A Two Scalar Field Model for the Interaction of Dark Energy and Dark Matter
Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge
2012-01-01
In this letter, we study the effects of an interaction between dark matter and dark energy through a two scalar field model with a potential $V(\\phi,\\chi)=e^{-\\lambda\\phi}P(\\phi,\\chi)$, where $P(\\phi,\\chi)$ is a polynomial. We show that features of the present Universe are reproduced for a large range of the bare mass of the dark matter field. Simple modifications of the potential are studied, revealing important implications of the interaction, including the possibility of transient acceleration solutions.
A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM and models with two scalar field doublets
Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1998-01-01
A search is described for the neutral Higgs bosons h^0 and A^0 predicted by models with two scalar field doublets and, in particular, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The search in the Z^0 h^0 and h^0 A^0 production channels is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25 pb^{-1} from e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 172GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The observation of a number of candidates consistent with Standard Model background expectations is used in combination with earlier results from data collected at the Z^0 resonance to set limits on m_h and m_A in general models with two scalar field doublets and in the MSSM. For example, in the MSSM, for tan(beta) > 1, minimal and maximal scalar top quark mixing and soft SUSY-breaking masses of 1 TeV, the 95% confidence level limits m_h > 59.0 GeV and m_A > 59.5 GeV are obtained. For the first time, the MSSM parameter space is explored in a detailed scan.
Hamada, Shoji; Masutani, Keigo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo
Time harmonic electromagnetic fields in multi-spheres models were calculated by the method of two scalar potentials proposed by Gumerov. The analyzed models were an eccentric two-spheres model and a ten-spheres model including brain core and a pair of eyeballs. The applied fields were a plane wave and a dipole magnetic field, and the frequency was 1.8 or 2.0GHz. The truncation degree p of multipole and local expansion was set to up to 170∼200. The peak power density on the x-y plane and the absorbed power in each tissue almost monotonously converged as p increased. It demonstrated the usefulness of the Gumerov's method.
Quintessence dynamics with two scalar fields and mixed kinetic terms
van de Bruck, Carsten
2009-01-01
The dynamical properties of a model of dark energy in which two scalar fields are coupled by a non-canonical kinetic term are studied. We show that overall the addition of the coupling has only minor effects on the dynamics of the two-field system for both potentials studied, even preserving many of the features of the assisted quintessence scenario. The coupling of the kinetic terms enlarges the regions of stability of the critical points. When the potential is of an additive form, we find the kinetic coupling has an interesting effect on the dynamics of the fields as they approach the inflationary attractor, with the result that the combined equation of state of the scalar fields can approach -1 during the transition from a matter dominated universe to the recent period of acceleration.
Interference effects of two scalar boson propagators on the LHC search for the singlet fermion DM
Ko, P
2016-01-01
A gauge invariant UV-completion for singlet fermion DM interacting with the standard model (SM) particles involves a new singlet scalar. Therefore the model contains two scalar mediators, mixtures of the SM Higgs boson and a singlet scalar boson. Collider phenomenology of the interference effect between these two scalar propagators is studied in this work. This interference effect can be either constructive or destructive in the DM production cross section depending on both singlet scalar and DM masses, and it will soften the final state jets in the full mass region. Applying the CMS mono-jet search to our model, we find the interference effect plays a very important role in the DM search sensitivity, and the DM production cross section of our model is more than one order of magnitude below the LHC sensitivity at current stage.
Interference effects of two scalar boson propagators on the LHC search for the singlet fermion DM
Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian
2017-02-01
A gauge invariant UV-completion for singlet fermion DM interacting with the standard model (SM) particles involves a new singlet scalar. Therefore the model contains two scalar mediators, mixtures of the SM Higgs boson and a singlet scalar boson. Collider phenomenology of the interference effect between these two scalar propagators is studied in this work. This interference effect can be either constructive or destructive in the DM production cross section depending on both singlet scalar and DM masses, and it will soften the final state jets in the full mass region. Applying the CMS mono-jet search to our model, we find the interference effect plays a very important role in the DM search sensitivity, and the DM production cross section of our model is more than one order of magnitude below the LHC sensitivity at current stage.
Cumulative fatigue damage models
Mcgaw, Michael A.
1988-01-01
The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.
Trapping Dirac fermions in tubes generated by two scalar fields
Casana, R; Martins, G V; Simas, F C
2013-01-01
In this work we consider $(1,1)-$dimensional resonant Dirac fermionic states on tube-like topological defects. The defects are formed by rings in $(2,1)$ dimensions, constructed with two scalar field $\\phi$ and $\\chi$, and embedded in the $(3,1)-$dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The tube-like defects are attained from a lagrangian density explicitly dependent with the radial distance $r$ relative to the ring axis and the radius and thickness of the its cross-section are related to the energy density. For our purposes we analyze a general Yukawa-like coupling between the topological defect and the fermionic field $\\eta F(\\phi,\\chi)\\bar\\psi\\psi$. With a convenient decomposition of the fermionic fields in left- and right- chiralities, we establish a coupled set of first order differential equations for the amplitudes of the left- and right- components of the Dirac field. After decoupling and decomposing the amplitudes in polar coordinates, the radial modes satisfy Schr\\"odinger-like equations whose eigenvalues a...
Trapping Dirac fermions in tubes generated by two scalar fields
Casana, R.; Gomes, A. R.; Martins, G. V.; Simas, F. C.
2014-04-01
In this work we consider (1,1)-dimensional resonant Dirac fermionic states on tubelike topological defects. The defects are formed by rings in (2,1) dimensions, constructed with two scalar fields ϕ and χ, and embedded in the (3,1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The tubelike defects are attained from a Lagrangian density explicitly dependent with the radial distance r relative to the ring axis and the radius and thickness of its cross section are related to the energy density. For our purposes we analyze a general Yukawa-like coupling between the topological defect and the fermionic field ηF(ϕ ,χ)ψ¯ψ. With a convenient decomposition of the fermionic fields in left and right components, we establish a coupled set of first-order differential equations for the amplitudes of the left and right components of the Dirac field. After decoupling and decomposing the amplitudes in polar coordinates, the radial modes satisfy Schrödinger-like equations whose eigenvalues are the masses of the fermionic states. With F(ϕ ,χ)=ϕχ the Schrödinger-like equations are numerically solved with appropriated boundary conditions. Several resonance peaks for both components are obtained, and the results are confronted with the qualitative analysis of the Schrödinger-like potentials.
Multivariate pluvial flood damage models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Ootegem, Luc [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium); SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Verhofstadt, Elsy [SHERPPA — Ghent University (Belgium); Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom [HIVA — University of Louvain (Belgium)
2015-09-15
Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.
Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang
2006-01-01
On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.
Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B
2015-01-01
Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume "super" fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.
Flood damage modelling: ambition and reality
Gerl, Tina; Kreibich, Heidi; Franco, Guillermo; Marechal, David; Schröter, Kai
2015-04-01
Flood damage modelling is of increasing importance for reliable risk assessment and management. Research efforts have improved the understanding of damaging processes and more sophisticated flood damage models have been developed. However, research seems to focus on a limited number of sectors and regions and validation of models still receives too little attention. We present a global inventory of flood damage models which is compiled from a review of scientific papers and research reports on flood damage models. The models are catalogued according to model specifications, geographical characteristics, sectors addressed, input variables used, model validation, transferability and model functions. The inventory is evaluated to position the current state of science and technology in flood damage modelling as well as to derive requirements for benchmarking damage models.
Inflation in a conformally invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra R{sup 2} term
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@sss.fukushima-u.ac.jp [Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296, Fukushima (Japan); Leading Graduate School Promotion Center, Ochanomizu University, 112-8610, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 112-8610, Tokyo (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona (Spain); Tretyakov, Petr V. [Joined Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2015-07-23
We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional R{sup 2} term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of the scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations obtaind by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient R{sup 2} gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields.
Inflation in a conformally invariant two-scalar-field theory with an extra R{sup 2} term
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Ochanomizu University, Leading Graduate School Promotion Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ochanomizu University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Tretyakov, Petr V. [Joined Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
We explore inflationary cosmology in a theory where there are two scalar fields which non-minimally couple to the Ricci scalar and an additional R{sup 2} term, which breaks the conformal invariance. Particularly, we investigate the slow-roll inflation in the case of one dynamical scalar field and that of two dynamical scalar fields. It is explicitly demonstrated that the spectral index of the scalar mode of the density perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be consistent with the observations obtained by the recent Planck satellite. The graceful exit from the inflationary stage is achieved as in convenient R{sup 2} gravity. We also propose the generalization of the model under discussion with three scalar fields. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuan Guo; Chenggang Zhao; Dajun Yuan; Mengshu Wang
2008-01-01
This paper builds the for mulations of hyperplastic damage theory for rate-independent geomaterials to describe the bulk and the likely damage behavior of granular materials.Using 2 kinematic internal variables and the conjugates,dissipative and yield function can be reasonably intlloduoed.A systematic constitutive presentation of 32 possible ways within the thermodynam-ical damage framework is presented,which entirely formulates the constitutive behavior through two scalar thermodynamic potentials.Combining the four common thermodynamical energyfunc-tions.two independent kinematic internal variables and the accordingly generalized stress are introduced to describe the damage behavior and structural rearrangement of the granules for any bulk deformation.A few Legendre transformations are used to establish the links between energy functions so that the complex incremental response of geomaterials can be entirely established from these four energy functions.The constitutive relations are built with the thermodynamics laws,which account for the important structural aspects of geomateriais.Some examples are pro-vided in the appendix to validate the applicability and implementation of the framework.This theory is based on previous work by Houlsby et a1.,and extends to the multi-mechanisms de-scription.This framework paves a way in developing models for specific geomateriais with an examinable basis.
PHENOMENOLOGICAL DAMAGE MODELS OF ANISOTROPIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Bobyr, M.; Khalimon, O.; Bondarets, O.
2015-01-01
Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. A formulation for anisotropic damage is established in the framework of the principle of strain equivalence, principle of increment complementary energy equivalence and principle of elastic energy equivalence. This paper presents the development of an anisotropic damage theory. This work is focused on the development of evolution anisotropic damage models which is based on a Young’s modulus/Poisson’s ratio change of...
Towards a canonical elastoplastic damage model
Taher, Salah El-Din F.; Baluch, Mohammed H.; Al-Gadhib, Ali H.
1994-05-01
Fundamental aspects of elastoplastic damage are outlined. Time-independent isotropic damage is considered in order to study material degradation. By splitting the total strain tensor into its components of elastic damage and plastic damage and using recoverable energy equivalence, three distinct modes of behavior are particularized. For each mode of behavior, a suitable damage variable is culled. An in-depth analysis of this formulation reveals a certain incongruity in the assumptions postulated in some of the previously proposed models. The suggested generalized concepts are supported by experimental evidence.
Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.
2016-01-01
Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...
Modeling Propagation of Gas Path Damage
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be tracked and modeled for a range of fault modes in some modules of commercial high bypass aircraft engines. To that...
A continuum damage model for piezoelectric materials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yiming Fu; Xianqiao Wang
2008-01-01
In this paper, a constitutive model is proposed for piezoelectric material solids containing distributed cracks.The model is formulated in a framework of continuum damage mechanics using second rank tensors as internal variables. The Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric mate-rials with damage is then expressed as a polynomial including the transformed strains, the electric field vector and the ten-sorial damage variables by using the integrity bases restricted by the initial orthotropic symmetry of the material. By using the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of the piezoelectric mate-rial, the constitutive relations of piezoelectric materials with damage are derived. The model is applied to a special case of piezoelectric plate with transverse matrix cracks. With theKirchhoff hypothesis of plate, the free vibration equationsof the piezoelectric rectangular plate considering damage isestablished. By using Galerkin method, the equations are sol-ved. Numerical results show the effect of the damage on the free vibration of the piezoelectric plate under the close-circuit condition, and the present results are compared with those of the three-dimensional theory.
Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul
2012-01-01
An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.
Damage modelling in plasma facing components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, E. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)], E-mail: martin@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France); Schlosser, J.; Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul Lez Durance (France)
2009-04-30
The plasma facing components of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2}). These components are made of a carbon/carbon composite tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the composite and the copper alloy, significant stresses may develop during fabrication and under heat load inducing damage in the composite material as well as at the copper/composite interface. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage development in plasma facing components. For this purpose, damage laws related to the non-linear behaviour of both the composite material and the copper/composite joint have been identified. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a plasma facing component. Results show the development of damage within the assembly submitted to a heat load.
Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model using general second order damage tensor
Niazi, Muhammad; Wisselink, Harm; Meinders, Timo; Horn, ten Carel; Mori, K.; Pietrzyk, M.; Kusiak, J.; Majta, J.; Hartley, P.; Lin, J.
2010-01-01
Damage in metals is mainly the process of the initiation and growth of voids. With the growing complexity in materials and forming proc-esses, it becomes inevitable to include anisotropy in damage (tensorial damage variable). Most of the anisotropic damage models define the damage tensor in the prin
Progressive Damage Modeling of Notched Composites
Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip
2016-01-01
There is an increased interest in using non-crimp fabric reinforced composites for primary and secondary structural weight savings in high performance automobile applications. However, one of the main challenges in implementing these composites is the lack of understanding of damage progression under a wide variety of loading conditions for general configurations. Towards that end, researchers at GM and NASA are developing new damage models to predict accurately the progressive failure of these composites. In this investigation, the developed progressive failure analysis model was applied to study damage progression in center-notched and open-hole tension specimens for various laminate schemes. The results of a detailed study with respect to the effect of element size on the analysis outcome are presented.
An Elastoplastic Damage Constitutive Model for Concrete
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Jun; LIN Gao; ZHONG Hong
2013-01-01
An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented.Similar to traditional plastic theory,the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space.In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions,two damage variables,i.e.,tension and compression are introduced,to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure.The rate dependent behavior is taken into account,and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics.Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration.Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression,biaxial loading and triaxial loading.Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.
An elastoplastic damage constitutive model for concrete
Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao; Zhong, Hong
2013-04-01
An elastoplastic damage constitutive model to simulate nonlinear behavior of concrete is presented. Similar to traditional plastic theory, the irreversible deformation is modeled in effective stress space. In order to better describe different stiffness degradation mechanisms of concrete under tensile and compressive loading conditions, two damage variables, i.e., tension and compression are introduced, to quantitatively evaluate the degree of deterioration of concrete structure. The rate dependent behavior is taken into account, and this model is derived firmly in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Fully implicit backward-Euler algorithm is suggested to perform constitutive integration. Numerical results of the model accord well with the test results for specimens under uniaxial tension and compression, biaxial loading and triaxial loading. Failure processes of double-edge-notched (DEN) specimen are also simulated to further validate the proposed model.
Plasto-damage modelling for semi-brittle geomaterials
Alizadeh Ali; Gatmiri Behrouz
2016-01-01
This paper presents an elastoplastic damage model for constitutive modelling of semi-brittle geomaterials showing two irreversible mechanisms. On one hand, the model deals with the plastic behaviour of a porous medium by a new variant of Barcelona Basic Model. On the other hand, the model combines the micromechanical definition of damage and phenomenological concepts in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) for damage modelling. A second order tensorial damage variable is adopted ...
Cervera, Miguel; Tesei, Claudia
2017-01-01
In this paper, an energy-equivalent orthotropic d+/d− damage model for cohesive-frictional materials is formulated. Two essential mechanical features are addressed, the damage-induced anisotropy and the microcrack closure-reopening (MCR) effects, in order to provide an enhancement of the original d+/d− model proposed by Faria et al. 1998, while keeping its high algorithmic efficiency unaltered. First, in order to ensure the symmetry and positive definiteness of the secant operator, the new formulation is developed in an energy-equivalence framework. This proves thermodynamic consistency and allows one to describe a fundamental feature of the orthotropic damage models, i.e., the reduction of the Poisson’s ratio throughout the damage process. Secondly, a “multidirectional” damage procedure is presented to extend the MCR capabilities of the original model. The fundamental aspects of this approach, devised for generic cyclic conditions, lie in maintaining only two scalar damage variables in the constitutive law, while preserving memory of the degradation directionality. The enhanced unilateral capabilities are explored with reference to the problem of a panel subjected to in-plane cyclic shear, with or without vertical pre-compression; depending on the ratio between shear and pre-compression, an absent, a partial or a complete stiffness recovery is simulated with the new multidirectional procedure. PMID:28772793
Cervera, Miguel; Tesei, Claudia
2017-04-20
In this paper, an energy-equivalent orthotropic d⁺/d(-) damage model for cohesive-frictional materials is formulated. Two essential mechanical features are addressed, the damage-induced anisotropy and the microcrack closure-reopening (MCR) effects, in order to provide an enhancement of the original d⁺/d(-) model proposed by Faria et al. 1998, while keeping its high algorithmic efficiency unaltered. First, in order to ensure the symmetry and positive definiteness of the secant operator, the new formulation is developed in an energy-equivalence framework. This proves thermodynamic consistency and allows one to describe a fundamental feature of the orthotropic damage models, i.e., the reduction of the Poisson's ratio throughout the damage process. Secondly, a "multidirectional" damage procedure is presented to extend the MCR capabilities of the original model. The fundamental aspects of this approach, devised for generic cyclic conditions, lie in maintaining only two scalar damage variables in the constitutive law, while preserving memory of the degradation directionality. The enhanced unilateral capabilities are explored with reference to the problem of a panel subjected to in-plane cyclic shear, with or without vertical pre-compression; depending on the ratio between shear and pre-compression, an absent, a partial or a complete stiffness recovery is simulated with the new multidirectional procedure.
Modelling of settlement induced building damage
Giardina, G.
2013-01-01
This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.
An improved damaging model for structured clays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜岩; 雷华阳; 郑刚; 徐舜华
2008-01-01
An improved damaging model formulated within the framework of bounding surface for structured clays was proposed. The model was intended to describe the effects of structure degradation due to geotechnical loading. The predictive capability of the model was compared with those of triaxial compression test on Tianjin soft clays. The results show that, by incorporating a new damage function into the model, the reduction of elastic bulk and shear modulus with elastic deformations and the reduction of plastic bulk modulus and shear modulus with plastic deformations are able to be appreciable. Before the axial strain reaches 15%, the axial strain computed from the model is smaller than that from the test under the drained condition. Under the undrained condition, after the axial strain reaches 1%, the axial strain increases quickly because of the complete loss of structure and stiffness; and the result computed from the model is nearly equal to that from the model without the incorporation of the damage function due to less plastic strain under undrained condition test.
A CONTINUUM DAMAGE MODEL OF AGING CONCRETE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Zhenyang; Xie Huicai; Xu Tao; Yu Jie; Cai Changan
2001-01-01
There is up to now no constitutive model in the current theories of CDM that could give a description for the degradation of aging concrete. The two internal state variables β and ω are introduced in this paper. β is called cohesion variable as an additional kinematic parameter, reflecting the cohesion state among material particles. ω is called damage factor for micro-defects such as voids.Then a damage model and a series of constitutive equations are developed on Continuum Mechanics.The model proposed could give a valid description for the whole-course-degradation of aging concrete due tochemical and mechanical actions. Finally, the validity of the model is evaluated by an example and experimental results.
On Elastoplastic Damage Modelling in Unsaturated Geomaterials
Le Pense, Solenn; Gatmiri, Behrouz; Pouya, Ahmad
2012-01-01
International audience; In the context of nuclearwaste disposal, the modelling of the behaviour of host rocks and soils still needs improvement.Unsaturated porous geomaterials exhibit particular behaviourwhen exposed to suction. Their non-linear behaviour may result fromtwo different processes, plasticity which induces irreversible strains and damage which causes a deterioration of their elastic properties. Many elasto-plastic models are now available for unsaturated soils, most of them based...
Boyina, Gangadhara Rao T.; Rayavarapu, Vijaya Kumar; V. V., Subba Rao
2017-02-01
The prediction of ultimate strength remains the main challenge in the simulation of the mechanical response of composite structures. This paper examines continuum damage model to predict the strength and size effects for deformation and failure response of polymer composite laminates when subjected to complex state of stress. The paper also considers how the overall results of the exercise can be applied in design applications. The continuum damage model is described and the resulting prediction of size effects are compared against the standard benchmark solutions. The stress analysis for strength prediction of rotary wing aircraft cabin door is carried out. The goal of this study is to extend the proposed continuum damage model such that it can be accurately predict the failure around stress concentration regions. The finite element-based continuum damage mechanics model can be applied to the structures and components of arbitrary configurations where analytical solutions could not be developed.
Damage modelling in Plasma Facing Components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, E.; Camus, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ. des Sciences et Technologies-3, LCTS, Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux, CNRS-UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac, (France); Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee
2007-07-01
Full text of publication follows: The plasma facing components (PFC) of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (10 MW/m2 for Tore Supra and up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} for ITER, Cadarache, France). Active cooling is required to maintain a reasonable surface temperature and to avoid critical heat flux and melting of the components. The PFC developed for Tore Supra are made of a carbon/carbon (C/C) composite flat tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Under operating conditions, because of the thermal expansion mismatch existing between the C/C composite and the copper alloy, these components withstand significant stresses which induce damage in the C/C material as well as at the copper/composite interface. Design tools are thus required in order to analyse the initiation and the propagation of damage in thermally loaded PFC. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage in actively cooled PFC. For this purpose, dedicated experimental procedures have been developed and sound constitutive laws taking into account the damage related non linear behaviour of both the C/C material and the Cu-C/C joint have been established. Various tests have first been performed on C/C samples in tension and compression, within the fibre axis and off-axis, as well as in shear using a Iosipescu type device, in order to carefully analyse the non-linear mechanical behaviour of this material. A constitutive law able to handle complex multiaxial loadings, established within a classical thermodynamical framework and using scalar damage variables, was then identified. Tensile and shear tests were also performed on C/C-Cu samples in order to identify a cohesive zone model representative of the damageable behaviour of the joint. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a PFC. Obtained results have evidenced the progressive development of damage which takes place in the assembly when
Survey of four damage models for concrete.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leelavanichkul, Seubpong (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT)
2009-08-01
Four conventional damage plasticity models for concrete, the Karagozian and Case model (K&C), the Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma model (RHT), the Brannon-Fossum model (BF1), and the Continuous Surface Cap Model (CSCM) are compared. The K&C and RHT models have been used in commercial finite element programs many years, whereas the BF1 and CSCM models are relatively new. All four models are essentially isotropic plasticity models for which 'plasticity' is regarded as any form of inelasticity. All of the models support nonlinear elasticity, but with different formulations. All four models employ three shear strength surfaces. The 'yield surface' bounds an evolving set of elastically obtainable stress states. The 'limit surface' bounds stress states that can be reached by any means (elastic or plastic). To model softening, it is recognized that some stress states might be reached once, but, because of irreversible damage, might not be achievable again. In other words, softening is the process of collapse of the limit surface, ultimately down to a final 'residual surface' for fully failed material. The four models being compared differ in their softening evolution equations, as well as in their equations used to degrade the elastic stiffness. For all four models, the strength surfaces are cast in stress space. For all four models, it is recognized that scale effects are important for softening, but the models differ significantly in their approaches. The K&C documentation, for example, mentions that a particular material parameter affecting the damage evolution rate must be set by the user according to the mesh size to preserve energy to failure. Similarly, the BF1 model presumes that all material parameters are set to values appropriate to the scale of the element, and automated assignment of scale-appropriate values is available only through an enhanced implementation of BF1 (called BFS) that regards scale effects to be coupled to
Grelot, Frédéric; Agenais, Anne-Laurence; Brémond, Pauline
2015-04-01
In France, since 2011, it is mandatory for local communities to conduct cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of their flood management projects, to make them eligible for financial support from the State. Meanwhile, as a support, the French Ministry in charge of Environment proposed a methodology to fulfill CBA. Like for many other countries, this methodology is based on the estimation of flood damage. However, existing models to estimate flood damage were judged not convenient for a national-wide use. As a consequence, the French Ministry in charge of Environment launched studies to develop damage models for different sectors, such as: residential sector, public infrastructures, agricultural sector, and commercial and industrial sector. In this presentation, we aim at presenting and discussing methodological choices of those damage models. They all share the same principle: no sufficient data from past events were available to build damage models on a statistical analysis, so modeling was based on expert knowledge. We will focus on the model built for agricultural activities and more precisely for agricultural lands. This model was based on feedback from 30 agricultural experts who experienced floods in their geographical areas. They were selected to have a representative experience of crops and flood conditions in France. The model is composed of: (i) damaging functions, which reveal physiological vulnerability of crops, (ii) action functions, which correspond to farmers' decision rules for carrying on crops after a flood, and (iii) economic agricultural data, which correspond to featured characteristics of crops in the geographical area where the flood management project studied takes place. The two first components are generic and the third one is specific to the area studied. It is, thus, possible to produce flood damage functions adapted to different agronomic and geographical contexts. In the end, the model was applied to obtain a pool of damage functions giving
Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.
2004-03-23
The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based
Damage Model of Brittle Coal-Rock and Damage Energy Index of Rock Burst
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
尹光志; 张东明; 魏作安; 李东伟
2003-01-01
Based on the mechanical experiment of brittle coal-rock and the damage mechanical theory, a damage model was established. Coal-Rock damage mechanical characteristic was researched. Furthermore, interior energy transformation mechanism of rock was analyzed from the point of view of damage mechanics and damage energy release rate of brittle coal rock was derived. By analyzing the energy transformation of rock burst, a new conception, damage energy index of rock burst, was put forward. The condition of rock burst was also established.
Modeling of Corrosion-induced Concrete Damage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thybo, Anna Emilie A.; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik
2013-01-01
In the present paper a finite element model is introduced to simulate corrosion-induced damage in concrete. The model takes into account the penetration of corrosion products into the concrete as well as non-uniform formation of corrosion products around the reinforcement. To ac-count for the non......-uniform formation of corrosion products at the concrete/reinforcement interface, a deterministic approach is used. The model gives good estimates of both deformations in the con-crete/reinforcement interface and crack width when compared to experimental data. Further, it is shown that non-uniform deposition...... of corrosion products affects both the time-to cover cracking and the crack width at the concrete surface....
Modeling the damage of welded steel, using the GTN model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El-Ahmar Kadi
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of our work is the modeling of the damage in the weld metal according to the finite element method and the concepts of fracture mechanics based on local approaches using the code ABAQUS calculates. The use of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model axisymmetric specimens AE type to three different zones (Base metal, molten metal and heat affected Zone with four levels of triaxiality (AE2, AE4, AE10 and AE80, we have used to model the behavior of damage to welded steel, which is described as being due to the growth and coalescence of cavities with high rates of triaxiality
Exploring the potential of multivariate depth-damage and rainfall-damage models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Ootegem, Luc; van Herck, K.; Creten, T.
2017-01-01
In Europe, floods are among the natural catastrophes that cause the largest economic damage. This article explores the potential of two distinct types of multivariate flood damage models: ‘depth-damage’ models and ‘rainfall-damage’ models. We use survey data of 346 Flemish households that were vi...
Embankment deformation analyzed by elastoplastic damage model coupling consolidation theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong SUN; Xihong ZHAO
2006-01-01
The deformation of embankment has serious influences on neighboring structure and infrastructure. A trial embankment is reanalyzed by elastoplastic damage model coupling Biot's consolidation theory. With the increase in time of loading, the damage accumulation becomes larger. Under the centre and toe of embankment, damage becomes serious. Under the centre of embankment, vertical damage values are bigger than horizontal ones. Under the toe of embankment, horizontal damage values are bigger than vertical ones.
Plasto-damage modelling for semi-brittle geomaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alizadeh Ali
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an elastoplastic damage model for constitutive modelling of semi-brittle geomaterials showing two irreversible mechanisms. On one hand, the model deals with the plastic behaviour of a porous medium by a new variant of Barcelona Basic Model. On the other hand, the model combines the micromechanical definition of damage and phenomenological concepts in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM for damage modelling. A second order tensorial damage variable is adopted for the model. Damaged effective stress variables are employed for formulation of elastoplastic behaviour laws and the plastic yield surface is a damage dependent one. The model has been validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental results of argillites.
Dynamic Damage Model of Brittle Rock and Its Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
高文学; 刘运通; 杨军; 黄风雷
2003-01-01
On the basis of shock-induced experiments and the ultrasonic tests of the damaged rocks, the damage evolution relation between the attenuation coefficient of sound wave and the damage dissipated energy is described. Based on the TCK and RDA models, a damage model which connects the shock compression and tensile damage is established. And then the damage model is implemented in LS-DYNA3D dynamic nonlinear program. Numerical simulation of deep-hole blasting of groove is studied by use of the damage model proposed. The rock damage evolution process and the distributing rules of stress field under the explosion load are described well fairly, which provides the theory basis for the engineering blasting design.
Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishnaevsky, L. Jr.; Broendsted, P.
2007-03-15
The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical models of fiber reinforced composites, and micromechanical modelling of damage in FRC, and phenomenological analysis of the effect of frequency of cyclic loading on the lifetime and damage evolution in materials. (au)
Optics damage modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility
Liao, Z. M.; Raymond, B.; Gaylord, J.; Fallejo, R.; Bude, J.; Wegner, P.
2014-10-01
Comprehensive modeling of laser-induced damage in optics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica wedge focus lenses with a metric that compares the modeled damage performance to online inspections. The results indicate that damage models are successful in tracking the performance of the fused silica final optics when properly accounting for various optical finishes and mitigation processes. This validates the consistency of the damage models and allows us to further monitor and evaluate different system parameters that potentially can affect optics performance.
Experimental Damage Identification of a Model Reticulated Shell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Xu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The damage identification of a reticulated shell is a challenging task, facing various difficulties, such as the large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs, the phenomenon of modal localization and transition, and low modeling accuracy. Based on structural vibration responses, the damage identification of a reticulated shell was studied. At first, the auto-regressive (AR time series model was established based on the acceleration responses of the reticulated shell. According to the changes in the coefficients of the AR model between the damaged conditions and the undamaged condition, the damage of the reticulated shell can be detected. In addition, the damage sensitive factors were determined based on the coefficients of the AR model. With the damage sensitive factors as the inputs and the damage positions as the outputs, back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs were then established and were trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm (L–M algorithm. The locations of the damages can be predicted by the back-propagation neural networks. At last, according to the experimental scheme of single-point excitation and multi-point responses, the impact experiments on a K6 shell model with a scale of 1/10 were conducted. The experimental results verified the efficiency of the proposed damage identification method based on the AR time series model and back-propagation neural networks. The proposed damage identification method can ensure the safety of the practical engineering to some extent.
A two-scale damage model with material length
Dascalu, Cristian
2009-09-01
The Note presents the formulation of a class of two-scale damage models involving a micro-structural length. A homogenization method based on asymptotic developments is employed to deduce the macroscopic damage equations. The damage model completely results from energy-based micro-crack propagation laws, without supplementary phenomenological assumptions. We show that the resulting two-scale model has the property of capturing micro-structural lengths. When damage evolves, the micro-structural length is given by the ratio of the surface density of energy dissipated during the micro-crack growth and the macroscopic damage energy release rate per unit volume of the material. The use of fracture criteria based on resistance curves or power laws for sub-critical growth of micro-cracks leads to quasi-brittle and, respectively, time-dependent damage models. To cite this article: C. Dascalu, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).
Damage modeling and damage detection for structures using a perturbation method
Dixit, Akash
This thesis is about using structural-dynamics based methods to address the existing challenges in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Particularly, new structural-dynamics based methods are presented, to model areas of damage, to do damage diagnosis and to estimate and predict the sensitivity of structural vibration properties like natural frequencies to the presence of damage. Towards these objectives, a general analytical procedure, which yields nth-order expressions governing mode shapes and natural frequencies and for damaged elastic structures such as rods, beams, plates and shells of any shape is presented. Features of the procedure include the following: 1. Rather than modeling the damage as a fictitious elastic element or localized or global change in constitutive properties, it is modeled in a mathematically rigorous manner as a geometric discontinuity. 2. The inertia effect (kinetic energy), which, unlike the stiffness effect (strain energy), of the damage has been neglected by researchers, is included in it. 3. The framework is generic and is applicable to wide variety of engineering structures of different shapes with arbitrary boundary conditions which constitute self adjoint systems and also to a wide variety of damage profiles and even multiple areas of damage. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and non-contact Laser-Doppler Vibrometer sensors. To illustrate the ability of the procedure to effectively model the damage, it is applied to beams using Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko theories and to plates using Kirchhoff's theory, supported on different types of boundary conditions. Analytical results are compared with experiments using piezoelectric actuators and
A new anisotropic damage model for brittle solids based on the effective damage concept
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yazdani, S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)
1995-12-31
The presence of microdefects within the structure of a brittle solid plays a dominant role on the manner in which the material responds to externally applied stresses. When a loading state involves a confining pressure of a sufficient magnitude such that nucleation of new microdefects and the propagation of existing ones are inhibited, brittle solids display a ductile response. However, when the same materials are stressed in a low pressure regime, responses become very brittle with little or no ductility. During the process of damage, material bonds are severed, leading to the alteration of elastic properties. It is, therefore, plausible to employ the changes in compliance or stiffness as measures of damage as they relate directly to the physics of the problem. The paper starts with a review of the fundamental concepts based on the laws of thermodynamics, considers anisotropic damage formulation, including both elastic and inelastic damage processes, and proposes new damage response tensors to allow for the rotation of principal stress axis. Damage is recorded in the material compliance tensor involving an effective damage parameter whose increment is obtained from the consistency condition of a damage potential known as {open_quotes}damage surface.{close_quotes} Finally, the paper illustrates the model for a cementitious material in different loading paths.
Comparison of multiaxial fatigue damage models under variable amplitude loading
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hong; Shang, De Guang; Tian, Yu Jie [Beijing Univ. of Technology, Beijing (China); Liu, Jian Zhong [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing (China)
2012-11-15
Based on the cycle counting method of Wang and Brown and on the linear accumulation damage rule of Miner, four multiaxial fatigue damage models without any weight factors proposed by Pan et al., Varvani Farahani, Shang and Wang, and Shang et al. are used to compute fatigue damage. The procedure is evaluated using the low cycle fatigue experimental data of 7050 T7451 aluminum alloy and En15R steel under tension/torsion variable amplitude loading. The results reveal that the procedure is convenient for engineering design and application, and that the four multiaxial fatigue damage models provide good life estimates.
Stochastic modeling of p53-regulated apoptosis upon radiation damage
Bhatt, Divesh; Bahar, Ivet
2011-01-01
We develop and study the evolution of a model of radiation induced apoptosis in cells using stochastic simulations, and identified key protein targets for effective mitigation of radiation damage. We identified several key proteins associated with cellular apoptosis using an extensive literature survey. In particular, we focus on the p53 transcription dependent and p53 transcription independent pathways for mitochondrial apoptosis. Our model reproduces known p53 oscillations following radiation damage. The key, experimentally testable hypotheses that we generate are - inhibition of PUMA is an effective strategy for mitigation of radiation damage if the treatment is administered immediately, at later stages following radiation damage, inhibition of tBid is more effective.
Roy, Koushik; Bhattacharya, Bishakh; Ray-Chaudhuri, Samit
2015-08-01
The study proposes a set of four ARX model (autoregressive model with exogenous input) based damage sensitive features (DSFs) for structural damage detection and localization using the dynamic responses of structures, where the information regarding the input excitation may not be available. In the proposed framework, one of the output responses of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is assumed as the input and the rest are considered as the output. The features are based on ARX model coefficients, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test statistical distance, and the model residual error. At first, a mathematical formulation is provided to establish the relation between the change in ARX model coefficients and the normalized stiffness of a structure. KS test parameters are then described to show the sensitivity of statistical distance of ARX model residual error with the damage location. The efficiency of the proposed set of DSFs is evaluated by conducting numerical studies involving a shear building and a steel moment-resisting frame. To simulate the damage scenarios in these structures, stiffness degradation of different elements is considered. It is observed from this study that the proposed set of DSFs is good indicator for damage location even in the presence of damping, multiple damages, noise, and parametric uncertainties. The performance of these DSFs is compared with mode shape curvature-based approach for damage localization. An experimental study has also been conducted on a three-dimensional six-storey steel moment frame to understand the performance of these DSFs under real measurement conditions. It has been observed that the proposed set of DSFs can satisfactorily localize damage in the structure.
LIFE DISTRIBUTION OF SERIES UNDER THE SUCCESSIVE DAMAGE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dongqian; C. D. Lai; LI Guoying
2003-01-01
We analyse further the reliability behaviour of series and parallel systems in the successive damage model initiated by Downton. The results are compared with those obtained for other models with different bivariate distributions.
Integrated geomechanical modelling for deep subsurface damage
Wees, J.D. van; Orlic, B.; Zijl, W.; Jongerius, P.; Schreppers, G.J.; Hendriks, M.
2001-01-01
Government, E&P and mining industry increasingly demand fundamental insight and accurate predictions on subsurface and surface deformation and damage due to exploitation of subsurface natural resources, and subsurface storage of energy residues (e.g. CO2). At this moment deformation is difficult to
Anisotropic damage coupled modeling of saturated porous rock
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
It is widely acknowledged that the natural rock mass is anisotropic and its failing type is also non-isotropic. An orthotropic elastic damaged model has been proposed in which the elastic deformation,the damaged deformation and irreversible deformation can be identified respectively. A second rank damage tensor is employed to characterize the induced damage and damage evolution related to the propagation conditions of microcracks. A specific form of the Gibbs free energy function is used to obtain the effective elastic stiffness and the limited scopes of damage parameters are suggested. The model’s parameter determination is proposed by virtue of conventional tri-axial test. Then,the proposed model is developed to simulate the coupled hydraulic mechanical responses and traction behaviors in different loading paths of porous media.
Coupled elasto-plasticity damage constitutive models for concrete
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiang XU; Jian-yun CHEN; Jing LI; Gang XU
2013-01-01
The paper is to design and construct a coupled elasto-plasticity damage constitutive model for concrete.Based on the energy dissipation principle,the Hsieh-Ting-Chen four-parameter yield function is used.The model can reflect different strength characteristics of concrete in tension and compression,and reduce the limitation and lacuna of the traditional damage constitutive models for concrete.Furthermore,numerical test for concrete stress-strain relation under uniaxial tension and compression is given.Moreover,the damage process of concrete gravity dam is calculated and analyzed in seismic load.Compared with other damage constitutive models,the proposed model contains only one unknown parameter and the other parameters can be found in the Hsieh-Ting-Chen four-parameter yield function.The same damage evolution law,which is used for tension and compression,is good for determining stress-strain constitutive and damage characteristics in complex stress state.This coupled damage constitutive models can be applied in analyzing damage of concrete gravity dam and arch dam.
Probabilistic Modeling of Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Reliability Prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vijay Rathod
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A methodology for probabilistic modeling of fatigue damage accumulation for single stress level and multistress level loading is proposed in this paper. The methodology uses linear damage accumulation model of Palmgren-Miner, a probabilistic S-N curve, and an approach for a one-to-one transformation of probability density functions to achieve the objective. The damage accumulation is modeled as a nonstationary process as both the expected damage accumulation and its variability change with time. The proposed methodology is then used for reliability prediction under single stress level and multistress level loading, utilizing dynamic statistical model of cumulative fatigue damage. The reliability prediction under both types of loading is demonstrated with examples.
Modelling of elastoplastic damage in concrete due to desiccation shrinkage
Bourgeois, F.; Burlion, N.; Shao, J. F.
2002-07-01
We present a numerical modelling of elastoplastic damage due to drying shrinkage of concrete in the framework of mechanics of partially saturated porous media. An elastoplastic model coupled with isotropic damage is first formulated. Two plastic flow mechanisms are involved, controlled by applied stress and suction, respectively. A general concept of net effective stress is used in take into account effects of capillary pressure and material damage on stress-controlled plastic deformation. Damage evolution depends both on elastic and plastic strains. The model's parameters are determined or chosen from relevant experimental data. Comparisons between numerical simulations and experimental data are presented to show the capacity of model to reproduce mains features of concrete behaviour under mechanical loading and during drying shrinkage of concrete. An example of application concerning drying of a concrete wall is finally presented. The results obtained allow to show potential capacity of proposed model for numerical modelling of complex coupling processes in concrete structures.
Chemically induced intestinal damage models in zebrafish larvae.
Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Christopher J; Okuda, Kazuhide S; Sison, John Oliver; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S
2013-06-01
Several intestinal damage models have been developed using zebrafish, with the aim of recapitulating aspects of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These experimentally induced inflammation models have utilized immersion exposure to an array of colitogenic agents (including live bacteria, bacterial products, and chemicals) to induce varying severity of inflammation. This technical report describes methods used to generate two chemically induced intestinal damage models using either dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Methods to monitor intestinal damage and inflammatory processes, and chemical-genetic methods to manipulate the host response to injury are also described.
Is flow velocity a significant parameter in flood damage modelling?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Kreibich
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Flow velocity is generally presumed to influence flood damage. However, this influence is hardly quantified and virtually no damage models take it into account. Therefore, the influences of flow velocity, water depth and combinations of these two impact parameters on various types of flood damage were investigated in five communities affected by the Elbe catchment flood in Germany in 2002. 2-D hydraulic models with high to medium spatial resolutions were used to calculate the impact parameters at the sites in which damage occurred. A significant influence of flow velocity on structural damage, particularly on roads, could be shown in contrast to a minor influence on monetary losses and business interruption. Forecasts of structural damage to road infrastructure should be based on flow velocity alone. The energy head is suggested as a suitable flood impact parameter for reliable forecasting of structural damage to residential buildings above a critical impact level of 2 m of energy head or water depth. However, general consideration of flow velocity in flood damage modelling, particularly for estimating monetary loss, cannot be recommended.
Statistical detection of structural damage based on model reduction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao YIN; Heung-fai LAM; Hong-ping ZHU
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a statistical method for damage detection based on the finite element (FE) model reduction technique that utilizes measured modal data with a limited number of sensors.A deterministic damage detection process is formulated based on the model reduction technique.The probabilistic process is integrated into the deterministic damage detection process using a perturbation technique,resulting in a statistical structural damage detection method.This is achieved by deriving the firstand second-order partial derivatives of uncertain parameters,such as elasticity of the damaged member,with respect to the measurement noise,which allows expectation and covariance matrix of the uncertain parameters to be calculated.Besides the theoretical development,this paper reports numerical verification of the proposed method using a portal frame example and Monte Carlo simulation.
A Plastic Damage Mechanics Model for Engineered Cementitious Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the establishment of a plasticity-based damage mechanics model for Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). The present model differs from existing models by combining a matrix and fiber description in order to describe the behavior of the ECC material. The model provides in...
Kinetic model for the pathogenesis of radiation lung damage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collis, C.H. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch)
1982-09-01
The development of radiation-induced lung damage can be explained by a kinetic model, based on the assumption that this damage becomes manifest only when a critical proportion (K) of essential cells have ceased to function, and that the rate of loss of these cells following irradiation is linear and dose-dependent. The kinetic model relates the surviving fraction to the time to manifestation of radiation-induced lung damage and to constants, K and the cell cycle time, T. Predictions made from the model about the nature of the response to irradiation are, for the most part, fulfilled. The model can also be used to interpret the response to combined treatment with irradiation and cytotoxic drugs, including the much earlier manifestation of lung damage sometimes seen with such treatment.
Dynamic brittle material response based on a continuum damage model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, E.P.
1994-12-31
The response of brittle materials to dynamic loads was studied in this investigation based on a continuum damage model. Damage mechanism was selected to be interaction and growth of subscale cracks. Briefly, the cracks are activated by bulk tension and the density of activated cracks are described by a Weibull statistical distribution. The moduli of a cracked solid derived by Budiansky and O`Connell are then used to represent the global material degradation due to subscale cracking. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study to improve on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code PRONTO 2D and then used for a numerical study involving the sudden stretching of a plate with a centrally located hole. Numerical results characterizing the dynamic responses of the material were presented. The effect of damage on dynamic material behavior was discussed.
Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios
Menoni, Scira; Molinari, Daniela; Ballio, Francesco; Minucci, Guido; Mejri, Ouejdane; Atun, Funda; Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia
2016-12-01
Effective flood risk mitigation requires the impacts of flood events to be much better and more reliably known than is currently the case. Available post-flood damage assessments usually supply only a partial vision of the consequences of the floods as they typically respond to the specific needs of a particular stakeholder. Consequently, they generally focus (i) on particular items at risk, (ii) on a certain time window after the occurrence of the flood, (iii) on a specific scale of analysis or (iv) on the analysis of damage only, without an investigation of damage mechanisms and root causes. This paper responds to the necessity of a more integrated interpretation of flood events as the base to address the variety of needs arising after a disaster. In particular, a model is supplied to develop multipurpose complete event scenarios. The model organizes available information after the event according to five logical axes. This way post-flood damage assessments can be developed that (i) are multisectoral, (ii) consider physical as well as functional and systemic damage, (iii) address the spatial scales that are relevant for the event at stake depending on the type of damage that has to be analyzed, i.e., direct, functional and systemic, (iv) consider the temporal evolution of damage and finally (v) allow damage mechanisms and root causes to be understood. All the above features are key for the multi-usability of resulting flood scenarios. The model allows, on the one hand, the rationalization of efforts currently implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.
Modelling of creep damage development in ferritic steels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandstroem, R. [Swedish Institute for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)
1998-12-31
The physical creep damage, which is observed in fossil-fired power plants, is mainly due to the formation of cavities and their interaction. It has previously been demonstrated that both the nucleation and growth of creep cavities can be described by power functions in strain for low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels. It possible to show that the physical creep damage is proportional to the product of the number of cavities and their area. Hence, the physical creep damage can also be expressed in terms of the creep strain. In the presentation this physical creep damage is connected to the empirical creep damage classes (1-5). A creep strain-time function, which is known to be applicable to low alloy and 12 % CrMoV creep resistant steels, is used to describe tertiary creep. With this creep strain - time model the residual lifetime can be predicted from the observed damage. For a given damage class the remaining life is directly proportional to the service time. An expression for the time to the next inspection is proposed. This expression is a function of fraction of the total allowed damage, which is consumed till the next inspection. (orig.) 10 refs.
Modeling tsunami damage in Aceh: a reply
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad
2008-01-01
In reply to the critique of Baird and Kerr, we emphasize that our model is a generalized vulnerability model, built from easily acquired data from anywhere in the world, to identify areas with probable susceptibility to large tsunamis--and discuss their other criticisms in detail. We also show that a rejection of the role of trees in helping protect vulnerable areas is...
Damage progression from impact in layered glass modeled with peridynamics
Bobaru, Florin; Ha, Youn; Hu, Wenke
2012-12-01
Dynamic fracture in brittle materials has been difficult to model and predict. Interfaces, such as those present in multi-layered glass systems, further complicate this problem. In this paper we use a simplified peridynamic model of a multi-layer glass system to simulate damage evolution under impact with a high-velocity projectile. The simulation results are compared with results from recently published experiments. Many of the damage morphologies reported in the experiments are captured by the peridynamic results. Some finer details seen in experiments and not replicated by the computational model due to limitations in available computational resources that limited the spatial resolution of the model, and to the simple contact conditions between the layers instead of the polyurethane bonding used in the experiments. The peridynamic model uncovers a fascinating time-evolution of damage and the dynamic interaction between the stress waves, propagating cracks, interfaces, and bending deformations, in three-dimensions.
Comparative flood damage model assessment: towards a European approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Jongman
2012-12-01
Full Text Available There is a wide variety of flood damage models in use internationally, differing substantially in their approaches and economic estimates. Since these models are being used more and more as a basis for investment and planning decisions on an increasingly large scale, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties involved and develop a harmonised European approach, in particular with respect to the EU Flood Risks Directive. In this paper we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of seven flood damage models, using two case studies of past flood events in Germany and the United Kingdom. The qualitative analysis shows that modelling approaches vary strongly, and that current methodologies for estimating infrastructural damage are not as well developed as methodologies for the estimation of damage to buildings. The quantitative results show that the model outcomes are very sensitive to uncertainty in both vulnerability (i.e. depth–damage functions and exposure (i.e. asset values, whereby the first has a larger effect than the latter. We conclude that care needs to be taken when using aggregated land use data for flood risk assessment, and that it is essential to adjust asset values to the regional economic situation and property characteristics. We call for the development of a flexible but consistent European framework that applies best practice from existing models while providing room for including necessary regional adjustments.
A coupled elasto-plastic-damage mechanical model for marble
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
A profound understanding of the mechanical behaviors of marble is very important for the design and construction of deep diversion tunnels in Jinping II hydropower station.In this paper,a coupled elasto-plastic-damage mechanical model is presented for Jinping marble.Firstly,the experimental investigations on Jinping marble are summarized.Then,based on the framework of continuum damage and plastic theories,a general mechanical model is proposed to predict the mechanical responses of Jinping marble.The proposed model is used to simulate the triaxial compressive tests,and there is a general good agreement between experimental data and numerical predictions in a qualitative manner.The proposed model is able to capture the main features of Jinping marble observed in experiments,such as progressive yielding process,damage induced by plastic distortion,dilation,elastic degradation and stress sensitivity.
Calculation Model and Simulation of Warship Damage Probability
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Zhao-xin; ZHANG Xu; YANG Shi-xing; ZHU Xiao-ping
2008-01-01
The combat efficiency of mine obstacle is the focus of the present research. Based on the main effects that mine obstacle has on the target warship damage probability such as: features of mines with maneuverability, the success rate of mine-laying, the hit probability, mine reliability and action probability, a calculation model of target warship mine-encounter probability is put forward under the condition that the route selection of target warships accords with even distribution and the course of target warships accords with normal distribution. And a damage probability model of mines with maneuverability to target warships is set up, a simulation way proved the model to be a high practicality.
