of quantum theory, due to its a...

  9. Adaptive Beam Space Transformation Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test Algorithm Using Acoustic Vector Sensor Array%声矢量阵自适应波束域广义似然比检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国龙; 陶凯; 范展

    2015-01-01

    In order to resolve the detection problem of passive remote weak targets under the background of strong interfer-ence ,a detection algorithm based on adaptive beam space transformation using acoustic vector sensor array is proposed .Firstly ,by designing a beamspace matrix which covers the observed sector and rejects the interference signals out-of-sector ,the array output da-ta are transformed to beamspace .Then ,the generalized likelihood ratio test is derived in beamspace .The simulation results show that the method can detect the passive weak targets efficiently under the background of strong interference ,and provide the constant false alarm rate (CFAR ) detection .%为了解决水下强干扰背景下的远程弱目标被动探测问题,基于声矢量阵,本文提出了一种自适应波束域的检测算法。该算法首先对阵列接收数据进行波束域变换,令通带覆盖整个观测扇面,并自适应地抑制扇面外的强干扰信号;然后在波束域进行广义似然比检测。仿真结果表明,该算法能在强干扰背景下实现对远程弱目标的检测,并且具有恒虚警率特性。

  10. 空间矢量SVPWM控制算法在变频空调设计中的应用%Application of SVPWM Control Method Based on Space Vector in Inverter Air-Conditioner Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福成

    2011-01-01

    To further reduce the noise, raises the efficiency of voltage, the voltage space vector SVPWM technology be adopted to design inverter air-conditioner. By the basic standard of motor's ideal magnetic flux with three-phase symmetrical sine wave voltage power supply is considered, use the actual magnetic flux with the inverter different switch pattern to approach the base director circle magnetic flux, compares the results to decide which time the inverter's switches open and pass, forms the PWM waveforms. And regards the inverter and the electrical motor as a whole to process, It has the merit of model to be simple, the torque pulsation be small, the noise be low, voltage use factor higher and so on. The theoretical analysis and the experimental result indicated that this method can definitely satisfy the inverter air-conditioner designing requirements.%为进一步减少噪音,提高电压利用率,采用空间电压矢量SVPWM技术进行变频空调设计.以三相对称正弦波电压供电时交流电动机的理想磁通为基准,用逆变器不同的开关模式所产生的实际磁通去逼近塞准圆磁通,由它们比较的结果决定逆变器的开、关,形成PWM波形.并把逆变器和电机看成一个整体来处理,具有模型简单、转矩脉动小、噪音低、电压利用率高等优点.理论分析及实验结果表明,该方法完全能够满足变频空调的设计要求.

  11. NPC三电平Z源逆变器空间矢量调制方法%Space vector modulation algorithm of neutral-point-clamped three level Z source inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伦健; 卢春艳; 陈利萍

    2013-01-01

    研究了一种具有升降压能力的中点箝位型(NPC)三电平Z源逆变器(ZSI),给出三电平ZSI拓扑结构,并分析其工作原理.基于传统三电平逆变器的空间矢量调制原理,设计了一种不需要死区延时的三电平ZSI空间矢量调制法,通过对两个阻抗网络进行选择性直通控制,使三电平ZSI对直流输入电压进行升压的同时,不会产生额外的器件换流.基于Matlab/Simulink搭建仿真模型对所设计的空间矢量调制法进行仿真分析,仿真结果表明所设计的调制法具有有效性.%A neutral-point-clamped (NPC) three level Z source inverter with both voltage-buck and voltage-boost capabilities was studied in this paper.The topologic of three level Z source inverter was provided,and its basic principle was analyzed.Based on space vector modulation algorithm of conventional three level inverter,an appropriate pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithm with no requirement for deadtime delay was designed for three level Z source inverter by short circuiting two impendence network selectively,it made the Z source inverter have the minimal device commutations per switching cycle when ZSI boosted the voltage.In order to verify the designed SVPWM algorithm,the simulation model of three level Z source inverter was built.The simulation results demonstrate that the designed SVPWM algorithm was valid.

