WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-sided market perspective

  1. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be harmle

  2. Market definition in two-sided markets : Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Geradin, D.A.A.G.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Affeldt, P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the economics of two-sided markets, we provide suggestions for the definition of the relevant market in cases involving two-sided platforms, such as media outlets, online intermediaries, payment cards companies, and auction houses. We also discuss when a one-sided approach may be

  3. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  4. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be

  5. Areeda-turner in two-sided markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the Areeda–Turner rule to two-sided markets. We show that a two-sided monopolist may find it short-run profit-maximizing to charge a price below marginal cost on one side of the market. Hence showing that the price is below marginal cost on one side of a two-sided market cannot be consider

  6. Upward Pricing Pressure in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affeldt, P.; Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Pricing pressure indices have recently been proposed as alternative screening devices for horizontal mergers involving differentiated products. We extend the concept of Upward Pricing Pressure (UPP) proposed by Farrell and Shapiro (2010) to two-sided markets. Examples of such markets are t

  7. Prices and Network Externalities in Two-Sided Markets: The Belgian Newspaper Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the newspaper industry in Belgium from a two-sided market perspective. The reader and advertizing market for printed media are closely interlinked with each other by bilateral network externalities. This requires a specific structural model to estimate demand parameters for both

  8. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  9. Market segmentation in two-sided markets : tv rights for premier league

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Sørgard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes market segmentation in a two-sided market that consists of media consumers and advertisers. The analysis is motivated by a European Court of Justice Decision in October 2011, which allowed viewers to take advantage of international price differences and buy access to Premier League TV matches from whichever country they like. We compare complete market segmentation with the new situation where consumers can purchase from abroad (allowing for passive sales). Clearly, such a...

  10. A SSNIP Test for Two-sided Markets : The Case of Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the design and implementation of a SSNIP test in order to identify the relevant market in a media market. I argue that in such a two-sided market the traditional SSNIP test cannot be applied as it is usually conceived but rather should be modified in order to take into account indirect net

  11. A SSNIP Test for Two-sided Markets : The Case of Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the design and implementation of a SSNIP test in order to identify the relevant market in a media market. I argue that in such a two-sided market the traditional SSNIP test cannot be applied as it is usually conceived but rather should be modified in order to take into account indirect

  12. On revenue and welfare dominance of ad valorem taxes in two-sided markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2009-01-01

    A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets.......A benchmark result in public economics is that it is possible to increase both tax revenue and welfare by making a monopoly subject to ad valorem taxes rather than unit taxes. We show that such revenue and welfare dominance does not hold in two-sided markets....

  13. A Two-Sided Market Model of Optimal Price Structure for Instant Messenger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger (IM is one of the most popular Internet applications all over the world. This paper examines the pricing problem of IM based on two-sided market model. IM serves as a two-sided platform, which gets both Internet users and advertisers on board. This paper concludes that IM operator adopts a heavily skewed price structure that favors IM users both under monopolistic case and under horizontal differentiated duopolistic case. When advertising revenue is large enough relatively to marginal cost for serving IM users, IM users can enjoy free service provided by IM operators. The competitive equilibrium of duopolistic case is not necessarily symmetric when advertisers choose singlehoming. Even in the symmetric equilibrium platform would rather deter all advertisers.

  14. 双边市场视角下操作系统平台定价策略研究%Pricing Strategies of Operating System Platform from the Perspective of Two-Sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢明青

    2015-01-01

    越来越多有影响力开源操作系统平台的兴起(如 Linux ),对传统的专有操作系统平台(如微软的Windows)形成巨大的冲击。本文借用双边市场理论框架探讨专有操作系统平台在面对开源操作系统平台竞争时的定价策略问题。主要结论如下:①专有操作系统平台对平台用户收费和向应用软件开发商补贴的定价结构是由平台用户和应用软件开发商之间两类交叉网络外部性相对强弱决定的;②用户使用开源操作系统平台相对于专有操作系统平台需承担的额外费用(如较高的学习成本和维护费用)和获得的额外好处(如可个性化和较好的稳定性)均会间接影响专有操作系统平台的定价策略;③与专有操作系统平台独占市场的情形对比发现,两种市场结构下专有操作系统平台的定价结构可能存在差异,并且这种差异依赖于平台用户使用开源操作系统平台与使用专有操作系统平台相比额外需承担费用和额外获得好处的差距。%The emergence of more and more influential open-source operating system platforms ( such as Linux ) tremendously impacts the traditional proprietary operating system platforms ( such as Microsoft ’ s Windows ) . Based on two-sided markets framework, this paper studies the pricing strategies of proprietary platform in the face of competition from open-source platforms.It finds that the proprietary platform’ s pricing structure of charging users and subsiding for application software developers is decided by the relative strength of cross network exter-nalities between users and application software products, the additional costs ( such as higher learning and maintenance costs)and benefits(such as individuation and better stability)when users use open-source platform relative to proprietary platform will indirectly affect proprietary platform’ s pricing strategies, and proprietary plat-form’ s

  15. Assessing Unilateral Merger Effects in a Two-Sided Market : An Application to the Dutch Daily Newspaper Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2011-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. For this, we first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products on both the readership and the advertisin

  16. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their

  17. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Cayseele, P.; Vanormelingen, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  18. Merger Simulation in a Two-Sided Market : The Case of the Dutch Daily Newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a structural econometric framework that allows us to simulate the effects of mergers among two-sided platforms selling differentiated products. We apply the proposed methodology to the Dutch newspaper industry. Our structural model encompasses demands for differentiated products on both s

  19. Analysis on Granular Two-sided Market%颗粒化双边市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钰碧; 徐晓峰; 朱卫未

    2016-01-01

    The common value orientation makes the main reason that maintains stickiness of social network platform user. User with powerful stickiness creates granular two-sided market by design the business model elaborates on the social network. This thesis research the granular two-sided market,try discusses its generation, development, prospective and business model.%在社交平台中共同的价值取向是保持用户黏性的主要原因。在精确设计的商业模式引导下,具有强黏性的用户会通过社交平台形成颗粒化的双边市场。文章探讨了颗粒化双边市场的产生、发展以及前景,并对其商业模式进行了阐述。

  20. Price Wars in Two-Sided Markets : The Case of the UK Quality Newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the price war in the UK quality newspaper industry in the 1990s. We build a model of the newspaper market which encompasses demand for differentiated products on both, the readers and advertisers side of the market, and profi…t maximization by four competing oligopolistic edi

  1. Two sides to every story: The Dual Perspectives Method for examining interruptions in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdie, Tara; Sanderson, Penelope; Aitken, Leanne M; Liu, David

    2017-01-01

    Interruptions are widely considered a problem in healthcare. Results from observation and experimental studies have guided extensive mitigation efforts, but the effectiveness of interventions remains mixed. We have built on current theories and methods for studying interruptions to develop a novel observational approach - the Dual Perspectives Method - for examining interruptions from the perspectives of the different work functions in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We detail the method and provide representative examples of the insights it offers, such as why interruptions happen, the role they play, and the consequences of preserving them or eliminating them. We anticipate that the Dual Perspectives Method will help us to arrive at a better basis on which to draw conclusions about interruptions, and will lead to the development of appropriate and sustainable interventions to ensure the effective and safe functioning of the work system under examination.

  2. Determinants of effective tax rates for firms listed on Chinese stock market: Panel models with two-sided censors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ching Chiou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate the determinants effective tax rate for the firms listed on China’s stock markets. The panel data consists of 481 firms from 2007 to 2009 as our empirical data. In order to illustrate a country’s tax policies on firms’ real tax burdens, the dependent variable, ETR, is left-censored at 0 and right-censored at 1, the estimation for panel data model with two-sided censoring suggested by Alan, Honor´e, and Leth-Petersen (2014 is implemented in this paper. There are two important findings are obtained: first, this model can add more observations especially the observations with tax preferences. Second, theories suggest that ETR reflects outcomes of tax preference and this paper is the first time to consider the effective tax rates set between 0 and 1 and this range is more meaningful for the ETRs.

  3. Economic Considerations in the China-EU Partnership: Perspectives of the Two Sides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianWu

    2004-01-01

    Economic considerations occupy an important place in relations between China and the European Union(EU). This paper will attempt to explain the reasons behind this and will explore perspectives from both sides. The major points are as follows: (1) The end of the Cold War and the growing phenomenon of economic globalization have made both sides place much more importance on developing bilateral economic relations. (2) Having redefined economic development as its core national interests through the launch of reforms and an open-door policy, China views the EU as an increasingly significant economic partner, particularly in the area of trade, investment, technology imports and economic cooperation. (3) The fundamental aim of the EU's economic policies is to explore to the fullest opportunities provided by China "s development and to protect the “economic security '”of Europe. (4) Because of the different positions they hold and their varying levels of development, some differences in policy considerations by the two partners are inevitable.However, both China and the EU have been making efforts to narrow these differences and widen their shared interests, so as to promote their common economic goals.

  4. Technology Licensing in Two-Sided Markets%双边市场条件下的技术许可策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀祖; 熊中楷; 黄俊

    2011-01-01

    Two-sided markets include a system platform and two groups of clients who interact with each other via two-sided network externalities-the expansion of one market can increase customers' utilities in the other market. Technology licensing decisions are important in the network economy because two-sided network externalities are prevalent. The purpose of the paper is to investigate innovators' optimal technology licensing strategies under two-sided markets.We assume that an innovator has major patented technologies that are manufactured for Product I market, but licensed in Product II market. The scenario shows that two-sided network externalities between the two markets exist. We explore how factors, such as the intensity of two-sided network externalities, the number of potential licensees and the potential demand effect, can influence the technology licensing strategies of innovators. We establish a two-stage game model and adopt the fulfilled expectation equilibrium theory to analyze market equilibrium.First, we discuss the fixed-fee licensing strategy and analyze the optimal number of licenses for an innovator. We find that an innovator will not restrict the number of licenses in the licensed product market when the following conditions exist: strong two-sided network externalities, small potential licensee numbers, and relatively small potential demand scale in the licensed product market. Without the presence of these conditions, an innovator will restrict the number of licensees. Second, we discuss the royalty licensing strategy. We find that the innovator will decrease the royalty rate when two-sided network externalities and the potential number of licensees increase, and when the potential demand in the licensed product market decreases. Third, we discuss the probability of technological subsidies provided by innovators. An innovator may subsidize licensees with negative royalty rates. Furthermore, an innovator' s subsidizing strategy may promote

  5. Overall fluctuations and fat tails in an artificial financial market: The two-sided impact of leveraged trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Zhu, C. G.; An, K. N.; Huang, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Recent years have seen leveraged trading playing an increasingly important role in financial markets. However, the effect of leverage on the markets is still an open question. Here, we introduce a framework to investigate leveraged trading through both agent-based simulations and controlled human experiments on a one-stock artificial market. It shows that leverage increases the market risks, and at the same time decreases the outbreak probabilities of financial bubbles or crises. This work helps to understand the impact of leverage on financial markets appropriately.

  6. Discussion on Development Strategy of Internet Recruitment Market in China Based on Two -sided Markets Theory%基于双边市场视角的我国网络招聘市场发展策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清斌; 纪汉霖

    2012-01-01

    China's internet recruitment industry developed fast although it started later than western eourtries. There is Great potential in China's in- ternet recruitment market which is in the golden age of its development. At present the enterprises compete fiercely in the market, meanwhile their homogenization is very serious. The intemet recruitment market is a two -sided market made up of job hunter, recruiting website and enterprise us- er in essence. Based on two - sided markets theory, the market pattern and characteristics of internet reernitment platform and enterprise competi- tion behavior were studied. And based on the understanding of current situation and the trend of China's internet recruitment market, we discussed and put forward competitive strategies and suggestions such as pricing, differentiation, entrance and bundling for interuet recruitment market of China so as to provide a new perspective for the research of internet recruiting and provide reference for China's network recruitment platform enterprises formulating business tactics and development strategies.%我国的网络招聘产业虽然起步较晚,但发展较快,中国网络招聘行业市场潜力巨大,正处于高速发展的黄金期,目前市场竞争激烈,同质化严重。网络招聘的产业实质,是一个由求职者、招聘网站和企业用户组成的双边市场。基于双边市场理论,对网络招聘平台的市场形态和特点、网络招聘市场中的企业竞争行为等问题展开研究,在对我国网络招聘市场发展现状和趋势认识的基础上,探讨并提出了定价、差异化、进入、捆绑策略等多方面的网络招聘市场竞争策略和建议,以期为网络招聘的研究提供一个新的视角,并为网络招聘平台企业制定企业策略和发展战略提供参考。

  7. 双边市场中的搭售:问题与规制思路%Tying in Two-sided Markets:Problems and Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少南

    2016-01-01

    The unique market structure and operating mechanism of two-sided markets place great challenges on traditional ty-ing theories based on unilateral markets. It calls for a rational analysis to the tying subject’ s dominant market position and behav-ior characteristics, in terms of crossing network effects, non-neutral price structures, the mutual dependence and complementar-ity of platform products in two-sided markets. The key to regulating tying in two-sided markets by means of anti-monopoly laws is to take full account of both positive and negative competition effects. It is critically important that China take full advanta-ges of two-sided markets for technological innovation in the anti-monopoly legal practice, and to upgrade industrial develop-ment and promote consumer welfare by means of protecting innovation.%双边市场特有的结构和运行机制对基于传统单边市场的搭售理论提出了全新的挑战。应该围绕双边市场的交叉网络效应、非中性的价格结构及平台产品的相互依赖性和互补性等特征,理性分析搭售行为的主体市场支配地位和具体行为特征。反垄断法规制双边市场中的搭售行为的关键在于综合考量其积极的竞争效果和消极的竞争效果。我国在反垄断法实践中应充分注重双边市场在技术创新方面的突出优势,通过保护创新来促进产业发展和提升消费者福利。

  8. Study on Platform Ownership in Two-sided Markets%基于双边市场的平台所有权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭慧; 张洪

    2011-01-01

    There are many markets in which two groups of users interact with each other via electronic platforms. These platforms enable markets to have two - sided network externality. These platforms include payment systems, portals, search engines, Internet shops, operating systems, etc. The platform of two-sided markets may be owned by independent third parties, or vertically integrated buyers or suppliers. Different ownerships can lead to differences in platform size, profit distribution and social welfare. It is important to understand different forms of platform ownership structure and their external effects.This paper is to study the impact of different platform ownership arrangements on the market structure in two-sided markets. Two ownership structures and three market structures are examined in this study. The two examined ownership structures are the independent third party-owned platform and the supplier-owned platform. The three examined market structures are monopoly, duopoly with single-homing and multi-homing. This study compares the rankings of market size, consumer surplus, supplier's profit and social welfare for these two ownership structures and three market structures.Our findings show that in the monopoly market structure suppliers are motivated for profit to own platform if the density of suppliers is more than 1.0457. The ownership is not socially preferable and government should intervene in markets. Duopoly market structure has single-homing and multi-homing forms. Three cases were compared with each other: (1) two competing platforms owned by independent third parties, (2) one common platform jointly owned by two different suppliers, (3) one platform owned by an independent third party and the other co-owned by suppliers. Our analysis results show that independent third party ownership is a socially optimal ownership structure. Supplier-ownership should be regulated in order to maximize social welfare. Interactions between two platform ownership

  9. Platform strategy in vertically differentiated two-sided markets%纵向差异化双边市场中平台策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万兴; 高觉民

    2013-01-01

    基于抽象函数建立了纵向差异化双边市场的一般模型,并利用一般模型讨论了垄断与双寡头情形下的市场均衡特征以及在双寡头情形下价格变动的战略效应.进一步在均匀分布的假设下分析了网络外部性参数与质量差距变量对市场均衡时价格与利润的影响.研究发现,在一般模型中,垄断平台能够比双寡头平台更加有效地协调两边的价格结构;双寡头平台的竞争呈现强者更强的效应;双寡头平台竞争中价格具有战略互补效应,而下游市场的战略互补效应要高于上游市场的战略互补效应.基于均匀分布假设可以得到,低质量平台宜采取“分而治之”的策略,高质量平台则宜“因时而动”.%A general-purpose model associated with vertically differentiated two-sided markets is established based on an function. Using the general-purpose model, the paper discusses the features of market equilibriums in both a monopoly and a duopoly markets, and explores strategic effects of price change in the duopoly market. The paper further studies the impact of the parameters of network externality and the variable of quality gap on equilibrium prices and profits under the assumption of uniform distribution of consumer preference. The following conclusions are obtained by using the general-purpose model. Firstly, a monopoly platform can coordinate the price structure of the two sides more effectively than duopoly platforms. Secondly, a positive feedback exists in competition between duopoly platforms. Thirdly, prices have strategic complementary effect in duopoly competition, and this effect is stronger on the downstream side than on the upstream side. Under the assumption of uniform distribution, the paper finds that the low-quality platform should take the strategy of "divide and conquer", while the high-quality platform should exert the strategy of "act according to circumstances".

  10. One-sided or Two-sided Fee: The Choice of Pricing Modes in Media Two-sided Markets%单边收费还是双边收费:双边市场中媒体定价模式选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程贵孙

    2011-01-01

    向一边用户收费还是向两边用户同时收费,是双边市场中众多平台企业在制定价格策略时面临的两难选择.本文以垄断媒体平台为例,考察了垄断媒体对单边收费和双边收费的最优定价模式选择问题.研究发现,媒体订阅量给广告商带来的网络效应强度和媒体内容产品质量参数,它们所形成的广告商与消费者之间的"相对价值比效应指数",将影响到垄断媒体对定价模式的选择.%Platform firms play an important role in e-business. Platform firms charge two groups of agents in exchange for their product and service offerings. Any platform firms in a two-sided market need to deal with the pricing dilemma of charging one-sided user or two-sided users. Advertisement can cause a negative externality on customers because customers usually dislike advertising. Different pricing models can be formulated to compare media platforms using advertisement, with platforms not using advertisement. This paper will present a model of a two-sided vertically differentiated market and use a model to find an optimal pricing model for charging onesided user or two-sided users in a monopolist media platform.This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 discusses related literature and research objectives. Section 2 describes our proposed model. Section 3 discusses the consumer payment pricing model and price equilibrium solutions. Media platforms do not use any advertisements and charge consumers a subscription fee in the consumer payment pricing model. Section 4 discusses the advertiser's payment pricing model and the price equilibrium solutions. In the advertiser's payment pricing model, media platforms allow advertisements and charge the advertisers an advertising fee. Consumers can subscribe to the advertising service for free. Section 5 discusses the two-sided payment pricing model and price equilibrium solutions. In this pricing model, media platforms charge consumers different

  11. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  12. Perspectives from Marketing Internship Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    Internship research published in marketing and business education journals primarily examine student perspectives about internships or reports results based on other business disciplines. To more accurately understand how employers perceive marketing interns and internships, 352 managers located in the Midwestern United States were surveyed.…

  13. 基于双边市场理论的金融超市竞争定价策略研究%Pricing Strategy of Financial Super-market Based on Two-sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镭; 李一军; 张凯

    2014-01-01

    Based on two-sided market, this paper analyzs the pricing competition strategies of financial super-mar-ket under the case of duopoly , and is mainly focused on the price discrimination strategies .The paper builds price discrimination model by which the discriminatory criteria are transaction times on the platform , and analy-zes equilibrium price , equilibrium profit and market shares in two different cases:financial super-market pursues long term maximum profit or short term maximum one .Then we draw the conclusion that price discrimination is good for financial super-markets’ short term profit maximization but not short term or long term profit .So the pa-per suggests financial super-markets should take the strategies of price discrimination in development stage and maturation stage appropriately ,and be within a certain period of time and transactions , so as to get more profit .%基于双边市场理论,重点分析金融超市在双寡头垄断情形下的竞争定价策略。即在在一般定价模型的基础上,构建起加入金融超市双边用户交易次数为歧视标准的价格歧视竞争模型。并且围绕金融超市追求长期利益和短期利益两种不同动机,对采取该策略均衡时最终用户的均衡进入价格、金融超市利润和市场份额进行比较分析。最后,给出金融超市实施价格歧视策略的对策和建议。

  14. 基于双边市场理论的苹果App Store模式研究%The App Store Model of Apple Based on the Theory of Two- Sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利斌; 张广霞

    2012-01-01

    从双边市场理论的定义、识别条件、特征、分类和平台企业战略等角度,分析了苹果App store模式的特征及平台战略.%From the viewpoints of definition, identification condition, characteristics, classification and strategy of platform enterprises based on the theory of two-sided markets, we analyze the characteristics and platform strategies of the App Store Model of Apple.

  15. 双边市场中平台企业兼容策略选择研究%Research on Compatibility Strategy of Platforms in Two-sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大为; 李凯

    2011-01-01

    为了研究双边市场中平台企业的兼容策略选择,构建了反映不同兼容策略的双边市场模型.假设一个垄断者同时拥有两个存在横向差异的平台,运用两阶段博弈的思想分析了平台两边用户的兼容策略选择,发现两边都希望平台是完全兼容的;进而分析了平台企业的兼容策略选择,发现如果没有新用户的进入,平台之间的任何兼容策略都是无差异的,但如果存在新用户的进入,则完全兼容是垄断者的最优策略选择.%To analysis the compatibility strategy of platforms in two-sided markets, we introduce a two-sided market model which involves various compatibility regimes.We suppose there is a monopolist operating two platforms with horizontal differentiation.The whole situation is modeled as a two-stage game.Firstly we analyze the compatibility mode of two-type agents and find that both of them prefer full compatibility regimes.Then we analyze the compatibility mode of platforms owner and find that the monopolist' s profit is independent of the compatibility ' regime if there is no entry to the market, but if there is some new agent the monopolist' s best regime is also full compatibility.

  16. Study on the pricing of smartphone operating system based on two-sided markets%基于双边市场理论智能手机操作系统定价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文文

    2014-01-01

    Market of smartphone operating system has the characteristics of the two-sided mar-ket.Based on the theory of two-sided market,a Hotelling model is established to study the rela-tionships of smartphone operating system vendor,mobile phone application software developer and the terminal consumer.Three conclusions are reached.First,the deduction proportion that operating system vendors take from developers depends on the differences between the cross-group externalities of consumer and developer.Second,consumer price is negatively correlated with the cross-group externalities of consumer and developer and positively correlated with their appetite of operating system.Third,the profit of operating system vendor is positively correlated with the consumer and developer’s appetite of operating system and negatively with their cross-group externalities.%智能手机操作系统市场具有双边市场特征。借鉴双边市场理论,通过建立 Hotelling 模型来研究智能手机操作系统厂商,应用开发商以及消费者之间的关系。研究表明智能手机操作系统厂商的分成比例取决于消费者和开发商的交叉网络外部性;消费者价格和消费者以及开发商的交叉网络外部性负相关,而与两者的偏好程度正相关;操作系统厂商的利润与消费者和开发商的偏好程度正相关,而与两者的交叉网络外部性负相关。

  17. Two sides of a coin: Perpetrators and survivors perspectives on the triad of alcohol, intimate partner violence and mental health in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Hebbani, Sudharshan; Hegde, Sudarshan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2015-06-01

    The present study explored the intersection among alcohol consumption, gender roles, intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health from the perspective of heavy drinking men who also perpetrate IPV (perpetrators) and their spouses (survivors). Interpretive phenomenological approach was used, and in-depth interviews were conducted with adult married heavy drinking men who reported to have perpetrated IPV (N=10) and their spouses (N=10). These interviews were audio-recorded, and salient themes were generated using the NVivo software. Findings indicated a deeply embedded association among alcohol consumption, IPV, and mental health, with culturally sanctioned gender norms strongly contributing to this association. There was evidence for anxiety and depression in the survivors and emotional-behavioural and academic difficulties in their children. The study provides valuable insight into the intersecting problems of alcohol and IPV, which independently and together signify an emergent public health problem that can have immense ramifications on mental health of individuals and families.

  18. Research summary on market power transmission among sides of two-sided market and antitrust policy in internet-based economy%互联网市场力边间传递效应及反垄断研究评述——基于双边市场视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令夷

    2015-01-01

    In the case of the unilateral or bilateral monopoly,the Internet and other industries which have significant two-sided market characteristics recur to the cross-network externality and the incline price structure.The market power transmitted among sides forced the hypothetical monopolist test method and the demand alternative transfer rate method in the standard market situation to encounter unprecedented challenges.From four perspectives of the bilateral market theory basis,platform competition strategy design, relevant market definition in bilateral market and market force transmitted effect between edge,market power transmission between edge and antitrust research literatures were combed.It was found that theoretical research mostly concentrated platform vendor pricing in the situation of a given platform,and price structure design based on user types.Main application research literatures made prospect analysis of antitrust methods under standard market,which were applied to bilateral market.In fact,some improvement study of the standard methods also did not start from the feedback mechanism of bilateral market to explore a feasible way suitable for bilateral market characteristics.However,most of the literatures focused on the criticism on the limitations of SSNIP way,or just proposed applicability defects of the traditional principles and technologies of the relevant market definition in the bilateral market. Even if exploratory research was made on the principles of the relevant market definition,but assumptions were too harsh to achieve.Finally,the paper made newly-developing expectation of future research in this field,and presented several breakthrough points for key research.%具有显著双边市场特征的互联网产业,借助交叉网络外部性与倾斜的价格结构,使得市场力在边与边之间进行传递,标准市场情形下的相关市场界定方法遇到前所未有的挑战.从双边市场理论、平台竞争策略、双边市场中

  19. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  20. Strategic Trading in a Two-Sided Foreign Exchange Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Goldberg; Rafael Tenorio

    1995-01-01

    The market microstructure chosen for foreign exchange markets can influence trading volumes and equilibrium exchange rates. With emerging markets and developing countries increasingly utilizing two- sided auctions, we show that the choice of the discrete 'tƒtonnement' auction creates incentives for strategic behavior among market participants. We provide theoretical predictions on strategic under- revelation of demand or supply positions that are supported empirically using detailed data from...

  1. Strategic Marketing: The President's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Richard J.; Shaink, M. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Provides a step-by-step guide to developing a college marketing plan. Identifying a target market and determining an appropriate mix of promotional strategies are considered key to the process. Highlights the college president's role in the marketing process, indicating that, although the president is the chief marketer, all employees must be…

  2. Strategic Marketing: The President's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Richard J.; Shaink, M. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Provides a step-by-step guide to developing a college marketing plan. Identifying a target market and determining an appropriate mix of promotional strategies are considered key to the process. Highlights the college president's role in the marketing process, indicating that, although the president is the chief marketer, all employees must be…

  3. 基于双边市场的媒体跨媒介竞争效应分析∗%An Analysis on Cross-media Competition Effect in Media Based on Two-sided Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石莉萍

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current background of “Triple Play”and the concept of two-sided markets theo-ry,this essay constructs a media industry cross-media competition model.Model analysis shows that the expansion of cross-media platform would increase the number of consumers,advertisements,and advertis-ing expenses.However,there exists a critical point for cross-media platform expansion investment.The cross-media expansion would increase the profit of media platform only if the investment number is less than the critical point.By the increasing number of advertisement-averse consumer ratio,final equilibrium advertising fees and profits for both media platform will decrease,and the amount of cross-media expansion advertising media platforms and consumers will decrease.Comparatively,the amount of none-cross-media expansion advertisements media platforms and consumers will increase.The conclusion would benefit the cross-media expansion of enterprises and policy-making of the government.%基于三网融合的现实背景,在双边市场理论框架下,构建了媒体跨媒介竞争博弈模型。模型分析表明:媒体平台进行跨媒介扩张,可以增加自身消费者数量、广告投放数量以及广告费用;媒体平台跨媒介扩张存在一个投资临界,只有当投资成本小于这一临界时,跨媒介扩张才会增加媒体平台的利润;随着广告厌恶型消费者所占比例的增加,两家媒体平台最终的均衡广告收费和利润都会提升,进行跨媒介扩张的媒体平台广告量和消费者数量会减少,而没有进行跨媒介扩张的媒体平台广告量和消费者数量会增加。

  4. Research on Network Group-buying Platform Pricing Model Based on Two-sided Market%基于双边市场的网络团购平台定价模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹; 李明杰; 袁冲; 邓舒; 胡春

    2012-01-01

    双边市场理论是近年来产业组织研究的热点问题,结合网络团购平台特点,可以推导出适合网络团购平台的定价模型,讨论交叉网络外部性、差异化程度、卖方信誉及平台搜索匹配度对网络团购平台定价的影响。结论表明,平台需要对网络外部性较强、信誉较高且差异化程度较小的一方收取较低的交易费甚至免费,相反则抽取较高佣金,同时提高平台的搜索匹配概率将对企业利润产生显著的正向影响。网络团购平台需通过不断提高差异化程度和卖方信誉等方式,来吸引更多用户并达成更多交易量,从而使团购企业真正获得盈利。%In recent years,two-sided market theory has been a hot spot in the field of industrial organization.Combining with the characteristics of network group-buying platform,a pricing model suitable for the network group-buying platform is established,and the impacts of crossover network externalities,differentiation degree,the sellers' reputation and search efficiency are discussed.The conclusions show that platform needs to charge lower fee or even be free on the side which has stronger network externalities,higher reputation and differentiation degree,and on the contrary charges higher commissions.At the same time,improving the search matching probability will have a significantly positive impact on the corporate profit.Network group-buying platform needs to attract more users and achieve more deals to make the enterprise gain profit by means of improving differentiation degree,sellers' credit and so on.

  5. Increasing Enrollments: A Marketing Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael K.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how market concepts (e.g., product, promotion, pricing, and place distribution) can be applied to job training and education. Offers a step-by-step explanation of how to analyze markets and plan strategically. (AYC)

  6. Sustainability in Business from a Marketing Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars; Wilke, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    Why have the majority of companies not yet begun to integrate sustainability on a larger scale into their business strategies? In dealing with this question, we have developed and tested a theoretical model that combines a cognitive frame view with a capability perspective on company behaviour. O...... engaged in accomplishing an ambidextrous innovation strategy; and ensuring that marketing is practised on the basis of a compound marketing logic.......Why have the majority of companies not yet begun to integrate sustainability on a larger scale into their business strategies? In dealing with this question, we have developed and tested a theoretical model that combines a cognitive frame view with a capability perspective on company behaviour. Our...... analyses show that top management plays a conclusive role, provided they practise a transformational leadership style. Furthermore, the analyses show that marketing can act as a driver for the company's engagement in product responsibility and social issues. The potential for marketing to further...

  7. 交叉网络外部性还是单向网络外部性?——传媒业内的双边市场辨析%Cross-Product Network Externalities or Unilateral Network Externalities: Analysis of Two-Sided-Market in Media Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉锋

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses whether media industry has two-sided-market or not. It focuses on two categories which are mostly similar to two-sided-market: one is Internet advertising alliance, copyright exchange base, content products trade fair, etc., the other is the press and broadcasting markets. It finds that the former belongs to two-sided-market while the latter does not since there is no cross-product network externalities between advertiser and audience. It also argues that the former should refer to the pricing strategy of two-sided-market and there is no need for the latter to take care of the influence of the pricing strategy on audiences.%本论文利用双边市场理论对传媒业进行辨析,以厘清传媒业中是否存在双边市场。辨析主要集中在与双边市场最贴近的两类,一是互联网广告联盟、版权交易基地、内容产品展销会等,一是报刊广电等传媒。结论是前者属于双边市场,后者由于广告主与受众两边市场不存在交叉网络外部性而不是。论文还指出,前者的定价应多借鉴双边市场定价策略的相关内容,而后者对广告主的定价可不考虑对受众的影响。

  8. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S. W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  9. RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIA - A MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ŞTEFAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of national tourist brand is one of the priorities of the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism. The project on branding Romania is EU-funded, within the Regional Operational Program (ROP 2007-2013. Out of the different evaluation point of views - qualitative research in source markets and domestic market, project's team opinions, branding project research on the attractiveness / competitiveness, 6 tourism key product of Romanian tourism have been identified, one of them beeing Countryside &Rural Tourism. The paper aimed to present an analysis of the Countryside and rural tourism from a marketing perspective bearing in mind that, in order to reach the target set by the Romanian National Tourism Development Masterplan 2007-2026, of increasing the number of visitors at 9,7 milion in 2016, a marketing plan will be implemented. The average yearly growth of the arrivals number for the countryside and rural sector for 2011-2015 will be 25%.

  10. 媒体产业中的平台质量竞争——基于双边市场的理论视角的研究%Research on Platform Quality Competition in the Media Industry Based on Two-sided Market Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万兴

    2012-01-01

    The media industry is a typical two-sided market, where audiences and advertisers are the two sides. There are two typieal faets of the two-sided markets in the media industry. Firstly, the major revenue source of the same category media platform may differ. The feature is rare in other industries, where the make-money side is fixed. Secondly, the first-mover advantage in the media industry is not as remarkable as in other industries that are characterized by network effect. The first-mover advantage often brings entry barriers for a later comer, but the media industry witnesses many eases of successful market entry. How to analyze the difference in major revenue source, the traditional horizontal difference model or one-sided model cannot give reasonable explanation. The qual- ity difference of media contents is critical for a media platform to choose its business model. The paper establishes a two-sided market model including the quality factor to analyze the monopoly and duopoly situation. The paper has two contributions. Firstly, this paper incorporates quality into a two-sided model to analyze the quality choice of a platform on market performance. Secondly, this paper uses the quality-difference model to analyze whether or not there is the first-mover advantage in a two-sided media market and whether or not a latecomer can gain advantage over an incumbent. This paper establishes the two-sided model and makes discussion using the TV channel industry as an example. However, the modeling process and results are not limited to the industry but suitable for many media sectors. The research finds that a monopoly platform can make profits from the audience side with high content quality or depends on advertisement fees based on network externalities, but a strategy of tradeoff is not desirable. With the increase of network externalities between audiences and advertisers, the audience-side and advertiser-side profits both inerease. With the increase of eontent

  11. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  12. Imageology and clinical examination: Two sides of the same coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous and rapid transition of techniques from research lab into clinical practice has been the pattern of development in radiology and imaging, and this has put the concept of clinical imaging into a different perspective. From a passive role of pattern recognition, distinguishing a radiograph from normal to abnormal, the task of a radiologist today has been elevated to reporting a comprehensive clinical imaging assay, giving information at a level profound enough to be useful for scientists working in allied fields. A peep into the literature shows how radiological and clinical examination can be two sides of the same coin.

  13. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  14. Naturally Occuring Brands: a New Perspective on Place Marketing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine Wright-Isak

    2010-01-01

      Naturally Occurring Brands: A New Perspective on Place Marketing We suggest community types are "natural brands," because their differentiated imagery has meaning that influences consumer housing choices...

  15. Halal logistics: A marketing mix perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ḥalāl is no longer understood as solely concerning food consumption or ritual slaughter. It is at the centre of the global Muslim food industry and logistics is one of its driving forces. The growing demand for ḥalāl food integrity contributes to the need for ḥalāl logistics. However, ḥalāl logistics operation has thus far not been warmly received by the industry thus hampering the availability of such services. This conceptual study attempts to illuminate the issue by addressing ḥalāl logistics from a marketing perspective. The concept of marketing mix and how it can be practiced by industrial players in marketing or promoting ḥalāl logistics services underpins our discussion. Existing literature is reviewed and discussed to ascertain the link between ḥalāl logistics and the 7Ps of its marketing mix, namely, product, place, price, promotion, people, process, and programme.

  16. Chaotic-periodic transition in a two-sided minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Guang; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Phase transitions are being used increasingly to probe the collective behaviors of social human systems. In this study, we propose a different way of investigating such transitions in a human system by establishing a two-sided minority game model. A new type of agents who can actively transfer resources are added to our artificial bipartite resource-allocation market. The degree of deviation from equilibria is characterized by the entropy-like quantity of market complexity. Under different threshold values, Q th , two phases are found by calculating the exponents of the associated power spectra. For large values of Q th , the general motion of strategies for the agents is relatively periodic whereas for low values of Q th , the motion becomes chaotic. The transition occurs abruptly at a critical value of Q th . Our simulation results were also tested based on human experiments. The results of this study suggest that a chaotic-periodic transition related to the quantity of market information should exist in most bipartite markets, thereby allowing better control of such a transition and providing a better understanding of the endogenous emergence of business cycles from the perspective of quantum mechanics.

  17. E-Marketing- A Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Parminder Kaur; Dr. Ashutosh Pathak

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products, information and services on the Internet and other online environments . E-Marketing is also known as web marketing , Online marketing and internet marketing. E- Marketing is a management process . The aim of e-marketing is marketing is establish maintain and long-term relationship with customers. Online Marketing includes identify unmet needs, producing products and services to meet those need and pricing, distrib...