Simulation of concrete perforation based on a continuum damage model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, E.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.
1994-10-01
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture of concrete slabs, impacted by steel projectiles, was carried out in this study. The concrete response was described by a continuum damage model. This continuum damage model was originally developed to study rock fragmentation and was modified in the present study with an emphasis on the post-limit structural response. The model was implemented into a transient dynamic explicit finite element code LS-DYNA2D and the code was then used for the numerical simulations. The specific impact configuration of this study follows the experiment series conducted by Hanchak et al. Comparisons between calculated results and measured data were made. Good agreements were found.
Electromagnetomechanical elastodynamic model for Lamb wave damage quantification in composites
Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi
2014-03-01
Physics-based wave propagation computational models play a key role in structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage quantification methodologies. Guided waves (GWs), such as Lamb waves, provide the capability to monitor large plate-like aerospace structures with limited actuators and sensors and are sensitive to small scale damage; however due to the complex nature of GWs, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) coupled with the sharp interface model (SIM) solution methodology is used to solve the fully coupled electro-magneto-mechanical elastodynamic equations for the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic actuation and sensing of GWs in fiber reinforced composite material systems. The final framework provides the full three-dimensional displacement as well as electrical and magnetic potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated experimentally and proven computationally efficient for a laminated composite plate. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric and embedded piezomagnetic sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. The symmetric collocation of piezoelectric actuators is modeled to demonstrate mode suppression in laminated composites for the purpose of damage detection. The effect of delamination and damage (i.e., matrix cracking) on the GW propagation is demonstrated and quantified. The developed model provides a valuable tool for the improvement of SHM techniques due to its proven accuracy and computational efficiency.
Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf;
2015-01-01
The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of fe...
Flight dynamics and control modelling of damaged asymmetric aircraft
Ogunwa, T. T.; Abdullah, E. J.
2016-10-01
This research investigates the use of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller to assist commercial Boeing 747-200 aircraft regains its stability in the event of damage. Damages cause an aircraft to become asymmetric and in the case of damage to a fraction (33%) of its left wing or complete loss of its vertical stabilizer, the loss of stability may lead to a fatal crash. In this study, aircraft models for the two damage scenarios previously mentioned are constructed using stability derivatives. LQR controller is used as a direct adaptive control design technique for the observable and controllable system. Dynamic stability analysis is conducted in the time domain for all systems in this study.
Continuum damage modeling and simulation of hierarchical dental enamel
Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje
2016-05-01
Dental enamel exhibits high fracture toughness and stiffness due to a complex hierarchical and graded microstructure, optimally organized from nano- to macro-scale. In this study, a 3D representative volume element (RVE) model is adopted to study the deformation and damage behavior of the fibrous microstructure. A continuum damage mechanics model coupled to hyperelasticity is developed for modeling the initiation and evolution of damage in the mineral fibers as well as protein matrix. Moreover, debonding of the interface between mineral fiber and protein is captured by employing a cohesive zone model. The dependence of the failure mechanism on the aspect ratio of the mineral fibers is investigated. In addition, the effect of the interface strength on the damage behavior is studied with respect to geometric features of enamel. Further, the effect of an initial flaw on the overall mechanical properties is analyzed to understand the superior damage tolerance of dental enamel. The simulation results are validated by comparison to experimental data from micro-cantilever beam testing at two hierarchical levels. The transition of the failure mechanism at different hierarchical levels is also well reproduced in the simulations.
Formability prediction for AHSS materials using damage models
Amaral, R.; Santos, Abel D.; José, César de Sá; Miranda, Sara
2017-05-01
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are seeing an increased use, mostly due to lightweight design in automobile industry and strict regulations on safety and greenhouse gases emissions. However, the use of these materials, characterized by a high strength to weight ratio, stiffness and high work hardening at early stages of plastic deformation, have imposed many challenges in sheet metal industry, mainly their low formability and different behaviour, when compared to traditional steels, which may represent a defying task, both to obtain a successful component and also when using numerical simulation to predict material behaviour and its fracture limits. Although numerical prediction of critical strains in sheet metal forming processes is still very often based on the classic forming limit diagrams, alternative approaches can use damage models, which are based on stress states to predict failure during the forming process and they can be classified as empirical, physics based and phenomenological models. In the present paper a comparative analysis of different ductile damage models is carried out, in order numerically evaluate two isotropic coupled damage models proposed by Johnson-Cook and Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN), each of them corresponding to the first two previous group classification. Finite element analysis is used considering these damage mechanics approaches and the obtained results are compared with experimental Nakajima tests, thus being possible to evaluate and validate the ability to predict damage and formability limits for previous defined approaches.
Evaluating Damage Potential in Security Risk Scoring Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eli Weintraub
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A Continuous Monitoring System (CMS model is presented, having new improved capabilities. The system is based on the actual real-time configuration of the system. Existing risk scoring models assume damage potential is estimated by systems' owner, thus rejecting the information relying in the technological configuration. The assumption underlying this research is based on users' ability to estimate business impacts relating to systems' external interfaces which they use regularly in their business activities, but are unable to assess business impacts relating to internal technological components. According to the proposed model systems' damage potential is calculated using technical information on systems' components using a directed graph. The graph is incorporated into the Common Vulnerability Scoring Systems' (CVSS algorithm to produce risk scoring measures. Framework presentation includes system design, damage potential scoring algorithm design and an illustration of scoring computations.
Dynamic rupture in a damage-breakage rheology model
Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Ilchev, Assen; Mendecki, Aleksander
2016-08-01
We present a thermodynamically based formulation for modelling dynamic rupture processes in the brittle crust using a continuum damage-breakage rheology. The model combines aspects of a continuum viscoelastic damage framework for brittle solids with a continuum breakage mechanics for granular flow within dynamically generated slip zones. The formulation accounts for the density of distributed cracking and other internal flaws in damaged rocks with a scalar damage parameter, and addresses the grain size distribution of a granular phase in the slip zone with a breakage parameter. A dynamic brittle instability is associated with a critical level of damage in the solid, leading to loss of convexity of the solid strain energy, localization and transition to a granular phase associated with lower energy level. The continuum damage-breakage rheology model treats the localization to a slip zone at the onset of dynamic rupture and post-failure recovery process as phase transitions between solid and granular states. The model generates sub- and supershear rupture velocities and pulse-type ruptures seen also in frictional models, and additional important features such as strong dynamic changes of volumetric strain near the rupture front and diversity of nucleation mechanisms. The propagation of rupture front and slip accumulation at a point are correlated with sharp dynamic dilation followed by a gradual decay to a level associated with the final volumetric change associated with the granular phase transition in the slipping zone. The local brittle failure process associated with the solid-granular transition is expected to produce isotropic radiation in addition to the deviatoric terms. The framework significantly extends the ability to model brittle processes in complex geometrical structures and allows analysing the roles of gouge thickness and other parameters on nucleation, rupture and radiation characteristics.
Modeling elastic tensile fractures in snow using nonlocal damage mechanics
Borstad, C. P.; McClung, D. M.
2011-12-01
The initiation and propagation of tensile fractures in snow and ice are fundamental to numerous important physical processes in the cryosphere, from iceberg calving to ice shelf rift propagation to slab avalanche release. The heterogeneous nature of snow and ice, their proximity to the melting temperature, and the varied governing timescales typically lead to nonlinear fracture behavior which does not follow the predictions of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Furthermore, traditional fracture mechanics is formally inapplicable for predicting crack initiation in the absence of a pre-existing flaw or stress concentration. An alternative to fracture mechanics is continuum damage mechanics, which accounts for the material degradation associated with cracking in a numerically efficient framework. However, damage models which are formulated locally (e.g. stress and strain are defined as point properties) suffer from mesh-sensitive crack trajectories, spurious localization of damage and improper fracture energy dissipation with mesh refinement. Nonlocal formulations of damage, which smear the effects of the material heterogeneity over an intrinsic length scale related to the material microstructure, overcome these difficulties and lead to numerically efficient and mesh-objective simulations of the tensile failure of heterogeneous materials. We present the results of numerical simulations of tensile fracture initiation and propagation in cohesive snow using a nonlocal damage model. Seventeen beam bending experiments, both notched and unnotched, were conducted using blocks of cohesive dry snow extracted from an alpine snowpack. Material properties and fracture parameters were calculated from the experimental data using beam theory and quasi-brittle fracture mechanics. Using these parameters, a nonlocal isotropic damage model was applied to two-dimensional finite element meshes of the same scale as the experiments. The model was capable of simulating the propagation
Bielefeldt, Brent R.; Benzerga, A. Amine; Hartl, Darren J.
2016-04-01
The ability to monitor and predict the structural health of an aircraft is of growing importance to the aerospace industry. Currently, structural inspections and maintenance are based upon experiences with similar aircraft operating in similar conditions. While effective, these methods are time-intensive and unnecessary if the aircraft is not in danger of structural failure. It is imagined that future aircraft will utilize non-destructive evaluation methods, allowing for the near real-time monitoring of structural health. A particularly interesting method involves utilizing the unique transformation response of shape memory alloy (SMA) particles embedded in an aircraft structure. By detecting changes in the mechanical and/or electromagnetic responses of embedded particles, operators could detect the formation or propagation of fatigue cracks in the vicinity of these particles. This work focuses on a finite element model of SMA particles embedded in an aircraft wing using a substructure modeling approach in which degrees of freedom are retained only at specified points of connection to other parts or the application of boundary conditions, greatly reducing computational cost. Previous work evaluated isolated particle response to a static crack to numerically demonstrate and validate this damage detection method. This paper presents the implementation of a damage model to account for crack propagation and examine for the first time the effect of particle configuration and/or relative placement with respect to the ability to detect damage.
Damage Mechanics in the Community Ice Sheet Model
Whitcomb, R.; Cathles, L. M. M., IV; Bassis, J. N.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Price, S. F.
2016-12-01
Half of the mass that floating ice shelves lose to the ocean comes from iceberg calving, which is a difficult process to simulate accurately. This is especially true in the large-scale ice dynamics models that couple changes in the cryosphere to climate projections. Damage mechanics provide a powerful technique with the potential to overcome this obstacle by describing how fractures in ice evolve over time. Here, we demonstrate the application of a damage model to ice shelves that predicts realistic geometries. We incorporated this solver into the Community Ice Sheet Model, a three dimensional ice sheet model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The damage mechanics formulation that we use comes from a first principles-based evolution law for the depth of basal and surface crevasses and depends on the large scale strain rate, stress state, and basal melt. We show that under idealized conditions it produces ice tongue lengths that match well with observations for a selection of natural ice tongues, including Erebus, Drygalski, and Pine Island in Antarctica, as well as Petermann in Greenland. We also apply the model to more generalized ideal ice shelf geometries and show that it produces realistic calving front positions. Although our results are preliminary, the damage mechanics model that we developed provides a promising first principles method for predicting ice shelf extent and how the calving margins of ice shelves respond to climate change.
Percolation modeling of self-damaging of composite materials
Domanskyi, Sergii; Privman, Vladimir
2014-07-01
We propose the concept of autonomous self-damaging in “smart” composite materials, controlled by activation of added nanosize “damaging” capsules. Percolation-type modeling approach earlier applied to the related concept of self-healing materials, is used to investigate the behavior of the initial material's fatigue. We aim at achieving a relatively sharp drop in the material's integrity after some initial limited fatigue develops in the course of the sample's usage. Our theoretical study considers a two-dimensional lattice model and involves Monte Carlo simulations of the connectivity and conductance in the high-connectivity regime of percolation. We give several examples of local capsule-lattice and capsule-capsule activation rules and show that the desired self-damaging property can only be obtained with rather sophisticated “smart” material's response involving not just damaging but also healing capsules.
Homogenization of intergranular fracture towards a transient gradient damage model
Sun, G.; Poh, L. H.
2016-10-01
This paper focuses on the intergranular fracture of polycrystalline materials, where a detailed model at the meso-scale is translated onto the macro-level through a proposed homogenization theory. The bottom-up strategy involves the introduction of an additional macro-kinematic field to characterize the average displacement jump within the unit cell. Together with the standard macro-strain field, the underlying processes are propagated onto the macro-scale by imposing the equivalence of power and energy at the two scales. The set of macro-governing equations and constitutive relations are next extracted naturally as per standard thermodynamics procedure. The resulting homogenized microforce balance recovers the so-called 'implicit' gradient expression with a transient nonlocal interaction. The homogenized gradient damage model is shown to fully regularize the softening behavior, i.e. the structural response is made mesh-independent, with the damage strain correctly localizing into a macroscopic crack, hence resolving the spurious damage growth observed in many conventional gradient damage models. Furthermore, the predictive capability of the homogenized model is demonstrated by benchmarking its solutions against reference meso-solutions, where a good match is obtained with minimal calibrations, for two different grain sizes.
Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Qianqian; Petersen, Toke E. P.; Thorsen, Bo J.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, howeve...
Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, T. E.; Thorsen, B. J.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, howeve...
Freni, G; La Loggia, G; Notaro, V
2010-01-01
Due to the increased occurrence of flooding events in urban areas, many procedures for flood damage quantification have been defined in recent decades. The lack of large databases in most cases is overcome by combining the output of urban drainage models and damage curves linking flooding to expected damage. The application of advanced hydraulic models as diagnostic, design and decision-making support tools has become a standard practice in hydraulic research and application. Flooding damage functions are usually evaluated by a priori estimation of potential damage (based on the value of exposed goods) or by interpolating real damage data (recorded during historical flooding events). Hydraulic models have undergone continuous advancements, pushed forward by increasing computer capacity. The details of the flooding propagation process on the surface and the details of the interconnections between underground and surface drainage systems have been studied extensively in recent years, resulting in progressively more reliable models. The same level of was advancement has not been reached with regard to damage curves, for which improvements are highly connected to data availability; this remains the main bottleneck in the expected flooding damage estimation. Such functions are usually affected by significant uncertainty intrinsically related to the collected data and to the simplified structure of the adopted functional relationships. The present paper aimed to evaluate this uncertainty by comparing the intrinsic uncertainty connected to the construction of the damage-depth function to the hydraulic model uncertainty. In this way, the paper sought to evaluate the role of hydraulic model detail level in the wider context of flood damage estimation. This paper demonstrated that the use of detailed hydraulic models might not be justified because of the higher computational cost and the significant uncertainty in damage estimation curves. This uncertainty occurs mainly
Bayesian probabilistic modeling for damage assessment in a bolted frame
Haynes, Colin; Todd, Michael
2012-04-01
This paper presents the development of a Bayesian framework for optimizing the design of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. Statistical damage detection techniques are applied to a geometrically-complex, three-story structure with bolted joints. A sparse network of PZT sensor-actuators is bonded to the structure, using ultrasonic guided waves in both pulse-echo and pitch-catch modes to inspect the structure. Receiver operating characteristics are used to quantify the performance of multiple features (or detectors). The detection rate of the system is compared across different types and levels of damage. A Bayesian cost model is implemented to determine the best performing network.
A prediction model for ocular damage - Experimental validation.
Heussner, Nico; Vagos, Márcia; Spitzer, Martin S; Stork, Wilhelm
2015-08-01
With the increasing number of laser applications in medicine and technology, accidental as well as intentional exposure of the human eye to laser sources has become a major concern. Therefore, a prediction model for ocular damage (PMOD) is presented within this work and validated for long-term exposure. This model is a combination of a raytracing model with a thermodynamical model of the human and an application which determines the thermal damage by the implementation of the Arrhenius integral. The model is based on our earlier work and is here validated against temperature measurements taken with porcine eye samples. For this validation, three different powers were used: 50mW, 100mW and 200mW with a spot size of 1.9mm. Also, the measurements were taken with two different sensing systems, an infrared camera and a fibre optic probe placed within the tissue. The temperatures were measured up to 60s and then compared against simulations. The measured temperatures were found to be in good agreement with the values predicted by the PMOD-model. To our best knowledge, this is the first model which is validated for both short-term and long-term irradiations in terms of temperature and thus demonstrates that temperatures can be accurately predicted within the thermal damage regime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A damage-mechanics model for fracture nucleation and propagation
Yakovlev, G; Turcotte, D L; Rundle, J B; Klein, W; 10.1016/j.tafmec.2010.06.002.
2010-01-01
In this paper a composite model for earthquake rupture initiation and propagation is proposed. The model includes aspects of damage mechanics, fiber-bundle models, and slider-block models. An array of elements is introduced in analogy to the fibers of a fiber bundle. Time to failure for each element is specified from a Poisson distribution. The hazard rate is assumed to have a power-law dependence on stress. When an element fails it is removed, the stress on a failed element is redistributed uniformly to a specified number of neighboring elements in a given range of interaction. Damage is defined to be the fraction of elements that have failed. Time to failure and modes of rupture propagation are determined as a function of the hazard-rate exponent and the range of interaction.
Comparison of GTN Damage Models for Sheet Metal Forming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zhi-ying; DONG Xiang-huai
2008-01-01
The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model was developed basing on anisotropic yield criterion to predict the damage evolution for anisotropic voided ductile materials.Hill's quadratic anisotropic yield criterion (1948) and Barlat's 3-component anisotropic yield criterion (1989) were used to describe the anisotropy of the matrix.User defined subroutines were developed using the above models.Taking the benchmark of NUMISHEET'93 square cup deep drawing as an example,the effect of matrix plastic anisotropy on a ductile material was studied.The predicted result by Barlat'89-GTN model has a better agreement with the experimental data than that by Hill'48-GTN and the original GTN model.
Simulating of marble subjected to uni-axial loading using index-parabola damage model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
温世游; 李夕兵; 骆达成
2001-01-01
The limitations of several existing classical rock damage models were critically appraised. Thereafter, a description of a new model to estimate the response of rock was provided. The results of an investigation lead to the development and confirmation of a new index-parabola damage model. The new model is divided into two parts, fictitious damage and real damage and bordered by the critical damage point. In fictitious damage, the damage variable follows the index distribution, while in the real damage a parabolic distribution is used. Thus, the so-called index-parabola damage model is derived. The proposed damage model is applied to simulate the damage procedure of marble under uni-axial loading. The results of the tests show that the proposed model is in excellent agreement with experimental data, in particular the nonlinear characteristic of rock deformation is adequately represented.
Literature study report of plasticity induced anisotropic damage modeling for forming processes
Niazi, M.S.
2009-01-01
A literature study report covering the topics; micromechanics of damage, continuum damage mechanics (gurson model and effective variable concept) and the dependence of damage on strain rate and temperature.
Literature study report of plasticity induced anisotropic damage modeling for forming processes
Niazi, Muhammad Sohail
2009-01-01
A literature study report covering the topics; micromechanics of damage, continuum damage mechanics (gurson model and effective variable concept) and the dependence of damage on strain rate and temperature.
Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Qianqian; Petersen, Toke E. P.; Thorsen, Bo J.
2012-01-01
This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, however......, feasible for modelling the overall cost per day. The study also shows that combining the insurance and regional data it is possible to establish clear relationships between occurrences of claims and hazard maps. In particular, the results indicate that with improvements on data collection and analysis......, improved prediction of damage information will be possible, e.g. based on also socioeconomic variables. Furthermore, the paper concludes that more collaboration between scientific research and insurance agencies is necessary to improve inundation modelling and economic assessments for urban drainage...
Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators
Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M
2003-01-01
A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.
Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez-Mangas, J.M. E-mail: jesman@ele.uva.es; Lazaro, J.; Enriquez, L.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.; Jaraiz, M
2003-04-01
A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.
Verification of flood damage modelling using insurance data.
Zhou, Q; Panduro, T E; Thorsen, B J; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K
2013-01-01
This paper presents the results of an analysis using insurance data for damage description and risk model verification, based on data from a Danish case. The results show that simple, local statistics of rainfall are not able to describe the variation in individual cost per claim, but are, however, feasible for modelling the overall cost per day. The study also shows that in combining the insurance and regional data it is possible to establish clear relationships between occurrences of claims and hazard maps. In particular, the results indicate that with improvements to data collection and analysis, improved prediction of damage costs will be possible, for example based also on socioeconomic variables. Furthermore, the paper concludes that more collaboration between scientific research and insurance agencies is needed to improve inundation modelling and economic assessments for urban drainage designs.
Modelling radiation damage to ESA's Gaia satellite CCDs
Seabroke, G M; Cropper, M S
2008-01-01
The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in late 2011. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its scientific requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate the charge trapping effect of radiation damage, which causes charge transfer inefficiency. The key to calculating the probability of a photoelectron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for Gaia CCD pixels. In this paper, the first of a series, we motivate the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outline how its future results will fit into Gaia's overall radiation calibration strategy.
The elasto-damage theory of the components assembling model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG ShouChun; LIANG NaiGang; LU HaiXing
2009-01-01
The potential energy in materials is well approximated by pair functional which is composed of pair potentials and embedding energy. During calculating material potential energy, the orientational com-ponent and the volumetric component are derived respectively from pair potentials and embedding energy. The sum of energy of all these two kinds of components is the material potential. No matter how microstructures change, damage or fracture, at the most level, they are all the changing and breaking atomic bonds. As an abstract of atomic bonds, these components change their stiffness during dam-aging. Material constitutive equations have been formulated by means of assembling all components' response functions. This material model is called the component assembling model. Theoretical analysis and numerical computing indicate that the proposed model has the capacity of reproducing some results satisfactorily, with the advantages of great conceptual simplicity, physical explicitness, and intrinsic induced anisotropy, etc.
The elasto-damage theory of the components assembling model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The potential energy in materials is well approximated by pair functional which is composed of pair potentials and embedding energy. During calculating material potential energy, the orientational component and the volumetric component are derived respectively from pair potentials and embedding energy. The sum of energy of all these two kinds of components is the material potential. No matter how microstructures change, damage or fracture, at the most level, they are all the changing and breaking atomic bonds. As an abstract of atomic bonds, these components change their stiffness during damaging. Material constitutive equations have been formulated by means of assembling all components’ response functions. This material model is called the component assembling model. Theoretical analysis and numerical computing indicate that the proposed model has the capacity of reproducing some results satisfactorily, with the advantages of great conceptual simplicity, physical explicitness, and intrinsic induced anisotropy, etc.
Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model
Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong
2015-01-01
We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.
Modeling and Characterization of Damage Processes in Metallic Materials
Glaessgen, E. H.; Saether, E.; Smith, S. W.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Yamakov, V. I.; Gupta, V.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a broad effort that is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth and using that understanding as a basis for designing materials and enabling predictions of fracture in materials and structures that have small characteristic dimensions. This area of research, herein referred to as Damage Science, emphasizes the length scale regimes of the nanoscale and the microscale for which analysis and characterization tools are being developed to predict the formation, propagation, and interaction of fundamental damage mechanisms. Examination of nanoscale processes requires atomistic and discrete dislocation plasticity simulations, while microscale processes can be examined using strain gradient plasticity, crystal plasticity and microstructure modeling methods. Concurrent and sequential multiscale modeling methods are being developed to analytically bridge between these length scales. Experimental methods for characterization and quantification of near-crack tip damage are also being developed. This paper focuses on several new methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in polycrystalline metals. On-going and potential applications are also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenhui Wei
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical damage (THMD model for the failure process of rock, in which coupling effects such as thermally induced rock deformation, water flow-induced thermal convection, and rock deformation-induced water flow are considered. The damage is considered to be the key factor that controls the THM coupling process and the heterogeneity of rock is characterized by the Weibull distribution. Next, numerical simulations on excavation-induced damage zones in Äspö pillar stability experiments (APSE are carried out and the impact of in situ stress conditions on damage zone distribution is analysed. Then, further numerical simulations of damage evolution at the heating stage in APSE are carried out. The impacts of in situ stress state, swelling pressure and water pressure on damage evolution at the heating stage are simulated and analysed, respectively. The simulation results indicate that (1 the v-shaped notch at the sidewall of the pillar is predominantly controlled by the in situ stress trends and magnitude; (2 at the heating stage, the existence of confining pressure can suppress the occurrence of damage, including shear damage and tensile damage; and (3 the presence of water flow and water pressure can promote the occurrence of damage, especially shear damage.
Towards Industrial Application of Damage Models for Sheet Metal Forming
Doig, M.; Roll, K.
2011-05-01
Due to global warming and financial situation the demand to reduce the CO2-emission and the production costs leads to the permanent development of new materials. In the automotive industry the occupant safety is an additional condition. Bringing these arguments together the preferable approach for lightweight design of car components, especially for body-in-white, is the use of modern steels. Such steel grades, also called advanced high strength steels (AHSS), exhibit a high strength as well as a high formability. Not only their material behavior but also the damage behavior of AHSS is different compared to the performances of standard steels. Conventional methods for the damage prediction in the industry like the forming limit curve (FLC) are not reliable for AHSS. Physically based damage models are often used in crash and bulk forming simulations. The still open question is the industrial application of these models for sheet metal forming. This paper evaluates the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and the model of Lemaitre within commercial codes with a goal of industrial application.
Damage modelling in concrete subject to sulfate attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Cefis
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the mechanical effect of the sulfate attack on concrete. The durability analysis of concrete structures in contact to external sulfate solutions requires the definition of a proper diffusion-reaction model, for the computation of the varying sulfate concentration and of the consequent ettringite formation, coupled to a mechanical model for the prediction of swelling and material degradation. In this work, we make use of a two-ions formulation of the reactive-diffusion problem and we propose a bi-phase chemo-elastic damage model aimed to simulate the mechanical response of concrete and apt to be used in structural analyses.
A relaxation-based approach to damage modeling
Junker, Philipp; Schwarz, Stephan; Makowski, Jerzy; Hackl, Klaus
2017-01-01
Material models, including softening effects due to, for example, damage and localizations, share the problem of ill-posed boundary value problems that yield mesh-dependent finite element results. It is thus necessary to apply regularization techniques that couple local behavior described, for example, by internal variables, at a spatial level. This can take account of the gradient of the internal variable to yield mesh-independent finite element results. In this paper, we present a new approach to damage modeling that does not use common field functions, inclusion of gradients or complex integration techniques: Appropriate modifications of the relaxed (condensed) energy hold the same advantage as other methods, but with much less numerical effort. We start with the theoretical derivation and then discuss the numerical treatment. Finally, we present finite element results that prove empirically how the new approach works.
Modelling earthquake ruptures with dynamic off-fault damage
Okubo, Kurama; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann; Rougier, Esteban
2017-04-01
Earthquake rupture modelling has been developed for producing scenario earthquakes. This includes understanding the source mechanisms and estimating far-field ground motion with given a priori constraints like fault geometry, constitutive law of the medium and friction law operating on the fault. It is necessary to consider all of the above complexities of a fault systems to conduct realistic earthquake rupture modelling. In addition to the complexity of the fault geometry in nature, coseismic off-fault damage, which is observed by a variety of geological and seismological methods, plays a considerable role on the resultant ground motion and its spectrum compared to a model with simple planer fault surrounded by purely elastic media. Ideally all of these complexities should be considered in earthquake modelling. State of the art techniques developed so far, however, cannot treat all of them simultaneously due to a variety of computational restrictions. Therefore, we adopt the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM), which can effectively deal with pre-existing complex fault geometry such as fault branches and kinks and can describe coseismic off-fault damage generated during the dynamic rupture. The advantage of FDEM is that it can handle a wide range of length scales, from metric to kilometric scale, corresponding to the off-fault damage and complex fault geometry respectively. We used the FDEM-based software tool called HOSSedu (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite - Educational Version) for the earthquake rupture modelling, which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. We firstly conducted the cross-validation of this new methodology against other conventional numerical schemes such as the finite difference method (FDM), the spectral element method (SEM) and the boundary integral equation method (BIEM), to evaluate the accuracy with various element sizes and artificial viscous damping values. We demonstrate the capability of the FDEM tool for
A Multiparameter Damage Constitutive Model for Rock Based on Separation of Tension and Shear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YanHui Yuan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available By analysis of the microscopic damage mechanism of rock, a multiparameter elastoplastic damage constitutive model which considers damage mechanism of tension and shear is established. A revised general form of elastoplastic damage model containing damage internal variable of tensor form is derived by considering the hypothesis that damage strain is induced by the degeneration of elastic modulus. With decomposition of plastic strain introduced, the forms of tension damage variable and shear damage variable are derived, based on which effects of tension and shear damage on material’s stiffness and strength are considered simultaneously. Through the utilizing of Zienkiewicz-Pande criterion with tension limit, the specific form of the multiparameter damage model is derived. Numerical experiments show that the established model can simulate damage behavior of rock effectively.
A damage model based on failure threshold weakening
Gran, Joseph D; Turcotte, Donald L; Holliday, James R; Klein, William
2010-01-01
A variety of studies have modeled the physics of material deformation and damage as examples of generalized phase transitions, involving either critical phenomena or spinodal nucleation. Here we study a model for frictional sliding with long range interactions and recurrent damage that is parameterized by a process of damage and partial healing during sliding. We introduce a failure threshold weakening parameter into the cellular-automaton slider-block model which allows blocks to fail at a reduced failure threshold for all subsequent failures during an event. We show that a critical point is reached beyond which the probability of a system-wide event scales with this weakening parameter. We provide a mapping to the percolation transition, and show that the values of the scaling exponents approach the values for mean-field percolation (spinodal nucleation) as lattice size $L$ is increased for fixed $R$. We also examine the effect of the weakening parameter on the frequency-magnitude scaling relationship and t...
Damage spreading in a driven lattice gas model
Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Saracco, Gustavo P.; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2013-06-01
We studied damage spreading in a Driven Lattice Gas (DLG) model as a function of the temperature T, the magnitude of the external driving field E, and the lattice size. The DLG model undergoes an order-disorder second-order phase transition at the critical temperature Tc(E), such that the ordered phase is characterized by high-density strips running along the direction of the applied field; while in the disordered phase one has a lattice-gas-like behavior. It is found that the damage always spreads for all the investigated temperatures and reaches a saturation value D that depends only on T. D increases for TTc(E=∞) and is free of finite-size effects. This behavior can be explained as due to the existence of interfaces between the high-density strips and the lattice-gas-like phase whose roughness depends on T. Also, we investigated damage spreading for a range of finite fields as a function of T, finding a behavior similar to that of the case with E=∞.
Damage detection test of a substructure model of the National Swimming Center
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In order to detect the damage locations of complex spatial structures, a sensor region-based damage detection approach was developed based on the damage locating vectors method. A normalized damage locating index was introduced to identify the damage regions. An experiment on damage detection of a substructure model of the National Swimming Center ’Water Cube’ was carried out. Two damage patterns were involved in the experiment. The test model was excited by using hammer impacts. Acceleration responses of the undamaged and damaged structure model were measured. Modal parameters were identified from the acceleration responses by utilizing the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA). By using the developed sensor region-based method, the damage regions of the substructure model were located. The results show that the proposed method is able to effec- tively locate the damage regions.
Damage detection test of a substructure model of the National Swimming Center
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN JiaRu; JI XiaoDong; ZHANG WeiJing; XU LongHe; FU XueYi; GU Lei
2008-01-01
In order to detect the damage locations of complex spatial structures,a sensor region-based damage detection approach was developed based on the damage locating vectors method.A normalized damage locating index was introduced to identify the damage regions.An experiment on damage detection of a substructure model of the National Swimming Center 'Water Cube' was carried out.Two damage patterns were involved in the experiment.The test model was excited by using hammer impacts.Acceleration responses of the undamaged and damaged struc-ture model were measured.Modal parameters were identified from the acceleration responses by utilizing the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA).By using the developed sensor region-based method,the damage regions of the substructure model were located.The results show that the proposed method is able to effec-tively locate the damage regions.
Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-06-01
Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.
ITER transient consequences for material damage: modelling versus experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazylev, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P O Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Janeschitz, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Fusion, P O Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landman, I [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P O Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pestchanyi, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, P O Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Federici, G [ITER International Team, Garching Working Site, Boltmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Merola, M [ITER International Team, Garching Working Site, Boltmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Linke, J [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Klimov, N [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Safronov, V [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2007-03-15
Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten macrobrush armours are foreseen as PFC for the ITER divertor. In ITER the main mechanisms of metallic armour damage remain surface melting and melt motion erosion. In the case of CFC armour, due to rather different heat conductivities of CFC fibres a noticeable erosion of the PAN bundles may occur at rather small heat loads. Experiments carried out in the plasma gun facilities QSPA-T for the ITER like edge localized mode (ELM) heat load also demonstrated significant erosion of the frontal and lateral brush edges. Numerical simulations of the CFC and tungsten (W) macrobrush target damage accounting for the heat loads at the face and lateral brush edges were carried out for QSPA-T conditions using the three-dimensional (3D) code PHEMOBRID. The modelling results of CFC damage are in a good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experiments. Estimation of the droplet splashing caused by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability was performed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2010-01-01
A 3D anisotropic continuum damage model is developed for the computational analysis of the elastic–brittle behaviour of fibre-reinforced composite. The damage model is based on a set of phenomenological failure criteria for fibre-reinforced composite, which can distinguish the matrix and fibre...... failure under tensile and compressive loading. The homogenized continuum theory is adopted for the anisotropic elastic damage constitutive model. The damage modes occurring in the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a damage vector. The elastic damage model is implemented...
Two-dimensional isotropic damage elastoplastic model for quasi-brittle material
Beneš, P. (Pavel); Vavřík, D. (Daniel)
2014-01-01
Micro-mechanical model for isotropic damage of quasi-brittle material including frictionis presented. Damage is assumed to be isotropic and scalar damage variable is employed . Operatorsplitting method is applied. The article contains derived expressions for derivations necessary forcomputation of coefficients in two dimensions for strain and damage normality rules.
Modeling Lightning Impact Thermo-Mechanical Damage on Composite Materials
Muñoz, Raúl; Delgado, Sofía; González, Carlos; López-Romano, Bernardo; Wang, De-Yi; LLorca, Javier
2014-02-01
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, used in primary structures for aircraft due to an excellent strength-to-weight ratio when compared with conventional aluminium alloy counterparts, may nowadays be considered as mature structural materials. Their use has been extended in recent decades, with several aircraft manufacturers delivering fuselages entirely manufactured with carbon composites and using advanced processing technologies. However, one of the main drawbacks of using such composites entails their poor electrical conductivity when compared with aluminium alloy competitors that leads to lightning strikes being considered a significant threat during the service life of the aircraft. Traditionally, this problem was overcome with the use of a protective copper/bronze mesh that added additional weight and reduced the effectiveness of use of the material. Moreover, this traditional sizing method is based on vast experimental campaigns carried out by subjecting composite panels to simulated lightning strike events. While this method has proven its validity, and is necessary for certification of the structure, it may be optimized with the aid provided by physically based numerical models. This paper presents a model based on the finite element method that includes the sources of damage observed in a lightning strike, such as thermal damage caused by Joule overheating and electromagnetic/acoustic pressures induced by the arc around the attachment points. The results of the model are compared with lightning strike experiments carried out in a carbon woven composite.
Experimental models of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
Vannucci, R C
1993-01-01
Animal research has provided important information on the pathogenesis of and neuropathologic responses to perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. In experimental animals, structural brain damage from hypoxia-ischemia has been produced in immature rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep and monkeys (18, 20, 24, 25, 38). Of the several available animal models, the fetal and newborn rhesus monkey and immature rat have been studied most extensively because of their similarities to humans in respect to the physiology of reproduction and their neuroanatomy at or shortly following birth. Given the frequency of occurrence of human perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and the multiple, often severe neurologic handicaps which ensue in infants and children, it is not surprising that the above described animal models have been developed. These models have provided the basis for investigations to clarify not only physiologic and biochemical mechanisms of tissue injury but also the efficacy of specific management strategies. Hopefully, such animal research will continue to provide important information regarding how best to prevent or minimize the devastating consequences of perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.
Prediction of cavitation damage on spillway using K-nearest neighbor modeling.
Fadaei Kermani, E; Barani, G A; Ghaeini-Hessaroeyeh, M
2015-01-01
Cavitation is a common and destructive process on spillways that threatens the stability of the structure and causes damage. In this study, based on the nearest neighbor model, a method has been presented to predict cavitation damage on spillways. The model was tested using data from the Shahid Abbaspour dam spillway in Iran. The level of spillway cavitation damage was predicted for eight different flow rates, using the nearest neighbor model. Moreover, based on the cavitation index, five damage levels from no damage to major damage have been determined. Results showed that the present model predicted damage locations and levels close to observed damage during past floods. Finally, the efficiency and precision of the model was quantified by statistical coefficients. Appropriate values of the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error and coefficient of residual mass show the present model is suitable and efficient.
Stiffness degradation-based damage model for RC members and structures using fiber-beam elements
Guo, Zongming; Zhang, Yaoting; Lu, Jiezhi; Fan, Jian
2016-12-01
To meet the demand for an accurate and highly efficient damage model with a distinct physical meaning for performance-based earthquake engineering applications, a stiffness degradation-based damage model for reinforced concrete (RC) members and structures was developed using fiber beam-column elements. In this model, damage indices for concrete and steel fibers were defined by the degradation of the initial reloading modulus and the low-cycle fatigue law. Then, section, member, story and structure damage was evaluated by the degradation of the sectional bending stiffness, rod-end bending stiffness, story lateral stiffness and structure lateral stiffness, respectively. The damage model was realized in Matlab by reading in the outputs of OpenSees. The application of the damage model to RC columns and a RC frame indicates that the damage model is capable of accurately predicting the magnitude, position, and evolutionary process of damage, and estimating story damage more precisely than inter-story drift. Additionally, the damage model establishes a close connection between damage indices at various levels without introducing weighting coefficients or force-displacement relationships. The development of the model has perfected the damage assessment function of OpenSees, laying a solid foundation for damage estimation at various levels of a large-scale structure subjected to seismic loading.
Modeling radiation damage to pixel sensors in the ATLAS detector
Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside ...
Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector
Ducourthial, Audrey; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^2$ and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance that will enable searches for new particles and forces as well as precision measurements of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson. We present a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to thoroughly describing the setup, we present first predictions for basic pixel cluster properties alongside...
Modeling oxidation damage of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng-Peng Yang; Gui-Qiong Jiao; Bo Wang
2011-01-01
For fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), oxidation of the constituents is a very important damage type for high temperature applications. During the oxidizing process, the pyrolytic carbon interphase gradually recesses from the crack site in the axial direction of the fiber into the interior of the material. Carbon fiber usually presents notch-like or local neck-shrink oxidation phenomenon, causing strength degradation. But, the reason for SiC fiber degradation is the flaw growth mechanism on its surface. A micromechanical model based on the above mechanisms was established to simulate the mechanical properties of CMCs after high temperature oxidation. The statistic and shearlag theory were applied and the calculation expressions for retained tensile modulus and strength were deduced, respectively. Meanwhile, the interphase recession and fiber strength degradation were considered. And then, the model was validated by application to a C/SiC composite.
Using landscape analysis to assess and model tsunami damage in Aceh province, Sumatra
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad
2007-01-01
The nearly unprecedented loss of life resulting from the earthquake and tsunami of December 26,2004, was greatest in the province of Aceh, Sumatra (Indonesia). We evaluated tsunami damage and built empirical vulnerability models of damage/no damage based on elevation, distance from shore, vegetation, and exposure. We found that highly predictive models are possible and...
Modelling of Damage During Hot Forging of Ingots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels
2013-01-01
the damage analysis on the Cockcroft & Latham criterion, since this with changing cut-off value does not inconsistently change the location of damage, in contradiction to the other investigated criteria, and since it is able to predict damage in processes, which are slightly compressive....
Bi-variable damage model for fatigue life prediction of metal components
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Miao Zhang; Qing-Chun Meng; Xing Zhang; Wei-Ping Hu
2011-01-01
Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a bi-variable damage mechanics model is developed, which, according to thermodynamics, is accessible to derivation of damage driving force, damage evolution equation and damage evolution criteria. Furthermore, damage evolution equations of time rate are established by the generalized Drucker's postulate. The damage evolution equation of cycle rate is obtained by integrating the time damage evolution equations, and the fatigue life prediction method for smooth specimens under repeated loading with constant strain amplitude is constructed. Likewise, for notched specimens under the repeated loading with constant strain amplitude, the fatigue life prediction method is obtained on the ground of the theory of conservative integral in damage mechanics. Thus, the material parameters in the damage evolution equation can be obtained by reference to the fatigue test results of standard specimens with stress concentration factor equal to 1, 2 and 3.
Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens Fedder
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.
Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector
Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.
A 3D Orthotropic Strain-Rate Dependent Elastic Damage Material Model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
English, Shawn Allen
2014-09-01
A three dimensional orthotropic elastic constitutive model with continuum damage and cohesive based fracture is implemented for a general polymer matrix composite lamina. The formulation assumes the possibility of distributed (continuum) damage followed b y localized damage. The current damage activation functions are simply partially interactive quadratic strain criteria . However, the code structure allows for changes in the functions without extraordinary effort. The material model formulation, implementation, characterization and use cases are presented.
A robust operational model for predicting where tropical cyclone waves damage coral reefs
Puotinen, Marji; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Beeden, Roger; Radford, Ben; Williams, Gareth J.
2016-05-01
Tropical cyclone (TC) waves can severely damage coral reefs. Models that predict where to find such damage (the ‘damage zone’) enable reef managers to: 1) target management responses after major TCs in near-real time to promote recovery at severely damaged sites; and 2) identify spatial patterns in historic TC exposure to explain habitat condition trajectories. For damage models to meet these needs, they must be valid for TCs of varying intensity, circulation size and duration. Here, we map damage zones for 46 TCs that crossed Australia’s Great Barrier Reef from 1985–2015 using three models – including one we develop which extends the capability of the others. We ground truth model performance with field data of wave damage from seven TCs of varying characteristics. The model we develop (4MW) out-performed the other models at capturing all incidences of known damage. The next best performing model (AHF) both under-predicted and over-predicted damage for TCs of various types. 4MW and AHF produce strikingly different spatial and temporal patterns of damage potential when used to reconstruct past TCs from 1985–2015. The 4MW model greatly enhances both of the main capabilities TC damage models provide to managers, and is useful wherever TCs and coral reefs co-occur.
DAMAGE MODEL OF CONTROL FISSURE IN PERILOUS ROCK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hong-kai; TANG Hong-mei; YE Si-qiao
2006-01-01
Hitherto, perilous rock is the weakest topic in disasters studies. Specially,damage of control fissure under loads is one key technique in study of develop mechanism of perilous rock. Damage division of end area of control fissure was defined by authors,then calculation methods of timed-Poisson's ratio and timed-Young's modulus were established in damage mechanics theory. Further, the authors set up damage constitutive equation of control fissure, which founds important basis to numerical simulation for control fissure to develop.
Damage model of fresh concrete in sulphate environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张敬书; 张银华; 冯立平; 金德保; 汪朝成; 董庆友
2015-01-01
A model of damage to fresh concrete in a corrosive sulphate environment was formulated to investigate how and why the strength of corroded concrete changes over time. First, a corroded concrete block was divided into three regions:an expanded and dense region;a crack-development region;and a noncorroded region. Second, based on the thickness of the surface corrosion layer and the rate of loss of compressive strength of the corroding region, a computational model of the concrete blocks’ corrosion-resistance coefficient of compressive strength in a sulphate environment was generated. Third, experimental tests of the corrosion of concrete were conducted by immersing specimens in a corrosive medium for 270 d. A comparison of the experimental results with the computational formulae shows that the calculation results and test results are in good agreement. A parameter analysis reveals that the corrosion reaction plays a major role in the corrosion of fresh concrete containing ordinary Portland cement, but the diffusion of the corrosion medium plays a major role in the corrosion of concrete mixtures containing fly ash and sulphate-resistant cement. Fresh concrete with a high water-to-cement ratio shows high performance during the whole experiment process whereas fresh concrete with a low water-to-cement ratio shows poor performance during the late experiment period.
A Plasticity Induced Anisotropic Damage Model for Sheet Forming Processes
Niazi, M.S.; Meinders, V.T.; Wisselink, H.H.; Horn, ten C.H.L.J.; Klaseboer, G.; Boogaard, van den A.H.
2013-01-01
Plastic deformation induces damage in Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). Therefore damage development in these steels shall be studied and incorporated in the simulations for accurate failure predictions in forming processes and for determination of the product properties after forming. An effici
Reed, H; Leckey, Cara A C; Dick, A; Harvey, G; Dobson, J
2017-09-05
Ultrasonic damage detection and characterization is commonly used in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composite components. In recent years there has been an increased development of guided wave based methods. In real materials and structures, these dispersive waves result in complicated behavior in the presence of complex damage scenarios. Model-based characterization methods utilize accurate three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of guided wave interaction with realistic damage scenarios to aid in defect identification and classification. This work describes an inverse solution for realistic composite damage characterization by comparing the wavenumber-frequency spectra of experimental and simulated ultrasonic inspections. The composite laminate material properties are first verified through a Bayesian solution (Markov chain Monte Carlo), enabling uncertainty quantification surrounding the characterization. A study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of the proposed damage model and comparative metrics between the experimental and simulated output. The FEM is then parameterized with a damage model capable of describing the typical complex damage created by impact events in composites. The damage is characterized through a transdimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo solution, enabling a flexible damage model capable of adapting to the complex damage geometry investigated here. The posterior probability distributions of the individual delamination petals as well as the overall envelope of the damage site are determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ductile failure analysis of high strength steel in hot forming based on micromechanical damage model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YingLiang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The damage evolution of high strength steel at elevated temperature is investigated by using the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN model. A hybrid method integrated thermal tensile test and numerical technique is employed to identify the damage parameters. The analysis results show that the damage parameters are different at different temperature as the variation of tested material microstructure. Furthermore, the calibrated damage parameters are implemented to simulate a bugling forming at elevated temperature. The experimental results show the availability of GTN damage model in analyzing sheet formability in hot forming.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isa Kolo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A coupled elastic-plasticity-damage constitutive model, AK Model, is applied to predict fracture propagation in rocks. The quasi-brittle material model captures anisotropic effects and the distinct behavior of rocks in tension and compression. Calibration of the constitutive model is realized using experimental data for Carrara marble. Through the Weibull distribution function, heterogeneity effect is captured by spatially varying the elastic properties of the rock. Favorable comparison between model predictions and experiments for single-flawed specimens reveal that the AK Model is reliable and accurate for modelling fracture propagation in rocks.
Complex network model of the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders
Shao, Feng-jing; Sui, Yi; Zhou, Yong-hong; Sun, Ren-cheng
2016-10-01
Investigating the underlying principles of the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorder is meaningful and interesting. In this study, we investigated the symptoms, herbal formulae, herbal drugs, and their relationships in this treatise based on a multi-subnet composited complex network model (MCCN). Syndrome subnets were constructed for the symptoms and a formula subnet for herbal drugs. By subnet compounding using MCCN, a composited network was obtained that described the treatment relationships between syndromes and formulae. The results obtained by topological analysis suggested some prescription laws that could be validated in clinics. After subnet reduction using the MCCN, six channel (Tai-yang, Yang-ming, Shao-yang, Tai-yin, Shao-yin, and Jue-yin) subnets were obtained. By analyzing the strengths of the relationships among these six channel subnets, we found that the Tai-yang channel and Yang-ming channel were related most strongly with each other, and we found symptoms that implied pathogen movements and transformations among the six channels. This study could help therapists to obtain a deeper understanding of this ancient treatise.
Mosavi, A. A.; Dickey, D.; Seracino, R.; Rizkalla, S.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a study for identifying damage locations in an idealized steel bridge girder using the ambient vibration measurements. A sensitive damage feature is proposed in the context of statistical pattern recognition to address the damage detection problem. The study utilizes an experimental program that consists of a two-span continuous steel beam subjected to ambient vibrations. The vibration responses of the beam are measured along its length under simulated ambient vibrations and different healthy/damage conditions of the beam. The ambient vibration is simulated using a hydraulic actuator, and damages are induced by cutting portions of the flange at two locations. Multivariate vector autoregressive models were fitted to the vibration response time histories measured at the multiple sensor locations. A sensitive damage feature is proposed for identifying the damage location by applying Mahalanobis distances to the coefficients of the vector autoregressive models. A linear discriminant criterion was used to evaluate the amount of variations in the damage features obtained for different sensor locations with respect to the healthy condition of the beam. The analyses indicate that the highest variations in the damage features were coincident with the sensors closely located to the damages. The presented method showed a promising sensitivity to identify the damage location even when the induced damage was very small.
A Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for the Static and Cyclic Fatigue of Cellular Composites
Huber, Otto
2017-01-01
The fatigue behavior of a cellular composite with an epoxy matrix and glass foam granules is analyzed and modeled by means of continuum damage mechanics. The investigated cellular composite is a particular type of composite foam, and is very similar to syntactic foams. In contrast to conventional syntactic foams constituted by hollow spherical particles (balloons), cellular glass, mineral, or metal place holders are combined with the matrix material (metal or polymer) in the case of cellular composites. A microstructural investigation of the damage behavior is performed using scanning electron microscopy. For the modeling of the fatigue behavior, the damage is separated into pure static and pure cyclic damage and described in terms of the stiffness loss of the material using damage models for cyclic and creep damage. Both models incorporate nonlinear accumulation and interaction of damage. A cycle jumping procedure is developed, which allows for a fast and accurate calculation of the damage evolution for constant load frequencies. The damage model is applied to examine the mean stress effect for cyclic fatigue and to investigate the frequency effect and the influence of the signal form in the case of static and cyclic damage interaction. The calculated lifetimes are in very good agreement with experimental results. PMID:28809806
Development of a Computational Model for Predicting Damage to Tankers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Little, P.; Pippenger, D.; Simonsen, Bo Cerup
1996-01-01
A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram.......A windows based computer program DAMAGE has been developed for analysis of ship grounding on a pinnacle shaped rock. The paper presents part of the theory and the overall ideas of the computerprogram....