  12. Variable ordering structures in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Eichfelder, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to vector optimization with variable ordering structures, i.e., to optimization problems with a vector-valued objective function where the elements in the objective space are compared based on a variable ordering structure: instead of a partial ordering defined by a convex cone, we see a whole family of convex cones, one attached to each element of the objective space. The book starts by presenting several applications that have recently sparked new interest in these optimization problems, and goes on to discuss fundamentals and important results on a wide ra

  13. 海峡两岸农业合作的政策演变、成效与对策%Policy Evolution, Effects and Countermeasures on Agricultural Cooperation between Two Sides across Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灵; 赖文山; 董微; 庄佩芬

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the policy evolution and effects of agricultural cooperation between two sides cross Taiwan Strait. The agricultural cooperation experimental zones and Taiwan farmer' s pioneer park are the major platforms between two sides cross Taiwan Strait, but the interaction cooperative mechanism in agricultural economic bodies between two sides cross Taiwan Strait hasn't yet formed. And the countermeasures including promoting the construction of the economic zone on the west side of the Taiwan Strait, strengthening policy guidance, building the Common Market, strengthening policy innovations and cooperation in science and technology, focusing on the exchanges and the introduction of the talented human resources, and optimizing the cooperation mechanism.%总结了海峡两岸农业合作发展的政策演变过程与成效,认为在两岸农业合作中两岸农业合作试验区和台湾农民创业园是主要的连接载体,但两岸农业经济主体的合作机制尚未形成双向互动;同时提出要加快海西经济区建设,强化政策引导,建立两岸“共同市场”;加强政策创新与科技合作,注重优秀资源和人才的交流与引进;优化配置,完善两岸农业合作机制。

  14. 基于双边市场理论的苹果App Store模式研究%The App Store Model of Apple Based on the Theory of Two- Sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 张广霞

    2012-01-01

    从双边市场理论的定义、识别条件、特征、分类和平台企业战略等角度,分析了苹果App store模式的特征及平台战略.%From the viewpoints of definition, identification condition, characteristics, classification and strategy of platform enterprises based on the theory of two-sided markets, we analyze the characteristics and platform strategies of the App Store Model of Apple.

  15. Vector Soliton Fiber Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Han

    2011-01-01

    Solitons, as stable localized wave packets that can propagate long distance in dispersive media without changing their shapes, are ubiquitous in nonlinear physical systems. Since the first experimental realization of optical bright solitons in the anomalous dispersion single mode fibers (SMF) by Mollenauer et al. in 1980 and optical dark solitons in the normal dispersion SMFs by P. Emplit et al. in 1987, optical solitons in SMFs had been extensively investigated. In reality a SMF always supports two orthogonal polarization modes. Taking fiber birefringence into account, it was later theoretically predicted that various types of vector solitons, including the bright-bright vector solitons, dark-dark vector solitons and dark-bright vector solitons, could be formed in SMFs. However, except the bright-bright type of vector solitons, other types of vector solitons are so far lack of clear experimental evidence. Optical solitons have been observed not only in the SMFs but also in mode locked fiber lasers. It has be...

  16. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  17. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  18. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  19. TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With trade of over $100 billion in 2009, the importance of China and Africa bilateral exchanges are growing daily. This blooming relationship increases the need of understanding the ways of doing business.This regular column will provide a practical insight of doing business in China, including tips and advice based on experience.

  20. THE TWO SIDES OF MONEY LAUNDERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina – Maria ENE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainly goal of money laundering is to carry out more and more illegal economic transactions or activities to produce individual or groups gains and then to legitimate them. Money laundering converts illicit source of money generated by criminal activities in order to hide the connection between money and their original illegal activities. This is one of money laundering side. The second side implies corruption. While money laundering is a passing channel for illicit funds due to its criminal origin source, such funds may derive from corruption offences. All corruption’s forms represent the most important illicit funds branches for money laundering process. Corrupt people methods used to exploit the national and international financial system reflect the relationship between those two criminal activities. Criminals achieve their personal interests by hiding their corruption proceeds and transfer these gains to official economies. Corruption spread in any society entails money laundering spread, and the converse, too. There is a quite “indecent” relationship between money laundering and corruption. This paper tries to identify the multiple connections between the two phenomenons showing the negative impacts these criminal behaviours are having on the national and international economy. We conclude by highlighting the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach in order to fight against money laundering and corruption by integrating these problem frameworks at national level. International community must focus their resources on money laundering and corruption risks areas and maximize their response impact.