  18. Information Congestion: open access in a two-sided market

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Simon P.; André De Palma

    2007-01-01

    Advertising messages compete for scarce attention. “Junk” mail, “spam” e-mail, and telemarketing calls need both parties to exert effort to generate transactions. Message recipients supply attention depending on average message benefit, while senders are motivated by profits. Costlier message transmission may improve message quality so more messages are examined. Too many messages may be sent, or the wrong ones. A Do-Not-Call policy beats a ban, but too many individuals opt out. A monopoly ga...

  19. Areeda-Turner in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Areeda and Turner (1975) were the first to argue that a price below marginal costs should be considered a sign of predation. Recognizing that marginal cost data were typically unavailable, the authors concluded that a price below average variable cost should be presumed unlawful. This socalled Areed

  20. Areeda-Turner in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Areeda and Turner (1975) were the first to argue that a price below marginal costs should be considered a sign of predation. Recognizing that marginal cost data were typically unavailable, the authors concluded that a price below average variable cost should be presumed unlawful. This socalled

  1. Areeda-Turner in Two-Sided Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behringer, S.; Filistrucchi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Areeda and Turner (1975) were the first to argue that a price below marginal costs should be considered a sign of predation. Recognizing that marginal cost data were typically unavailable, the authors concluded that a price below average variable cost should be presumed unlawful. This socalled Areed

  2. EDUCATIONAL MARKET STRATEGIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MARKETING ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena PLATIS

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the recent social, technological and cultural changes, universities need to adapt rapidly or even to generate the change. More than that, on the educational market, new orientations reveal as well as new actions, which make it close to the market of goods and services or a business market. This paper analyze the possibilities of adapting the marketing orientation to the educational market strategy in the sense of reconsideration the strategic direc...

  3. EDUCATIONAL MARKET STRATEGIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MARKETING ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena PLATIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent social, technological and cultural changes, universities need to adapt rapidly or even to generate the change. More than that, on the educational market, new orientations reveal as well as new actions, which make it close to the market of goods and services or a business market. This paper analyze the possibilities of adapting the marketing orientation to the educational market strategy in the sense of reconsideration the strategic directions in the higher education institutions in order to make the study structures sustainable. The main objectives of the analyze are: ¾ Understanding the marketing orientation on the educational market; ¾ Identification the principal levels of the market strategy; ¾ Creating the strategic directions for sustainable development in the contemporary universities.

  4. E-Marketing- A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products, information and services on the Internet and other online environments . E-Marketing is also known as web marketing , Online marketing and internet marketing. E- Marketing is a management process . The aim of e-marketing is marketing is establish maintain and long-term relationship with customers. Online Marketing includes identify unmet needs, producing products and services to meet those need and pricing, distributing and promoting those products and service to produce a profit. Search engine is the best technique of online marketing. Customer relationship management worked as a tool increased use of e-commerce makes CRM a necessary component. E-marketing perform a function within Short period of time. Online market open in 24 hours and 7 day service provide. Questions are related to EMarketing in which given options are Agree, Disagree, Strongly disagree, Strongly agree, Neutral, Yes, No. After analysis and comparison of traditional marketing of electronic marketing , it is revealed that it is quite difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that which E-Marketing is best.E-marketing websites provide the flexibility, efficiency of work, provide the better security of e- paying their taxes, licenses, fees etc. In future emarketing provide the efficient website Which is easy to use for common peoples marketing then e-marketing will be increase.All parts of the organization should co-ordinate activities to ensure that customer needs are met efficiently, effectively and profitably.

  5. The World Market of Armament: Ukraine Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.; Kovalchuk Ekaterina V.

    2011-01-01

    The essence and means of the world market of armament were considered. The dates of export/import operations of the world industrial defense complex in 2002 – 2009th were provided. The Ukraine’s place on the listing of the world armament exporters were determinate. The perspective parts of the military export of the Ukraine were introduced.Рассмотрены сущность и значение мирового рынка вооружений. Приведены данные относительно экспортно-импортных операций ОПК стран мира за период 2002 – 2009 ...

  6. The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective | Balogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Capital Market in Nigeria in Historical Perspective. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... It is against this background that this paper considers the establishment and operation of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

  7. International market selection: A cognitive mapping perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Strandskov, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    The contributes conceptually to the development of research into global market screening procedures, by developing a model of cognitive processes related to market screening.......The contributes conceptually to the development of research into global market screening procedures, by developing a model of cognitive processes related to market screening....

  8. Communication with market segments - travel agencies' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Bašan; Jasmina Dlačić; Željko Trezner

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the travel agencies’ communication with market segments. Communication with market segments takes into account marketing communication means as well as the implementation of different business orientations. Design – Special emphasis is placed on the use of different marketing communication means and their efficiency. Research also explores business orientation adaptation when approaching different market segments. Methodology – In explo...

  9. Investigating consistency of a pro-market perspective amongst conservationists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libby Blanchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While biodiversity conservation has had a longstanding relationship with markets, the recent past has seen a proliferation of novel market-based instruments in conservation such as payments for ecosystem services. Whilst a number of conservation organisations have aligned themselves with this 'neoliberal' shift, relatively few studies interrogate the extent to which this move resonates with the values held by conservation professionals. An earlier study of the views of conservationists participating in the 2011 Society for Conservation Biology conference found both supportive and critical perspectives on the use of markets in conservation (Sandbrook et al. 2013b. This paper investigates the consistency of the perspectives identified in the earlier study by applying the same Q methodology survey to a group of Cambridge, UK-based conservationists. While both studies reveal supporting and more sceptical perspectives on the use of markets in conservation, the pro-market perspective in each sample is nearly identical. This finding provides empirical confirmation of a growing body of research that suggests that a relatively consistent set of pro-market perspectives have permeated the thinking of decision makers and staff of conservation organisations. It also lends some support to the suggestion that a transnational conservation elite may be driving this uptake of market approaches.

  10. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  11. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric

  12. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million

  13. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  14. Wood pellet market and trade: A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.; Cocchi, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Marchal, D.; Thrän, D.; Hennig, C.; Heinimo, J.; Nikolaisen, L.; Schouwenberg, P.P.; Bradley, D.; Hess, R.F.; Jacobson, J.; Ovard, L.; Deutmeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high signifi cance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric

  15. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  16. Two-sided and alternating Jacobi-Davidson

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two variants of a two-sided Jacobi-Davidson method, which have asymptotically cubic convergence for nonnormal matrices and aim to find both right and left eigenvectors. These methods can be seen as Jacobi-Davidson analogs of Ostrowski’s two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration. Some relations between (exact and inexact) two-sided Jacobi-Davidson and (exact and inexact) two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration are given, together with convergence rates. Furthermore, we introduce an altern...

  17. Promotional Tool of Marketing: An Islamic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Anwar; Mohammad Saeed

    1996-01-01

    Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests), play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources...

  18. Two-sided and alternating Jacobi-Davidson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, Michiel Erik; Sleijpen, G.L.G.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two variants of a two-sided Jacobi-Davidson method, which have asymptotically cubic convergence for nonnormal matrices and aim to find both right and left eigenvectors. These methods can be seen as Jacobi-Davidson analogs of Ostrowski’s two-sided Rayleigh Quotient Iteration. Some

  19. Cross-border reproductive care : market forces in action or market failure? An economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    From an economist's perspective, cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) reflects a global market economy bringing together the needs of patients and skills of doctors at an agreed price. From this perspective CBRC is neither wrong nor right, rather it reflects rational economic behaviour of couples t

  20. Monopoly, monopsony, and market definition: an antitrust perspective on market concentration among health insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, David A; Kovacic, William E

    2004-01-01

    James Robinson uses the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) to compute the concentration of commercial health insurance markets in most of the states during the past four years. The HHI is the analytical foundation for the federal antitrust merger guidelines, so we consider his findings from an antitrust perspective. Market concentration provides an important benchmark for antitrust analysis, but it does not, standing alone, indicate the presence of problematic (anticompetitive) behavior or a problem that antitrust law can solve. Even if it did, there are major problems in treating individual states as discrete insurance markets. Unless the market is correctly defined, any analysis of market concentration is thoroughly unreliable.

  1. Promotional Tool of Marketing: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests, play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources should be the basis for designing promotional tools and media strategies. The latter are meant to inculcate Islamic values, build the characters of customers and marketers and uphold truth in the society. Ethical behavior in advertising and other promotional activities must be based on a strong foundation of Islamic tenets and injunctions. There is a need to develop not only general guidelines for achieving marketing goals and corporate objectives in a morally acceptable manner, but also to devise an Islamic code of marketing by Muslim marketers, corporate leaders, and sharīʿah experts.

  2. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura

    at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, which is a knowledge discipline and a practice that applies commercial marketing principles to achieve...... a voluntary behavioural change for personal welfare and/or the benefit of society. Even though social marketing is considered the most advanced framework for diet-related interventions, it has been criticised for a number of problems that can be grouped into: 1) lack of consumer orientation and research, 2......) lack of availability and application of theories that explain the process of specific behavioural change, 3) predominance of "downstream" approaches, and 4) ethical issues. The overall aim of this dissertation is to provide insights into healthy eating behaviour using the social marketing approach...

  3. Discovering magic of mobile technology in business: strategic marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bolat, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology penetrated all aspects of social and business existence. Studies around mobile technology mostly address the use and adoption process of mobile marketing or mobile commerce from a consumer perspective rather than from a business perspective. Another concern of majority of studies on the use of mobile technology is a focus on technical nature of mobile devices despite the fact that true magic of technology resides in its mobilisation and usage – the deployment of mobile techn...

  4. Institutional Change in Delivery of Dental Services: A Marketing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Noel

    1982-01-01

    The recent appearance and growth of new delivery systems for dental services is examined from a marketing perspective. Analysis reveals that the growth of low priced, high throughput operations is consistent not only with marketing principles, but with the development of American retail institutions in general. Options for independent dentists in the face of this new competitive environment are discussed. (Am J Public Health 1982; 72:679-683.) PMID:7091457

  5. Russian electricity market. Current state and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurafikov, R.

    2009-06-15

    The Russian electricity market is currently in transition. The restructuring of the sector has been completed and former public vertically integrated monopolies have been unbundled and partly privatised. The government retained control in all the network companies, the system operator, nuclear generation, and hydro generation. The state retains control also via owner-ship in several TGCs and WGCs in the strategic regions of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg via the state owned gas monopoly Gazprom. The liberalization takes place within two price zones, Europe and Siberia, where more than 90%, 913 TWh in 2007, of Russian electricity consumption takes place. In the rest of Russia, e.g. the Far East and isolated areas like Kaliningrad, electricity is supplied at regulated rates. Only a minor part of electricity in the price zones is currently traded at free prices. The share of electricity traded at free market prices will increase according to the liberalization schedule, reaching ca 90%, all except households, by 2011. Wholesale electricity market bids are aggregated in a detailed power system model of the Russian power grid, taking into account the physical locations of the facilities. The resulting 7700+ nodal market prices, scattered across the 7 time zones of the Russian market area, capture costs of congestion and load losses in the grid. The price level of electricity seems to be rather low at a glance - about 21 euro and 15 euro per MWh in Europe and Siberia respectively. On the other hand, wholesale market buyers have to pay for capacity availability, on average around 3000 euro/MW monthly. With greater share of electricity traded at free prices there will be an increased need to hedge price risks. For this reason a financial market is planned. There are also plans for support schemes for renewable generation and to limit environmental pollution as well as ancillary services markets. Some areas do not experience a likewise opening of the competition in Russia, for

  6. Perspectives of Collective Investment Undertakings Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Paunescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristics of the collective investment undertakings, in accordance with the European standards, as well as their prospective evolution in Romania. New elements, appeared post-accession, are highlighted, referring to the structure and management of the collective investment undertakings. Local market is described compared to the European market, with focus on the factors which have impact on its development. Risk management, disclosure and investor protection are the main terms of reference in the management of the collective investment undertakings.

  7. FinTech Market Development Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmykova Ekaterina; Ryabova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fast development of technologies has led to emergence of the new market – FinTech – which is very attractive for investors today. By now this market has a great number of different concepts: P2P-crediting, E-wallets, Bitcoins, mPOS-acquiring, T-commerce, mobile banks, etc. Many of these tools have already heavily entered our ordinary life. People can obtain any credits through special services on the Internet from other users without participation of banks, pay by credit card using mobile dev...

  8. Two-sided Markets and Competitive Strategy of Crowdfunding Platforms:Analytical Framework and Research Development%众筹平台的双边市场性质与竞争策略:分析框架及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲; 周勤; 岳中刚

    2015-01-01

    本文基于平台经济学的基本理论,以满足双边市场性质的三个条件为主线,对众筹平台的性质作了界定并提供了经验证据。在此基础上,从价格竞争和非价格竞争角度对众筹平台的竞争策略展开讨论,并就竞争所导致的负外部性及管控机制对最新研究进展进行了评述,从而构建了众筹平台双边市场性质的分析框架。文章通过对文献的梳理,分析了现有研究的局限,并从众筹平台双边性质的实证检验、竞争策略的动态演进以及管控的变革等三个方面指出了未来研究方向。%Based on the theories of platform economics ,this paper confirms that crowd‐funding platforms meet the three conditions in the nature of two—sided markets .On this ba‐sis ,this paper mainly discusses competitive strategy of crowdfunding platforms from price and nonprice competitions perspectives .Moreover ,it reviews the new research progress of negative externalities and platforms control caused by competition .It provides an analytical framework for two—sided markets of crowdfunding platforms and points out future research directions from the perspectives of empirical test on two—sided markets ,dynamic develop‐ment of competitive strategies and transformation of the management and control on crowd‐funding platforms based on the limitations of current research .

  9. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  10. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  11. The structure of marketing cooperative : A members perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines marketing cooperatives’ (MCs’) structure from a members’ perspective. We support the notion that the utility that members derive from the attributes of MC’s structure enhances our insight in members’ commitment. Using a conjoint experimental design, we elicit the utility that pro

  12. THE ROMANIAN RETAIL MARKET - PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA BUZILĂ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Romanian retail market are facing with several problems which players must find solutions. It comes to maintaining a financial balance in terms of accelerated development and consumption has declined in recent years, finding and recruiting specialized personnel and the development of alternative sales channels.

  13. Different Research Markets: A Disciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Lyytinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the notions of academic capitalism and the transformation of academic research from traditional academic orientation into market orientation, the paper sets out to empirically scrutinize the changing nature of academic research, focusing especially on disciplinary differences. The paper is based on a survey of heads of departments and…

  14. Are Students Customers? TQM and Marketing Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Lynne; Brennan, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to evaluate the arguments for and against the proposition that students in higher education are "customers" and should be treated as such. Design/methodology/approach: A critical review of the relevant literature from the domains of total quality management and marketing. Findings: The debate is polarised, with advocates…

  15. Are Students Customers? TQM and Marketing Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Lynne; Brennan, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to evaluate the arguments for and against the proposition that students in higher education are "customers" and should be treated as such. Design/methodology/approach: A critical review of the relevant literature from the domains of total quality management and marketing. Findings: The debate is polarised, with advocates…

  16. THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKET: ANALYSIS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana COLESNICOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the situation on the global financial market is analyzed in the paper. The actuality of this research proceeded from the reality facing the entire global financial system. The purpose of this work is to research the situation on the global financial market based on the complex analysis of the sector. In the process of developing of this work were used the following methods: comparative analysis, synthesis, logical analysis. The results from the well-known companies which provided each year the analysis and ratings between the high net worth individuals wealth levels and growth by world regions, the most successfully International Financial Centres, leading wealth managers, wealth management innovators, Private Banks of the year, Private Bankers of the year etc. are analyzed in the paper.

  17. Market valuation perspectives for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, working with Energy Sense Finance developed the proof-ofconcept PV Valueª tool in 2011 to provide real estate appraisers a tool that can be used to develop the market value and fair market value of a solar photovoltaic system. PV Valueª moved from a proof-of-concept spreadsheet to a commercial web-based tool developed and operated exclusively by Energy Sense Finance in June 2014. This paper presents the results of a survey aimed at different user categories in order to measure how the tool is being used in the marketplace as well as elicit information that can be used to improve the tools effectiveness.

  18. INTERNET MARKETING BUDGET ALLOCATION: FROM PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LAN ZHAO; JISHAN ZHU

    2010-01-01

    Consider a firm promotes its products through several Internet media with a fixed Internet marketing budget and models the budget allocation decisions as a competitive game, in which each firm formulates its own optimization model that is influenced by the competitors' moves as well. One challenge to the application of such model in practice is how to deal with asymmetric information. In this paper, we discuss several issues that are often asked by the practitioners that are related to dealin...

  19. Harmony Search for Balancing Two-sided Assembly Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindriyanto Dwi Purnomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided assembly lines balancing problems are important problem for large-sized products such as cars and buses, in which, tasks operations can be performed in the two sides of the line. In this paper, Harmony Search algorithm is proposed to solve two-sided assembly lines balancing problems type-I (TALBP-I. The proposed method adopts the COMSOAL heuristic and specific features of TALBP in the Harmony operators – the harmony memory consideration, random selection and pitch adjustment – in order to maintain the local and global search. The proposed method is evaluated based on 6 benchmark problems that are commonly used in TALBP. The experiment results show that the proposed method work well and produces better solution than the heuristic method and genetic algorithm.

  20. NEOCLASSICAL PRODUCTION FUNCTION FROM MARKET PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Meta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Short period of time in microeconomic theory defines the operational point of view. Under it does not include the time period specified duration quantitatively accurate, but as the time interval within which the company is manufacturing variations may be adjusted by changing only the variable production inputs, and not those inputs that can not be changed (fixed inputs. In order to conduct the company in a short period of time could explain the need to understand the limitations of the character with which it is in the process of its operation meets. There are two important limits which are faced by the company and that determine its behavior: technological and market limitations. Technological limitations contained in the production function. Enterprise is only available certain (more or less the number of combinations of inputs and the resulting outputs, and this reality presents insurmountable limit for each company, and she must be considered. Only technological limitation leads to economic restrictions contained in the cost function. Competition is another form of restriction which limits the company must be considered. The company can offer the market what can physically produce and establish a price he pleases, but he can sell only what customers want to buy and at a price they are willing to pay. In this paper we analyze the behavior of a competitive firm with a neoclassical production function, and we present the problem of maximizing the profits of companies in competitive markets, and market factors of production output. In this paper, we start from a very simple algebraic functions of production, fixed prices of production inputs and outputs and fixed rates will analyze the economic consequences of management decisions on the amount of companies engaged in the variable input level of total profits and producer surplus. The aim of this paper is to point out, not only to ease the algebraic and geometric ways of quantifying the optimal

  1. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Aharon

    2012-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we derive an exact, static, radially symmetric, two-sided mirror solution, which asymptotes the massless BTZ black hole background, and then probe the local structure of a massive mirror.

  2. FinTech Market Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of technologies has led to emergence of the new market – FinTech – which is very attractive for investors today. By now this market has a great number of different concepts: P2P-crediting, E-wallets, Bitcoins, mPOS-acquiring, T-commerce, mobile banks, etc. Many of these tools have already heavily entered our ordinary life. People can obtain any credits through special services on the Internet from other users without participation of banks, pay by credit card using mobile devices, and get information about expenses and incomes according to the card anywhere in the world. Users do not need to go to banks anymore and to spend their time for credit arrangements, currency exchange, to look for ATMs to remove cash. Purchases on the Internet can be paid not only in rubles, but also in new digital currency. These tools make life easier, however, they pose a serious threat for banks. Now, bank institutions should create more convenient and utility services for the clients to keep clients. Therefore, bank and credit systems start to change actively.

  3. The Two-Sided Mind: Teaching and Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    This paper explores how Georgi Lozanov's Suggestopedia incorporates elements of modern right-brain research. For example, issues in Linda VerLee Williams's "Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind" that are applicable to Suggestopedia include visual thinking, fantasy, multisensory learning, music, and direct experience. In Robert Ornstein's "The…

  4. Two-sided reflection of Markov-modulated Brownian motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Auria, B.; Ivanovs, J.; Kella, O.; Mandjes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers a Markov-modulated Brownian motion with a two-sided reflection. For this doubly-reflected process we compute the Laplace transform of the stationary distribution, as well as the average loss rates at both barriers. Our approach relies on spectral properties of the matrix polyn

  5. Novel high torque bearingless two-sided rotary ultrasonic motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; CHEN Wei-shan; XIE Tao; LIU Jun-kao

    2007-01-01

    Applications are limited at present because the currently available ultrasonic motors (USMs) do not provide sufficiently high torque and power. The conventional travelling-wave USM needs the bearing to support, which required lubricant. To solve the above problem, a bearingless travelling-wave USM is designed. First, a novel structure of the two-sided USM consisting ora two-sided teeth stator and two disk-type rotors is designed. And the excitation principle of the two-sided travelling-wave USM is analyzed. Then, using ANSYS software, we set up the model of the stator to predict the excitation frequency and modal response of the stator. The shape of the vibration mode was obtained. Last, the load characteristics of the USM are measured using experimental method. The maximum stall torque and the no-load speed were obtained. The results showed that the characteristics of the two-sided USM are better than those of the conventional one-sided USM.

  6. Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iebba, Valerio; Totino, Valentina; Gagliardi, Antonella; Santangelo, Floriana; Cacciotti, Fatima; Trancassini, Maria; Mancini, Carlo; Cicerone, Clelia; Corazziari, Enrico; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Schippa, Serena

    2016-01-01

    The microbial ecosystem of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by a great number of microbial species living in balance by adopting mutualistic strategies. The eubiosis/dysbiosis condition of the gut microbiota strongly influences our healthy and disease status. This review briefly describes microbiota composition and functions, to then focus on eubiosis and dysbiosis status: the two sides of the microbiota.

  7. A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUShao-xian; WANGShun-qin; MAFei-fei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined. The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  8. Electric retail market options: The customer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

  9. Two-Sided Tests and One-Sided Confidence Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Based on the duality between tests and confidence sets we introduce a new method to derive one-sided confidence bounds following the rejection of a null hypothesis with two-sided alternatives. This method imputes that the experimenter is only interested in confidence bounds if the null hypothesis is rejected. Furthermore, we suppose that he is only interested in the direction and a lower confidence bound concerning the distance of the true parameter value to the parameter values in the null h...

  10. Two-Sided Gravitational Mirror: Sealing off Curvature Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben

    2011-01-01

    A gravitational mirror is a non-singular finite redshift surface which bounces all incident null geodesics. While a white mirror (outward bouncing) resembles 't Hooft's brick wall, a black mirror (inward bouncing) offers a novel mechanism for sealing off curvature singularities. The geometry underlying a two-sided mirror is characterized by a single signature change, to be contrasted with the signature flip which governs the black hole geometry. To demonstrate the phenomenon analytically, we ...

  11. Wake flow behind two side-by-side square cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Shun C., E-mail: scyen@mail.ntou.edu.t [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jung H. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    This study investigates the flow structures, form drag coefficients and vortex-shedding characteristics behind a single-square cylinder and two side-by-side cylinders in an open-loop wind tunnel. The Reynolds number (Re) and gap ratio (g*) are 2262 < Re < 28,000 and 0 {<=} g* {<=} 12, respectively. The flow patterns around the square cylinders are determined using the smoke-wire scheme. Experimental results indicate that the flow structures behind two side-by-side square cylinders are classified into three modes -single mode, gap-flow mode and couple vortex-shedding. The gap-flow mode displays anti-phase vortex shedding induced from the interference between the two square cylinders. However, the couple vortex-shedding mode exhibits in-phase vortex shedding that is caused by the independent flow behavior behind each square cylinder. The surface-pressure profile, form drag coefficient for each square cylinder (C{sub D}-bar) and vortex-shedding frequency were measured and calculated using a pressure transducer and a hot-wire anemometer. For two side-by-side cylinder configurations, the maximum C{sub D}-bar of 2.24 occurs in the single mode, while the minimum C{sub D}-bar of 1.68 occurs in the gap-flow mode. Additionally, the C{sub D}-bar in the coupled vortex-shedding mode is intermediate and approximately equal to that of a single (isolated) square cylinder. Moreover, the single mode has the highest Strouhal number (St) and the gap-flow mode has the lowest St.

  12. Peace and development: two sides of the same coin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveros Tafur, Memphis Ronald

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is the notion that peace and development are positively correlated, that peace drives development and that development drives peace, for Galtung (1985: 147 Peace and Development should be regarded as two sides of the same coin and considers development in relation to peace. This paper shows that peace and development are uncorrelated in several countries where there is peace without development or development without peace. The use of quantitative models as a tool for the analysis is a plus for the findings because most of the related theories are qualitative.

  13. Fractionation of proteins with two-sided electro-ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppler, Tobias; Posten, Clemens

    2007-03-10

    Downstream processing is a major challenge in bioprocess industry due to the high complexity of bio-suspensions itself, the low concentration of the product and the stress sensitivity of the valuable target molecules. A multitude of unit operations have to be joined together to achieve an acceptable purity and concentration of the product. Since each of the unit operations leads to a certain product loss, one important aim in downstream-research is the combination of different separation principles into one unit operation. In the current work a dead-end membrane process is combined with an electrophoresis operation. In the past this concept has proven successfully for the concentration of biopolymers. The present work shows that using different ultrafiltration membranes in a two-sided electro-filter apparatus with flushed electrodes brought significant enhancement of the protein fractionation process. Due to electrophoretic effects, the filtration velocity could be kept on a very high level for a long time, furthermore, the selectivity of a binary separation process carried out exemplarily for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LZ) could be greatly increased; in the current case up to a value of more than 800. Thus the new two-sided electro-ultrafiltration technique achieves both high product purity and short separation times.

  14. Distributive Justice and Free Market Economics: A Eudaimonistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Reber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, a peculiar understanding of distributive justice has developed which holds that “social justice must be distributed by the coercive force of government.” However, this is a perversion of the ideal of distributive justice. The perspective of distributive justice which should be considered is one with its roots in the school of thought referred to as self-actualization ethics or eudaimonism, which holds that each person is unique and each should discover whom he or she is—to actualize his or her true potential and to live the “good life” within the congeniality and complementarity of personal excellences of his or her fellow members of community. When a eudaimonistic perspective is considered, a definition of distributive of justice could be “the allocation of goods and utilities via the voluntary ubiquitous human interaction of self-actualizing individuals who not only recognize the human dignity of the self and other and the rights which flow from and guarantee it, but also actively will goods and utilities toward the self and other so as to manifest human dignity.” Therefore, with a eudaimonistic understanding of distributive justice, one can argue that the free market is the ubiquitous interactions of self-actualizing individuals who are giving and receiving goods and utilities for one and another’s own “happiness,” i.e. the free market is the socio-economic mechanism by which distributive justice operates. In this paper I first will overview the philosophical foundations of distributive justice. Next, I will propose a eudaimonistic definition of distributive justice. Finally, I will highlight examples of distributive justice operating in a free market economy.

  15. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  16. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Congestion has become one of the most important factors leading to patient dissatisfaction and doctor-patient conflicts in the medical market of China. In this study, we explore the causes and effects of structural congestion in the Chinese medical market from an incentive structure perspective. Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital, and have driven medical staff and patients to higher-level hospitals, reinforcing an incentive structure in which congestion in higher-level hospitals and idle resources in lower-level hospitals coexist. The existing incentive structure has led to cost increases and degradation of human capital and specific factor effects. Recent reforms to reduce congestion in the Chinese medical market were not effective. Most of them had no impact on and did not involve the existing distorted incentive structure. Future reforms should consider rebalancing expectations for medical quality, free flow of human capital and price regulation reforms to rebuild a new incentive structure.

  17. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  18. Marketing small animal theriogenology services--one perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A

    2007-08-01

    Once a decision is made to add small animal theriogenology services to a practice, marketing strategies must be developed and implemented to attract clients to the new services. Marketing strategies for the niche market of theriogenology include start-up marketing methods, referral programs, internal marketing, and continued marketing. Marketing theriogenology services is a dynamic, ongoing process that never ends.

  19. NEW DYNAMICS OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN TWO SIDES IN SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ortega Gil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains my own thoughts concerning what I have called new dynamics of the conflict between two sides in Schools. It begins by presenting the contrast between traditional conflicts, where both sides believed their argument was a private affair, and these new dynamics where one or both sides of the conflict tend to make it public and work to win support for their cause. The furious confrontation some people seek and the waves of indignation they set off bring to mind the frequent social media shitstorms we hear about. As a consequence, as the conflict festers, the inspector of education receives countless visits, phone calls and protest letters, an uproar designed to influence her decision. Next, some real cases are discussed, although no information is given of the people taking parts in the events to safeguard identities. Finally, I propose a checklist that involves a sequence of steps designed to protect the inspector from pressure and help her deal more efficiently with problems of this nature.

  20. Compact, Two-Sided Structural Cold Plate Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffetti, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In two-sided structural cold plates, typically there is a structural member, such as a honeycomb panel, that provides the structural strength for the cold plates that cool equipment. The cold plates are located on either side of the structural member and thus need to have the cooling fluid supplied to them. One method of accomplishing this is to route the inlet and outlet tubing to both sides of the structural member. Another method might be to supply the inlet to one side and the outlet to the other. With the latter method, an external feature such as a hose, tube, or manifold must be incorporated to pass the fluid from one side of the structural member to the other. Although this is a more compact design than the first option, since it eliminates the need for a dedicated supply and return line to each side of the structural member, it still poses problems, as these external features can be easily damaged and are now new areas for potential fluid leakage. This invention eliminates the need for an external feature and instead incorporates the feature internally to the structural member. This is accomplished by utilizing a threaded insert that not only connects the cold plate to the structural member, but also allows the cooling fluid to flow through it into the structural member, and then to the cold plate on the opposite side. The insert also employs a cap that acts as a cover to seal the open area needed to install the insert. There are multiple options for location of o-ring style seals, as well as the option to use adhesive for redundant sealing. Another option is to weld the cap to the cold plate after its installation, thus making it an integral part of the structural member. This new configuration allows the fluid to pass from one cold plate to the other without any exposed external features.

  1. The Future of Marketing Education: A Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, David; Nadeau, John; O'Reilly, Norm

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the marketing literature, as well as the views of both marketing educators and current marketers in Canada, a survey was conducted of marketing practitioners to determine their top priorities for improvement in marketing education, as well as the key challenges in need of attention. An importance-performance analysis was carried out on…

  2. The Future of Marketing Education: A Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, David; Nadeau, John; O'Reilly, Norm

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the marketing literature, as well as the views of both marketing educators and current marketers in Canada, a survey was conducted of marketing practitioners to determine their top priorities for improvement in marketing education, as well as the key challenges in need of attention. An importance-performance analysis was carried out on…

  3. DMPD: Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17405910 Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Bosshart H, Heinzelman...n M. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Jan;1096:1-17. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Targeting bacterial endotoxin:... two sides of a coin. PubmedID 17405910 Title Targeting bacterial endotoxin: two sides of a coin. Authors Bo

  4. Industry perspectives on market access of innovative drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim ePauwels

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents industry perspectives on the challenges related to market access of innovative drugs in general and oncology drugs in specific. Fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of pharmaceutical companies and industry associations. Interviewees call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs. According to interviewees, focus on value is jeopardized by the lack of a common value definition across Europe, poor availability and validity of value measures and cost-saving measures such as external reference price setting and cost-effectiveness analysis at the side of the payers. Centralized assessment of relative-effectiveness at European level would provide a common value estimate across member states, independent of financial drivers. Empirical evidence on patient reported outcomes and societal preferences is however essential in the development of a value definition. Furthermore, value-based pricing would imply a dynamic approach where the price is differentiated across indications and across the lifecycle of the drug, especially in fields such as oncology. Financial drivers however also threat the application of value-based pricing at the side of the industry, making value-based profitability a more appropriate term.

  5. Patient retention at dental school clinics: a marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Suzanne C; Coe, Julie M

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the drivers of patient retention at dental school clinics from a services marketing perspective. An analysis of patient characteristics at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry, screened between August 2010 and July 2011 (N=3604), was performed using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, and a binary logistic regression. The main findings were that 42 percent of patients in the study were retained and that no response to communication efforts (36 percent) and financial problems (28 percent) constituted the most common reasons for non-retention. Older age, having insurance, and living within a sixty-mile radius were significant drivers of retention (pservice providers were a driver of retention. The resulting insights benefit dental schools in recruiting patients with the greatest likelihood of returning for care, providing dental students with skills to better service them, and consequently increasing retention. This will lead to providing a continuum of care and student education and to ensuring the sustainability and quality of the school's educational programs.

  6. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Minh, E-mail: minh.vo@metrostate.edu

    2011-09-15

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: > This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. > The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. > The volatility in each market is very persistent. > Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. > The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  7. INCLUSION IN ADAPTED SPORT: TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Reina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows current inclusionprocesses in adapted sports. First, some aspects about inclusion are discussed from philosophical and practice perspectives, and its relationship with a functional and health-related model related physical activity and sport activities where client interacts with the personal and environment factors (facilitators and barriers. Second, current inclusion process in sport organizations is explained, exposing some of the disputes arising from this process, especially in regard to functional classifications and its relation with the special needs discourse. Finally, we propose a continuum for inclusion in physical activity and sports, from specific to full inclusion that offers more opportunities and ways of practice; more than two faces of the same coin.

  8. Marketing to the consumer: perspectives from the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C

    2001-01-01

    Individualized health management is one of the most exciting challenges facing health care marketing today. Greater access to health information has empowered consumers to take more control of their health needs, creating a whole new landscape for marketers, manufacturers, and service providers. Customization is the key to creating marketing campaigns that successfully target today's health-conscious consumers. Drawing on individualized market intelligence and available genetic information, pharmaceutical companies are learning to tailor products to meet the needs of this growing market.

  9. Socially Situated Financial Markets: A Neo-Behavioral Perspective on Firms, Investors and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Naumovska (Ivana)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this dissertation I seek to redirect the conversation on stock market evaluations from the more traditional economic and behavioral finance theories, by proposing a neo-behavioral perspective, which views financial markets as socially situated. Specifically I combine

  10. Test of the Behavioral Perspective Model in the Context of an E-Mail Marketing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Menon, R. G. Vishnu; Sigurdarson, Johannes Pall; Kristjansson, Jon Skafti; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    An e-mail marketing experiment based on the behavioral perspective model was conducted to investigate consumer choice. Conversion e-mails were sent to two groups from the same marketing database of registered consumers interested in children's books. The experiment was based on A-B-A-C-A and A-C-A-B-A withdrawal designs and consisted of sending B…

  11. PRIVATIZATION OF BRAZILIAN PRISONS: THE TWO SIDES OF THE CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilderline Câmara de Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1990s, in Brazil, privatization has proved to be an emergency exit to crisis of services that the State cannot offer efficiently, such as Education, Health, Transportation, and more recently Social Security. The agenda in question is now Public Safety. Failing to meet the demand for lawsuits that pass through the Judiciary, Brazilian prisons are becoming increasingly overcrowded; the services lagged; Constant rebellions, high crime rate, denial of human rights and structural violence, glaring. Thus, this article aims to reflect on both sides of the 'currency' of prisons privatizations in the Brazilian scenario. He used the research with a qualitative approach and bibliographical character with the support of theoretical references from the specialized literature in the area, besides the technical documents, official reports from the Government and NGOs that carry out social control works. The research has shown that privatization seems to be the best way out in the short term and can solve a number of social problems, but how can one think of the profitable return that all privatization requires if its main objective is to reduce the target population? So either this alternative will create a market that, if it turns out, will end itself, or we will end up creating an even more perverse logic of incarceration.

  12. 基于双边市场理论的北京市物流信息服务平台收费定价问题探讨%Discussion on Price of Beijing Logistics Information Service Platform Based on the Theory of Two-Sided Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛; 郭志伟

    2012-01-01

    Profit-making model and platform user charges have always been hot spots for platform enterprises and industry re- searchers. This article takes the realites of Beijing logistics information service platform and by analyzing the charging model of the B2B market to builds different forms of charging monopoly model and discusses the best choice of optimal pricing model of the platform.%盈利模式和平台用户收费问题一直是平台企业和行业研究者关注的热点。文章主要考虑北京市物流信息服务平台的实际情况,通过分析B2B市场主流的收费模式,构建了平台只收取注册费形式下的模型,在此基础上探讨了平台收费的定价问题。

  13. Perspectives on green marketing and green businesses for sustainable development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristian Ionuț LAZĂR

    2017-01-01

    .... In the long run, an essential advantage of green marketing is that it allows a company to have access to a market that is continuously developing, having a competitive advantage compared to other companies...