Time-dependent cell membrane damage under mechanical tension: Experiments and modeling
Lu, Bo; Chang, Jay Han-Chieh; Tai, Yu-Chong
2011-01-01
This paper reports a study of cancer cell membrane damage during filtration caused by cell membrane tension. The membrane tension was induced when cells were captured on a microfabricated parylene-C filter during the constant-pressure-driven filtration. This work includes both experiments and modeling to explore the underlying biomechanics of the cell membrane damage. The developed model not only agrees with our time-dependent cell damage data, but also fits well with previous results on red ...
Modeling and mesoscopic damage constitutive relation of brittle short-fiber-reinforced composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘洪秋; 梁乃刚; 夏蒙棼
1999-01-01
Aimed at brittle composites reinforced by randomly distributed short-fibers with a relatively large aspect ratio, stiffness modulus and strength, a mesoscopic material model was proposed. Based on the statistical description,damage mechanisms, damage-induced anisotropy, damage rate effect and stress redistribution, the constitutive relation were derived. By taking glass fiber reinforced polypropylene polymers as an example, the effect of initial orientation distribution of fibers, damage-induced anisotropy, and damage-rate effect on macro-behaviors of composites were quantitatively analyzed. The theoretical predictions compared favorably with the experimental results.
Test analysis of detection of damage to a complicated spatial model structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Long-He Xu; Zhong-Xian Li; Jia-Ru Qian
2011-01-01
A two-stage damage detection approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a complicated spatial model structure with a limited number of measurements. In the experiment, five known damage patterns, including 3 brace damage cases and 2 joint damage cases, were simulated by removing braces and weakening beam-column connections in the structure. The limited acceleration response data generated by hammer impact were used for system identification, and modal parameters were extracted by using the eigensystem realization algorithm. In the first stage, the possible damaged locations are determined by using the damage index and the characteristics of the analytical model itself, and the extent of damage for those substructures identified at stage I is estimated in the second stage by using a second-order eigen-sensitivity approximation method. The main contribution of this paper is to test the two-stage method by using the real dynamic data of a complicated spatial model structure with limited sensors. The analysis results indicate that the two-stage approach is able to detect the location of both damage cases, only the severity of brace damage cases can be assessed, and the reasonable analytical model is critical for successful damage detection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Zengah
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Fatigue damage increases with applied load cycles in a cumulative manner. Fatigue damage models play a key role in life prediction of components and structures subjected to random loading. The aim of this paper is the examination of the performance of the “Damaged Stress Model”, proposed and validated, against other fatigue models under random loading before and after reconstruction of the load histories. To achieve this objective, some linear and nonlinear models proposed for fatigue life estimation and a batch of specimens made of 6082T6 aluminum alloy is subjected to random loading. The damage was cumulated by Miner’s rule, Damaged Stress Model (DSM, Henry model and Unified Theory (UT and random cycles were counted with a rain-flow algorithm. Experimental data on high-cycle fatigue by complex loading histories with different mean and amplitude stress values are analyzed for life calculation and model predictions are compared.
Cao, Trong-Son; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Bobadilla, Christian; Vachey, Christophe
2014-01-01
International audience; The purpose of the present paper is to show how and to what extent the introduction of refined, shear sensitive models improves on previous ones, based on triaxiality only, for the phenomenological description of ductile damage in bulk cold metal forming processes. Wire-drawing and wire rolling are taken as examples. A set of mechanical tests has been conducted: round bar tension, notched bar tension, plane strain tension, and torsion for pure shear deformation. Both c...
Validation of Modified Lemaitre’s Anisotropic Damage Model with the Cross Die Drawing Test
Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, T.
2012-01-01
Dual Phase (DP) steels are widely replacing the traditional forming steels in automotive industry. Advanced damage models are required to accurately predict the formability of DP steels. In this work, Lemaitre’s anisotropic damage model has been slightly modified for sheet metal forming applications
Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi
2015-01-01
The present paper introduces a vulnerability modelling approach for residential buildings in flood. The modelling approach explicitly considers relevant damage processes, i.e. water infiltration into the building, mechanical failure of components in the building envelope and damage from water con...
Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model for non-proportional loading
Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J
2009-01-01
Anisotropic damage for non-proportional loading is incorporated in an implicit finite element code under the framework of continuum damage models, using two different methodologies. Simple simulations are carried out to check the performance of the models. The advantages and drawbacks of both
Validation of Modified Lemaitre's Anisotropic Damage Model with the Cross Die Drawing Test
Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.
2011-01-01
Dual Phase (DP) steels are widely replacing the traditional forming steels in automotive industry. Advanced damage models are required to accurately predict the formability of DP steels. In this work, Lemaitre’s anisotropic damage model has been slightly modified for sheet metal forming applications
A Cumulative Damage Reliability Model on the Basis of Contact Fatigue of the Rolling Bearing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Li
2006-01-01
A cumulative damage reliability model of contact fatigue of the rolling bearing is more identical with the actual conditions. It is put forward on the basis of contact fatigue life probability distribution of the rolling bearing that obey Weibull distribution and rest on the Miner cumulative damage theory. Finally a case is given to predict the reliability of bearing roller by using these models.
Coats, Timothy William
1994-01-01
Progressive failure is a crucial concern when using laminated composites in structural design. Therefore the ability to model damage and predict the life of laminated composites is vital. The purpose of this research was to experimentally verify the application of the continuum damage model, a progressive failure theory utilizing continuum damage mechanics, to a toughened material system. Damage due to tension-tension fatigue was documented for the IM7/5260 composite laminates. Crack density and delamination surface area were used to calculate matrix cracking and delamination internal state variables, respectively, to predict stiffness loss. A damage dependent finite element code qualitatively predicted trends in transverse matrix cracking, axial splits and local stress-strain distributions for notched quasi-isotropic laminates. The predictions were similar to the experimental data and it was concluded that the continuum damage model provided a good prediction of stiffness loss while qualitatively predicting damage growth in notched laminates.
Micromechanics Modeling of Composites Subjected to Multiaxial Progressive Damage in the Constituents
Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Amold, Steven M.
2010-01-01
The high-fidelity generalized method of cells composite micromechanics model is extended to include constituent-scale progressive damage via a proposed damage model. The damage model assumes that all material nonlinearity is due to damage in the form of reduced stiffness, and it uses six scalar damage variables (three for tension and three for compression) to track the damage. Damage strains are introduced that account for interaction among the strain components and that also allow the development of the damage evolution equations based on the constituent material uniaxial stress strain response. Local final-failure criteria are also proposed based on mode-specific strain energy release rates and total dissipated strain energy. The coupled micromechanics-damage model described herein is applied to a unidirectional E-glass/epoxy composite and a proprietary polymer matrix composite. Results illustrate the capability of the coupled model to capture the vastly different character of the monolithic (neat) resin matrix and the composite in response to far-field tension, compression, and shear loading.
High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarkadoula, Eva; Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Seaton, Michael; Todorov, Ilian; Nordlund, Kai; Dove, Martin T.; Trachenko, Kostya
2014-02-28
Zirconia has been viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and was consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as a nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with the account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely disjoint from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.
High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: modeling results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarkadoula, Evangelia [Queen Mary, University of London; Devanathan, Ram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Weber, William J [ORNL; Seaton, M [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Todorov, I T [Daresbury Laboratory, UK; Nordlund, Kai [University of Helsinki; Dove, Martin T [Queen Mary, University of London; Trachenko, Kostya [Queen Mary, University of London
2014-01-01
Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1-0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We nd that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.
High-energy radiation damage in zirconia: Modeling results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarkadoula, E., E-mail: zarkadoulae@ornl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Devanathan, R. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Weber, W. J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Scientific Computing Department, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nordlund, K. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Dove, M. T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); SEPnet, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-02-28
Zirconia is viewed as a material of exceptional resistance to amorphization by radiation damage, and consequently proposed as a candidate to immobilize nuclear waste and serve as an inert nuclear fuel matrix. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in zirconia in the range of 0.1–0.5 MeV energies with account of electronic energy losses. We find that the lack of amorphizability co-exists with a large number of point defects and their clusters. These, importantly, are largely isolated from each other and therefore represent a dilute damage that does not result in the loss of long-range structural coherence and amorphization. We document the nature of these defects in detail, including their sizes, distribution, and morphology, and discuss practical implications of using zirconia in intense radiation environments.
Elastoplastic damage modelling of argillite in partially saturated condition and application
Jia, Y.; Song, X. C.; Duveau, G.; Su, K.; Shao, J. F.
This paper presents an elastoplastic damage model for argillites in unsaturated and saturated conditions. A short resume of experimental investigations is presented in the first part. Based on experimental data and micromechanical considerations, a general constitutive model is proposed for the poromechanical behavior of argillite in both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The proposed model is formulated within the framework of poroplasticity and continuum damage mechanics. Main features observed in experimental data are taken into account, in particular the elastic degradation due to microcracks, coupling between plastic deformation and induced damage, influence of water saturation on plastic flow and damage evolution, as well as variation of permeability with induced damage. The performance of the model is examined by comparing numerical simulation with test data in representative load paths. Finally, the model is applied to a hydromechanical coupling analysis of a cavity subjected to excavation and ventilation.
Comparison of Two Models for Damage Accumulation in Simulations of System Performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youngblood, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-11-01
A comprehensive simulation study of system performance needs to address variations in component behavior, variations in phenomenology, and the coupling between phenomenology and component failure. This paper discusses two models of this: 1. damage accumulation is modeled as a random walk process in each time history, with component failure occurring when damage accumulation reaches a specified threshold; or 2. damage accumulation is modeled mechanistically within each time history, but failure occurs when damage reaches a time-history-specific threshold, sampled at time zero from each component’s distribution of damage tolerance. A limiting case of the latter is classical discrete-event simulation, with component failure times sampled a priori from failure time distributions; but in such models, the failure times are not typically adjusted for operating conditions varying within a time history. Nowadays, as discussed below, it is practical to account for this. The paper compares the interpretations and computational aspects of the two models mentioned above.
Statistical damage constitutive model for rocks subjected to cyclic stress and cyclic temperature
Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu
2017-08-01
A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress-temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress-strain curve for rock reloading after stress-temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress-temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress-temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress-strain relationship during stress-temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress-strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.
Continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials and its application to multilayer actuators
Gellmann, Roman; Ricoeur, Andreas
2016-05-01
In this paper a micromechanical continuum damage model for ferroelectric materials is presented. As a constitutive law it is implemented into a finite element (FE) code. The model is based on micromechanical considerations of domain switching and its interaction with microcrack growth and coalescence. A FE analysis of a multilayer actuator is performed, showing the initiation of damage zones at the electrode tips during the poling process. Further, the influence of mechanical pre-stressing on damage evolution and actuating properties is investigated. The results provided in this work give useful information on the damage of advanced piezoelectric devices and their optimization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl
2009-01-01
A statistical computational model of strength and damage of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composites under compressive and cyclic compressive loading is presented in this paper. The model is developed on the basis of the Budiansky–Fleck fiber kinking condition, continuum damage mechanics...... concept and the Monte-Carlo method. The effects of fiber misalignment variability, fiber clustering, load sharing rules on the damage in composite are studied numerically. It is demonstrated that the clustering of fibers has a negative effect of the damage resistance of a composite. Further, the static...
New insights into continental rifting from a damage rheology modeling
Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Segev, Amit; Weinberger, Ram; Schattner, Uri
2010-05-01
Previous studies have discussed how tectonic processes could produce relative tension to initiate and propagate rift zones and estimated the magnitude of the rift-driving forces. Both analytic and semi-analytic models as well as numerical simulations assume that the tectonic force required to initiate rifting is available. However, Buck (2004, 2006) estimated the minimum tectonic force to allow passive rifting and concluded that the available forces are probably not large enough for rifting of thick and strong lithosphere in the absence of basaltic magmatism (the "Tectonic Force" Paradox). The integral of the yielding stress needed for rifting over the thickness of the normal or thicker continental lithosphere are well above the available tectonic forces and tectonic rifting cannot happen (Buck, 2006). This conclusion is based on the assumption that the tectonic stress has to overcome simultaneously the yielding stress over the whole lithosphere thickness and ignore gradual weakening of the brittle rocks under long-term loading. In this study we demonstrate that the rifting process under moderate tectonic stretching is feasible due to gradual weakening and "long-term memory" of the heavily fractured brittle rocks, which makes it significantly weaker than the surrounding intact rock. This process provides a possible solution for the tectonic force paradox. We address these questions utilizing 3-D lithosphere-scale numerical simulations of the plate motion and faulting process base on the damage mechanics. The 3-D modeled volume consists of three main lithospheric layers: an upper layer of weak sediments, middle layer of crystalline crust and lower layer of the lithosphere mantle. Results of the modeling demonstrate gradual formation of the rift zone in the continental lithosphere with the flat layered structure. Successive formation of the rift system and associated seismicity pattern strongly depend not only on the applied tectonic force, but also on the healing
Transgenic Mouse Model for Reducing Oxidative Damage in Bone
Schreurs, A.-S.; Torres, S.; Truong, T.; Kumar, A.; Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Globus, R. K.
2014-01-01
Exposure to musculoskeletal disuse and radiation result in bone loss; we hypothesized that these catabolic treatments cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thereby alter the tight balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used transgenic mice which over-express the human gene for catalase, targeted to mitochondria (MCAT). Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts the ROS hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. MCAT mice were shown previously to display reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress and radiosensitivity of the CNS compared to wild type controls (WT). As expected, MCAT mice expressed the transgene in skeletal tissue, and in marrow-derived osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors cultured ex vivo, and also showed greater catalase activity compared to wildtype (WT) mice (3-6 fold). Colony expansion in marrow cells cultured under osteoblastogenic conditions was 2-fold greater in the MCAT mice compared to WT mice, while the extent of mineralization was unaffected. MCAT mice had slightly longer tibiae than WT mice (2%, P less than 0.01), although cortical bone area was slightly lower in MCAT mice than WT mice (10%, p=0.09). To challenge the skeletal system, mice were treated by exposure to combined disuse (2 wk Hindlimb Unloading) and total body irradiation Cs(137) (2 Gy, 0.8 Gy/min), then bone parameters were analyzed by 2-factor ANOVA to detect possible interaction effects. Treatment caused a 2-fold increase (p=0.015) in malondialdehyde levels of bone tissue (ELISA) in WT mice, but had no effect in MCAT mice. These findings indicate that the transgene conferred protection from oxidative damage caused by treatment. Unexpected differences between WT and MCAT mice emerged in skeletal responses to treatment.. In WT mice, treatment did not alter osteoblastogenesis, cortical bone area, moment of inertia, or bone perimeter, whereas in MCAT mice, treatment increased these
Multi-physics modeling of multifunctional composite materials for damage detection
Sujidkul, Thanyawalai
This study presents a modeling of multifunction composite materials for damage detection with its verification and validation to mechanical behavior predictions of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites (CFRPs), CFRPs laminated composites, and woven SiC/SiC matrix composites that are subjected to fracture damage. Advantages of those materials are low cost, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and comparable specific tensile properties, the special of SiC/SiC is good environmental stability at high temperature. Resulting in, the composite has been used for many important structures such as helicopter rotors, aerojet engines, gas turbines, hot control surfaces, sporting goods, and windmill blades. Damage or material defect detection in a mechanical component can provide vital information for the prediction of remaining useful life, which will result in the prevention of catastrophic failures. Thus the understanding of the mechanical behavior have been challenge to the prevent damage and failure of composites in different scales. The damage detection methods in composites have been investigated widely in recent years. Non-destructive techniques are the traditional methods to detect the damage such as X-ray, acoustic emission and thermography. However, due to the invisible damage in composite can be occurred, to prevent the failure in composites. The developments of damage detection methods have been considered. Due to carbon fibers are conductive materials, in resulting CFRPs can be self-sensing to detect damage. As is well known, the electrical resistance has been shown to be a sensitive measure of internal damage, and also this work study in thermal resistance can detect damage in composites. However, there is a few number of different micromechanical modeling schemes has been proposed in the published literature for various types of composites. This works will provide with a numerical, analytical, and theoretical failure models in different damages to
Statistical Damage Detection of Civil Engineering Structures using ARMAV Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In this paper a statistically based damage detection of a lattice steel mast is performed. By estimation of the modal parameters and their uncertainties it is possible to detect whether some of the modal parameters have changed with a statistical significance. The estimation of the uncertainties ...
An existence result for a model of complete damage in elastic materials with reversible evolution
Bonetti, Elena; Freddi, Francesco; Segatti, Antonio
2016-07-01
In this paper, we consider a model describing evolution of damage in elastic materials, in which stiffness completely degenerates once the material is fully damaged. The model is written by using a phase transition approach, with respect to the damage parameter. In particular, a source of damage is represented by a quadratic form involving deformations, which vanishes in the case of complete damage. Hence, an internal constraint is ensured by a maximal monotone operator. The evolution of damage is considered "reversible", in the sense that the material may repair itself. We can prove an existence result for a suitable weak formulation of the problem, rewritten in terms of a new variable (an internal stress). Some numerical simulations are presented in agreement with the mathematical analysis of the system.
An existence result for a model of complete damage in elastic materials with reversible evolution
Bonetti, Elena; Freddi, Francesco; Segatti, Antonio
2017-01-01
In this paper, we consider a model describing evolution of damage in elastic materials, in which stiffness completely degenerates once the material is fully damaged. The model is written by using a phase transition approach, with respect to the damage parameter. In particular, a source of damage is represented by a quadratic form involving deformations, which vanishes in the case of complete damage. Hence, an internal constraint is ensured by a maximal monotone operator. The evolution of damage is considered "reversible", in the sense that the material may repair itself. We can prove an existence result for a suitable weak formulation of the problem, rewritten in terms of a new variable (an internal stress). Some numerical simulations are presented in agreement with the mathematical analysis of the system.
Flood risk modelling based on tangible and intangible urban flood damage quantification.
ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R
2010-01-01
The usual way to quantify flood damage is by application stage-damage functions. Urban flood incidents in flat areas mostly result in intangible damages like traffic disturbance and inconvenience for pedestrians caused by pools at building entrances, on sidewalks and parking spaces. Stage-damage functions are not well suited to quantify damage for these floods. This paper presents an alternative method to quantify flood damage that uses data from a municipal call centre. The data cover a period of 10 years and contain detailed information on consequences of urban flood incidents. Call data are linked to individual flood incidents and then assigned to specific damage classes. The results are used to draw risk curves for a range of flood incidents of increasing damage severity. Risk curves for aggregated groups of damage classes show that total flood risk related to traffic disturbance is larger than risk of damage to private properties, which in turn is larger than flood risk related to human health. Risk curves for detailed damage classes show how distinctions can be made between flood risks related to many types of occupational use in urban areas. This information can be used to support prioritisation of actions for flood risk reduction. Since call data directly convey how citizens are affected by urban flood incidents, they provide valuable information that complements flood risk analysis based on hydraulic models.
Modeling Damage in Composite Materials Using an Enrichment Based Multiscale Method
2015-03-01
Technical Report ARWSB-TR-15002 Modeling Damage in Composite Materials Using an Enrichment Based Multiscale Method Michael F...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling Damage in Composite Materials Using an Enrichment Based Multiscale Method 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the RVE and how microdamage can be incorporated into the model . For many applications the material used in the multiscale model is some type of fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alice Hettler
Full Text Available Although electrosurgical instruments are widely used in surgery to cut tissue layers or to achieve hemostasis by coagulation (electrocautery, only little information is available concerning the inflammatory or immune response towards the debris generated. Given the elevated local temperatures required for successful electrocautery, the remaining debris is likely to contain a plethora of compounds entirely novel to the intracorporal setting. A very common in vitro method to study cell migration after mechanical damage is the scratch assay, however, there is no established model for thermomechanical damage to characterise cellular reactions. In this study, we established a new in vitro model to investigate exposure to high temperature in a carefully controlled cell culture system. Heatable thermostat-controlled aluminium stamps were developed to induce local damage in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The thermomechanical damage invoked is reproducibly locally confined, therefore allowing studies, under the same experimental conditions, of cells affected to various degrees as well as of unaffected cells. We show that the unaffected cells surrounding the thermomechanical damage zone are able to migrate into the damaged area, resulting in a complete closure of the 'wound' within 48 h. Initial studies have shown that there are significant morphological and biological differences in endothelial cells after thermomechanical damage compared to the mechanical damage inflicted by using the unheated stamp as a control. Accordingly, after thermomechanical damage, cell death as well as cell protection programs were activated. Mononuclear cells adhered in the area adjacent to thermomechanical damage, but not to the zone of mechanical damage. Therefore, our model can help to understand the differences in wound healing during the early phase of regeneration after thermomechanical vs. mechanical damage. Furthermore, this model lends itself
2006-09-01
neighboring grains cannot be spa- tially resolved. 3.5. Homogenization of damage Effects from mechanisms modeled individually— elastoplasticity within each...crystal plasticity routines are available, as the damage computations are effectively uncoupled from the constitutive update of the elastoplastic response... elastoplasticity and damage : multiscale kinematics, Int. J. Solids Struct. 40 (2003) 5669–5688. [17] C. Teodosiu, F. Sidoroff, A finite theory of
Semi-Implicit Algorithm for Elastoplastic Damage Models Involving Energy Integration
Ji Zhang; Jie Li
2016-01-01
This study aims to develop a semi-implicit constitutive integration algorithm for a class of elastoplastic damage models where calculation of damage energy release rates involves integration of free energy. The constitutive equations with energy integration are split into the elastic predictor, plastic corrector, and damage corrector. The plastic corrector is solved with an improved format of the semi-implicit spectral return mapping, which is characterized by constant flow direction and plas...
INVESTIGATION ON ELASTO-PLASTIC CONSTITUTIVE MODEL COUPLED WITH DAMAGE FOR LOCALIZATION PHENOMENA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈新普; 沈国晓; 陈立新
2004-01-01
On the basis of existing plasticity-based damage model for plasticity coupled with damage for localization analysis, constitutive parameter identification was carried out through a series of numerical tests at local level. And then improvements were made on the expressions of the evolution laws of damage. Strain localization phenomena were simulated with a typical double-notched specimen under tensions. Numerical results indicate the validity of the proposed theory.
Leser, Patrick E.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Newman, John A.; Leser, William P.; Warner, James E.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2015-01-01
Utilizing inverse uncertainty quantification techniques, structural health monitoring can be integrated with damage progression models to form probabilistic predictions of a structure's remaining useful life. However, damage evolution in realistic structures is physically complex. Accurately representing this behavior requires high-fidelity models which are typically computationally prohibitive. In the present work, a high-fidelity finite element model is represented by a surrogate model, reducing computation times. The new approach is used with damage diagnosis data to form a probabilistic prediction of remaining useful life for a test specimen under mixed-mode conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Swagata Banerjee; Masanobu Shinozuka
2008-01-01
Bridges are one of the most vulnerable components of a highway transportation network system subjected to earthquake ground motions.Prediction of resilience and sustainability of bridge performance in a probabilistic manner provides valuable information for pre-event system upgrading and post-event functional recovery of the network.The current study integrates bridge seismic damageability information obtained through empirical,analytical and experimental procedures and quantifies threshold limits of bridge damage states consistent with the physical damage description given in HAZUS.Experimental data from a large-scale shaking table test are utilized for this purpose.This experiment was conducted at the University of Nevada,Reno,where a research team from the University of California,Irvine,participated.Observed experimental damage data are processed to idemify and quantify bridge damage states in terms of rotational ductility at bridge column ends.In parallel,a mechanistic model for fragility curves is developed in such a way that the model can be calibrated against empirical fragility curves that have been constructed from damage data obtained during the 1994 Northridge earthquake.This calibration quantifies threshold values of bridge damage states and makes the analytical study consistent with damage data observed in past earthquakes.The mechanistic model is transportable and applicable to most types and sizes of bridges.Finally,calibrated damage state definitions are compared with that obtained using experimental findings.Comparison shows excellent consistency among results from analytical,empirical and experimental observations.
Offline and online detection of damage using autoregressive models and artificial neural networks
Omenzetter, Piotr; de Lautour, Oliver R.
2007-04-01
Developed to study long, regularly sampled streams of data, time series analysis methods are being increasingly investigated for the use of Structural Health Monitoring. In this research, Autoregressive (AR) models are used in conjunction with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for damage detection, localisation and severity assessment. In the first reported experimental exercise, AR models were used offline to fit the acceleration time histories of a 3-storey test structure in undamaged and various damaged states when excited by earthquake motion simulated on a shake table. Damage was introduced into the structure by replacing the columns with those of a thinner thickness. Analytical models of the structure in both damaged and undamaged states were also developed and updated using experimental data in order to determine structural stiffness. The coefficients of AR models were used as damage sensitive features and input into an ANN to build a relationship between them and the remaining structural stiffness. In the second, analytical exercise, a system with gradually progressing damage was numerically simulated and acceleration AR models with exogenous inputs were identified recursively. A trained ANN was then required to trace the structural stiffness online. The results for the offline and online approach showed the efficiency of using AR coefficient as damage sensitive features and good performance of the ANNs for damage detection, localization and quantification.
Prediction of chronic damage in systemic lupus erythematosus by using machine-learning models
Perricone, Carlo; Galvan, Giulio; Morelli, Francesco; Vicente, Luis Nunes; Leccese, Ilaria; Massaro, Laura; Cipriano, Enrica; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio
2017-01-01
Objective The increased survival in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients implies the development of chronic damage, occurring in up to 50% of cases. Its prevention is a major goal in the SLE management. We aimed at predicting chronic damage in a large monocentric SLE cohort by using neural networks. Methods We enrolled 413 SLE patients (M/F 30/383; mean age ± SD 46.3±11.9 years; mean disease duration ± SD 174.6 ± 112.1 months). Chronic damage was assessed by the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI). We applied Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) as a machine-learning model to predict the risk of chronic damage. The clinical data sequences registered for each patient during the follow-up were used for building and testing the RNNs. Results At the first visit in the Lupus Clinic, 35.8% of patients had an SDI≥1. For the RNN model, two groups of patients were analyzed: patients with SDI = 0 at the baseline, developing damage during the follow-up (N = 38), and patients without damage (SDI = 0). We created a mathematical model with an AUC value of 0.77, able to predict damage development. A threshold value of 0.35 (sensitivity 0.74, specificity 0.76) seemed able to identify patients at risk to develop damage. Conclusion We applied RNNs to identify a prediction model for SLE chronic damage. The use of the longitudinal data from the Sapienza Lupus Cohort, including laboratory and clinical items, resulted able to construct a mathematical model, potentially identifying patients at risk to develop damage. PMID:28329014
Modelling of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau
This thesis focuses on numerical analysis of damage development and ductile failure in welded joints. Two types of welds are investigated here. First, a study of the localization of plastic flow and failure in aluminum sheets, welded by the relatively new Friction Stir (FS) Welding method, has been...... conducted ([P1], [P2], [P7]-[P9]). The focus in the thesis is on FS-welded 2xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys, which are attractive, for example, to the aerospace industry, since the 2024 aluminum in particular, is typically classified as un-weldable by conventional fusion welding techniques. Secondly......, a study of the damage development in Resistance SpotWelded joints, when subject to the commonly used static shear-lab or cross-tension testing techniques, has been carried out ([P3]-[P6]). The focus in thesis is on the Advanced High Strength Steels, Dual-Phase 600, which is used in for example...
Are flood damage models useful outside their original context?
Schultz, Colin
2014-09-01
For researchers and decision makers trying to understand the risks of extreme weather, complex damage prediction models—which in some cases consider physical, sociological, and economic variables—are proving to be a valuable tool. Yet at the same time, the effects of extreme weather are highly context specific: A snow storm easily shrugged off by Canadians can cripple the southwest United States, for instance.
DAMAGE MODELING OF INJECTION-MOLDED SHORT- AND LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.
2009-10-30
This article applies the recent anisotropic rotary diffusion – reduced strain closure (ARD-RSC) model for predicting fiber orientation and a new damage model for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to analyze progressive damage leading to total failure of injection-molded long-glass-fiber/polypropylene (PP) specimens. The ARD-RSC model was implemented in a research version of the Autodesk Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) processing code, and it has been used to simulate injection-molding of a long-glass-fiber/PP plaque. The damage model combines micromechanical modeling with a continuum damage mechanics description to predict the nonlinear behavior due to plasticity coupled with damage in LFTs. This model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in the damage analyses of tensile specimens removed from the injection-molded long-glass-fiber/PP plaques. Experimental characterization and mechanical testing were performed to provide input data to support and validate both process modeling and damage analyses. The predictions are in agreement with the experimental results.
Study of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil with high organic content
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Huie; WANG Qing; CAI Keyi
2009-01-01
On the basis of elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil, the authors took organic contents into reasonable damage variable evolution equation in order to seek relation between the organic contents and parameters in the equation, and established the elastic-plastic damage model of cement consolidated soil considering organic contents. The results show that the parameters change correspondingly with difference of the organic contents. The higher the organic contents are, the less the valves of the parameters such as elastic modulus (E), material parameters (K, n) and damage evolution parameter (ε) become, but the larger strain damage threshold value (εd) of the sample is. Meanwhile, the calculation results obtained from established model are compared with the test data in the condition of common indoors test, which is testified with reliability.
INSYDE: a synthetic, probabilistic flood damage model based on explicit cost analysis
Dottori, Francesco; Figueiredo, Rui; Martina, Mario L. V.; Molinari, Daniela; Scorzini, Anna Rita
2016-12-01
Methodologies to estimate economic flood damages are increasingly important for flood risk assessment and management. In this work, we present a new synthetic flood damage model based on a component-by-component analysis of physical damage to buildings. The damage functions are designed using an expert-based approach with the support of existing scientific and technical literature, loss adjustment studies, and damage surveys carried out for past flood events in Italy. The model structure is designed to be transparent and flexible, and therefore it can be applied in different geographical contexts and adapted to the actual knowledge of hazard and vulnerability variables. The model has been tested in a recent flood event in northern Italy. Validation results provided good estimates of post-event damages, with similar or superior performances when compared with other damage models available in the literature. In addition, a local sensitivity analysis was performed in order to identify the hazard variables that have more influence on damage assessment results.
Damage Model for Reliability Assessment of Solder Joints in Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2012-01-01
damage model by Miner’s rule. Our attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Based on the proposed method it is described how to find the damage level for a given temperature loading profile. The proposed method is discussed...
Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qin-yong Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.
Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J
2014-01-01
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. The mechanisms by which lack of SMN causes SMA pathology are not known, making it very difficult to develop effective therapies. We investigated whether DNA damage is a perinatal pathological event in SMA, and whether DNA damage and cell death first occur in skeletal muscle or spinal cord of SMA mice. We used a mouse model of severe SMA to ascertain the extent of cell death and DNA damage throughout the body of prenatal and newborn mice. SMA mice at birth (postnatal day 0) exhibited internucleosomal fragmentation in genomic DNA from hindlimb skeletal muscle, but not in genomic DNA from spinal cord. SMA mice at postnatal day 5, compared with littermate controls, exhibited increased apoptotic cell death profiles in skeletal muscle, by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and electron microscopy. SMA mice had no increased cell death, no loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-positive motor neurons, and no overt pathology in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. At embryonic days 13 and 15.5, SMA mice did not exhibit statistically significant increases in cell death profiles in spinal cord or skeletal muscle. Motor neuron numbers in the ventral horn, as identified by ChAT immunoreactivity, were comparable in SMA mice and control littermates at embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 5. These observations demonstrate that in SMA, disease in skeletal muscle emerges before pathology in spinal cord, including loss of motor neurons. Overall, this work identifies DNA damage and cell death in skeletal muscle as therapeutic targets for SMA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saniya Fayzullina
Full Text Available Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA is a hereditary childhood disease that causes paralysis by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and spinal motor neurons. SMA is associated with reduced levels of full-length Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN protein, due to mutations in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 gene. The mechanisms by which lack of SMN causes SMA pathology are not known, making it very difficult to develop effective therapies. We investigated whether DNA damage is a perinatal pathological event in SMA, and whether DNA damage and cell death first occur in skeletal muscle or spinal cord of SMA mice. We used a mouse model of severe SMA to ascertain the extent of cell death and DNA damage throughout the body of prenatal and newborn mice. SMA mice at birth (postnatal day 0 exhibited internucleosomal fragmentation in genomic DNA from hindlimb skeletal muscle, but not in genomic DNA from spinal cord. SMA mice at postnatal day 5, compared with littermate controls, exhibited increased apoptotic cell death profiles in skeletal muscle, by hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, and electron microscopy. SMA mice had no increased cell death, no loss of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT-positive motor neurons, and no overt pathology in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. At embryonic days 13 and 15.5, SMA mice did not exhibit statistically significant increases in cell death profiles in spinal cord or skeletal muscle. Motor neuron numbers in the ventral horn, as identified by ChAT immunoreactivity, were comparable in SMA mice and control littermates at embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 5. These observations demonstrate that in SMA, disease in skeletal muscle emerges before pathology in spinal cord, including loss of motor neurons. Overall, this work identifies DNA damage and cell death in skeletal muscle as therapeutic targets for SMA.
Modeling electrical power absorption and thermally-induced biological tissue damage.
Zohdi, T I
2014-01-01
This work develops a model for thermally induced damage from high current flow through biological tissue. Using the first law of thermodynamics, the balance of energy produced by the current and the energy absorbed by the tissue are investigated. The tissue damage is correlated with an evolution law that is activated upon exceeding a temperature threshold. As an example, the Fung material model is used. For certain parameter choices, the Fung material law has the ability to absorb relatively significant amounts of energy, due to its inherent exponential response character, thus, to some extent, mitigating possible tissue damage. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the model's behavior.
A Contribution to Time-Dependent Damage Modeling of Composite Structures
Treasurer, Paul; Poirette, Yann; Perreux, Dominique; Thiebaud, Frédéric
2014-08-01
The paper presents a new damage model for predicting stiffness loss due to creep loading and cyclic fatigue. The model, developed within a continuum damage mechanics framework, is based on the idea of a time-dependent damage spectrum, some elements of which occur rapidly and others slowly. The use of this spectrum allows a single damage kinematic to model creep and fatigue damage and to take into account the effect of stress amplitude, R ratio, and frequency. The evolution equations are based on similar equation than the one describing the viscoelasticity model and are relatively easy to implement. The new model is compared to the experimental results on carbon fiber/epoxy tubes. Quasi-static, creep and fatigue tests are performed on filament-wound tubular specimens to characterize the elastic, viscoelastic and plastic behavior of the composite material. Varying amounts of damage are observed and discussed depending on stress level and R ratio. The experimental work aims to develop and validate the damage model for predicting stiffness loss due to creep loading and cyclic fatigue.
Modeling continuous-fiber reinforced polymer composites for exploration of damage tolerant concepts
Matthews, Peter J.
This work aims to improve the predictive capability for fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite laminates using the finite element method. A new tool for modeling composite damage was developed which considers important modes of failure. Well-known micromechanical models were implemented to predict material values for material systems of interest to aerospace applications. These generated material values served as input to intralaminar and interlaminar damage models. A three-dimensional in-plane damage material model was implemented and behavior verified. Deficiencies in current state-of-the-art interlaminar capabilities were explored using the virtual crack closure technique and the cohesive zone model. A user-defined cohesive element was implemented to discover the importance of traction-separation material constitutive behavior. A novel method for correlation of traction-separation parameters was created. This new damage modeling tool was used for evaluation of novel material systems to improve damage tolerance. Classical laminate plate theory was used in a full-factorial study of layerwise-hybrid laminates. Filament-wound laminated composite cylindrical shells were subjected to quasi-static loading to validate the finite element computational composite damage model. The new tool for modeling provides sufficient accuracy and generality for use on a wide-range of problems.
Model-based Prognostics with Concurrent Damage Progression Processes
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches rely on physics-based models that describe the behavior of systems and their components. These models must account for the several...
Eriguchi, Koji
2014-10-01
An increasing demand for high performance field-effect transistors (FETs) leads to the aggressive critical dimension shrinkage and the currently-emerging three dimensional (3D) geometry. Plasma processing is widely used also in the scaled- and 3D-FET (e.g. FinFET) manufacturing, where precise control of the reaction on the (sidewall) surfaces is a prime issue. In this study, damage creation mechanism during plasma etching--plasma-induced physical damage (PPD)--was investigated in such structures on the basis of the PPD range theory, atomistic simulations, and experiments. Compared to PPD in planar FETs (e.g. Si recess [2,3]), a stochastic modeling and atomistic simulations predicted that, during etching of ``fins'' in a 3D-FET, the following two mechanisms are responsible for damage creation in addition to an ion impact on the sidewall at an oblique incident angle: 1) incoming ions penetrate into the Si substrate and undergo scattering by Si atoms in the lateral direction even if the incident angle is normal to the surface and 2) some of Si atoms and ions sputtered at the surface being etched impact on the sidewall with energies sufficient to break Si-Si bonds. These straggling and sputtering processes are stochastic and fundamental, thus, result in 3D structure damage (``fin-damage''). The ``fin-damage'' induced by straggling was modeled by the PPD range theory. Molecular dynamics simulations clarified the mechanisms under the various plasma conditions. Quantum mechanical calculations showed that created defect structures play the role of a carrier trap site, which was experimentally verified by an electrical measurement. Since they are intrinsic natures of etching, both straggling and sputtering noted here should be implemented to design a low-damage etching process. This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 23360321 from JSPS and STARC project.
A model for damage load and its implications for the evolution of bacterial aging.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Chao
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Deleterious mutations appearing in a population increase in frequency until stopped by natural selection. The ensuing equilibrium creates a stable frequency of deleterious mutations or the mutational load. Here I develop the comparable concept of a damage load, which is caused by harmful non-heritable changes to the phenotype. A damage load also ensues when the increase of damage is opposed by selection. The presence of a damage load favors the evolution of asymmetrical transmission of damage by a mother to her daughters. The asymmetry is beneficial because it increases fitness variance, but it also leads to aging or senescence. A mathematical model based on microbes reveals that a cell lineage dividing symmetrically is immortal if lifetime damage rates do not exceed a threshold. The evolution of asymmetry allows the lineage to persist above the threshold, but the lineage becomes mortal. In microbes with low genomic mutation rates, it is likely that the damage load is much greater than the mutational load. In metazoans with higher genomic mutation rates, the damage and the mutational load could be of the same magnitude. A fit of the model to experimental data shows that Escherichia coli cells experience a damage rate that is below the threshold and are immortal under the conditions examined. The model estimates the asymmetry level of E. coli to be low but sufficient for persisting at higher damage rates. The model also predicts that increasing asymmetry results in diminishing fitness returns, which may explain why the bacterium has not evolved higher asymmetry.
Micromechanical modeling of damage and fracture of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl
2009-01-01
An overview of methods of the mathematical modeling of deformation, damage and fracture in fiber reinforced composites is presented. The models are classified into five main groups: shear lag-based, analytical models, fiber bundle model and its generalizations, fracture mechanics based and contin...
Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Run-to-Failure Simulation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are...
The Pore Collapse “Hot-Spots” Model Coupled with Brittle Damage for Solid Explosives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. R. Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the building of a numerical pore collapse model with “hot-spots” formation for the impacted damage explosives. According to damage mechanical evolution of brittle material, the one-dimensional elastic-viscoplastic collapse model was improved to incorporate the impact damage during the dynamic collapse of pores. The damage of explosives was studied using the statistical crack mechanics (SCRAM. The effects of the heat conduction and the chemical reaction were taken into account in the formation of “hot-spots.” To verify the improved model, numerical simulations were carried out for different pressure states and used to model a multiple-impact experiment. The results show that repeated weak impacts can lead to the collapse of pores and the “hot-spots” may occur due to the accumulation of internal defects accompanied by the softening of explosives.
Multi-Physics Computational Modeling Tool for Materials Damage Assessment Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is to provide a multi-physics modeling tool for materials damage assessment for application to future aircraft design. The software...
Ranatunga, Vipul; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2010-01-01
A method for performing progressive damage modeling in composite materials and structures based on continuum level interfacial displacement discontinuities is presented. The proposed method enables the exponential evolution of the interfacial compliance, resulting in unloading of the tractions at the interface after delamination or failure occurs. In this paper, the proposed continuum displacement discontinuity model has been used to simulate failure within both isotropic and orthotropic materials efficiently and to explore the possibility of predicting the crack path, therein. Simulation results obtained from Mode-I and Mode-II fracture compare the proposed approach with the cohesive element approach and Virtual Crack Closure Techniques (VCCT) available within the ABAQUS (ABAQUS, Inc.) finite element software. Furthermore, an eccentrically loaded 3-point bend test has been simulated with the displacement discontinuity model, and the resulting crack path prediction has been compared with a prediction based on the extended finite element model (XFEM) approach.
An approach for the modeling of interface-body coupled nonlocal damage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Toti
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP can be used for strengthening concrete or masonry constructions. One of the main problem in the use of FRP is the possible detachment of the reinforcement from the support material. This paper deals with the modeling of the FRP-concrete or masonry damage interface, accounting for the coupling occurring between the degradation of the cohesive material and the FRP detachment. To this end, a damage model is considered for the quasi-brittle material. In order to prevent strain localization and strong mesh sensitivity of the solution, an integral-type of nonlocal model based on the weighted spatial averaging of a strain-like quantity is developed. Regarding the interface, the damage is governed by the relative displacement occurring at bond. A suitable interface model which accounts for the mode I, mode II and mixed mode of damage is developed. The coupling between the body damage and the interface damage is performed computing the body damage on the bond surface. Numerical examples are presented.
Modeling of laser-induced damage and optic usage at the National Ignition Facility
Liao, Zhi M.; Nostrand, Mike; Carr, Wren; Bude, Jeff; Suratwala, Tayyab I.
2016-07-01
Modeling of laser-induced optics damage has been introduced to benchmark existing optic usage at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which includes the number of optics exchanged for damage repair. NIF has pioneered an optics recycle strategy to allow it to run the laser at capacity since fully commissioned in 2009 while keeping the cost of optics usage manageable. We will show how the damage model is being used to evaluate strategies to streamline our optics loop efficiency, as we strive to increase the laser shot rate without increasing operating costs.
A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (Preprint)
2011-07-01
AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4232 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Unni Santhosh and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad 5d. PROJECT...Composite Materials, 2010 A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad Research
Seismic behavior of an Italian Renaissance Sanctuary: Damage assessment by numerical modelling
Clementi, Francesco; Nespeca, Andrea; Lenci, Stefano
2016-12-01
The paper deals with modelling and analysis of architectural heritage through the discussion of an illustrative case study: the Medieval Sanctuary of Sant'Agostino (Offida, Italy). Using the finite element technique, a 3D numerical model of the sanctuary is built, and then used to identify the main sources of the damages. The work shows that advanced numerical analyses could offer significant information for the understanding of the causes of existing damage and, more generally, on the seismic vulnerability.
Model-Based Fatigue Prognosis of Fiber-Reinforced Laminates Exhibiting Concurrent Damage Mechanisms
Corbetta, M.; Sbarufatti, C.; Saxena, A.; Giglio, M.; Goebel, K.
2016-01-01
Prognostics of large composite structures is a topic of increasing interest in the field of structural health monitoring for aerospace, civil, and mechanical systems. Along with recent advancements in real-time structural health data acquisition and processing for damage detection and characterization, model-based stochastic methods for life prediction are showing promising results in the literature. Among various model-based approaches, particle-filtering algorithms are particularly capable in coping with uncertainties associated with the process. These include uncertainties about information on the damage extent and the inherent uncertainties of the damage propagation process. Some efforts have shown successful applications of particle filtering-based frameworks for predicting the matrix crack evolution and structural stiffness degradation caused by repetitive fatigue loads. Effects of other damage modes such as delamination, however, are not incorporated in these works. It is well established that delamination and matrix cracks not only co-exist in most laminate structures during the fatigue degradation process but also affect each other's progression. Furthermore, delamination significantly alters the stress-state in the laminates and accelerates the material degradation leading to catastrophic failure. Therefore, the work presented herein proposes a particle filtering-based framework for predicting a structure's remaining useful life with consideration of multiple co-existing damage-mechanisms. The framework uses an energy-based model from the composite modeling literature. The multiple damage-mode model has been shown to suitably estimate the energy release rate of cross-ply laminates as affected by matrix cracks and delamination modes. The model is also able to estimate the reduction in stiffness of the damaged laminate. This information is then used in the algorithms for life prediction capabilities. First, a brief summary of the energy-based damage model
Saleh, Mohamed Nasr
2016-01-08
Damage initiation and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal woven carbon fibre composite (3DOWC) is investigated experimentally and numerically. Meso-scale homogenisation of the representative volume element (RVE) is utilised to predict the elastic properties, simulate damage initiation and evolution when loaded in tension. The effect of intra-yarns transverse cracking and shear diffused damage on the in-plane transverse modulus and shear modulus is investigated while one failure criterion is introduced to simulate the matrix damage. The proposed model is based on two major assumptions. First, the effect of the binder yarns, on the in-plane properties, is neglected, so the 3DOWC unit cell can be approximated as a (0o/90o) cross-ply laminate. Second, a micro-mechanics based damage approach is used at the meso-scale, so damage indicators can be correlated, explicitly, to the density of cracks within the material. Results from the simulated RVE are validated against experimental results along the warp (0o direction) and weft (90o direction). This approach paves the road for more predictive models as damage evolution laws are obtained from micro mechanical considerations and rely on few well-defined material parameters. This largely differs from classical damage mechanics approaches in which the evolution law is obtained by retrofitting experimental observations.
Distributed Damage Estimation for Prognostics based on Structural Model Decomposition
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches capture system knowl- edge in the form of physics-based models of components that include how they fail. These methods consist of...
Multiple Damage Progression Paths in Model-based Prognostics
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches employ do- main knowledge about a system, its components, and how they fail through the use of physics-based models. Compo- nent...
A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pignatelli, Rossella, E-mail: rossellapignatelli@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lombardi Ingegneria S.r.l., Via Giotto 36, 20145 Milano (Italy); Comi, Claudia, E-mail: comi@stru.polimi.it [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2013-11-15
To model the complex degradation phenomena occurring in concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), we formulate a poro-mechanical model with two isotropic internal variables: the chemical and the mechanical damage. The chemical damage, related to the evolution of the reaction, is caused by the pressure generated by the expanding ASR gel on the solid concrete skeleton. The mechanical damage describes the strength and stiffness degradation induced by the external loads. As suggested by experimental results, degradation due to ASR is considered to be localized around reactive sites. The effect of the degree of saturation and of the temperature on the reaction development is also modeled. The chemical damage evolution is calibrated using the value of the gel pressure estimated by applying the electrical diffuse double-layer theory to experimental values of the surface charge density in ASR gel specimens reported in the literature. The chemo-damage model is first validated by simulating expansion tests on reactive specimens and beams; the coupled chemo-mechanical damage model is then employed to simulate compression and flexure tests results also taken from the literature. -- Highlights: •Concrete degradation due to ASR in variable environmental conditions is modeled. •Two isotropic internal variables – chemical and mechanical damage – are introduced. •The value of the swelling pressure is estimated by the diffuse double layer theory. •A simplified scheme is proposed to relate macro- and microscopic properties. •The chemo-mechanical damage model is validated by simulating tests in literature.
A Finite Element Implementation of a Ductile Damage Model for Small Strains
Gates, Robert Lee
2013-01-01
Lemaitre's ductile damage model and a simplified variant excluding kinematic hardening were studied and implemented into computer code. For purposes of verifying the model, results from computations with the finite element method are compared to literature. It is found that the behavior expected from theory is modeled by both implementations. Quadratic levels of convergence were observed for the simplified model, while results show that convergence of the kinematic hardening implementation deteriorates with damage. It is concluded that further examination is needed to verify the correct implementation of the kinematic hardening model.
A new conceptual model for damage zone evolution with fault growth
de Joussineau, G.; Aydin, A.
2006-12-01
Faults may either impede or enhance fluid flow in the subsurface, which is relevant to a number of economic issues (hydrocarbon migration and entrapment, formation and distribution of mineral deposits) and environmental problems (movement of contaminants). Fault zones typically comprise a low-permeability core made up of intensely deformed fault rock and a high-permeability damage zone defined by fault-related fractures. The geometry, petrophysical properties and continuity of both the fault core and the damage zone have an important influence on the mechanical properties of the fault systems and on subsurface fluid flow. Information about fault components from remote seismic methods is limited and is available only for large faults (slip larger than 20-100m). It is therefore essential to characterize faults and associated damage zones in field analogues, and to develop conceptual models of how faults and related structures form and evolve. Here we present such an attempt to better understand the evolution of fault damage zones in the Jurassic Aztec Sandstone of the Valley of Fire State Park (SE Nevada). We document the formation and evolution of the damage zone associated with strike-slip faults through detailed field studies of faults of increasing slip magnitudes. The faults initiate as sheared joints with discontinuous pockets of damage zone located at fault tips and fault surface irregularities. With increasing slip (slip >5m), the damage zone becomes longer and wider by progressive fracture infilling, and is organized into two distinct components with different geometrical and statistical characteristics. The first component of the damage zone is the inner damage zone, directly flanking the fault core, with a relatively high fracture frequency and a thickness that scales with the amount of fault slip. Parts of this inner zone are integrated into the fault core by the development of the fault rock, contributing to the core's progressive widening. The second
Development of a Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction Model for Scour Damage Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. J. Prendergast
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Damage detection in bridges using vibration-based methods is an area of growing research interest. Improved assessment methodologies combined with state-of-the-art sensor technology are rapidly making these approaches applicable for real-world structures. Applying these techniques to the detection and monitoring of scour around bridge foundations has remained challenging; however this area has gained attraction in recent years. Several authors have investigated a range of methods but there is still significant work required to achieve a rounded and widely applicable methodology to detect and monitor scour. This paper presents a novel Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction (VBSDI model which can be used to simulate the effect of scour on an integral bridge. The model outputs dynamic signals which can be analysed to determine modal parameters and the variation of these parameters with respect to scour can be examined. The key novelty of this model is that it is the first numerical model for simulating scour that combines a realistic vehicle loading model with a robust foundation soil response model. This paper provides a description of the model development and explains the mathematical theory underlying the model. Finally a case study application of the model using typical bridge, soil, and vehicle properties is provided.