  1. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  2. The Two Sides of the Representative Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sutherland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Federalist 10 James Madison drew a functional distinction between “parties” (advocates for factional interests and “judgment” (decision-making for the public good and warned of the corrupting effect of combining both functions in a “single body of men.” This paper argues that one way of overcoming “Madisonian corruption” would be by restricting political parties to an advocacy role, reserving the judgment function to an allotted (randomly-selected microcosm of the whole citizenry, who would determine the outcome of parliamentary debates by secret ballot—a division of labour suggested by James Fishkin’s experiments in deliberative polling. The paper then defends this radical constitutional proposal against Bernard Manin’s (1997 claim that an allotted microcosm could not possibly fulfil the “consent” requirement of Natural Right theory. Not only does the proposal challenge Manin’s thesis, but a 28th Amendment implementing it would finally reconcile the competing visions that have bedevilled representative democracy since the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

  3. The two sides of silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, S R

    2001-01-01

    /p/n sup + and essentially two p-n junctions within one device. With increasing bias voltage, as the electric field is extending into the detector bulk from opposite sides of the silicon detector, there are two distinct depletion regions that collect charge signal independently. Summing the signal charge from the two regions, one is able to reconstruct the initial energy of the incident particle. From Transient Current measurements it is apparent that E-field manipulation is possible by excess carrier injection, enabling a high enough E-field to extend across the width of the detector, allowing for efficient charge collection. Results are presented on in situ irradiation of silicon detector's at cryogenic temperature. The results show that irradiation at cryogenic temperatures does not detrimentally effect a silicon detectors performance when compared to its irradiation at room temperature. Operation of silicon devices at cryogenic temperatures offers the advantage of reducing radiation-induced leakage curren...

  4. The Two Sides to the Internet Coin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Since China hooked up to the Internet in 1994, Chinese netizenship has increased from the few hundreds of thousands recorded in 1995 to its present 87 million - second largest in the world. The Internet has streamlined daily life and also influenced life concepts. The voice of the“silent majority” now heard on the Internet, speaks of and searches for solutions to psychological problems exacerbated by a transitional society.

  5. On Weighted Support Vector Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of weighted support vector regression (SVR), motivated by modeling local dependencies in time and space in prediction of house prices. The classic weights of the weighted SVR are added to the slack variables in the objective function (OF‐weights). This procedure directly...... the differences and similarities of the two types of weights by demonstrating the connection between the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the SVR. We show that an SVR problem can be transformed to a LASSO problem plus a linear constraint and a box constraint. We demonstrate...

  6. Sensorless vector and direct torque control

    CERN Document Server

    Vas, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...

  7. Gamow Vectors Explain the Shock "Batman" Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: as the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vector are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.

  8. Poynting Vector Flow in a Circular Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Basil S; 10.1119/1.3630927

    2012-01-01

    A circuit is considered in the shape of a ring, with a battery of negligible size and a wire of uniform resistance. A linear charge distribution along the wire maintains an electrostatic field and a steady current, which produces a constant magnetic field. Earlier studies of the Poynting vector and the rate of flow of energy considered only idealized geometries in which the Poynting vector was confined to the space within the circuit. But in more realistic cases the Poynting vector is nonzero outside as well as inside the circuit. An expression is obtained for the Poynting vector in terms of products of integrals, which are evaluated numerically to show the energy flow. Limiting expressions are obtained analytically. It is shown that the total power generated by the battery equals the energy flowing into the wire per unit time.

  9. Gamow vectors explain the shock profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Gentilini, Silvia; Conti, Claudio

    2016-09-19

    The description of shock waves beyond the shock point is a challenge in nonlinear physics and optics. Finding solutions to the global dynamics of dispersive shock waves is not always possible due to the lack of integrability. Here we propose a new method based on the eigenstates (Gamow vectors) of a reversed harmonic oscillator in a rigged Hilbert space. These vectors allow analytical formulation for the development of undular bores of shock waves in a nonlinear nonlocal medium. Experiments by a photothermal induced nonlinearity confirm theoretical predictions: the undulation period as a function of power and the characteristic quantized decays of Gamow vectors. Our results demonstrate that Gamow vectors are a novel and effective paradigm for describing extreme nonlinear phenomena.