  14. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  15. Marketing’s Contribution from the Perspective of Marketing Executives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    performance. Hence, companies that have a CME who prioritises both brand management, product development and customer relationship management as well as a set of specialised and dynamic marketing capabilities will outperform companies that have a CME who focuses on only one area of cross-functional marketing...... (general management or marketing). Originality/value – The study provides an original assessment of sets of marketing capabilities at the functional level of marketing, and of the link between dynamic and two cross-functional marketing capabilities (product development and customer relationship management).......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact that chief marketing executives’ (CMEs) mindsets about important marketing capabilities have on company performance. Design/methodology/approach – The authors propose a structural model for analysing specialised, cross...

  16. Strategic marketing applications of conjoint analysis: an HMO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D; DeVita, M; McKenna, W F; Walker, L R

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how data from a conjoint analysis study can be used to help determine the most appropriate marketing mix for an operational HMO which is entering a new market--the geriatric population. Included are two features which are absent in previous articles on health care applications of conjoint analysis: external validation of results, and a demonstration of how conjoint analysis can be used to simulate market responses to changes in the provider's marketing mix.

  17. Enticing consumers to enter fashion stores : a sensory marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Jeton; Sohani, Armin

    2016-01-01

    During the past years, there has been a re-emergence of sensory marketing in the paradigm of marketing. However, there is a lack of empirical studies done on the subject. Furthermore, the previous literature has focused on whether senses affects, rather than how they affect. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to study how sensory stimuli affects the consumers’ choice of entering physical fashion stores. This thesis is based on sensory marketing, consumer behaviour, and retail marketing...

  18. Relationship Marketing and Customer Satisfaction: A Conceptual Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah O. Aka; Oladele J. Kehinde; Olaleke O. Ogunnaike

    2016-01-01

    This article examined the existing body of literature on transaction and relationship marketing. The specific objectives were to develop a conceptual framework to establish the relationship between relationship marketing and customer satisfaction and to examine the components of relationship marketing on the present ever dynamic world of business. The study identified relationship marketing variables and their impact on customer satisfaction. The framework aims to provide insights into the st...

  19. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  20. Applications of the marketing perspective in nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P L

    1987-09-01

    The marketing paradigm is based on the premise of exchange of value, that is, value received for value given. The role of the nutrition educator as a marketer is to facilitate exchanges of value with consumers. To carry out this role, a strong orientation to the consumer, what she or he wants and needs and is willing to "pay," guides the development of the nutrition education mission, objectives, and strategies. The marketing paradigm calls for a marketing information system that includes internal record keeping, marketing intelligence gathering, and marketing research. The information is used in the marketing audit, which identifies organizational strengths and weaknesses and marketplace opportunities and barriers. Marketing objectives are formulated, and strategies for segmenting, positioning, and developing the marketing mix follow. These are translated in the marketing plan to an action plan, a budget, and profit and loss projections. Use of the marketing paradigm in nutrition education is not a panacea for organizational ills and marketplace problems. Instead, the paradigm raises issues to which nutrition educators must bring their expertise, commitment, ingenuity, and creativity.

  1. Behavioural finance perspectives on Malaysian stock market efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasman Tuyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides historical, theoretical, and empirical syntheses in understanding the rationality of investors, stock prices, and stock market efficiency behaviour in the theoretical lenses of behavioural finance paradigm. The inquiry is guided by multidisciplinary behavioural-related theories. The analyses employed a long span of Bursa Malaysia stock market data from 1977 to 2014 along the different phases of economic development and market states. The tests confirmed the presence of asymmetric dynamic behaviour of prices predictability as well as risk and return relationships across different market states, risk states and quantiles data segments. The efficiency tests show trends of an adaptive pattern of weak market efficiency across various economic phases and market states. Collectively, these evidences lend support to bounded-adaptive rational of investors' behaviour, dynamic stock price behaviour, and accordingly forming bounded-adaptive market efficiency.

  2. Relationship Marketing and Customer Satisfaction: A Conceptual Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah O. Aka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the existing body of literature on transaction and relationship marketing. The specific objectives were to develop a conceptual framework to establish the relationship between relationship marketing and customer satisfaction and to examine the components of relationship marketing on the present ever dynamic world of business. The study identified relationship marketing variables and their impact on customer satisfaction. The framework aims to provide insights into the studies on relationship marketing factors such as trust, commitment, communication, and service quality influence on customer satisfaction. The model provided a basis for empirical studies on the factors of relationship marketing and outcomes of customer satisfaction in developing nations. The study recommends that relationship marketing dimensions such as building customer’s trust, commitment to customers, communication and service quality should be properly managed and maintained by service providers in Nigeria. This helps in building customer satisfaction and in the long-run customer loyalty.

  3. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  4. DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVES OF SECURITIES SECONDARY MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetraru Aliona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It’s an urgent necessity to determine the specific problems of the securities market in Republic of Moldova, in the context of policies and strategies of accession to the European and International activity standards, performance and quality, along with the implication and effects of the international financial crisis. Identification of the influence factors with negative on the secondary market will enable the formulation of recommendations, proposals, improvement and refreshing techniques for the capital market as a whole. The analysis of the secondary market indicators allowed concluding on a high degree of uncertainty and predictability of its evolution. Legislative and regulatory issues on the securities secondary market activity of professional participants, admit the interpretation duality of provisions concerned. National Commission of Financial Market activity as a mega-regulator of the financial market, although involving a increased complexity of activities concerning supervision, control and regulation of the financial (non-banking sector, do not enjoy great efficiency in terms of stabilization and promotion of the financial sector. The appearance of a stock institution as an alternative to the existing one, after 20 years of experience of the latter, theoretically opens new market opportunities, although in practical terms, at this moment of time, the market participants are reserved and undecided on the future development trend of the secondary market. The study is based on statistical data contained in annual reports of the National Financial Market Commission and published on the official website of JSC „Stock Exchange of Moldova”, analysis of legislative and regulatory provisions and international practices. The statistics cover the whole period of operation of the secondary market in Republic of Moldova, that is from 1995 to 2012, as much as the stock market segment and the counter. The research methodology

  5. THE EFFECTS OF MARKETING MIX ON CONSUMER SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim AHMED

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is one of the essential factors for the success of a company. To achieve the high customer satisfaction, companies must know when and how their customers are satisfied about the products and services. Nowadays, different companies follow different types of marketing strategies based on the target market demand. The majority of companies follow a conventional marketing strategy, but some companies choose to follow a religious or spiritual marketing strategy such as the Islamic marketing strategy. Conventional marketing strategies satisfy the customers based on the current needs of the customer, whereas, Islamic marketing strategies satisfy the customers based on the human values, marketing cultures, and Islamic rules and regulations (shariah laws. Apart from conventional marketing strategies, the Islamic marketing strategies more focus on religious rules and ethics which do not exist in conventional marketing. Thus, this study discusses how marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion influences customer satisfaction from Islamic perspectives and why it is necessary for the consumers.

  6. Market orientation seen in a value chain perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Market orientation is regarded as a prerequisite for a company's ability to create customer value and higher profits. Market orientation is usually regarded as something, which characterises a company. However, companies are part of value chains, and a lot of competition taking place...

  7. Marketing Decision Making and Decision Support: Challenges and Perspectives for Successful Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMarketing management support systems (MMSS) are computer-enabled devices that help marketers to make better decisions. Marketing processes can be quite complex, involving large numbers of variables and mostly outcomes are the results of the actions of many different stakeholders (e.g., t

  8. PRESENT STATE AND THE PERSPECTIVES OF SMS MARKETING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai COSTEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The SMS (Short Message Service,which emerged at the beginning of the 90s as a result of the telephone services’ need for diversification, it is now used in the communication campaigns involving customized messaging, but also in general messaging campaigns sent both to the existing clients and to the potential ones. Thus, the SMS became widely used, turning into one of the most popular instruments of Mobile marketing and, soon becoming a separate concept named the SMS Marketing. Although there is the preconception that the mobile marketing and, namely, the SMS marketing is intended to be used primarily by the big corporations, which have the power and also the availability to invest substantial amounts of money in this sort of programs, the present paper intends precisely to debunk these preconceptions and, hence, to present the advantage of such marketing campaigns for the segment consisting of small and middle companies in Romania.

  9. [Changes in labor market participation of older employees in Germany: the perspective of labor market research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussig, M

    2009-08-01

    For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.

  10. ANALYZING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA

  11. RESEARCH ON TOURISM DESTINATIONS MARKETING FROM THE PUBLIC RELATIONS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ARIONESEI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism destinations are more and more determined to build a unique and competitive identity and image in consumers’ minds. Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research. In some countries, many without "a tradition in tourism", building a marketing strategy for travel destinations is based on artificial and without substance images/perceptions of real and potential tourists. The paper describes the role of marketing in the domain of tourism, emphasizing the importance of public relations in the promotion process of the region of Bucovina.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS: A DEVELOPING COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneratne B Wickremasinghe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tests weak and semi-strong form efficiency of the foreign exchange market in Sri Lanka during the recent float using six bilateral exchange rates. Weak-form efficiency is examined using unit root tests while semi-strong form efficiency is tested using co-integration, Granger causality tests and variance decomposition analysis. Results indicate that the Sri Lankan foreign exchange market is consistent with the weak-form of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH. However, the results provide evidence against the semi-strong version of the EMH. These results have important implications for government policy makers and participants in the foreign exchange market of Sri Lanka.

  13. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market: Customers’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gikonyo; Adele Berndt; Joseph Wadawi

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to determine the critical success factors for franchised restaurants entering the Kenyan market from the customers’ perspective. We used a quantitative methodology by taking a survey. The respondents were identified using convenience sampling. A sample of 389 franchised restaurant customers was drawn and a response rate of 98.7% was obtained. It is suggested that the critical success factors for franchised restaurants from customers’ perspective include good and consistent ...

  14. A Market Failure Perspective on Value Creation in PSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian Edelvold; Lowe, Gregory Ferrell; Lund, Anker Brink

    2014-01-01

    Public service media is present in most countries because public intervention of this kind compensates market-failure by providing merit goods that are not provided by commercial players to the public writ large. Nonetheless, PSM is often regarded as a negative for private media providers...... in electronic media. This chapter outlines the market failure thesis to consider the ways and degrees to which it is still valid for broadcasting (PSB), and important whether there are grounds for its application in broadband (PSM)....

  15. RESEARCH ON TOURISM DESTINATIONS MARKETING FROM THE PUBLIC RELATIONS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela ARIONESEI (GAUBE)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, tourism destinations are more and more determined to build a unique and competitive identity and image in consumers’ minds. Even though the marketing of tourism destinations has been awarded an intended purpose, in practice there is a lack of steadiness, sometimes an unexplained deficiency of empirical academic research. In some countries, many without "a tradition in tourism", building a marketing strategy for travel destinations is based on artificial and without substance images/...

  16. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  17. The optimization of transactional emails in a marketing perspective : Incomedia case

    OpenAIRE

    Valieri, Simona; Marin, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  Optimize the usage of transactional emails, going beyond their communicative nature and combining it with marketing purposes. The project has been developed in collaboration with Incomedia, Italian software developer and vendor. Objective: Understand how Incomedia can exploit the benefits of transactional emails in a marketing perspective in order to increase the sales of its software. Limitation: The specificity of the topic, strictly related to Incomedia’s activities, products and con...

  18. MARKETING OBJECTIVES OF RETAILERS WITH DIFFERENTIATED GOODS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiaojun XIAO; Gang YU

    2006-01-01

    In the real world, revenue maximization behavior may prevail in various markets. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a two-population model with two-vertically integrated channels. Every channel consists of one manufacturer and many (a sufficiently large number of) retailers that sell products in different markets by adopting pure marketing objective strategies: profit maximization and revenue maximization. We study the marketing objective behaviors in the quantity-setting duopoly and the price-setting duopoly situations respectively from an indirect evolutionary point of view. In the quantity-setting duopoly situation, we find that whether the equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy depends on the type of strategic interaction (substitutes or complements), relative unit cost, market scale, etc. We extend it to the case with continuous preferences. We argue that revenue maximization may be an evolutionarily stable strategy and profit maximization strategy may be unstable. Under proper conditions, revenue maximization behavior can coexist with profit maximization behavior. In the price-setting duopoly situation with linear demand functions, we find that profit maximization is always an evolutionarily stable strategy and revenue maximization behavior will gradually become extinct. The extended model has a similar result but the retailers may compromise the two pure strategies.

  19. Correlation between agricultural markets in dynamic perspective-Evidence from China and the US futures markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui-Lin; Wang, Dong-Hua; Tu, Jing-Qing; Li, Sai-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Emerging as the earliest futures markets, agricultural futures markets play an important role in risk aversion and price discovery. With the integration of global economy, the linkage between domestic and international futures markets becomes closer than ever. By using the thermal optimal path (TOP) method, this paper selects soybean, corn and wheat as the representatives to study the dynamic lead-lag relationship between the Chinese and American markets in both returns and volatility. The results indicate that: (1) For the futures return, different kinds of agricultural futures lead-lag relationship between China and the US varied before 2014 both in direction and order in different time periods. However, China leads the US for all the three kinds we study after 2014. (2) Agricultural commodities subject to less import restrictions and government regulations in China such as soybean are more susceptible to the fluctuations from the international markets. On the other hand, lower foreign trade openness and more government regulation species such as wheat are less affected by fluctuations from outside. (3) The volatility transmission from the US to China wheat futures market takes longer time than soybean, which suggests that China's soybean futures market is more closely linked to the international agricultural futures market than wheat.

  20. Reframing the dissemination challenge: a marketing and distribution perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental obstacle to successful dissemination and implementation of evidence-based public health programs is the near-total absence of systems and infrastructure for marketing and distribution. We describe the functions of a marketing and distribution system, and we explain how it would help move effective public health programs from research to practice. Then we critically evaluate the 4 dominant strategies now used to promote dissemination and implementation, and we explain how each would be enhanced by marketing and distribution systems. Finally, we make 6 recommendations for building the needed system infrastructure and discuss the responsibility within the public health community for implementation of these recommendations. Without serious investment in such infrastructure, application of proven solutions in public health practice will continue to occur slowly and rarely.

  1. Predictability and Market Efficiency in Agricultural Futures Markets: a Perspective from Price-Volume Correlation Based on Wavelet Coherency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Wen, Xing-Chun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we use a time-frequency domain technique, namely, wavelet squared coherency, to examine the associations between the trading volumes of three agricultural futures and three different forms of these futures' daily closing prices, i.e. prices, returns and volatilities, over the past several years. These agricultural futures markets are selected from China as a typical case of the emerging countries, and from the US as a representative of the developed economies. We investigate correlations and lead-lag relationships between the trading volumes and the prices to detect the predictability and efficiency of these futures markets. The results suggest that the information contained in the trading volumes of the three agricultural futures markets in China can be applied to predict the prices or returns, while that in US has extremely weak predictive power for prices or returns. We also conduct the wavelet analysis on the relationships between the volumes and returns or volatilities to examine the existence of the two "stylized facts" proposed by Karpoff [J. M. Karpoff, The relation between price changes and trading volume: A survey, J. Financ. Quant. Anal.22(1) (1987) 109-126]. Different markets in the two countries perform differently in reproducing the two stylized facts. As the wavelet tools can decode nonlinear regularities and hidden patterns behind price-volume relationship in time-frequency space, different from the conventional econometric framework, this paper offers a new perspective into the market predictability and efficiency.

  2. Connecting customers’ satisfaction to sustainable development. A Marketing models perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Constantin ENACHE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase information quantity and availability has generated transformations in customer behaviour, by having almost immediately access to huge amounts of data the customers’ process of buying a product or service is using more information regarding the product characteristics. This situation generates changes on each step of buying process. The customer satisfaction is harder to reach and the sustainable development of a marketing strategy needs to take into consideration more factors. The article aims at providing new information on customer satisfaction and sustainable development by using a marketing models framework.

  3. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  4. Determining the Value of Undergraduate Business Programs from Market vs Academic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven; Chi, Robert; Fisher, Dorothy; Kiang, Melody

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to generate an understanding of the value-added to students enrolled in selected undergraduate business programs from an academic and market perspectives. Although there are numerous studies that rank undergraduate colleges and universities, the selection of the "best value" undergraduate business…

  5. Critical success factors for franchised restaurants entering the Kenyan market : Franchisors’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gikonyo; Adele Berndt; Joseph Wadawi

    2015-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theor...

  6. Social Responsibility in Advertising: A Marketing Communications Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…

  7. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  8. Technology development and market access: from a food sovereignty perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of ‘relevant social groups’ and ‘technical code’ are used to investigate the social relations in cowpea variety development (technology studies) and also the relationship of small-scale farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Program (market

  9. Marketing strategies in a sensemaking perspective: Theoretical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2000-01-01

    It is suggested in this paper that through an analysis of sensemaking processes on the individual, departmental, organisational and corporate levels in the organisation it will be possible to identify critical success factors in strategic sales and marketing planning and goal realisation. The con...

  10. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  11. Employee wellness program marketing: an organizational theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D P

    1992-01-01

    An employee wellness program (EWP) marketing system can be analyzed as an adhocracy, an organizational form proposed by Mintzberg and is characterized by sharing of power, mutual adjustment among its members, and ability to innovate. The design parameters of informal behavior, planning and control, liaison, and decentralization appear to be particularly important to the success of EWPs.

  12. Technology development and market access: from a food sovereignty perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of ‘relevant social groups’ and ‘technical code’ are used to investigate the social relations in cowpea variety development (technology studies) and also the relationship of small-scale farmers to the Ghana School Feeding Program (market

  13. Social Responsibility in Advertising: A Marketing Communications Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…

  14. MARKETING PERSPECTIVE ON COMPULSIVE BUYING: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Chopra,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Depending upon retail as a therapy for wading away their blues is not a common phenomenon. We see many people getting trapped into the vicious circle of compulsive buying behaviour as they get trapped into a cobweb of their negative thoughts, anxiety, challenges and other various personality traits. As we talk of the intrinsic factors, there are also extrinsic factors, from the end of the marketers that do a deliberate attempt towards creating the desire to purchase for their own profits and gains. The present paper attempts to identify the determinants of compulsive buying behaviour and bring into light the factors that predict compulsive buying and Marketing that tactics provoke Compulsive Buying Behaviour. It raises a big question that marketing efforts that provoke compulsive buying are they ethical? Additionally, the present research also throws light on changing purchasing behaviour in developing nations and the reasons that policy makers need to set limitations for marketers at the nascent stage itself, when one talks of developing economies.

  15. LABOUR MARKET EFFECTS OF FLEXICURITY FROM A REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Ayolt J.; Elhorst, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the main questions for politicians is how to introduce more flexibility in the labour market while still providing employees with ample social security. The concept of flexicurity has sprung to attention through its success in Denmark. This paper explores whether the Danish model can also be

  16. Marketing communication and automatic consumer responses : a context dependency perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, Maria Leonora

    2008-01-01

    Brands, advertisements and persuasive messages have become part of our daily lives. It is almost impossible to spend a whole day without being exposed to a multitude of marketing expressions trying to inform, persuade, and seduce us into buying all kinds of products. The present dissertation examine

  17. What is materialism? Testing two dominant perspectives on materialism in the marketing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchiraju Srikant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Materialism is defined as the importance an individual attaches to worldly possessions, which has been considered as an important construct in consumer behavior and marketing literature. There are two dominant perspectives on individual materialism in the marketing literature that focus on (1 personality traits or (2 individual personal values. However, several scholars have questioned the aforementioned materialism conceptualizations. Therefore, the present study directly compares the constructs of personality materialism and value materialism. Structural equation modeling was employed to address the following issues: (1 what are the key conceptual dimensions of materialism, (2 how much do they overlap, and (3 what is their discriminant validity in predicting outcomes linked to materialism. We suggest these two dominant perspectives on individual materialism are two distinct constructs, as they shared only 21 percent of common variance. Furthermore, we stress the multi-faceted nature of materialism, with an emphasis on future research directions related to materialism in marketing.

  18. Research on technical trading and market efficiency : a trader's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vico-Ivanina, Julianna V.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the predictive power of technical analysis is a matter of controversy. The objective of this thesis is to look at the empirical research done on technical trading and see how the results can be used from a trader’s perspective. Some results provide strong support for the technical trading and propose useful trading strategies. However, there are some limitations regarding transaction costs, risk adjustment, and statistical tests. Technical research has developed new methodology ap...

  19. E-COMMERCE MARKET AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REVERSE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been evolving from being a purely niche phenomenon to owning a vital share in economies of developed countries. Growth of such distribution and sales channel has been highly correlated with technological improvements penetrating modern societies. Today we stand in front of new ideas, adoption barriers and profit opportunities. There are a few trends ready to take off in the near future, one of them is the idea of reverse e-commerce, which is engaging the consumer even more into a highly personalized buying process. Nevertheless, every new idea needs the suitable time and place to launch. The purpose of this analysis is to verify prospects for the reverse e-commerce, which has a huge market potential. Reverse e-Commerce has every chance of becoming a new, still undiscovered now, marketing channel.

  20. Global regulatory landscape of biosimilars: emerging and established market perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anita Krishnan,1 Rustom Mody,1 Hemant Malhotra21Lupin Limited, Biotech Division, Maharashtra, India; 2Division of Medical Oncology, RK Birla Cancer Center, SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, India Abstract: Biological product development for launch in multiple geographies with varied regulatory expectations would require a planned and focused strategy, involving the selection of the appropriate reference product, defining the extent of process and product characterization and design of nonclinical and clinical studies. The development for established markets like the European Union and the United States, which have precedence in regulatory pathways, may face very different challenges compared to emerging markets, many of which are still in the nascent stages of regulatory guidelines. A clear and concise understanding of the regulatory framework of each region and awareness of the limitations of health care policies, with an added knowledge of the local factors that influence the biosimilar market, would be desirable for a good business strategy. Herein it is attempted to outline the stages of regional guideline implementation in the various global locations and compare the variability in regulatory requirement between them. The factors that could potentially impact biosimilars business in these regions are also outlined. Finally, the prevailing competition between manufacturers of innovative and biosimilar drugs, which could influence the availability of lifesaving off-patent drugs for critical diseases and the advent of more effective, alternate, or next-generation molecules, is also briefly described. Keywords: guidelines, India, comparability, EMA, US FDA, WHO

  1. A European perspective on the market accessibility of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declerck PJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Paul J Declerck,1 Steven Simoens21Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Biology, 2Research Centre for Pharmaceutical Care and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Biopharmaceuticals are complex molecules produced by living cells. Copies of these drugs, called biosimilars, are not identical to their reference medicine, and therefore specific regulatory requirements for registration apply. Pharmaceutical quality evaluation requires a complete dossier and a detailed comparative analysis to the reference drug. However, nonclinical and clinical requirements are much less extensive compared to the requirements for an innovator. Therefore, at the time of introduction onto the market, only limited clinical experience is available for the biosimilar. Differences of 15%–30% between the acquisition price of biosimilars and their corresponding reference biopharmaceuticals have been suggested in the literature. Although the percentage price difference between reference biopharmaceuticals and biosimilar medicines may be limited, absolute savings are still likely to be substantial when calculated with respect to expensive reference biopharmaceutical medicines. Although an economic evaluation needs to be carried out in an increasing number of European countries to inform reimbursement decisions, uncertainty exists about how such an economic evaluation should be conducted for a biosimilar. The assessment of the cost-effectiveness of a biosimilar for reimbursement purposes depends primarily on the relative efficacy, given that a biosimilar is likely to be less expensive than the reference biopharmaceutical. To date, the question of meaningful differences in efficacy between biosimilar and biopharmaceutical drugs has not been answered. Due to a lack of demand-side incentives, biosimilar medicines have enjoyed limited success in Europe to date. Other factors that inhibit the market accessibility

  2. The world market of fragrant rice, main issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide rice production totaled 481 million metric tons in 2011, including 7.1% in trade. Fragrant rice is estimated to account for 15-18% of the rice trade procuring the highest prices on the world market. Some new players are interested in entering this premium segment, including the US, Vietnam, and other rice growers and traders. The fragrant rice commodity chain is deciphered through a meta-analysis of data on rice cropping and trading. We conclude on a possible split between fragrant ...

  3. The marketing perspective on the risks of unqualified real estate market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marius MUNTEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the risks of unqualified real estate marketing and how it can be reduced through the qualification of buyers and sellers. The main risks on this market are the pricing and the customer requirements therefore the qualification of real estate agents is important too because it can entail a real estate transaction. The price of a real estate transaction is set by the interaction between demand and offer. Regarding this it was described a successful real estate project developed in Transylvania by the German investor, Maurer Imobiliare.

  4. Financial Crisis from the Trust and Loss Aversion Perspective in Emerging Romanian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniade-Ciprian ALEXANDRU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we synthesized a study of financial crisis from the trust and loss aversion perspective on a particular case, Romanian emerging capital market. In a relative recent study we stopped with our data series at the level of 2008, November, but in this paper we continue our research until 2009, December. In a world-wide financial crisis and a global financial depreciation of stocks the emergent markets are much more affected that the lack of money and investors aversion. We study, based on efficient market theory, the evolution of portfolio structure in balanced funds. We are interesting to make an evaluation of present sentiment of investing money in capital markets and especially in stocks. Also, is necessary to determine which are the most important problems in this situation and seek an adequate stimulus for future development of direct investment.

  5. New paradigm for drug developments--from emerging market statistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hui; Chen, Xun; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Peng-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Paradigm for new drug development has changed dramatically over the last decade. Even though new technology increases efficiency in many aspects, partially due to much more stringent regulatory requirements, it actually now takes longer and costs more to develop a new drug. To deal with challenge, some initiatives are taken by the pharmaceutical industry. These initiatives include exploring emerging markets, conducting global trials and building research and development centers in emerging markets to curb spending. It is particularly the current trend that major pharmaceutical companies offshore a part of their biostatistical support to China. In this paper, we first discuss the skill set for trial statisticians in the new era. We then elaborate on some of the approaches for acquiring statistical talent and capacity in general, particularly in emerging markets. We also make some recommendations on the use of the PDUFA strategy and collaborations among industry, health authority and academia from emerging market statistical perspective.

  6. Perspectives of cultural tourism in the modern tourism market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinčić Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the XX century, which the United Nations declared the decade of cultural tourism in the world, have contributed to encouraging people to think about the question of how tourism can contribute to the development of heritage and culture, or how tourism the same may compromise. However, the cultural offer today, is an essential and important part of a modern tourist offer, without which it can no longer be imagined, as cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important segment of the global tourism market. It had a great share in the expansion of a tourist demand and tourist offer and their profiling, leading to a whole series of specific forms of tourism in its embrace, and today more attention is paid to the industrial heritage, cultural routes, cultural landscapes and similar, as current forms of cultural tourism in the modern tourism market. In fact, theorists of tourism are now faced with a number of new types of tourist movements which have resulted in the creation of various forms of cultural tourism that were not even discussed in the last century, and the fact is that a change in tourist demand brings new habits and new needs that can be implemented only through special forms of tourism.

  7. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  8. Public e-services from the citizens' perspective:adopting a market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, Åsa; Engström, Anne; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail; Ek Styvén, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The recently published Swedish eGovernment Action Plan stresses that "the need of the user should always be an important starting-point in the efforts made by administrations to develop eServices." But, is that the picture communicated in the action plan? This article reflects critically on the action plan from a marketing perspective. The discussion focuses on citizens as consumers of public e-services and argues that benefits from a market-oriented approach could support organizations in th...

  9. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  10. Perspectives of the Evolution of Romanian Financial Market in the Context of Global Financial Market

    OpenAIRE

    SIMION Dalia; Daniel TOBA

    2008-01-01

    Economical financial reality proves that, in time, globalisation has an impact not only on commodities economy but also on all financial domains, leading to remodelling of financial arrangement, increase of business opportunities but as well competition between financial institutions. Due to the expansion of financial markets, the consequences of globalisation processes converge to an efficiency of economic systems, through an increase of financing capacity and quick transformation of investm...

  11. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  12. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Tan, Soonkeat; Wang, Xikun; Hao, Zhiyong

    2010-10-01

    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES - BRICS, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF STOCK EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sechel Ioana-Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many international investors have realized that they cannot obtain profits as large, investing in mature markets as well as investing in emerging and developing countries. They want to obtain higher yields, of course assuming the extra risk, as the risk of liquidity or volatility of exchange rates, which are significantly higher than in developed markets. Studies on the BRICS economies are countless, researchers pointing that the development of these economies and their transition towards developed economies category is virtually inevitable (Nistor, 2011. In this article we propose a smooth approach on the state of the economies of the BRICS emerging countries and the stock exchanges markets. It is interesting to observe how, according to a forecast of the International Monetary Fund, in the year 2025 world supremacy from the economic point of view will belong still to the United States, but the discrepancies between the United States economy and China's economy subside until then. The same source, however, predict that by the year 2050, China's economy will bring forward the United States of America. However, should not be lost of sight the fact that China is part of the BRICS countries, with enormous development potential. As proof of those exposed earlier, sits the performance obtained from China's economy especially in times of crisis, when the vast majority of the world's economies recorded negative economic growth. Somewhat improperly said so, we were witnessing a world economic depression. The performance of China's economy is so, noteworthy, it received even in the toughest years of global financial and economic crisis, a positive value of economic growth. This also happened, within other BRICS emerging countries economies, having many similar economic meanings. With such a potential for economic growth, the economies of BRICS countries have brought into the spot light the operational stock exchanges. The interest of investors for

  14. Doação de sangue: uma visão de marketing Blood donation: a marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Terra Ludwig

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfatiza como o marketing pode fazer diferença no retorno do doador de sangue voluntário, pois o maior desafio enfrentado pelas instituições de saúde é manter e incrementar a doação de sangue. Nesse contexto, compreender a motivação do doador voluntário é de suma importância e os estudos apresentados demonstram que diversas variáveis são importantes na doação de sangue. O grande número de pacientes necessitados de transfusão de sangue e a carência de sangue no setor justificam o interesse por este estudo, não só do ponto de vista do doador, mas, sobretudo, das instituições. Além disso, o reconhecimento da importância das ações e da orientação para o doador é fundamental quando se pensa em estratégia de marketing. Dessa maneira, torna-se relevante para as instituições de saúde a identificação das reais necessidades e desejos do doador.This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  15. Cloud Computing – A market Perspective and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol C. Adamuthe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational paradigm has been revolving round cloud computing and its offshoots for some time and till we see a breakout resulting in a breakthrough technology driven by advances in microelectronics and material technology. Till we experience a radically efficient technology for computation it is worth juxtaposing the virtues of cloud computing and market‟s longing for offering cost and quality arbitrage to the marketplace. Integration of cloud computing in enterprises has the potential to influence the way business gets carried out by them in the market place. Different reports show that demand for cloud computing products and processes is in an upward growth trajectory. This paper identified the characteristics, drivers and constraints of cloud computing which influence its adaptation and integration in enterprises. We are also examining India specific opportunities and threats of cloud computing tools and cloud driven practices in the context of fierce competition among enterprises to remain competitive in the marketplace by reducing software licensing fees, cost of capital to acquire digital systems and cost of maintenances. New directions in cloud computing are analyzed by using Gartner strategic technologies and trend in research publications. Paper focuses on exploring the research issues which are categorized into technical and business in nature for understanding the evolving fortunes of cloud computing. Number of papers published in IEEE is an indication of the popularity and relevance of the continued research initiatives happening in the area. It is also noticed that that very few researchers are attempting to understand the possibility of remodeling business processes leveraging the new found computational paradigm.

  16. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  17. Food marketing targeting children: unveiling the ethical perspectives in the discourse on self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dillian Adelaine Cesar da; Cunha, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues da; Cunha, Thiago Rocha da; Rosaneli, Caroline Filla

    2017-07-01

    When it comes to food marketing, children are one of the major targets. Regulatory actions can play a strategic role in health protection. The objective of this research was to characterize the ethical perspective in the discourse against state regulatory actions on food marketing directed at children, aiming to understand the context of the discourse's production and how it creates meaning. The methodology adopted was qualitative, with documentary analysis and use of concepts and procedures from Discourse Analysis. The work of Hans Jonas, specifically his Responsibility Principle, and Garrafa and Port's Intervention Bioethics oriented the analysis. The self-regulation discourse analysis showed an ethical perspective in which relations of consumption predominate over the children´s vulnerability. The rhetorical excess is constant, as well as the use of resources like naturalization, untruthfulness, ideological dissimulation and euphemism. An erasure of social conflicts takes place, and an ahistorical perspective is present. The discourse does not align with Jonas´ Responsibility Principle, nor those of Intervention Bioethics. Lastly, the ethical perspective of the discourse represents a double paradox, because it is a business discourse that hides its competitive roots and metamorphoses into an ethical one.

  18. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  19. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsu Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees’ general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam. Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  20. A perfect match? A postcolonial perspective on well educated refugees at the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    A perfect match? A post colonial perspective on well educated refugees on the Danish labour market In general, integration is hampered if refugees do not have a sufficient educational background to enter the labor market. However, it is estimated by Danish authorities that around 13......% of the refugees have a professional background in medicine, technical domains or engineering (The ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing). In Denmark efforts of integrating refugees can be accommodated by the fact that there is a shortage of highly skilled labor – mainly in the area of engineering...... and it-experts. This seems to be a perfect match, as the refugees hold the education and are eager to work. However, based on former studies on integration on labour market in Europe (Ahmed 2010, Jensen 2014) and the everyday discourses on refugees in Denmark we foresee that despite the refugees hold...

  1. COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON MARKET-ORIENTED MODELS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaciu Diana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of corporate governance requires not only the knowledge of economic, financial, managerial and sociological mechanisms and norms, but it must also incorporate an ethical dimension, while remaining aware of the demands of various stakeholders. The interest towards good governance practice is very present in the company laws of many countries. National differences may lead to specific attributes derived from the meaning that is given to the role of competition and market dispersion of capital. Based on a research consisting of a critical and comparative perspective, the present contribution is dominated by qualitative and mixed methods. In conclusion, it can be said that a market-oriented corporate governance model, though not part of the European Union’s convergence process, may very well respond to the increasing importance of investors’ rights and to the gradual evolution of corporate responsibilities, beyond the national context, with the aim of ensuring market liberalization.

  2. Meta-heuristic algorithm to solve two-sided assembly line balancing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, A. D.; Maruf, A.

    2016-02-01

    Two-sided assembly line is a set of sequential workstations where task operations can be performed at two sides of the line. This type of line is commonly used for the assembly of large-sized products: cars, buses, and trucks. This paper propose a Decoding Algorithm with Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO), a recently developed nature-inspired search method to solve the two-sided assembly line balancing problem (TALBP). The algorithm aims to minimize the number of mated-workstations for the given cycle time without violating the synchronization constraints. The correlation between the input parameters and the emergence point of objective function value is tested using scenarios generated by design of experiments. A two-sided assembly line operated in an Indonesia's multinational manufacturing company is considered as the object of this paper. The result of the proposed algorithm shows reduction of workstations and indicates that there is negative correlation between the emergence point of objective function value and the size of population used.

  3. Computer program determines exact two-sided tolerance limits for normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H. A.; Webb, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program determines by numerical integration the exact statistical two-sided tolerance limits, when the proportion between the limits is at least a specified number. The program is limited to situations in which the underlying probability distribution for the population sampled is the normal distribution with unknown mean and variance.

  4. Cross-Functional Influence in New Product Development: An Exploratory Study of Marketing and R...D Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kwaku Atuahene-Gima; Felicitas Evangelista

    2000-01-01

    Previous research in new product development (NPD) has focused on the participation of marketing and R...D personnel, but little attention has been paid to their influence. This study examined the effects of marketing's and R...D's influence and participation on new product performance and the differential effects of personal, new product, and organizational factors on their influence in the NPD process as seen from each other's perspective. The results suggest that marketing's and R...D's se...