A Temperature-Dependent Phase-Field Model for Phase Separation and Damage
Heinemann, Christian; Kraus, Christiane; Rocca, Elisabetta; Rossi, Riccarda
2017-07-01
In this paper we study a model for phase separation and damage in thermoviscoelastic materials. The main novelty of the paper consists in the fact that, in contrast with previous works in the literature concerning phase separation and damage processes in elastic media, in our model we encompass thermal processes, nonlinearly coupled with the damage, concentration and displacement evolutions. More particularly, we prove the existence of "entropic weak solutions", resorting to a solvability concept first introduced in Feireisl (Comput Math Appl 53:461-490, 2007) in the framework of Fourier-Navier-Stokes systems and then recently employed in Feireisl et al. (Math Methods Appl Sci 32:1345-1369, 2009) and Rocca and Rossi (Math Models Methods Appl Sci 24:1265-1341, 2014) for the study of PDE systems for phase transition and damage. Our global-in-time existence result is obtained by passing to the limit in a carefully devised time-discretization scheme.
Microscopic model for chemical etchability along radiation damage paths in solids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mukhtar Ahmed RANA
2008-01-01
It would be very interesting to develop a picture about removal of atoms from the radiation damaged paths or latent nuclear tracks and undamaged bulk material in track detectors. Here, theory of chemical etching is described briefly and a new model for chemical etching along radiation damaged paths in solids is developed based on basic scientific facts and valid assumptions. Dependence of chemical etching on radiation damage intensity and etching conditions is discussed. A new parameter for etching along radiation damaged paths is introduced, which is useful for investigation of relationship between chemical etchability and radiation damage in a solid. Results and discussion presented here are also useful for further development of nuclear waste immobilization.
Wang, Yuexing; Yao, Yao; Keer, Leon M.
2017-02-01
Electromigration is an irreversible mass diffusion process with damage accumulation in microelectronic materials and components under high current density. Based on experimental observations, cotton type voids dominate the electromigration damage accumulation prior to cracking in the solder interconnect. To clarify the damage evolution process corresponding to cotton type void growth, a statistical model is proposed to predict the stochastic characteristic of void growth under high current density. An analytical solution of the cotton type void volume growth over time is obtained. The synchronous electromigration induced damage accumulation is predicted by combining the statistical void growth and the entropy increment. The electromigration induced damage evolution in solder joints is developed and applied to verify the tensile strength deterioration of solder joints due to electromigration. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.
Zhu, Cheng; Pouya, Ahmad; Arson, Chloé
2015-11-01
This paper aims to gain fundamental understanding of the microscopic mechanisms that control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep around salt caverns in typical geological storage conditions. We use a self-consistent inclusion-matrix model to homogenize the viscoplastic deformation of halite polycrystals and predict the number of broken grains in a Representative Elementary Volume of salt. We use this micro-macro modeling framework to simulate creep tests under various axial stresses, which gives us the critical viscoplastic strain at which grain breakage (i.e., tertiary creep) is expected to occur. The comparison of simulation results for short-term and long-term creep indicates that the initiation of tertiary creep depends on the stress and the viscoplastic strain. We use the critical viscoplastic deformation as a yield criterion to control the transition between secondary and tertiary creep in a phenomenological viscoplastic model, which we implement into the Finite Element Method program POROFIS. We model a 850-m-deep salt cavern of irregular shape, in axis-symmetric conditions. Simulations of cavern depressurization indicate that a strain-dependent damage evolution law is more suitable than a stress-dependent damage evolution law, because it avoids high damage concentrations and allows capturing the formation of a damaged zone around the cavity. The modeling framework explained in this paper is expected to provide new insights to link grain breakage to phenomenological damage variables used in Continuum Damage Mechanics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez-Mangas, J.M. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: jesus.hernandez.mangas@tel.uva.es; Arias, J. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Marques, L.A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Ruiz-Bueno, A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Bailon, L. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)
2005-01-01
Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results.
Plastic and damage behaviour of a high strength X100 pipeline steel: Experiments and modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanguy, B. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Luu, T.T. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Applied Mechanics Division, IFP, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Perrin, G. [Applied Mechanics Division, IFP, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Pineau, A. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Besson, J. [Centre des Materiaux, Mines Paris, Paristech, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)], E-mail: jacques.besson@ensmp.fr
2008-05-15
The purpose of this work is to develop a constitutive model integrating anisotropic behaviour and ductile damage for a X100 pipeline steel. The model is based on a set of experiments on various smooth, notched and cracked specimens and on a careful fractographic examination of the damage mechanisms. The model is based on an extension of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model which includes plastic anisotropy. Provided brittle delamination is not triggered, the developed model can accurately describe the plastic and damage behaviour of the material. The model is then used as a numerical tool to investigate the effect of plastic anisotropy and delamination on ductile crack extension. It is shown in particular that it is not possible to obtain a unified description of rupture properties for notched and cracked specimens tested along different directions without accounting for plastic anisotropy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doebling, S.W.
1996-04-01
A new optimal update method for the correlation of dynamic structural finite element models with modal data is presented. The method computes a minimum-rank solution for the perturbations of the elemental stiffness parameters while constraining the connectivity of the global stiffness matrix. The resulting model contains a more accurate representation of the dynamics of the test structure. The changes between the original model and the updated model can be interpreted as modeling errors or as changes in the structure resulting from damage. The motivation for the method is presented in the context of existing optimal matrix update procedures. The method is demonstrated numerically on a spring-mass system and is also applied to experimental data from the NASA Langley 8-bay truss damage detection experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed procedure may be useful for updating elemental stiffness parameters in the context of damage detection and model refinement.
Novel SHM method to locate damages in substructures based on VARX models
Ugalde, U.; Anduaga, J.; Martínez, F.; Iturrospe, A.
2015-07-01
A novel damage localization method is proposed, which is based on a substructuring approach and makes use of Vector Auto-Regressive with eXogenous input (VARX) models. The substructuring approach aims to divide the monitored structure into several multi-DOF isolated substructures. Later, each individual substructure is modelled as a VARX model, and the health of each substructure is determined analyzing the variation of the VARX model. The method allows to detect whether the isolated substructure is damaged, and besides allows to locate and quantify the damage within the substructure. It is not necessary to have a theoretical model of the structure and only the measured displacement data is required to estimate the isolated substructure's VARX model. The proposed method is validated by simulations of a two-dimensional lattice structure.
Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear
Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau
2010-09-01
Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models show a strong dependence on the level of hydrostatic tension. Even though the reason for this pressure dependence is different in the two models, as the shear-extended Gurson model does not describe voids flattening out and the associated failure mechanism by micro-cracks interacting with neighbouring micro-cracks, it is shown that the trends of the predictions are in good agreement.
Research on borehole stability of shale based on seepage-stress-damage coupling model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaofeng Ran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In oil drilling, one of the most complicated problems is borehole stability of shale. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics, a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion according to plastic damage evolution and the seepage-stress coupling is established. Meanwhile, the damage evolution equation which is based on equivalent plastic strain and the permeability evolution equation of shale are proposed in this paper. The physical model of borehole rock for a well in China western oilfield is set up to analyze the distribution of damage, permeability, stress, plastic strain and displacement. In the calculation process, the influence of rock damage to elastic modulus, cohesion and permeability is involved by writing a subroutine for ABAQUS. The results show that the rock damage evolution has a significant effect to the plastic strain and stress in plastic zone. Different drilling fluid density will produce different damage in its value, range and type. This study improves the theory of mechanical mechanism of borehole collapse and fracture, and provides a reference for the further research of seepage-stress-chemical-damage coupling of wall rock.
Oxidative Damage in the Aging Heart: an Experimental Rat Model
Marques, Gustavo Lenci; Neto, Francisco Filipak; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto de Oliveira; Liebel, Samuel; de Fraga, Rogério; Bueno, Ronaldo da Rocha Loures
2015-01-01
Introduction: Several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of ‘aging’; however, the factors that affect this complex process are still poorly understood. Of these theories, the accumulation of oxidative damage over time is among the most accepted. Particularly, the heart is one of the most affected organs by oxidative stress. The current study, therefore, aimed to investigate oxidative stress markers in myocardial tissue of rats at different ages. Methods: Seventy-two rats were distributed into 6 groups of 12 animals each and maintained for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and the levels of non-protein thiols, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were determined. Results: Superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were reduced in the older groups of animals, when compared with the younger group. However, protein carbonylation showed an increase in the 12-month group followed by a decrease in the older groups. In addition, the levels of non-protein thiols were increased in the 12-month group and not detected in the older groups. Conclusion: Our data showed that oxidative stress is not associated with aging in the heart. However, an increase in non-protein thiols may be an important factor that compensates for the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the oldest rats, to maintain appropriate antioxidant defenses against oxidative insults. PMID:27006709
Mitochondrial damage and ageing using skin as a model organ.
Hudson, Laura; Bowman, Amy; Rashdan, Eyman; Birch-Machin, Mark A
2016-11-01
Ageing describes the progressive functional decline of an organism over time, leading to an increase in susceptibility to age-related diseases and eventually to death, and it is a phenomenon observed across a wide range of organisms. Despite a vast repertoire of ageing studies performed over the past century, the exact causes of ageing remain unknown. For over 50 years it has been speculated that mitochondria play a key role in the ageing process, due mainly to correlative data showing an increase in mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) with age. However, the exact role of the mitochondria in the ageing process remains unknown. The skin is often used to study human ageing, due to its easy accessibility, and the observation that the ageing process is able to be accelerated in this organ via environmental insults, such as ultra violet radiation (UVR). This provides a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms regulating ageing and, in particular, the role of the mitochondria. Observations from dermatological and photoageing studies can provide useful insights into chronological ageing of the skin and other organs such as the brain and liver. Moreover, a wide range of diseases are associated with ageing; therefore, understanding the cause of the ageing process as well as regulatory mechanisms involved could provide potentially advantageous therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A visco-poroelastic damage model for modelling compaction and brittle failure of porous rocks
Jacquey, Antoine B.; Cacace, Mauro; Blöcher, Guido; Milsch, Harald; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena
2016-04-01
Hydraulic stimulation of geothermal wells is often used to increase heat extraction from deep geothermal reservoirs. Initiation and propagation of fractures due to pore pressure build-up increase the effective permeability of the porous medium. Understanding the processes controlling the initiation of fractures, the evolution of their geometries and the hydro-mechanical impact on transport properties of the porous medium is therefore of great interest for geothermal energy production. In this contribution, we will present a thermodynamically consistent visco-poroelastic damage model which can deal with the multi-scale and multi-physics nature of the physical processes occurring during deformation of a porous rock. Deformation of a porous medium is crucially influenced by the changes in the effective stress. Considering a strain-formulated yield cap and the compaction-dilation transition, three different regimes can be identified: quasi-elastic deformation, cataclastic compaction with microcracking (damage accumulation) and macroscopic brittle failure with dilation. The governing equations for deformation, damage accumulation/healing and fluid flow have been implemented in a fully-coupled finite-element-method based framework (MOOSE). The MOOSE framework provides a powerful and flexible platform to solve multiphysics problems implicitly and in a tightly coupled manner on unstructured meshes which is of interest for such non-linear context. To validate and illustrate the model, simulations of the deformation behaviour of cylindrical porous Bentheimer sandstone samples under different confining pressures are compared to experiments. The first experiment under low confining pressure leads to shear failure, the second for high confining pressure leads to cataclastic compaction and the third one with intermediate confining pressure correspond to a transitional regime between the two firsts. Finally, we will demonstrate that this approach can also be used at the field
Stochastic modelling of corrosion damage propagation in active sites from field inspection data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alamilla, J.L. [Mexican Institute of Petroleum, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: jalamill@imp.mx; Sosa, E. [Mexican Institute of Petroleum, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2008-07-15
A stochastic model for prediction of corrosion damage evolution in active sites, applicable under professional practice conditions is presented here. The damage of a material and its evolution are determined from the damage state at a given time instant and the rate of damage occurrence. To this end, probability density function of the corrosion damage depths of the system is estimated and four models to calculate corrosion damage velocities at localized defects are shown. Their application depends on the amount of inspection reports available. This work takes into account two settings: the first considers that the system has only one inspection report and the second assumes that there are two inspection reports; this latter setting has two variations, the first, when the same defects can be identified at both inspections, and the second, when they are not identifiable. Furthermore, the work introduces a Bayesian model that allows updating corrosion damage velocity on the basis of new measurements found in successive inspection reports. The stochastic model is exemplified by inspection data from a real pipeline system. Its analysis takes into account technical specifications of the system, measured depths of corrosion defects and the number of defects. Additionally, it considers measurement errors during inspection and the variability of corrosion phenomenon under field conditions. Model robustness lies in the fact that corrosion damage estimates are based on measurements reported during inspections. It implicitly considers multiple factors, such as aggressive chemical environment, microstructure composition, operating conditions (temperature, fluid velocity, etc) intervening in the corrosion process, as well as their correlations and variability.
Meso-damage modelling of polymer based particulate composites using finite element technique
Tsui, Chi Pong
To develop a new particulate polymer composite (PPC) with desired mechanical properties is usually accomplished by an experimental trial-and-error approach. A new technique, which predicts the damage mechanism and its effects on the mechanical properties of PPC, has been proposed. This meso-mechanical modelling technique, which offers a means to bridge the micro-damage mechanism and the macro-structural behaviour, has been implemented in a finite element code. A three-dimensional finite element meso-cell model has been designed and constructed to simulate the damage mechanism of PPC. The meso-cell model consists of a micro-particle, an interface, and a matrix. The initiation of the particle/polymer matrix debonding process has been predicted on the basis of a tensile criterion. By considering the meso-cell model as a representative volume element (RVE), the effects of damage on the macro-structural constitutive behaviour of PPC have been determined. An experimental investigation has been made on glass beads (GB) reinforced polyphenylene oxides (PPO) for verification of the meso-cell model and the meso-mechanical finite element technique. The predicted constitutive relation has been found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The results of the in-situ microscopic test also verify the correctness of the meso-cell model. The application of the meso-mechanical finite element modelling technique has been extended to a macro-structural analysis to simulate the response an engineering structure made of PPC under a static load. In the simulation, a damage variable has been defined in terms of the computational results of the cell model in meso-scale. Hence, the damage-coupled constitutive relation of the GB/PPO composite could be derived. A user-defined subroutine VUMAT in FORTRAN language describing the damage-coupled constitutive behaviour has then been incorporated into the ABAQUS finite element code. On a macro-scale, the ABAQUS finite element code
Ma, Songyun; Scheider, Ingo; Bargmann, Swantje
2016-09-01
An anisotropic constitutive model is proposed in the framework of finite deformation to capture several damage mechanisms occurring in the microstructure of dental enamel, a hierarchical bio-composite. It provides the basis for a homogenization approach for an efficient multiscale (in this case: multiple hierarchy levels) investigation of the deformation and damage behavior. The influence of tension-compression asymmetry and fiber-matrix interaction on the nonlinear deformation behavior of dental enamel is studied by 3D micromechanical simulations under different loading conditions and fiber lengths. The complex deformation behavior and the characteristics and interaction of three damage mechanisms in the damage process of enamel are well captured. The proposed constitutive model incorporating anisotropic damage is applied to the first hierarchical level of dental enamel and validated by experimental results. The effect of the fiber orientation on the damage behavior and compressive strength is studied by comparing micro-pillar experiments of dental enamel at the first hierarchical level in multiple directions of fiber orientation. A very good agreement between computational and experimental results is found for the damage evolution process of dental enamel.
Fatigue Damage Mechanical Model of the Envelope Material for Stratospheric Airships
Meng, Junhui; Qu, Zhipeng; Zhu, Weiyu; Lv, Mingyun
2017-08-01
As a major part of the stratospheric airship structure, the envelope material is used to contain lifting gas and keep the aerodynamic configuration. The main force on the envelope material comes from differential pressure between inside and outside the structure, which is cyclic stress because of the alternative temperature. Three different damage modes of the envelope material, including fracture damage of fabric yarns, cracking damage of resin matrix and functional membrane are investigated in this paper. A theoretical model to predict fatigue life of the envelope material under cycle load is developed base on the damage evolution properties of the material. The results indicates that the theoretical model can well predict the fatigue life. In addition, it can be seen from the results that the fracture of fabric yarns is the main damage modes for the material with off-axial angle of 0°and 90°, while the cracking damage of resin and functional membrane is the main damage modes for the material with other off-axial angles.
Void damage model and service life prediction for solid high polymer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Based on the analysis of three void damage variety models, this note presents ( i ) a method that regards the void content as a damage variation of the grain and ( ii ) a geometric model for micro-unit of void damage. Equations of the void damage variety containing void content are analyzed. This work is focused on the measurement of internal damage level and the damage variety estimation is directly related to the life predication in the practical engineering applications. Nowadays, the critical service life of the solid grain/polymers is usually presumed at domestic and international level. The strength or strain reduction of 20%or the stabilizer consumption of 50% is generally regarded as a critical storage life of the solid grain/polymers, and the service life is predicted by the extrapolation method on Anhenius formula. The applications, however, show that the above method is unreliable and has significant errors. With the aid of the discontiguous automatic measuring device of real time volume deformation and void content, the master curve of void damage variety, the storage service life and the surplus life of a solid rocket grain are obtained. Since the critical storage life has been measured, and the accuracy of the service life prediction has been greatly increased. It is a novel ideal and a break-through technique.
Relations between a micro-mechanical model and a damage model for ductile failure in shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvergaard, Viggo; Nielsen, Kim Lau
2010-01-01
Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro-cracks, w......Gurson type constitutive models that account for void growth to coalescence are not able to describe ductile fracture in simple shear, where there is no hydrostatic tension in the material. But recent micro-mechanical studies have shown that in shear the voids are flattened out to micro......-cracks, which rotate and elongate until interaction with neighbouring micro-cracks gives coalescence. Thus, the failure mechanism is very different from that under tensile loading. Also, the Gurson model has recently been extended to describe failure in shear, by adding a damage term to the expression...... for the growth of the void volume fraction, and it has been shown that this extended model can represent experimental observations. Here, numerical studies are carried out to compare predictions of the shear-extended Gurson model with the shear failures predicted by the micro-mechanical cell model. Both models...
Evaluation of vehicle damage involved in road crashes based on quantificated model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Yan-hui; XU Hong-guo; JIANG Hua-ping
2008-01-01
Based on economics theory, social value loss caused by vehicle involved in crashes as well as various factors influencing on it were analyzed, the corresponding micro-econometrics model was theoretically given. Moreover, the practicability of the model,the veracity and rationality of quantification were analyzed. Based on probability theory and mathematical statistical theory, macro approach to evaluating vehicle damage in crashes was presented, and the corresponding macro-econometrics model was constructed. In addition, the macro-econometrics model was utilized to assess economic loss from statistical data of vehicle damaged in crashes, which has shown that the model can meet the demand of quantification analysis of vehicle damage, and be applied to the evaluation of economic loss caused by crashes. The results in this paper will be of practical significance for scientific, comprehensive and rational evaluating socio-economic loss caused by road crashes.
Calculation of Forming Limits for Sheet Metal using an Enhanced Continuous Damage Fracture Model
Nguyen, Ngoc-Trung; Kim, Dae-Young; Kim, Heon Young
2011-08-01
An enhanced continuous damage fracture model was introduced in this paper to calculate forming limits of sheet metal. The fracture model is a combination of a fracture criterion and a continuum damage constitutive law. A modified McClintock void growth fracture criterion was incorporated with a coupled damage-plasticity Gurson-type constitutive law. Also, by introducing a Lode angle dependent parameter to define the loading asymmetry condition, the shear effect was phenomenologically taken into account. The proposed fracture model was implemented using user-subroutines in commercial finite element software. The model was calibrated and correlated by the uniaxial tension, shear and notched specimens tests. Application of the fracture model for the LDH tests was discussed and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data.
A Calibration of the Wierzbicki-Xue Damage Model Using Charpy Test Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Jong-Bong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Damage models are frequently used to predict fractures in large deformation problems such as penetration of a projectile into a target. Though many damage models have been proposed so far, coefficients of each model have been provided for only a few materials. In this study, the coefficients of the Wierzbicki-Xue (2005 damage model for tungsten heavy alloy (DX2HCMF are determined using the Charpy impact test. The Wierzbicki-Xue fracture criterion is implemented into NET3D code in which a node-split algorithm is built in. By comparing the energy absorbed in the Charpy test with the results of finite element analysis, the fracture model coefficients are determined.
Numerical Methodology for Metal Forming Processes Using Elastoplastic Model with Damage Occurrence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Ductile damage often occurs during metal forming processes due to the large thermo-elasto (visco) plastic flow Iocalisation. This paper presents a numerical methodology, which aims to virtually improve any metal forming processes. The methodology is based on elastoplastic constitutive equations accounting for nonlinear mixed isotropic and kinematic hardening strongly coupled with isotropic ductile damage. An adaptive remeshing scheme based on geometrical and physical error estimates including a kill element procedure is used. Some numerical results are presented to show the capability of the model to predict the damage initiation and growth during the metal forming processes.
Modeling crater formation in femtosecond-pulse laser damage from basic principles
Mitchell, Robert A.; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Chowdhury, Enam A.
2015-01-01
We present the first fundamental simulation method for the determination of crater morphology due to femtosecond-pulse laser damage. To this end we have adapted the particle-in-cell (PIC) method commonly used in plasma physics for use in the study of laser damage, and developed the first implementation of a pair-potential for PIC codes. We find that the PIC method is a complementary approach to modeling laser damage, bridging the gap between fully ab-initio molecular dynamics approaches and e...
Study on damages constitutive model of rocks based on lognormal distribution
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shu-chun; XU Jiang; TAO Yun-qi; TANG Xiao-jun
2007-01-01
The damage constitutive relation of entire rock failure process was established using the theory of representative volume element obeying the Iognormal distribution law,and the integrated damages constitutive model of rock under triaxial compression was established. Comparing with triaxial compression test result, it shows that this model correctly reflects the relationship of stress-strain. At the same time, according to the principle of the rock fatigue failure that conforms to completely the static entire process curve, a new method of establishing cyclic fatigue damage evolution equation was discussed, this method form is simple and the physics significance is clear, it may join preferably the damage relations of the rock static entire process curve.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU LiJing; LIN BoRong; GU DaoJin; ZHU YingXin
2008-01-01
The midpoint impact assessment methodology and several weighting methods that are currently used by most building Life cycle assessment (LCA) researchers in China, still have some shortcomings. In order to make the evaluation results have better temporal and spatial applicability, the endpoint impact assessment methodology was adopted in this paper. Based on the endpoint damage oriented concept, four endpoints of resource exhaustion, energy exhaustion, human health damage and ecosystem damage were selected according to the situation of China and the specialties of the building industry. Subsequently the formula for calculating each endpoint, the background value for normalization and the weighting factors were defined. Following that, an endpoint damage oriented model to evaluate the life cycle environmental impact of buildings in China was established. This model can produce an integrated indicator for environmental impact, and consequently provides references for directing the sustainable building design.
Multiscale Modeling of Advanced Materials for Damage Prediction and Structural Health Monitoring
Borkowski, Luke
Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage prediction, detection, and quantification methodologies. Multiscale computational models offer key advantages over traditional analysis techniques and can provide the necessary capabilities for the development of a comprehensive virtual structural health monitoring (SHM) framework. Virtual SHM has the potential to drastically improve the design and analysis of aerospace components through coupling the complementary capabilities of models able to predict the initiation and propagation of damage under a wide range of loading and environmental scenarios, simulate interrogation methods for damage detection and quantification, and assess the health of a structure. A major component of the virtual SHM framework involves having micromechanics-based multiscale composite models that can provide the elastic, inelastic, and damage behavior of composite material systems under mechanical and thermal loading conditions and in the presence of microstructural complexity and variability. Quantification of the role geometric and architectural variability in the composite microstructure plays in the local and global composite behavior is essential to the development of appropriate scale-dependent unit cells and boundary conditions for the multiscale model. Once the composite behavior is predicted and variability effects assessed, wave-based SHM simulation models serve to provide knowledge on the probability of detection and characterization accuracy of damage present in the composite. The research presented in this dissertation provides the foundation for a comprehensive SHM framework for advanced aerospace materials. The developed models enhance the prediction of damage formation as a result of ceramic matrix composite processing, improve the understanding of the effects of architectural and
Model for radiation damage buildup in GaN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Titov, A.I. [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Karaseov, P.A., E-mail: platon.karaseov@rphf.spbstu.ru [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Kataev, A.Yu. [State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Azarov, A.Yu. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, Oslo NO-0316 (Norway); Kucheyev, S.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)
2012-04-15
We propose a model that explains both saturation and a shift of the maximum of bulk disorder profiles in ion-implanted GaN. Our model is based on two main assumptions that (i) the advancing amorphous/crystalline interface acts as a perfect sink for mobile point defects generated in the crystal bulk and (ii) the diffusion length of mobile defects increases with increasing ion fluence due to saturation of defect sinks in the bulk.
Hysteretic MDOF Model to Quantify Damage for RC Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, Ahmet S.
A hysteretic mechanical formulation is derived to quantify local, modal and overall damage in reinforced concrete (RC) shear frames subject to seismic excitation. Each interstorey is represented by a Clough and Johnston (1966) hysteretic constitutive relation with degrading elastic fraction of th...... shear frame is subject to simulated earthquake excitations, which are modelled as a stationary Gaussian stochastic process with Kanai-Tajimi spectrum, multiplied by an envelope function. The relationship between local, modal and overall damage indices is investigated statistically....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyekenyesi, A.L.
2000-01-01
This study focuses on the fully reversed fatigue behavior exhibited by a carbon fiber/polyimide resin woven laminate at room and elevated temperatures. Nondestructive video edge view microscopy and destructive sectioning techniques were used to study the microscopic damage mechanisms that evolved. The elastic stiffness was monitored and recorded throughout the fatigue life of the coupon. In addition, residual compressive strength tests were conducted on fatigue coupons with various degrees of damage as quantified by stiffness reduction. Experimental results indicated that the monotonic tensile properties were only minimally influenced by temperature, while the monotonic compressive and fully reversed fatigue properties displayed greater reductions due to the elevated temperature. The stiffness degradation as a function of cycles, consisted of three stages; a short-lived high degradation period, a constant degradation rate segment covering the majority of the life, and a final stage demonstrating an increasing rate of degradation up to failure. Concerning the residual compressive strength tests at room and elevated temperatures, the elevated temperature coupons appeared much more sensitive to damage. At elevated temperatures, coupons experienced a much larger loss in compressive strength when compared to room temperature coupons with equivalent damage. The fatigue damage accumulation law proposed for the model incorporates a scalar representation for damage, but admits a multiaxial, anisotropic evolutionary law. The model predicts the current damage (as quantified by residual stiffness) and remnant life of a composite that has undergone a known load at temperature. The damage/life model is dependent on the applied multiaxial stress state as well as temperature. Comparisons between the model and data showed good predictive capabilities concerning stiffness degradation and cycles to failure.
Xu, Y. F.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.
2017-07-01
Mode shapes have been extensively used to identify structural damage. This paper presents a new non-model-based method that uses principal, mean and Gaussian curvature mode shapes (CMSs) to identify damage in plates; the method is applicable to mode shapes associated with low and high elastic modes on dense and coarse measurement grids and robust against measurement noise. A multi-scale discrete differential-geometry scheme is proposed to calculate principal, mean and Gaussian CMSs associated with a mode shape of a plate, which can alleviate adverse effects of measurement noise on calculating the CMSs. Principal, mean and Gaussian CMSs of a damaged plate and those of an undamaged one are used to yield four curvature damage indices (CDIs), including Maximum-CDIs, Minimum-CDIs, Mean-CDIs and Gaussian-CDIs. Damage can be identified near regions with consistently higher values of the CDIs. It is shown that a mode shape of an undamaged plate can be well approximated using a polynomial of a properly determined order that fits a mode shape of a damaged one, provided that the undamaged plate has a smooth geometry and is made of material that has no stiffness and mass discontinuities. Fitting and convergence indices are introduced to quantify the level of approximation of a mode shape from a polynomial fit to that of a damaged plate and to determine the proper order of the polynomial fit, respectively. A weight function is applied to the proposed CDIs to alleviate adverse effects of measurement noise on the CDIs and manifest existence of damage in the CDIs. A mode shape of an aluminum plate with damage in the form of a machined thickness reduction area was measured to experimentally investigate effectiveness of the proposed CDIs in damage identification; the damage on the plate was successfully identified. The experimental damage identification results were numerically verified by applying the proposed method to the mode shape associated with the same mode as that of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao Gwladys
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With an annual loss averaging 580 M€ between 1990 and 2014, floods are the main natural catastrophe (Nat Cat risk for the French Nat Cat compensation scheme. As part of its role in this scheme, the Caisse Centrale de Réassurance (CCR offers state guaranteed reinsurance programs and has been modelling the risk of flooding since 2003. This model is based on the traditional valuation approach of direct tangible costs which pairs a physical model with exposure through damage curves. CCR wishes now to widen the studied damage scope to insured and noninsured economic costs and has been collaborating with the SAF research laboratory from the Institute of Financial and Insurance Sciences (ISFA since 2014. CCR’s model has been used to estimate the insured direct damage to residential and non-residential properties and it is now being developed to include damage to vehicles, agriculture and network infrastructures. Research is also being carried out to take into account business interruptions and indirect losses using an Input-Output model. This article describes the undergoing work on model development to estimate the damage to agriculture.
Construction of homogeneous loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete
Zhang, Ji; Li, Jie
2014-03-01
Over the past 2 decades, tight restriction has been imposed on strength criteria of concrete by the combination of plasticity and damage in one theory. The present study aims at constructing plastic/damage loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete that can perform more satisfactorily in 3D stress states. Numerous strength criteria of concrete are reorganized according to their simplest representations as Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed cylindrical-Cartesian, and other forms, and the homogeneity of loading functions discussed. It is found that under certain supplementary conditions from physical meanings, an unambiguous definition of the cohesion in a strength criterion, which is demanded in an elastoplastic damage model, is usually available in an explicit or implicit form, and in each case the loading function is still homogeneous. To apply and validate the presented theory, we construct the respective homogeneous damage and plastic loading functions and implant them into some widely used elastoplastic damage models for concrete, and their performances in triaxial compression prove to have improved significantly.
Large-scale application of the flood damage model RAilway Infrastructure Loss (RAIL)
Kellermann, Patric; Schönberger, Christine; Thieken, Annegret H.
2016-11-01
Experience has shown that river floods can significantly hamper the reliability of railway networks and cause extensive structural damage and disruption. As a result, the national railway operator in Austria had to cope with financial losses of more than EUR 100 million due to flooding in recent years. Comprehensive information on potential flood risk hot spots as well as on expected flood damage in Austria is therefore needed for strategic flood risk management. In view of this, the flood damage model RAIL (RAilway Infrastructure Loss) was applied to estimate (1) the expected structural flood damage and (2) the resulting repair costs of railway infrastructure due to a 30-, 100- and 300-year flood in the Austrian Mur River catchment. The results were then used to calculate the expected annual damage of the railway subnetwork and subsequently analysed in terms of their sensitivity to key model assumptions. Additionally, the impact of risk aversion on the estimates was investigated, and the overall results were briefly discussed against the background of climate change and possibly resulting changes in flood risk. The findings indicate that the RAIL model is capable of supporting decision-making in risk management by providing comprehensive risk information on the catchment level. It is furthermore demonstrated that an increased risk aversion of the railway operator has a marked influence on flood damage estimates for the study area and, hence, should be considered with regard to the development of risk management strategies.
Grip, Niklas; Sabourova, Natalia; Tu, Yongming
2017-02-01
Sensitivity-based Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) is one of the widely accepted techniques used for damage identification in structures. FEMU can be formulated as a numerical optimization problem and solved iteratively making automatic updating of the unknown model parameters by minimizing the difference between measured and analytical structural properties. However, in the presence of noise in the measurements, the updating results are usually prone to errors. This is mathematically described as instability of the damage identification as an inverse problem. One way to resolve this problem is by using regularization. In this paper, we compare a well established interpolation-based regularization method against methods based on the minimization of the total variation of the unknown model parameters. These are new regularization methods for structural damage identification. We investigate how using Huber and pseudo Huber functions in the definition of total variation affects important properties of the methods. For instance, for well-localized damages the results show a clear advantage of the total variation based regularization in terms of the identified location and severity of damage compared with the interpolation-based solution. For a practical test of the proposed method we use a reinforced concrete plate. Measurements and analysis were performed first on an undamaged plate, and then repeated after applying four different degrees of damage.
Computational stress and damage modelling for rolling contact fatigue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerullo, Michele
Rolling contact fatigue in radial roller bearings is studied by means of a 2D plane strain nite element program. The Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion is firstly used, in a macroscopic study modeling the bearing raceway, to investigate the region where fatigue cracks are more likely to nucleate....... A Hertzian and an elastohydrodynamic lubricated pressure distribution are applied on the bearing raceway to model the contact between the roller and the ring, and the results are compared in light of the Dang Van criterion. The beneficial effects of a hardening treatment of the ring surface...
Effect of a shear modified Gurson model on damage development in a FSW tensile specimen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kim Lau; Tvergaard, Viggo
2009-01-01
For a friction stir welded aluminum plate the resistance to ductile failure is studied by analyzing tensile test specimens cut out across the weldline. As the stress triaxiality is rather low in these tests, the Gurson material model is not expected to give a very accurate description of the void...... growth to coalescence. A recently proposed modified version of the Gurson model is used, in which an extra term in the damage evolution law allows for the prediction of failure even at zero or negative values of the mean stress. This modification of the Gurson model is purely phenomenological......, such that the damage parameter does not really represent the void volume fraction. Various amounts of the additional damage evolution are compared with predictions of the original Gurson model. The analyses are carried out for different yield stress profiles transverse to the weld and for different specimen widths...
Phase separation coupled with damage processes analysis of phase field models in elastic media
Heinemann, Christian
2014-01-01
The authors explore a unifying model which couples phase separation and damage processes in a system of partial differential equations. The model has technological applications to solder materials where interactions of both phenomena have been observed and cannot be neglected for a realistic description. The equations are derived in a thermodynamically consistent framework and suitable weak formulations for various types of this coupled system are presented. In the main part, existence of weak solutions is proven and degenerate limits are investigated. Contents Modeling of Phase Separation and Damage Processes Notion of Weak Solutions Existence of Weak Solutions Degenerate Limit Target Groups Researchers, academics and scholars in the field of (applied) mathematics Material scientists in the field of modeling damaging processes The Authors Christian Heinemann earned his doctoral degree at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Sprekels and Dr. Christiane Kraus. He is a ...
A ductile fracture analysis using a local damage model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benseddiq, N. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et de Rheologie de Tours, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs du Val de Loire (ENIVL), Rue de la Chocolaterie, 41000 Blois Cedex (France)], E-mail: nbensedd@polytech-lille.fr; Imad, A. [Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille (UMR CNRS 8107), USTL, Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Lille Cite Scientifique, Avenue P. Langevin, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)
2008-04-15
In this study, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is used to investigate ductile tearing. The sensitivity of the model parameters has been examined from literature data. Three types of parameters have been reported: the 'constitutive parameters'q{sub 1}, q{sub 2} and q{sub 3}, the 'initial material and nucleation parameters' and the 'critical and final failure parameters'. Each parameter in this model has been analysed in terms of various results in the literature. Both experimental and numerical results have been obtained for notched round and CT specimens to characterize ductile failure in a NiCr steel (12NC6) with a small initial void volume fraction f{sub 0} (f{sub 0}=0.001%). Ductile crack growth, defined by the J-{delta}a curve, has been correctly simulated using the numerical calculations by adjusting the different parameters of the GTN model in the calibration procedure.
Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik
2017-01-01
compared to experimental data obtained by digital image correlation and published in the literature. Excellent agreements between experimentally observed and numerically predicted crack patterns at the micro and macro scale indicate the capability of the modelling approach to accurately capture corrosion...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHEN Xin-pu; SHEN Guo-xiao; CHEN Li-xin; YANG Lu
2005-01-01
Firstly, typical gradient-dependent nonlocal inelastic models were briefly gradient-dependent constitutive model for plasticity coupled with isotropic damage was presented in the framework of continuum thermodynamics. Numerical scheme for calculation of Laplacian term of damage field with the numerical results obtained by FEM calculation was proposed. Equations have been presented on the basis of Taylor series for both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cases, respectively. Numerical results have indicated the validity of the proposed gradient-dependent model and corresponding numerical scheme.
Damage and Plastic Deformation Modeling of Beishan Granite Under Compressive Stress Conditions
Chen, L.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, J. F.; Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Jia, Y.; Shao, J. F.
2015-07-01
Based on experimental investigations, we propose a coupled elastoplastic damage model to simulate the mechanical behavior of granite under compressive stress conditions. The granite is taken from the Beishan area, a preferable region for China's high-level radioactive waste repository. Using a 3D acoustic emission monitoring system in mechanical tests, we focus on the cracking process and its influence on the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the granite samples. It is verified that the crack propagation coupled with fractional sliding along the cracks is the principal mechanism controlling the failure process and nonlinear mechanical behavior of granite under compressive stress conditions. Based on this understanding, the coupled elastoplastic damage model is formulated in the framework of the thermodynamics theory. In the model, the coupling between damage and plastic deformation is simulated by introducing the independent damage variable in the plastic yield surface. As a preliminary validation of the model, a series of numerical simulations are performed for compressive tests conducted under different confining pressures. Comparisons between the numerical and simulated results show that the proposed model can reproduce the main features of the mechanical behavior of Beishan granite, particularly the damage evolution under compressive stress conditions.
Employing incomplete complex modes for model updating and damage detection of damped structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI HuaJun; LIU FuShun; HU Sau-Lon James
2008-01-01
In the study of finite element model updating or damage detection, most papers are devoted to undamped systems. Thus, their objective has been exclusively re-stricted to the correction of the mass and stiffness matrices. In contrast, this paper performs the model updating and damage detection for damped structures. A theoretical contribution of this paper is to extend the cross-model cross-mode (CMCM) method to simultaneously update the mass, damping and stiffness matri-ces of a finite element model when only few spatially incomplete, complex-valued modes are available. Numerical studies are conducted for a 30-DOF (degree-of-freedom) cantilever beam with multiple damaged elements, as the measured modes are synthesized from finite element models. The numerical results reveal that ap-plying the CMCM method, together with an iterative Guyan reduction scheme, can yield good damage detection in general. When the measured modes utilized in the CMCM method are corrupted with irregular errors, assessing damage at the loca-tion that possesses larger modal strain energy is less sensitive to the corrupted modes.
Employing incomplete complex modes for model updating and damage detection of damped structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU; Sau-Lon; James
2008-01-01
In the study of finite element model updating or damage detection,most papers are devoted to undamped systems.Thus,their objective has been exclusively restricted to the correction of the mass and stiffness matrices.In contrast,this paper performs the model updating and damage detection for damped structures.A theoretical contribution of this paper is to extend the cross-model cross-mode(CMCM) method to simultaneously update the mass,damping and stiffness matrices of a finite element model when only few spatially incomplete,complex-valued modes are available.Numerical studies are conducted for a 30-DOF(degree-of-freedom) cantilever beam with multiple damaged elements,as the measured modes are synthesized from finite element models.The numerical results reveal that applying the CMCM method,together with an iterative Guyan reduction scheme,can yield good damage detection in general.When the measured modes utilized in the CMCM method are corrupted with irregular errors,assessing damage at the location that possesses larger modal strain energy is less sensitive to the corrupted modes.
Computational model for supporting SHM systems design: Damage identification via numerical analyses
Sartorato, Murilo; de Medeiros, Ricardo; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei
2017-02-01
This work presents a computational model to simulate thin structures monitored by piezoelectric sensors in order to support the design of SHM systems, which use vibration based methods. Thus, a new shell finite element model was proposed and implemented via a User ELement subroutine (UEL) into the commercial package ABAQUS™. This model was based on a modified First Order Shear Theory (FOST) for piezoelectric composite laminates. After that, damaged cantilever beams with two piezoelectric sensors in different positions were investigated by using experimental analyses and the proposed computational model. A maximum difference in the magnitude of the FRFs between numerical and experimental analyses of 7.45% was found near the resonance regions. For damage identification, different levels of damage severity were evaluated by seven damage metrics, including one proposed by the present authors. Numerical and experimental damage metrics values were compared, showing a good correlation in terms of tendency. Finally, based on comparisons of numerical and experimental results, it is shown a discussion about the potentials and limitations of the proposed computational model to be used for supporting SHM systems design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Chao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington
Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara
2016-01-01
Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington's genetic assimilation
Rapid prediction of damage on a struck ship accounting for side impact scenario models
Prabowo, Aditya Rio; Bae, Dong Myung; Sohn, Jung Min; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Cao, Bo
2017-04-01
The impact phenomenon is inseparable part of every physical things, from substantial particle until macrostructure namely ship. In ship collisions, short-period load is distributed during impact process from striking ship into struck ship. The kinetic energy that is used to move striking ship is absorbed by struck ship that makes its structure undergoes plastic deformation and failure. This paper presents study that focuses on predicting occurred damage on side hull of struck ship for various impact scenario models. These scenarios are calculated by finite element approach to obtain characteristic on damage, energy as well as load during and after impact processes. The results indicate that the damages on impact to longitudinal components such as main and car decks are smaller than impact to transverse structure components. The damage and deformation are widely distributed to almost side structures including inner structure. The width between outer and inner shells is very affecting the damage mode where the width below the two meters will make inner shell experience damage beyond plastic deformation. The contribution of structure components is proofed deliver significant effect to damage mode and material strengths clearly affect the results in energy and load characteristic.
Masciotta, Maria-Giovanna; Ramos, Luís F.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Vasta, Marcello
2017-02-01
Structural monitoring and vibration-based damage identification methods are fundamental tools for condition assessment and early-stage damage identification, especially when dealing with the conservation of historical constructions and the maintenance of strategic civil structures. However, although the substantial advances in the field, several issues must still be addressed to broaden the application range of such tools and to assert their reliability. This study deals with the experimental validation of a novel method for non-destructive damage identification purposes. This method is based on the use of spectral output signals and has been recently validated by the authors through a numerical simulation. After a brief insight into the basic principles of the proposed approach, the spectral-based technique is applied to identify the experimental damage induced on a masonry arch through statically increasing loading. Once the direct and cross spectral density functions of the nodal response processes are estimated, the system's output power spectrum matrix is built and decomposed in eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The present study points out how the extracted spectral eigenparameters contribute to the damage analysis allowing to detect the occurrence of damage and to locate the target points where the cracks appear during the experimental tests. The sensitivity of the spectral formulation to the level of noise in the modal data is investigated and discussed. As a final evaluation criterion, the results from the spectrum-driven method are compared with the ones obtained from existing non-model based damage identification methods.
Damage Prediction Models for Advanced Materials and Composites
Xie, Ming; Ahmad, Jalees; Grady, Joseph E. (Technical Monitor)
2005-01-01
In the present study, the assessment and evaluation of various acoustic tile designs were conducted using three-dimensional finite element analysis, which included static analysis, thermal analysis and modal analysis of integral and non-integral tile design options. Various benchmark specimens for acoustic tile designs, including CMC integral T-joint and notched CMC plate, were tested in both room and elevated temperature environment. Various candidate ceramic matrix composite materials were used in the numerical modeling and experimental study. The research effort in this program evolved from numerical modeling and concept design to a combined numerical analysis and experimental study. Many subjects associated with the design and performance of the acoustic tile in jet engine exhaust nozzle have been investigated.
A 3D multilevel model of damage and strength of wood: Analysis of microstructural effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qing, Hai; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2011-01-01
A 3D hierarchical computational model of damage and strength of wood is developed. The model takes into account the four scale microstructures of wood, including the microfibril reinforced structure at nanoscale, multilayered cell walls at microscale, hexagon-shape-tube cellular structure at meso...
On the need for data for the verification of service life models for frost damage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geiker, Mette Rica; Engelund, Sven
1999-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to draw the attention to the need for the verification of service life models for frost attack on concrete and the collection of relevant data. To illustrate the type of data needed the paper presents models for internal freeze/thaw damage (internal cracking including...
Demos, Stavros G.; Feit, Michael D.; Duchateau, Guillaume
2014-10-01
A model simulating transient optical properties during laser damage in the bulk of KDP/DKDP crystals is presented. The model was developed and tested using as a benchmark its ability to reproduce the well-documented damage initiation behaviors but most importantly, the salient behavior of the wavelength dependence of the damage threshold. The model involves two phases. During phase I, the model assumes a moderate localized initial absorption that is strongly enhanced during the laser pulse via excited state absorption and thermally driven generation of additional point defects in the surrounding material. The model suggests that during a fraction of the pulse duration, the host material around the defect cluster is transformed into a strong absorber that leads to significant increase of the local temperature. During phase II, the model suggests that the excitation pathway consists mainly of one photon absorption events within a quasicontinuum of short-lived vibronic defect states spanning the band gap that was generated after the initial localized heating of the material due to thermal quenching of the excited state lifetimes. The width of the transition (steps) between different number of photons is governed by the instantaneous temperature, which was estimated using the experimental data. The model also suggests that the critical physical parameter prior to initiation of breakdown is the conduction band electron density. This model, employing very few free parameters, for the first time is able to quantitatively reproduce the wavelength dependence of the damage initiation threshold, and thus provides important insight into the physical processes involved.
A fully coupled elasto-plastic damage model applied to anisotropic materials
Wauters, M; Habraken, Anne; Duchene, Laurent
2000-01-01
In this paper, an elastoplastic energy-based anisotropic damage model for ductile fracture is described. A calibration method is also presented. The potential applicability of this model is illustrated by numerical examples of tensile test and Forming Limit Diagram establishment on a steel. Peer reviewed
Implementation of the TEPLA Damage Model in a 3D Eulerian Hydrocode
Holian, Kathleen S.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.
2007-06-01
A sophisticated damage model (TEPLA) has been implemented into a three-dimensional (Cartesian) computer code (Pagosa) used here at Los Alamos National Laboratory. TEPLA was originally an isotropic damage model based upon the Gurson flow surface (a potential function used in conjunction with the associated flow law) that models damage due to both porosity growth and plastic strain. It has since been modified to model anisotropic elastoplastic material strength as well. Pagosa is an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that has the following special features: a predictor-corrector Lagrangian step that advances the state variables in time, a high-order advection algorithm that remaps the problem back to the original mesh every time step, and a material interface tracking scheme with van Leer monotonic advection. It also includes a variety of equation of state, strength, fracture, and high explosive burn models. We will describe the physics of the TEPLA model (that models both strength and damage) and will show preliminary results of test problems that are used to validate the model. The four test problems (simple shear, stretching rod, Taylor anvil, and plate impact) can be compared with either analytic solutions or with experimental data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Firstly, using the damage model for rock based on Lemaitre hypothesis about strain equivalence, a new technique for measuring strength of rock micro-cells by adopting the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was developed, and a statistical damage evolution equation was established based on the property that strength of micro-cells is consistent with normal distribution function, through discussing the characteristics of random distributions for strength of micro-cells, then a statistical damage constitutive model that can simulate the full process of rock strain softening under specific confining pressure was set up. Secondly, a new method to determine the model parameters which can be applied to the situations under different confining pressures was proposed, by deeply studying the relations between the model parameters and characteristic parameters of the full stress-strain curve under different confining pressures. Therefore, a unified statistical damage constitutive model for rock softening which can reflect the effect of different confining pressures was set up. This model makes the physical property of model parameters explicit, contains only conventional mechanical parameters, and leads its application more convenient. Finally, the rationality of this model and its parameters-determining method were identified via comparative analyses between theoretical and experimental curves.