  10. 论双面信息策略在突发公共事件传播中的应用%On the Application of Two-sided Message Strategy in the Communication of Public Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中刚

    2015-01-01

    该研究基于归因理论、疫苗理论、锚定理论,结合相关文献分析了在突发公共事件传播中运用双面信息策略的必要性和可行性,阐述了双面信息策略在突发公共事件传播中提高可信度及抵制谣言的作用,探索具体的实施策略。该研究为突发公共事件的传播和谣言的抵制研究奠定了一定的理论基础,并能为相关应用研究提供理论指导。%Based on the attribution theory, vaccine theory and anchoring theory and taking in to account some relevant literatures, this paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of applying two-sided message strategy in the communication of public emergencies, argues that the two-sided message strategy in the communication of public emergencies can be used to improve credibility and to resist to rumors and explores some specific implementation methods. The findings of this paper set a theoretic foundation for further researches into the communication of public emergencies and resistance to rumors and provide theoretic guidance to relevant application researches.

  11. 三电平空间矢量与载波调制策略统一理论的研究%Research of the Unity Theory Between Three-level Space Vector and Carrier-based PWM Modulation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟; 何英杰; 王新宇; 刘进军

    2013-01-01

    There is an inherent correlation between the carrier-based PWM and SVPWM in two level inverters.Some researchers have proved that this inherent relationship also exists between those two modulation strategies in three level inverters.In the former researches,the unity correlation was focused on the traditional 8 segments SVPWM switching sequences,but it couldn't be applied to some switching sequences more than 8 segments obtained by using redundancy vectors in the practical SVPWM modulation strategy.So far,seldom researchers have the unity test of SVPWM and SPWM under these conditions,so the existing unity theory between SVPWM and SPWM contains some shortage.In this paper,a technique of decomposing the original modulation wave into two sub-modulation waves has been proposed which is utilized to discuss the unity relations between SPWM and SVPWM with more than 8 segments.The strict theoretical derivation and simulation result effectively evolves the unity theory of SPWM and SVPWM successfully.%两电平空间矢量脉宽调制(space vector pulse width modulation,SVPWM)与正弦脉宽调制(sinusoidal pulse width modulation,SPWM)存有一定的本质关系,对于三电平,在常见的8段式SVPWM序列中可以证明,SVPWM与SPWM本质上也存在某种统一.实际的SVPWM调制中,由于要考虑中点电压平衡、减少谐波等其它性能问题,一般会利用开关冗余状态得到8段以上的开关调制序列.目前的文献中还未曾有对这些情况进行统一性地验证,因此三电平SVPWM与SPWM的统一理论存在一定的不足.研究发现,可通过严格地理论推导将传统意义上的调制波分解为2个子调制波,再进行SPWM调制,可以得到与SVPWM完全吻合的序列.该文在此方法基础上深入研究了8段以上(10、12、14段)的SVPWM调制序列与SPWM的统一.经过严格地理论推导,成功实现了含任意段数的SVPWM序列与SPWM的统一.仿真结果证明了该理论的正确性.

  12. Space Borne Event Timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Space Borne Event Timer is a part of the NASA laser ranging system that is intended to operate aboard the Space Shuttle orbiting over California. The object is to measure, by laser ranging, the earth movement along the San Andreas fault and possibly forecast future earthquakes. A number of cube reflector targets will be placed along both sides of the fault. The ranging system aboard the Space Shuttle will fire a burst of laser pulses at each target and detect the reflected light. Time differences between pulses from the two sides of the fault will indicate earth displacements. The Space Borne Event Timer is a CAMAC compatible system that provides extremely accurate timing data and controls the operation of the ranging system. For each event the time is given in 19.53 increments from the instant of firing the laser to the instant the reflected light is received back, within a range of 130 days.

  13. Covariant Lyapunov vectors for rigid disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Hadrien; Posch, Harald A

    2010-10-05

    We carry out extensive computer simulations to study the Lyapunov instability of a two-dimensional hard-disk system in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions. The system is large enough to allow the formation of Lyapunov modes parallel to the x-axis of the box. The Oseledec splitting into covariant subspaces of the tangent space is considered by computing the full set of covariant perturbation vectors co-moving with the flow in tangent space. These vectors are shown to be transversal, but generally not orthogonal to each other. Only the angle between covariant vectors associated with immediate adjacent Lyapunov exponents in the Lyapunov spectrum may become small, but the probability of this angle to vanish approaches zero. The stable and unstable manifolds are transverse to each other and the system is hyperbolic.

  14. A note on φ-analytic conformal vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sharief; Bin Turki, Nasser

    2017-09-01

    Taking clue from the analytic vector fields on a complex manifold, φ-analytic conformal vector fields are defined on a Riemannian manifold (Deshmukh and Al-Solamy in Colloq. Math. 112(1):157-161, 2008). In this paper, we use φ-analytic conformal vector fields to find new characterizations of the n-sphere Sn(c) and the Euclidean space (Rn,< ,\\rangle ).