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Regional Marketing Projects on the Development of Regions from Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Kim-Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the competition for economically attractive stakeholders, regions have to implement strategies to gain and adhere those interest groups. Empirical studies concerning the migration motivations show that it is not only labor market but also soft locational factors of the social environment, nature and landscape that are of high importance: A majority of the population is willing to move or rather stay at a special place because of such soft locational factors. This study examines the impact of regional marketing projects on the development of regions from the perspectives of inhabitants and tourists as well as general attributes to measure a region’s attractiveness from the perspective of high potentials. We argue that those projects that fit to the region and its unique selling propositions contribute to positioning and building location brand value. We show that projects have a socio-economic effect on the attitude towards regions and contribute to building location brand value. An analysis of group differences shows that the project influence on the region and region attractiveness are perceived in significantly different manner depending on the knowledge level of the stakeholder group. Consequently, one should increase the awareness of marketing activities and regions and focus on soft locational factors while establishing and positioning a region brand.

  6. Two-Sided Network Effects: A Theory of Information Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey G. Parker; Van Alstyne, Marshall W.

    2005-01-01

    How can firms profitably give away free products? This paper provides a novel answer and articulates trade-offs in a space of information product design. We introduce a formal model of two-sided network externalities based in textbook economics---a mix of Katz and Shapiro network effects, price discrimination, and product differentiation. Externality-based complements, however, exploit a different mechanism than either tying or lock-in even as they help to explain many recent strategies such ...

  7. Sparse two-sided rank-one updates for nonlinear equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The two-sided rank-one (TR1) update method was introduced by Griewank and Walther (2002) for solving nonlinear equations. It generates dense approximations of the Jacobian and thus is not applicable to large-scale sparse problems. To overcome this difficulty, we propose sparse extensions of the TR1 update and give some convergence analysis. The numerical experiments show that some of our extensions are superior to the TR1 update method. Some convergence analysis is also presented.

  8. Reproduced Giant Localization Length of Two-Side Surface Disordered Nanowires with Long-Range Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; DING Jian-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We numerically investigate the normalized localization length of two-side rough nanowires as functions of energy, magnetic field and correlation strength by using modular recursive Green's function method. It is found that in the absence of correlation, while in the presence of magnetic Reid, the localization length increases linearly for two-side roughness, which is different to diverging exponentially for one-side roughness. Moreover, the localization of electrons is suppressed in the low energy region, but enhanced in the high energy region. In the presence of correlation, especially, an exponential enhancement in the localization length resumes in high energy region, in contrast to that in low energy region, the long-range correlations abnormally enhance the localization of electrons. A competitive mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior.%We numerically investigate the normalized localization length of two-side rough nanowires as functions of energy,magnetic field and correlation strength by using modular recursive Green's function method.It is found that in the absence of correlation,while in the presence of magnetic field,the localization length increases linearly for two-side roughness,which is different to diverging exponentially for one-side roughness.Moreover,the localization of electrons is suppressed in the low energy region,but enhanced in the high energy region.In the presence of correlation,especially,an exponential enhancement in the localization length resumes in high energy region,in contrast to that in low energy region,the long-range correlations abnormally enhance the localization of electrons.A competitive mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior.Quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in random media has been a field of extensive study since the pioneering work by Anderson,[1] who argued that quasiparticle states become localized for sufficiently large disorder,thus giving rise to a localizationdelocalization transition (LDT) in three

  9. FINANCIAL AND MARKETING PERSPECTIVE OF A COMPANY ACCORDING TO THE CONCEPT OF STRATEGIC BALANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugoslav Aničić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance scorecard was created in the 1990’s and it represents one of the most significant management ideas with the possibility of application in private, public and non-profit sector. It was created in need to respond to demands of intangible assets measurements which participate with more than a half of many great companies’ value in last decades. Balance scorecard ensures insight into business possibilities and fulfillment of strategic goals from four perspectives: financial, marketing, internal and perspective of learning and growth. Balance scorecard measures and monitors human, information and organizational capital of a company with the aim of establishing to what extent this elements of intangible assets contribute to company’s strategy realization. Standpoint for creation of this concept was an evident gap between corporate top strategy and understanding that strategy at lower levels of management and levels of translating strategies into actual business activities.

  10. A Two-Sided Matching Decision Model Based on Uncertain Preference Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-sided matching is a hot issue in the field of operation research and decision analysis. This paper reviews the typical two-sided matching models and their limitations in some specific contexts, and then puts forward a new decision model based on uncertain preference sequences. In this model, we first design a data processing method to get preference ordinal value in uncertain preference sequence, then compute the preference distance of each matching pair based on these certain preference ordinal values, set the optimal objectives as maximizing matching number and minimizing total sum of preference distances of all the matching pairs under the lowest threshold constraint of matching effect, and then solve it with branch-and-bound algorithm. Meanwhile, we take two numeral cases as examples and analyze the different matching solutions with one-norm distance, two-norm distance, and positive-infinity-norm distance, respectively. We also compare our decision model with two other approaches, and summarize their characteristics on two-sided matching.

  11. Experimental study on the near wake behind two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yangyang; Yu Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Tan, Soonkeat [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang Xikun [Maritime Research Center, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hao Zhiyong, E-mail: gaoyangyangouc@163.co [Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The wake structure behind two side-by-side circular cylinders with unequal diameter was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. This investigation focused on the asymmetrical flow within the subcritical Reynolds number regime. A comparison between the time-averaged mean flow field of one cylinder and that of two side-by-side cylinders of unequal diameter was made for elucidating the mean flow characteristics attributable to the latter. The distribution of mean velocity behind two side-by-side unequal cylinders was distinctly different from that behind one cylinder, and an asymmetric combination was observed behind the two cylinders. The present paper also presents the authors' interpretation of the generation mechanism of gap flow deflection based on the instantaneous vorticity contours and velocity distribution. The effect of Reynolds number on flow structure was studied by analyzing the mean velocity distribution and time-averaged wake structures. The results showed that vortex formation length decreases with Reynolds number.

  12. Exploring the Personality Traits of Portugal as a Tourist Destination: Perspective of the Czech Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Guerreiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality of a destination is vital to build a coherent destination brand and strengthen the place identity. Furthermore, brand personality appears in literature as a strategic axis that can be explored by tourist destinations in order to differentiate themselves from competitors. Since a brand encompasses not only functional but also symbolic elements, its image, as perceived by consumers, can be assessed with respect to both its functional and psychological components. Hence, this exploratory study investigates the brand personality of Portugal as a tourist destination, from the perspective of the Czech market, through a destination image approach. The online survey instrument included open-ended items to depict functional and psychological destination features and additional questions to characterize the profile of a sample of Czech university students. The main findings of this research highlight positive personality traits that are related to the brand of Portugal, which suggest its potential as a vacation destination for the Czech market under study.

  13. AN INSTITUTIONAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE OF ORGANISATIONAL LEGITIMACY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CHINA′S TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Low

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper combines institutional and industrial network theory to develop a framework for analysing organisational legitimacy. The main subject, Nokia China, is found to be sensitive to network-legitimating initiatives, with consequences that accommodate multiple, conflicting stakeholders′ interests in China′s politically sensitive and protective telecommunications market. This paper offers new insights into institutional isomorphism that is manifested empirically as incremental conformity to regulative processes, institutional norms and cognitive knowledge and meanings within the environment, thereby extending commonly held views of institutional theory to include organisational legitimacy in industrial networks.

  14. An analytical framework for evaluating the value of enhanced customisation: an integrated operations-marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Eyers, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal approach to evaluate the value of enhanced customisation. The suggested approach is based on a new perspective addressing the important alignment between the operations and marketing functions, under which we are able to obtain a more holistic understanding...... of the extent to which enhanced customisation may influence profitability. The model we develop captures the interaction between several factors including the inventory level, number of product variety, price, and delivery lead time. The numerical findings provide insights regarding some important aspects...

  15. Estimation of in situ resources, recoverable reserves and marketable reserves from a coal quality perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B.; Whitby, K.; Meyers, A. [A & B Mylec Pty. Ltd., Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    The competitive nature of the coal industry currently has meant that attention to detail in estimating coal resources, and recoverable and marketable reserves is of greater importance now than probably at any other time in the history of the Australian coal industry. This paper describes the mechanisms applied in deriving the best possible resource and reserve estimates in evaulating a coal lease, largely from the coal quality perspective. It attempts to show one way of uniting the geological model of a coal deposit to quality aspects such as in situ density and tonnage and ultimately to the anticipated product coal tonnes. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Interdisciplinarity in Marketing: Perspectives of application of Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical concepts of habitus and field to research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liciane Roling

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering Marketing as field of interdisciplinary knowledge that undertakes a relationship with other disciplines that enable it to extend the analytical focus, such as, for instance, Sociology, Anthropology and Psychology. And also considering that the performance of Marketing organizations occur inside a social context, this article aims to recover the theoretical concepts of field and habitus of Pierre Bourdieu to research in Marketing. The proposal is to show that, by analyzing a social context of Marketing starting from the constituent elements of field and habitus the researcher can achieve understanding of Marketing phenomena, especially those with relationship between consumption, Marketing strategies, and agents involved in the production and reproduction of meanings. The article offers some theoretical tools for researchers who aim to adopt an methodological alternative perspective in relation to the mainstream of Marketing. It seeks to show that the Bourdieu’s theory of field and habitus is an option, able of opposing the criticism that the fieldwork of the qualitative researcher is restrictive by not allowing generalization. In that perspective the empirical field is constructed from theoretical elements that enable its constitution elsewhere, having the advantage of allowing the researcher to evaluate the peculiarities of each place, whether they are cultural, regional, economic or social. In other words, the Marketing researcher may seek to understand the Marketing phenomena in different Brazilian realities. The use of these concepts, added by multiple methods of data collection that enable triangulation, allows researchers to produce knowledge in the Marketing field as well as provide useful knowledge to managers who work in the empirical field investigated.

  17. The market for green building in developed Asian cities. The perspectives of building designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Edwin H.W.; Qian, Queena K.; Lam, Patrick T.I. [Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2009-08-15

    Green building (GB) is part of the concept of promoting sustainability. Although GB and the concept of sustainability are well studied for environmental concerns, their business rationale and related social concerns have not been fully explored or widely accepted by the parties involved in the building sector. In this study, the situation of GB market in relation to the general building market is reviewed and the business rationales of stakeholders to invest in the GB market have been investigated from the perspective of building designers. In addition, the factors that enhance the popularity of GB have been explored and the obstacles that hinder its market have been examined. The data are collected by a questionnaire survey covering building designers in Hong Kong and Singapore, the cities that are categorized as economically developed cities in Asia. After data analysis of the survey, this paper presents the findings of the business reasons for stakeholders to be involved in GB, the most favorable conditions required to promote GB business and the important obstacles that hinder its popularity. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy implications are tendered. (author)

  18. The market for green building in developed Asian cities-the perspectives of building designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Edwin H.W. [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qian, Queena K. [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: queena.qian@polyu.edu.hk; Lam, Patrick T.I. [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-08-15

    Green building (GB) is part of the concept of promoting sustainability. Although GB and the concept of sustainability are well studied for environmental concerns, their business rationale and related social concerns have not been fully explored or widely accepted by the parties involved in the building sector. In this study, the situation of GB market in relation to the general building market is reviewed and the business rationales of stakeholders to invest in the GB market have been investigated from the perspective of building designers. In addition, the factors that enhance the popularity of GB have been explored and the obstacles that hinder its market have been examined. The data are collected by a questionnaire survey covering building designers in Hong Kong and Singapore, the cities that are categorized as economically developed cities in Asia. After data analysis of the survey, this paper presents the findings of the business reasons for stakeholders to be involved in GB, the most favorable conditions required to promote GB business and the important obstacles that hinder its popularity. Based on the findings, recommendations and policy implications are tendered.

  19. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  20. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Xiong

    Full Text Available This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10% or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  1. A note on P-values for two-sided tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Helmut; Strassburger, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    Based on uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) tests for two-sided hypotheses and a short note in Lehmann (1959) on critical levels for randomized tests, Meulepas (1998, 1999) proposed (two-tailed) P -values taking into account the randomization constant(s) of the UMPU-tests. While UMPU-tests need an extra uniform observation if randomization is required, the P -values proposed by Meulepas need no extra uniform observation. At first glance, his idea looks very promising in order to define a suitable and powerful P -value. Unfortunately, such P -values are generally too conservative.

  2. Irradiance tailoring with two-sided Fresnel-type freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneton, Adrien; Bäuerle, Axel; Traub, Martin; Wester, Rolf; Loosen, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Based on the Monge-Kantorovich theory of optimal mass transport, the computation of a ray mapping between source and target irradiances is used to design two-sided freeform lenses fulfilling the constraints of an automotive application: compactness and sharp bright-dark cutoff. A generic segmentation technic resulting in Fresnel-type optics is presented and the whole procedure is illustrated with the design of a fog light lens. Finally Monte Carlo simulation of the virtual model and measurements of a polycarbonate prototype are presented.

  3. Two-sided Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe F. Mayer

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The (two-sided Mullins-Sekerka model is a nonlocal evolution model for closed hypersurfaces, which was originally proposed as a model for phase transitions of materials of negligible specific heat. Under this evolution the propagating interfaces maintain the enclosed volume while the area of the interfaces decreases. We will show by means of an example that the Mullins-Sekerka flow does not preserve convexity in two space dimensions, where we consider both the Mullins-Sekerka model on a bounded domain, and the Mullins-Sekerka model defined on the whole plane.

  4. Organ Donation in Brazil: Analysis of Governmental Campaigns Under the Perspective of Social Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Benedito Oliveira Rezende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Focus on Social Marketing: An analysis of the governmental campaigns about donation of organs in Brazil. Currently in Brazil the demand of organ donation is higher than the offer of them. Although the relevant legislation, which is identified in the country is a high demand of people waiting for a compatible organ donor and , on the other hand, a low supply of possible potential donors. Before this situation, the following research has as an objective to analyze the perspective of donors and potential organ donors in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil concerning social marketing strategies used by the government. To do so, a research in quantitative and qualitative approach was done. The data in the quantitative part was collected directly through a survey done with 412 individuals and for the qualitative part, 23 semi-structured interviews with people directly involved in the process of organ donation were held. The results indicate that one of the main factors which interfere negatively in the intention of donating organs is related to safety matters. It emphasizes, still, a low perception concerning the efficiency of social marketing campaigns towards organ donation. Yet, according to the interviewees , such campaigns should merge calls negative and positive in order to provide individuals in addition to the emotional awareness , emotional or cognitive imbalances.

  5. Non-conscious Effects of Marketing Communication and Implicit Attitude Change: State of Research and New Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet, Didier; Fourquet-Courbet, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The article shows that many psychological effects of the marketing communication, sometimes called "non-conscious effects", really produce implicit attitude changes. We show that the theoretical and methodological framework of implicit attitude is well adapted to study these effects and to open new perspectives to study the persuasion in a marketing communication context. On the basis of research conducted within advertising contexts, product placement and TV sponsorsh...

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO SIDE-BY-SIDE CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SARVGHAD-MOGHADDAM Hesam; NOOREDIN Navid; GHADIRI-DEHKORDI Behzad

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper,the unsteady,viscous,incompressible and 2-D flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was simulated using a Cartesian-staggered grid finite volume based method.A great-source term technique was employed to identify the solid bodies (cylinders) located in the flow field and boundary conditions were enforced by applying the ghost-cell technique.Finally,the characteristics of the flow around two side-by-side cylinders were comprehensively obtained through several computational simulations.The computational simulations were performed for different transverse gap ratios (1.5≤T/D≤4) in laminar (Re =100,200 ) and turbulent (Re =104) regimes,where T and D are the distance between the centers of cylinders and the diameter of cylinders,respectively.The Reynolds number is based on the diameter of cylinders,D.The pressure field and vorticity distributions along with the associated streamlines and the time histories of hydrodynamic forces were also calculated and analyzed for different gap ratios.Generally,different flow patterns were observed as the gap ratio and Reynolds number varied.Accordingly,the hydrodynamic forces showed irregular variations for small gaps while they took a regular pattern at higher spacing ratios.

  7. Detection of two-sided alternatives in a Brownian motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjiliadis, Olympia

    2007-01-01

    This work examines the problem of sequential detection of a change in the drift of a Brownian motion in the case of two-sided alternatives. Applications to real life situations in which two-sided changes can occur are discussed. Traditionally, 2-CUSUM stopping rules have been used for this problem due to their asymptotically optimal character as the mean time between false alarms tends to $\\infty$. In particular, attention has focused on 2-CUSUM harmonic mean rules due to the simplicity in calculating their first moments. In this paper, we derive closed-form expressions for the first moment of a general 2-CUSUM stopping rule. We use these expressions to obtain explicit upper and lower bounds for it. Moreover, we derive an expression for the rate of change of this first moment as one of the threshold parameters changes. Based on these expressions we obtain explicit upper and lower bounds to this rate of change. Using these expressions we are able to find the best 2-CUSUM stopping rule with respect to the exten...

  8. Heuristics for Multiobjective Optimization of Two-Sided Assembly Line Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jawahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Products such as cars, trucks, and heavy machinery are assembled by two-sided assembly line. Assembly line balancing has significant impacts on the performance and productivity of flow line manufacturing systems and is an active research area for several decades. This paper addresses the line balancing problem of a two-sided assembly line in which the tasks are to be assigned at L side or R side or any one side (addressed as E. Two objectives, minimum number of workstations and minimum unbalance time among workstations, have been considered for balancing the assembly line. There are two approaches to solve multiobjective optimization problem: first approach combines all the objectives into a single composite function or moves all but one objective to the constraint set; second approach determines the Pareto optimal solution set. This paper proposes two heuristics to evolve optimal Pareto front for the TALBP under consideration: Enumerative Heuristic Algorithm (EHA to handle problems of small and medium size and Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SAA for large-sized problems. The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems and their performances are compared with a set of test problems.

  9. First Direct Two-Sided Bound on the B_s^0 Oscillation Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Estrada, J; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Krzywdzinski, S; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lager, S; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Leonidopoulos, C; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; Mattingly, S E K; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, K; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rapidis, P A; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V

    2006-01-01

    We report the first direct two-sided bound on the $B^0_s$ oscillation frequency using a large sample of $B^0_s$ semileptonic decays corresponding to approximately 1 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected by the \\dzer\\ experiment in 2002--2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The flavor (i.e., $B^0_s$ or $\\bar{B}^0_s$) of the \\bs meson at the time of production was found using an opposite-side tagging technique, and the flavor at the time of decay was determined from the charge of the muon in the partially reconstructed decay $\\bs\\to \\mu^{+}D_{s}^{-}X$, $D_{s}^{-}\\to \\phi \\pi^{-}$, $\\phi\\to K^{+}K^{-}$. A likelihood scan over the oscillation frequency, $\\Delta m_s$, gives a most probable value of 19 ps$^{-1}$ and a range of $17 < \\Delta m_s < 21$ ps$^{-1}$ at the 90% C.L. At $\\Delta m_s=19$ ps$^{-1}$, the amplitude method yields a result that deviates from the hypothesis of an oscillation amplitude of zero by 2.5 standard deviations, corresponding to a two-sided C.L. of 1%.

  10. Interaction of Gap Flow With Flapping Dynamics of Two Side-by-Side Elastic Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli, Pardha S.; Jaiman, Rajeev K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a numerical analysis on the interaction between two side-by-side elastic foils with their leading edges clamped and the gap flow between them. We perform systematic parametric direct numerical simulations as a function of nondimensional bending rigidity, KB ∈ [ 1 ×10-4 , 3 ×10-3 ] and mass-ratio, m* ∈ [ 0 . 05 , 0 . 2 ] , for a fixed gap, dp = 0 . 2 / L , at the leading edge and Reynolds number, Re = 1000 to explain the underlying physical mechanism behind the in-phase and out-of-phase coupled flapping modes. The parametric simulations show that the parallel foil system exhibits predominant out-of-phase coupling for low mass-ratio m* 0 . 1 . We also show that the two side-by-side elastic foils always exhibit out-of-phase coupling initially irrespective of whether the fully developed flapping show out-of-phase or in-phase coupled mode. Finally, we show that the transition from the initial out-of-phase to stable in-phase is characterized by loss of gap flow symmetric stability to undergo oscillations at the gap exit.

  11. Fair Trade as a Solution for Inequality on the Global Market - Corporate Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lovric

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New alternatives to free trade are evolving at the global market; their aim is to bring more ethics and morality into the relations between the trading parties (producers, corporations and buyers. This article analyses one of such alternatives i.e. Fair Trade from the perspective of influencing change of corporate politics. Due to the rising awareness of buyers about the origin of goods and the initiatives of forcing corporations into changing their practices based on unethical treatment of workers in the 3rd world countries, alternative ways of trade are becoming part of traditional corporate environment in the free trade chain. By elaborating fundamental principles of certification process, the article gives an answer to the question of creation of added ethical value in the aspect of positioning corporations in the “new economy”.

  12. Tourism destination image of Russia in the perspective of the portuguese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Arslanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the importance of destination image has been increasingly analyzed and it is generally considered to be vital in the marketing of destinations. It can be noted that the tourism industry in Russia has not been the subject of a great deal of research with regard to its destination image. Therefore the purpose of this work is to assess Russia’s destination image in the perspective of Portuguese people. The research instrument was an online questionnaire, comprised of open-ended and closed questions. A combination of two software programs, NVivo and IBM SPSS Statistics 21, was employed to analyze the data. This exploratory study suggests that Portuguese peoples’ perceptions of Russia are mostly favorable and they have a high awareness about Russia’s destination features.

  13. Strategic Planning, Marketing & Public Relations, and Fund-Raising in Higher Education: Perspectives, Readings, and Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryans, Cynthia C.; Shanklin, William L.

    Perspectives on college and university strategic planning, marketing and public relations, and fund-raising are offered. Also included are previously published journal articles by experts in this area, annotated bibliographies of books and journal articles on these subjects, author/title and subject indexes, and a directory of publishers. Three…

  14. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  15. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  16. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Matthias; Vykoukal, Jody; Recio Boiles, Alejandro; Coleman, Michael; Alt, Eckhard

    2014-07-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and other origins have recently received much attention as potential therapeutic agents with beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. In their native tissue environment, however, such cells also appear to have essential functions in building and supporting tumor microenvironments, providing metastatic niches, and maintaining cancer hallmarks. Here, we consider the varied roles of these tissue-resident stroma-associated cells, synthesize recent and emerging discoveries, and discuss the role, potential, and clinical applications of MSCs in cancer and regenerative medicine.-Ilmer, M., Vykoukal, J., Recio Boiles, A., Coleman, M., Alt, E. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  17. Indirect-drive inertial fusion targets for two-sided heavy-ion illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, G. N.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Ryabikina, N. A.; Shagaliev, R. M.; Vakhlamova, L. L.; Vatulin, V. V.; Vinokurov, O. A.; Bock, R.; Kang, K.-H.; Maruhn, J. A.

    The properties of heavy-ion induced fusion targets with two-sided illumination and with the converters placed completely inside the hohlraum have been investigated using integrated simulations based on the SATURN and MIMOZA code packages in order to check the results obtained with the view factor method in previous work, which is briefly reviewed. Separate converter simulations show the importance of an accurate treatment of radiation transport and also demonstrate that a converter efficiency of 40 - 80% can be achieved easily depending on the detailed converter material and geometry. For the complete target, a gas fill is shown to be necessary and it turned out to be very important to allow some of the radiation shields to become partially transparent during the evolution. In the most favorable case, an asymmetry in the temperature on the capsule of about 5% was achieved, leading to a reduction of the neutron yield by a factor of 7 compared to an ideally symmetric situation.

  18. An Optimization of Granular Networks Based on PSO and Two-Sided Gaussian Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Chang Kwak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an optimization of GN (Granular Networks based on PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization and Information granulation. The GN is designed by the linguistic model using context-based fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm performing relationship between fuzzy sets defined in the input and output space. The contexts used in this paper are based on two-sided Gaussian membership functions. The main goal of optimization based on PSO is to find the number of clusters obtained in each context and weighting factor. Finally, we apply to coagulant dosing process in a water purification plant to evaluate the predication performance and compare the proposed approach with other previous methods.

  19. The deinkability improvement of offset prints made from a two-side coated substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Barbaric-Mikocevic

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the improved removal of impurities (coating, ink/toner from offset prints produced by digital printing of two-side coated paper. The substrates were printed by conventional and digital offset processes. Based on image analysis results it was established that deinking flotation is an inefficient method for ink particle removal from digital offset printed paper, but it is efficient for ink removal from conventional offset printed paper. On the other hand, pre-treatment with hydrogen peroxide solution gives better results for ink particle removal from digital offset prints than from conventional offset prints. Optimal parameters for hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment for both offset prints were chosen based on unprinted substrate mass loss results in the preliminary investigation. These results showed that hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment is more successful at removal of impurities in comparison with flotation deinking without pre-treatment.

  20. Measured Data Processing Method For Relative Motions Between Two Side-by-side Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-an Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and implement a wave compensation system to reduce the relative motion between two side-by-side ships in waves, a new method to process measured data of ship model test with contact measurement to study the characteristics of relative motion was presented. The reference co-ordinate systems and relative motions were defined, and the scheme of the model test was described. Then the Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD adaptive filter were designed, the frequency domain integration transform method based upon Fast Fourier Transform(FFT were established. The procedure to transform acceleration signal into displacement was proposed and verified, and the processing results with and without EMD adaptive filter were compared. Finally, the relative motions consistent with reality were acquired, which indicates this method is effective for measured data processing.

  1. Coupled resonator induced transparency in surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide with two side-coupled cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengren, E-mail: zhrenzhang@126.com [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Liwei [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Yin, Pengfei; Han, Xiangyu [School of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation process of coupled resonator-induced transparency (CRIT) in surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide system containing two side-coupled cavities, which locate at a symmetric position. The CRIT is original from the destructive interference of the two detuned cavities. In contrast with the existing electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes, the occurrence of the CRIT is caused by the two radiative cavities in waveguide, instead of interference between a dark cavity and radiative cavity. This behavior mimics the quantum interference between two direct excitation pathways in a three-level V-type atom. The transmission lineshape can be tuned between an EIT-like resonant peak and a Lorentzian-like resonant dip by tailoring the detuning of the two cavities. Moreover, we also find that the transparency peak moves to high frequency with a line shift and its Q factor decreases with the increase of coupling distance between the cavities and waveguide.

  2. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  3. The Balkan balneotherapy product – an approach from the destination marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common features in the resources field, but especially the way in which they have been managed at the level of each individual country, it can be stated that a destination such as the Balkan peninsula represents a culturally homogeneous space, which has been crystallized over centuries of common history and which has imprinted a “common” destiny to the member countries, regarding the economic and cultural development. Regarding natural resources, the main similarity resides in the existence of balneotherapy resources, with particular therapeutic properties, nowadays’ development being pressured by the deterioration of one’s conception about its own health (from the demand perspective, on the one hand, and extending the concept of health (from the supply perspective, on the other hand. In the context of a less-controlled development of certain methods/techniques/procedures by the stakeholders of wellness industry, it is necessary to maintain the authenticity of the balneotherapy product whose essence is the treatment. The purpose of the paper relies in establishing the common elements which could form the essence of the balneotherapy product (sui generis and, in the same time, the differentiation elements which form the developed product of each Balkan country, alongside with the establishment of joint actions, in order to set the coordinates of the regional balneotherapy marketing strategy for the Balkan peninsula.

  4. OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRIAL MARKET IN ROMANIA. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE ORGANIZATIONAL CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays research in consumer behaviour has become really useful in understanding consumer needs regarding the use of products or services. Despite the tremendous work carried out in the field of consumer behaviour, few studies have concentrated on the organizational consumers as main buyers in the market. In this regard, considering the economic sectors of Romania, the main purpose of the article consists in characterizing the national industrial buyers taking into consideration the organizational consumer approach. Using an empirical study based on the macroeconomic indicators published by the Romanian National Institute of Statistics, we aimed to identify the components of the organizational market in Romania. In this regard, we selected several statistical indicators specific for the agriculture sector which can help us understand the behaviour of the organizations from this area considering the buying perspective. The results obtained demonstrate that although there are many macroeconomic indicators in the agriculture sector (43 few of them (19 provide significant information regarding the industrial buying behaviour among Romanian firms from this area.

  5. Network effects in two-sided markets: why a 50/50 user split is not necessarily revenue optimal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voigt, Sebastian; Hinz, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    .... While one might expect equal gender representation on such a platform to yield the best user experience and the highest revenue per user, our analysis shows that the platform requires only 36.2...

  6. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    to Asian food producers and marketing people". 2. Therefore two questions of importance to Asian (with special attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored in this paper. 3. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do any...... different European countries and regions to more homogeneous export markets but in general confir heterogeneity of the European food cultures. 5. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated...... certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...

  7. The stratified two-sided jet of Cygnus A. Acceleration and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, B; Bach, U; Mertens, F; Ros, E; Alef, W; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry observations of relativistic jets are essential to constrain fundamental parameters of jet formation models. At a distance of 249 Mpc, Cygnus A is a unique target for such studies, being the only Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxy for which a detailed sub-parsec scale imaging of the base of both jet and counter-jet can be obtained. Observing at millimeter wavelengths unveils those regions which appear self-absorbed at longer wavelengths and enables an extremely sharp view towards the nucleus to be obtained. We performed 7 mm Global VLBI observations, achieving ultra-high resolution imaging on scales down to 90 $\\mu$as. This resolution corresponds to a linear scale of only ${\\sim}$400 Schwarzschild radii (for $M_{\\mathrm{BH}}=2.5 \\times 10^9 M_{\\odot}$). We studied the kinematic properties of the main emission features of the two-sided flow and probed its transverse structure through a pixel-based analysis. We suggest that a fast and a slow layer, with differ...

  8. Three--dimensional Instability in the Wake of Two Side--by--side Square Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Choon-Bum; Jang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional instability in the flow past two square cylinders in side-by-side arrangements has been numerically studied via a Floquet stability analysis. The distance between the neighboring faces of the two cylinders (G) is the key parameter which affects the secondary instability under consideration. In this talk, we present the critical Reynolds number for the 3D instability and the spanwise wave number corresponding to the most unstable (or least stable) wave for each G. When the two cylinders are close to each other, the Floquet mode resembles mode A of flow past a single cylinder. For large G, the Floquet mode for each cylinder is independent of the neighboring cylinder as expected. In the range of intermediate G, interference of the two wakes is clearly reflected in the Floquet mode. We also discuss about the effect of gap flow, and visualization of the dominant 3D vortical structures is provided by using Q contours. Our results shed light on a complete understanding of the onset of 3D instability in the presence of two side-by-side square cylinders. This work was supported by Korea Railroad Research Institute (Research Title: The study of standardization for urban railway facilities (SW 11002)).

  9. Low contrast detectability of a new CR system with two-sided reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katou, Toyoyuki; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Kinoshita, Emi; Shinkai, Eishu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Hospital; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2003-03-01

    A new imaging plate (IP) with a transparent support and reading system that can detect emissions from both sides of the IP has been developed and has already been introduced in some facilities. In this study, low contrast threshold detectability was investigated experimentally for a CR system with a two-sided reading system (new CR) and for a conventional CR system. Images of a Contrast-Detail phantom were obtained with the new and conventional CR systems at dose levels corresponding to 26%, 49%, 82%, 103%, and 164% of the dose used for the screen-film system. Using an observer performance study of Contrast-Detail phantom images, the threshold contrast of disk-shaped objects ranging from 0.3 mm to 4.0 mm in diameter was determined. We also calculated image quality figure (IQF) from the results of observation. The new CR system showed significantly better contrast detectability than the conventional CR system. The use of a new CR system provided a reduction of approximately 25% in radiographic dose while providing comparable IQF. (author)

  10. Issues in Water Quality Trading: Perspectives on the Market-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market mechanisms and incentives can play an important role in addressing environmental problems. Potential advantages of using market-based approaches include reducing the costs of meeting environmental goals and encouraging innovation. One market mechanism that has been promo...

  11. Marketing active transportation to school to improve children's health: Utilizing parental perspectives from an inner-city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royne, Marla B; Ivey, Stephanie S; Levy, Marian; Fox, Alexa K; Roakes, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, nearly half of the children in the United States walked or rode their bikes to school. Today, less than 15% of children actively commute to school. With the growing obesity epidemic, encouraging children to walk or bike to school has become a national priority. This research examines factors that influence parental decisions allowing their children to walk to school in an urban environment to identify effective marketing and communication strategies to reach those parents. Results indicate differences in parental perspectives across populations; suggestions for effectively marketing the Safe Routes to School program to minority populations are provided.

  12. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  13. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  14. Intrinsic features of flow around two side-by-side square cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mahbub; Zhou, Y.

    2013-08-01

    The wake of two side-by-side square cylinders is investigated in detail based on flow visualization at a Reynolds number (Re) of 300. The cylinder center-to-center spacing ratio T* (= T/W, W is the cylinder width) is varied from 1.0 to 5.0. The intrinsic features of the wake are explored, including the gap vortices, flow switch, stability, merging of two streets into one, etc. The qualitative information on these features is further complemented by the quantitative information extracted from hotwire data at Re = 4.7 × 104 using both spectral and cross-wavelet analyses. Four flow regimes are identified: (i) the single bluff body regime (T* 2.4). The gap flow is found to switch at two distinct time scales, referred to as macro and micro switches. Macro switch occurs at 1.2 gap flow is slim in width and biased for a long duration ranging from several vortex shedding periods in the wide street to several hours. Micro switch is observed at 2.1 gap flow is thick in width and switches at a frequency of twice the frequency of vortex shedding from the free-stream side of the cylinders. The two streets formed immediately behind the cylinders merge to a single street at a downstream location x_c^* that depends on T*. A larger T* corresponds to a larger x_c^*. Regime (iv) is characterized by two streets either inphased or antiphased. The antiphased streets persist longer than the inphased.

  15. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    homogenoues export markets but ingeneral confirms the heterogeneity of the European fo cultures. Since these data did not contain specific information about our second question, the inclusion of Asian food products in European diets, we have investigated certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective...... of being one of the most generally open food cultures of Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristicsw with other European food cultures....

  16. Biogas conference - biogas plants in a deregulated electricity market. Technology and perspectives. Documentation; Biogastagung - Biogasanlagen im liberalisierten Strommarkt. Technik und Perspektiven. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The biogas meeting deals with engineering and perspectives of biomass fermentation to methane. Main topics were: financial opportunities for agriculture, engineering, hygienization, use of dung and liquid manures, power generation and market.

  17. STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IN SPORTS- A PERSPECTIVE OF QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu Mihaela; Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Strategic marketing planning requires that the marketing objectives strategies for a specific product-market configuration be in full correlation with the directions and the resources allocated at the corporate level or at the strategic business unit one. Such a correlation is more than necessary under the current market conditions, when the economic crisis affects both consumer behavior and corporate decisions. This article focuses on the particularities of strategic marketing planning in sp...

  18. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    This article origines as part of a Danish national food research program: Market-based Process and Product Innovation in the Food Sector (MAPP), presenting some of the results of a project concerning the cultural dimension of food consumption. Two questions of importance to Asian (with special...... attention to South East Asian) food producers and marketers are explored. First: To which extent can Asian food manufacturers consider Europe one single market? And second: Do change processes in the European food cultures faclitate adoption of more Asian food products in the coming years? Of course......-perspective, using qualitative tec to explore changes in eating behaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food inparticular. This micro-level analysis was carried out in the country of Denmark, both for conveneince reasons but also because Denmark i macro-level analysis showed signs...

  19. Laboratory Research on Effective Test Area of Short-Crested Waves Generated by Two-Sided Segmented Wavemakers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 陈刚; 杨建民; 彭涛

    2014-01-01

    The size and shape of the effective test area are crucial to consider when short-crested waves are created by segmented wavemakers. The range of the effective test area of short-crested waves simulated by two-sided segmented wavemakers is analyzed in this paper. The experimental investigation on the wave field distribution of short-crested waves generated by two-sided segmented wavemakers is conducted by using an array of wave gauges. Wave spectra and directional spreading function are analyzed and the results show that when the main direction is at a certain angle with the normal line of wave generators, the wave field of 3D short-crested waves generated by two-sided segmented wavemakers has good spatial uniformity within the model test area. The effective test area can provide good wave environments for seakeeping model tests of various ocean engineering structures in the deep ocean engineering basin.