Goodlet, B R; Torbet, C J; Biedermann, E J; Jauriqui, L M; Aldrin, J C; Pollock, T M
2017-02-08
Finite element (FE) modeling has been coupled with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of high temperature damage induced by mechanical loading. Forward FE models predict mode-specific changes in resonance frequencies (ΔfR), inform RUS measurements of mode-type, and identify diagnostic resonance modes sensitive to individual or multiple concurrent damage mechanisms. The magnitude of modeled ΔfR correlate very well with the magnitude of measured ΔfR from RUS, affording quantitative assessments of damage. This approach was employed to study creep damage in a polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy (Mar-M247) at 950°C. After iterative applications of creep strains up to 8.8%, RUS measurements recorded ΔfR that correspond to the accumulation of plastic deformation and cracks in the gauge section of a cylindrical dog-bone specimen. Of the first 50 resonance modes that occur, ranging from 3 to 220kHz, modes classified as longitudinal bending were most sensitive to creep damage while transverse bending modes were found to be largely unaffected. Measure to model comparisons of ΔfR show that the deformation experienced by the specimen during creep, specifically uniform elongation of the gauge section, is responsible for a majority of the measured ΔfR until at least 6.1% creep strain. After 8.8% strain considerable surface cracking along the gauge section of the dog-bone was observed, for which FE models indicate low-frequency longitudinal bending modes are significantly affected. Key differences between historical implementations of RUS for NDE and the FE model-based framework developed herein are discussed, with attention to general implementation of a FE model-based framework for NDE of damage.
Zhu, Qi-zhi; Shao, Jian-fu; Kondo, Djimedo
2008-04-01
In the present Note, we present a discrete thermodynamic approach for modeling coupled anisotropic plastic flow and damage evolution in geomaterials. The basic idea is to extend the widely-used isotropic coupled elastoplastic damage formulation to the case with induced anisotropy using a discrete approach. The total plastic strain is considered as the consequence of frictional sliding in weak sliding planes randomly distributed in the elastic solid matrix. The effective elastic tensor of damaged material is determined using damage variable associated with each family of weak sliding planes. An example of application is shown for a typical semi-brittle rock. To cite this article: Q.-Z. Zhu et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
Damage In Rock Massives, Evidences From Microseismic Monitoring and Numerical Modelling
Amitrano, D.; Gruber, S.; Girard, L.
2014-12-01
Damage is an active process in rock massives that can progressively lead to their collapse. Microseismic monitoring appears as a powerful tool for detecting damage and identifying the parameters controlling its occurrence parameter. In this presentation, we first present results of seismic monitoring performed on different sites and highlighting different control parameters, including freezing/thawing cycling, long term creeping, rainfall. These observations reveal common features as power-law distribution of the seismic event size and of their temporal distribution. The evolution of these distributions can be used for forecasting the failure, as successfully tested on a cliff that undergone macroscopic failure. In a second part we present numerical modelling of damage that successfully reproduce the major part of the in-situ observations. The simulations based on short or long term damage and taking into account the action of fluids, have been applied to realistic cases and show promising results in good agreements with field observation.
Biomechanical models of damage and healing processes for voice health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granados Corsellas, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Jacobsen, Finn
2013-01-01
In voice-loading occupations employees are required to use their voice for continuous and large periods of time, which might lead to voice problems. In this work anomalous vocal-fold vibrations due to long-time high voice-load are investigated. Laryngeal endoscopic high-speed images within...... the vocal-fold plane are available. This data is used to improve existing continuum biomechanical models of the vocal-folds by analyzing the injury processes. The project is expected to result in methods that objectively demonstrate the impact of high voice-load on voice. A detailed description...
Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair.
Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Wilson, David M
2004-08-01
Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level, based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker, have led to estimates that vary over three to four orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our findings show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.
Evaluating the Applicability of GTN Damage Model in Forward Tube Spinning of Aluminum Alloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianxian Wang
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Tube spinning is an effective plastic-forming technology for forming light-weight, high-precision and high-reliability components in high-tech fields, such as aviation and aerospace. However, cracks commonly occur in tube spinning due to the complexity of stress state, which severely restricts the improvement of the forming quality and forming limit of components. In this study, a finite element (FE model coupled with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN damage model for forward tube spinning of 3A21-O aluminum alloy is established and its applicability is evaluated by experiment. Meanwhile, the GTN damage model is employed to study the damage evolution for forward tube spinning of 3A21-O aluminum alloy. The results show that the FE model is appropriate for predicting the macroscopic crack appearing in uplift area for forward tube spinning, while the damage evolution in deformation area could not be predicted well due to the negative stress triaxiality and the neglect of shear deformation. Accumulation of damage in forward tube spinning occurs mainly in the uplift area. Void volume fraction (VVF in the outer surface of the tube is higher than that in the inner surface. In addition, it is prone to cracking in the outer surface of tube in the material uplift area.
Integrating Machine Learning into a Crowdsourced Model for Earthquake-Induced Damage Assessment
Rebbapragada, Umaa; Oommen, Thomas
2011-01-01
On January 12th, 2010, a catastrophic 7.0M earthquake devastated the country of Haiti. In the aftermath of an earthquake, it is important to rapidly assess damaged areas in order to mobilize the appropriate resources. The Haiti damage assessment effort introduced a promising model that uses crowdsourcing to map damaged areas in freely available remotely-sensed data. This paper proposes the application of machine learning methods to improve this model. Specifically, we apply work on learning from multiple, imperfect experts to the assessment of volunteer reliability, and propose the use of image segmentation to automate the detection of damaged areas. We wrap both tasks in an active learning framework in order to shift volunteer effort from mapping a full catalog of images to the generation of high-quality training data. We hypothesize that the integration of machine learning into this model improves its reliability, maintains the speed of damage assessment, and allows the model to scale to higher data volumes.
Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokhansanj, B A; Wilson, III, D M
2004-05-13
Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker have led to estimates varying over 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parameters from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our results show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.
The visual pathway as a model to understand brain damage in multiple sclerosis.
Martínez-Lapiscina, E H; Sanchez-Dalmau, B; Fraga-Pumar, E; Ortiz-Perez, S; Tercero-Uribe, A I; Torres-Torres, R; Villoslada, P
2014-11-01
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) almost always experience effects in the visual pathway; and thus, visual dysfunction is not only common but also highly relevant. The visual pathway represents a model of acute focal central nervous system (CNS) damage, through acute optic neuritis and retinal periphlebitis, as well as a model of chronic, diffuse CNS damage through chronic retinopathy and optic neuropathy. The optic pathway can be accurately evaluated in detail, due to the availability of highly sensitive imaging techniques (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging or optical coherent tomography) or electrophysiological tests (multifocal visual evoked potentials or electroretinography). These techniques allow the interactions between the different processes at play to be evaluated, such as inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage and neurodegeneration. Moreover, these features mean that the visual pathway can be used as a model to test new neuroprotective or regenerative therapies. © The Author(s), 2014.
Evaluation of damage models by finite element prediction of fracture in cylindrical tensile test.
Eom, Jaegun; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seongwon; Ryu, Hoyeun; Joun, Mansoo
2014-10-01
In this research, tensile tests of cylindrical specimens of a mild steel are predicted via the finite element method, with emphasis on the fracture predictions of various damage models. An analytical model is introduced for this purpose. An iterative material identification procedure is used to obtain the flow stress, making it possible to exactly predict a tensile test up to the fracture point, in the engineering sense. A node-splitting technique is used to generate the cracks on the damaged elements. The damage models of McClintock, Rice-Tracey, Cockcroft-Latham, Freudenthal, Brozzo et al. and Oyane et al. are evaluated by comparing their predictions from the tensile test perspective.
Trifonov, Oleg Vladimirovich
2009-09-01
Following the total Lagrangian approach, an incremental formulation for three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element taking into account large displacements and rotations is developed. For the failure analysis of reinforced concrete structural members, subjected to extreme loads, a new elastoplastic damage constitutive model is proposed on the level of cross-sectional variables. The model is based on the concept of the yield surface and associated flow rule. The effects of softening and strength deterioration are accounted for by the introduction of damage variables. To assure the objectivity of the numerical simulation a non-local treatment of damage variables is implemented. Comparison to different experimental results on biaxial cyclic tests is performed. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model effectively reproduces softening, strength deterioration, coupling between different components of the generalized force vector and other nonlinear effects accompanying the inelastic structural response under three-dimensional seismic loading.
Nedjar, B.
The present work deals with the extension to the geometrically nonlinear case of recently proposed ideas on elastic- and elastoplastic-damage modelling frameworks within the infinitesimal theory. The particularity of these models is that the damage part of the modelling involves the gradient of damage quantity which, together with the equations of motion, are ensuing from a new formulation of the principle of virtual power. It is shown how the thermodynamics of irreversible processes is crucial in the characterization of the dissipative phenomena and in setting the convenient forms for the constitutive relations. On the numerical side, we discuss the problem of numerically integrating these equations and the implementation within the context of the finite element method is described in detail. And finally, we present a set of representative numerical simulations to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Lee, Dock-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Moon-Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Liu, Wing Kam
2011-01-01
New advanced composite materials have recently been of great interest. Especially, many researchers have studied on nano/micro composites based on matrix filled with nano-particles, nano-tubes, nano-wires and so forth, which have outstanding characteristics on thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical properties. Therefore, the need of numerical approach for design and development of the advanced materials has been recognized. In this paper, finite element analysis based on multi-resolution continuum theory is carried out to predict the anisotropic behavior of nano/micro composites based on damage mechanics with a cell modeling. The cell modeling systematically evaluates constitutive relationships from microstructure of the composite material. Effects of plastic anisotropy on deformation behavior and damage evolution of nano/micro composite are investigated by using Hill's 48 yield function and also compared with those obtained from Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman isotropic damage model based on von Mises yield function.
Forming limits in the hole-flanging process by coupled and uncoupled damage models
Kacem, A.; Jégat, A.; Krichen, A.; Manach, P. Y.
2013-12-01
The aim of this work is to identify the limits of the hole-flanging process under different conditions. A 3D finite element model was developed to predict failure in hole-flanging process for sheet aluminium alloys. The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) coupled damage model and the Bao-Wierzbicki (BW) uncoupled damage model were used. The parameters of both coupled and uncoupled models were identified by inverse analysis based on uniaxial tensile test. Experiments were conducted to analyse the types of failure that appear during the process. Numerical results were compared with experimental datas to check the validity of both models in predicting failure during the hole-flanging process. The comparative study showed that the GTN model predicts more accurately almost all types of failure while fracture occurrence can be only predicted by the BW model.
Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ke, Huibin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hales, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-09-01
This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.
Thermal Model of Laser-Induced Eye Damage
1974-10-08
Eq. A-13 yields ’ cp’R! Cp + 1 = RI1 (A-14) Taking logarithms of both sides of Eq. A-14 yieldsI ’ log( cpRI - cp + 1) = ck’log R1 (A-15) Finally...LA 1 F A ND0 ST r)R I ,J T N ICI S A T W H ICH T F PPFRA T UR F" ~ RF P R IN T E1 103. ID2=IU2+TPE 1014. 1F (1n1 *LT * PA ) ID1IPA 108. 15 FUPMAT(1H0...1IM)ICM~ RF (Z+)Z~3 -Vo Io SAMPLE DATA FOR CORNEAL MODEL -- - --------------------------------- ------- ........... 06-IA CARD 1 ........... " .0’•5
Use of Displacement Damage Dose in an Engineering Model of GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Damage
Morton, T. L.; Chock, R.; Long, K. J.; Bailey, S.; Messenger, S. R.; Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.
2005-01-01
Current methods for calculating damage to solar cells are well documented in the GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL 96-9). An alternative, the displacement damage dose (D(sub d)) method, has been developed by Summers, et al. This method is currently being implemented in the SAVANT computer program.
Deformation-induced damage and recovery in model hydrogels - A molecular dynamics simulation
Zidek, Jan; Milchev, Andrey; Jancar, Josef; Vilgis, Thomas A.
2016-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulation of a model hybrid cross-link hydrogel, we investigate the network damage evolution and the related structure transformations. We model the hydrogel structure as a network-connected assembly of crosslinked clusters whereby deformation-induced damage is considered along with network recovery. The two principal mechanisms involved in hydrogel recovery from deformation include segment hops of the building structure units (segments) between clusters and cluster shape modification. These mechanisms act either instantaneously, or with a certain time delay after the onset of deformation. By elucidating the conditions under which one of the mechanisms prevails, one may design hydrogel materials with a desired response to deformation.
Evaluation of Blast-Resistant Performance Predicted by Damaged Plasticity Model for Concrete
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUAN Yi; FANG Qin; CHEN Li; ZHANG Yadong
2008-01-01
In order to evaluate the capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to blast Ioadings, the damaged plasticity model for concrete was used in the analysis of the dynamic responses of blast-loaded RC structures, and all three failure modes were numerically simulated by the finite element software ABAQUS.Simulation results agree with the experimental observations.It is demonstrated that the damaged plasticity model for concrete in the finite element software ABAQUS can predict dynamic responses and typical flexure, flexure-shear and direct shear failure modes of the blast-loaded RC structures.
UV damage of collagen: insights from model collagen peptides.
Jariashvili, Ketevan; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Kuchava, Ana; Namicheishvili, Louisa; Metreveli, Nunu
2012-03-01
Fibrils of Type I collagen in the skin are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light and there have been claims that collagen photo-degradation leads to wrinkles and may contribute to skin cancers. To understand the effects of UV radiation on collagen, Type I collagen solutions were exposed to the UV-C wavelength of 254 nm for defined lengths of time at 4°C. Circular dichroism (CD) experiments show that irradiation of collagen leads to high loss of triple helical content with a new lower thermal stability peak and SDS-gel electrophoresis indicates breakdown of collagen chains. To better define the effects of UV radiation on the collagen triple-helix, the studies were extended to peptides which model the collagen sequence and conformation. CD studies showed irradiation for days led to lower magnitudes of the triple-helix maximum at 225 nm and lower thermal stabilities for two peptides containing multiple Gly-Pro-Hyp triplets. In contrast, the highest radiation exposure led to little change in the T(m) values of (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) and (Ala-Hyp-Gly)(10) , although (Gly-Pro-Pro)(10) did show a significant decrease in triple helix intensity. Mass spectroscopy indicated preferential cleavage sites within the peptides, and identification of some of the most susceptible sites of cleavage. The effect of radiation on these well defined peptides gives insight into the sequence and conformational specificity of photo-degradation of collagen.
Modeling of secondary radiation damage in LIGA PMMA resist exposure
Ting, Aili
2003-01-01
Secondary radiation during LIGA PMMA resist exposure adversely affects feature definition, sidewall taper and overall sidewall offset. Additionally, it can degrade the resist adjacent to the substrate, leading to the loss of free-standing features through undercutting during resist development or through mechanical failure of the degraded material. The source of this radiation includes photoelectrons, Auger electrons, fluorescence photons, etc. Sandia"s Integrated Tiger Series (ITS), a coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport code, was used to compute dose profiles within 1 to 2 microns of the absorber edge and near the interface of the resist with a metallized substrate. The difficulty of sub-micron resolution requirement was overcome by solving a few local problems having carefully designed micron-scale geometries. The results indicate a 2-μm dose transition region near the absorber edge resulting from PMMA"s photoelectrons. This region leads to sidewall offset and to tapered sidewalls following resist development. The results also show a dose boundary layer of around 1 μm near the substrate interface due to electrons emitted from the substrate metallization layer. The maximum dose at the resist bottom under the absorber can be very high and can lead to feature loss during development. This model was also used to investigate those resist doses resulting from multi-layer substrate.
Structural damage detection using ARMAX time series models and cepstral distances
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K LAKSHMI; A RAMA MOHAN RAO
2016-09-01
A novel damage detection algorithm for structural health monitoring using time series model is presented. The proposed algorithm uses output-only acceleration time series obtained from sensors on the structure which are fitted using Auto-regressive moving-average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX) model. The algorithm uses Cepstral distances between the ARMAX models of decorrelated data obtained from healthy and any other current condition of the structure as the damage indicator. A numerical model of a simply supported beam with variations due to temperature and operating conditions along with measurement noise is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed damage diagnostic technique using the ARMAX time series models and their Cepstral distances with novelty indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validatedusing the benchmark data of the 8-DOF system made available to public by the Engineering Institute of LANL and the simulated vibration data obtained from the FEM model of IASC-ASCE 12-DOF steel frame. The results of the studies indicate that the proposed algorithm is robust in identifying the damage from the acceleration datacontaminated with noise under varied environmental and operational conditions.
Stanford Keen, Giles
1996-11-01
Mechanical disruption and injury sustained by animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors is an important problem in biotechnology. Damage to cells is thought to be caused primarily by bubbles bursting at the free surface of the culture medium. Here we present computational studies applying a mathematical model for the cell damage rates experienced by cells in laminar flow. Two fluid dynamical systems are considered - namely a converging channel and a single bursting bubble. The flows are calculated using a fourth-order finite difference technique on a stretched grid, and a boundary integral method respectively. It is possible to obtain an estimate for the number of cells in a particular population which are likely to be disrupted by the forces they experience in the flow. This is done by calculating the maximum rate of strain experienced by fluid particles, and combining this with experimental data on the strength and size of cells, obtained by micromanipulation techniques. The resulting information is then used together with the cell damage model to produce a cell damage prediction. The computational results are compared with experimental measurements of cell death, to validate the model for cell damage.
Warner, James E.; Zubair, Mohammad; Ranjan, Desh
2017-01-01
This work investigates novel approaches to probabilistic damage diagnosis that utilize surrogate modeling and high performance computing (HPC) to achieve substantial computational speedup. Motivated by Digital Twin, a structural health management (SHM) paradigm that integrates vehicle-specific characteristics with continual in-situ damage diagnosis and prognosis, the methods studied herein yield near real-time damage assessments that could enable monitoring of a vehicle's health while it is operating (i.e. online SHM). High-fidelity modeling and uncertainty quantification (UQ), both critical to Digital Twin, are incorporated using finite element method simulations and Bayesian inference, respectively. The crux of the proposed Bayesian diagnosis methods, however, is the reformulation of the numerical sampling algorithms (e.g. Markov chain Monte Carlo) used to generate the resulting probabilistic damage estimates. To this end, three distinct methods are demonstrated for rapid sampling that utilize surrogate modeling and exploit various degrees of parallelism for leveraging HPC. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the methods are compared on the problem of strain-based crack identification in thin plates. While each approach has inherent problem-specific strengths and weaknesses, all approaches are shown to provide accurate probabilistic damage diagnoses and several orders of magnitude computational speedup relative to a baseline Bayesian diagnosis implementation.
Damage and failure modeling of lotus-type porous material subjected to low-cycle fatigue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Kramberger
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The investigation of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of lotus-type porous material is presented in this paper. Porous materials exhibit some unique features which are useful for a number of various applications. This paper evaluates a numerical approach for determining of damage initiation and evolution of lotus-type porous material with computational simulations, where the considered computational models have different pore topology patterns. The low-cycle fatigue analysis was performed by using a damage evolution law. The damage state was calculated and updated based on the inelastic hysteresis energy for stabilized cycle. Degradation of the elastic stifness was modeled using scalar damage variable. In order to examine crack propagation path finite elements with severe damage were deleted and removed from the mesh during simulation. The direct cyclic analysis capability in Abaqus/Standard was used for low-cycle fatigue analysis to obtain the stabilized response of a model subjected to the periodic loading. The computational results show a qualitative understanding of pores topology influence on low-cycle fatigue under transversal loading conditions in relation to pore orientation.
Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar [Nonlinear Multifunctional Composites - Analysis and Design Lab (NMCAD Lab) Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore - 560012, Karnataka (India)
2015-03-10
This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.
Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2002-09-01
The propagation of damage in a confined magnetic Ising film, with short-range competing magnetic fields (h) acting at opposite walls, is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Due to the presence of the fields, the film undergoes a wetting transition at a well-defined critical temperature Tw(h). In fact, the competing fields cause the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientations. For TTw(h)] such an interface is bound (unbound) to the walls, while right at Tw(h) the interface is essentially located at the center of the film. It is found that the spatiotemporal spreading of the damage becomes considerably enhanced by the presence of the interface, which acts as a ``catalyst'' of the damage causing an enhancement of the total damaged area. The critical points for damage spreading are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit using a finite-size scaling approach. Furthermore, the wetting transition effectively shifts the location of the damage spreading critical points, as compared with the well-known critical temperature of the order-disorder transition characteristic of the Ising model. Such critical points are found to be placed within the nonwet phase.
The Role of Interfaces in the Propagation of Damage in the Confined Ising Model
Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2003-04-01
The propagation of damage in a confined magnetic Ising film, with short range competing magnetic fields (h) acting at opposite walls, is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Due to the presence of the fields, the film undergoes a wetting transition at a well defined critical temperature Tw(h). In fact, the competing fields causes the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation. For T Tw(h)) such interface is bounded (unbounded) to the walls, while right at Tw(h) the interface is essentially located at the center of the film. It is found that the spatio-temporal spreading of the damage becomes considerably enhanced by the presence of the interface, which act as a "catalyst" of the damage causing an enhancement of the total damaged area. The critical points for damage spreading are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit using a finite-size scaling approach. Furthermore, the wetting transition effectively shifts the location of the damage spreading critical points, as compared with the well known critical temperature of the order-disorder transition characteristic of the Ising model. Such a critical points are found to be placed within the non-wet phase.
Failure Analysis of Warm Stamping of Magnesium Alloy Sheet Based on an Anisotropic Damage Model
Zhao, P. J.; Chen, Z. H.; Dong, C. F.
2014-11-01
Based on the frame work of continuum damage mechanics, a research work of anisotropic damage evolution in warm stamping process of magnesium alloy sheets has been carried out by means of a combined experimental-numerical method. The aim was to predict formability of warm stamping of AZ31 Mg alloy sheets by taking the thermal and damage effects into account. In the presented work, a temperature-dependent anisotropic yield function suitable for cold rolling sheet metals together with an anisotropic damage model was implemented into the a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The evolution of internal damage in the form of void growth and coalescence in AZ31 Mg alloy sheet was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a coupled thermo-mechanical simulation of the stamping process was performed using the implemented code at different temperatures. The parameters employed in the simulation were determined by the standard tensile tests and algebraic manipulation. The overall anisotropic damage process from crack initiation to final propagation in local area of blank was simulated. Numerical results show that the prediction of the site of crack initiation and the orientation of crack propagation are consistent with the data observed in warm stamping experiments.
Evaluation of Creep-Fatigue Damage Based on Simplified Model Test Approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yanli [ORNL; Li, Tianlei [ORNL; Sham, Sam [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant
2013-01-01
Current methods used in the ASME Code, Subsection NH for the evaluation of creep-fatigue damage are based on the separation of elevated temperature cyclic damage into two parts, creep damage and fatigue damage. This presents difficulties in both evaluation of test data and determination of cyclic damage in design. To avoid these difficulties, an alternative approach was identified, called the Simplified Model Test or SMT approach based on the use of creep-fatigue hold time test data from test specimens with elastic follow-up conservatively designed to bound the response of general structural components of interest. A key feature of the methodology is the use of the results of elastic analysis directly in design evaluation similar to current methods in the ASME Code, Subsection NB. Although originally developed for current material included in Subsection NH, recent interest in the application of Alloy 617 for components operating at very high temperatures has caused renewed interest in the SMT approach because it provides an alternative to the proposed restriction on the use of current Subsection NH simplified methods at very high temperatures. A comprehensive review and assessment of five representative simplified methods for creep-fatigue damage evaluation is presented in Asayama [1]. In this review the SMT methodology was identified as the best long term approach but the need for test data precluded its near term implementation. Asayama and Jetter [2] is a summary of the more comprehensive report by Asayama [1] with a summary of the SMT approach presented by Jetter [3].
Fatigue analysis of piezoelectric microdevice based on a continuum damage model
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Xianqiao Wang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The utilization of piezoelectric materials in MEMS devices under harsh environments has gained affordable appreciations due to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices triggered by fatigue damage remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Here, we present a continuum constitutive model for piezoelectric materials containing a substantive amount of randomly dispersed microcracks. The constitutive equation of the piezoelectric materials with microcracks is formulated via Helmholtz free energy by combining the Kachanvo damage evolution law and the Chaboche fatigue damage development to express the fatigue damage growth. A case of the fatigue damage analysis of the piezoelectric microplate with transverse matrix cracks in the status of plane stress is presented by adopting the von Karman’s plate theory. With numerical schemes employed, the effect of cyclic impulsive loadings and electrical loadings on the fatigue damage and fatigue life prediction of a piezoelectric microplate is investigated and discussed. The findings provide valuable insights into the fundamental mechanism of reliability in piezoelectric MEMS devices due to cyclic loadings, thereby offering new ways to exploit and fabricate the piezoelectric-based MEMS devices suitable for harsh conditions.
Load history-based model for prestressed concrete beam damage evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Jianli; Wang Yi; Qian Zhonghui
2007-01-01
The residual capability of a damaged structure to resist further load is essential in optimal seismic design and post-earthquake strengthening.An experimental study on the hysteretic characteristics of prestressed concrete frame beams under different loading histories was performed to explore the influence of load history on energy dissipation and failure characteristics of the member.Based on the test results,the failure of the beam is defined,and the relationship between the failure moment under cyclic load and from the skeleton curve is formulated.Finally,based on displacement and energy dissipation,a model for prestressed concrete beam damage-failure evaluation is developed.In this model,the effect of deformation level,cumulative dissipated energy,and loading history on prestressed concrete beam damage-failure is incorporated,thus it is applicable to stochastic earthquake forces.
A simple nonlocal damage model for predicting failure of notched laminates
Kennedy, T. C.; Nahan, M. F.
1995-01-01
The ability to predict failure loads in notched composite laminates is a requirement in a variety of structural design circumstances. A complicating factor is the development of a zone of damaged material around the notch tip. The objective of this study was to develop a computational technique that simulates progressive damage growth around a notch in a manner that allows the prediction of failure over a wide range of notch sizes. This was accomplished through the use of a relatively simple, nonlocal damage model that incorporates strain-softening. This model was implemented in a two-dimensional finite element program. Calculations were performed for two different laminates with various notch sizes under tensile loading, and the calculations were found to correlate well with experimental results.
Damage-plasticity model of the host rock in a nuclear waste repository
Koudelka, Tomáš; Kruis, Jaroslav
2016-06-01
The paper describes damage-plasticity model for the modelling of the host rock environment of a nuclear waste repository. Radioactive Waste Repository Authority in Czech Republic assumes the repository to be in a granite rock mass which exhibit anisotropic behaviour where the strength in tension is lower than in compression. In order to describe this phenomenon, the damage-plasticity model is formulated with the help of the Drucker-Prager yield criterion which can be set to capture the compression behaviour while the tensile stress states is described with the help of scalar isotropic damage model. The concept of damage-plasticity model was implemented in the SIFEL finite element code and consequently, the code was used for the simulation of the Äspö Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) which was performed in order to determine yielding strength under various conditions in similar granite rocks as in Czech Republic. The results from the performed analysis are presented and discussed in the paper.
Damage-based long-term modelling of a large alpine rock slope
Riva, Federico; Agliardi, Federico; Amitrano, David; Crosta, Giovanni B.
2016-04-01
The morphology and stability of large alpine rock slopes result from the long-term interplay of different factors, following a complex history spanning several glacial cycles over thousands of years in changing morpho-climatic settings. Large rock slopes often experience slow long-term, creep-like movements interpreted as the macroscopic evidence of progressive failure in subcritically stressed rock masses. Slope damage and rock mass weakening associated to deglaciation are considered major triggers of these processes in alpine environments. Depending on rock mass properties, slope topography and removed ice thickness, valley flanks can progressively evolve over time into rockslides showing seasonal displacement trends, interpreted as evidence of hydro-mechanically coupled responses to hydrologic perturbations. The processes linking the long-term evolution of deglaciated rock slopes and their changing sensitivity to hydrologic triggers until rockslide failure, with significant implications in risk management and Early Warning, are not fully understood. We suggest that modelling long-term rock mass damage under changing conditions may provide such a link. We simulated the evolution of the Spriana rock slope (Italian Central Alps). This is affected by a 50 Mm3 rockslide, significantly active since the late 19th century and characterized by massive geological and geotechnical investigations and monitoring during the last decades. Using an improved version of the 2D Finite-Element, damage-based brittle creep model proposed by Amitrano and Helmstetter (2006) and Lacroix and Amitrano (2013), we combined damage and time-to-failure laws to reproduce diffused damage, strain localization and the long-term creep deformation of the slope. The model was implemented for application to real slopes, by accounting for: 1) fractured rock mass properties upscaling based on site characterization data; 2) fluid pressures in a progressive failure context, relating fluid occurrence to
A matter of life or death: modeling DNA damage and repair in bacteria.
Karschau, Jens; de Almeida, Camila; Richard, Morgiane C; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R; Grebogi, Celso; de Moura, Alessandro P S
2011-02-16
DNA damage is a hazard all cells must face, and evolution has created a number of mechanisms to repair damaged bases in the chromosome. Paradoxically, many of these repair mechanisms can create double-strand breaks in the DNA molecule which are fatal to the cell. This indicates that the connection between DNA repair and death is far from straightforward, and suggests that the repair mechanisms can be a double-edged sword. In this report, we formulate a mathematical model of the dynamics of DNA damage and repair, and we obtain analytical expressions for the death rate. We predict a counterintuitive relationship between survival and repair. We can discriminate between two phases: below a critical threshold in the number of repair enzymes, the half-life decreases with the number of repair enzymes, but becomes independent of the number of repair enzymes above the threshold. We are able to predict quantitatively the dependence of the death rate on the damage rate and other relevant parameters. We verify our analytical results by simulating the stochastic dynamics of DNA damage and repair. Finally, we also perform an experiment with Escherichia coli cells to test one of the predictions of our model.
Gefen, Amit
2010-02-01
The extrapolation of biological damage from a biomechanical model requires that a closed-form mathematical damage threshold function (DTF) be included in the model. A DTF typically includes a generic load variable, being the critical load (e.g., pressure, strain, temperature) causing irreversible tissue or cell damage, and a generic time variable, which represents the exposure to the load (e.g., duration, strain rate). Despite the central role that DTFs play in biomechanical studies, there is no coherent literature on how to formulate a DTF, excluding the field of heat-induced damage studies. This technical note describes six mathematical function types (Richards, Boltzmann, Morgan-Mercer-Flodin, Gompertz, Weibull, Bertalanffy) that are suitable for formulating a wide range of DTFs. These functions were adapted from the theory of restricted growth, and were fitted herein to describe biomechanical damage phenomena. Relevant properties of each adapted function type were extracted to allow efficient fitting of its parameters to empirical biomechanical data, and some practical examples are provided.
Analysis of damage in MMC components using an internal state variable model
Arya, V. K.
1989-01-01
A metal-matrix composite (MMC) model was developed which includes the concept of damage evolution. The evolution of damage is assumed to be governed by a Kachanov-type equation. This viscoplastic damage model was implemented in the finite element code, MARC. Both uniaxial (creep) and multiaxial (an internally pressurized thick-walled cylinder) problems were analyzed using this implementation. Some preliminary results are presented which consider monotonic (constant) loadings. The creep curves including damage for four fiber orientations are presented. As expected, the minimum creep occurs when load is applied in a direction parallel to the fibers. The tangential strains at the inner radius of a thick-walled MMC-cylinder for four fiber orientations are shown with damage included. The cylinder exhibits the maximum creep resistance when the fibers are oriented in the circumferential direction, perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. Time-to-failure for the thick-walled cylinder for the same fiber orientation angles is also shown. As expected, the life of the cylinder can be increased by orientating the fibers in the circumferential direction, perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. The results, although qualitative, indicate that significant benefits in creep-resistance and service life can be achieved by using MMC materials as structural materials for high-temperature design.
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Milašinović Dragan D.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new analytical model for the prediction of concrete response under uniaxial compression and its experimental verification is presented in this paper. The proposed approach, referred to as the rheological-dynamical continuum damage model, combines rheological-dynamical analogy and damage mechanics. Within the framework of this approach the key continuum parameters such as the creep coefficient, Poisson’s ratio and damage variable are functionally related. The critical values of the creep coefficient and damage variable under peak stress are used to describe the failure mode of the concrete cylinder. The ultimate strain is determined in the post-peak regime only, using the secant stress-strain relation from damage mechanics. The post-peak branch is used for the energy analysis. Experimental data for five concrete compositions were obtained during the examination presented herein. The principal difference between compressive failure and tensile fracture is that there is a residual stress in the specimens, which is a consequence of uniformly accelerated motion of load during the examination of compressive strength. The critical interpenetration displacements and crushing energy are obtained theoretically based on the concept of global failure analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 174027: Computational Mechanics in Structural Engineering i br. TR 36017: Utilization of by-products and recycled waste materials in concrete composites for sustainable construction development in Serbia: Investigation and environmental assessment of possible applications
Fracture-Based Mesh Size Requirements for Matrix Cracks in Continuum Damage Mechanics Models
Leone, Frank A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Mabson, Gerald E.; Ramnath, Madhavadas; Hyder, Imran
2017-01-01
This paper evaluates the ability of progressive damage analysis (PDA) finite element (FE) models to predict transverse matrix cracks in unidirectional composites. The results of the analyses are compared to closed-form linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) solutions. Matrix cracks in fiber-reinforced composite materials subjected to mode I and mode II loading are studied using continuum damage mechanics and zero-thickness cohesive zone modeling approaches. The FE models used in this study are built parametrically so as to investigate several model input variables and the limits associated with matching the upper-bound LEFM solutions. Specifically, the sensitivity of the PDA FE model results to changes in strength and element size are investigated.
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Arash Rabbani
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents a novel approach for bundle of tubes modeling of permeability impairment due to asphaltene-induced formation damage attenuated by ultrasound which has been rarely attended in the available literature. Model uses the changes of asphaltene particle size distribution (APSD as a function of time due to ultrasound radiation, while considering surface deposition and pore throat plugging mechanisms. The proposed model predicts the experimental data of permeability reduction during coinjection of solvent and asphaltenic oil into core with reasonable agreement. Viscosity variation due to sonication of crude oil is used to determine the fluid mobility applied in the model. The results of modeling indicate that the fluid samples exposed to ultrasound may cause much less asphaltene-induced damage inside the porous medium. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters showed that there is an optimum time period during which the best stimulation efficiency is observed. The results of this work can be helpful to better understand the role of ultrasound prohibition in dynamic behavior of asphaltene deposition in porous media. Furthermore, the present model could be potentially utilized for modeling of other time-dependent particle induced damages.
Wang, John T.; Pineda, Evan J.; Ranatunga, Vipul; Smeltzer, Stanley S.
2015-01-01
A simple continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based 3D progressive damage analysis (PDA) tool for laminated composites was developed and implemented as a user defined material subroutine to link with a commercially available explicit finite element code. This PDA tool uses linear lamina properties from standard tests, predicts damage initiation with an easy-to-implement Hashin-Rotem failure criteria, and in the damage evolution phase, evaluates the degradation of material properties based on the crack band theory and traction-separation cohesive laws. It follows Matzenmiller et al.'s formulation to incorporate the degrading material properties into the damaged stiffness matrix. Since nonlinear shear and matrix stress-strain relations are not implemented, correction factors are used for slowing the reduction of the damaged shear stiffness terms to reflect the effect of these nonlinearities on the laminate strength predictions. This CDM based PDA tool is implemented as a user defined material (VUMAT) to link with the Abaqus/Explicit code. Strength predictions obtained, using this VUMAT, are correlated with test data for a set of notched specimens under tension and compression loads.
A micromechanical model for the failure and damage assessment of woven composites
Abdelrahman, Wael Gamal Eldin
A micromechanical model is advanced in order to study the stress transfer and associated damage and failure in classes of conventional and textile type fibrous composites. Unidirectionally reinforced matrix with straight and undulated fibers define the repeating constructing cell for conventional and textile composites, respectively. Starting with the case of straight reinforcement, we approximate and model the actual discrete composite as a concentric cylindrical system. For axisymmetric loading, and upon adopting some appropriate restrictions on the radial behavior of some field quantities, an elasticity-based procedure reduces the two-dimensional field equations, which hold in both fiber and matrix components together with the appropriate interface, symmetry and boundary conditions, to a quasi-one-dimensional system. This analysis is further extended to cases involving undulated fibers. Based upon local directions (slopes) of the undulated fibers, the linear transformation is used to obtain local stress distributions along the undulated fibers. The total stress field is found to be combinations of these local stresses and the inherent contributions obtained from the transformations of the normal loads along the undulated directions in the absence of reinforcement. This simple system retains total account of the system's physics and presents itself in the form of coupled partial differential equations in the longitudinal displacements and stresses of both the fiber and matrix components. According to this model, damage is simulated in the form of stress free boundary conditions. Perpetuation of damage is based upon the maximum normal stress criterion. The adverse effect of such damage on the stiffness properties of the composite is predicted. Results show the favorable effect of undulation in decreasing the rate of property degradation with increasing damage. The model is quite general and has been applied to several situations. These include response to static
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Cheng Ma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a study of the numerical implementation of the spatial elastoplastic damage model of concrete by isogeometric analysis (IGA method from three perspectives: the geometric modeling and the numerical formulation via IGA method, the constitutive model of concrete, and the solution algorithms for the local and global problems. The plasticity of concrete is considered on the basis of a nonassociated flow rule, where a three-parameter Barcelona yield surface and a modified Drucker-Prager plastic potential are used. The damage evolution of concrete driven by the internal variables is expressed by a piecewise function. In the study, the return-mapping algorithm and the substepping strategy are used for stress updating, and a new dissipation-based arc-length method with constraint path that considers the combined contribution of plasticity and damage to the energy dissipation is employed to trace the equilibrium path. After comparisons between simulation results and experimental data, the use of the elastoplastic damage model in the framework of IGA approach is proven to be practical in reflecting material properties of concrete.
2012-08-01
number of nondestructive evaluation methods, including phased array ultrasonic testing and x-ray computed tomography (XCT). Some of the damaged...multilayered, cone cracks, NDE , x-ray computed tomography, XCT, modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...1 1. Introduction Nondestructive evaluation ( NDE ) or nondestructive testing is a discipline of materials science that encompasses a wide variety
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Fazle R. Ahad
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We used a physically motivated internal state variable plasticity/damage model containing a mathematical length scale to idealize the material response in finite element simulations of a large-scale boundary value problem. The problem consists of a moving striker colliding against a stationary hazmat tank car. The motivations are (1 to reproduce with high fidelity finite deformation and temperature histories, damage, and high rate phenomena that may arise during the impact accident and (2 to address the material postbifurcation regime pathological mesh size issues. We introduce the mathematical length scale in the model by adopting a nonlocal evolution equation for the damage, as suggested by Pijaudier-Cabot and Bazant in the context of concrete. We implement this evolution equation into existing finite element subroutines of the plasticity/failure model. The results of the simulations, carried out with the aid of Abaqus/Explicit finite element code, show that the material model, accounting for temperature histories and nonlocal damage effects, satisfactorily predicts the damage progression during the tank car impact accident and significantly reduces the pathological mesh size effects.
STUDIES ON GREY MODEL DYNAMIC PREDICTION TO CAVITATION DAMAGE OF TURBINES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Fu-sheng; Tong Zhong-shan; Li Yun-hui
2003-01-01
In this paper, cavitation damage of turbines is firstly analyzed and predicated from the view point of system engineering by use of the grey system theory. A detailed description of modeling, dynamic prediction and accuracy test for the grey system of turbines was given. Two special cases for grey dynamic prediction as well as its accuracy test were illustrated. The results fall into the grade I, the accuracy is satisfactory and its prediction requirements can be met well. It shows that the grey system theory can be employed to predict the cavitation damage of turbines, and it can provide a scientific basis for timely investigation and maintenance of turbines.
Validation of a Model for Prediction of Host Damage by Two Nematode Species
Duncan, Larry W.; Ferris, Howard
1983-01-01
Plant roots were mechanically injured or subjected to nematode parasitism to test the model of host damage by two nematode species: y = m' + (l - m')c'z₁P₁₁z₂P₁₂ for y ≤ 1.0 and y = 1.0 for y > 1.0, where m' = m₁ + (m₂ - m₁) (1 - y₂)/[(1 - y₁) + (l - y₂)] and c' = (z₁-T₁ + z₂-T₂)/2. Damage functions for greenhouse-grown radish plants (cv. Cherry Belle) mechanically injured with small or large steel needles were used to predict growth of plants injured by both needles. Growth predictions accou...
Numerical simulation of thick sheet slitting processes: Modelling using continuum damage mechanics
Ghozzi, Y.; Labergere, C.; Saanouni, K.
2013-05-01
This work consists on the modelling and numerical simulation of specific cutting processes of thick sheets using advanced constitutive equations accounting for elastoplasticity with mixed hardening and ductile damage. Strong coupling between all the mechanical fields and the ductile damage is accounted for. First the complex kinematics of the slitting process is described. Then, the fully and strongly coupled constitutive equations are presented. Finally the influence of the main technological parameters of the slitting process is studied focusing in the minimization of the cutting forces.
An equivalent magnetic dipoles model for quantitative damage recognition of broken wire
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Ji-wen; ZHAN Wei-xia; LI Chun-jing; WEN Yan; SHU Jie
2005-01-01
By simplifying saturatedly magnetized wire-rope to magnetic dipoles of the same magnetic field strength, an equivalent magnetic dipoles model is developed and the measuring principle for recognising damage of broken wire was presented. The relevant calculation formulas were also deduced. A composite solution method about nonlinear optimization was given. An example was given to illustrate the use of the equivalent magnetic dipoles method for quantitative damage recognition, and demonstrates that the result of this method is consistent with the real situation, so the method is valid and practical.
A Rate-Dependent Viscoelastic Damage Model for Simulation of Solid Propellant Impacts
Matheson, E. R.; Nguyen, D. Q.
2006-07-01
A viscoelastic deformation and damage model (VED) for solid rocket propellants has been developed based on an extensive set of mechanical properties experiments. Monotonic tensile tests performed at several strain rates showed rate and dilatation effects. During cyclic tensile tests, hysteresis and a rate-dependent shear modulus were observed. A tensile relaxation experiment showed significant stress decay in the sample. Taylor impact tests exhibited large dilatations without significant crack growth. Extensive modifications to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic model (VEP) necessary to capture these experimental results have led to development of the VED model. In particular, plasticity has been eliminated in the model, and the multiple Maxwell viscoelastic formulation has been replaced with a time-dependent shear modulus. Furthermore, the loading and unloading behaviors of the material are modeled independently. To characterize the damage and dilatation behavior, the Tensile Damage and Distention (TDD) model is run in conjunction with VED. The VED model is connected to a single-cell driver as well as to the CTH shock physics code. Simulations of tests show good comparisons with tensile tests and some aspects of the Taylor tests.
Validation Testing of a Peridynamic Impact Damage Model Using NASA's Micro-Particle Gun
Baber, Forrest E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Guven, Ibrahim; Gray, Perry
2017-01-01
Through a collaborative effort between the Virginia Commonwealth University and Raytheon, a peridynamic model for sand impact damage has been developed1-3. Model development has focused on simulating impacts of sand particles on ZnS traveling at velocities consistent with aircraft take-off and landing speeds. The model reproduces common features of impact damage including pit and radial cracks, and, under some conditions, lateral cracks. This study focuses on a preliminary validation exercise in which simulation results from the peridynamic model are compared to a limited experimental data set generated by NASA's recently developed micro-particle gun (MPG). The MPG facility measures the dimensions and incoming and rebound velocities of the impact particles. It also links each particle to a specific impact site and its associated damage. In this validation exercise parameters of the peridynamic model are adjusted to fit the experimentally observed pit diameter, average length of radial cracks and rebound velocities for 4 impacts of 300 µm glass beads on ZnS. Results indicate that a reasonable fit of these impact characteristics can be obtained by suitable adjustment of the peridynamic input parameters, demonstrating that the MPG can be used effectively as a validation tool for impact modeling and that the peridynamic sand impact model described herein possesses not only a qualitative but also a quantitative ability to simulate sand impact events.
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Treutenaere S.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The use of fabric reinforced polymers in the automotive industry is growing significantly. The high specific stiffness and strength, the ease of shaping as well as the great impact performance of these materials widely encourage their diffusion. The present model increases the predictability of explicit finite element analysis and push the boundaries of the ongoing phenomenological model. Carbon fibre composites made up various preforms were tested by applying different mechanical load up to dynamic loading. This experimental campaign highlighted the physical mechanisms affecting the initial mechanical properties, namely intra- and interlaminar matrix damage, viscoelasticty and fibre failure. The intralaminar behaviour model is based on the explicit formulation of the matrix damage model developed by the ONERA as the given damage formulation correlates with the experimental observation. Coupling with a Maxwell-Wiechert model, the viscoelasticity is included without losing the direct explicit formulation. Additionally, the model is formulated under a total Lagrangian scheme in order to maintain consistency for finite strain. Thus, the material frame-indifference as well as anisotropy are ensured. This allows reorientation of fibres to be taken into account particularly for in-plane shear loading. Moreover, fall within the framework of the total Lagrangian scheme greatly makes the parameter identification easier, as based on the initial configuration. This intralaminar model thus relies upon a physical description of the behaviour of fabric composites and the numerical simulations show a good correlation with the experimental results.
Dynamical Modelling, Stochastic Simulation and Optimization in the Context of Damage Tolerant Design
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Sergio Butkewitsch
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the situation in which some form of damage is induced by cyclic mechanical stresses yielded by the vibratory motion of a system whose dynamical behaviour is, in turn, affected by the evolution of the damage. It is assumed that both phenomena, vibration and damage propagation, can be modeled by means of time depended equations of motion whose coupled solution is sought. A brief discussion about the damage tolerant design philosophy for aircraft structures is presented at the introduction, emphasizing the importance of the accurate definition of inspection intervals and, for this sake, the need of a representative damage propagation model accounting for the actual loading environment in which a structure may operate. For the purpose of illustration, the finite element model of a cantilever beam is formulated, providing that the stiffness matrix can be updated as long as a crack of an assumed initial length spreads in a given location of the beam according to a proper propagation model. This way, it is possible to track how the mechanical vibration, through its varying amplitude stress field, activates and develops the fatigue failure mechanism. Conversely, it is also possible to address how the effect of the fatigue induced stiffness degradation influences the motion of the beam, closing the loop for the analysis of a coupled vibration-degradation dynamical phenomenon. In the possession of this working model, stochastic simulation of the beam behaviour is developed, aiming at the identification of the most influential parameters and at the characterization of the probability distributions of the relevant responses of interest. The knowledge of the parameters and responses allows for the formulation of optimization problems aiming at the improvement of the beam robustness with respect to the fatigue induced stiffness degradation. The overall results are presented and analyzed, conducting to the conclusions and outline of future
Morra, Edward A; Heim, Christine S; Greenwald, A Seth
2012-09-19
Computational models that predict clinical surface damage of the tibial insert during activities of daily living are emerging as powerful tools to assess the safety and efficacy of contemporary total knee arthroplasty designs. These models have the advantage of quickly determining the performance of new designs at low cost, and they allow direct comparison with the performance of classic, clinically successful designs. This study validated finite element and kinematic modeling predictions through comparison with preclinical physical testing results, damage patterns on retrieved tibial inserts, and clinically measured knee motion. There is a mounting body of evidence to support the role of computational modeling as a preclinical tool that enables the optimization of total knee arthroplasty designs and the auditing of component quality control before large-scale manufacturing is undertaken.
Plastic Damage Model to Evaluate the Fracture Size of Semi-Rigid Base Pavement
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Cao Peng
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A simple supported beam model has been presented to simulate the response of semi-rigid pavement structure, which are consistent of the upper layer, middle layer, bottom layer, base and sub base course, during the cycle vehicle loading. This mechanics model coupled with plastic-damage mechanics model could simulate the limit broken of the pavement structure in condition that soil base layer losing bearing capacity gradually. In the meanwhile, numerical calculations based on preceding mechanics model, using the FEM software ABAQUS, have been used to define the broken size of beam. The results indicated that: when the size of simple supported beam expanded to 10 m, brittle damage could happen immediately, Just the standard vehicle loading (about 0.7 Mpa has been implement once. Objective of this study is to provide a physical and rather concrete explanation for the style and concept of the semi-rigid pavement brittle broken.
A Damage Model for the Simulation of Delamination in Advanced Composites under Variable-Mode Loading
Turon, A.; Camanho, P. P.; Costa, J.; Davila, C. G.
2006-01-01
A thermodynamically consistent damage model is proposed for the simulation of progressive delamination in composite materials under variable-mode ratio. The model is formulated in the context of Damage Mechanics. A novel constitutive equation is developed to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. A delamination initiation criterion is proposed to assure that the formulation can account for changes in the loading mode in a thermodynamically consistent way. The formulation accounts for crack closure effects to avoid interfacial penetration of two adjacent layers after complete decohesion. The model is implemented in a finite element formulation, and the numerical predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in both composite test specimens and structural components.
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Da Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of cement mortars subjected to wet-dry cyclic sulfate attack were studied by the compression strength test. The results showed that the ultimate compressive strength increased with number of cycles at the initial stage. However, after a certain time, it started to decrease with further increases in the number of cycles. Moreover, the concentration of the sodium sulfate solution proved to be an important factor affecting the ultimate compressive strength. Based on continuum damage mechanics theory, an elastoplastic damage constitutive model is presented to describe the mechanical behavior of cementitious materials under compressive stress. The results obtained agree well with the experimentally observed elastic, plastic, and damage characteristics of cement mortars under compressive stress.
Results from systematic modeling of neutron damage in inertial fusion energy reactors
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Perlado, J.M. E-mail: mperlado@denim.upm.es; Dominguez, E.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Lodi, D.; Salvador, M.; Alonso, E.; Caturla, Ma.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T
2002-01-01
Radiation damage is an important issue in the lifetime of the structural materials in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Reactor. The effect will strongly depend on the class of chamber protection at the IFE Reactor design. This paper gives results from DENIM, and collaboration with LLNL, on the necessary magnitudes for the final evaluation of neutron damage. The determination of the neutron intensities and energy spectra emerging from the target, the energy spectra of the Primary Knock-on Atoms (PKA) resulting from the neutron interactions, the modeling at microscopic scale of the pulsed irradiation in metals are reported, in addition to reference to the work on the time dependence of neutron flux in IFE protected chamber. Results are also presented on the damage accumulation in SiC, relevant both for magnetic (MFE) and inertial fusion.