  15. Advancing vector biology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K.; Kersey, Paul J.; Maslen, Gareth L.; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M.; Oliva, Clelia F.; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F.X.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Levashina, Elena A.; Wilson, Anthony J.; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target t

  16. Constructions of Vector-Valued Filters and Vector-Valued Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let a  =(a1,a2,…,am∈ℂm be an m-dimensional vector. Then, it can be identified with an m×m circulant matrix. By using the theory of matrix-valued wavelet analysis (Walden and Serroukh, 2002, we discuss the vector-valued multiresolution analysis. Also, we derive several different designs of finite length of vector-valued filters. The corresponding scaling functions and wavelet functions are given. Specially, we deal with the construction of filters on symmetric matrix-valued functions space.

  17. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  18. 基于VSM的电子作业反抄袭系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of an anti-plagiarism system of e-homework based on vector space model(VSM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小平; 王佳; 马晓轩

    2013-01-01

    针对日益严重的电子作业抄袭现象,在分析目前的电子作业抄袭检测系统无法将抄袭作业拒绝于提交之前等问题的基础上,阐述了一套基于空间向量模型TF-IDF方法的电子作业反抄袭系统.该系统在对电子作业进行分词的基础上,使用空间向量模型的TF-IDF方法计算文本相似度,并依据相似度判断电子作业是否有抄袭行为.为了解决因短时间内大量的电子作业提交而导致系统崩溃,系统使用MSMQ建立电子作业提交队列,同时,系统还提供了电子作业评阅及系统设置等功能.系统使用时间优先策略来认定抄袭作业,有效地从抄袭者和被抄袭者上杜绝了抄袭行为.%To solve the issue of increasingly severe e-homework plagiarism, an anti-plagiarism system of e-homework based on the vector space model (VSM) and TF-IDF is given, after the analysis of current counterparts systems. Similarity is calculated by VSM theory and TF-IDF after the segmentation of the e-homework, and plagiarism is decided by the similarity. Microsoft Message Queue (MSMQ) is used to relieve the stress of the system, and e-homework and system configuration functions are supported. Also time preference tragedy is used. And it can validly avoid the plagiarism from both copycat and the source.

  19. Constructions of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Pin-hui; ZHANG Sheng-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Carlet et al. recently introduced generalized nonlinearity to measure the ability to resist the improved correlation attack of a vector output Boolean function. This article presents a construction of vector output Boolean functions with high generalized nonlinearity using the sample space. The relation between the resilient order and generalized nonlinearity is also discussed.

  20. 基于置信规则库推理的多属性双边匹配决策方法%Belief rule base inference methodology for two-sided matching decision with multi-attribute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志坚; 杨隆浩; 傅仰耿; 陈建华

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents a tentative study on a new two-sided matching approach,which is proposed to solve the two-sided matching problem with uncertain information and multiple attributes.The multi-attributes matching decision making(MAMDM)problem is one of the most important key points in the two-sided matching study,which has evoked great attention for the scholars in recent years.A belief rule-base inference methodology using the evidence reasoning approach(RIMER)has been introduced in this thesis to solve the problem of MAMDM.At the beginning of this thesis,the authors explain the reason why they choose to use belief degree.The current research on the problem of MAMDM is mainly restricted to the study of a kind of two-sided matching,whose evaluation information is linguistic values or interval values.But there exists a lack of study in belief degree as evaluation value. As belief degree can be used to deal with different kinds of uncertain and incomplete information,using it as evaluation value may trigger a new breakthrough in the study of MAMDM.Through the analysis of simulation ex-periments datas and the application of RIMER,belief degrees evaluation information is converted into different levels of confidence information.Then a 0-1 programming model is built by making use of different levels of confidence information to obtain a final matching scheme.It is also pointed out in the thesis that an output error may be caused when BRB(belief rule-base)input is higher than threshold value.To solve this problem,the authors propose that the input value can be incorporated into the uncertainty by the adoption of cutting method.If cutting method is not suitable,linear mapping method can be applied to reduce the influence of the results.The case study analysis shows that it is feasible and effective to adopt the new proposed approach to solve the problem of multi-attributes matching decision making.%针对具有不确定信息的多属性双边匹配决策问题,引