  20. Two Sides of the Same Coin or Different Coins Altogether Counterinsurgency from Indigenous Government and Occupier Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Agents’ Divisions). Both Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils practice a type of Hinduism closely related to the cultural systems of Tamil Nadu.20 Interestingly...Anglican, Congregationalist, Methodist, and Baptist) Islam Hinduism (based on south India practices) Christianity (Catholic, Dutch Reformed

  1. The Regulation of Market Manipulation in Australia: A Historical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation prohibition will be presented first. Secondly, the available penalties and remedies for market manipulation are discussed. Thereafter, possible recommendations and significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may be utilised in South Africa are briefly stated. Lastly, concluding remarks are provided.

  2. Self-organization versus self-management: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2009-03-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the eighth in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, the author explores self-organization as it relates to self-management in complex social organizations.

  3. Inequality and Unsustainable Growth:TWO Sides of the Same Coin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew G. Berg; Jonathan D. Ostry

    2011-01-01

    @@ Over the long run, sustained growth is central to poverty reduction.The rapid growth seen in much of the world over the past few decades, notably, but not only, in China and India, has led to an unprecedented reduction in poverty.And, in general, increases in per capita income tend to translate into proportionate increases in income of the poor.As Dollar and Kraay memorably put it, "Growth Is Good for the Poor."Some inequality is integral to the effective functioning of a market economy and the incentives needed for investment and growth.But too much inequality might be destructive to growth.Beyond the risk that inequality.

  4. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  5. Industry Perspectives on Market Access of Innovative Drugs: The Relevance for Oncology Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Kim; Huys, Isabelle; Casteels, Minne; Simoens, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Key Points - Representatives of the pharmaceutical industry call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of innovative drugs- Focus on value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs is jeopardized by financial drives as the side of industry and at the side of the payers- A well-considered value-framework, with attention for patient reported outcomes, societal preferences and dynamic approach on the drug life cycle, needs to be incorporated in assessment and appraisal at national and European level in order to coordinate the views of different stakeholders and allow efficient resource allocation This study presents industry perspectives on the challenges related to market access of innovative drugs in general and oncology drugs in specific. Fifteen interviews were conducted with representatives of pharmaceutical companies and industry associations. Interviewees call for a broader recognition of value within the assessment and appraisal of drugs. According to interviewees, focus on value is jeopardized by the lack of a common value definition across Europe, poor availability and validity of value measures and cost-saving measures such as external reference price setting and cost-effectiveness analysis at the side of the payers. Centralized assessment of relative-effectiveness at European level would provide a common value estimate across member states, independent of financial drivers. Empirical evidence on PRO and societal preferences is however essential in the development of a value definition. Furthermore, value-based pricing would imply a dynamic approach where the price is differentiated across indications and across the lifecycle of the drug, especially in fields such as oncology. Financial drivers however also threat the application of value-based pricing at the side of the industry, making value-based profitability a more appropriate term.

  6. The market of the activities bound to the wastes situation 2002-2003 and perspectives 2004; Le marche des activites liees aux dechets situation 2002-2003 et perspectives 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    This study presents the different activities bound to the wastes, evaluates the economical stakes, the short-dated development perspectives, identifies the new markets and analyzes the regulations impact on the short-dated markets. It concerns the non hazardous and hazardous wastes. (A.L.B.)

  7. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  8. Global Market Entry Strategy and Point-A Perspective of Chinese Pharmaceutical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TonyZhang

    2003-01-01

    After joining WTO, China will not only open its door wider to foreign investment and operations in Chinese market, but also play an increasing role in global market. However, unlike many other Chinese industries that are already major suppliers or producers of consumer products at global market, majority of pharmaceutical enterprises in China remain domestic operations. Today there are still major obstacles for Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises to overcome in entering key markets such as US and Europe.

  9. THE EFFECTS OF MARKETING MIX ON CONSUMER SATISFACTION: A LITERATURE REVIEW FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Selim; Rahman, Md Habibur

    2015-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is one of the essential factors for the success of a company. To achieve the high customer satisfaction, companies must know when and how their customers are satisfied about the products and services. Nowadays, different companies follow different types of marketing strategies based on the target market demand. The majority of companies follow a conventional marketing strategy, but some companies choose to follow a religious or spiritual marketing strategy such as the Is...

  10. THE STATE OF THE ART IN RESEARCH INTO RURAL TOURISM IN SPAIN: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández Mogollón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of rural tourism has been addressed from different perspectives, such as geography, sociology, psychology, economics, business management, tourism marketing, etc. This positions it as a multidisciplinary research field of great interest which is growing in strategic importance. However it requires appropriate tools to improve its performance and become more professional. The level of interest it now produces is palpable in the quantitative increase in the attention devoted to it in the scientific literature over recent years. Nevertheless there is a need to improve the quality of this research effort, especially in fields related to economics and the management of businesses and even more so with regard to issues related to marketing, all of which would contribute to a better understanding of issues such as the planning, management and marketing of these destinations and businesses. This paper is an analysis of rural tourism as an area of scientific research that aims to classify the most relevant topics in the field, with particular reference to those that focus on marketing and market research. Its main contribution is a proposal of a research agenda for the coming years.

  11. Marketing library and information services: international perspectives (Gupta; Konntz; Massísimo; Savard)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Marcial, Viviana

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews different experiences in library marketing developed around the world. It focuses on the marketing mix, the central element of a plan of marketing in which four aspects are defined, the four "p": the product, price, place and promotion.

  12. The Marketing Effectiveness of Hotel Facebook Pages: From Perspectives of Customers and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Xi Yu

    2012-01-01

    In the hotel industry, social media marketing has become a new trend hoteliers are chasing and an increasing number of hotels are using social media to promote their business. However, the marketing effectiveness of social media is still a big challenge in both academic and business world. Since social media marketing is totally different from…

  13. Marketing library and information services: international perspectives (Gupta; Konntz; Massísimo; Savard)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Marcial, Viviana

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews different experiences in library marketing developed around the world. It focuses on the marketing mix, the central element of a plan of marketing in which four aspects are defined, the four "p": the product, price, place and promotion.

  14. The Marketing Effectiveness of Hotel Facebook Pages: From Perspectives of Customers and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Xi Yu

    2012-01-01

    In the hotel industry, social media marketing has become a new trend hoteliers are chasing and an increasing number of hotels are using social media to promote their business. However, the marketing effectiveness of social media is still a big challenge in both academic and business world. Since social media marketing is totally different from…

  15. ARTICLE REVIEW :THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng-Odoom, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  16. ARTICLE REVIEW :THE ROLE OF URBAN MARKETING IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A POLITICAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin OBENG-ODOOM

    2010-01-01

    The aggressive marketing of cities to attract private finance and capital is one important aspect of municipal neoliberalism. Urban marketing, as it is called, is said to be the the surest way to deliver urban economic development. Using a political-economic framework, this paper provides an alternative analysis of urban marketing, and highlights other avenues for addressing the urban question.

  17. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Scope of Free Speech and Hate Speech in the College Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Faye

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the Two Sides interviews, which confront the serious and immediate conflict between free speech and hate speech on college campuses. Dr. Robert O' Neil discusses the scope of free speech in the college community, while Dr. Timothy Shiell focuses on hate speech on campuses. Contains 12 references. (VWC)

  18. Two Sides of the Same Coin: The Scope of Free Speech and Hate Speech in the College Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Faye

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the Two Sides interviews, which confront the serious and immediate conflict between free speech and hate speech on college campuses. Dr. Robert O' Neil discusses the scope of free speech in the college community, while Dr. Timothy Shiell focuses on hate speech on campuses. Contains 12 references. (VWC)

  19. 双边Prequantale中的Frame核映射%A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐少贤; 王顺钦; 马菲菲

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined.The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  20. Race and Color: Two Sides of One Story? Development of Biases in Categorical Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timeo, Susanna; Farroni, Teresa; Maass, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Categorical perception is a phenomenon that leads people to group stimuli into categories instead of perceiving their natural continua. This article reviews the literature of two biases connected with categorical perception: categorical color perception and the other-race effect. Although these two phenomena concern distant targets (colors and faces) and imply different biases (one attentional, one mnemonic), they share at least three commonalities. First, they both involve the chunking of continuous dimensions into categories. Second, adult categories are shaped by cultural processes. Third, infants' discrimination performance seems universal and guided by perception. In this article, it is proposed to look for a common developmental mechanism that clarifies the shift from a perceptual to a sociocognitive knowledge of the environment. New perspectives are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ardianto, Eka

    2003-01-01

    This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be ...

  2. STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IN SPORTS – A PERSPECTIVE OF QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategic marketing planning requires that the marketing objectives strategies for a specific product-market configuration be in full correlation with the directions and the resources allocated at the corporate level or at the strategic business unit one. Such a correlation is more than necessary under the current market conditions, when the economic crisis affects both consumer behavior and corporate decisions. This article focuses on the particularities of strategic marketing planning in sport, given the fact that the vast majority of sports organizations in Romania, although very active on the reference market, do not have a marketing activity correlated with the medium and long term market needs. One of these needs refers to quality of life improvement, knowing that sport activities have positive influence on many dimensions of quality of life, such as health, education, social inclusion, relaxation and leisure. The improvement within the population participation in sport (both as an active participant and as a spectator, the increased duration of leisure and the development of private financing have led to the creation of a large market, where marketing plays a central role. Therefore the marketing management process must also be implemented within the sports organization, in order to make it easier in building and maintaining a relationship with the customer, especially if the organization wants a customer orientation strategy. Such an orientation includes identifying the current needs as well as the future ones in terms of target audience, to offer a series of sports products and services that bring their significant contribution to improving the quality of life. In this paper are highlighted the influences that consumer requirements concerning quality of life have on all components of marketing management process, starting with sports organization mission statement, up to establish strategies for the marketing mix (product, price

  3. Writing and Rewriting the Instructional Design Case: A View from Two Sides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D. Howard, Rodney Myers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes five problem areas educators grapple with when writing designs cases about learning interventions. The article is written from the vantage point of IJDL’s assistant editor who edited, reviewed, and coordinated the reviews of design cases over a period of two years while also writing his own design case (Howard & Myers, 2010: International Journal of Designs for Learning. The knowledge building genre of the instructional design case is viewed from the perspective of commonalities between articles published in a Tech Trends feature, the Instructional Design Portfolio, and this venue. The areas of concern common among reviews for these publications shed light on how the design case is developing into a rigorous form of educational inquiry. The areas of concern brought up in reviews of cases are discussed in light of the author’s first hand experiences of satisfying reviewers’ concerns and, in turn, coaching other educators through the process of a finalized design case. Those common areas are: (1 situating the design, (2 describing the design, (3 depicting the experience of the design, (4 developing trustworthiness through transparency, analysis, and reflection (5 removing aspects of design cases which confound their purpose. Specific examples from design cases that have gone through peer review describe how author-educators may approach the dissemination of design precedent through the careful documentation of pedagogical designs.

  4. The UK electricity market and the wind industry - a perspective of 1998 proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batley, S.L.; Twidell, J.W. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom); Gibbons, C. [East Midlands Electricity (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    After April 1st 1998, the Public Electricity Supplier monopoly ( in England, Wales and Scotland) over their local franchise market will cease and all customers, regardless of size, will be able to choose their supplier. These changes will have a major impact on the UK wind energy industry. An increased number of Second Tier Suppliers will compete with existing market players for electricity purchase from generators and sale of electricity to consumers. Market changes should improve possibilities for wind generators to obtain a Second Tier Supplier licence and serve the domestic, small demand, market. There may also be market opportunities to sell to specialist `green` suppliers. The post 1998 changes are of importance to the European Union `Guarantee of Result` project, which aims to promote small scale wind systems through guaranteed quality and performance of systems. For the Guarantee of Results to be utilised in the UK, all markets for the generated electricity from a wind system must be considered and evaluated. (Author)

  5. Gasification of biomass for energy production. State of technology in Finland and global market perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This report reviews the development of the biomass gasification technology in Finland over the last two decades. Information on Finnish biomass resources and use, energy economy and national research policy is provided as background. Global biomass resources and potential energy from biomass markets are also assessed based on available literature, to put the development of the gasification technology into a wider perspective of global biomass utilization for energy production. The increasing use of biomass and other indigenous forms of energy has been part and parcel of the Finnish energy policy for some twenty years. Biomass and peat account for almost 20% of the production of primary energy in Finland. As the consumption of biofuels is significantly lower than the annual growth or renewal, the use of bioenergy is considered to be an important measure of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Research and development on thermal gasification of solid fuels was initiated in the late 1970s in Finland. The principal aim was to decrease the dependence of Finnish energy economy on imported oil by increasing the utilization potential of indigenous fuels. Development in the early 1980s focused on simple atmospheric-pressure fuel gas applications including a gasification heating plant. Eight Bioneer updraft gasifiers (abt 5 MW{sub th}) were constructed in 1982-1986, and a new Bioneer gasifier was commissioned in eastern Finland in 1996. A Pyroflow circulating fluidised-bed gasifies was also commercialized in the mid-1980s; four gasifiers (15-35 MW{sub th}) were commissioned. In the late 1980s the interest in integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants, based on pressurised air gasification of biomass and hot gas cleanup, increased in Finland and in many other countries. The utilization potential for indigenous fuels is mainly in medium-scale combined heat and electricity production (20-150 MW,). Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Carbona Inc. and Imatran Voima Oy are

  6. Marketing de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil na perspectiva da rotulagem | Evalution of processed foods for children from the perspective of nutrition labeling and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Soares Geraldo Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compreendendo a importância das informações contidas nos rótulos dos alimentos, foi objetivo do presente estudo avaliar a qualidade de alimentos industrializados destinados ao público infantil, comercializados na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, sob a ótica da rotulagem nutricional e do marketing. Foram avaliados alimentos e bebidas industrializadas das categorias mais consumidas pelo público infantil. Os rótulos selecionados foram avaliados de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos em regulamentações vigentes, assim como, os recursos de marketing empregados nas embalagens e sua composição nutricional para 100 g ou 100 mL. Foram avaliados os rótulos de 93 embalagens de alimentos industrializados de 33 fabricantes diferentes. Cada amostra foi avaliada em 32 quesitos, totalizando 2.976 análises. Houve conformidade em 80% dos itens avaliados, 19% não eram aplicáveis e 1% apresentou não conformidade à legislação. A análise de marketing identificou o uso de 20 diferentes estratégias. A análise da composição nutricional declarada no rótulo permitiu concluir que os alimentos classificados com quantidades elevadas de açúcar, gordura saturada, gordura trans e/ou sódio corresponderam a 66%. Torna-se fundamental um modelo eficiente de regulação e fiscalização da rotulagem e marketing de modo a garantir informações claras e fidedignas. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of processed foods for children marketed in the city of Rio de Janeiro from the perspective of nutrition labeling and marketing in terms of the prevailing regulations. Industrialized foods and beverages consumed by were evaluated in the categories most commonly consumed by children were assessed. The product labels selected for the study were evaluated according to the parameters established in the current regulations, the marketing resources employed in

  7. IMPORTANCE OF CREATIVE ADVERTISING AND MARKETING ACCORDING TO UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Remziye Terkan

    2014-01-01

    Advertising has crucial role in todays competitive marketing world. This research studies two important persuasive processes often employed in the management of businesses; Creative Advertising and Marketing Management. Creative Advertising and Marketing Management is necessary in order to have a complete understanding of how producers and sales companies work effectively. While advertising performs the communicative function of informing consumers about a company’s product or services, creat...

  8. DYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE TRIANGLE FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS – EXCHANGE RATE – CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triangular causal relationship between foreign direct investments, exchange rate and capital market at the level of the CEE countries. For this purpose, we use the weight of market capitalization of listed companies into GDP as proxy for the degree corresponding to the stock market development, the variability of the exchange rate as proxy for the macroeconomic environment and weight of foreign direct investments into GDP as a proxy for the country’s capacity to attr...

  9. A risk perspective on market integration and the reform of support of renewables in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pahle, Michael; Schweizerhof, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of supporting power from renewable energy (RE) through guaranteed feed-in tariffs, the German Government has initiated reforms to integrate RE into the market. To eventually achieve market integration requires that RE investors carry power market risks, in particular the power price risk. At the same time however, under the current financial structure higher risks are likely to have a negative impact on the bankability of new RE projects, which by extension may endang...

  10. IMPORTANCE OF CREATIVE ADVERTISING AND MARKETING ACCORDING TO UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remziye Terkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advertising has crucial role in todays competitive marketing world. This research studies two important persuasive processes often employed in the management of businesses; Creative Advertising and Marketing Management. Creative Advertising and Marketing Management is necessary in order to have a complete understanding of how producers and sales companies work effectively. While advertising performs the communicative function of informing consumers about a company’s product or services, creative advertising is also attract people to the market, marketing management is a much more complex managerial process which encompasses activities such as; marketing research, product conception and design, pricing, distribution and even advertising. Today, in current globalized and rapidly expanding business conscious world; creative advertising and marketing management are increasingly becoming more relevant to the businesses. Companies need to adopt creative strategies and innovations in their operations in order to survive the challenges of the ever expanding global market. In the study, creative advertising and its importance in marketing managemet are investigated and examined by sample group of university students.

  11. The role of two-sided splinting for recalcitrant paediatric post-burn hand flexion contracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyono, Toh; Caroline, I

    2017-07-01

    A 2-year-old boy presented to the plastic and reconstructive surgery outpatient clinic with bilateral post-burn hand flexion contracture. The contracture had been released twice elsewhere. The third surgical repair on one hand at a time was conducted by the author (TOHP). However, inadeq.uate compliance to the postoperative splinting and exercise led to the recurrence of the contracture in the following year. A customised two-sided splint was therefore created to ensure proper placement and compliance. Reinforcement to the parents to encourage the boy to practise active exercise on demand was also an integral part of the management. Good functional and cosmetic outcome were presented at 1-year follow-up. This case highlights the value of a two-sided splint for the management of post-burn hand flexion contracture in children whose compliance is inevitably cannot be guaranteed.

  12. THE MARKET OF INNOVATIONS: FACTORS, INCENTIVES, OBSTACLES AND PERSPECTIVES FOR EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia KRAUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incentives and obstacles of effective functioning of the innovations are investigated in the article. It is determined that on the formation of the market and establishment of its equilibrium directly affects a number of system characteristics that established in the institutional environment, including such as: differing vectors of actions of economic (market and political (political and legal institutes and state factors of the development of national economy; formation of a “double standard” and various rules of the market game for different classes of participants; negative mutual influence of key institutes, which indicates that the state has no interest in establishing of transparent rules and eliminates the possibility of effective regulation in individual segments. It is offered an author’s understanding of the market of innovations through the prism of institutionalism, the market of innovations is a complete range of social and economic institutions-organizations and joint structures and aims the economic exchange, that includes a common understanding of mutual benefit, the transfer of ownership, “transparent” and fair agreements on proportional sharing. It is proved that institutional factor in some situations that arise in the market is a natural limiter, controller of his freedom. Institute of the market of innovations is under the powerful influence of a number of informal and not always visible institutional the market of innovations. They include intuition of manufacturers, perception the innovations by individuals, feelings, motives of internal motivations of consumer behavior. It is presented institutional structure of the market of innovations according to different levels of economic aggregation in order to obtain an overall vision of institutional design of the market of innovations. This structuring enables better determine with possible mutual influences and relationships between the “players” in the

  13. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Hamner; Marshall S. White; Philip A. Araman

    2006-01-01

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional...

  14. Impurity-defect structure of anodic aluminum oxide produced by two-sided anodizing in tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakova, K. V.; Vrublevsky, I. A.; Ivanovskaya, M. I.; Kotsikau, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    Porous aluminum oxide is prepared in a 0.4 M aqueous solution of tartaric acid by two-sided anodizing. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR) data reveal the presence, in the alumina, of unoxidized tartarate ions, as well as products of their partial (radical organic products and CO) and complete (CO2) oxidation. Carboxylate ions and elemental carbon contained in the anodic oxide impart a gray color to the films.

  15. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  16. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  17. Application of the Social Marketing Model to Unemployment Counseling: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…

  18. The melding of drug markets in Houston after Katrina: dealer and user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Fackler, Jennifer; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-07-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the majority of routine activities in New Orleans were disrupted, including the illegal drug market. The large-scale relocation of New Orleans evacuees (NOEs), including many illegal drug users and sellers, to host cities led to a need for new sources of illegal drugs. This need was quickly satisfied by two initially distinct drug markets (1) drug dealers from New Orleans who were themselves evacuees and (2) established drug dealers in the host cities. To be expected, the two markets did not operate indefinitely in parallel fashion. This paper describes the evolving, operational relationship between these two drug markets over time, with a focus on Houston. We analyze the reciprocal evolution of these two markets at two significant points in time: at the beginning of the relocation (2005) and two years later (2007). The overall trend is towards a melding of the two drug markets, as evidenced primarily by decreases in drug-related violence and the cross-fertilization of drug tastes. We describe the process by which the two drug markets are melded over time, in order to seek a better understanding of the social processes by which drug markets in general evolve.

  19. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  20. Application of the Social Marketing Model to Unemployment Counseling: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…

  1. The use of storytelling in quantitative research reports: A marketing research firm perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Maritz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Actionable reporting ensures that a marketing research firm communicates with clients to achieve business impact as opposed to merely communicating data to clients. Storytelling communicates with impact as it focuses on creating engagement and inspiring action.Research purpose: This article investigates the use of storytelling as a tool for actionable reporting by South African marketing research firmsMotivation for the study: Clients of marketing research firms often criticise research reports as being too technical and lacking in strategic value. Storytelling is a reporting technique that can be used to develop actionable research and provide clients with more strategic value. Research design, approach and method: A total of 26 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with client service directors and managers of marketing research firms that deliver quantitative research reports to clients.Main findings: Results indicated that all marketing research firms but one use storytelling. Barriers that impede more regular use are inexperienced research executives and the time intensity associated with creating stories.Practical/managerial implications: Storytelling should be used by marketing research firms to provide clients with more actionable research.Contribution/value-add: The study provides marketing research firms in South Africa with recommendations as to how to implement storytelling as a reporting technique, which will add value to clients and enable marketing research firms to remain competitive and develop relationships with clients. 

  2. Structure Characteristics of the International Stock Market Complex Network in the Perspective of Whole and Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International stock market forms an abstract complex network through the fluctuation correlation of stock price index. Past studies of complex network almost focus on single country’s stock market. Here we investigate the whole and partial characteristics of international stock market network (ISMN (hereinafter referred to as ISMN. For the analysis on the whole network, we firstly determine the reasonable threshold as the basic of the following study. Robustness is applied to analyze the stability of the network and the result shows that ISMN has robustness against random attack but intentional attack breaks the connection integrity of ISMN rapidly. In the partial network, the sliding window method is used to analyze the dynamic evolution of the relationship between the Chinese (Shanghai stock market and the international stock market. The connection between the Chinese stock market and foreign stock markets becomes increasingly closer, and the links between them show a significant enhancement especially after China joined the WTO. In general, we suggest that transnational investors pay more attention to some significant event of the stock market with large degree for better risk-circumvention.

  3. Homeland Security Education: Managerial versus Nonmanagerial Market Perspectives of an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Daniel; Henley, Russ; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Jones, Don; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; Sumrall, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the findings of a market study that preceded the offering of an academic program in homeland security. The university disseminated a mail survey to gain data for analysis of variance testing of several hypotheses regarding market perceptions of the intended homeland security program offering. Stratification involved segregating…

  4. An Analysis Credit Rating Factors of Steel Distributors from Customer Perspective in Iran\\\\\\'s Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Moshabbaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study with aim of investigation and identification of most important determinant criteria in significant distributors selecting by retailer customers did in Iran steel market and Arvin steel distributor selected as case of study. This research is of survey type and for data collect, a questionnaire was developed from various sources in the literature, used. Sample of 107 customers of Arvin steel distributor in Tehran city was selected. Also, Structure Equation Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and two software package "SPSS and LISREL" are used for analyzing the data. in total, nine variable "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "relationship intensity", "logistics capability", "financial capability", "physical facilities", "market cover", "product line" and "reputation" of distributor identified as main determinant factors in distributor selecting. Study findings show that the effect of "managerial capability", "marketing capability", "Relationship intensity", "Logistics capability", "financial capability", "Physical facilities", "Market cover" and "reputation" on distributor choice were statistically significant.

  5. The Management of Innovation Process from Market Orientation Perspective in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia PANDELICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marketing and management researchers pointed out, beginning whit ’90s, the benefits of implementation of a new business philosophy – market orientation. Even if, the concept has an interdisciplinary approach, all academics and managers started from the same point – market orientation is a business philosophy, which connects all the functional areas of the organization to environment in which operates and ensures long-term profitability. Even if, the market orientation concept was the topic for many researches, in economic literature any framework model of implementation was not developed. In the article we present a framework model, which will emphasise the steps, and changes that an organization has to do to become market orientated, beginning from the particular case of automobile industry.

  6. Postmoderne marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  7. Effects of marketing tactics relationship on customer loyalty from the perspective of Irancell customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The company's goal of creating long-term relationship with its customers is to reach their loyalty. Today for marketers, relationship marketing is more important for satisfying this purpose. Relationship marketing tactics are as marketing executive arms that cause retaining current customers and by means of a high quality communication makes trust and satisfaction and consequent customer loyalty. Despite competitors’ environmental factors and their advertisements, loyal customers keep purchasing and ensure the profitability of the company in this turbulent market. By investigating the past research studies and gathering information from reliable sources the relationship between relationship marketing tactics (quality of service, price perception, brand mentality and proposed value on relationship quality (trust and customer satisfaction which in turn will lead to increased loyalty of their customers, are surveyed among Irancell cellphone operator costumers. Required data based on an analytical framework for this study were distributed as questionnaire among students at the University of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2012 and research hypotheses were examined using multivariate linear regression test. The survey indicated that company was successful in the implementation of marketing tactics. Therefore, there are significant levels of customer satisfaction and trust and thus win their loyalty (90 percent.

  8. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI on the Environment: Market Perspectives and Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI may have a positive effect on the level of pollution in host countries, as described by the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH. However, this kind of effect may depend on the economic conditions in host countries. In this study, we conduct research on the FDI’s effect on China’s CO2 emissions during the market-oriented reform. The results are as follows. Firstly, FDI directly promotes China’s CO2 emissions. Secondly, with market-oriented reform, this positive effect from FDI is lowering year by year, which indicates that the market-oriented reform could alleviate the positive effect of FDI on China’s CO2 emissions. Thirdly, as China’s market-oriented reform was implemented gradually from experimental zones to the whole country, regional market development is uneven, and as such so is FDI’s effect on local CO2 emissions. Provinces in the eastern area generally evidenced higher market development and lower CO2 emissions from FDI, while four provinces in west area evidenced both lower market development and higher CO2 emissions from FDI.

  9. Studying the Effects of Relationship Marketing Tactics on Customers Loyalty from the Perspective of Irancell Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgaryeh Ahari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The company's goal of creating long-term relationship with its customers is to reach theirloyalty. Today for marketers, relationship marketing is more important for satisfying thispurpose. Relationship marketing tactics are as marketing executive arms that cause retainingcurrent customers and by means of a high quality communication makes trust and satisfactionand consequent customer loyalty. Despite competitors’ environmental factors and theiradvertisements, loyal customers keep purchasing and ensure the profitability of the companyin this turbulent market. By investigating the past research studies and gathering informationfrom reliable sources the relationship between relationship marketing tactics (quality ofservice, price perception, brand mentality and proposed value on relationship quality (trustand customer satisfaction which in turn will lead to increased loyalty of their customers, aresurveyed among Irancell cellphone operator costumers. Required data based on an analyticalframework for this study were distributed as questionnaire among students at the Universityof Sistan and Baluchestan in 2012 and research hypotheses were examined using multivariatelinear regression test. The survey indicated that company was successful in theimplementation of marketing tactics. Therefore, there are significant levels of customersatisfaction and trust and thus win their loyalty (90 percent.

  10. The Educational Asset Market: A Finance Perspective on Human Capital Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2002-01-01

    Like the stock market, the human capital market consists of a wide range of assets, i.e. educations. Each young individual chooses the educational asset that matches his preferred combination of risk and return in terms of future income. A unique register-based data set with exact information...... on type and level of education enables us to focus on the shared features between human capital and stock investments. An innovative finance-labor approach is applied to study the educational asset market. A risk-return trade-off is revealed which is not directly related to the length of education....

  11. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  12. A Marketing Perspective: Try Looking at Charitable Trusts from the Donor's Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, Linda J.

    1979-01-01

    Charitable remainder trusts and charitable income trusts are discussed as essentials in any "marketing mix" of gift-giving options. Unitrusts and annuity trusts are described and tax benefits of the charitable income trust are explained. (MLW)

  13. STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IN SPORTS – A PERSPECTIVE OF QUALITY OF LIFE IMPROVEMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela; Constantinescu Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    .... This article focuses on the particularities of strategic marketing planning in sport, given the fact that the vast majority of sports organizations in Romania, although very active on the reference...

  14. The competency profile of online BMA graduates viewed from a job market perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitó Bertran, Àngels; Martínez Argüelles, María Jesús; Moya Gutiérrez, Soledad

    2014-01-01

    .... In this setting, generic competencies become particularly relevant for the job market.Additionally, in recent years we have seen a significant increase in the number of online higher education options...

  15. U.S. HAZELNUT MARKET TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES FOR A MICHIGAN HAZELNUT INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cely, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to provide potential Michigan growers with information on major trends and markets of the U.S. hazelnut industry. Another objective was to explore certain important factors. apparent challenges and possible opportunities for a potential Michigan hazelnut industry. In respect to the first goal, this paper analyzed major production and market trends for the Oregon hazelnut industry, which constitutes almost all of the U.S. hazelnut crop, and explored some i...

  16. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A marketing science perspective on recognition-based heuristics (and the fast-and-frugal paradigm)

    OpenAIRE

    John Hauser

    2011-01-01

    Marketing science seeks to prescribe better marketing strategies (advertising, product development, pricing, etc.). To do so we rely on models of consumer decisions grounded in empirical observations. Field experience suggests that recognition-based heuristics help consumers to choose which brands to consider and purchase in frequently-purchased categories, but other heuristics are more relevant in durable-goods categories. Screening with recognition is a rational screening rule when advertis...

  18. The photovoltaic: channels, markets and outlooks; Le photovoltaique: les filieres, les marches, les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourde, P. [CEA Cadarache (GENEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    The photovoltaic market is in expansion with a good energy, political and environmental context. It needs meanwhile to realize developments in the storage domain and in the cost of connexion to the network. To illustrate these conclusions this paper discusses the following chapters: the solar energy, the principle and the channels of the photovoltaic, the applications (autonomous electrification and houses connected to the network) and the markets, a state of the art and the outlooks. (A.L.B.)

  19. Strategies in the Colombian Telecommunication Market – Seen Through the Perspective of Porter

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin, Bodil; Jönsson, Lars Holmberg and Caroline

    2006-01-01

    The most important conclusion we can draw from our research is that Porter´s three generic strategies, mainly the differentiation strategy, still are frequently used in the Colombian telecommunication market. Another conclusion is that a high-speed changing environment, such as the Colombian market, demands that the operators combine and integrate their strategy with other secondary strategies to become succesful. They can not, as Porter says, only depend on one strategy

  20. European Medicines Agency Perspective on Oncology Study Design for Marketing Authorization and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Martinalbo, J; Pignatti, F

    2017-05-01

    In the development of highly active anticancer drugs, the European situation may be viewed as paradoxical. Limited data may support marketing authorization, but may be insufficient for the health economic appraisal needed for reimbursement and market uptake. To achieve this, conventional confirmatory studies may be needed. For products of special interest, studies aimed at optimizing cost-effectiveness may be warranted. Efficient designs of studies to meet these objectives constitute challenges to all stakeholders. © 2017 ASCPT.

  1. Setting Customer Expectation in Service Delivery: An Integrated Marketing-Operations Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Teck H. Ho; Yu-Sheng Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Service firms have increasingly been competing for market share on the basis of delivery time. Many firms now choose to set customer expectation by announcing their maximal delivery time. Customers will be satisfied if their perceived delivery times are shorter than their expectations. This gap model of service quality is used in this paper to study how a firm might choose a delivery-time commitment to influence its customer expectation, and delivery quality in order to maximize its market sh...

  2. Drug product registration and marketing authorization procedures in EU-A perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Karande; Krishnamurthy Bhat; Manthan Janodia; PC, Jagadish; Ashish Kekare; Udupa, N

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThere are 27 European Union (EU) member states, 3 European Economic Area (EEA) andEuropean Free Trade Association (EFTA) states. For a company willing to market the medicinalproduct in to the EEA, marketing authorization (MA) for the respective product mustbe issued by competent authority of member state or authorization granted according toRegulation (EC) No. 726/2004 for entire community. Europe constitutes large population andEuropean government is alert regarding safety of the pub...

  3. Brand Positioning - an Analyze of the Romanian Chocolate Bars Market from Youngsters’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dulea Iulia - Andreea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Positioning is a very important component of the marketing strategy. Positioning has an impact on the entire marketing mix and is crucial for differentiating a brand from competition and gaining competitive advantage. The evaluation of the consumer's perceptions about the positioning of the existing brands in a category is a must in order to design an effective brand positioning or repositioning strategy. This paper assesses youngsters’s perceptions about the positioning of the choc...

  4. Industrial application trends and market perspectives for virtual reality and visual simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Valerio Netto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide an overview of current market trends in industrial applications of VR (Virtual Reality and VisSim (visual simulation for the next few years. Several market studies recently undertaken are presented and commented. A profile of some companies that are starting to work with these technologies is provided, in an attempt to motivate Brazilian companies into the use of these new technologies by describing successful example applications undertaken by foreign companies.

  5. Current Behaviours and Future Prospects of Online Film Consumption in China: A Social Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    Free film downloading services have gained large popularity among Chinese consumers, although there is potential film copyright losses as many of the downloading resources offer pirated films. Based on previous studies of consumer behaviour theory, social marketing and film piracy, this research was an attempt to gain an understanding of the factors that influence consumer film downloading and to discuss the role of social marketing in changing such behaviour through promoting paid online fil...

  6. An Analysis of Oral Health Campaigns from a Social Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MUMCU, KÖKSAL, ŞİŞMAN, Gonca, Leyla, Nur

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to analyse oral health campaigns according to their use of social marketing in Turkey. Method: 35 oral health campaigns regarding oral health were assessed according to social marketing principles including message, target group, aim, communication strategies and tactics, and mass media tools.Results: The prominent aims of the campaigns were to facilitate awareness of oral health (24.5%, n=12), oral examination (26.5%, n=13), preventative oral healthcare an...

  7. Post market surveillance in the german medical device sector - current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Claus; Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Medical devices play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases but also bring the potential for adverse events, hazards or malfunction with serious consequences for patients and users. Medical device manufacturers are therefore required by law to monitor the performance of medical devices that have been approved by the competent authorities (post market surveillance). Conducting a nationwide online-survey in the German medical device sector in Q2/2014 in order to explore the current status of the use of post market instruments we obtained a total of 118 complete data sets, for a return rate of 36%. The survey included manufacturers of different sizes, producing medical devices of all risk classes. The post market instruments most frequently reported covered the fields of production monitoring and quality management as well as literature observation, regulatory vigilance systems, customer knowledge management and market observation while Post Market Clinical Follow-up and health services research were being used less for product monitoring. We found significant differences between the different risk classes of medical devices produced and the intensity of use of post market instruments. Differences between company size and the intensity of instruments used were hardly detected. Results may well contribute to the development of device monitoring which is a crucial element of the policy and regulatory system to identify device-related safety issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija

    2008-02-01

    Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics sold in capsules, sachets, and other pharmaceutical forms. Yogurt-type drinks are the fastest-growing product category, but the diversity of probiotic food applications is not limited to milk-based products. Probiotic fruit juices, berry soups, and soy- and cereal-based fermented products are also sold. Some probiotic strains that are successful in Europe are marketed globally, but there is also a variety of local probiotic strains that are key players in their limited markets. The health messages of probiotic products have focused mainly on general well-being and support of gastrointestinal microbiota. However, because of newly accepted regulation from the European Union regarding health claims, such claims will be evaluated officially, which may substantially change their content. However, more-specific product claims may also appear on the market. This article describes trends and phenomena in mainly the food sector, which covers the most-successful probiotic applications, but food supplements are also discussed.