Modeling the role of p53 pulses in DNA damage- induced cell death decision
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Cui Jun
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tumor suppressor p53 plays pivotal roles in tumorigenesis suppression. Although oscillations of p53 have been extensively studied, the mechanism of p53 pulses and their physiological roles in DNA damage response remain unclear. Results To address these questions we presented an integrated model in which Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM activation and p53 oscillation were incorporated with downstream apoptotic events, particularly the interplays between Bcl-2 family proteins. We first reproduced digital oscillation of p53 as the response of normal cells to DNA damage. Subsequent modeling in mutant cells showed that high basal DNA damage is a plausible cause for sustained p53 pulses observed in tumor cells. Further computational analyses indicated that p53-dependent PUMA accumulation and the PUMA-controlled Bax activation switch might play pivotal roles to count p53 pulses and thus decide the cell fate. Conclusion The high levels of basal DNA damage are responsible for generating sustained pulses of p53 in the tumor cells. Meanwhile, the Bax activation switch can count p53 pulses through PUMA accumulation and transfer it into death signal. Our modeling provides a plausible mechanism about how cells generate and orchestrate p53 pulses to tip the balance between survival and death.
Haddag, Badis; ABED-MERAIM, Farid; BALAN, Tudor
2007-01-01
The aim of this work is to study the strain localization during the plastic deformation of sheets metals. This phenomenon is precursor for the fracture of drawing parts, thus its prediction using advanced behavior models is important in order to obtain safe final parts. Most often, an accurate prediction of localization during forming process requires damage to be included in the simulation. For this purpose, an advanced, anisotropic elastoplastic model, combining isotropic and kinematic hard...
Evaluating the Applicability of GTN Damage Model in Forward Tube Spinning of Aluminum Alloy
Xianxian Wang; Mei Zhan; Jing Guo; Bin Zhao
2016-01-01
Tube spinning is an effective plastic-forming technology for forming light-weight, high-precision and high-reliability components in high-tech fields, such as aviation and aerospace. However, cracks commonly occur in tube spinning due to the complexity of stress state, which severely restricts the improvement of the forming quality and forming limit of components. In this study, a finite element (FE) model coupled with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model for forward tube spinning of...
A damage accumulation model for complex strain paths: Prediction of ductile failure in metals
Lapovok, Rimma; Hodgson, D.
2009-11-01
The characterisation of strain path with respect to the directionality of defect formation is discussed. The criterion of non-monotonic strain path is used in the scalar and tensor models for damage accumulation and recovery. Comparable analysis of models and their verification has been obtained by simulation of crack initiation in a two-stage metal forming operation consisting of wire drawing followed by constrained upsetting.
Spin-1 Ising model: exact damage-spreading relations and numerical simulations.
Anjos, A S; Mariz, A M; Nobre, F D; Araujo, I G
2008-09-01
The nearest-neighbor-interaction spin-1 Ising model is investigated within the damage-spreading approach. Exact relations involving quantities computable through damage-spreading simulations and thermodynamic properties are derived for such a model, defined in terms of a very general Hamiltonian that covers several spin-1 models of interest in the literature. Such relations presuppose translational invariance and hold for any ergodic dynamical procedure, leading to an efficient tool for obtaining thermodynamic properties. The implementation of the method is illustrated through damage-spreading simulations for the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model on a square lattice. The two-spin correlation function and the magnetization are obtained, with precise estimates of their associated critical exponents and of the critical temperature of the model, in spite of the small lattice sizes considered. These results are in good agreement with the universality hypothesis, with critical exponents in the same universality class of the spin- 12 Ising model. The advantage of the present method is shown through a significant reduction of finite-size effects by comparing its results with those obtained from standard Monte Carlo simulations.
Creep-Fatigue Damage Investigation and Modeling of Alloy 617 at High Temperatures
Tahir, Fraaz
imaging analysis showed that the microstructural damage features (cracks and voids) are correlated with a new mechanical driving force parameter. The results from this image-based damage analysis were used to develop a phenomenological life-prediction methodology called the effective time fraction approach. Finally, the constitutive creep-fatigue response of the material at 950°C was modeled using a unified viscoplastic model coupled with a damage accumulation model. The simulation results were used to validate an energy-based constitutive life-prediction model, as a mechanistic model for potential component and structure level creep-fatigue analysis.
Repairable-conditionally repairable damage model based on dual Poisson processes.
Lind, B K; Persson, L M; Edgren, M R; Hedlöf, I; Brahme, A
2003-09-01
The advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy makes it increasingly important to model the response accurately when large volumes of normal tissues are irradiated by controlled graded dose distributions aimed at maximizing tumor cure and minimizing normal tissue toxicity. The cell survival model proposed here is very useful and flexible for accurate description of the response of healthy tissues as well as tumors in classical and truly radiobiologically optimized radiation therapy. The repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) model distinguishes between two different types of damage, namely the potentially repairable, which may also be lethal, i.e. if unrepaired or misrepaired, and the conditionally repairable, which may be repaired or may lead to apoptosis if it has not been repaired correctly. When potentially repairable damage is being repaired, for example by nonhomologous end joining, conditionally repairable damage may require in addition a high-fidelity correction by homologous repair. The induction of both types of damage is assumed to be described by Poisson statistics. The resultant cell survival expression has the unique ability to fit most experimental data well at low doses (the initial hypersensitive range), intermediate doses (on the shoulder of the survival curve), and high doses (on the quasi-exponential region of the survival curve). The complete Poisson expression can be approximated well by a simple bi-exponential cell survival expression, S(D) = e(-aD) + bDe(-cD), where the first term describes the survival of undamaged cells and the last term represents survival after complete repair of sublethal damage. The bi-exponential expression makes it easy to derive D(0), D(q), n and alpha, beta values to facilitate comparison with classical cell survival models.
Ghosh, Somnath; Bai, Jie; Paquet, Daniel
2009-07-01
This paper develops an accurate and computationally efficient homogenization-based continuum plasticity-damage (HCPD) model for macroscopic analysis of ductile failure in porous ductile materials containing brittle inclusions. Example of these materials are cast alloys such as aluminum and metal matrix composites. The overall framework of the HCPD model follows the structure of the anisotropic Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) type elasto-plasticity model for porous ductile materials. The HCPD model is assumed to be orthotropic in an evolving material principal coordinate system throughout the deformation history. The GTN model parameters are calibrated from homogenization of evolving variables in representative volume elements (RVE) of the microstructure containing inclusions and voids. Micromechanical analyses for this purpose are conducted by the locally enriched Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) [Hu, C., Ghosh, S., 2008. Locally enhanced Voronoi cell finite element model (LE-VCFEM) for simulating evolving fracture in ductile microstructures containing inclusions. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 76(12), 1955-1992]. The model also introduces a novel void nucleation criterion from micromechanical damage evolution due to combined inclusion and matrix cracking. The paper discusses methods for estimating RVE length scales in microstructures with non-uniform dispersions, as well as macroscopic characteristic length scales for non-local constitutive models. Comparison of results from the anisotropic HCPD model with homogenized micromechanics shows excellent agreement. The HCPD model has a huge efficiency advantage over micromechanics models. Hence, it is a very effective tool in predicting macroscopic damage in structures with direct reference to microstructural composition.
Modeling of Metal Structure Corrosion Damage: A State of the Art Report
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Francesco Portioli
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The durability of metal structures is strongly influenced by damage due to atmospheric corrosion, whose control is a key aspect for design and maintenance of both new constructions and historical buildings. Nevertheless, only general provisions are given in European codes to prevent the effects of corrosion during the lifetime of metal structures. In particular, design guidelines such as Eurocode 3 do not provide models for the evaluation of corrosion depth that are able to predict the rate of thickness loss as a function of different influencing parameters. In this paper, the modeling approaches of atmospheric corrosion damage of metal structures, which are available in both ISO standards and the literature, are presented. A comparison among selected degradation models is shown in order to evaluate the possibility of developing a general approach to the evaluation of thickness loss due to corrosion.
A finite-element model predicts thermal damage in cutaneous contact burns.
Orgill, D P; Solari, M G; Barlow, M S; O'Connor, N E
1998-01-01
Thermal injury results from exposure of skin elements to an externally applied heat source. Finite-element analysis of heat transfer in cutaneous burns allows for an accurate prediction of tissue time-temperature relationships throughout the exposed tissue. A two-dimensional, axisymmetric, finite-element model of a contact burn was constructed, and damage integrals were calculated by applying the Arrhenius equation to the time-temperature profiles at each point. The epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat were modeled as uniform elements with distinct thermal properties. Heated aluminum blocks were applied to Yorkshire pigs for 10 to 80 seconds to produce contact burns. Wound biopsies taken at 1, 24, and 48 hours were examined histologically and measured for the depth of burn. A significant deepening of the gelatinized tissue was observed in tissue taken from 1 hour to 24 hours. The finite-element prediction of cutaneous contact burn damage correlated well with histologic observations in this porcine model.
Monitoring the Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway in a 3D Spheroid Model.
Mondesert, Odile; Frongia, Céline; Clayton, Olivia; Boizeau, Marie-Laure; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard
2015-01-01
Monitoring the DNA-Damage Response (DDR) activated pathway in multicellular tumor spheroid models is an important challenge as these 3D models have demonstrated their major relevance in pharmacological evaluation. Herein we present DDR-Act-FP, a fluorescent biosensor that allows detection of DDR activation through monitoring of the p21 promoter p53-dependent activation. We show that cells expressing the DDR-Act-FP biosensor efficiently report activation of the DDR pathway after DNA damage and its pharmacological manipulation using ATM kinase inhibitors. We also report the successful use of this assay to screen a small compound library in order to identify activators of the DDR response. Finally, using multicellular spheroids expressing the DDR-Act-FP we demonstrate that DDR activation and its pharmacological manipulation with inhibitory and activatory compounds can be efficiently monitored in live 3D spheroid model. This study paves the way for the development of innovative screening and preclinical evaluation assays.
Modelling electron distributions within ESA's Gaia satellite CCD pixels to mitigate radiation damage
Seabroke, G M; Burt, D; Robbins, M S
2009-01-01
The Gaia satellite is a high-precision astrometry, photometry and spectroscopic ESA cornerstone mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2012. Its primary science drivers are the composition, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Gaia will achieve its unprecedented positional accuracy requirements with detailed calibration and correction for radiation damage. At L2, protons cause displacement damage in the silicon of CCDs. The resulting traps capture and emit electrons from passing charge packets in the CCD pixel, distorting the image PSF and biasing its centroid. Microscopic models of Gaia's CCDs are being developed to simulate this effect. The key to calculating the probability of an electron being captured by a trap is the 3D electron density within each CCD pixel. However, this has not been physically modelled for the Gaia CCD pixels. In Seabroke, Holland & Cropper (2008), the first paper of this series, we motivated the need for such specialised 3D device modelling and outlined how its future resu...
Development of a Nondestructive Impulse Device and Damage Model for Unreinforced Concrete
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Shane D. Boone
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Unconstrained compression waves were measured using a newly developed, nondestructive, short impulse excitation device developed for long-term structural health monitoring. The measurements, using this innovative device, were used to determine the variation in the first longitudinal modal frequency as a function of loading magnitude and loading cycles to failure of various concrete mixes. Longitudinal frequency and cumulative energy variations were found to be a function of concrete compressive strength. These results imply that higher-strength concrete more easily absorbs energy and restricts the growth of microcracks. Based on the results, a new damage model is proposed that was shown to correlate with measured values to within 7%. This proposed model was found to have a closer correlation than Miner’s hypothesis and damage index models from other reviewed research.
A simple model of space radiation damage in GaAs solar cells
Wilson, J. W.; Stith, J. J.; Stock, L. V.
1983-01-01
A simple model is derived for the radiation damage of shallow junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. Reasonable agreement is found between the model and specific experimental studies of radiation effects with electron and proton beams. In particular, the extreme sensitivity of the cell to protons stopping near the cell junction is predicted by the model. The equivalent fluence concept is of questionable validity for monoenergetic proton beams. Angular factors are quite important in establishing the cell sensitivity to incident particle types and energies. A fluence of isotropic incidence 1 MeV electrons (assuming infinite backing) is equivalent to four times the fluence of normal incidence 1 MeV electrons. Spectral factors common to the space radiations are considered, and cover glass thickness required to minimize the initial damage for a typical cell configuration is calculated. Rough equivalence between the geosynchronous environment and an equivalent 1 MeV electron fluence (normal incidence) is established.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY TRACTION ENERGY SYSTEM
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O. O. Matusevych
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The study provides the methods and models development of reducing damages of traction energy systems (TES at electrified railways of Ukraine. Definition the indicator of preventing damage evaluation TES at electrified railways is necessary. Paper is aimed to search the modern methods and approaches to improve the system of TES monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance. Methodology. To achieve this purpose a study of foreign experience and publications that focus on problem-solving quality of TES using a linguistic approach based on the theory of fuzzy multiple numbers and linguistic variable were done. Findings. In result of research an algorithm to reduce TPS damages which operates under uncertainty was developed. It is found that the solution of this problem is possible by timely detection of actual technical condition of equipment in terms of quality maintenance, diagnostics and update resource of electrical equipment traction substations (TS power supply TES. The study examined the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of mechanisms to minimize the area of decision-making. It contributes not only to structural identification in the process of developing a database, but also can significantly improve the efficiency of finding the parameters of fuzzy model, which in turn reduces the efforts that are necessary for the analysis and the design of effective control systems maintenance and repair (M and R TES. Originality. For the first time the algorithm of reduction the damage of traction energy system of electrified railways of Ukraine was offered. The mathematical model of reduction the damage calculation of TES from TP power equipment failures by improving system maintenance (M and P was developed. Firstly evaluation index was proposed to prevent the damage of traction energy system. Practical value. The article describes the fuzzy inference scheme, which is based on the use of the mechanism to minimize the area of decision
Risk Modelling of Late Spring Frost Damage on Fruit Trees, Case Study; Apple Tree, Mashhad Plain
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M Rahimi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Mashhad plain is one of the most important regions of Apple cultivated areas. Occurring spring late frost creates a lot of damages on bud and decreasing the yield of Apple in this region. Assessment and risk modeling of frost damage would be useful to manage and decrease the damage. The study area is a part of Khorasan Razavi province which is located in Mashhad plain. This region is located in Northeast Iran (36º to 37 º N, 58 º 30' to 60 º E. The area of this region is about 13000 square km which is about one tenth of Khorasan province area. In order to modeling frost damage risk 12 affective parameters including climatological(Minimum temperature, temperature decreasing rate, temperature Increasing rate, Julian days of frost, cumulative degree days, Area under zero line, and frost duration and geographical parameters (Elevation, Longitude, Latitude, Aspect, and slope were selected. 3 damage full radiative frosts were selected in the period of Apple flowering time which was dated 20 April 2003, 8 April 2005, and 28 March 2005. Required meteorological data were collected from 9 meteorological standard stations inside and outside of study area. Linear multiple regression were used to modeling the relationship. The map for each parameter was plotted by using suitable interpolation method including IDW; Spline; Kriging. A grid map was defined with 5 by 5 kilometers to extract enough data for entering to the model. The regression equation was significant at the level of 99% significance. By using this equation the predicted amounts of frost risk damage were calculated for each point of grid and also the map was plotted. The regression equation of observed and predicted frost damage risk was provided by correlation of 0.93 and the error map also was prepared. According to this study in frost of 31 Farvardin 1388 South West parts of the plain estimated as the most frost risk areas by %53.19 and the southeast parts were estimated as the least
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Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)
2006-01-01
In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.
Semi-Implicit Algorithm for Elastoplastic Damage Models Involving Energy Integration
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Ji Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to develop a semi-implicit constitutive integration algorithm for a class of elastoplastic damage models where calculation of damage energy release rates involves integration of free energy. The constitutive equations with energy integration are split into the elastic predictor, plastic corrector, and damage corrector. The plastic corrector is solved with an improved format of the semi-implicit spectral return mapping, which is characterized by constant flow direction and plastic moduli calculated at initial yield, enforcement of consistency at the end, and coordinate-independent formulation with an orthogonally similar stress tensor. The tangent stiffness consistent with the updating algorithm is derived. The algorithm is implemented with a recently proposed elastoplastic damage model for concrete, and several typical mechanical tests of reinforced concrete components are simulated. The present semi-implicit algorithm proves to achieve a balance between accuracy, stability, and efficiency compared with the implicit and explicit algorithms and calculate free energy accurately with small time steps.
Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano
2016-12-01
Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, which according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting, is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Malta escarpment and by local and remote (e.g., Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason, the area of Siracusa has been selected as one of the test sites to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this frame, this work focuses on the assessment of tsunami vulnerability of (and damage to) the building stock of the town. The analysis is carried out following two different models, namely the SCHEMA and the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) methods. Topographic and building stock data in the potentially flooded areas are taken from detailed digital databases produced by the region of Sicily, integrated with satellite and photographic imagery from Google Earth and further validated by field surveys. We have explored three inundation scenarios corresponding to a constant-level tsunami flooding with assumed sea level rise of 1, 3 and 5 m, and evaluated the damage to the town buildings using both methods that make use of a 5-degree scale. The main result is that the level of damage of both models is not consistent, and that consistency may be improved if one changes from a 5- to a 3-degree damage scale.
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Elisa eFerrando-May
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Our understanding of the mechanisms governing the response to DNA damage in higher eucaryotes crucially depends on our ability to dissect the temporal and spatial organization of the cellular machinery responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. To achieve this goal, we need experimental tools to inflict DNA lesions with high spatial precision at pre-defined locations, and to visualize the ensuing reactions with adequate temporal resolution. Near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses focused through high-aperture objective lenses of advanced scanning microscopes offer the advantage of inducing DNA damage in a 3D-confined volume of subnuclear dimensions. This high spatial resolution results from the highly nonlinear nature of the excitation process. Here we review recent progress based on the increasing availability of widely tunable and user-friendly technology of ultrafast lasers in the near infrared. We present a critical evaluation of this approach for DNA microdamage as compared to the currently prevalent use of UV or VIS laser irradiation, the latter in combination with photosensitizers. Current and future applications in the field of DNA repair and DNA-damage dependent chromatin dynamics are outlined. Finally, we discuss the requirement for proper simulation and quantitative modeling. We focus in particular on approaches to measure the effect of DNA damage on the mobility of nuclear proteins and consider the pros and cons of frequently used analysis models for FRAP and photoactivation and their applicability to nonlinear photoperturbation experiments.
Bodeux, J. B.; Golinval, J. C.
2001-06-01
In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy.
Temporal profile of neuronal damage in a model of transient forebrain ischemia.
Pulsinelli, W A; Brierley, J B; Plum, F
1982-05-01
This study examined the temporal profile of ischemic neuronal damage following transient bilateral forebrain ischemia in the rat model of four-vessel occlusion. Wistar rats were subjected to transient but severe forebrain ischemia by permanently occluding the vertebral arteries and 24 hours later temporarily occluding the common carotid arteries for 10, 20, or 30 minutes. Carotid artery blood flow was restored and the rats were killed by perfusion-fixation after 3, 6, 24, and 72 hours. Rats with postischemic convulsions were discarded. Ischemic neuronal damage was graded in accordance with conventional neuropathological criteria. Ten minutes of four-vessel occlusion produced scattered ischemic cell change in the cerebral hemispheres of most rats. The time to onset of visible neuronal damage varied among brain regions and in some regions progressively worsened with time. After 30 minutes of ischemia, small to medium-sized striatal neurons were damaged early while the initiation of visible damage to hippocampal neurons in the h1 zone was delayed for 3 to 6 hours. The number of damaged neurons in neocortex (layer 3, layers 5 and 6, or both) and hippocampus (h1, h3-5, paramedian zone) increased significantly (p less than 0.01) between 24 and 72 hours. The unique delay in onset of ischemic cell change and the protracted increase in its incidence between 24 and 72 hours could reflect either delayed appearance of ischemic change in previously killed neurons or a delayed insult that continued to jeopardize compromised but otherwise viable neurons during the postischemic period.
Astroza, Rodrigo; Ebrahimian, Hamed; Conte, Joel P.
2015-03-01
This paper describes a novel framework that combines advanced mechanics-based nonlinear (hysteretic) finite element (FE) models and stochastic filtering techniques to estimate unknown time-invariant parameters of nonlinear inelastic material models used in the FE model. Using input-output data recorded during earthquake events, the proposed framework updates the nonlinear FE model of the structure. The updated FE model can be directly used for damage identification and further used for damage prognosis. To update the unknown time-invariant parameters of the FE model, two alternative stochastic filtering methods are used: the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). A three-dimensional, 5-story, 2-by-1 bay reinforced concrete (RC) frame is used to verify the proposed framework. The RC frame is modeled using fiber-section displacement-based beam-column elements with distributed plasticity and is subjected to the ground motion recorded at the Sylmar station during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The results indicate that the proposed framework accurately estimate the unknown material parameters of the nonlinear FE model. The UKF outperforms the EKF when the relative root-mean-square error of the recorded responses are compared. In addition, the results suggest that the convergence of the estimate of modeling parameters is smoother and faster when the UKF is utilized.
Insights into the damage zones in fault-bend folds from geomechanical models and field data
Ju, Wei; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Bo
2014-01-01
Understanding the rock mass deformation and stress states, the fracture development and distribution are critical to a range of endeavors including oil and gas exploration and development, and geothermal reservoir characterization and management. Geomechanical modeling can be used to simulate the forming processes of faults and folds, and predict the onset of failure and the type and abundance of deformation features along with the orientations and magnitudes of stresses. This approach enables the development of forward models that incorporate realistic mechanical stratigraphy (e.g., the bed thickness, bedding planes and competence contrasts), include faults and bedding-slip surfaces as frictional sliding interfaces, reproduce the geometry of the fold structures, and allow tracking strain and stress through the whole deformation process. In this present study, we combine field observations and finite element models to calibrate the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds, and discuss the mechanical controls (e.g., the slip displacement, ramp cutoff angle, frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults) that are able to influence the development and distribution of fractures during fault-bend folding. A linear relationship between the slip displacement and the fracture damage zone, the ramp cutoff angle and the fracture damage zone, and the frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults and the fracture damage zone was established respectively based on the geomechanical modeling results. These mechanical controls mentioned above altogether contribute to influence and control the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds.
Assessment of damage localization based on spatial filters using numerical crack propagation models
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Deraemaeker, Arnaud, E-mail: aderaema@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Civil Engineering Department (BATir), 50 av. Franklin Roosevelt, CP 194/02, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2011-07-19
This paper is concerned with vibration based structural health monitoring with a focus on non-model based damage localization. The type of damage investigated is cracking of concrete structures due to the loss of prestress. In previous works, an automated method based on spatial filtering techniques applied to large dynamic strain sensor networks has been proposed and tested using data from numerical simulations. In the simulations, simplified representations of cracks (such as a reduced Young's modulus) have been used. While this gives the general trend for global properties such as eigen frequencies, the change of more local features, such as strains, is not adequately represented. Instead, crack propagation models should be used. In this study, a first attempt is made in this direction for concrete structures (quasi brittle material with softening laws) using crack-band models implemented in the commercial software DIANA. The strategy consists in performing a non-linear computation which leads to cracking of the concrete, followed by a dynamic analysis. The dynamic response is then used as the input to the previously designed damage localization system in order to assess its performances. The approach is illustrated on a simply supported beam modeled with 2D plane stress elements.
Song, Kyonchan; Li, Yingyong; Rose, Cheryl A.
2011-01-01
The performance of a state-of-the-art continuum damage mechanics model for interlaminar damage, coupled with a cohesive zone model for delamination is examined for failure prediction of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates. Limitations of continuum representations of intra-ply damage and the effect of mesh orientation on the analysis predictions are discussed. It is shown that accurate prediction of matrix crack paths and stress redistribution after cracking requires a mesh aligned with the fiber orientation. Based on these results, an aligned mesh is proposed for analysis of the open-hole tension specimens consisting of different meshes within the individual plies, such that the element edges are aligned with the ply fiber direction. The modeling approach is assessed by comparison of analysis predictions to experimental data for specimen configurations in which failure is dominated by complex interactions between matrix cracks and delaminations. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms observed in the tests are well predicted. In addition, the modeling approach is demonstrated to predict proper trends in the effect of scaling on strength and failure mechanisms of quasi-isotropic open-hole tension laminates.
Visco-poroelastic damage model for brittle-ductile failure of porous rocks
Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Zhu, Wenlu; Shalev, Eyal
2015-04-01
The coupling between damage accumulation, dilation, and compaction during loading of sandstones is responsible for different structural features such as localized deformation bands and homogeneous inelastic deformation. We distinguish and quantify the role of each deformation mechanism using new mathematical model and its numerical implementation. Formulation includes three different deformation regimes: (I) quasi-elastic deformation characterized by material strengthening and compaction; (II) cataclastic flow characterized by damage increase and compaction; and (III) brittle failure characterized by damage increase, dilation, and shear localization. Using a three-dimensional numerical model, we simulate the deformation behavior of cylindrical porous Berea sandstone samples under different confining pressures. The obtained stress, strain, porosity changes and macroscopic deformation features well reproduce the laboratory results. The model predicts different rock behavior as a function of confining pressures. The quasi-elastic and brittle regimes associated with formation of shear and/or dilatant bands occur at low effective pressures. The model also successfully reproduces cataclastic flow and homogeneous compaction under high pressures. Complex behavior with overlap of common features of all regimes is simulated under intermediate pressures, resulting with localized compaction or shear enhanced compaction bands. Numerical results elucidate three steps in the formation of compaction bands: (1) dilation and subsequent shear localization, (2) formation of shear enhanced compaction band, and (3) formation of pure compaction band.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Toti
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In the present work, a new model of the FRP-concrete or masonry interface, which accounts for the coupling occurring between the degradation of the cohesive material and the FRP detachment, is presented; in particular, a coupled interface-body nonlocal damage model is proposed. A nonlocal damage and plasticity model is developed for the quasi-brittle material. For the interface, a model which accounts for the mode I, mode II and mixed mode of damage and for the unilateral contact and friction effects is developed. Two different ways of performing the coupling between the body damage and the interface damage are proposed and compared. Some numerical applications are carried out in order to assess the performances of the proposed model in reproducing the mechanical behavior of the masonry elements strengthened with external FRP reinforcements.
Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard
2016-08-01
Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.
Damage spreading at the corner-filling transition in the two-dimensional Ising model
Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2007-01-01
The propagation of damage on the square Ising lattice with a corner geometry is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By imposing free boundary conditions at which competing boundary magnetic fields ± h are applied, the system undergoes a filling transition at a temperature Tf(h) lower than the Onsager critical temperature TC. The competing fields cause the formation of two magnetic domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization, separated by an interface that for T larger than Tf(h) (but Tinterface is localized either close to the corner where the magnetic field is positive or close to the opposite one, with the same probability. It is found that, just at T = Tf(h), the damage initially propagates along the interface of the competing domains, according to a power law given by D(t) \\propto t^{\\eta } . The value obtained for the dynamic exponent (η* = 0.89(1)) is in agreement with that corresponding to the wetting transition in the slit geometry (Abraham model) given by ηWT = 0.91(1). However, for later times the propagation crosses to a new regime such as η** = 0.40(2), which is due to the propagation of the damage into the bulk of the magnetic domains. This result can be understood as being due to the constraints imposed on the propagation of damage by the corner geometry of the system that cause healing at the corners where the interface is attached. The critical points for the damage-spreading transition (TD(h)) are evaluated by extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit by using a finite-size scaling approach. Considering error bars, an overlap between the filling and the damage-spreading transitions is found, such that Tf(h) = TD(h). The probability distribution of the damage average position P(l0D) and that of the interface between magnetic domains of different orientation P(l0) are evaluated and compared. It is found that, within the nonwet phase, the average position of the damage lies slightly shifted from the interface towards the side
Taşkin Kaya, Gülşen
2013-10-01
Recently, earthquake damage assessment using satellite images has been a very popular ongoing research direction. Especially with the availability of very high resolution (VHR) satellite images, a quite detailed damage map based on building scale has been produced, and various studies have also been conducted in the literature. As the spatial resolution of satellite images increases, distinguishability of damage patterns becomes more cruel especially in case of using only the spectral information during classification. In order to overcome this difficulty, textural information needs to be involved to the classification to improve the visual quality and reliability of damage map. There are many kinds of textural information which can be derived from VHR satellite images depending on the algorithm used. However, extraction of textural information and evaluation of them have been generally a time consuming process especially for the large areas affected from the earthquake due to the size of VHR image. Therefore, in order to provide a quick damage map, the most useful features describing damage patterns needs to be known in advance as well as the redundant features. In this study, a very high resolution satellite image after Iran, Bam earthquake was used to identify the earthquake damage. Not only the spectral information, textural information was also used during the classification. For textural information, second order Haralick features were extracted from the panchromatic image for the area of interest using gray level co-occurrence matrix with different size of windows and directions. In addition to using spatial features in classification, the most useful features representing the damage characteristic were selected with a novel feature selection method based on high dimensional model representation (HDMR) giving sensitivity of each feature during classification. The method called HDMR was recently proposed as an efficient tool to capture the input
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Ganjovi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A kinetic model is used based on Particle in Cell - Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC model, for parametric study of the damage due to partial discharges (PD activity into the surroundings dielectrics of a narrow channel encapsulated within the volume of a dielectric material. The parameters studied are applied electric field, channel dimensions and gas pressure. After employing an electric field across a dielectric material which contains a narrow channel, repeated ionization process starts in the gaseous medium of narrow channel. Charged particles, especially electrons, gain energy from the electric field across narrow channel and cause damage into dielectric surfaces of narrow channel on impact. The dependence of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF on the applied electric field is considered. These estimations are performed based on the number of C-H bond-scissions produced by the impacting electrons of a single PD pulse. Regarding this technique, the consequent damage into the solid dielectric and the time required to increase surface conductivity, is computed. The formation of acid molecules due to interaction of PD pulse with polymer surface in presence of air and humidity causes changes in the surface conductivity of the surrounding dielectrics of the narrow channels. It is observed that the extent of damage caused by a PD is primarily determined by the total number of impacting electrons which are capable of producing bond-scission at the dielectric. Parameters that effectively cause an increase in the number of energetic electrons will increase effective damage as well as surface conductivity of surrounding dielectrics.
Development of a Process Model for CO(2) Laser Mitigation of Damage Growth in Fused Silica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feit, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Boley, C; Rotter, M D
2003-11-01
A numerical model of CO{sub 2} laser mitigation of damage growth in fused silica has been constructed that accounts for laser energy absorption, heat conduction, radiation transport, evaporation of fused silica and thermally induced stresses. This model will be used to understand scaling issues and effects of pulse and beam shapes on material removal, temperatures reached and stresses generated. Initial calculations show good agreement of simulated and measured material removal. The model has also been applied to LG-770 glass as a prototype red blocker material.
Strength evolution law of cracked rock based on localized progressive damage model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Ping; LI Xi-bing; LI Ning
2008-01-01
In the light of the localized progressive damage model, the evolution law of cohesive and frictional strength with irreversible strains was determined. Then, the location and the extent of the excavation disturbed zone in one deep rock engineering were predicted by using the strength evolution law. The theoretical result is close to the result of in-situ test. The strength evolution law excels the elastic-perfectly plastic model and elasto-brittte plastic model in which the cohesive and frictional strength are mobilized simultaneously. The results obtained indicate that the essential failure mechanism of the cracked rock can be described by the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening evolution law.
Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H. Alawi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. The buoyancy, capillarity, and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids properties such as water saturation and solid properties such as porosity and permeability due to trapping the fine-particles.
Numerical damage models using a structural approach: application in bones and ligaments
Arnoux, P. J.; Bonnoit, J.; Chabrand, P.; Jean, M.; Pithioux, M.
2002-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to apply knowledge of structural properties to perform numerical simulations with models of bones and knee ligaments exposed to dynamic tensile loading leading to tissue damage. Compact bones and knee ligaments exhibit the same geometrical pattern in their different levels of structural hierarchy from the tropocollagen molecule to the fibre. Nevertheless, their mechanical behaviours differ considerably at the fibril level. These differences are due to the contribution of the joints in the microfibril-fibril-fibre assembly and to the mechanical properties of the structural components. Two finite element models of the fibrous bone and ligament structure were used to describe damage in terms of elastoplastic laws or joint decohesion processes.
Modeling technical change in climate analysis: evidence from agricultural crop damages.
Ahmed, Adeel; Devadason, Evelyn S; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem
2017-05-01
This study accounts for the Hicks neutral technical change in a calibrated model of climate analysis, to identify the optimum level of technical change for addressing climate changes. It demonstrates the reduction to crop damages, the costs to technical change, and the net gains for the adoption of technical change for a climate-sensitive Pakistan economy. The calibrated model assesses the net gains of technical change for the overall economy and at the agriculture-specific level. The study finds that the gains of technical change are overwhelmingly higher than the costs across the agriculture subsectors. The gains and costs following technical change differ substantially for different crops. More importantly, the study finds a cost-effective optimal level of technical change that potentially reduces crop damages to a minimum possible level. The study therefore contends that the climate policy for Pakistan should consider the role of technical change in addressing climate impacts on the agriculture sector.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2011-01-01
Two micromechanical, representative unit cell type models of fiber reinforced composite (FRC) are applied to simulate explicitly onset and accumulation of scattered local damage in the form of interface debonding. The first model is based on the analytical, multipole expansion type solution...... of the multiple inclusion problem by means of complex potentials. The second, finite element model of FRC is based on the cohesive zone model of interface. Simulation of progressive debonding in FRC using the many-fiber models of composite has been performed. The advantageous features and applicability areas...... of both models are discussed. It has been shown that the developed models provide detailed analysis of the progressive debonding phenomena including the interface crack cluster formation, overall stiffness reduction and induced anisotropy of the effective elastic moduli of composite....
Bergan, Andrew C.; Leone, Frank A., Jr.
2016-01-01
A new model is proposed that represents the kinematics of kink-band formation and propagation within the framework of a mesoscale continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model. The model uses the recently proposed deformation gradient decomposition approach to represent a kink band as a displacement jump via a cohesive interface that is embedded in an elastic bulk material. The model is capable of representing the combination of matrix failure in the frame of a misaligned fiber and instability due to shear nonlinearity. In contrast to conventional linear or bilinear strain softening laws used in most mesoscale CDM models for longitudinal compression, the constitutive response of the proposed model includes features predicted by detailed micromechanical models. These features include: 1) the rotational kinematics of the kink band, 2) an instability when the peak load is reached, and 3) a nonzero plateau stress under large strains.
Process compensated resonance testing modeling for damage evolution and uncertainty quantification
Biedermann, Eric; Heffernan, Julieanne; Mayes, Alexander; Gatewood, Garrett; Jauriqui, Leanne; Goodlet, Brent; Pollock, Tresa; Torbet, Chris; Aldrin, John C.; Mazdiyasni, Siamack
2017-02-01
Process Compensated Resonance Testing (PCRT) is a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method based on the fundamentals of Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). PCRT is used for material characterization, defect detection, process control and life monitoring of critical gas turbine engine and aircraft components. Forward modeling and model inversion for PCRT have the potential to greatly increase the method's material characterization capability while reducing its dependence on compiling a large population of physical resonance measurements. This paper presents progress on forward modeling studies for damage mechanisms and defects in common to structural materials for gas turbine engines. Finite element method (FEM) models of single crystal (SX) Ni-based superalloy Mar-M247 dog bones and Ti-6Al-4V cylindrical bars were created, and FEM modal analyses calculated the resonance frequencies for the samples in their baseline condition. Then the frequency effects of superalloy creep (high-temperature plastic deformation) and macroscopic texture (preferred crystallographic orientation of grains detrimental to fatigue properties) were evaluated. A PCRT sorting module for creep damage in Mar-M247 was trained with a virtual database made entirely of modeled design points. The sorting module demonstrated successful discrimination of design points with as little as 1% creep strain in the gauge section from a population of acceptable design points with a range of material and geometric variation. The resonance frequency effects of macro-scale texture in Ti-6Al-4V were quantified with forward models of cylinder samples. FEM-based model inversion was demonstrated for Mar-M247 bulk material properties and variations in crystallographic orientation. PCRT uncertainty quantification (UQ) was performed using Monte Carlo studies for Mar-M247 that quantified the overall uncertainty in resonance frequencies resulting from coupled variation in geometry, material properties, crystallographic
A finite deformation coupled plastic-damage model for simulating fracture of metal foams
Pan, Hao; Abu Al-Rub, Rashid
2014-01-01
Metal foams are a novel class of lightweight materials with unique mechanical, thermal, and acoustical properties. The low ductility of metal foams hinders the possibilities of applying secondary forming techniques to shape metal foam sandwich panels into desired industrial components. An important factor is the limited studies on their macroscopic damage and fracture behavior under complex loading conditions. There exist numerous mechanistic micromechanics models describing the fracture beha...
Tomor, Adrienn K.; Verstrynge, Els
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the long-term fatigue and creep deterioration processes in historical brick masonry. Based on two independent laboratory test series, the relationship between stress level and life expectancy was considered for fatigue and creep loading in the form of SN type models. The process of deterioration was investigated with the help of acoustic emission technique to identify stages and characteristics of the damage accumulation process. Based on the test data and acoustic emis...
Modeling of Stone-impact Resistance of Monolithic Glass Ply Using Continuum Damage Mechanics
Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Davies, Richard W.
2005-01-01
Abstract The stone-impact resistance of a monolithic glass ply is studied using a combined experimental and computational approach. Instrumented stone-impact tests are first carried out in a controlled environment. Explicit finite element analyses are then used to simulate the interactions of the indentor and the glass layer during the impact event, and a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) model is used to de...
Flood damage: a model for consistent, complete and multipurpose scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Menoni
2016-12-01
implemented in ex post damage assessments, also with the objective of better programming financial resources that will be needed for these types of events in the future. On the other hand, integrated interpretations of flood events are fundamental to adapting and optimizing flood mitigation strategies on the basis of thorough forensic investigation of each event, as corroborated by the implementation of the model in a case study.
Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans
2016-04-25
The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10 min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼ 13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3 min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥ 30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures.
Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr
2016-03-01
Data-driven vibration-based damage detection techniques can be competitive because of their lower instrumentation and data analysis costs. The use of autoregressive model coefficients (ARMCs) as damage sensitive features (DSFs) is one such technique. So far, like with other DSFs, either full sets of coefficients or subsets selected by trial-and-error have been used, but this can lead to suboptimal composition of multivariate DSFs and decreased damage detection performance. This study enhances the selection of ARMCs for statistical hypothesis testing for damage presence. Two approaches for systematic ARMC selection, based on either adding or eliminating the coefficients one by one or using a genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed. The methods are applied to a numerical model of an aerodynamically excited large composite wind turbine blade with disbonding damage. The GA out performs the other selection methods and enables building multivariate DSFs that markedly enhance early damage detectability and are insensitive to measurement noise.
Mechanical behaviors and damage constitutive model of ceramics under shock compression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jianguo Ning; Huilan Ren; Ping Li
2008-01-01
One-stage light gas gun was utilized to study the dynamic mechanical properties of AD90 alumina subjected to the shock loading. Manganin gauges were adopted to obtain the stress-time histories. The velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was used to obtain the free surface velocity profile and determine the Hugoniot elastic limit. The Hugoniot curves were fitted with the experimental data. From Hugoniot curves the compressive behaviors of AD90 alumina were found to change typically from elastic to "plastic". The dynamic mechanical behaviors for alumina under impact loadings were analyzed by using the path line principle of Lagrange analysis, including the nonlinear characteristics, the strain rate dependence, the dispersion and declination of shock wave in the material. A damage model applicable to ceramics subjected to dynamic compressive loading has been developed. The model was based on the damage micromechanics and wing crack nucleation and growth. The effects of parameters of both the micro-cracks nucleation and the initial crack size on the dynamic fracture strength were discussed. The results of the dynamic damage evolution model were compared with the experimental results and a good agreement was found.
Seismic damage analysis of the outlet piers of arch dams using the finite element sub-model method
Song, Liangfeng; Wu, Mingxin; Wang, Jinting; Xu, Yanjie
2016-09-01
This study aims to analyze seismic damage of reinforced outlet piers of arch dams by the nonlinear finite element (FE) sub-model method. First, the dam-foundation system is modeled and analyzed, in which the effects of infinite foundation, contraction joints, and nonlinear concrete are taken into account. The detailed structures of the outlet pier are then simulated with a refined FE model in the sub-model analysis. In this way the damage mechanism of the plain (unreinforced) outlet pier is analyzed, and the effects of two reinforcement measures (i.e., post-tensioned anchor cables and reinforcing bar) on the dynamic damage to the outlet pier are investigated comprehensively. Results show that the plain pier is damaged severely by strong earthquakes while implementation of post-tensioned anchor cables strengthens the pier effectively. In addition, radiation damping strongly alleviates seismic damage to the piers.
Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fok, Alex
2013-10-30
The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.
Model development of plasma implanted hydrogenic diffusion and trapping in ion beam damaged tungsten
Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.
2016-10-01
A Cu ion beam is used to induce controlled levels of damage (10-3, 10-2, and 10-1 dpa) in room temperature W samples. A single 5 MeV beam energy yielding a peaked damage profile 0.8 μm into the material, or three beam energies (0.5, 2, and 5 MeV) producing a relatively uniform damage profile from the near surface up to 0.8 μm were used. The W samples were then exposed to a D plasma ion fluence of 1024 ions m-2 at 380 K, and the resulting D retention was measured using the D(3He,p)4He reaction analysis (NRA) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We observe that within experimental error there is no significant difference in retention whether the damage profile is peaked or uniform. The increase in retention is observed to increase proportional to \\text{dp}{{\\text{a}}0.66} estimated from the dpa peak calculated from the SRIM program. A simplified retention model is proposed that provides concentration profiles that can be directly compared to NRA data and total retention measurements. Taking the trapping energies due to three defect types calculated from density functional theory (DFT), the only free-parameters are three defect densities of in-grain monovacancies, dislocations, and grain boundary vacancies, and we assume these defects to be the dominant trapping locations. The model can fit D retention data in a pristine W sample within the experimental error of the measurements, and in subsequent modeling these intrinsic defect densities are then fixed. We model the retention profile after ion damage by adding the SRIM predicted vacancy profile to the intrinsic monovacancy defect density. Since the increase in retention, and therefore the increase in vacancy production, does not increase linearly with dpa, a correction factor is multiplied to the predicted vacancy profile to fit the data. A new diffusion coefficient is calculated with the model that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. This calculation may resolve discrepancies of various
THE ONE CINETIC MODEL DAMAGE OF CELL BY SMALL DOSES OF RADIATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. T. Gubin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To explain the known differences in the dose and age dependences of radiogenic mortality from leukemia and solid tumors after single exposure, a model was developed, which is a modification of the Kellerer-Rossi theory of dual radiation action. The model assumes formation in a cell of both single and double primary damages due to radiation and other carcinogens, while the recovery rate of single damages (φ significantly exceeds that for double ones (ψ. Upon achieving a certain stage of the cell cycle (the critical age of cell – T, double damages become permanent and with probability of А can be inherited to daughter cells as “premalignant” defects. In contrast, in the Kellerer-Rossi theory, permanent damage is formed immediately after formation of the second damage at the next energy absorption event in the cell, i.e. ψ=0 .On the assumption that the premalignant defects only occur based on the double primary damages, i.e. φ>>ψ, the expressions for А were derived for the prompt radiation exposure and radiation exposure at a constant dose rate. They reproduce the effect increasing with decreasing of T, whereas the influence of T on the linear term of the dose expression in both cases is the same, but with decreasing of T the quadratic term increases faster for exposure at a constant dose rate than that for the prompt one. Thus, presence of the quadratic term in the dose expression for leukemia and its virtual complete absence for solid tumors may be due to lower T-value for hemopoietic stem cells. Predicted by the model dose rate influence on the quadratic term does not depend on the dose, so the reduction factor should be only applied to the quadratic term of the dose expression. This follows as well from the original version of the Kellerer-Rossi theory.
Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; Besné-Mérida, Alejandro; Correa, Dolores
2016-06-15
In humans, the probability of congenital infection and fetal damage due to Toxoplasma gondii is dependent on the gestation period at which primary infection occurs. Many animal models have been used for vaccine, drug testing, or studies on host or parasite factors that affect transmission or fetal pathology, but few works have directly tested fetal infection and damage rates along gestation. So, the purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine if there is a model which reflects these changes as they occur in humans. We looked for papers appearing between 1970 and 2014 in major databases like Medline and Scopus, as well as gray literature. From almost 11,000 citations obtained, only 49 papers fulfilled the criteria of having data of all independent variables and at least one dependent datum for control (untreated) groups. Some interesting findings could be extracted. For example, pigs seem resistant and sheep susceptible to congenital infection. Also, oocysts cause more congenitally infected offspring than tissue cysts, bradyzoites or tachyzoites. In spite of these interesting findings, very few results on vertical transmission or fetal damage rates were similar to those described for humans and only for one of the gestation thirds, not all. Moreover, in most designs tissue cysts - with unknown number of bradyzoites - were used, so actual dose could not be established. The meta-analysis could not be performed, mainly because of great heterogeneity in experimental conditions. Nevertheless, results gathered suggest that a model could be designed to represent the increase in vertical transmission and decrease in fetal damage found in humans under natural conditions.
Galectin-3 Blockade Reduces Renal Fibrosis in Two Normotensive Experimental Models of Renal Damage
Martinez-Martinez, Ernesto; Ibarrola, Jaime; Calvier, Laurent; Fernandez-Celis, Amaya; Leroy, Celine; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Rossignol, Patrick; Lopez-Andres, Natalia
2016-01-01
Background Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is increased in kidney injury and its pharmacological blockade reduces renal damage in acute kidney injury, hyperaldosteronism or hypertensive nephropathy. We herein investigated the effects of pharmacological Gal-3 inhibition by modified citrus pectin (MCP) in early renal damage associated with obesity and aortic stenosis (AS). Results Gal-3 was upregulated in kidneys from high fat diet (HFD) rats and in animals with partial occlusion of ascending aorta (AS). Urinary and plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and urinary albumin were enhanced in HFD and AS rats. In kidney from obese rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, TFG-β), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (α-smooth muscle actin, E-cadherin), inflammatory mediator (osteopontin) and kidney injury marker (kidney injury molecule-1) were modified. In kidney from AS rats, fibrotic markers (collagen, CTGF), epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecules (fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, β-catenin, E-cadherin) and kidney injury markers (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1) were altered. Histologic observations of obese and AS rat kidneys revealed tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 with MCP normalized renal Gal-3 levels as well as functional, histological and molecular alterations in obese and AS rats. Conclusions In experimental models of mild kidney damage, the increase in renal Gal-3 expression paralleled with renal fibrosis, inflammation and damage, while these alterations were prevented by Gal-3 blockade. These data suggest that Gal-3 could be a new player in renal molecular, histological and functional alterations at early stages of kidney damage. PMID:27829066
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Mei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A substructural damage identification approach based on changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix is proposed in this paper to identify structural damage including its location and severity. Firstly, a substructure approach is adopted in the procedure to divide a complete structure into several substructures in order to significantly reduce the number of unknown parameters for each substructure so that damage identification processes can be independently conducted on each substructure. To establish a relation between changes in AR model coefficients and structural damage for each substructure, a theoretical derivation is presented. Thus the accelerations are fed into ARMAX models to determine the AR model coefficients for each substructure under undamaged and various damaged conditions, based on which changes in the first AR model coefficient matrix (CFAR is obtained and adopted as the damage indicator for the proposed substructure damage identification approach. To better assess the performance of the proposed procedure, a numerical simulation and an experimental verification of the proposed approach are then carried out and the results show that the proposed procedure can successfully locate and quantify the damage in both simulation and laboratory experiment.
Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.
2016-09-01
The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.
Micromechanical modeling of damage in periodic composites using strain gradient plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Azizi, Reza
2012-01-01
Damage evolution at the fiber matrix interface in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is studied using strain gradient theory of plasticity. The study includes the rate independent formulation of energetic strain gradient plasticity for the matrix, purely elastic model for the fiber and cohesive zone...... model under simple shear and transverse uniaxial tension using plane strain and periodic boundary conditions. The result of the overall response curve, effective plastic strain, effective stress and higher order stress distributions are shown. The effect of the material length scale, maximum stress...
A DAMAGE ACCUMULATING MODELING OF FAILURE WAVES IN GLASS UNDER HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘占芳; 姚国文; 詹先义
2001-01-01
The failure wave phenomenon was interpreted in glass media under the high velocity impact with the stress levels below the Hugoniot elastic limit. In view of the plate impact experimental observations a damage-accumulating model predominated by the deviatoric stress impulse was proposed while Heaviside function was adopted in the damageaccumulating model to describe the failure delay in the interior of materials. Features of the failure layer and propagation mechanism as well as their dynamic characteristics were further presented. The reduction in failure wave propagation speed is pointed out as the reflected rarefaction waves reflect again from the failure layer boundary.
ERK inhibition with PD184161 mitigates brain damage in a mouse model of stroke.