  9. Are crude oil markets multifractal? Evidence from MF-DFA and MF-SSA perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we investigated the multifractality and its underlying formation mechanisms in international crude oil markets, namely, Brent and WTI, which are the most important oil pricing benchmarks globally. We attempt to find the answers to the following questions: (1) Are those different markets multifractal? (2) What are the dynamical causes for multifractality in those markets (if any)? To answer these questions, we applied both multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal singular spectrum analysis (MF-SSA) based on the partition function, two widely used multifractality detecting methods. We found that both markets exhibit multifractal properties by means of these methods. Furthermore, in order to identify the underlying formation mechanisms of multifractal features, we destroyed the underlying nonlinear temporal correlation by shuffling the original time series; thus, we identified that the causes of the multifractality are influenced mainly by a nonlinear temporal correlation mechanism instead of a non-Gaussian distribution. At last, by tracking the evolution of left- and right-half multifractal spectra, we found that the dynamics of the large price fluctuations is significantly different from that of the small ones. Our main contribution is that we not only provided empirical evidence of the existence of multifractality in the markets, but also the sources of multifractality and plausible explanations to current literature; furthermore, we investigated the different dynamical price behaviors influenced by large and small price fluctuations.

  10. Perspectives for the brazilian petroleum market; Perspectivas do mercado de derivados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschiver, Suzana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Sistema de Informacao da Industria Quimica (SIQUIM); Barros, Marisa M. [Refinaria de Petroleos de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present work aims to present an overview of the Brazilian petroleum derivatives market following the loosening of PETROBRAS's monopoly in 1997, and to highlight the redefining of the roles of the traditional actors in this sector - refineries and petrochemical complexes - as well those of the new players - the formulators and importers. Regulation of this new model following the opening of the market has been important in establishing a competitive environment, while the competitive strategies adopted by companies have undoubtedly been fundamental to their survival. Along with these changes, this work also considers other aspects of the market, such as: the insufficiency of domestic production to meet the growing demand for derivatives, mainly LPG, naphtha and diesel, making Brazil more dependent on imports; and the technological and capacity limitations of the refinery sector, which create an impediment to the processing of the country's domestic, typically heavy crude, oil production, the offer of which is currently increasing, while excess production is destined for export. While the overall effect of a scenario favorable to internationalization is to make companies more vulnerable to the global politico-economic conjuncture, it also opens the possibility for them to access new technologies and markets, which is crucial for their development and increased competitiveness. This article presents examples of alternatives encountered by the refining sector in its efforts to meet market necessities. (author)

  11. General Motors perspective on the potential of diesel vehicles for the U.S. automotive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, J.G.; Indra, F.; Freese, C.; Brown, D.; Potter, M. [General Motors Powertrain, Pontiac (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The European market for diesel-powered vehicles has seen tremendous growth over the last ten years. This trend is driven by the superior fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions of diesel engines, tax policies that favor diesel-powered vehicles, and emission regulations tailored to the capabilities of the diesel engine. The diesel growth observed in Europe has not been reproduced in the United States due in part to an economic environment that does not favor diesel-powered vehicles and U.S. light-duty emission regulations primarily based on the capability of the gasoline engine. This paper discusses the challenges associated with diesel market expansion in the United States and the technologies being developed to address these challenges. The paper concludes with an assessment of the potential for future U.S. diesel vehicle market growth.

  12. New directions in the use of virtual reality for food shopping: marketing and education perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is used in marketing research to shape food selection and purchase decisions. Could it be used to counteract the marketing of less-nutritious foods and teach healthier food selection? This article presents interviews with Raymond Burke, Ph.D., of Indiana University Bloomington, and Rachel Jones, M.P.H., of the University of Utah College of Health. Topics covered include new marketing research technologies, including virtual reality simulations; retailing and shopper behavior; and the use of virtual grocery stores to help students explore quality of diet and food/nutrient relationships. The interviewees discuss how the technologies they have developed fit into research and behavior change related to obesity and diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. The Competitive Manager and His Role in SMEs from the Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Elías López Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This reflection article aims to relate how the evolution of marketing in SMEs directly affects the development of skills of managers of organizations in a global scenario. The approaches of administrative sciences and, marketing approaches in particular, have changed significantly; however, the comprehensive training of managers regarding other functional areas such as production, finance, human talent and information systems complement the strength in the organizational leader’s management from the tactical and, in particular, the strategic guidelines. This reflection begins with the relationship between SMEs and entrepreneurship, as well as the important role of all levels of marketing within companies. Then, the role of managers is analyzed, together with the development of the skills necessary for the generation of entrepreneurial ideas through the creation of SMEs.

  14. Strategic planning to reduce conflicts for offshore wind development in Taiwan: A social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyun-Long; Liu, Hsiang-Hsi; Chuang, Ching-Ta

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to improve the current inefficiency and ineffectiveness of communications among stakeholders when planning and constructing offshore wind farms (OWFs). An analysis using a social marketing approach with segmentation techniques is used to identify the target market based on stakeholders' perceptions. The empirical results identify three stakeholder segments: (1) impact-attend group; (2) comprehensive group; and (3) benefit-attend group. The results suggest that communication should be implemented to alter stakeholders' attitudes toward the construction of OWFs. Furthermore, based on the results of segmentation, target markets are identified to plan the communication strategies for reducing the conflicts among stakeholders of OWF construction. The results also indicated that in the planning phase of construction for OWFs, effective stakeholder participation and policy communication can enhance the perception of benefits to reduce conflict with local communities and ocean users.

  15. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.

  16. An Analysis of Colombian Power Market Price Behavior from an Industrial Organization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Duarte Venslauskas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the behavior of spot prices in the Colombian wholesale power market, using a series of models derived from industrial organization theory.  We first create a Cournot-based model that simulates the strategic behavior of the market-leader power generators, which we use to estimate two industrial organization variables, the Index of Residual Demand and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.  We use these variables to create VAR models that estimate spot prices and power market impulse-response relationships.  The results from these models show that hydroelectric generators can use their water storage capability strategically to affect off-peak prices primarily, while the thermal generators can manage their capacity strategically to affect on-peak prices.  In addition, shocks to the Index of Residual Capacity and to the HHI cause spot price fluctuations, which can be interpreted as the generators´ strategic response to these shocks.

  17. COMPETENCES ACQUIRED BY GRADUATES THROUGH MARKETING HIGHER EDUCATION - FINDINGS FROM THE EMPLOYERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaias Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the economic higher education in providing the graduates with marketing competences is to train them for employment. In light of the said objective, two important aspects must be taken into account by educators. First, the gap between theory and practice must be eliminated. Secondly, educators must select and provide the competences required by employers so that new graduates may obtain employment matching up to their training. The purpose of the present study is to highlight the main dimensions which define employers perception of the marketing competences developed by the graduates whom they have employed. The starting point of the present scientific endeavour is the evaluation of the variables which define the transversal competences and the marketing-specific competences.

  18. The Evaluation of Unincorporated Areas – Particularities and Perspectives on the Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Beldiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market in Romania occupies an important position within the national economy, with the results in the real estate field having a significant impact on the determination of the macroeconomic indicators� values. We can consider that within each economy, the real estate market represents a complex sector, due to the high volume of carried out transactions and to the high number of individuals that take part in the carrying out of the transactions. The importance of area evaluation is guaranteed by the high number of its practical applications. The information provided by the evaluator is used by judicial institutions as a basis for various decision making processes.

  19. Influence of Feed Speed on the Content of Fine Dust during Cutting of Two-Side-Laminated Particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luďka Hlásková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of wood dust production during the sawing of two-side-laminated particleboards. It points out the dangerous impact of wood dust particles on people´s health and other unfavourable influences in the working environment. The aim of the paper was to introduce the research of dustiness, to determine the content of fine particles in sawdust and analyse the influence of feed rate on the granularity of sawdust created in the process of sawing two-side-laminated particleboards using modern circular saw. Sawing parameters were chosen for the optimal cutting speed of the circular-saw blade Pilana TFZL, vc = 84.3 m·s-1 and for three feed rates of a workpiece with the cut vf = 10, 15, 20 m·min-1. The collected sawdust particles were subjected to the particle-size analysis under exactly defined conditions by sieving and the basic granulometric analysis was made. Sieve analysis gives only a general particle-size distribution without any information considering the mass concentration of fine fraction of dust. Therefore, laser particle sizer Analysette 22 Microtec Plus was used to specify details concerning the size of dust particles smaller than 63 μm, which were collected in the bottom collector.

  20. Preliminary Study on Heavy Metal Pollution Status of Farmland Soil at Two Sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli; DUAN; Shuangyan; WANG; Zumin; ZHANG; Zhouping; YANG; Hua; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    The heavy metal content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is measured to make a preliminary evaluation on its heavy metal pollution status.After digestion and volume fixation of the soil samples collected,measure the Cu,Zn,Cd,Pb and Cr content with atomic absorption spectrophotometry and evaluate the measured data according to Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard to obtain the contamination status.Cu,Zn and Cd content of the farmland soil for sections of Cheng-Guan Expressway goes beyond Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard,while the Pb and Cr content meets Level Two of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard.Pb and Cr content of the farmland soil at two sides of Cheng-Guan Expressway is in safe state,while the Cu,Zn and Cd content is in a mild contamination state.Cu,Zn and Cd are the main pollution elements.

  1. LABOUR MARKET IN DEVELOPMENT REGION SOUTH WEST OLTENIA – REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabontu Cecilia Irina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the South West Oltenia Region have developed important activities in different areas. The most important activities are related to agriculture and natural potential and deposits, the South West Oltenia being one of the most important energy providers in the country. In this area that we brought into talk we find all sectors of the national economy. Agriculture is considered to be an important branch with a significant share in regional GDP with industry (food, non-ferrous metallurgy aluminum, chemical, electrical, machinery, light industry but we must also talk about the tertiary sector gets consistent in the economy of the region as well as nationally. We have proposed in this paper to provide an overview of the labor market in the Development South-West Oltenia Region,integrating it into national labor market realities. We will follow this to see if the labor market in the South-West Oltenia Region, reflect, generally, national trends. To analyze what we are proposed we used the latest official labor market statistics but to have a clearer picture on this field we used data provided by the National Commission of Forecasting, indicating the source.

  2. Working with Real Companies, Making a Real Impact: Student Perspectives on the Google Online Marketing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Guido; Ceccucci, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The Google Online Marketing Challenge is a global student competition in which teams are given $250 to develop and run an online advertising campaign for a business or non-profit organization over a three-week period. Despite the fact that 50,000 students have competed in the Challenge since its inception in 2008, relatively little is known about…

  3. University-Industry Collaboration from a Relationship Marketing Perspective: An Empirical Analysis in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquet, Marta; Calderon, Haydee; Cervera, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Building relationships between universities and industry bodies is of prime importance for creating value for universities' stakeholders. This paper focuses on relationships in relation to undergraduate internship programmes in the Social Sciences. Using the relationship marketing approach, we analyze this type of collaboration of firms with a…

  4. Enhancing the Interdisciplinary Perspective in the Marketing Management Decision Process through an Applied, Integrated, Client Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim-Lovseth, Mary K.; O'Keefe, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Businesses function within a cross-functional, integrative setting, and this necessitates providing a learning environment for students that is comparable to real-life work projects. Two upper-level university classes in marketing and information systems worked collaboratively with a snack food business to design and build a Web site based on a…

  5. Understanding the development and diffusion of integrated marketing communications (IMC) : A metaphorical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.P.; Thøger, L.; Vijn, P.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, theoretical commentaries and empirical research on the concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) have been concerned with its development and specification as a theoretical construct, and its diffusion among academics and practitioner populations across the globe. In this

  6. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  7. The marketing audit: a new perspective on library services and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, P J; Poole, C; Foster, E C

    1988-10-01

    A marketing audit enables a library to look at audiences, services, and products with a structured approach. The audit can be used to assess operations and to provide a framework for ongoing decision making, evaluation, and long-range planning. An approach to the audit process is presented and its application is demonstrated in a case study featuring the American Hospital Association Resource Center.

  8. University-Industry Collaboration from a Relationship Marketing Perspective: An Empirical Analysis in a Spanish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquet, Marta; Calderon, Haydee; Cervera, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    Building relationships between universities and industry bodies is of prime importance for creating value for universities' stakeholders. This paper focuses on relationships in relation to undergraduate internship programmes in the Social Sciences. Using the relationship marketing approach, we analyze this type of collaboration of firms with a…

  9. Teaching ERP Systems: A Multi-Perspective View on the ERP System Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Leyh, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in university courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward a few large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Therefore, this paper describes a course outline for an additional course…

  10. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  11. BRAND POSITIONING. AN ANALYZE OF THE ROMANIAN CHOCOLATE BARS MARKET FROM YOUNGSTERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulea Iulia - Andreea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Positioning is a very important component of the marketing strategy. Positioning has an impact on the entire marketing mix and is crucial for differentiating a brand from competition and gaining competitive advantage. The evaluation of the consumer's perceptions about the positioning of the existing brands in a category is a must in order to design an effective brand positioning or repositioning strategy. This paper assesses youngsters’s perceptions about the positioning of the chocolate bar brands existing in Romania through perceptual mapping. The results of the study show that the attributes by which youngsters assess chocolate bar brands can be grouped into the following categories: quality, taste and content, physical effects, price and appearance. Therefore, perceptual mapping is a useful technique in analysing a brand positioning strategy, but also in generating a brand repositioning strategy. Keywords: Positioning strategy, brand, perceptual mapping, positioning process, chocolate bars, youngsters.

  12. Content Analysis of KSE Pakistan – 100 Index Companies Websites: A Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, content analysis of Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE Pakistan 100 indexed companies is carried out to identify the mix of promotional activities on their web sites. This content analysis of Web sites utilized many categories representing a range of marketing communications, including: communicating product, pricing and dealer/retail location information, advertisements, sales promotion, direct marketing, basic company information, corporate social responsibility and public relations. The study identified difference between andamong industries based on ANOVA. The results revealed considerable variability in how members of the KSE 100 indexed companies used their Web sites. The Web sites ranged from very simple ones that focused on basic company information, such as company history, to quite complex Web sites that incorporated a mix of promotional elements, such as press releases, advertisements, games, free gifts and pricing information.

  13. A marketing science perspective on recognition-based heuristics (and the fast-and-frugal paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hauser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing science seeks to prescribe better marketing strategies (advertising, product development, pricing, etc.. To do so we rely on models of consumer decisions grounded in empirical observations. Field experience suggests that recognition-based heuristics help consumers to choose which brands to consider and purchase in frequently-purchased categories, but other heuristics are more relevant in durable-goods categories. Screening with recognition is a rational screening rule when advertising is a signal of product quality, when observing other consumers makes it easy to learn decision rules, and when firms react to engineering-design constraints by offering brands such that a high-level on one product feature implies a low level on another product feature. Experience with applications and field experiments suggests four fruitful research topics: deciding how to decide (endogeneity, learning decision rules by self-reflection, risk reduction, and the difference between utility functions and decision rules. These challenges also pose methodological cautions.

  14. The relevance of relationship marketing model for hair salon’s competitiveness: a theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund O. Amoakoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship marketing (RM concept seems to be best understood and embraced more by big business, while amongst myriad of small businesses it seems less prominent. This paper explores the need for RM as a determinant to hair salon’s competitiveness and growth. Hair industry in SA is declared a multi-billion dollar industry, their stagnation prompted this study. This paper contends that relationship building with customers has a profound effect on the inclination of a customer to return to the business. With the key variables of the relationship marketing model as the main determinants are namely service quality, customer satisfaction and customer retention. Increased practice of RM within this industry will enable owners to embrace entrepreneurial activities imperative for competitiveness, value creation and sustainability.

  15. Multicultural Marketing in Spain; perspectives on communications directed at immigrant population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Van-Wyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences among immigrants demand differentiated strategies from marketers. This research aims at defining multicultural marketing within national boundaries, detailing how it has been studied and succesfully implemented by leading practitioners. Two research methods are utilised in this study- the first is heuristic (since it makes use of secondary data; the second is qualitative, based on data derived from case study. This research on cultural differences shows that differences become bigger depending on the profile of that culture that integrates others. Results show that individuals do not go through their lives with just one cultural reference. On the contrary, they get in and out of different cultures. Therefore, advertising needs to focus on integrated and combined campaign

  16. An administrative marketing strategy: a different perspective on the nursing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, B A

    1988-11-01

    Through the methods of the nursing process, nurse administrators were able to sell nursing to nurses. The use of marketing to link the business world with nursing stimulated professional dedication, skill, and responsibility. The program helped to encourage habits of flexibility, ensure continuous learning, acceptance of change, and the opportunity for individuals and institutions to grow and advance. It promoted autonomous, collaborative, and consultative practice. Nurturing the nurse had become a reality.

  17. Corporate Governance and Efficiency of Russian Companies from Stock Market Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The article shows that a transition from a static to a dynamic analysis of corporate governance changes of the definition of "corporate governance" to include not only relationships between a company and its shareholders, but also company relationships with a variety of other stock market participants. The article analyses corporate governance's level of influence on company efficiency. It also suggests a minimum set of key corporate governance principles, by examining which company meets com...

  18. Explaining the present GM business strategy on the EU food market: the gatekeepers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inghelbrecht, Linde; Dessein, Joost; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-01-25

    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops and their applications is partially suppressed in European Union (EU) agriculture, even if one would expect otherwise given their complementarity with the neoliberal and industrialised EU agricultural regime in place. By applying a qualitative content analysis, this paper analyses how food manufacturers and retailers (referred to as gatekeepers in the food industry) explain and defend the exclusion of GM-labelled food products on the EU market. The study design places emphasis on the role of perceptions in the strategic behaviour of gatekeepers and on the role of interaction in this regard, as we assume that the way in which gatekeepers perceive the 'rules of the game' for commercialising GM crop applications on the EU food market will be influenced by their interaction with other agribusiness actors. In a first stage, the analysis determines thematic congruence in the (types of) perceptions that explain an agribusiness actor's overall interpretation of the EU business environment for GM crop applications. This perceived 'structuring arena' (SA) for GM crop applications - as conceptualised within our framework - contains areas of either internal and external tensions, that have a compelling or non-committal influence on the agribusiness actor's interpretation. In a second stage, the analysis particularly defines how gatekeepers in the food industry perceive and experience the SA for GM crop applications on the EU market, and how these perceptual tensions subsequently influence their strategic behaviour for GM-labelled products on the EU market. Finally, we highlight how these perceptions and actions (or inaction) suppress the main changes in practice that are necessary to manage this wicked problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspectives of Small Retailers in the Organic Market: Customer Satisfaction and Customer Enthusiasm

    OpenAIRE

    Bolten, Jan; Kennerknecht, Raphael; Spiller, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper we discuss the impact of customer satisfaction and enthusiasm on the performance of small retailers in the organic food market. The analysis of customer satisfaction and shop data confirm essential economic effects. The study is based on 948 customer interviews and an analysis of management ratios of 12 organic food shops in Germany. The results show that customer satisfaction is a relevant key to sales performance. Regression analysis reveals that overall customer sat...

  20. MARKETING AND COMPETITION LAW: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF TURKISH COMPETITION AUTHORITY CASES

    OpenAIRE

    KORTUNAY, NEVİN

    2016-01-01

    Increasing competition in many economies in the world brings back new strategy seekings. Sometimes these seekings cause “aggressive” or suicidal” applications. Since these applications negatively affect competition, legal arrangements about these subjects have been made with competition law in Turkey as in many countries. In this study the relationship between marketing and competition law was investigated by analyzing the decisions of Turkish Competition Authority. At the same time Turkish C...

  1. Past, Present, and Prospects for Thailand’s Growth: A Labor Market Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sra Chuenchoksan; Don Nakornthab

    2008-01-01

    Using growth accounting and econometric estimation methodologies, we investigate Thailand’s growth developments from 1972 to 2007 and project forward Thailand’s supply-side long-term potential growth till 2035. Our analysis is framed in terms of labor productivity and labor market developments. In this respect, the macroeconomic impact of Thailand’s ageing population is also highlighted. Our findings suggest that priority should be given to the resuscitation of capital accumulation or Thailan...

  2. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  3. US/ECRE and renewable energy market development: An institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    The author presents a summary of the structure and program of the US Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE). This organization was founded in 1982 as a consortium of US renewable energy trade associations, and is the non-profit/industry counterpart of CORECT. It serves to accelerate the diffusion of sustainable renewable energy services worldwide, and to enhance US industry`s position in this expanded marketplace. The projected energy growth in the next 20 years is expected to favor developing countries. Barriers in the way of renewable energy development include technology awareness, financing and risk reception, policy decisions, and institutional barriers. The industrial team hopes to address this problem through several different programs: strategic alliances; end-user outreach; industry market development; policy/project development; financing and facilitation. The program involves several phases: first, market conditioning; second, regional conferences and exhibitions; third, follow-up and implementation. There are currently four major focus areas for US effort: Latin America and the Caribbean; southern Africa; Asia; Russia and the FSU. The status of programs addressed toward these markets is described in more detail.

  4. Labor market performance in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Radonjić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze some aspects of the efficiency of labor markets in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina and compare resulting outcomes with the outcomes of labor markets efficiency in selected economies of the European Union. A particular focus of our analysis is on gender equality, due to the fact that not only gender inequality negatively affects the quality of life of individuals and society in general, but also can produce significant macroeconomic losses which negatively affect economic growth and development. When formulating policy that aims to increase the employability and income of the local population, our recommendation to governments, non-governmental and supranational institutions is to simultaneously take all necessary steps in order to provide women equal access to labor markets. This primarily refers to equality in access to newly created jobs, the uniformity of wages for a work with equal qualification, equal access to employment in formal economy, equal safety at work, equal access to social safety net etc.

  5. Orthodontic marketing through social media networks: the patient and practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristin L; Shroff, Bhavna; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    To (1) assess orthodontic patient and practitioner use of and preferences for social media and (2) investigate the potential benefit of social media in marketing and communication strategies in orthodontic practices. A survey was developed and randomly distributed to orthodontists via the American Association of Orthodontists and to patients/parents via private practices throughout the United States. Participants were asked to answer questions related to their use of social media and their perceptions of the use of social media in the orthodontic practice. Of the participants, 76% of orthodontists and 89% of patients/parents use social media. Furthermore, Facebook was the social media platform that was most preferred. Social media use was more common in female and younger adult participants. Orthodontists posted information more often in the morning (40%) and afternoon (56%), and patients/parents used social media mainly in the evening (76%). The most commonly used marketing strategies in the orthodontic practices were social media (76%) and a practice website (59%). Social media and practice websites were positively related with new patient starts (P  =  .0376, P  =  .0035, respectively). Most orthodontists and patients/parents used social media. Social media may be an effective marketing and communication tool in an orthodontic practice.

  6. Predicting Financial Distress in the Hong Kong Growth Enterprises Market from the Perspective of Financial Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study, according to our knowledge, is the first attempt to establish a financial distress prediction model for a unique set of enterprises, which are the enterprises listed on the specialized Hong Kong Growth Enterprise Market. It also makes an analysis of corporate financial sustainability and its relationship to financial distress prediction. The logistic regression and jackknife method are used to test the predictability of various models with data drawn from the Growth Enterprise Market for the years 2000–2010. The study finds that a model that includes firm-specific financial variables, firm-specific non-financial variables and a macro-economic variable is a better predictor of financial distress than is a model that includes only the first set of variables or a model that includes the latter two sets of variables. It also finds that a model that includes the latter two sets of variables is a better predictor of financial distress than is a model that includes only the first set of variables. These findings are vital for financial sustainability, as investors, policymakers, auditors and stakeholders of this market would find the conclusions emanating from the study extremely useful.

  7. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  8. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  9. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  10. Two-sided reflected Markov-modulated Brownian motion with applications to fluid queues and dividend payouts

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study a reflected Markov-modulated Brownian motion with a two sided reflection in which the drift, diffusion coefficient and the two boundaries are (jointly) modulated by a finite state space irreducible continuous time Markov chain. The goal is to compute the stationary distribution of this Markov process, which in addition to the complication of having a stochastic boundary can also include jumps at state change epochs of the underlying Markov chain because of the boundary changes. We give the general theory and then specialize to the case where the underlying Markov chain has two states. Moreover, motivated by an application of optimal dividend strategies, we consider the case where the lower barrier is zero and the upper barrier is subject to control. In this case we generalized earlier results from the case of a reflected Brownian motion to the Markov modulated case.

  11. A Study of Small Business Owners’ Personal Characteristics and the Use of Marketing Information in the Food and Drink Industry: A Resource-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cacciolatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Market orientation (MO – which is the propensity of a firm to collect and utilise information from the market – is an important leverage of competitive advantage. This paper helps to better understand why some owner-managers engage with market intelligence why others simply do not. The relationship among the owner-manager’s personal characteristics, entrepreneurial orientation (EO and MO are explored, despite existing literature neglected testing these simple but important relationships. We adopt a resource-based view (RBV of the firm perspective. This study aims to establish whether the personal characteristics of the entrepreneur impact the use of marketing information. More specifically, this study tests entrepreneurial attitude orientation, marketing expertise and demographic variables for an effect on the use of different types and sources of marketing information as well as the frequency of information usage. Data were collected through a regional survey of 296 small business owners and senior managers in SMEs in the Scottish food and drink industry. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA and regression analysis was used to test hypothesised relationships. Personal characteristics such as age (p<.05, gender (p<.002, previous experience (p<.05, and marketing expertise (p<.05 are critical factors affecting information use other than EO (p>.05. Implications for policy makers and practitioners involving small business subsidies and entrepreneurs’ marketing training are discussed.

  12. An Irrational Black Market? Boundary work perspective on the stigma of in-game asset transaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2005-01-01

    Eastern Asia's online gaming market has undergone spectacular growth over the past seven years, this has been due to the mass broadband internet distribution in South Korea and Taiwan. According to a survey conducted by the Taiwan Network Information Center(TWNIC 2004), Taiwan has over 9.36million broadband internet users, and within these users,18.11% stress out that their most frequent online activity is playing online games, this number implies that there are at least 1.96million online ga...

  13. The stakeholder approach: a new perspective on developing and marketing clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droms, Courtney M; Ferguson, Michael; Giuliano, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The use of evidence-based medical practice has become the standard for health care decision-making. Thus, it has become increasingly important for medical device manufactures to provide evidence for the efficacy of their products. As new products, services, and solutions are developed, it is important to perform a stakeholder analysis to assess clinical evidence needs. As evidenced by the variety of stakeholders in clinical trials, we expect that each has different interests in how clinical trials are developed, conducted, and promoted to the general public. This analysis of the stakeholders' concerns provides recommendations for marketing professionals on meeting the needs of these stakeholders.

  14. Madrid 2012 project evaluation under a market perspective: An exploration of possibilities and opportunities for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO GIMENO NOGUÉS

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Madrid has never been so close to the organization of the Olympic Games since April 24, 1966 when Madrid lose against Munich to organize the Olympic Games of 1972. When organizing the Olympic Games, it is necessary to bear in mind not only infrastructures and sport venues, but also the opportunity for improving the quality of life and the community image abroad. In the present work, the Madrid Olympic Project presented to the Olympic International Committee in order to be elected to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games is evaluated using a market orientation that takes into account the citizens” long term social welfare.

  15. Application of common knowledge operator and disruptive thinking perspective in case of mobile operating system market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Gircys

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a case study of mobile operating systems market, where mobile operating system makers share adistributed knowledge of mobile operating system basics and different levels of information about consumer expectations. According to the basic logics, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of an inferior one. In case the mobile operating system makers some chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on disruptive thinking instead of common knowledge.

  16. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  18. More than a prescriber: gerontological nurse practitioners' perspectives on prescribing and pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Ladd, Elissa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding about nurse practitioners' (NPs') prescriptive decision making for geriatric patients with attention to pharmaceutical marketing influences. Prior research has focused on physician prescribers and identified suboptimal practices. Because the majority of medications are prescribed to older adults, NPs in geriatric practice were targeted as an information-rich group to interview about prescribing issues. Given the exploratory nature of this research, qualitative focus group methods were employed using content analysis. Fifteen NPs were recruited at an annual national geriatric NP conference. They worked in all regions of the United States, had an average of 9 years prescribing experience, and participated in 1 of the 2 focus groups. The key theme that emerged was that they were more than a prescriber. Findings revealed overwhelming consistency among the NP participants that their nursing background instilled a holistic approach that encompassed both nondrug and therapeutic drug options and skepticism about drug marketing, as well as offered a positive difference by tailoring to their patients' biophysical, psychological, and economic needs with an involvement in the interplay of geriatric care issues not typically addressed by physicians. The participants' reported approaches were in alignment with geriatric prescribing recommendations.

  19. Technological trends and market perspectives for production of microbial oils rich in omega-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finco, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Mamani, Luis Daniel Goyzueta; Carvalho, Júlio Cesar de; de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-08-10

    In recent years, foods that contain omega-3 lipids have emerged as important promoters of human health. These lipids are essential for the functional development of the brain and retina, and reduction of the risk of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. The global market for omega-3 production, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), saw a large expansion in the last decade due to the increasing use of this lipid as an important component of infant food formulae and supplements. The production of omega-3 lipids from fish and vegetable oil sources has some drawbacks, such as complex purification procedures, unwanted contamination by marine pollutants, reduction or even extinction of several species of fish, and aspects related to sustainability. A promising alternative system for the production of omega-3 lipids is from microbial metabolism of yeast, fungi, or microalgae. The aim of this review is to discuss the various omega-3 sources in the context of the global demand and market potential for these bioactive compounds. To summarize, it is clear that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be sufficient to meet the future needs of the world population. The biotechnological production of single-cell oil comes as a sustainable alternative capable of supplementing the global demand for omega-3, causing less environmental impact.

  20. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  1. Marketing of Transnational Maize Seed Enterprises from the Perspective of Customer Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan HU; Yucheng HE; Wenna DING

    2016-01-01

    Customer is important equity of an enterprise. Customer equity is the total combined customer lifetime values of all of the company’s customers. In the context of invasion of transnational seed companies,how to cope with huge crisis and challenge is a problem to be solved by national companies and government. From the perspective of customer equity driving factors and sub-driving factors,this paper made an empirical study on transnational and national maize seed enterprises using principal component analysis( PCA). Results indicated that the driving factors for customer equity of national and transnational maize seed enterprises are basically similar,while there are large differences in ranking of importance of principal components. Besides,there are great differences in sub-driving factors of customer equity.

  2. A perfect match? A postcolonial perspective on well educated refugees at the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Jensen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    % of the refugees have a professional background in medicine, technical domains or engineering (The ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing). In Denmark efforts of integrating refugees can be accommodated by the fact that there is a shortage of highly skilled labor – mainly in the area of engineering...... and it-experts. This seems to be a perfect match, as the refugees hold the education and are eager to work. However, based on former studies on integration on labour market in Europe (Ahmed 2010, Jensen 2014) and the everyday discourses on refugees in Denmark we foresee that despite the refugees hold...... and static, which has constructed West as rational, democratic and dynamic (Said 2004) will be discussed in relation to the position refugees in the Danish labour marked is supposedly offered. The work of Gayatri Spivak, “Can the subaltern speak? will also be included. Based upon former studies of immigrants...

  3. The inclusion of disabled persons in the labor market in Belo horizonte, Brazil: scenario and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Silva, Priscila; Prais, Fabiana Gomes; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Even after the publication of Law 8213 in 1991, which established quotas for employing disabled persons, their inclusion in the workplace still presents a challenge for Brazilian society. In order to understand the main barriers that hamper this process a qualitative research study was conducted in the municipality of Belo Horizon-te. This study included interviews with important actors involved in the process of inclusion; and focus groups including disabled persons and members of their families. The main barriers encountered were: preconceived ideas and discrimination; family relationships; the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC) program; the low level of qualifi-cation among disabled person; lack of access; and the unpreparedness of companies. It was concluded that drafting laws is not sufficient to guarantee inclusion in the labor market and that governments should implement public policies to assist in this process.

  4. Protecting children from myopia: a PMT perspective for improving health marketing communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the predictive utility of the protection motivation theory (PMT) model for myopia prevention amongst children. An integrative model for myopia prevention behavior of parents was first developed in the context of theory and survey instruments then refined using information gathered from two focus groups. Empirical data then was collected from parents of primary school children in Singapore, a country with one of the highest rates of myopia in the world, and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Our findings revealed that coping appraisal variables were more significantly associated with protection motivation, relative to threat appraisal variables. In particular, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of parental intention to enforce good visual health behaviors, while perceived severity was relatively weak. Health marketing communications and public policy implications are discussed.

  5. Human life, media and market: a sociotechnical perspective of research with embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar de Almeida Nobre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnologies of reproduction emerge nowadays as radical destabilizing agents of what we understand as human life. Within this context, research involving stem cells are on the agenda of several academic articles and major newspapers and magazines around the world. The arguments vary from a sort of pride about the emancipatory power of technology to a fear about the absence of limits to restrict undesirable advances. Amid such controversies, our proposal is, based on Actor Network Theory, to draw a map of networks that produce what we understand as human life, insofar as it seems to be unstabled by the new biotechnologies of reproduction. We followed different mediators along their deviations, in order to produce a report based on the analysis of current bioethical controversies involving, specifically, embryonic stem cell research. These controversies led to a strong connection between media, new biotechnologies of human reproduction and a market logic.

  6. Cost variation analysis of Oral Hypoglycaemic agents available in Indian market: An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, a chronic disorder and requires life-long treatment. Cost of drug treatment is a major hurdle related to medication compliance in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To compare the cost and percentage price variation of single and combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Methods: India’s medical research body, particularly Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR issue guidelines for the management of T2DM. ICMR guidelines were perused to understand the management of T2DM. Current Index of Medical Specialities (CIMS Oct.-Jan.2015 edition and Indian Drug Review (IDR Issue 1, Jan.2015 were used to capture the price of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Percentage price variations between minimum and maximum cost of drugs were computed. Results: In the single drug therapy sulfonylurea group of drugs like Glipizide 5mg shows maximum variation of 780% followed by Glimepiride 2mg formulation by 682%, while the non-sulfonylurea groups of drug say, Pioglitazone 15mg shows maximum variation of 600%. In combination therapy Glimepiride 1mg + Metformin 500mg shows maximum price variation of 533%. Positive correlation exists between the number of manufacturing companies and percentage price variation of drugs. Conclusion: There is wide variation exist between the minimum and maximum cost among single as well as combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents. A maximum of 9 & 6 fold price variation was reported in single and combination therapy respectively.

  7. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  8. Oil and gas market report. Bolivia. Panorama and perspective for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mourik, J.A.M.

    1999-10-01

    Bolivia, with its large oil and natural gas potential, is becoming an increasingly important link in South American energy trade. With new fields and pipeline construction, the nation is becoming the natural gas hub for the Southern Cone. In 1998, Bolivia experienced 4,7% GDP growth, the fastest in South America, and Bolivia's best performance since 1988. In addition, Bolivia brought its inflation rate to a 2-decade low of 4,4 %. In addition to tight global capital markets, investments also is expected to decrease due to the completion of the Bolivia to Brazil gas pipeline. This extremely capital-intensive project accounted for a significant portion of Bolivia's investment for 1998 and 1999. Bolivia has made significant economic improvements over the past few years by adopting a series of free market policies. The mayor improvements in economic growth have been made possible primarily through the government's unique capitalization program of key national industries. In addition to the Capitalization Program, Bolivia's economic growth is a result of its involvement in several free trade associations. Bolivia, as well as Chile, is an associate partner of the Mercosur, whose members include Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Bolivia is also member of the Andean Pact, which comprises Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Bolivia's unique involvement in both of these trade groups is allowing it to become an important cornerstone in the integration of the South American continent. Specifically, Bolivia is increasingly becoming an important transport hub within the continent. Energy is one of the main products Bolivia is attempting to transport. According to the government, nearly $5 billion of investment is needed by 2005 so Bolivia can succesfully develop its oil and gas reserves, build pipelines, and construct power plants if it wishes to emerge as the regional hub.

  9. Theoretical Foundations of Contemporary Qualitative Market Research—An Overview and an Integrative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Frank

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of qualitative research has been growing consistently during the last decades. Being one of the major streams in the "research industry" it provides not only a valuable tool box for generating basic consumer insights, but it is also an essential part of the annual revenue of most research companies. As a consequence it is of utmost importance for providers of qualitative research to differentiate their own services from those of their competitors. While theoretical thinking is often not a beloved daily business, the importance of a theory-driven thinking and acting—as a potential commercial and intellectual (USP ("unique selling proposition"—has been discovered by many of the leading players in qualitative market research. A neutral observer might come to the conclusion that many claims of "unique approaches" are part of the usual public relation battles between institutes; nevertheless it is a worthwhile enterprise to work out basic common ground, but also the fundamental differences of the various "schools of thinking". It seems to be a matter of intellectual honesty and clarity to provide buyers of qualitative research, who are often trained in marketing but not in social sciences, with a clear cut picture of what they can expect or not expect from a specific theoretical approach. The current paper aims to give a synopsis on different psychological and ethnological theories which are currently used to support practical research, their explanation patterns for understanding consumer behaviour and their shared, but also their unique assumptions. The authors will also present an action-orientated model with an emotional (world of meaning and a cognitive (world of probability sub-system and describe the interaction of both systems for behavioural control which is integrating some of the basic assumptions made by other schools of thought. Finally, the paper points to a number of methodological implications of the model

  10. Connoisseurship Consumption and Market Evolution: An Instituional Theory Perspective on the Growth of Specialty Coffee Consumption in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ronan Torres Quintão; Eliane Pereira Zamith Brito

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars in the consumer culture field have attempted to understand how market evolves. Recently, marketing research has focused on the consumer-marketer relationship, considering peripheral consumers, and other marketplace actors who play important roles in consumption. However, little research in the marketing field has addressed the market dynamics in a context where consumers involved in connoisseurship practices take part in some aspect of institutional market change. Drawing f...

  11. First 3 mm-VLBI imaging of the two-sided jet in Cygnus A. Zooming into the launching region

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, B; Bach, U; Bremer, M; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present for the first time Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry images of the radio galaxy Cygnus A at the frequency of $86$ $\\rm GHz$. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of only ${\\sim}200$ Schwarzschild radii ($R_{\\bf S}$), such observations provide an extremely detailed view of the nuclear regions in this archetypal object and allow us to derive important constraints for theoretical models describing the launching of relativistic jets. A pixel-based analysis of the jet outflow, which still appears two-sided on the scales probed, was performed. By fitting Gaussian functions to the transverse intensity profiles, we could determine the jet width in the nuclear region. The base of the jets appears wide. The minimum measured transverse width of ${\\sim} (227\\pm98)$ $R_{\\bf S}$ is significantly larger than the radius of the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit, suggesting that the outer accretion disk is contributing to the jet launching. The existence of a faster and Doppler de-boosted inner section, powered eithe...

  12. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  13. Coupling Motion and Energy Harvesting of Two Side-by-Side Flexible Plates in a 3D Uniform Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid-structure interaction problems of two side-by-side flexible plates with a finite aspect ratio in a three-dimensional (3D uniform flow are numerically studied. The plates’ motions are entirely passive under the force of surrounding fluid. By changing the aspect ratio and transverse distance, the coupling motions, drag force and energy capture performance are analyzed. The mechanisms underlying the plates’ motion and flow characteristics are discussed systematically. The adopted algorithm is verified and validated by the simulation of flow past a square flexible plate. The results show that the plate’s passive flapping behavior contains transverse and spanwise deformation, and the flapping amplitude is proportional to the aspect ratio. In the side-by-side configuration, three distinct coupling modes of the plates’ motion are identified, including single-plate mode, symmetrical flapping mode and decoupled mode. The plate with a lower aspect ratio may suffer less drag force and capture less bending energy than in the isolated situation. The optimized selection for obtaining higher energy conversion efficiency is the plate flapping in single-plate mode, especially the plate with a higher aspect ratio. The findings of this work provide several new physical insights into the understanding of fish schooling and are expected to inspire the developments of underwater robots or energy harvesters.

  14. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  15. The Reverse Logistics From the Perspective Production-Market-Consumption: A Case O Boticário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Machado Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable development emerges as an alternative paradigm for the continuity of human action and meets the needs of current and future generations through economic growth in harmony with social and environmental aspects. From this perspective, it is understood that governments, consumers and businesses to encourage, foster and implement socio-environmentally correct practices. This study shows the reverse logistics as a tool that can be used by the company in order to reduce the impacts and achieve sustainable development. The research aims to analyze the reverse logistics process of post-consumer company O Boticário. For this, the qualitative research conducted in the form of a case study is based on an adaptation of the framework presented by Tukker et al. (2008, which involves three interrelated systems: production, marketing and consumption. Data collection was conducted through interviews with consumers of the focal firm, with employees of companies involved in the process, and with employees of competitor. Note that the reverse logistics analysis program needs to be better communicated, to expand the participation of the consumer. This in turn demonstrates interest in the program and the government through the National Solid Waste Policy stipulates the implementation of logistics systems, although not yet verified the use of incentives.

  16. Bank Income Diversification from Stock Market Perspective: Evidence from ASEAN+3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Helena Natalia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the effect of banks' revenue diversification on the stock-based return and risk measures using data on the ASEAN-5, and addition from China, Japan, and South Korea banking sector. This paper use panel Fixed Effect and robustness test with Random Effect and TSLS. We use non-interest income share as a measure for revenue diversification. We find that revenue diversification has no effect on bank market value but significantly decrease bank total risks. When non-interest income is decomposed, we find that fee-income business has significant positive effect on bank value. Furthermore, it’s important to see characteristic of banks that do diversification, such as bank size and capital. Overall, we give evidence that banks, especially which have big size and good condition on capital, could increase their value and lower their risk by doing diversification in income through non-interest income, especially with fee income and other non-interest income. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  17. E-COMMERCE NATIONAL MARKET - STUDY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANIFESTED DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce market in Romania recorded the lowest level of development compared to other EU countries, in terms of the intensity of online purchase habit of the population of Romania. Thus, in 2014, only 16.7% of those who used the computer in the range of 16-74 years and 10% of the total population of the same age had made online purchases, compared with 63.3% and 50% respectively - the same indicators at EU level. Still, in Romania there was a rapid increase in the share of those who make online purchases, so in 8 years (2007-2014 this indicator increased by 3 times. Regarding the categories of the population by various characteristics, greater orientation towards online purchases is recorded among individuals with high formal education, youth (under 35, with above-average incomes. In terms of product categories purchased online, the most favorite categories are: clothes, sports goods. This analysis is based mostly on official statistics provided by Eurostat.

  18. Using data mining to segment healthcare markets from patients' preference perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra S; Chen, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an example of how to use data mining techniques to identify patient segments regarding preferences for healthcare attributes and their demographic characteristics. Data were derived from a number of individuals who received in-patient care at a health network in 2006. Data mining and conventional hierarchical clustering with average linkage and Pearson correlation procedures are employed and compared to show how each procedure best determines segmentation variables. Data mining tools identified three differentiable segments by means of cluster analysis. These three clusters have significantly different demographic profiles. The study reveals, when compared with traditional statistical methods, that data mining provides an efficient and effective tool for market segmentation. When there are numerous cluster variables involved, researchers and practitioners need to incorporate factor analysis for reducing variables to clearly and meaningfully understand clusters. Interests and applications in data mining are increasing in many businesses. However, this technology is seldom applied to healthcare customer experience management. The paper shows that efficient and effective application of data mining methods can aid the understanding of patient healthcare preferences.

  19. 海峡两岸农业合作的政策演变、成效与对策%Policy Evolution, Effects and Countermeasures on Agricultural Cooperation between Two Sides across Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灵; 赖文山; 董微; 庄佩芬

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the policy evolution and effects of agricultural cooperation between two sides cross Taiwan Strait. The agricultural cooperation experimental zones and Taiwan farmer' s pioneer park are the major platforms between two sides cross Taiwan Strait, but the interaction cooperative mechanism in agricultural economic bodies between two sides cross Taiwan Strait hasn't yet formed. And the countermeasures including promoting the construction of the economic zone on the west side of the Taiwan Strait, strengthening policy guidance, building the Common Market, strengthening policy innovations and cooperation in science and technology, focusing on the exchanges and the introduction of the talented human resources, and optimizing the cooperation mechanism.%总结了海峡两岸农业合作发展的政策演变过程与成效,认为在两岸农业合作中两岸农业合作试验区和台湾农民创业园是主要的连接载体,但两岸农业经济主体的合作机制尚未形成双向互动;同时提出要加快海西经济区建设,强化政策引导,建立两岸“共同市场”;加强政策创新与科技合作,注重优秀资源和人才的交流与引进;优化配置,完善两岸农业合作机制。

  20. The four P's in social simulation, a perspective on how marketing could benefit from the use of social simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander

    Marketers employ the four P's - product, price, placement and promotion - in trying to optimize the performance of their products on a market. Both researchers and practitioners in the field of marketing will benefit from increasing their understanding of how the four P's relate to market dynamics

  1. The four P's in social simulation, a perspective on how marketing could benefit from the use of social simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Wander

    2007-01-01

    Marketers employ the four P's - product, price, placement and promotion - in trying to optimize the performance of their products on a market. Both researchers and practitioners in the field of marketing will benefit from increasing their understanding of how the four P's relate to market dynamics a

  2. Two side liquid-cooled and passively Q-switched disk oscillator with nanosheets in flowing CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    A passively Q-switched and two side liquid-cooled Nd:YAG disk oscillator is demonstrated, which is operated at a pump pulse width of 300 μs and a pump repetition rate of 10 Hz. The coolant flows over the two large surfaces of the disk and will be passed through by laser beam, so it can also serve as a saturable absorber. For the unmodulated laser, the pure CCl4 was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 15 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 795 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 27.4 % and the slope efficiency of 30 %; for the graphene Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with graphene nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 40 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 376 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 13 % and the slope efficiency of 18 %. The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 385 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 116 ns; for the MoS2 Q-switched laser, the CCl4 with MoS2 nanosheets was employed as coolant and a plane output mirror of 30 % transmission was employed. The maximum output energy of 486 mJ is realized corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 17 % and the slope efficiency of 22 %.The maximum average Q-switching repetition rate is 470 kHz, and the minimum average pulse width is 137 ns.

  3. 新媒体视角下的酒店营销策略分析%An Analysis on Hotel Marketing Strategies in the Perspective of New Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卓亚; 文波; 赵豫西

    2015-01-01

    随着科技的进步,传统的四大媒体已经无法满足目前市场营销的需要,酒店之间面临着激励竞争,纷纷借助新媒体向市场发起新一轮的营销攻势。文章从新媒体视角下探究酒店营销新策略。%With the progress in science and technology, traditional four media have failed to meet the needs of the current marketing there are fierce competitions amoug hotels, all of them are taking advantage of the new media to launch a new round of marketing campaign. This paper explored hotel marketing strategies in the perspective of new media.

  4. On The Higher Education Marketization In Management Perspective%从管理的角度看高等教育市场化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玥; 陈建新

    2013-01-01

    Marketization of higher education has achieved some good results as an effective measure to improve higher education participation rate .But we can see the process of China 's higher education market is still relatively slow compared with some developed countries .The paper majorly analyzes the reasons of the slowly development of higher education marketization from a management perspective, and to explore some countermeasures .%  本文主要从管理的角度来分析我国高等教育市场化发展缓慢的原因,并探讨加快我国高等教育市场化的对策。

  5. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  6. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  7. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  8. Investigating the Effects of Reward on the Cooperation in the Sale and Marketing Department from Managers’ Perspective (Isfahan Food Industries Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Dalvi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sale and marketing unit is of the most important departments in every organization. In comparison to the internal factors, the effective communications in sale and marketing has a crucial role in promoting organizational performance. Therefore, the present study was aimed to answer this question that can the employees promote their organization through sale and marketing efforts. Also this study seeks to answer this question that whether adoption of the common rewards facilitate the employees’ cooperation and decrease the conflicts between sale and marketing efforts. The statistical population of this study includes managers of Isfahan food industry. This statistical population consists of 180 male and female managers. A self-administrated questionnaire has been employed to collect the data. Validity of this questionnaire has been examined and confirmed by management and marketing professors and experts. Also its reliability has been examined through Cronbachs’ Alpha Coefficient. The coefficient 0.73 confirms reliability of the questionnaire. This study is a practical research from purpose perspective and is a descriptive-survey one from methodological view. The SPSS and Amos are the statistical software that has been used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. Finally, the results of goodness of model fit indicate the model has favorable goodness (RMSEA: 0.055, CFI: 0.97.

  9. Teaching at the Physical Education graduation night course in Maringá State University and the perspectives for the market nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Carraro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify if the curriculum and structure of physical education night courses offered in the night period by Universidade Estadual de Maringá is coherent with the work market, from the first and second-year students point of view. The research used descriptive method and had a sample of 41 subjects from the first year and 23 from second year. The data was collected with a questionnaire with open and closed questions about the functional situation of both curriculum and general infrastructure, and the perspectives for the work market. The data was treated through frequency and percentage. The results show some unsatisfaction about equipment, material and physical structure. The disciplines in the curriculum are well accepted, but others were suggested that could improve the student's formation. About their perspectives for the work market, besides physical education in school (56.5%, most of them pointed as possibilities for future careers: physical education for handicapped persons, sport coaching, leisure and recreation, academy supervising and personal training. Such results suggest that, even though the tendency for the students is still to work in schools, the courses of physical education must consider a wide range of other possibilities and adequate their teachings to them.

  10. Propaganda and Surveillance in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yeo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Propaganda and surveillance are pervasive in contemporary society. Extensive literatures have developed around each. George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is an important point of reference in both literatures. Orwell takes both propaganda and surveillance to extreme limits: total surveillance and total propaganda. Writing them large he brings important aspects of each into sharp relief, which is why his novel has the iconic status that it does for theorists in both literatures. However Nineteen Eighty-Four is of interest not just for its potential contribution to theorizing about propaganda or about surveillance. Propaganda and surveillance in the novel are not just accidentally related but essentially linked. I show how they work not just individually but in tandem in Orwell’s text, playing complementary roles in an absurd project of total social control directed not just at behaviour but also thought. Relating propaganda and surveillance in a sustained and systematic reading of the novel reveals it to be an even richer resource for theorizing about either surveillance or propaganda than it is when read, as it typically is, with an emphasis on one or the other. Additionally, from a literary perspective this reading opens up what I believe is a fresh perspective on the novel and makes it more inviting for a thoughtful and rewarding reread.

  11. Minkowski spacetime and Lorentz invariance: The cart and the horse or two sides of a single coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    unnecessary, and that it actually obscures our understanding of the explanatory nature and power of the theory.Second, I argue that rather than a debate about what is the cart and what is the horse, the discussion between Brown and Janssen is an instance of the dispute about what was first, the egg or the chicken. I claim that Minkowski structure and Lorentz invariance need not be conceived in such a way that one must explain the other. Instead, they are better understood as the two sides of a single coin: the arrow between them is not explanatory, but analytic (in a sense that I explain below). Furthermore, I argue that this conception of the link between Lorentz invariance and Minkowski chronogeometry, unlike the conception that motivates the Janssen-Brown debate, sheds light on our understanding of the explanatory nature and power of special relativity. I claim that the aforementioned analytic connection between Minkowski structure and Lorentz grounds the explanatory foundations of Einstein's theory.The structure of this article is the following. In Section 2, I provide an overview of the debate, paying special attention to the aspects that are most relevant for my critical assessment. In Section 3, I underscore two crucial assumptions endorsed by Brown and Janssen-that the discussion is independent of questions about spacetime ontology, and that the arrow of explanation at stake must be constructive-and I ponder about the justification that the authors offer (and implicitly assume) for them. In Section 4, I show that both these assumptions are problematic and unjustified, thus tainting the whole debate. In Section 5, I argue that Minkowski structure and Lorentz invariance are analytically linked, and that this link-that is not itself explanatory-clarifies the source of the chronogeometric explanations of physical phenomena that special relativity provides. In Section 6, I conclude and value the lessons that we can draw from Janssen's and Brown's arguments in the light of

  12. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  13. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  14. Experiential Marketing: Growing Importance in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Tümer Kabadayı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of experience entered in the field of marketing in 1982, this concept has now become a key constituent of understanding consumer behaviour. In recent years, a great deal of research has examined this concept is a foundation of economy and future of marketing. From this point of view the purpose of this study is to discuss concept of experience, experiential marketing and related concepts in a holistic perspective and moreover some marketing implications have been given.

  15. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  16. Roads may act as barriers to flying insects: species composition of bees and wasps differs on two sides of a large highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andersson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Roads may act as barriers to animal movements, but direct barrier effects on insects have rarely been studied. In this study we collected data on bees and wasps along two sides of a large road in Sweden using yellow pan traps. We then analyzed if the species composition differed between the two sides of the road; first for the whole community, and then only for the smallest species (which typically are poorer dispersers. As a complement, we analyzed if different vegetation variables differed between the two sides of the road, as this may also affect differences in species composition. Finally, we analyzed if species richness and abundance in general differed between the two sides and how these two response variables were explained by the vegetation variables. There was a significant difference in species composition between the eastern and the western side of the road when analyzing the whole community, and this relationship became even stronger when the largest species were excluded. The vegetation variables did not strongly differ between the two sides, and there was no difference in species richness and abundance of bees and wasps either. Abundance was, however, explained by the number of flowering plants in the surroundings of the trap. Even though using a rather limited data set, our results indicate that large roads may act as barriers on the movement of bees and wasps, especially for small species with poor dispersal ability. On the other hand, road verges may be important habitat for many species, which leads to a potential conflict that is important to consider in the planning of green infrastructure.

  17. Optimization of Marketing Channels of Household Appliance Enterprises:An ERP Perspective%ERP视角下的家电企业营销渠道优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洁

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the current status of the marketing channels of household appliance enterprises, we studied the problems therein from an ERP perspective and explored the path for the optimization of the current marketing channels of these enterprises to improve the competitivity advantage of the whole channel.%针对家电企业营销渠道现状,分析了ERP视角下家电企业营销渠道发展中存在的问题,通过ERP和营销渠道两个核心要素整合的研究,探索了适合现有的家电企业营销渠道优化的途径,从而提高整条营销渠道的竞争优势.

  18. Connoisseurship Consumption and Market Evolution: An Instituional Theory Perspective on the Growth of Specialty Coffee Consumption in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Torres Quintão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false PT-BR JA X-NONE Many scholars in the consumer culture field have attempted to understand how market evolves. Recently, marketing research has focused on the consumer-marketer relationship, considering peripheral consumers, and other marketplace actors who play important roles in consumption. However, little research in the marketing field has addressed the market dynamics in a context where consumers involved in connoisseurship practices take part in some aspect of institutional market change. Drawing from institutional theory, we develop answers to the question: how does the increasing prevalence of connoisseurship consumption affect the market? Inspired by the legitimacy concept, we evaluate the specialty coffee consumption context in order to advance and systematically analyze the role of connoisseurship consumption in the market. In extensive qualitative study, 542 newspaper articles from 1980 to 2013 were analyzed.  This research offers two main contributions to the existing literature. First, several types of cultural-cognitive legitimacy (including consumer generational, health concerns, and taste began to shift in the 1980s, which increased the connoisseurship consumption and affected the market well into the 2000s. Second, connoisseurship consumption arises when marketplace actors intersect with the tastes and desires of consumers.

  19. The Brazilian electric energy market. Lessons and perspectives; O mercado brasileiro de energia eletrica. Licoes e perspectivas decorrentes do racionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Edna Lopes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira [CSPE - Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses the technical and commercial characteristics of the electric power Brazilian market taking into account his constitution and structuration, the throwback during the operation and adjustings due to rationing administrative process, where various alternatives of commercialization were identified, considering the full supply unavailability. The paper intends to present the implications decurrent from the gradual maturing of the consumption market and the new actors, resulting from the national market restructuration, the initial premises and the acceleration of the market opening time schedule, consequence of the adjustings introduced during the period of the Southeast, Centralwest and Northeast regions rationing, in the period of 2001-21002.

  20. THE FAIR VALUE – REPRESENTATION OF THE MARKET VALUE IN ACCOUNTING. TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela-Daniela Manea

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The market value, as a method of measuring the right value, also provides the highest objectivity due to the fact that it is based on information exterior to the entity, impossible to influence in anyway. For the fair value of a product to be equivalent to the market value, a prerequisite needs to be followed: the market must be perfect, namely organized and active. In this case, the evaluation’s type is mark et to market. In certain fields, the active’s market existence is clearly difficult (for instance for the derived products or specialized, unique assets etc. In such situations – imperfect market – we will valorize that specific good by calculating its fair value by using an evaluation technique, an alternative technique in the absence of a price set by the market. There are two possible approaches: the first one belongs to the analogy method; the second approach belongs to valuing an asset using the modeling technique also known as market to model. The method of determining the value of an asset by analogy or similarity is theoretically valid, but in practice this is difficult, since the notion of similar characteristics is often difficult to establish and prove. This article proposes a valuation of the market value concept based on Romanian realities - legal, accounting practices in that area,and taking into account the existing fiscal limitations.

  1. The Asymmetric Effects of Oil Price Shocks on the Chinese Stock Market: Evidence from a Quantile Impulse Response Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quantile impulse response approach to investigate the impact of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns. This process allows us to uncover asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on stock market returns by taking into account the different quantiles of oil price shocks. Our results show that the responses of Chinese stock market returns to oil price shocks differ greatly, depending on whether the oil and stock market is in a bust or boom state and whether the shock is driven by demand or supply. The impacts of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns present asymmetric features. In particular during a bust phase, oil supply and demand shocks significantly depress stock market returns, while during a boom period, the aggregate demand shock enhances stock market returns. These results suggest some important implications for investors and decision makers.

  2. A two-sided academic landscape: snapshot of highly-cited documents in Google Scholar (1950-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín-Martín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to identify and define the core characteristics of the set of highly-cited documents in Google Scholar (document types, language, free availability, sources, and number of versions, on the hypothesis that the wide coverage of this search engine may provide a different portrait of these documents with respect to that offered by traditional bibliographic databases. To do this, a query per year was carried out from 1950 to 2013 identifying the top 1,000 documents retrieved from Google Scholar and obtaining a final sample of 64,000 documents, of which 40% provided a free link to full-text. The results obtained show that the average highly-cited document is a journal or book article (62% of the top 1% most cited documents of the sample, written in English (92.5% of all documents and available online in PDF format (86.0% of all documents. Yet, the existence of errors should be noted, especially when detecting duplicates and linking citations properly. Nonetheless, the fact that the study focused on highly cited papers minimizes the effects of these limitations. Given the high presence of books and, to a lesser extent, of other document types (such as proceedings or reports, the present research concludes that the Google Scholar data offer an original and different vision of the most influential academic documents (measured from the perspective of their citation count, a set composed not only of strictly scientific material (journal articles but also of academic material in its broadest sense.

  3. Two Sides of the Same Coin? Analysis of the Web-Based Social Media with Regard to the Image of the Agri-Food Sector in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Boehm

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  Never before has food been as safe and secure as it is today, but simultaneously, society has become increasingly critical towards agricultural and food related issues. This two-sided development between society and agribusiness will be analyzed using Framing Theory. A quantitative semantic analysis was applied to evaluate the web-based social media in Germany. 50,931 web posts were collected covering 21 issues identified as relevant for the agri-food sector. The results show that all contentious issues are mainly framed in a two-sided way. The modern productivity-driven industry is judged as a negative development, trends returning to a more natural food production are seen as positive.

  4. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  5. Market of Electronic Services in Poland as a Basis to Develop Economy Based on Knowledge - Diagnosis and Perspective of Developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Maziarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of economy based on knowledge in Poland is determined by the market of electronic communication services that is hardly competitive and at the same time in efficient, what is expressed in a low access level tothe broad-band services and one of higher rates in Europe. Hitherto executed activities adapting the market of electronic services in Poland to the European level are partially successful, because the market needs an inflow of considerable fundsfor telecommunications investments and innovations, without which service offers of Polish operators will be too poor andexpensive. Some hope for improvement of this situation is connected with increase a level of competitiveness in the range ofthe access to the broad-band services. In this article there has been executed the overview of solutions that should in crease the competitiveness of the market of electronic communication in Poland and discussed benefits resulting from these solutions.

  6. EFFECT OF COMMITMENT AND TRUST TOWARDS MICRO-BLOGS ON CONSUMER BEHAVIORAL INTENTION: A RELATIONSHIP MARKETING PERSPECTIVE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chien-Lung Hsu; Chia-Chang Liu; Yuan-Duen Lee

    2010-01-01

    ... of community on consumers' behavioral intention. The result of this study can be used as principles for enterprises to manage their relationship marketing through micro-blogging and construct their micro-blog page...

  7. Resource and Environmental Issues in Transitional China: A Perspective from the Interaction Among Market,Government and Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Haixia; Qu Futian; Zhu Peixin; Shi Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth of economy in the postreform period after 1979,China has faced severe problems of resource overusing and environmental degradation which would threaten the sustainable development of economy and society.This article explores an effective mechanism of managing resource and environment in China.It examines some major resource and environmental issues,and constructs a framework of institution innovation to cover three sectors(government,market and society).In addition,the article analyzes their experience and evaluation in resource management and environmental conservation during the transitional period.We argue that the combination of market regulation,government intervention and public participation is an effective way of allocating resource and protecting environment.Some suggestions are put forward to balance the relationship between them,including coordinating role of government and market,building platform for market operation and creating an atmosphere of public participation.

  8. Investor structure and the price-volume relationship in a continuous double auction market: An agent-based modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Zhengzheng; Shen, Dehua

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of investor structure on the price-volume relationship by simulating a continuous double auction market. Connected with the underlying mechanisms of the price-volume relationship, i.e., the Mixture of Distribution Hypothesis (MDH) and the Sequential Information Arrival Hypothesis (SIAH), the simulation results show that: (1) there exists a strong lead-lag relationship between the return volatility and trading volume when the number of informed investors is close to the number of uninformed investors in the market; (2) as more and more informed investors entering the market, the lead-lag relationship becomes weaker and weaker, while the contemporaneous relationship between the return volatility and trading volume becomes more prominent; (3) when the informed investors are in absolute majority, the market can achieve the new equilibrium immediately. Therefore, we can conclude that the investor structure is a key factor in affecting the price-volume relationship.

  9. Analyzing the determinants of the UK consumer's engagement in Viral Marketing on Social Networking Sites : A university Student's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Ali; Alli, Zahir; Moussa, Wissam

    2012-01-01

    Social media, especially the social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook.com, has experienced exponential growth all across the globe in the last decade. It is rapidly attracting the consumers and replacing the traditional media. Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) through social media has acquired substantial position in the marketing mix as well as integrated marketing communication of the business organizations. This research aimed at analyzing different social relationship factors or determin...

  10. Critical issues and challenges in the post-2012 perspective for the possible participation of the forestry sector market for carbon credits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisciani F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (KP is in its conclusive phase and with it the chances for forest farms in having an active role in the carbon market too. All carbon credits coming from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry activities will be used free of charge by the Italian Government in order to meet the national emission reduction target established under the Kyoto Protocol. In particular, the emitting sectors excluded from the European Union Emission Trading Scheme will benefit from forest carbon credits to offset part of their emissions, while for forest owners there is not any recognition for the provided service. In order to avoid the replication of this situation in the post-2012, it is necessary that the institution and the forest stakeholders, create the conditions for forest farms to participate and obtain the benefits introduced with the establishment of the Emission Trading, within the framework of post-2012 agreement. This condition could be achieved through the institution of a national carbon market. In this perspective this paper examines the main critical issues that could affect the participation of forest farms in the market.

  11. Integrated marketing communications in high-quality hotels of central and southern Dalmatia: a study from the perspective of managers and guests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šerić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the implementation of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC has been studied in different contexts and countries all over the world, further contributions are needed to consolidate the concept. Little research has been done on the integration of marketing communications in tourism-related sectors. Moreover, previous studies have focused mainly on managers’ opinions while overlooking consumers’ perceptions of IMC. The purpose of this research is to study in greater detail the IMC concept in the tourism sector, specifically in the hotels of Central and Southern Dalmatia, from a double perspective: managers-guests. Therefore, managers of 15 high-quality hotels and 118 guests were interviewed during April and May 2010. The results of descriptive statistical analysis showed a high degree of IMC implementation in hotels and a high degree of guests’ perceptions of IMC. However, the Mann-Whitney U test revealed small but significant differences between managers’ and guests’ perceptions of some of the IMC items. The findings of this study are expected to provide useful information to hotel managers, who deal with an increasingly competitive marketplace where traditional marketing approaches are no longer sufficient to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Thus, IMC should be considered as a new approach which might enable hotels to gain competitive advantages.

  12. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  13. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  14. Research on Pricing Strategy of Online Group Buying in Two-sided Network%双边网络环境下的网络团购定价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐方成; 池坤鹏

    2013-01-01

    Online group buying is a business model characterized with two-sided market.The challenging problems that group buying firms face are how to meet the needs of consumers and suppliers and how to develop the right bilateral price structure and pricing level.According to the nature of two-sided markets group purchase site,this paper constructs the pricing models by considering multi-homing of consumers and suppliers.Furthermore,the pricing models under the monopoly pattern and competition equilibrium are presented.This study investigates the effect of some key factors of platform fixed cost,search matching,degree of service differentiation and cross-group network effects change on pricing mechanism.Finally,a case study of Lashou is employed to test the proposed pricing mechanism and tactics.%网络团购是一种典型的具有双边市场特征的商业模式,如何满足消费者和商户的需求,合理制定双边价格结构和定价水平已成为团购网站运营企业面临的挑战性问题.本文应用双边市场理论,构建了网络团购双边客户多归属条件下的定价模型,分析了垄断模式和竞争均衡状态下的定价机制,并讨论了网站固定成本、搜索匹配度、服务差异化程度以及交叉网络效应等关键因素变化对网络团购平台企业定价策略的影响.最后,通过拉手网的案例分析佐证了文中提出的定价机制与策略.

  15. Globalization in the Balkans: Free trade agreement and the perspectives of attracting large institutional investors on the domestic capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of potentially positive effects that free trade flows have on economic growth, eight countries from South-East Europe united to create a regional free trade agreement. Significant market enlargement, cancellation of customs, tariffs and other export barriers create favorable opportunities for the development and growth of domestic companies. What is more, new sources of growth and development for local enterprises, as well as intensified competition, result in increased attractiveness of the region for large international investors. On the other hand, in order to take advantage of the presence of large international investors on the domestic market, it is very important to have in function a stable and rational financial system. Again, it is questionable how to develop in the most efficient way, at the moment, our underdeveloped financial market. A complementary solution is to attract large institutional investors on the domestic market, on one hand, and the foundation of domestic ones, on the other, in order to achieve a significant enlargement of the market liquidity as the basic determinant of its future development.

  16. An Analysis of Agile Manufacturing Strategic Model from Market-ability Synergy Perspective%基于市场与能力协调观的敏捷制造战略实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋; 卫汉华

    2012-01-01

    The paper presented an analysis of agile manufacturing strategic model from the market - ability synergy perspective. By building on recent works on strategic rationality and manufacturing strategy, the paper propose that the market environment and abilities are two key factors affecting how the firm formulate its agile manufacturing strategic decision. Using empirical data from International Manufacturing Strategy Survey data, an explorative study was conducted to confirm that, whether manufacturing capability has a moderating effect on the relationship of competitive Strategic Situation Cognition and agile manufacturing strategic. In this empirical study, the volume flexibility and time to market are affected by the two key factors jointly.%以市场与能力的协调理论为基础,研究敏捷制造战略模型.通过对战略合理模型和制造战略理论的研究,提出企业的敏捷制造战略决策应该以企业对市场环境和自身能力的协调为依据.在国际制造业战略调查数据库的支持下,文章主要分析了制造能力对竞争战略态势认知和敏捷制造战略决策关系的调节效应.实证结果显示,产品的产量柔性和上市时间受到竞争战略态势认知和制造能力交互变量的影响.

  17. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is influenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs influence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the first two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to country-specific factors and can quantify the relative impact of specific socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  18. Effects of Generational Competition and Substitution on Late Labour Participation and Labour Market Exit from a Multilevel Perspective*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Henriette Engelhardt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of demographic, economic and labour market structures on labour market participation and on the transition to inactivity (exit for older males in eleven European countries. Theoretically, our analysis is guided by considerations of intragenerational competition and intergenerational substitution. Following Easterlin’s hypothesis that intragenerational competition rises with cohort size, we assume a negative effect of cohort size on labour market participation and a positive effect on early exit from the labour market. Taking into account that different cohorts are substitutes at least to a certain extent, we assume that the probability of an early exit will be reduced by a high intergenerational exchange ratio in favour of older workers. Thus, labour market participation is infl uenced by the populations’ age structure both when entering the labour force and during the career. Moreover, low shares of graduates in older cohorts are expected to reduce older workers’ chances of labour market participation. In addition to demographic structures, general economic conditions, such as per capita GDP and its development over time, act both to further and to hamper the employment of older workers. Additionally, labour market structures, such as unemployment rates, the extent of part-time work or the amount of service jobs infl uence individual participation and the transition to inactivity. To test these hypotheses, we use merged data from the fi rst two waves of SHARE and macro-level indicators from Eurostat. We estimate a two-level random-intercept logit model which allows us to determine the share of variance in international late careers that can be attributed to countryspecifi c factors and can quantify the relative impact of specifi c socio-demographic and socio-economic backgrounds. Our results imply that cross-national variance in labour market participation is mainly driven by the instance of long

  19. Identifying and prioritizing the effect of marketing mix from the customer’s perspective (4C on the competitiveness of insurance companies using DEMATEL technique: A case study of Tehran Insurance Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Manafzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of an organization is debatable based on sources and market-based approach. In this study, the impact of customer-centric marketing mix on the competitiveness of the company was studied. All clients involved in insurance companies in Tehran were the statistical population of the study and a sample of 384 clients were selected. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. Relationships between elements of the marketing mix and competitiveness were studied using confirmatory factor analysis technique. The results of the data analysis indicated the significant effect of customer-centric marketing mix on company’s competitiveness. To prioritize the marketing mix factors in terms of the amount of impact on the competitiveness from customers’ perspective, a DEMATEL technique was used. The results also indicated that the highest impact on the competitiveness of the insurance company include the customer costs, value of a customer-friendly, easily buy, and relations.

  20. Patterns of Labour Market Entry : A Comparative Perspective on School-to-Work Transitions in 11 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, Maarten H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Youth labour market integration differs considerably across European countries. There are marked cross-national differences not only in terms of youth unemployment, but also in terms of the quality of the jobs in which young people are employed. This article explains cross-national patterns of labou

  1. Practices associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in traditional poultry marketing chains: Social and economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde; Baritaux, Virginie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François; Bonnet, Pascal; Ducrot, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In developing countries, smallholder poultry production contributes to food security and poverty alleviation in rural areas. However, traditional poultry marketing chains have been threatened by the epidemics caused by the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) virus. The article presents a value chain analysis conducted on the traditional poultry marketing chain in the rural province of Phitsanulok, Thailand. The analysis is based on quantitative data collected on 470 backyard chicken farms, and on qualitative data collected on 28 poultry collectors, slaughterhouses and market retailers, using semi-structured interviews. The article examines the organization of poultry marketing chains in time and space, and shows how this may contribute to the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in the small-scale poultry sector. The article also discusses the practices and strategies developed by value chain actors facing poultry mortality, with their economic and social determinants. More broadly, this study also illustrates how value chain analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms associated with the spread of epidemics in rural communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A socio-semiotic perspective on Australian gourmet products/services:‘Made in Australia’ marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Craciunescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In a consumerist society, the contemporary needs of individuals have been transformed into desires; people nowadays seek into improving quality of life through unique experiences, by speculating their senses, in a grammar of both hedonist and utilitarian reasons. As such, taste becomes a social signifier that reunites people at the same table, where positioning oneself in the created micro-society, represents commensality and a major key in marketing studies. Another important aspect in F&B - as a socially (predetermined marker – is that individuals are involved in naming their experiences, i.e. in marketing terms, branding a story, which eventually translates an identity. In this paper, my aim is to demonstrate how F&B Australian successful entrepreneurs (recreated a national identity, by fashioning the imagery of taste and linguistics, shaped by the semiosis of local flavors and colors, eventually all packaged in a narrative of marketing. Moreover, this is a study case of an economic national strategy – patriotic marketing, applied in F&B, and, paradoxically enough, exploited within tourism practices. Eventually, this research is also prone to describe the social-semiotic aspect of the ‘signe gustatif’ that frames the meaning of the dish and its social effects in the table’s process of communication.