Gladbach, Amadeus; van Eersel, Janet; Bi, Mian; Ke, Yazi D; Ittner, Lars M
2014-05-01
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death. It has previously been shown that blocking activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with the MEK inhibitor U0126 mitigates brain damage in rodent models of ischemic stroke. Here we show that the newer MEK inhibitor PD184161 reduces cell death and altered gene expression in cultured neurons and mice undergoing excitotoxicity, and has similar protective effects in a mouse model of stroke. This further supports ERK inhibition as a potential treatment for stroke.
5-lipoxygenase expression in a brain damage model induced by chronic oral administration of aluminum
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yongquan Pan; Peng Zhang; Junqing Yang; Qiang Su
2010-01-01
A preliminary study has found that the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, caffeic acid, has a marked protective effect on acute brain injury induced by intracerebroventricular microinjection of aluminum.In this experiment, chronic brain injury and neuronal degeneration model was established in rats by chronic oral administration of aluminum, and then intervened using caffeic acid. Results showed that caffeic acid can downregulate chronic aluminum overload-induced 5-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein expression, and repair the aluminum overload-induced hippocampal neuronal damage andspatial orientation impairment. It is suggested that direct intervention of 5-lipoxygenase expression has a neuroprotective role in the degeneration induced by chronic aluminum overload brain injury model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
L.H. Toburen, Principal Investigator; J.L. Shinpaugh; M. Dingfelder; and G. Lapicki; Co-Investigators
2007-01-07
Modern tools of radiobiology are leading to many new discoveries regarding how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. We can now irradiate single cells and observe responses in adjacent cells. We can also measure clusters of radiation damage produced in DNA. Our primary objective has been to understand the underling physics associated with these new biological responses. The primary tools available to describe the initial spatial pattern of damage formed by the absorption of ionizing radiation are based on Monte Carlo simulation of the structure of charged particle tracks. Although many Monte Carlo codes exist and considerable progress is being made in the incorporation of detailed macromolecular target structures into these codes, much of the interaction physics is still based on gas phase measurements and/or untested theoretical calculations that focus on water as the transport medium. Our objectives were threefold, (1) to expand the applicability of Monte Carlo track structure simulation to tissue-like material beyond the current focus on water, (2) to incorporate the most recent experimental information on electron interactions in biologically relevant material, and (3) to compare recent measurements of electron emissions induced by charged particles in thin foils with Monte Carlo predictions. We addressed these research objectives in three ways. First we applied theoretical techniques, similar to those used to derive data for water, to obtain cross sections for other condensed phase materials. This served two purposes. One was to provide testability of the theoretical technique by comparison to existing experimental data for electron transport (similar data does not exist for water), and the other was to expand the target database for use in modeling tissue. Second, we carefully reviewed published data, and ongoing experiments, for electron interaction cross-sections in biologically relevant condensed phase material. Results for low-energy electron
Modeling of thermo-mechanical fatigue and damage in shape memory alloy axial actuators
Wheeler, Robert W.; Hartl, Darren J.; Chemisky, Yves; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.
2015-04-01
The aerospace, automotive, and energy industries have seen the potential benefits of using shape memory alloys (SMAs) as solid state actuators. Thus far, however, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components or over-designed due to a lack of understanding regarding how SMAs undergo thermomechanical or actuation fatigue and the inability to accurately predict failure in an actuator during use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the actuation fatigue response of Nickel-Titanium-Hafnium (NiTiHf) axial actuators and, in turn, use this characterization to predict failure and monitor damage in dogbone actuators undergoing various thermomechanical loading paths. Calibration data was collected from constant load, full cycle tests ranging from 200-600MPa. Subsequently, actuator lifetimes were predicted for four additional loading paths. These loading paths consisted of linearly varying load with full transformation (300-500MPa) and step loads which transition from zero stress to 300-400MPa at various martensitic volume fractions. Thermal cycling was achieved via resistive heating and convective cooling and was controlled via a state machine developed in LabVIEW. A previously developed fatigue damage model, which is formulated such that the damage accumulation rate is general in terms of its dependence on current and local stress and actuation strain states, was utilized. This form allows the model to be utilized for specimens undergoing complex loading paths. Agreement between experiments and simulations is discussed.
Oxidative damage to macromolecules in human Parkinson disease and the rotenone model.
Sanders, Laurie H; Greenamyre, J Timothy
2013-09-01
Parkinson disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is associated with selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Although the underlying mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration in PD seem to be multifactorial, mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress are widely considered to be central to many forms of the disease. Whether oxidative stress is a cause or a consequence of dopaminergic death, there is substantial evidence for oxidative stress both in human PD patients and in animal models of PD, especially using rotenone, a complex I inhibitor. There are many indices of oxidative stress, but this review covers the recent evidence for oxidative damage to nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins in both the brain and the peripheral tissues in human PD and in the rotenone model. Limitations of the existing literature and future perspectives are discussed. Understanding how each particular macromolecule is damaged by oxidative stress and the interplay of secondary damage to other biomolecules may help us design better targets for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inspection of the Math Model Tools for On-Orbit Assessment of Impact Damage Report
Harris, Charles E.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Piascik, Robert S> KramerWhite, Julie A.; KramerWhite, Julie A.; Labbe, Steve G.; Rotter, Hank A.
2007-01-01
In Spring of 2005, the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) was engaged by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to peer review the suite of analytical tools being developed to support the determination of impact and damage tolerance of the Orbiter Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The NESC formed an independent review team with the core disciplines of materials, flight sciences, structures, mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. The Math Model Tools reviewed included damage prediction and stress analysis, aeroheating analysis, and thermal analysis tools. Some tools are physics-based and other tools are empirically-derived. Each tool was created for a specific use and timeframe, including certification, real-time pre-launch assessments. In addition, the tools are used together in an integrated strategy for assessing the ramifications of impact damage to tile and RCC. The NESC teams conducted a peer review of the engineering data package for each Math Model Tool. This report contains the summary of the team observations and recommendations from these reviews.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Xuan Fan
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Objective: To study the intervention effect of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction on the neuron damage in model rats with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH. Methods: 160 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the ASDH model rats were made by stereotactic autoblood injection, and sham operation group received craniotomy without blood injection. Sham operation group and model group were normally bred after model establishment, and 6 h after model establishment, the treatment group received intragastric administration of Peiyuan Huayu Decoction, and control group received intragastric administration of Piracetam Tablets, 1 time a day. On the 1d, 3d, 5d and 7d after model establishment, the general conditions of rats (activity, food intake and mental state were observed, blood was collected via auricula dextra, ELISA method was used to determine peripheral plasma NSE and S100毬 protein contents, routine HE staining was conducted after perfusion fixation, the neurons in blood injection side of brain tissue were counted, and the neuron damage was observed. Results: 26 rats were dead in the experiment. The general conditions of sham operation group were significantly better than those of other groups, treatment group was significantly better than model group and control group on the 5d group (P0.05; neuron count of sham operation group was basically stable, treatment group was not different from model group and control group on the 1d (P>0.05, treatment group was better than model group (P0.05 on the 3d, and treatment group was better than model group and control group on the 5d and 7d (P0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents decreased significantly on the 3d, and treatment group was significantly different from model group and control group (P<0.05, S100毬 protein and NSE contents increased on the 5d and 7d, the increase in treatment group was slower than that in model group and control group, and there was significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion
A new Cumulative Damage Model for Fatigue Life Prediction under Shot Peening Treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul-Jabar H. Ali
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, fatigue damage accumulation were studied using many methods i.e.Corton-Dalon (CD,Corton-Dalon-Marsh(CDM, new non-linear model and experimental method. The prediction of fatigue lifetimes based on the two classical methods, Corton-Dalon (CDandCorton-Dalon-Marsh (CDM, are uneconomic and non-conservative respectively. However satisfactory predictions were obtained by applying the proposed non-linear model (present model for medium carbon steel compared with experimental work. Many shortcomings of the two classical methods are related to their inability to take into account the surface treatment effect as shot peening. It is clear that the new model shows that a much better and conservative prediction of fatigue life in comparison with CD and CDM methods. The prediction of the present model gave slightly below the experimental data while the CDM gave overestimate prediction and CD showed strongly underestimates the life of specimens.
Continuum damage model for bioresorbable magnesium alloy devices - Application to coronary stents.
Gastaldi, D; Sassi, V; Petrini, L; Vedani, M; Trasatti, S; Migliavacca, F
2011-04-01
The main drawback of a conventional stenting procedure is the high risk of restenosis. The idea of a stent that "disappears" after having fulfilled its mission is very intriguing and fascinating, since it can be expected that the stent mass decreases in time to allow the gradual transmission of the mechanical load to the surrounding tissues owing to controlled dissolution by corrosion. Magnesium and its alloys are appealing materials for designing biodegradable stents. The objective of this work is to develop, in a finite element framework, a model of magnesium degradation that is able to predict the corrosion rate, thus providing a valuable tool for the design of bioresorbable stents. Continuum damage mechanics is suitable for modeling several damage mechanisms, including different types of corrosion. In this study, the damage is assumed to be the superposition of stress corrosion and uniform microgalvanic corrosion processes. The former describes the stress-mediated localization of the corrosion attack through a stress-dependent evolution law, while the latter affects the free surface of the material exposed to an aggressive environment. Comparisons with experimental tests show that the developed model can reproduce the behavior of different magnesium alloys subjected to static corrosion tests. The study shows that parameter identification for a correct calibration of the model response on the results of uniform and stress corrosion experimental tests is reachable. Moreover, three-dimensional stenting procedures accounting for interaction with the arterial vessel are simulated, and it is shown how the proposed modeling approach gives the possibility of accounting for the combined effects of an aggressive environment and mechanical loading.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi-Wei Han; Zi Yang; Xiao-Yan Ding; Huan Yu
2015-01-01
Background:Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease during pregnancy.Dysregulated lipid metabolism may be related to some preeclampsia.We investigated the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and liver injury in different preeclampsia-like mouse models and their potential common pathways.Methods:Preeclampsia-like models (Nw-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester [L-NAME],lipopolysaccharide [LPS],apolipoprotein C-Ⅲ [Apo] transgnic mice + L-NAME,β2 glycoprotein Ⅰ [βGPI]) were used in four experimental groups:L-NAME (LN),LPS,Apo-LN and βGPI,respectively,and controls received saline (LN-C,LPS-C,Apo-C,βGPI-C).The first three models were established in preimplantation (PI),early-,mid-and late-gestation (EG,MG and LG).βGPI and controls were injected before implantation.Mean arterial pressure (MAP),24-hour urine protein,placental and fetal weight,serum TGs,total cholesterol (TC) and pathologic liver and trophocyte changes were assessed.Results:MAP and proteinuria were significantly increased in the experimental groups.Placenta and fetal weight in PI,EP and MP subgroups were significantly lower than LP.Serum TGs significantly increased in most groups but controls.TC was not different between experimental and control groups.Spotty hepatic cell necrosis was observed in PI,EG,MG in LN,Apo-LN and βGPI,but no morphologic changes were observed in the LPS group.Similar trophoblastic mitochondrial damage was observed in every experimental group.Conclusions:Earlier preeclampsia onset causes a higher MAP and urine protein level,and more severe placental and fetal damage.Preeclampsia-like models generated by varied means lead to different changes in lipid metabolism and associated with liver injury.Trophoblastic mitochondrial damage may be the common terminal pathway in different preeclampsia-like models.
Ebrahimian, Hamed; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P.; de Callafon, Raymond A.
2017-02-01
This paper presents a framework for structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage identification of civil structures. This framework integrates advanced mechanics-based nonlinear finite element (FE) modeling and analysis techniques with a batch Bayesian estimation approach to estimate time-invariant model parameters used in the FE model of the structure of interest. The framework uses input excitation and dynamic response of the structure and updates a nonlinear FE model of the structure to minimize the discrepancies between predicted and measured response time histories. The updated FE model can then be interrogated to detect, localize, classify, and quantify the state of damage and predict the remaining useful life of the structure. As opposed to recursive estimation methods, in the batch Bayesian estimation approach, the entire time history of the input excitation and output response of the structure are used as a batch of data to estimate the FE model parameters through a number of iterations. In the case of non-informative prior, the batch Bayesian method leads to an extended maximum likelihood (ML) estimation method to estimate jointly time-invariant model parameters and the measurement noise amplitude. The extended ML estimation problem is solved efficiently using a gradient-based interior-point optimization algorithm. Gradient-based optimization algorithms require the FE response sensitivities with respect to the model parameters to be identified. The FE response sensitivities are computed accurately and efficiently using the direct differentiation method (DDM). The estimation uncertainties are evaluated based on the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) theorem by computing the exact Fisher Information matrix using the FE response sensitivities with respect to the model parameters. The accuracy of the proposed uncertainty quantification approach is verified using a sampling approach based on the unscented transformation. Two validation studies, based on realistic
Saksala, Timo
2016-10-01
This paper deals with numerical modelling of rock fracture under dynamic loading. For this end, a combined continuum damage-embedded discontinuity model is applied in finite element modelling of crack propagation in rock. In this model, the strong loading rate sensitivity of rock is captured by the rate-dependent continuum scalar damage model that controls the pre-peak nonlinear hardening part of rock behaviour. The post-peak exponential softening part of the rock behaviour is governed by the embedded displacement discontinuity model describing the mode I, mode II and mixed mode fracture of rock. Rock heterogeneity is incorporated in the present approach by random description of the rock mineral texture based on the Voronoi tessellation. The model performance is demonstrated in numerical examples where the uniaxial tension and compression tests on rock are simulated. Finally, the dynamic three-point bending test of a semicircular disc is simulated in order to show that the model correctly predicts the strain rate-dependent tensile strengths as well as the failure modes of rock in this test. Special emphasis is laid on modelling the loading rate sensitivity of tensile strength of Laurentian granite.
SERCA1 overexpression minimizes skeletal muscle damage in dystrophic mouse models.
Mázala, Davi A G; Pratt, Stephen J P; Chen, Dapeng; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Lovering, Richard M; Chin, Eva R
2015-05-01
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle wasting secondary to repeated muscle damage and inadequate repair. Elevations in intracellular free Ca²⁺ have been implicated in disease progression, and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase 1 (SERCA1) overexpression has been shown to ameliorate the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of SERCA1 overexpression in the more severe mdx/Utr(-/-) mouse model of DMD. Mice overexpressing SERCA1 were crossed with mdx/Utr ± mice to generate mdx/Utr(-/-)/+SERCA1 mice and compared with wild-type (WT), WT/+SERCA1, mdx/+SERCA1, and genotype controls. Mice were assessed at ∼12 wk of age for changes in Ca²⁺ handling, muscle mass, quadriceps torque, markers of muscle damage, and response to repeated eccentric contractions. SERCA1-overexpressing mice had a two- to threefold increase in maximal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺-ATPase activity compared with WT which was associated with normalization in body mass for both mdx/+SERCA1 and mdx/Utr(-/-)/+SERCA1. Torque deficit in the quadriceps after eccentric injury was 2.7-fold greater in mdx/Utr(-/-) vs. WT mice, but only 1.5-fold greater in mdx/Utr(-/-)/+SERCA1 vs. WT mice, an attenuation of 44%. Markers of muscle damage (% centrally nucleated fibers, necrotic area, and serum creatine kinase levels) were higher in both mdx and mdx/Utr(-/-) vs. WT, and all were attenuated by overexpression of SERCA1. These data indicate that SERCA1 overexpression ameliorates functional impairments and cellular markers of damage in a more severe mouse model of DMD. These findings support targeting intracellular Ca²⁺ control as a therapeutic approach for DMD.
Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M
2006-11-22
Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Z.; Schreyer, H.L. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-09-01
The response of underground structures and transportation facilities under various external loadings and environments is critical for human safety as well as environmental protection. Since quasi-brittle materials such as concrete and rock are commonly used for underground construction, the constitutive modeling of these engineering materials, including post-limit behaviors, is one of the most important aspects in safety assessment. From experimental, theoretical, and computational points of view, this report considers the constitutive modeling of quasi-brittle materials in general and concentrates on concrete in particular. Based on the internal variable theory of thermodynamics, the general formulations of plasticity and damage models are given to simulate two distinct modes of microstructural changes, inelastic flow and degradation of material strength and stiffness, that identify the phenomenological nonlinear behaviors of quasi-brittle materials. The computational aspects of plasticity and damage models are explored with respect to their effects on structural analyses. Specific constitutive models are then developed in a systematic manner according to the degree of completeness. A comprehensive literature survey is made to provide the up-to-date information on prediction of structural failures, which can serve as a reference for future research.
Forming limit prediction of powder forging process by the energy-based elastoplastic damage model
Yeh, Hung-Yang; Cheng, Jung-Ho; Huang, Cheng-Chao
2004-06-01
An energy-based elastoplastic damage model is developed and then applied to predict the deformation and fracture initiation in powder forging processes. The fracture mechanism is investigated by the newly proposed damage model, which is based on the plastic energy dissipation. The developed formulations are implemented into finite element program ABAQUS in order to simulate the complex loading conditions. The forming limits of sintered porous metals under various operational conditions are explored by comparing the relevant experiments with the finite element analyses. The sintered iron-powder preforms of various initial relative densities (RDs) and aspect ratios are compressed until crack initiates. The deformation level of the bulged billets at fracture stroke obtained from compressive fracture tests is utilized to validate the finite element model and then the forming limit diagrams are constructed with the validated model. This model is further verified by the gear blank forging. The fracture site and corresponding deformation level are predicted by the finite element simulations. Meanwhile, the gear forging experiment is performed on the sintered preforms. The predicted results agree well with the experimental observations.
Omerspahic, E.; Mattiasson, K.
2003-09-01
Within the scope of thermodynamics with internal variables, constitutive and evolution equations (representing ductile deformation of sheets made of high strength steel alloys) with mixed hardening and damage have been derived. As a result of the derivation, the rate-dependent elastoplastic constitutive model is identified. The material is assumed to be oriented in the principal damage directions, indicating orthotropic damage. Owing to postulates within continuum damage mechanics, a general expression for degradation of elastic properties in materials has been obtained. A numerical algorithm for the integration of the constitutive equations has been developed as well, based on an elastic predictor plastic/damage corrector procedure. The plastic/damage corrector is based on a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. In order to consider viscoplastic material properties, the overstress (in the definition of the plastic multiplier) is a function of the plastic yield function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.
2000-05-01
Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of
Cascading uncertainties in flood inundation models to uncertain estimates of damage and loss
Fewtrell, Timothy; Michel, Gero; Ntelekos, Alexandros; Bates, Paul
2010-05-01
The complexity of flood processes, particularly in urban environments, and the difficulties of collecting data during flood events, presents significant and particular challenges to modellers, especially when considering large geographic areas. As a result, the modelling process incorporates a number of areas of uncertainty during model conceptualisation, construction and evaluation. There is a wealth of literature detailing the relative magnitudes of uncertainties in numerical flood input data (e.g. boundary conditions, model resolution and friction specification) for a wide variety of flood inundation scenarios (e.g. fluvial inundation and surface water flooding). Indeed, recent UK funded projects (e.g. FREE) have explicitly examined the effect of cascading uncertainties in ensembles of GCM output through rainfall-runoff models to hydraulic flood inundation models. However, there has been little work examining the effect of cascading uncertainties in flood hazard ensembles to estimates of damage and loss, the quantity of interest when assessing flood risk. Furthermore, vulnerability is possibly the largest area of uncertainty for (re-)insurers as in-depth and reliable of knowledge of portfolios is difficult to obtain. Insurance industry CAT models attempt to represent a credible range of flood events over large geographic areas and as such examining all sources of uncertainty is not computationally tractable. However, the insurance industry is also marked by a trend towards an increasing need to understand the variability in flood loss estimates derived from these CAT models. In order to assess the relative importance of uncertainties in flood inundation models and depth/damage curves, hypothetical 1-in-100 and 1-in-200 year return period flood events are propagated through the Greenwich embayment in London, UK. Errors resulting from topographic smoothing, friction specification and inflow boundary conditions are cascaded to form an ensemble of flood levels and
Geophysical models of heat and fluid flow in damageable poro-elastic continua
Roubíček, Tomáš
2017-03-01
A rather general model for fluid and heat transport in poro-elastic continua undergoing possibly also plastic-like deformation and damage is developed with the goal to cover various specific models of rock rheology used in geophysics of Earth's crust. Nonconvex free energy at small elastic strains, gradient theories (in particular the concept of second-grade nonsimple continua), and Biot poro-elastic model are employed, together with possible large displacement due to large plastic-like strains evolving during long time periods. Also the additive splitting is justified in stratified situations which are of interest in modelling of lithospheric crust faults. Thermodynamically based formulation includes entropy balance (in particular the Clausius-Duhem inequality) and an explicit global energy balance. It is further outlined that the energy balance can be used to ensure, under suitable data qualification, existence of a weak solution and stability and convergence of suitable approximation schemes at least in some particular situations.
Geophysical models of heat and fluid flow in damageable poro-elastic continua
Roubíček, Tomáš
2017-01-01
A rather general model for fluid and heat transport in poro-elastic continua undergoing possibly also plastic-like deformation and damage is developed with the goal to cover various specific models of rock rheology used in geophysics of Earth's crust. Nonconvex free energy at small elastic strains, gradient theories (in particular the concept of second-grade nonsimple continua), and Biot poro-elastic model are employed, together with possible large displacement due to large plastic-like strains evolving during long time periods. Also the additive splitting is justified in stratified situations which are of interest in modelling of lithospheric crust faults. Thermodynamically based formulation includes entropy balance (in particular the Clausius-Duhem inequality) and an explicit global energy balance. It is further outlined that the energy balance can be used to ensure, under suitable data qualification, existence of a weak solution and stability and convergence of suitable approximation schemes at least in some particular situations.
Application of Different HSI Color Models to Detect Fire-Damaged Mortar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Luo
2013-12-01
Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of the effect of vehicle fires on rigid pavement, a nondestructive test method utilizing an ordinary digital camera to capture images of mortar at five elevated temperatures was undertaken. These images were then analyzed by “image color-intensity analyzer” software. In image analysis, the RGB color model was the basic system used to represent the color information of images. HSI is a derived-color model that is transformed from an RGB model by formulae. In order to understand more about surface color changes and temperatures after a vehicle fire, various transformation formulae used in different research areas were applied in this study. They were then evaluated to obtain the optimum HSI model for further studies of fire-damaged mortar through the use of image analysis.
Schumacher, Shane Christian
2002-01-01
A conventional composite material for structural applications is composed of stiff reinforcing fibers embedded in a relatively soft polymer matrix, e.g. glass fibers in an epoxy matrix. Although composites have numerous advantages over traditional materials, the presence of two vastly different constituent materials has confounded analysts trying to predict failure. The inability to accurately predict the inelastic response of polymer based composites along with their ultimate failure is a significant barrier to their introduction to new applications. Polymer based composite materials also tend to exhibit rate and time dependent failure characteristics. Lack of knowledge about the rate dependent response and progressive failure of composite structures has led to the current practice of designing these structures with static properties. However, high strain rate mechanical properties can vary greatly from the static properties. The objective of this research is to develop a finite element based failure analysis tool for composite materials that incorporates strain rate hardening effects in the material failure model. The analysis method, referred to as multicontinuum theory (MCT) retains the identity of individual constituents by treating them as separate but linked continua. Retaining the constituent identities allows one to extract continuum phase averaged stress/strain fields for the constituents in a routine structural analysis. Time dependent failure is incorporated in MCT by introducing a continuum damage model into MCT. In addition to modeling time and rate dependent failure, the damage model is capable of capturing the nonlinear stress-strain response observed in composite materials.
Damage modeling of small-scale experiments on dental enamel with hierarchical microstructure.
Scheider, I; Xiao, T; Yilmaz, E; Schneider, G A; Huber, N; Bargmann, S
2015-03-01
Dental enamel is a highly anisotropic and heterogeneous material, which exhibits an optimal reliability with respect to the various loads occurring over years. In this work, enamel's microstructure of parallel aligned rods of mineral fibers is modeled and mechanical properties are evaluated in terms of strength and toughness with the help of a multiscale modeling method. The established model is validated by comparing it with the stress-strain curves identified by microcantilever beam experiments extracted from these rods. Moreover, in order to gain further insight in the damage-tolerant behavior of enamel, the size of crystallites below which the structure becomes insensitive to flaws is studied by a microstructural finite element model. The assumption regarding the fiber strength is verified by a numerical study leading to accordance of fiber size and flaw tolerance size, and the debonding strength is estimated by optimizing the failure behavior of the microstructure on the hierarchical level above the individual fibers. Based on these well-grounded properties, the material behavior is predicted well by homogenization of a representative unit cell including damage, taking imperfections (like microcracks in the present case) into account. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A coupled damage-plasticity model for the cyclic behavior of shear-loaded interfaces
Carrara, P.; De Lorenzis, L.
2015-12-01
The present work proposes a novel thermodynamically consistent model for the behavior of interfaces under shear (i.e. mode-II) cyclic loading conditions. The interface behavior is defined coupling damage and plasticity. The admissible states' domain is formulated restricting the tangential interface stress to non-negative values, which makes the model suitable e.g. for interfaces with thin adherends. Linear softening is assumed so as to reproduce, under monotonic conditions, a bilinear mode-II interface law. Two damage variables govern respectively the loss of strength and of stiffness of the interface. The proposed model needs the evaluation of only four independent parameters, i.e. three defining the monotonic mode-II interface law, and one ruling the fatigue behavior. This limited number of parameters and their clear physical meaning facilitate experimental calibration. Model predictions are compared with experimental results on fiber reinforced polymer sheets externally bonded to concrete involving different load histories, and an excellent agreement is obtained.
Modelling the induction of cell death and chromosome damage by therapeutic protons
Carante, M P
2015-01-01
A two-parameter biophysical model cal led BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations), which assumes a pivotal role for DNA cluster damage and for “lethal” chromosome aberrations, was applied to calculate cell death and chromosome aberrations for normal and radio-resistant cells along a 62-MeV eye melanoma proton beam. The yield of DNA “Cluster Lesions” and the probability for a chromosome fragment of not being rejoined with any partne r were adjustable parameters. In line with other works, the beam effectiveness at inducing both biological endpoints was found to increase with increasing depth, and high levels of damage were found also beyond the dose fall-off, due to the higher biological effectiveness of low-energy protons. This implies that assuming a constant RBE along the whole SOBP, as is currently done in clinical practice, may be sub-optimal, also implying a possible underestimation of normal tissue damage. Furthermore, the calculations suggested that fo...
Waters, David J; Shen, Shuren; Glickman, Lawrence T; Cooley, Dawn M; Bostwick, David G; Qian, Junqi; Combs, Gerald F; Morris, J Steven
2005-07-01
Daily supplementation with the essential trace mineral selenium significantly reduced prostate cancer risk in men in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. However, the optimal intake of selenium for prostate cancer prevention is unknown. We hypothesized that selenium significantly regulates the extent of genotoxic damage within the aging prostate and that the relationship between dietary selenium intake and DNA damage is non-linear, i.e. more selenium is not necessarily better. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized feeding trial in which 49 elderly beagle dogs (physiologically equivalent to 62-69-year-old men) received nutritionally adequate or supranutritional levels of selenium for 7 months, in order to mimic the range of dietary selenium intake of men in the United States. Our results demonstrate an intriguing U-shaped dose-response relationship between selenium status (toenail selenium concentration) and the extent of DNA damage (alkaline Comet assay) within the prostate. Further, we demonstrate that the concentration of selenium that minimizes DNA damage in the aging dog prostate remarkably parallels the selenium concentration in men that minimizes prostate cancer risk. By studying elderly dogs, the only non-human animal model of spontaneous prostate cancer, we have established a new approach to bridge the gap between laboratory and human studies that can be used to select the appropriate dose of anticancer agents for large-scale human cancer prevention trials. From the U-shaped dose-response, it follows that not all men will necessarily benefit from increasing their selenium intake and that measurement of baseline nutrient status should be required for all individuals in prevention trials to avoid oversupplementation.
Laser-induced cartilage damage: an ex-vivo model using confocal microscopy
Frenz, Martin; Zueger, Benno J.; Monin, D.; Weiler, C.; Mainil-Varlet, P. M.; Weber, Heinz P.; Schaffner, Thomas
1999-06-01
Although there is an increasing popularity of lasers in orthopedic surgery, there is a growing concern about negative side effects of this therapy e.g. prolonged restitution time, radiation damage to adjacent cartilage or depth effects like bone necrosis. Despite case reports and experimental investigations over the last few years little is known about the extent of acute cartilage damage induced by different lasers types and energies. Histological examination offers only limited insights in cell viability and metabolism. Ho:YAG and Er:YAG lasers emitting at 2.1 micrometer and 2.94 micrometer, respectively, are ideally suited for tissue treatment because these wavelengths are strongly absorbed in water. The Purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of laser type and energy on chondrocyte viability in an ex vivo model. Free running Er:YAG (E equals 100 and 150 mJ) and Ho:YAG (E equals 500 and 800 mJ) lasers were used at different energy levels using a fixed pulse length of 400 microseconds. The energy was delivered at 8 Hz through optical fibers. Fresh bovine hyaline cartilage samples were mounted in a water bath at room temperature and the fiber was positioned at 30 degree and 180 degree angles relative to the tissue surface. After laser irradiation the samples were assessed by a life-dead cell viability test using a confocal microscope and by standard histology. Thermal damage was much deeper with Ho:YAG (up to 1800 micrometer) than with the Er:YAG laser (up to 70 micrometer). The cell viability test revealed a damage zone about twice the one determined by standard histology. Confocal microscopy is a powerful tool for assessing changes in tissue structure after laser treatment. In addition this technique allows to quantify these alterations without necessitating time consuming and expensive animal experiments.
Comet assay: a reliable tool for the assessment of DNA damage in different models.
Dhawan, Alok; Bajpayee, Mahima; Parmar, Devendra
2009-02-01
New chemicals are being added each year to the existing burden of toxic substances in the environment. This has led to increased pollution of ecosystems as well as deterioration of the air, water, and soil quality. Excessive agricultural and industrial activities adversely affect biodiversity, threatening the survival of species in a particular habitat as well as posing disease risks to humans. Some of the chemicals, e.g., pesticides and heavy metals, may be genotoxic to the sentinel species and/or to non-target species, causing deleterious effects in somatic or germ cells. Test systems which help in hazard prediction and risk assessment are important to assess the genotoxic potential of chemicals before their release into the environment or commercial use as well as DNA damage in flora and fauna affected by contaminated/polluted habitats. The Comet assay has been widely accepted as a simple, sensitive, and rapid tool for assessing DNA damage and repair in individual eukaryotic as well as some prokaryotic cells, and has increasingly found application in diverse fields ranging from genetic toxicology to human epidemiology. This review is an attempt to comprehensively encase the use of Comet assay in different models from bacteria to man, employing diverse cell types to assess the DNA-damaging potential of chemicals and/or environmental conditions. Sentinel species are the first to be affected by adverse changes in their environment. Determination of DNA damage using the Comet assay in these indicator organisms would thus provide information about the genotoxic potential of their habitat at an early stage. This would allow for intervention strategies to be implemented for prevention or reduction of deleterious health effects in the sentinel species as well as in humans.
Charrier, Guillaume; Chuine, Isabelle; Bonhomme, Marc; Améglio, Thierry
2017-02-09
Frost damages develop when exposure overtakes frost vulnerability. Frost risk assessment therefore needs dynamic simulation of frost hardiness using temperature and photoperiod in interaction with developmental stage. Two models, including or not the effect of photoperiod were calibrated using five years of frost hardiness monitoring (2007-2012), in two locations (low and high elevation) for three walnut genotypes with contrasted phenology and maximum hardiness (Juglans regia cv Franquette, Juglans regia x nigra 'Early' and 'Late'). The Photothermal model predicted more accurate values for all genotypes (Efficiency = 0.879; RMSEP = 2.55 °C) than the Thermal model (Efficiency = 0.801; RMSEP = 3.24 °C). Predicted frost damages were strongly correlated to minimum temperature of the freezing events (ρ = -0.983) rather than actual frost hardiness (ρ = -0.515), or ratio of phenological stage completion (ρ = 0.336). Higher frost risks are consequently predicted during winter, at high elevation, whereas spring is only risky at low elevation in early genotypes exhibiting faster dehardening rate. However, early frost damages, although of lower value, may negatively affect fruit production the subsequent year (R(2) = 0.381, P = 0.057). These results highlight the interacting pattern between frost exposure and vulnerability at different scales and the necessity of intra-organ studies to understand the time course of frost vulnerability in flower buds along the winter.
Discrete fracture modeling of hydro-mechanical damage processes in geological systems
Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.
2014-12-01
This study presents a modeling approach for investigating coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior, including fracture development, within geomaterials and structures. In the model, the coupling procedure consists of an effective linkage between two codes: TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach; and an implementation of the rigid-body-spring network (RBSN) method, a discrete (lattice) modeling approach to represent geomechanical behavior. One main advantage of linking these two codes is that they share the same geometrical mesh structure based on the Voronoi discretization, so that a straightforward representation of discrete fracture networks (DFN) is available for fluid flow processes. The capabilities of the TOUGH-RBSN model are demonstrated through simulations of hydraulic fracturing, where fluid pressure-induced fracturing and damage-assisted flow are well represented. The TOUGH-RBSN modeling methodology has been extended to enable treatment of geomaterials exhibiting anisotropic characteristics. In the RBSN approach, elastic spring coefficients and strength parameters are systematically formulated based on the principal bedding direction, which facilitate a straightforward representation of anisotropy. Uniaxial compression tests are simulated for a transversely isotropic material to validate the new modeling scheme. The model is also used to simulate excavation fracture damage for the HG-A microtunnel in the Opalinus Clay rock, located at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL) near Saint-Ursanne, Switzerland. The Opalinus Clay has transversely isotropic material properties caused by natural features such as bedding, foliation, and flow structures. Preferential fracturing and tunnel breakouts were observed following excavation, which are believed to be strongly influenced by the mechanical anisotropy of the rock material. The simulation results are qualitatively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shokoohfar, Ahmad; Rahai, Alireza, E-mail: rahai@aut.ac.ir
2016-03-15
Highlights: • This paper describes nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a (PCCV). • Coupled temp-disp. analysis and concrete damage plasticity are considered. • Temperature has limited effects on correct failure mode estimation. • Higher pre-stressing forces have limited effects on ultimate radial displacements. • Anchorage details of liner plates leads to prediction of correct failure mode. - Abstract: This paper describes the nonlinear analyses of a 1:4 scale model of a pre-stressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). The analyses are performed under pressure and high temperature effects with considering anchorage details of liner plate. The temperature-time history of the model test is considered as an input boundary condition in the coupled temp-displacement analysis. The constitutive model developed by Chang and Mander (1994) is adopted in the model as the basis for the concrete stress–strain relation. To trace the crack pattern of the PCCV concrete faces, the concrete damage plasticity model is applied. This study includes the results of the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the PCCV subject to temperature loading and internal pressure at the same time. The test results are compared with the analysis results. The analysis results show that the temperature has little impact on the ultimate pressure capacity of the PCCV. To simulate the exact failure mode of the PCCV, the anchorage details of the liner plates around openings should be maintained in the analytical models. Also the failure mode of the PCCV structure hasn’t influenced by hoop tendons pre-stressing force variations.
Astroza, Rodrigo; Ebrahimian, Hamed; Li, Yong; Conte, Joel P.
2017-09-01
A methodology is proposed to update mechanics-based nonlinear finite element (FE) models of civil structures subjected to unknown input excitation. The approach allows to jointly estimate unknown time-invariant model parameters of a nonlinear FE model of the structure and the unknown time histories of input excitations using spatially-sparse output response measurements recorded during an earthquake event. The unscented Kalman filter, which circumvents the computation of FE response sensitivities with respect to the unknown model parameters and unknown input excitations by using a deterministic sampling approach, is employed as the estimation tool. The use of measurement data obtained from arrays of heterogeneous sensors, including accelerometers, displacement sensors, and strain gauges is investigated. Based on the estimated FE model parameters and input excitations, the updated nonlinear FE model can be interrogated to detect, localize, classify, and assess damage in the structure. Numerically simulated response data of a three-dimensional 4-story 2-by-1 bay steel frame structure with six unknown model parameters subjected to unknown bi-directional horizontal seismic excitation, and a three-dimensional 5-story 2-by-1 bay reinforced concrete frame structure with nine unknown model parameters subjected to unknown bi-directional horizontal seismic excitation are used to illustrate and validate the proposed methodology. The results of the validation studies show the excellent performance and robustness of the proposed algorithm to jointly estimate unknown FE model parameters and unknown input excitations.
Su-Yuen, Hsu
2011-01-01
Textile composite materials have good potential for constructing composite structures where the effects of three-dimensional stresses are critical or geometric complexity is a manufacturing concern. There is a recent interest in advancing competence within Langley Research Center for modeling the degradation of mechanical properties of textile composites. In an initial effort, two critical areas are identified to pursue: (1) Construction of internal geometry of textile composites, and (2) Rate-independent continuum damage mechanics. This report documents reviews on the two subjects. Various reviewed approaches are categorized, their assumptions, methods, and progress are briefed, and then critiques are presented. Each review ends with recommended research.
MICROMECHANICAL DAMAGE MODEL FOR ROCKS AND CONCRETES SUBJECTED TO COUPLED TENSILE AND SHEAR STRESSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhongjun Ren; Xianghe Peng; Chunhe Yang
2008-01-01
Based on the analysis of the deformation in an infinite isotropic elastic matrix with an embedded elliptic crack under far field coupled tensile and shear stresses,the energy release rate and a mixed fracture criterion are obtained using an energy balance approach.The additional compliance tensor induced by a single opening elliptic microcrack in a representative volume element is derived,and the effect of microcracks with random orientations is analyzed with the Taylor's scheme by introducing an appropriate probability density function.A micromechanical damage model for rocks and concretes is obtained and is verified with experimental results.
Radiation Damage Modeling for 3D Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector
Wallangen, Veronica; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of 10^15 neq/cm2 and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This poster presents the details of a new digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the 3D Pixel sensors for the ATLAS Detector.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘军; 林皋
2012-01-01
基于不可逆热力学原理提出一种简单的混凝土类准脆性材料的损伤本构模型，具有参数相对少、公式表达简单、易于数值实现等特点。采用双标量损伤变量来描述混凝土的拉伸和压缩不等性、刚度及强度退化特性；通过分解自由能为体积和剪切两部分，在体积部分引入单边效应函数来考虑裂纹闭合效应；通过对损伤变量的黏性化处理以及附加弹性条件来考虑率相关性。给出混凝土试件在单轴拉伸和压缩、双轴加载、三轴压缩以及应变率影响的不同加载条件下的数值计算结果，与试验结果比较吻合。通过对缺口梁三点弯曲加载破坏过程和重力坝地震响应的数值模拟，验证损伤模型在大尺度混凝土结构的非线性分析方面，具有较好的收敛性和计算能力。%A simple damage constitutive model for concrete-like quasi-brittle materials within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics is developed. The model needs fewer parameters, is simpler in mathematical expression and more convenient for numerical calculation. Different responses under tensile and compressive loadings as well as degradation of stiffness and strength are considered by employing two scalar damage variables. In order to take the microcrack closure effect into consideration, the Helmholtz free energy is decomposed into hydrostatic and deviatoric components, and a unilateral effect function is introduced in the hydrostatic part. The rate effect is considered by introducing viscous regularizations into the damage variable and combined with an additional elastic condition. The cases of uniaxial tensile and compressive, biaxial and triaxial compressive loadings for a concrete specimen are studied. The results agree well with the experiment. The proposed model is employed in the analyses of a three-point bending beam and a gravity dam subjected to earthquake loading. Numerical results show that the
Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites
Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.
2013-01-01
A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.
Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R
2016-06-01
The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months.
Reji, G; Chander, Subhash; Kamble, Kalpana
2014-09-01
Rice stem borer is an important insect pest causing severe damage to rice crop in India. The relationship between weather parameters such as maximum (T(max)) and minimum temperature (T(min)), morning (RH1) and afternoon relative humidity (RH2) and the severity of stem borer damage (SB) were studied. Multiple linear regression analysis was used for formulating pest-weather models at three sites in southern India namely, Warangal, Coimbatore and Pattambi as SB = -66.849 + 2.102 T(max) + 0.095 RH1, SB = 156.518 - 3.509 T(min) - 0.785 RH1 and SB = 43.483 - 0.418 T(min) - 0.283 RH1 respectively. The pest damage predicted using the model at three sites did not significantly differ from the observed damage (t = 0.442; p > 0.05). The range of weather parameters favourable for stem borer damage at each site were also predicted using the models. Geospatial interpolation (kriging) of the pest-weather models were carried out to predict the zones of stem borer damage in southern India. Maps showing areas with high, medium and low risk of stem borer damage were prepared using geographical information system. The risk maps of rice stem borer would be useful in devising management strategies for the pest in the region.
Damage spreading at the corner-filling transition in the two-dimensional Ising model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubio Puzzo, M Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, CONICET, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)
2007-01-17
The propagation of damage on the square Ising lattice with a corner geometry is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By imposing free boundary conditions at which competing boundary magnetic fields {+-} h are applied, the system undergoes a filling transition at a temperature T{sub f}(h) lower than the Onsager critical temperature T{sub C}. The competing fields cause the formation of two magnetic domains with opposite orientation of the magnetization, separated by an interface that for T larger than T{sub f}(h) (but T
Testing and modeling of damages in composite laminates subject to low velocity impact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Al-Hadrayi Ziadoon M. R, Zhang Yunlai, Zhou Chuwei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, composite materials were used extensively in the most important industries, especially in aerospace industries and aircraft structures due to its high strength, high stiffness, resistance of corrosion, and lightweight. The problem is how to choose the perfect design for composite laminates. And study the effects of modeling of the stacking sequences of composite laminates on failure modes (delamination, matrix cracking, and fiber failure under the test of low velocity impact. This paper has validating to the experimental results that has published. The composite used was carbon fiber /epoxy (CFRE, (UD ASTM/D6641 as three groups [A, B, C]. It had same material system. The difference was only in stacking sequences as random design. These models were simulated numerically by the commercial software implemented into the FEM/ABAQUS 6.9.1 with subroutine file (VUMAT a user-define 3D damage model. The results had good agreement with experimental results.
A flexible and qualitatively stable model for cell cycle dynamics including DNA damage effects.
Jeffries, Clark D; Johnson, Charles R; Zhou, Tong; Simpson, Dennis A; Kaufmann, William K
2012-01-01
This paper includes a conceptual framework for cell cycle modeling into which the experimenter can map observed data and evaluate mechanisms of cell cycle control. The basic model exhibits qualitative stability, meaning that regardless of magnitudes of system parameters its instances are guaranteed to be stable in the sense that all feasible trajectories converge to a certain trajectory. Qualitative stability can also be described by the signs of real parts of eigenvalues of the system matrix. On the biological side, the resulting model can be tuned to approximate experimental data pertaining to human fibroblast cell lines treated with ionizing radiation, with or without disabled DNA damage checkpoints. Together these properties validate a fundamental, first order systems view of cell dynamics. Classification Codes: 15A68.
Blasting Damage Predictions by Numerical Modeling in Siahbishe Pumped Storage Powerhouse
Eslami, Majid; Goshtasbi, Kamran
2017-04-01
One of the popular methods of underground and surface excavations is the use of blasting. Throughout this method of excavation, the loading resulted from blasting can be affected by different geo-mechanical and structural parameters of rock mass. Several factors affect turbulence in underground structures some of which are explosion, vibration, and stress impulses caused by the neighbouring blasting products. In investigating the blasting mechanism one should address the processes which expand with time and cause seismic events. To protect the adjoining structures against any probable deconstruction or damage, it is very important to model the blasting process prior to any actual operation. Efforts have been taken in the present study to demonstrate the potentiality of numerical methods in predicting the specified parameters in order to prevent any probable destruction. For this purpose the blasting process was modeled, according to its natural implementation, in one of the tunnels of Siahbishe dam by the 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D codes. 3DEC was used for modeling the blasting environment as well as the blast holes and AUTODYN 3D for modeling the explosion process in the blast hole. In this process the output of AUTODYN 3D, which is a result of modeling the blast hole and is in the form of stress waves, is entered into 3DEC. For analyzing the amount of destruction made by the blasting operation, the key parameter of Peak Particle Velocity was used. In the end, the numerical modeling results have been compared with the data recorded by the seismographs planted through the tunnel. As the results indicated 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D proved appropriate for analyzing such an issue. Therefore, by means of these two softwares one can analyze explosion processes prior to their implementation and make close estimation of the damage resulting from these processes.
Schmidt, Thomas; Balzani, Daniel
2016-05-01
In this paper, a three-dimensional relaxed incremental variational damage model is proposed, which enables the description of complex softening hysteresis as observed in supra-physiologically loaded arterial tissues, and which thereby avoids a loss of convexity of the underlying formulation. The proposed model extends the relaxed formulation of Balzani and Ortiz [2012. Relaxed incremental variational formulation for damage at large strains with application to fiber-reinforced materials and materials with truss-like microstructures. Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng. 92, 551-570], such that the typical stress-hysteresis observed in arterial tissues under cyclic loading can be described. This is mainly achieved by constructing a modified one-dimensional model accounting for cyclic loading in the individual fiber direction and numerically homogenizing the response taking into account a fiber orientation distribution function. A new solution strategy for the identification of the convexified stress potential is proposed based on an evolutionary algorithm which leads to an improved robustness compared to solely Newton-based optimization schemes. In order to enable an efficient adjustment of the new model to experimentally observed softening hysteresis, an adjustment scheme using a surrogate model is proposed. Therewith, the relaxed formulation is adjusted to experimental data in the supra-physiological domain of the media and adventitia of a human carotid artery. The performance of the model is then demonstrated in a finite element example of an overstretched artery. Although here three-dimensional thick-walled atherosclerotic arteries are considered, it is emphasized that the formulation can also directly be applied to thin-walled simulations of arteries using shell elements or other fiber-reinforced biomembranes.
A simple 2-D inundation model for incorporating flood damage in urban drainage planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pathirana
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a new inundation model code is developed and coupled with Storm Water Management Model, SWMM, to relate spatial information associated with urban drainage systems as criteria for planning of storm water drainage networks. The prime objective is to achive a model code that is simple and fast enough to be consistently be used in planning stages of urban drainage projects.
The formulation for the two-dimensional (2-D surface flow model algorithms is based on the Navier Stokes equation in two dimensions. An Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI finite difference numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing equations. This numerical scheme is used to express the partial differential equations with time steps split into two halves. The model algorithm is written using C++ computer programming language.
This 2-D surface flow model is then coupled with SWMM for simulation of both pipe flow component and surcharge induced inundation in urban areas. In addition, a damage calculation block is integrated within the inundation model code.
The coupled model is shown to be capable of dealing with various flow conditions, as well as being able to simulate wetting and drying processes that will occur as the flood flows over an urban area. It has been applied under idealized and semi-hypothetical cases to determine detailed inundation zones, depths and velocities due to surcharged water on overland surface.
A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage
Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E.; Rex, Tonia S.
2012-01-01
We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073
Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements
Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu
2014-01-01
The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ''biological Bragg curve'' is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta, et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called "overkill".
Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation
Khorsandi, Behrooz
There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.
Multiscale Modeling of Damage Processes in Aluminum Alloys: Grain-Scale Mechanisms
Hochhalter, J. D.; Veilleux, M. G.; Bozek, J. E.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Ingraffea, A. R.
2008-01-01
This paper has two goals related to the development of a physically-grounded methodology for modeling the initial stages of fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy. The aluminum alloy, AA 7075-T651, is susceptible to fatigue cracking that nucleates from cracked second phase iron-bearing particles. Thus, the first goal of the paper is to validate an existing framework for the prediction of the conditions under which the particles crack. The observed statistics of particle cracking (defined as incubation for this alloy) must be accurately predicted to simulate the stochastic nature of microstructurally small fatigue crack (MSFC) formation. Also, only by simulating incubation of damage in a statistically accurate manner can subsequent stages of crack growth be accurately predicted. To maintain fidelity and computational efficiency, a filtering procedure was developed to eliminate particles that were unlikely to crack. The particle filter considers the distributions of particle sizes and shapes, grain texture, and the configuration of the surrounding grains. This filter helps substantially reduce the number of particles that need to be included in the microstructural models and forms the basis of the future work on the subsequent stages of MSFC, crack nucleation and microstructurally small crack propagation. A physics-based approach to simulating fracture should ultimately begin at nanometer length scale, in which atomistic simulation is used to predict the fundamental damage mechanisms of MSFC. These mechanisms include dislocation formation and interaction, interstitial void formation, and atomic diffusion. However, atomistic simulations quickly become computationally intractable as the system size increases, especially when directly linking to the already large microstructural models. Therefore, the second goal of this paper is to propose a method that will incorporate atomistic simulation and small-scale experimental characterization into the existing multiscale
Effect of RSCs combined with COP-1 on optic nerve damage in glaucoma rat model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-Cai Fu; Yan Jiang; Lin Zhang
2014-01-01
Objective: To explore effect of retinal stem cells (RSCs) combined with copolymer-1 (COP-1) immunotherapy on optic nerve damage in glaucoma rat model. Methods: A total of 40 SD rats were selected for glaucoma model and were randomly divided into 4 groups to observe protective effects of RSCs transplantation combined with COP-1. Results: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were either positive in retina of RSCs transplanted or COP-1 immunological treated rat. Positive rate of BDNF and IGF-1 and expression of mRNA and protein were significantly higher in RSCs transplantation combined with COP-1 immunotherapy treated rats compared with the other 3 groups, in which amount of apoptotic RGCs was lowest. Conclusions: RSCs transplantation combined with COP-1 immunotherapy can promote the secretion of BDNF and IGF-1. They protect RGCs in glaucoma rats in coordination, significantly reduce the number of apoptosis RGCs so as to alleviate the optic nerve damage. It ponits a new research direction for treatment of glaucoma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Melek Usal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A continuum damage model is developed for the linear viscoelastic behavior of composites with microcracks consisting of an isotropic matrix reinforced by two arbitrarily independent and inextensible fiber families. Despite the fact that the matrix material is isotropic, the model in consideration bears the characteristic of directed media included in the transverse isotropy symmetry group solely due to its fibers distributions and the existence of microcracks. Using the basic laws of continuum damage mechanics and equations belonging to kinematics and deformation geometries of fibers, the constitutive functions have been obtained. It has been detected as a result of the thermodynamic constraints that the stress potential function is dependent on two symmetric tensors and two vectors, whereas the dissipative stress function is dependent on four symmetric tensors and two vectors. To determine arguments of the constitutive functionals, findings relating to the theory of invariants have been used as a method because of the fact that isotropy constraint is imposed on the material. As a result the linear constitutive equations of elastic stress, dissipative stress, and strain energy density release rate have been written in terms of material coordinate description. Using these expressions, total stress has been found.