  3. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It t

  4. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  5. Different Perspectives Between Product and Marketing Division towards Product Critical Success Factors and Its Strategic Importance in Telecommunication Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmi Rida Utami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays situations force telecomunication company to continuously evaluate, select and prioritize its product portfolio in order to determine the strategically important products. An analysis of critical success factors that determine product’s strategic importance acts as a good introduction to review and manage the product portfolio as well as to seek ways to develop the product. To achieve this, the company is required to have good alliances and collaborations between departments, develop a clear focus and seek innovative ways of doing business, particularly between marketing and product divisions. This study analyzed the alignment between product and marketing divisions of a telecommunication company in Indonesia, in determining the company’s strategic products. The results indicated that both divisions agreed on using financial performance and revenue as the most important criteria and sub-criteria for identifying strategic product. However, the divisions also faced some different visions in selecting alternative criteria. The Product divisions were more focused on technical spesification of product, while the Marketing division were more oriented on customer and market conditions. The study reported the consequences of these difference in practice.

  6. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It

  7. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  8. In Search of Eminence: A Personal Brand-Building Perspective on the Achievement of Scholarly Prominence in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Charles H.; Bentley, John P.; Campbell, David; Singh, Jatinder J.

    2010-01-01

    In marketing, as in many other academic disciplines, new scholars are often taught a simple formula for the achievement of professional success: the single-minded pursuit of "A"-level journal publications. Although the goal of producing high-quality research that is ultimately published in top level journals is certainly worthwhile, the attainment…

  9. Filtering With Two Sided Filtrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    anid (4.12) must be the same. Equating the bounded variation terms we have -i = H(At(h(x,) + (t))) - 17(At)(Ifh(xt) + IfH(t)). (4.13) Similarly, forming...TRATIONS 535 Again, the decompositions (4.11) and (4.14) must be the same, so equating their bounded variation terms we see =H(Ait((t) - h(xj_,))) + fl...h (1 - 2t) -(B1 -B_) so dividing by h > 0 and letting h -+ 0 we see at = (-2t)(1 - 2t) Furthermore, because the quadratic variation of bounded

  10. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2007-12-01

    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use. Despite consensus that smokeless tobacco products as sold in the United States are less dangerous than cigarettes, there is no consensus on how to proceed. Diverse factions have different policy concerns. While the tobacco industry is exempted from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight, the pharmaceutical industry whose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medicines compete with smokeless tobacco as noncombustible nicotine-delivery systems are regulated by the FDA. Some public health experts support smokeless tobacco use to reduce population harm from tobacco; other public health experts oppose promoting smokeless tobacco for harm reduction. Adult consumers can freely purchase currently-marketed smokeless tobacco products and even more-deadly cigarettes. Concerns with and advantages of smokeless tobacco products are discussed. In that noncombustible medicinal nicotine-delivery systems have been proven to be effective smoking-cessation aids, smokeless tobacco, as another source of psychoactive doses of nicotine, could be used similarly, in a dose-response fashion as a smoking-cessation aid (consistent with FDA principles for evaluating generic versions of drugs). Price measures should be used on tobacco products to make costs to consumers proportional to product health risks (which would make smokeless tobacco much cheaper than cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco should be encouraged as an option for smoking cessation in adult smokers, particularly for those who have failed to stop smoking using NRT or other methods.

  11. Platform intermediation in a market for differentiated products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    We study a two-sided market where a platform attracts firms selling differentiated products and buyers interested in those products. In the subgame perfect equilibrium of the game, the platform fully internalises the network externalities present in the market and firms and consumers all participate

  12. Platform intermediation in a market for differentiated products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    2009-01-01

    We study a two-sided market where a platform attracts firms selling differentiated products and buyers interested in those products. In the subgame perfect equilibrium of the game, the platform fully internalises the network externalities present in the market and firms and consumers all participate

  13. Two-sided bounds on the mean vector and covariance matrix in linear stochastically excited vibration systems with application of the differential calculus of norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kohaupt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For a linear stochastic vibration model in state-space form, $ \\dot{x}(t = A x(t+b(t, \\, x(0=x_0, $ with system matrix A and white noise excitation $ b(t $, under certain conditions, the solution $ x(t $ is a random vector that can be completely described by its mean vector, $ m_x(t:=m_{x(t} $, and its covariance matrix, $ P_x(t:=P_{x(t} $. If matrix $ A $ is asymptotically stable, then $ m_x(t \\rightarrow 0 \\, (t \\rightarrow \\infty $ and $ P_x(t \\rightarrow P \\, (t \\rightarrow \\infty $, where $ P $ is a positive (semi-definite matrix. As the main new points, in this paper, we derive two-sided bounds on $ \\Vert m_x(t\\Vert _2 $ and $ \\Vert P_x(t- P\\Vert _2 $ as well as formulas for the right norm derivatives $ D_+^k \\Vert P_x(t- P\\Vert _2, \\, k=0,1,2 $, and apply these results to the computation of the best constants in the two-sided bounds. The obtained results are of special interest to applied mathematicians and engineers.

  14. Integrated Development of China’s Agricultural Labor Market from the Perspective of Convergence of Planting Industry Marginal Labor Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Longhua; YUE; Shiyuan; YANG; Rongtai; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Using Compilation of National Cost Benefit Data of Agricultural Products in 1990-2009 and based on the convergence of planting industry marginal labor productivity,this paper studies the integration of agricultural labor market in China. Firstly,it calculates labor output elasticity of each province for wheat,japonica rice and corn. Secondly,it builds indicators reflecting change level of marginal labor productivity. Researches show that in 1990-2000,the difference level of marginal labor productivity expands. From 2000,it starts to fall and becomes more and more stable. However,due to difference of crops and farming custom,the turning point of marginal labor productivity is not consistent with each other. Even so,it is still possible to reach the conclusion that agricultural labor market is gradually integrated from 2000.

  15. BerryMeat - New market perspectives using herbs and berries in organic meat products. What has been achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grevsen, Kai; Fenger, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to increase the portfolio of organic meat products for the consumer, by supplying new products preserved by organic grown herbs and berries. The consumers will benefit from a growing range of new, attractive, organic meat products, the Danish producers of organic meat products will benefit form a growing market and the producers of organic herbs and berries will experience an increasing demand for organic grown herbs and berries. The project has bee...

  16. A SOCIO-SEMIOTIC PERSPECTIVE ON AUSTRALIAN GOURMET PRODUCTS/SERVICES: ‘MADE IN AUSTRALIA’ MARKETING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Craciunescu

    2013-01-01

    In a consumerist society, the contemporary needs of individuals have been transformed into desires; people nowadays seek into improving quality of life through unique experiences, by speculating their senses, in a grammar of both hedonist and utilitarian reasons. As such, taste becomes a social signifier that reunites people at the same table, where positioning oneself in the created micro-society, represents commensality and a major key in marketing studies. Another important aspect in F&...

  17. Tax regulating carbon market in Brazil: barriers and perspectives; Regulacao tributaria do mercado de carbono no Brasil: entraves e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Fernando; Magalhaes, Gerusa [Madrona Hong Mazzuco Brandao - Sociedade de Advogados (MHM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: gerusa.magalhaes@mhmlaw.com.br; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], email: vparente@iee.usp.br; Romeiro, Viviane [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: viviromeiro@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The world is moving towards a low carbon economy to fight global warming caused by increases in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The carbon market beckons as a promising opportunity for Brazil through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, which result in Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). Although Brazil is responsible for about 8% of all CDM projects in the world, there is still no specific tax regulation for CERs, thus hindering the development of carbon market in Brazil. It is essential that Brazil have a consistent internal framework which guarantees to potential investors a minimum security on the legal and fiscal operations of CERs. There are government institutions, considering the current law and that, given the number of bills being processed in Congress, are not definitive. Such bills have different understandings for the legal classification of CERs and the related tax treatment. This article supports an urgent need for a regulatory tax system for CERs, proposing a tax exemption on transactions involving CERs in order to encourage the effective development of carbon markets in Brazil in the context of the currently international legal system in which Kyoto Protocol is based. (author)

  18. Market Orientation Capabilities: A Study of Learning Processes in Market-Oriented Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    The literature operates with three perspectives on market orientation. These include market orientation as behavior (Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990), market orientation as a unique resource (Hunt and Morgan 1995) and market orientation as a dynamic learning capability (Sinkula 1994; Day 1994b). A company's level of market orientation will vary with regard to the perspectives, including factors affecting a company’s degree of market orientation and the effect...

  19. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are d

  20. The European Market for Tropical Organic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Contant - Short project description - Development of the Organic Market in Europe - The European Organic Market - The Organic Swiss Market - Characteristics of the Tropical Organic Market - Perspectives for some organic tropical products - General Remarks of Traders on the Organic Market for Tropical Products

  1. European food cultures in a macro and micro perspective: Implications for the marketing of Asian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Søren; Ludvigsen, Hanne H.

    1996-01-01

    certain food consumption trends from a micro-perspective, using qualitative techniques to explore changes in eating beghaviour in general and the openness to new "ethnic" or "exotic" types of food in particular. 6. This micro-level analysis was carried out in Denmark, for convenience reasons as well...... as because Denmark in the macro-level analysis showed signs of being one of the most generally open food cultures in Europe with relatively many overlapping characteristics with other European food cultures. It consisted of five focus grou interviews and six auto-driven interviews with selected households. 7...

  2. A review of current practices to increase Chlamydia screening in the community--a consumer-centred social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Lyn; Gordon, Ross; Telenta, Joanne; Magee, Chris; Janssen, Marty

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Australia, the UK and Europe. Yet, rates of screening for STIs remain low, especially in younger adults. To assess effectiveness of Chlamydia screening interventions targeting young adults in community-based settings, describe strategies utilized and assess them according to social marketing benchmark criteria. A systematic review of relevant literature between 2002 and 2012 in Medline, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health was undertaken. Of 18 interventions identified, quality of evidence was low. Proportional screening rates varied, ranging from: 30.9 to 62.5% in educational settings (n = 4), 4.8 to 63% in media settings (n = 6) and from 5.7 to 44.5% in other settings (n = 7). Assessment against benchmark criteria found that interventions incorporating social marketing principles were more likely to achieve positive results, yet few did this comprehensively. Most demonstrated customer orientation and addressed barriers to presenting to a clinic for screening. Only one addressed barriers to presenting for treatment after a positive result. Promotional messages typically focused on providing facts and accessing a testing kit. Risk assessment tools appeared to promote screening among higher risk groups. Few evaluated treatment rates following positive results; therefore, impact of screening on treatment rates remains unknown. Future interventions should consider utilizing a comprehensive social marketing approach, using formative research to increase insight and segmentation and tailoring of screening interventions. Easy community access to both screening and treatment should be prioritized. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. MILP model for integrated balancing and sequencing mixed-model two-sided assembly line with variable launching interval and assignment restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. I. L. Mohd; Ahmad, R.; Zainuddin, Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    This research explores the Mixed-Model Two-Sided Assembly Line (MMTSAL). There are two interrelated problems in MMTSAL which are line balancing and model sequencing. In previous studies, many researchers considered these problems separately and only few studied them simultaneously for one-sided line. However in this study, these two problems are solved simultaneously to obtain more efficient solution. The Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model with objectives of minimizing total utility work and idle time is generated by considering variable launching interval and assignment restriction constraint. The problem is analysed using small-size test cases to validate the integrated model. Throughout this paper, numerical experiment was conducted by using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) with the solver CPLEX. Experimental results indicate that integrating the problems of model sequencing and line balancing help to minimise the proposed objectives function.

  4. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  5. Does network topology influence systemic risk contribution? A perspective from the industry indices in Chinese stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiming; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Nengyu

    2017-01-01

    This study considers the effect of an industry's network topology on its systemic risk contribution to the stock market using data from the CSI 300 two-tier industry indices from the Chinese stock market. We first measure industry's conditional-value-at-risk (CoVaR) and the systemic risk contribution (ΔCoVaR) using the fitted time-varying t-copula function. The network of the stock industry is established based on dynamic conditional correlations with the minimum spanning tree. Then, we investigate the connection characteristics and topology of the network. Finally, we utilize seemingly unrelated regression estimation (SUR) of panel data to analyze the relationship between network topology of the stock industry and the industry's systemic risk contribution. The results show that the systemic risk contribution of small-scale industries such as real estate, food and beverage, software services, and durable goods and clothing, is higher than that of large-scale industries, such as banking, insurance and energy. Industries with large betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and clustering coefficient and small node occupancy layer are associated with greater systemic risk contribution. In addition, further analysis using a threshold model confirms that the results are robust.

  6. The Energy Market 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-01

    This publication describes the markets for network based energy in a Nordic perspective, with an extension to the EU. The ongoing harmonization of the energy market policy is described in more detail in the sections dealing with energy policy and regulations. The network based energy markets differ in size, ownership structure and competition. The electricity and district heating markets in Sweden were deregulated in 1996. However, the natural gas market is being deregulated in stages, and will be completely open to competition by 2007 at the latest. The rules for promoting competition in trading and production on the network based energy markets have therefore been continually changed. The chapters dealing with the markets describe the effects of deregulation and how the market structures have changed. If a market is to perform well, the consumers must be active. A study performed by 'Elkonkurrensutredningen' (Electricity competition committee) shows that switching to a different supplier involves costs that restrict consumer mobility, and that the consumers are not sufficiently well informed. This publication also describes the development of prices and how the trading prices have developed on the competitive market. The markets for network based energy are in the course of continual development. This report gives a coherents view of the way the markets work and their development from a national monopoly to an open, competitive market. On such a deregulated market, consumers enjoy increased diversity and freedom of choice. This, in turn, has created the conditions for better utilization of resources at the production stage.

  7. Energy efficiency in the Hellenic building sector. An assessment of the restrictions and perspectives of the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkanias, C.; Papadopoulos, A.M.; Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boemi, S.N. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, GR 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Tsoutsos, T.D. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Kounoupidiana Campus, GR 19009 Chania (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    The significance of bioclimatic architecture has become widely accepted since the 1970s and the implementation of its principles in practice is a key factor in order to achieve energy efficiency in the building sector. The way, however, from scientific acceptance to commercial utilization is not a straightforward one. This paper deals with the notion of bioclimatic architecture in buildings and investigates the aspects of this concept in Hellas. A sample of university researchers, building contractors and members of public organisations was interviewed using a standardised set of guidelines. The barriers to promoting bioclimatic design, role of the local government in the adoption process, level of environmental culture as well as perspectives of this concept in Hellas were the key areas of discussion in each of the interviews. The results from the data analysis reveal insufficient economic incentives, a lack in technical information as well as a lack in specific environmental policies that would foster the propagation of bioclimatic architecture. (author)

  8. Energy efficiency in the Hellenic building sector: An assessment of the restrictions and perspectives of the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karkanias, C. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boemi, S.N. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, GR 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Papadopoulos, A.M. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsoutsos, T.D., E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.g [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Kounoupidiana Campus, GR 19009 Chania (Greece); Karagiannidis, A. [Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Box 483, GR 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    The significance of bioclimatic architecture has become widely accepted since the 1970s and the implementation of its principles in practice is a key factor in order to achieve energy efficiency in the building sector. The way, however, from scientific acceptance to commercial utilization is not a straightforward one. This paper deals with the notion of bioclimatic architecture in buildings and investigates the aspects of this concept in Hellas. A sample of university researchers, building contractors and members of public organisations was interviewed using a standardised set of guidelines. The barriers to promoting bioclimatic design, role of the local government in the adoption process, level of environmental culture as well as perspectives of this concept in Hellas were the key areas of discussion in each of the interviews. The results from the data analysis reveal insufficient economic incentives, a lack in technical information as well as a lack in specific environmental policies that would foster the propagation of bioclimatic architecture.

  9. Perspective on the drug discovery and market landscape in Japan: can it compete in the worldwide arena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshi

    2006-08-01

    The global pharmaceutical industry is described as facing an 'innovation crisis' following the 'go-go-pharma' era; in other words, the problem is one of 'more money and fewer products'. Nevertheless, patients worldwide are awaiting innovative drugs. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry has a duty to discover and develop novel drugs and medical technologies. Through universal coverage and reform of the patent system, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry has expanded greatly in line with the Japanese economy. However, in terms of scale and R&D investment, the Japanese pharmaceutical firms have lagged behind the foreign multinationals, which have undergone successive mergers and acquisitions. Meanwhile, it is true that several Japanese firms are playing an active role in overseas markets with their own blockbusters. This paper analyses and gives an overview of new trends in Japan's pharmaceutical industry within the global context.

  10. Assessment of the Development Role of a Statutory Body from a Customer Perspective: A Relationship Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oei, Fuk-Jin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the relationship between an institution and its constituents is examined through establishing a model of exchange relationship’s three key important constructs (satisfaction, trust and commitment, which is adopted from the Customer Relationship Marketing/Management (CRM concept. These three key constructs have been viewed as essential ingredients for successful long-term relationship in private sector CRM. The model is tested using data from the Building and Construction Authority (BCA of Singapore. It is then compared with a rival model that does not have satisfaction, trust and commitment as mediating variables. The result shows that the model with the three key constructs as mediating variables is better. Understanding the impact of the mediating variables on outcome behaviours can lead to more participation and survival of the institution. Proposals for further research and the research limitation are given at the end of the paper.

  11. Food loss reduction from an environmental, socio-economic and consumer perspective - The case of the Swiss potato market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mouron, Patrik; Mack, Gabriele; Siegrist, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Potatoes are one of the commodities with the highest loss shares along the entire supply chain. In the present study, we analyzed six potential loss reduction scenarios concerning their environmental-socio-economic sustainability compared with the current situation by using the "SustainOS" methodology. For this purpose, life cycle assessments, full-cost calculations and an online consumer survey were conducted. Environmental improvements through loss reduction were rather small and did not cross limits of significance, but the socio-economic performance of the entire supply chain can be improved considerably. Pearson correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were used to predict the influence of specific subjective items like the intention to avoid food loss, knowledge related to food loss and consumers' price sensitivity on the assigned preference. Results show that perceived risks, perceived inconvenience and the general acceptance of loss-reducing instruments influence consumers' preferences. Altogether, only three out of six tested scenarios seem realistic: selling unwashed potatoes in a lightproof box, selling unpacked potatoes, and improved quality sorting at farms. For two of the other scenarios, consumers significantly indicated their refusal even if losses decreased considerably, whereas the sixth scenario was unfavorable from a socio-economic perspective.

  12. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  13. Value Chain Dynamics of Agri-Food Exports from Southern Mediterranean to the European Union: End-Market Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mili

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the buyer side of the value chains of the main agricultural products exported from the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs to the EU, taking Spain as an explorative case study in the broader European context. It draws on the Global Value Chain (GVC approach to provide new survey-based evidence for better profiling the opportunities and constraints for EU trade for orange, strawberry, tomato and olive oil imported from Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Turkey. The approach used complements inquiries using quantitative trade models usually based on aggregate sectoral level. Results show differences depending on the product and the country studied. There are in all cases multiple challenges to be solved at the origin of the value chain including better chain organization, further transparency and security, improvement in infrastructure and logistics, keeping transaction costs manageable at the same time. Consumer preferences in buyer markets when sourcing must be taken on the first place. The findings can have relevant policy implications in terms of prospective Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Agreements on agriculture and food.

  14. Understanding Advantages of Market Economy---From the Perspective of Non-mainstream Economics%理解市场经济的优越性--基于非主流经济学的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴练达; 张畅; 王莹

    2014-01-01

    Mainstream economics is based on the hypothesis of perfect competition to demonstrate the advantages of market economy,but in reality there is no such thing as perfect competition market.Therefore,it is necessary for us to reinterpret the advantages of market economy.From the perspective of the relationship between market and human nature,and the comparison between market and other resource allocation ways,the paper has a new explanation for the advantages of market economy,and draws the following conclusions:the reason why market economy has some advantages is not that market economy is based on perfect competition,but that market economy fits in with human nature and can spontaneously extend on the platform of rule of law.%主流经济学以完全竞争这一假设来论证市场经济的优越性,在现实中完全竞争的市场是不存在的,因此,对于市场经济的优越性要重新解读。从市场与人性的关系以及市场与其他资源配置方式比较的角度出发,对市场经济的优越性进行了再认识,并得出市场经济之所以具有优越性并不是因为它是完全竞争的,而是因为它与人性相契合,能够在法治的平台上自发扩展。

  15. A Study of Relationship Marketing in Chinese Retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Qiusha

    2007-01-01

    Relationship Marketing, as a new marketing paradigm, has stimulated considerable interests in both the business and the academic world in recent years. It has been believed that companies can achieve success in the long run by maintaining relationships with their customers and business associates. However, the most of the research on relationship marketing focuses on the Western perspectives, and the current literature on relationship marketing in the Asian retail sector is relatively under-r...

  16. Perspective d'avenir du marché de l'hydrogène Future Outlook of the Hydrogen Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozmen S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'hydrogène qui avait été jusqu'à présent produit à partir des hydrocarbures pour des usages chimiques devra dans les années futures, trouver un marché nouveau qui sera foncfion du développement des centrales nucléaires. Par utilisation de l'énergie électrique ou thermique disponible aux heures creuses, la décomposition de l'eau par voie électrolytique ou thermique (cycle d'oxydoréduction produirait l'hydrogène; gaz stockable et transportable. En plus de la consommation de l'hydrogène pour usage chimique-fabrication du méthanol, de l'ammoniac, hydrotraitement des fractions pétrolières, la métallurgie,... dont l'importance va croître, on envisage l'emploi de l'hydrogène comme véhicule d'énergie. Up to now, hydrogen has been produced from hydrocarbons for chemical uses. In the future, if will have to find a new market for itself which will depend on the development of nucleor power plants. Through the use of electric or thermal energy available during off-peak hours, water decomposition by electrolic or thermal methods (redox cycle could produce hydrogen, a storable and transportable gas. In addition to hydrogen consumption for chemical uses (manufacturing methanol, ammonia, hydrotreating petroleum fractions, metallurgy, etc. which will become greater, plans are being drawn up to use hydrogen as a vehicle for energy.

  17. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of the Nanofluids in Two-Sided Lid-Driven Square Cavity with a Pair of Triangular Heating Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubair Boulahia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is carried out concerning mixed convection of the nanofluid in two-sided lid-driven square cavity with a pair of triangular heat sources. The upper and bottom moving walls are thermally insulated while the left and right walls are cooled at constant temperature. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved using the finite volume discretization method with SIMPLE algorithm. The method used is validated against previous works. Two cases were considered depending on the direction of moving walls. Effects of various design parameters such as Richardson number (0.1≤Ri≤100, nanoparticle volume fraction (0≤φ≤0.05, and size (25 nm≤dp≤145 nm and type (Cu,Al2O3,TiO2 of nanoparticles on the heat transfer rate are investigated. The results of this investigation illustrate that, by reducing the diameter of the nanoparticles and Ri, the heat transfer rate increases. Moreover, it is found that by changing horizontal direction of the moving walls the heat transfer rate variation is negligible.

  18. Topological analysis of the periodic structures in a harmonically driven bubble oscillator near Blake's critical threshold: Infinite sequence of two-sided Farey ordering trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedűs, Ferenc, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.hu

    2016-03-06

    The topology of the stable periodic orbits of a harmonically driven bubble oscillator, the Rayleigh–Plesset equation, in the space of the excitation parameters (pressure amplitude and frequency) has been revealed numerically. This topology is governed by a hierarchy of two-sided Farey trees initiated from a unique primary structure defined also by a simple asymmetric Farey tree. The sub-topology of each of these building blocks is driven by a homoclinic tangency of a periodic saddle. This self-similar organisation is a suitable basis for a general description, since it is in good agreement with partial results obtained in other periodically forced oscillators and iterated maps. The applied ambient pressure in the model is near but still below Blake's critical threshold. Therefore, this paper is also a straightforward continuation of the work of Hegedűs [1], who first found numerical evidence for the existence of stable, period 1 solutions beyond Blake's threshold. The present findings are crucial for the extension of the available numerical results from period 1 to arbitrary periodicity. - Highlights: • Spherical gas/vapour bubble in water has been examined numerically. • The bubble model was the Rayleigh–Plesset equation excited harmonically. • Topology of stable periodic solutions has been found near Blake's threshold.

  19. Stabilität und Wandel von Arbeitsmarktinstitutionen aus wettbewerbsökonomischer Sicht (Stability and change of labour market institutions from an industrial organisation perspective)

    OpenAIRE

    Göddeke, Anna; Haucap, Justus; Herr, Annika; Wey, Christian

    2011-01-01

    "This contribution gives an overview of the main results of our theoretical research on the stability and change of labour market institutions. We use so-called models of unionised oligopolies which are borrowed from the theory of industrial organization in order to analyse the effects of simultaneous market power in both labour and product markets. The focus of our research is on the interaction between various organisational structures of labour markets and different forms of product market...

  20. 以“供给侧”为重点推进粮食“两侧”结构改革的思考%On Promoting the Grain "Two Sides" Structural Reform Focused on the "Supply-side"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁声俊

    2016-01-01

    推进“供给侧”结构性改革是一个重大的经济学理论和实践问题。在我国粮食领域存在着粮食品种产销结构、供需结构失衡问题。粮食“供给侧”是基础,“需求侧”是目标,二者存在相互依存、相互制约、相互促进的关系。根据对我国粮食宏观形势作出的客观评估,应以“五大发展新理念”为引领,坚守粮食总量安全、质量安全、农民增收、市场稳定“四条底线”,以粮食“供给侧”结构改革为主线,推动粮食“供给侧”与“需求侧”结构改革同步发力,促进粮食“两侧”结构相互协调与适应。%To promote the "supply-side structural reform" is a major economic theory and practical problems. In China′s grain field, the structural imbalance problems of the grain species can be seen in the process of production-marketing and supply-demand. Grain supply-side is the basis while the demand-side is the goal, both of them are mutual dependent, mutual restraint, and mutual promote. According to the objective assessment of China′s grain macro situation, we should take"the five new major development con⁃cepts" as the guiding principle, adhering to the" the four bottom lines" of the grain industry, such as adequate volume, safe quality, increased income and stable market. Take the grain "supply-side" structural reform as a main line to promote the grain supply-side and demand-side structural reform synchronously, making the "two sides" structure of mutual coordination and adaptation.

  1. A Survey Research on Market Orientation and Market Orientation- Performance Relationship in Hotel Companies

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKICI, A.Celil; EREN, Duygu

    2005-01-01

    Market orientation is considered as the implementation of marketing philosophy. From managerial perspective, market orientation has three dimensions: 1) market intelligence, 2) dissemination of intelligence, and 3) responsiveness. In order to determine market orientation level of hotel companies and relationship between market orientation and performance of hotels, a survey research was conducted at four and five star hotels operating in Turkey in 2002. The original MARKOR (market orientation...

  2. The regulation of market manipulation in Australia: a historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The regulation of market manipulation in Australia: a historical comparative perspective. ... amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the ... KEYWORDS: Enforcement, market abuse, regulation, financial markets, ...

  3. The marketing decade: a desktop view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, M; Stone, B C

    1991-03-01

    The authors challenge health care marketers to put into perspective the brief history and development of the health care marketing function and process. They advocate closing the gap between strategy development, operations management, and strategy implementation, and suggest that "strategic management" may be the way to organize for marketing. Marketers' roles and readiness for strategic management are discussed.

  4. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  5. 双边多工位装配线平衡问题%Heuristic algorithm of two-sided with multi-parallel stations assembly line balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏林; 殷复鹏; 吴爱华

    2013-01-01

    针对装配线上一个位置左右两边各有多个工位的装配线平衡问题建立数学模型,提出一种启发式平衡算法.该算法分为两个阶段,阶段1从未分配的作业元素中找出能够分配给某一位置的作业,构成集合W;阶段2按照不违背作业优先关系、方位约束和工位时间不超过节拍的原则,把W中的部分或全部作业元素分配到该位置内的各工位上;依此循环,直至所有作业元素分配完毕.以某重型汽车装配翻车前的装配线平衡为例,说明了所提算法的有效性.%To study the complex assembly line balancing problem, such as two-sided with multi-stations assembly line balancing problem, a mathematical model based on some assumptions to this problem was set up and a heuristic balancing algorithm was proposed. The algorithm had two phases. Phase one was to find out the operations which could be assigned to one position, corresponding to the constraint conditions in the mathematical model, and set up the set W with them. And phase two was to select and assign operations from W to the right station of the position without violating rules as precedence, position constraint and station time. All operations' assignments were completed based on this cycle. Finally, a truck assembly line balancing problem was provided as example to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  7. Organization Trust and Organizational Performance:Based on Internal Marketing Perspective%组织信任与组织绩效:内部营销视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲闻宇

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to study how the organizational trust affect organizational performance based on internal marketing perspective. We make three hypothesis about the relationships between organizational trust and organizational performance. Empirical results confirm the organizational trust in the direct supervisor of trust and high trust of the leadership on business performance has a significant impact, while the trust of colleagues on business performance was not significant;in the three direction of organizational trust, the role of trust to senior leadership on organizational performance is highest, followed the action of the direct supervisor's trust, trust in colleagues is lowest.%基于内部营销视角探讨组织信任的方向性特征如何影响组织绩效。依据内部营销的理论逻辑,提出组织信任三个方向对组织绩效的影响假设和组织信任方向对组织绩效影响的差异性假设。实证结果证实了组织信任中对直接上司的信任和对高层领导的信任对企业绩效有显著的影响,而对同事的信任对企业绩效影响不显著;组织信任的三种方向中,对高层领导的信任对组织绩效的作用最高,对直接上司的信任作用次之,对同事的信任作用最低。

  8. On the Marketing Model of Guangxi Characteristic Agricultural Products from the Perspective of Low-carbon Economy%低碳经济视角下的广西特色农产品营销模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕

    2013-01-01

      Low-carbon marketing plays a central role in the development of low-carbon economy. Guangxi is characterized by its wide variety of characteristic agricultural products. However,a series of problems arise in the process of low-carbon marketing of the agricultural products:the weak awareness of low-carbon market-ing,the technology lag of low-carbon production,the lack of macroscopic over-all planning from the govern-ment,the loss of the main role of the low-carbon,etc. From the aspects of marketing strategy and tactic,this paper analyzes the marketing model of characteristic agricultural products from the perspective of low-carbon economy.%  低碳营销是低碳经济发展的核心内容。广西特色农产品品种繁多,特色农产品低碳营销存在低碳意识不强、低碳生产技术滞后、政府缺乏低碳宏观统筹、企业的低碳主体作用缺失等问题。最后,从低碳营销战略和低碳营销策略两个方面探讨了低碳经济视角下的广西特色农产品营销模式。

  9. Two Sides of the Same COIN: A Comparative Analysis of American and British Counterinsurgency Approaches at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    political solution. In The Art of Counter-Revolutionary War, John J. McCuen viewed the problem of counterinsurgency from the perspective of an...Company, 1967), 76-77. 16Ibid., 176. 17For additional information on the Briggs plan see John J. McCuen, The Art of Counter- Revolutionary War (St...key insurgent leaders like Alipio Tecson in January 1901, and Emilio Aguinaldo in April 1901, and the surrender of Urbano Lacuna in May 1901.140 The

  10. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN PROFFESIONAL SPORT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to present the evolution of Barclays Premier League organization from the relationship marketing perspective and to analyze issues regarding the way in which the sportive...

  11. Perspectives of the global steam coal market: the COALMOD-World model; Perspektiven des globalen Kesselkohlemarktes. Das COALMOD-World-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haftendorn, Clemens; Holz, Franziska; Winke, Tim; Hirschhausen, Christian von [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Energie, Verkehr und Umwelt

    2012-03-15

    The global steam coal market has undergone drastic change over the past ten years due to growing demand, flexibilisation of trade conditions and intensified stock exchange trading. An equilibrium model called COALMOD-World is now available for simulating the national and global steam coal market over several periods and analysing future market developments. For this purpose the model maps the international seaborne steam coal trade as well as the relevant national markets. It calculates annual market equilibria, thus permitting regionally specific forecasts on trade coal quantities and prices up the year 2030.

  12. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Octavianty, Ressa, E-mail: ressa-octavianty@ed.tmu.ac.jp; Asai, Masahito, E-mail: masai@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino, Tokyo 191-0065 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  13. Role of two-sided crosstalk between NO and H2S on improvement of mineral homeostasis and antioxidative defense in Sesamum indicum under lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Zangene-Madar, Faezeh; Enteshari, Shekoofeh

    2017-05-01

    H2S and NO are two important gasotransmitters that modulate stress responses in plants. There are the contradictory data on crosstalk between NO and H2S in the studies. Hence, in the present study, the role of interplay between NO and H2S was assessed on the Pb tolerance of Sesamum indicum using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Results revealed that Pb stress reduced the plant growth and the content of photosynthetic pigments and Fv/Fm ratio, increased the lipid peroxidation and the H2O2 content, elevated the endogenous contents of nitric oxide (NO), H2S and enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (except APX). Additionally, concentrations of most mineral ions (K, P, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn) in both shoots and roots decreased. Pb accumulation in roots was more than it in shoots. Both sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS as a donor of H2S) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP as an NO donor) improved the plant growth, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and PSII efficiency, reduced oxidative damage, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the proline content in Pb-stressed plants. Furthermore, both NaHS and SNP significantly restricted the uptake and translocation of Pb, thereby minimizing antagonistic effects of Pb on essential mineral contents in sesame plants. NaHS increased the NO generation and many NaHS-induced responses were completely reversed by cPTIO, as the specific NO scavenger. Applying SNP also enhanced H2S release levels in roots of Pb-stressed plants and only some NO-driven effects were partially weakened by hypotuarine (HT), as the scavenger of H2S.These findings proposed for the first time that two-sided interplay between H2S and NO might confer an increased tolerance to Pb stress via activating the antioxidant systems, reducing the uptake and translocation of Pb, and harmonizing the balance of mineral nutrient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  15. Ten perspectives on Nordic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    2006-10-15

    Summary: Perspective no. 1: Costly early learning from the EU ETS - Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Perspective no. 2: Market based support schemes - Do they work as intended? Perspective no. 3: New decade in the Nordic energy markets. Perspective no. 4: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and more renewables - Are we getting there or not? Perspective no. 5: Interpretation of financial requirements - An impediment to sound investments? Perspective no. 6: Who should invest in infrastructure - Public or private investors? Perspective no. 7: Re regulation is not the answer - Need for coordination calls for a visible hand? Perspective no. 8: Increased infrastructure investments - Due to EU ETS and support schemes for RES. Perspective no. 9: Energy, welfare and industry - Complex links make policy making difficult. Perspective no. 10 'Fuel' for an energy policy discussion - A Nordic energy policy agenda? (AG)

  16. “湿营销”视角下的旅游团购营销特点分析%Wet Marketing Perspective of Tourism Marketing Characteristics of Bulk Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会铃; 王允华

    2012-01-01

    As social media marketing is growing, people will no longer media as a single communication platform, and pay more attention to the interactive and appeal of. In this environment," wet marketing" as a marketing a new concept in the field of greet the eye of people. Tourism industry fierce competition compels enterprises to try innovative marketing mode, tourism group purchase is a new marketing model, in the tourism group purchase marketing mode, should pay attention to the word of mouth marketing and relationship marketing, to innovation as the fulcrum and power.%随着社会化媒体的日益增多,营销人不再将媒体作为单一的传播平台,而更为重视其互动性以及感召性。在这样的环境下,“湿营销”作为市场营销领域的新概念映入人们的眼帘。旅游行业的激烈竞争促使企业踊跃尝试创新的营销模式,旅游团购则是最新的营销模式,在旅游团购的营销模式中,要注重口碑营销和关系营销,以此创新为支点和动力。

  17. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  18. Design for Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztepe, Suzan

    2009-01-01

    In a global economy, no company can safely assume that their products will be accepted in foreign markets. One key issue is to understand and meet the latent needs of culturally diverse target markets. This book examines from a user perspective the issue of developing new products for global...... markets. Given that main goal of any design is to create value for users, Boztepe argues that the concept of user value could be a driving force in design decision-making regarding product development for global markets. Through interviews with women about their kitchen practices and observations...... framework to assists marketers, product designers and managers to deal with the complex issue of designing and tailoring products for local needs....

  19. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇAK, Akın

    2012-01-01

    When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus...

  20. An Overview and Analysis of Marketing Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Dincer; Banu Dincer

    2014-01-01

    In todays business world, in addition to general decisions, managers must also make judgments concerning what is ethical to do. This is not an easy task especially for marketing professionals as marketing is the visible interface with not only customers, but with all other stakeholders, it is important for marketers to take into consideration the marketing ethics. Marketing ethics should be examined from an individual, organizational, and societal perspective.