Alternative approaches to electronic damage by ion-beam irradiation: Exciton models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agullo-Lopez, F.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049, Madrid (Spain)
2016-11-15
The paper briefly describes the main features of the damage produced by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. After a short revision of the widely used thermal spike concept, it focuses on cumulative mechanisms of track formation which are alternative to those based on lattice melting (thermal spike models). These cumulative mechanisms rely on the production of point defects around the ion trajectory, and their accumulation up to a final lattice collapse or amorphization. As to the formation of point defects, the paper considers those mechanisms relying on direct local conversion of the excitation energy into atomic displacements (exciton models). A particular attention is given to processes based on the non-radiative recombination of excitons that have become self-trapped as a consequence of a strong electron-phonon interaction (STEs). These mechanisms, although operative under purely ionizing radiation in some dielectric materials, have been rarely invoked, so far, to discuss SHI damage. They are discussed in this paper together with relevant examples to materials such as Cu{sub 3}N, alkali halides, SiO{sub 2}, and LiNbO{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Capellari
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation, whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated.
Interface modeling to predict well casing damage for big hill strategic petroleum reserve.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon
2012-02-01
Oil leaks were found in well casings of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interface between the caprock and top of salt. This damage could be caused by interface movement induced by cavern volume closure due to salt creep. A three dimensional finite element model, which allows each cavern to be configured individually, was constructed to investigate shear and vertical displacements across each interface. The model contains interfaces between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interface behavior in a realistic manner. This analysis results indicate that the casings of Caverns 105 and 109 failed by shear stress that exceeded shear strength due to the horizontal movement of the top of salt relative to the caprock, and tensile stress due to the downward movement of the top of salt from the caprock, respectively. The casings of Caverns 101, 110, 111 and 114, located at the far ends of the field, are predicted to be failed by shear stress in the near future. The casings of inmost Caverns 107 and 108 are predicted to be failed by tensile stress in the near future.
Validation of formability of laminated sheet metal for deep drawing process using GTN damage model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Yongbin; Cha, Wan-gi; Kim, Naksoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Sinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sangjin [Mold/die and forming technology team, Product prestige research lab, LG electronics, 222, LG-ro, Jinwi-myeon, Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do, 451-713 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-12-16
In this study, we studied formability of PET/PVC laminated sheet metal which named VCM (Vinyl Coated Metal). VCM offers various patterns and good-looking metal steel used for appliances such as refrigerator and washing machine. But, this sheet has problems which are crack and peeling of film when the material is formed by deep drawing process. To predict the problems, we used finite element method and GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) damage model to represent damage of material. We divided the VCM into 3 layers (PET film, adhesive and steel added PVC) in finite element analysis model to express the crack and peeling phenomenon. The material properties of each layer are determined by reverse engineering based on tensile test result. Furthermore, we performed the simple rectangular deep drawing and simulated it. The simulation result shows good agreement with drawing experiment result in position, punch stroke of crack occurrence. Also, we studied the fracture mechanism of PET film on VCM by comparing the width direction strain of metal and PET film.
Validation of formability of laminated sheet metal for deep drawing process using GTN damage model
Lim, Yongbin; Cha, Wan-gi; Ko, Sangjin; Kim, Naksoo
2013-12-01
In this study, we studied formability of PET/PVC laminated sheet metal which named VCM (Vinyl Coated Metal). VCM offers various patterns and good-looking metal steel used for appliances such as refrigerator and washing machine. But, this sheet has problems which are crack and peeling of film when the material is formed by deep drawing process. To predict the problems, we used finite element method and GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) damage model to represent damage of material. We divided the VCM into 3 layers (PET film, adhesive and steel added PVC) in finite element analysis model to express the crack and peeling phenomenon. The material properties of each layer are determined by reverse engineering based on tensile test result. Furthermore, we performed the simple rectangular deep drawing and simulated it. The simulation result shows good agreement with drawing experiment result in position, punch stroke of crack occurrence. Also, we studied the fracture mechanism of PET film on VCM by comparing the width direction strain of metal and PET film.
Capellari, Giovanni; Azam, Saeed Eftekhar; Mariani, Stefano
2015-12-22
Health monitoring of lightweight structures, like thin flexible plates, is of interest in several engineering fields. In this paper, a recursive Bayesian procedure is proposed to monitor the health of such structures through data collected by a network of optimally placed inertial sensors. As a main drawback of standard monitoring procedures is linked to the computational costs, two remedies are jointly considered: first, an order-reduction of the numerical model used to track the structural dynamics, enforced with proper orthogonal decomposition; and, second, an improved particle filter, which features an extended Kalman updating of each evolving particle before the resampling stage. The former remedy can reduce the number of effective degrees-of-freedom of the structural model to a few only (depending on the excitation), whereas the latter one allows to track the evolution of damage and to locate it thanks to an intricate formulation. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed procedure, the case of a plate subject to bending is investigated; it is shown that, when the procedure is appropriately fed by measurements, damage is efficiently and accurately estimated.
Establishment of a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.
Su, G; Cai, S J; Gong, X; Wang, L L; Li, H H; Wang, L M
2016-06-24
To establish a blue-light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Fourth-generation human RPE cells were randomly divided into two groups. In group A, cells were exposed to blue light (2000 ± 500 lux) for 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, and cell culture was stopped after 12 h. In group B, cells were exposed to blue light at the same intensity and time periods, but cell culture was stopped after 24 h. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine the most suitable illuminating time with apoptotic index. Flow cytometry was used to determine apoptotic ratio of RPEs. In group A, the apoptotic index of cells that received 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light was higher than that of control. The apoptotic index of cells receiving 9 and 12 h was higher than that of 6 h (P = 0.000). In group B, the apoptotic index and RPE cell apoptosis ratio of cells exposed to 6, 9 and 12 h of blue light were higher than that of 3 h (P = 0.000); and cells receiving 9 and 12 h had higher values than that of 6 h. This study demonstrated that the best conditions to establish a blue light damage model of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro are 2000 ± 500 lux light intensity for 6 h, with 24 h of cell culture post-exposure.
Damage detection of structures identified with deterministic-stochastic models using seismic data.
Huang, Ming-Chih; Wang, Yen-Po; Chang, Ming-Lian
2014-01-01
A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV) is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems.
Cepeda, David E; Hains, Leah; Li, David; Bull, Joseph; Lentz, Stephen I; Kennedy, Robert T
2015-03-15
Neurochemical monitoring via sampling probes is valuable for deciphering neurotransmission in vivo. Microdialysis is commonly used; however, the spatial resolution is poor. Recently push-pull perfusion at low flow rates (50nL/min) has been proposed as a method for in vivo sampling from the central nervous system. Tissue damage from such probes has not been investigated in detail. In this work, we evaluated acute tissue response to low-flow push-pull perfusion by infusing the nuclear stains Sytox Orange and Hoechst 33342 through probes implanted in the striatum for 200min, to label damaged and total cells, respectively, in situ. Using the damaged/total labeled cell ratio as a measure of tissue damage, we found that 33±8% were damaged within the dye region around a microdialysis probe. We found that low-flow push-pull perfusion probes damaged 24±4% of cells in the sampling area. Flow had no effect on the number of damaged cells for low-flow push-pull perfusion. Modeling revealed that shear stress and pressure gradients generated by the flow were lower than thresholds expected to cause damage. Comparison with existing methods.Push-pull perfusion caused less tissue damage but yielded 1500-fold better spatial resolution. Push-pull perfusion at low flow rates is a viable method for sampling from the brain with potential for high temporal and spatial resolution. Tissue damage is mostly caused by probe insertion. Smaller probes may yield even lower damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.; DuBois, Paul; Hoffarth, Canio; Rajan, Subramaniam; Blankenhorn, Gunther
2016-01-01
The need for accurate material models to simulate the deformation, damage and failure of polymer matrix composites under impact conditions is becoming critical as these materials are gaining increased usage in the aerospace and automotive communities. In order to address a series of issues identified by the aerospace community as being desirable to include in a next generation composite impact model, an orthotropic, macroscopic constitutive model incorporating both plasticity and damage suitable for implementation within the commercial LS-DYNA computer code is being developed. The plasticity model is based on extending the Tsai-Wu composite failure model into a strain hardening-based orthotropic plasticity model with a non-associative flow rule. The evolution of the yield surface is determined based on tabulated stress-strain curves in the various normal and shear directions and is tracked using the effective plastic strain. To compute the evolution of damage, a strain equivalent semi-coupled formulation is used in which a load in one direction results in a stiffness reduction in multiple material coordinate directions. A detailed analysis is carried out to ensure that the strain equivalence assumption is appropriate for the derived plasticity and damage formulations that are employed in the current model. Procedures to develop the appropriate input curves for the damage model are presented and the process required to develop an appropriate characterization test matrix is discussed
Establishment of Mus Skin Photo-damage Model by 8-MOP plus UVA Irradiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Hong; LI Jiawen; ZHANG Li
2007-01-01
To establish a simple and reliable animal model of skin photo-damage, 20 mice were treated with 8-MOP and exposed to UVA (UVA 320-400 nm) for 24 h. After irradiation, the structure of the epidermis and dermis, collagen fibers, elastic fibers were observed by using HE staining and Weigert technique and compared with the normal controls. The acanthosis and epidemis proliferation with accompanying hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were observed. Inflammatory infiltration was noted in the dermis. The elastic fibers became coarse, irregularly arranged and clustered, with their number increased. The collagen fibers showed obvious degeneration and some amorphous materials could also be observed. The blood vessels were irregularly dilated and vascular walls were thickened, with infiltration of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that murine photodamage model can be quickly, conveniently and reliably established by means of 8-MOP/UVA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatyana A. Kuznetsova
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.
Gurson-type elastic-plastic damage model based on strain-rate plastic potential
Balan, Tudor; Cazacu, Oana
2013-12-01
Ductile damage is generally described by stress-space analytical potentials. In this contribution, it is shown that strain rate potentials, which are exact conjugate of the stress-based potentials, can be equally used to describe the dilatational response of porous metals. This framework is particularly appropriate for porous materials with matrix described by complex yield criteria for which a closed-form expression of the stress-based potential is not available. Illustration of the new approach is done for porous metals containing randomly distributed spherical voids in a von Mises elasto-plastic matrix. Furthermore, a general time integration algorithm for simulation of the mechanical response using this new formulation is developed and implemented in Abaqus/Standard. The proposed model and algorithm are validated with respect to the Abaqus built-in GTN model, which is based on a stress potential, through the simulation of a tensile test on a round bar.
Modeling shear-induced CHO cell damage in a rotary positive displacement pump.
Kamaraju, Hari; Wetzel, Kenneth; Kelly, William J
2010-01-01
Rotary lobe pumps are commonly used in the biotechnology industry for a variety of purposes. Shear damage to animal cells within the rotary lobe pump can adversely affect the product yield or purity during, for example, cell concentration via cross-flow filtration. In this research, CHO cells grown in 20-L bioreactors were fed to a rotary lobe pump in both single pass and recycle experiments were conducted at different RPMs and "slip" conditions. The results indicate that the slip flow rate more severely impacts the viability of the CHO cells than the pump RPM. A novel mathematical modeling approach is presented that predicts shear rates in all of the positive displacement pump's slip regions, and then predicts cell death vs. operating conditions. This model accounts for the complex flow situation that results from changes to RPM, backpressure and pump geometry (i.e., clearances).
A constitutive model of frozen soil with damage and numerical simulation for the coupled problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Based on the microcosmic mechanics of composite materials, an elastic constitutive model for frozen soil with damage is presented. For frozen sandy soil with a range of ice contents and under a range of temperature conditions, quantitative results determined by this constitutive model agree with practically measured stress-strain curves. After numerically simulating the coupled water, temperature and stress fields of channel frozen and frozen roadbed using a self-developed finite-element routine, more accurate and practical calculation results for the temperature field coupled with stress, displacement and strain fields are obtained; the results match predictions and tests undertaken by earlier researchers. Our results support the reliability of our routine for calculating interdependent physical quantities of frozen soil and for describing the relationships between them. Our program can offer necessary constraints for engineering design and construction in permafrost regions.
Wind turbine fatigue damage evaluation based on a linear model and a spectral method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig;
2015-01-01
to power spectral densities of wind turbine sensor responses to turbulent wind. In this paper, the model is validated both in time domain and frequency domain with a nonlinear aeroservoelastic model. The approach is compared quantitatively against fatigue damage obtained from the power spectra of time...... different wind speeds above rated and load dependency on the number of turbulence seeds used for their evaluation. For the full-range normal operation, the maximum difference between the two frequency domain-based estimates of the tower base lateral fatigue moments is 36%, whereas the differences...... for the other sensors are less than 15%. For the load variation evaluation, the maximum difference of the tower base longitudinal bending moment variation is 22%. Such large difference occurs only when the change in controller tuning has a low effect on the loads. Furthermore, results show that loads evaluated...
Human Ex-Vivo Liver Model for Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage
Schreiter, Thomas; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Schlattjan, Martin; Treckmann, Jürgen; Paul, Andreas; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Baba, Hideo A.; Odenthal, Margarete; Gieseler, Robert K.; Gerken, Guido; Arteel, Gavin E.; Canbay, Ali
2016-01-01
Reliable test systems to identify hepatotoxicity are essential to predict unexpected drug-related liver injury. Here we present a human ex-vivo liver model to investigate acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Human liver tissue was perfused over a 30 hour period with hourly sampling from the perfusate for measurement of general metabolism and clinical parameters. Liver function was assessed by clearance of indocyanine green (ICG) at 4, 20 and 28 hours. Six pieces of untreated human liver specimen maintained stable liver function over the entire perfusion period. Three liver sections incubated with low-dose acetaminophen revealed strong damage, with ICG half-lives significantly higher than in non-treated livers. In addition, the release of microRNA-122 was significantly higher in acetaminophen-treated than in non-treated livers. Thus, this model allows for investigation of hepatotoxicity in human liver tissue upon applying drug concentrations relevant in patients. PMID:27550092
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José María Bodoque
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The use of high resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (LiDAR datasets provides spatial density and vertical precision for obtaining highly accurate Digital Surface Models (DSMs. As a result, the reliability of flood damage analysis has improved significantly, owing to the increased accuracy of hydrodynamic models. In addition, considerable error reduction has been achieved in the estimation of first floor elevation, which is a critical parameter for determining structural and content damages in buildings. However, as with any discrete measurement technique, LiDAR data contain object space ambiguities, especially in urban areas where the presence of buildings and the floodplain gives rise to a highly complex landscape that is largely corrected by using ancillary information based on the addition of breaklines to a triangulated irregular network (TIN. The present study provides a methodological approach for assessing uncertainty regarding first floor elevation. This is based on: (i generation an urban TIN from LiDAR data with a density of 0.5 points·m−2, complemented with the river bathymetry obtained from a field survey with a density of 0.3 points·m−2. The TIN was subsequently improved by adding breaklines and was finally transformed to a raster with a spatial resolution of 2 m; (ii implementation of a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic model based on the 500-year flood return period. The high resolution DSM obtained in the previous step, facilitated addressing the modelling, since it represented suitable urban features influencing hydraulics (e.g., streets and buildings; and (iii determination of first floor elevation uncertainty within the 500-year flood zone by performing Monte Carlo simulations based on geostatistics and 1997 control elevation points in order to assess error. Deviations in first floor elevation (average: 0.56 m and standard deviation: 0.33 m show that this parameter has to be neatly characterized in order
Goodarzi, Mohammad Saeed; Hosseini-Toudeshky, Hossein
2017-02-01
In this paper a formulation of a viscoelastic-damage interface model with friction in mode-II is presented. The cohesive constitutive law contains elastic and damage regimes. It has been assumed that the shear stress in the elastic regime follows the viscoelastic properties of the matrix material. The three element Voigt model has been used for the formulation of relaxation modulus of the material. Damage evolution proceeds according to the bilinear cohesive constitutive law combined with friction stress consideration. Combination of damage and friction is based on the presumption that the damaged area, related to an integration point, can be dismembered into the un-cracked area with the cohesive damage and cracked area with friction. Samples of a one element model have been presented to see the effect of parameters on the cohesive constitutive law. A comparison between the predicted results with available results of end-notched flexure specimens in the literature is also presented to verify the model. Transverse crack tension specimens are also simulated for different applied displacement velocities.
Movahed, Pooya; Kreider, Wayne; Maxwell, Adam D; Hutchens, Shelby B; Freund, Jonathan B
2016-08-01
A generalized Rayleigh-Plesset-type bubble dynamics model with a damage mechanism is developed for cavitation and damage of soft materials by focused ultrasound bursts. This study is linked to recent experimental observations in tissue-mimicking polyacrylamide and agar gel phantoms subjected to bursts of a kind being considered specifically for lithotripsy. These show bubble activation at multiple sites during the initial pulses. More cavities appear continuously through the course of the observations, similar to what is deduced in pig kidney tissues in shock-wave lithotripsy. Two different material models are used to represent the distinct properties of the two gel materials. The polyacrylamide gel is represented with a neo-Hookean elastic model and damaged based upon a maximum-strain criterion; the agar gel is represented with a strain-hardening Fung model and damaged according to the strain-energy-based Griffith's fracture criterion. Estimates based upon independently determined elasticity and viscosity of the two gel materials suggest that bubble confinement should be sufficient to prevent damage in the gels, and presumably injury in some tissues. Damage accumulation is therefore proposed to occur via a material fatigue, which is shown to be consistent with observed delays in widespread cavitation activity.
Turon, Albert; Camanho, Pedro P.; Costa, Josep; Davila, Carlos G.
2004-01-01
A thermodynamically consistent damage model for the simulation of progressive delamination under variable mode ratio is presented. The model is formulated in the context of the Damage Mechanics (DM). The constitutive equations that result from the variation of the free energy with damage are used to model the initiation and propagation of delamination. A new delamination initiation criterion is developed to assure that the formulation can account for changes in the loading mode in a thermodynamically consistent way. Interfacial penetration of two adjacent layers after complete decohesion is prevented by the formulation of the free energy. The model is implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS by means of a user-written decohesion element. Finally, the numerical predictions given by the model are compared with experimental results.
Wang, Kai; Su, Zhongqing
2016-04-01
Targeting quantitative estimate of fatigue damage, a dedicated analytical model was developed based on the modal decomposition method and the variational principle. The model well interprets the contact acoustic nonlinearity induced by a "breathing" crack in a two-dimensional scenario, and the nonlinear characteristics of guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) (e.g., reflection, transmission, mode conversion and high-order generation) when GUWs traversing the crack. Based on the model, a second-order reflection index was defined. Using the index, a fatigue damage evaluation framework was established, showing demonstrated capacity of estimating the severity of fatigue damage in a quantitative manner. The approach, in principle, does not entail a benchmarking process against baseline signals pre-acquired from pristine counterparts. The results obtained using the analytical modeling were compared with those from finite element simulation, showing good coincidence. Limitations of the model were also discussed.
DAMAGE PROGRESSIVE MODEL OF COMPRESSION OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES AFTER LOW VELOCITY IMPACT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Xiao-quan; LI Zheng-neng
2005-01-01
Compressive properties of composite laminates after low velocity impact are one of the most serious circumstances that must be taken into account in damage tolerance design of composite structures. In order to investigate compressive properties of composite laminates after low velocity impact, three dimensional dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate low-velocity impact damage of 2 kinds of composite laminates firstly. Damage distributions and projective damage areas of the laminates were predicted under two impact energy levels. The analyzed damage after impact was considered to be the initial damage of the laminates under compressive loads. Then three dimensional static FEM was used to simulate the compressive failure process and to calculate residual compressive strengths of the impact damaged laminates. It is achieved to simulate the whole process from initial low-velocity impact damage to final compressive failure of composite laminates. Compared with experimental results, it shows that the numerical predicting results agree with the test results fairly well.
Cardiac mitochondrial damage and biogenesis in a chronic model of type 1 diabetes.
Shen, Xia; Zheng, Shirong; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Xu, Ming; Pierce, William M; Klein, Jon B; Epstein, Paul N
2004-11-01
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication leading to heightened risk of heart failure and death. In the present report, we performed proteomic analysis on total cardiac proteins from the OVE26 mouse model of type 1 diabetes to identify protein changes that may contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This analysis revealed that a surprising high proportion (12 of 20) of the altered proteins that could be identified by mass spectrometry were of mitochondrial origin. All but one of these proteins were upregulated by diabetes. Quantitative RT-PCR, performed for two of these proteins, indicated that part of the upregulation was attributed to increased messenger RNA levels. Morphological study of diabetic hearts showed significantly increased mitochondrial area and number as well as focal regions with severe damage to mitochondria. Diabetic mitochondria also showed reduced respiratory control ratio (9.63 +/- 0.20 vs. 6.13 +/- 0.41, P factor A and two mitochondrial encoded proteins. Taken together, these results show that mitochondria are a primary target in the diabetic heart, probably due to oxidative stress, and that this damage coincides with and may stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Begoña Pellicer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Cerebral palsy is a major neonatal handicap with unknown aetiology. There is evidence that prenatal brain injury is the leading cause of CP. Severe placental pathology accounts for a high percentage of cases. Several factors predispose to prenatal brain damage but when and how they act is unclear. The aim of this paper was to determine if hypoxia during pregnancy leads to damage in fetal brain and to evaluate the localization of this injury. An animal model of chronic hypoxia produced by chronic administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME was used to evaluate apoptotic activity in fetal brains and to localize the most sensitive areas. L-NAME reproduces a preeclamptic-like condition with increased blood pressure, proteinuria, growth restriction and intrauterine mortality. Apoptotic activity was increased in L-NAME brains and the most sensitive areas were the subventricular and pallidum zone. These results may explain the clinical features of CP. Further studies are needed.
T Helper 17/Regulatory T Cell Balance and Experimental Models of Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Damage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Liappas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Fibrosis is a general complication in many diseases. It is the main complication during peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment, a therapy for renal failure disease. Local inflammation and mesothelial to mesenchymal transition (MMT are well known key phenomena in peritoneal damage during PD. New data suggest that, in the peritoneal cavity, inflammatory changes may be regulated at least in part by a delicate balance between T helper 17 and regulatory T cells. This paper briefly reviews the implication of the Th17/Treg-axis in fibrotic diseases. Moreover, it compares current evidences described in PD animal experimental models, indicating a loss of Th17/Treg balance (Th17 predominance leading to peritoneal damage during PD. In addition, considering the new clinical and animal experimental data, new therapeutic strategies to reduce the Th17 response and increase the regulatory T response are proposed. Thus, future goals should be to develop new clinical biomarkers to reverse this immune misbalance and reduce peritoneal fibrosis in PD.
T Helper 17/Regulatory T Cell Balance and Experimental Models of Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Damage
Liappas, Georgios; Gónzalez-Mateo, Guadalupe Tirma; Majano, Pedro; Sánchez- Tomero, José Antonio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Martín, Pilar; Sanchez-Díaz, Raquel; Selgas, Rafael; López-Cabrera, Manuel; Aguilera Peralta, Abelardo
2015-01-01
Fibrosis is a general complication in many diseases. It is the main complication during peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment, a therapy for renal failure disease. Local inflammation and mesothelial to mesenchymal transition (MMT) are well known key phenomena in peritoneal damage during PD. New data suggest that, in the peritoneal cavity, inflammatory changes may be regulated at least in part by a delicate balance between T helper 17 and regulatory T cells. This paper briefly reviews the implication of the Th17/Treg-axis in fibrotic diseases. Moreover, it compares current evidences described in PD animal experimental models, indicating a loss of Th17/Treg balance (Th17 predominance) leading to peritoneal damage during PD. In addition, considering the new clinical and animal experimental data, new therapeutic strategies to reduce the Th17 response and increase the regulatory T response are proposed. Thus, future goals should be to develop new clinical biomarkers to reverse this immune misbalance and reduce peritoneal fibrosis in PD. PMID:26064907
CDP-choline (citicoline) attenuates brain damage in a rat model of birth asphyxia.
Fiedorowicz, Michał; Makarewicz, Dorota; Stańczak-Mrozek, Kinga I; Grieb, Paweł
2008-01-01
To estimate protective potential of citicoline in a model of birth asphyxia, the drug was given to 7-day old rats subjected to permanent unilateral carotid artery occlusion and exposed for 65 min to a hypoxic gas mixture. Daily citicoline doses of 100 or 300 m/kg, or vehicle, were injected intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days beginning immediately after the end of the ischemic-hypoxic insult, and brain damage was assessed by gross zorphology score and weight deficit two weeks after the insult. Caspase-3, alpha-fodrin, Bcl-2, and Hsp70 levels were assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after the end of the hypoxic insult in another group of rat pups subjected to the same insult and given a single dose of 300 m/kg of citicoline or the vehicle. Citicoline markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and Hsp70 expression 24 h after the insult, and dose-dependently attenuated brain damage. In the context of the well-known excellent safety profile of citicoline, these data suggest that clinical evaluation of the efficacy of the drug in human birth asphyxia may be warranted.
Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays
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Lorena eSanz
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunn, Martin L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Talmage, Mellisa J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McDowell, David L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); West, Neil [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gullett, Philip Michael [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Miller, David C. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Spark, Kevin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Diao, Jiankuai [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Horstemeyer, Mark F. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Zimmerman, Jonathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gall, K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2006-10-01
Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project
Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements
Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis
The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event
Bhattarai, Rajan; Yoshimura, Kei; Seto, Shinta; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Oki, Taikan
2016-05-01
The assessment of flood risk is important for policymakers to evaluate damage and for disaster preparation. Large population densities and high property concentration make cities more vulnerable to floods and having higher absolute damage per year. A number of major cities in the world suffer from flood inundation damage every year. In Japan, approximately USD 1 billion in damage occurs annually due to pluvial floods only. The amount of damage was typically large in large cities, but regions with lower population density tended to have more damage per capita. Our statistical approach gives the probability of damage following every daily rainfall event and thereby the annual damage as a function of rainfall, population density, topographical slope and gross domestic product. Our results for Japan show reasonable agreement with area-averaged annual damage for the period 1993-2009. We report a damage occurrence probability function and a damage cost function for pluvial flood damage, which makes this method flexible for use in future scenarios and also capable of being expanded to different regions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Molinari
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost–benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.
Molinari, D.; Ballio, F.; Menoni, S.
2013-08-01
The European "Floods Directive" 2007/60/EU has produced an important shift from a traditional approach to flood risk management centred only on hazard analysis and forecast to a newer one which encompasses other aspects relevant to decision-making and which reflect recent research advances in both hydraulic engineering and social studies on disaster risk. This paper accordingly proposes a way of modelling the benefits of flood emergency management interventions calculating the possible damages by taking into account exposure, vulnerability, and expected damage reduction. The results of this model can be used to inform decisions and choices for the implementation of flood emergency management measures. A central role is played by expected damages, which are the direct and indirect consequence of the occurrence of floods in exposed and vulnerable urban systems. How damages should be defined and measured is a key question that this paper tries to address. The Floods Directive suggests that mitigation measures taken to reduce flood impact need to be evaluated also by means of a cost-benefit analysis. The paper presents a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of early warning for flash floods, considering its potential impact in reducing direct physical damage, and it assesses the general benefit in regard to other types of damages and losses compared with the emergency management costs. The methodology is applied to the case study area of the city of Sondrio in the northern Alpine region of Italy. A critical discussion follows the application. Its purpose is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of available models for quantifying direct physical damage and of the general model proposed, given the current state of the art in damage and loss assessment.
Watanabe, Ritsuko; Rahmanian, Shirin; Nikjoo, Hooshang
2015-05-01
The aim of this report is to present the spectrum of initial radiation-induced cellular DNA damage [with particular focus on non-double-strand break (DSB) damage] generated by computer simulations. The radiation types modeled in this study were monoenergetic electrons (100 eV-1.5 keV), ultrasoft X-ray photons Ck, AlK and TiK, as well as some selected ions including 3.2 MeV/u proton; 0.74 and 2.4 MeV/u helium ions; 29 MeV/u nitrogen ions and 950 MeV/u iron ions. Monte Carlo track structure methods were used to simulate damage induction by these radiation types in a cell-mimetic condition from a single-track action. The simulations took into account the action of direct energy deposition events and the reaction of hydroxyl radicals on atomistic linear B-DNA segments of a few helical turns including the water of hydration. Our results permitted the following conclusions: a. The absolute levels of different types of damage [base damage, simple and complex single-strand breaks (SSBs) and DSBs] vary depending on the radiation type; b. Within each damage class, the relative proportions of simple and complex damage vary with radiation type, the latter being higher with high-LET radiations; c. Overall, for both low- and high-LET radiations, the ratios of the yields of base damage to SSBs are similar, being about 3.0 ± 0.2; d. Base damage contributes more to the complexity of both SSBs and DSBs, than additional SSB damage and this is true for both low- and high-LET radiations; and e. The average SSB/DSB ratio for low-LET radiations is about 18, which is about 5 times higher than that for high-LET radiations. The hypothesis that clustered DNA damage is more difficult for cells to repair has gained currency among radiobiologists. However, as yet, there is no direct in vivo experimental method to validate the dependence of kinetics of DNA repair on DNA damage complexity (both DSB and non-DSB types). The data on the detailed spectrum of DNA damage presented here, in particular
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tina Gerl
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The modeling of flood damage is an important component for risk analyses, which are the basis for risk-oriented flood management, risk mapping, and financial appraisals. An automatic urban structure type mapping approach was applied on a land use/land cover classification generated from multispectral Ikonos data and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data in order to provide spatially detailed information about the building stock of the case study area of Dresden, Germany. The multi-parameter damage models FLEMOps (Flood Loss Estimation Model for the private sector and regression-tree models have been adapted to the information derived from remote sensing data and were applied on the basis of the urban structure map. To evaluate this approach, which is suitable for risk analyses, as well as for post-disaster event analyses, an estimation of the flood losses caused by the Elbe flood in 2002 was undertaken. The urban structure mapping approach delivered a map with a good accuracy of 74% and on this basis modeled flood losses for the Elbe flood in 2002 in Dresden were in the same order of magnitude as official damage data. It has been shown that single-family houses suffered significantly higher damages than other urban structure types. Consequently, information on their specific location might significantly improve damage modeling, which indicates a high potential of remote sensing methods to further improve risk assessments.
Crash Simulation of Roll Formed Parts by Damage Modelling Taking Into Account Preforming Effects
Till, Edwin T.; Hackl, Benjamin; Schauer, Hermann
2011-08-01
Complex phase steels of strength levels up to 1200 MPa are suitable to roll forming. These may be applied in automotive structures for enhancing the crashworthiness, e. g. as stiffeners in doors. Even though the strain hardening of the material is low there is considerable bending formability. However ductility decreases with the strength level. Higher strength requires more focus to the structural integrity of the part during the process planning stage and with respect to the crash behavior. Nowadays numerical simulation is used as a process design tool for roll-forming in a production environment. The assessment of the stability of a roll forming process is quite challenging for AHSS grades. There are two objectives of the present work. First to provide a reliable assessment tool to the roll forming analyst for failure prediction. Second to establish simulation procedures in order to predict the part's behavior in crash applications taking into account damage and failure. Today adequate ductile fracture models are available which can be used in forming and crash applications. These continuum models are based on failure strain curves or surfaces which depend on the stress triaxiality (e. g. Crach or GISSMO) and may additionally include the Lode angle (extended Mohr Coulomb or extended GISSMO model). A challenging task is to obtain the respective failure strain curves. In the paper the procedure is described in detail how these failure strain curves are obtained using small scale tests within voestalpine Stahl, notch tensile-, bulge and shear tests. It is shown that capturing the surface strains is not sufficient for obtaining reliable material failure parameters. The simulation tool for roll-forming at the site of voestalpine Krems is Copra® FEA RF, which is a 3D continuum finite element solver based on MSC.Marc. The simulation environment for crash applications is LS-DYNA. Shell elements are used for this type of analyses. A major task is to provide results of
Welbourne, Stephen R; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon
2005-03-01
The effect of retraining a damaged connectionist model of single-word reading was investigated with the aim of establishing whether plasticity-related changes occurring during the recovery process can contribute to our understanding of the pattern of dissociations found in brain-damaged patients. In particular, we sought to reproduce the strong frequency x consistency interactions found in surface dyslexia. A replication of Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, and Patterson's (1996) model of word reading was damaged and then retrained, using a standard backpropagation algorithm. Immediately after damage, there was only a small frequency x consistency interaction. Retraining the damaged model crystallized out these small differences into a strong dissociation, very similar to the pattern found in surface dyslexic patients. What is more, the percentage of regularization errors, always high in surface dyslexics, increased greatly over the retraining period, moving from under 10% to over 80% in some simulations. These results suggest that the performance patterns of brain-damaged patients can owe as much to the substantial changes in the pattern of connectivity occurring during recovery as to the original premorbid structure. This finding is discussed in relation to the traditional cognitive neuropsychological assumptions of subtractivity and transparency.
Burkett, Michael W.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Holian, Kathleen S.
2004-07-01
Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for continuum-level anisotropic elastoplastic material strength and an isotropic damage model TEPLA have been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code known as CONEJO. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to compute rigid-body rotation. TEPLA is based upon the Gurson flow surface (a potential function used in conjunction with the associated flow law). The original TEPLA equation set has been extended to include anisotropic elastoplasticity and has been recast into a new implicit solution algorithm based upon an eigenvalue scheme to accommodate the anisotropy. This algorithm solves a two-by-two system of nonlinear equations using a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. Simulations of a shaped-charge jet formation, a Taylor cylinder impact, and an explosively loaded hemishell were selected to demonstrate the utility of this modeling capability. The predicted deformation topology, plastic strain, and porosity distributions are shown for the three simulations.
The EST Model for Predicting Progressive Damage and Failure of Open Hole Bending Specimens
Joseph, Ashith P. K.; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.
2016-01-01
Progressive damage and failure in open hole composite laminate coupons subjected to flexural loading is modeled using Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST). Previous studies have demonstrated that EST can accurately predict the strength of open hole coupons under remote tensile and compressive loading states. This homogenized modeling approach uses single composite shell elements to represent the entire laminate in the thickness direction and significantly reduces computational cost. Therefore, when delaminations are not of concern or are active in the post-peak regime, the version of EST presented here is a good engineering tool for predicting deformation response. Standard coupon level tests provides all the input data needed for the model and they are interpreted in conjunction with finite element (FE) based simulations. Open hole bending test results of three different IM7/8552 carbon fiber composite layups agree well with EST predictions. The model is able to accurately capture the curvature change and deformation localization in the specimen at and during the post catastrophic load drop event.
Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher
2011-12-29
The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.
A Damaged Constitutive Model for Rock under Dynamic and High Stress State
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Yan-Long Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main research work of this paper focuses on the theoretical prediction of the constitutive relationship for rock, concrete, and other quasi-brittle materials under dynamic and complex stress state and the influence of dynamic mechanical behavior of rock on practical engineering problems was studied. A damaged elastoplastic model (DEPM is established for the investigation and prediction of static or dynamic mechanical behavior of rock material. The mechanical behavior (brittleness or plasticity and dynamic response (due to underground impact pressure and high-velocity impact of projectile of rock under high in situ stress were investigated via the DEPM combined with the explicit finite element method. This paper suggests the influence of the brittle or plastic mechanical behavior of rock material on deep underground rock engineering.
Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality
Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K.R.
2013-01-01
White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid–base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid–base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.
A micromechanical damage model for rocks and concretes under triaxial compression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhong-jun REN; Xiang-he PENG; Ning HU; Chun-he YANG
2009-01-01
Based on analysis of deformation in an infinite isotropic elastic matrix con-taining an embedded elliptic crack, subject to far field triaxial compressive stress, the energy release rate and a mixed fracture criterion are obtained by using an energy bal-ance approach. The additional compliance tensor induced by a single closed elliptic microcrack in a representative volume element and its in-plane growth is derived. The additional compliance tensor induced by the kinked growth of the elliptic microcrack is also obtained. The effect of the microcracks, randomly distributed both in geometric characteristics and orientations, is analyzed with the Taylor's scheme by introducing an appropriate probability density function. A micromechanical damage model for rocks and concretes under triaxial compression is obtained and experimentally verified.
Protective effects of MCI-186 on oxidative damage in a cell model of Alzheimer's disease
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming Yu; Shujuan Li; Wenhui Leng; Han Chen; Yingquan Wu; Lirong Yan
2010-01-01
Oxidative stress has an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease(AD).Beta amyloid protein 25 35(Aβ25-35)can generate oxygen free radicals,and MCI-186(3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one,edaravone)can specifically eliminate hydroxyl radicals.The present study introduced Aβ25-35 into PC12 cells to establish a cell model of AD,and investigated the neuroprotective effects of MCI-186 on AD.Results showed that MCI-186 had a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of AD by inhibiting protein oxidative products,advanced glycation end products,lipid oxidative end products and DNA oxidative damage in PC12 cells induced by Aβ25-35.
Guyton, M. Kelly; Das, Arabinda; Samantaray, Supriti; Wallace, Gerald C.; Butler, Jonathan T.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.
2011-01-01
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for studying multiple sclerosis (MS). Calpain has been implicated in many inflammatory and neurodegenerative events that lead to disability in EAE and MS. Thus, treating EAE animals with calpain inhibitors may block these events and ameliorate disability. To test this hypothesis, acute EAE Lewis rats were treated dose-dependently with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (50 – 250 µg/kg). Calpain activity, gliosis, loss of myelin, and axonal damage were attenuated by calpeptin therapy, leading to improved clinical scores. Neuronal and oligodendrocyte death were also decreased with down regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, suggesting that decreases in cell death were due to decreases in the expression or activity of pro-apoptotic proteins. These results indicate that calpain inhibition may offer a novel therapeutic avenue for treating EAE and MS. PMID:20623621
AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carmona, Noemi [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kowal, Andrzej [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, PAN, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Cracow (Poland); Rincon, Jesus-Maria [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, C. Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, Maria-Angeles, E-mail: mariangeles.villegas@cchs.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C. Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)
2010-01-15
Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.
Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher
2011-12-29
The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.
Lua, Yuan J.; Liu, Wing K.; Belytschko, Ted
1992-01-01
A stochastic damage model for predicting the rupture of a brittle multiphase material is developed, based on the microcrack-macrocrack interaction. The model, which incorporates uncertainties in locations, orientations, and numbers of microcracks, characterizes damage by microcracking and fracture by macrocracking. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the change of the stress intensity at the macrocrack tip by the configuration of microcracks. The inherent statistical distribution of the fracture toughness arising from the intrinsic random nature of microcracks is explored using a statistical approach. For this purpose, a computer simulation model is introduced, which incorporates a statistical characterization of geometrical parameters of a random microcrack array.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roozbeh Hasanzadeh Nafari
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. In Australia, physical losses caused by floods are commonly estimated by stage-damage functions. These methods usually consider only the depth of the water and the type of buildings at risk. However, flood damage is a complicated process, and it is dependent on a variety of factors which are rarely taken into account. This study explores the interaction, importance, and influence of water depth, flow velocity, water contamination, precautionary measures, emergency measures, flood experience, floor area, building value, building quality, and socioeconomic status. The study uses tree-based models (regression trees and bagging decision trees and a dataset collected from 2012 to 2013 flood events in Queensland, which includes information on structural damages, impact parameters, and resistance variables. The tree-based approaches show water depth, floor area, precautionary measures, building value, and building quality to be important damage-influencing parameters. Furthermore, the performance of the tree-based models is validated and contrasted with the outcomes of a multi-parameter loss function (FLFArs from Australia. The tree-based models are shown to be more accurate than the stage-damage function. Consequently, considering more parameters and taking advantage of tree-based models is recommended. The outcome is important for improving established Australian flood loss models and assisting decision-makers and insurance companies dealing with flood risk assessment.
Characterization of retinal damage in the episcleral vein cauterization rat glaucoma model.
Danias, John; Shen, Fran; Kavalarakis, Manolis; Chen, Bin; Goldblum, David; Lee, Kevin; Zamora, Maria-Florencia; Su, YanLing; Brodie, Scott E; Podos, Steven M; Mittag, Thom
2006-02-01
Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) is used in rats to generate a glaucoma model with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The long-term retinal damage in this glaucoma model, however, has not been accurately quantified. We report the location and amount of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage caused by (EVC) induced IOP elevation in two rat strains. IOP was raised in one eye of Wistar (N = 5) and Brown-Norway(B-N)(N = 7) rats by EVC and monitored monthly until IOP in contralateral eyes equalized at 5 months post-surgery. Animals were maintained for 3.5-4.5 additional months. B-N rats (N = 7) that had no EVC served as controls for this strain. Scotopic flash ERGs were recorded at baseline and just prior to euthanasia. Automated counts of all retrogradely labeled RGCs in retinal flat-mounts were determined and compared between contralateral eyes. RGC density maps were constructed and RGC size distribution was determined. Oscillatory potentials in the group of eyes which had elevated IOP were decreased at the time of euthanasia, when IOP had returned to normal. The group of normal B-N rats had similar RGC counts between contralateral eyes. In the experimental group the mean number of RGCs was not significantly different between control and experimental eyes, but 1 of 5 Wistar and 2 of 7 B-N experimental eyes had at least 30% fewer RGCs than contralateral control eyes. Total retinal area in B-N experimental eyes was higher compared to contralateral eyes. Cumulative IOP exposure of the experimental eyes was modestly correlated with RGC loss while oscillatory potentials appeared to be inversely related to RGC loss. In retinas with extensive (> 30% RGC loss) but not complete damage, smaller cells were preserved better than larger ones. The above results indicate that RGC loss in both Wistar and B-N strains is variable after a prolonged elevation of IOP via EVC. Such variability despite equivalent IOP levels and ERG abnormalities, suggests unknown factors that can protect IOP
Modeling damage complexity-dependent non-homologous end-joining repair pathway.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongfeng Li
Full Text Available Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is the dominant DNA double strand break (DSB repair pathway and involves several repair proteins such as Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4. It has been experimentally shown that the choice of NHEJ proteins is determined by the complexity of DSB. In this paper, we built a mathematical model, based on published data, to study how NHEJ depends on the damage complexity. Under an appropriate set of parameters obtained by minimization technique, we can simulate the kinetics of foci track formation in fluorescently tagged mammalian cells, Ku80-EGFP and DNA-PKcs-YFP for simple and complex DSB repair, respectively, in good agreement with the published experimental data, supporting the notion that simple DSB undergo fast repair in a Ku-dependent, DNA-PKcs-independent manner, while complex DSB repair requires additional DNA-PKcs for end processing, resulting in its slow repair, additionally resulting in slower release rate of Ku and the joining rate of complex DNA ends. Based on the numerous experimental descriptions, we investigated several models to describe the kinetics for complex DSB repair. An important prediction of our model is that the rejoining of complex DSBs is through a process of synapsis formation, similar to a second order reaction between ends, rather than first order break filling/joining. The synapsis formation (SF model allows for diffusion of ends before the synapsis formation, which is precluded in the first order model by the rapid coupling of ends. Therefore, the SF model also predicts the higher number of chromosomal aberrations observed with high linear energy transfer (LET radiation due to the higher proportion of complex DSBs compared to low LET radiation, and an increased probability of misrejoin following diffusion before the synapsis is formed, while the first order model does not provide a mechanism for the increased effectiveness in chromosomal aberrations observed.
Juntermanns, Benjamin; Grabellus, Florian; Zhang, Hongwei; Radunz, Sonia; Bernheim, Johannes; Fingas, Christian Dominik; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot Maximilian
2014-06-01
It has been demonstrated that intraoperative radiotherapy is a therapeutic option for patients suffering from perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. Aim of our study was to investigate vascular and nerve damages after irradiation of the liver hilum in a pig model. Twenty-four pigs underwent central bile duct resection followed by biliodigestive anastomosis. Nine pigs underwent this surgical procedure alone (group 1). Ten pigs were treated with additional intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) of 20Gy to the liver hilum (group 2). And five pigs received operation and IORT with 40Gy to the area of anastomosis (group 3). Six weeks after operation and treatment the animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination was performed. Histology showed no vascular or nerve damage in non-irradiated perihilar tissue. Significant changes of nerve structures occurred, as well as vascular damage in large and even more in small hilar arteries in the irradiated neighboring liver tissue. In detail for small hilar arteries: intima proliferation (p ≤ .0001), endothelial swelling (p ≤ .0001), fibrinoid arterial wall necrosis (p ≤ .0001), and arterial thrombosis (p = .0079) were detected. Venous vessels did not show significant dose dependant cell damage. Overall, 20Gy as a single dose application during operation showed similar damage to vessels and nerves compared to 40Gy. A radiation dosage of 20Gy seems to be sufficient to induce necrosis due to vascular and nerve damage in potential malignant liver tissue with acceptable damage to surrounding tissue. Perineural invaded tumor cells might be diminished due to IORT.
Slamet, Samuel Susanto; Takano, Naoki; Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa
This paper aims at building up a computational procedure to study the bio-mechanism of pressure ulcer using the finite element method. Pressure ulcer is a disease that occurs in the human body after 2 hours of continuous external force. In the very early stage of pressure ulcer, it is found that the tissues inside the body are damaged, even though skin surface looks normal. This study assumes that tension and/or shear strain will cause damage to loose fibril tissue between the bone and muscle and that propagation of damaged area will lead to fatal stage. Analysis was performed using the finite element method by modeling the damaged fibril tissue as a cutout. By varying the loading directions and watching both tensile and shear strains, the risk of fibril tissue damage and propagation of the damaged area is discussed, which may give new insight for the careful nursing for patients, particularly after surgical treatment. It was found that the pressure ulcer could reoccur for a surgical flap treatment. The bone cut and surgical flap surgery is not perfect to prevent the bone-muscle interfacial damage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanhui, Sheng [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Jianmin, Hu, E-mail: hujianmin@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Jiahong, Qi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yueyuan, Wang, E-mail: yywang72@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yiyong, Wu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Jianwen, Xu [Shanghai Institute of Space Power Sources, Shanghai 200233 (China)
2015-10-01
Based on the irradiation damage model of solar cells, the irradiation damage mechanism of space solar cells from the aspect of the carriers’ transport is studied. The basic rules of electrical parameter degradation of GaAs/Ge solar cells under different energy proton and electron irradiation are obtained through the ground-accelerated equivalent simulation test for space-charged particles. The open-circuit voltage degradation curves of the solar cells are fitted nonlinearly by its mathematical model. The change laws of damage coefficient of majority carriers’ removal rate with the incident proton and electron energy are given. The damage coefficient of GaAs/Ge solar cells first increases and then decreases with increasing incident proton energy, and it reaches a maximum at 100 keV proton irradiation. In addition, the damage coefficient increases with increasing incident electron energy. The studies show that open-circuit voltage degradation is closely related to the removal effect of the majority carriers under charged particle irradiation. The results have important significance to reveal the irradiation damage mechanism of the space solar cells.
Loch, R A; Sobierajski, R; Louis, E; Bosgra, J; Bijkerk, F
2012-12-17
The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly used multilayer optics and propose new material combinations selected for a high damage threshold. Our study demonstrates that the damage thresholds of multilayer optics can vary over a large range of incidence fluences and can be as high as several hundreds of mJ/cm(2). This strongly suggests that multilayer mirrors are serious candidates for damage resistant optics. Especially, multilayer optics based on Li(2)O spacers are very promising for use in current and future short-wavelength radiation sources.
Garion, Cedric
2003-01-01
Ductile materials (like stainless steel or copper) show at cryogenic temperatures three principal phenomena: serrated yielding (discontinuous in terms of dsigma/depsilon), plastic strain-induced phase transformations and evolution of ductile damage. The present paper deals exclusively with the two latter cases. Thus, it is assumed that the plastic flow is perfectly smooth. Both in the case of damage evolution and for the gamma-alpha prime phase transformation, the principal mechanism is related to the formation of plastic strain fields. In the constitutive modeling of both phenomena, a crucial role is played by the accumulated plastic strain, expressed by the Odqvist parameter p. Following the general trends, both in the literature concerning the phase transformation and the ductile damage, it is assumed that the rate of transformation and the rate of damage are proportional to the accumulated plastic strain rate. The gamma-alpha prime phase transformation converts the initially homogenous material to a two-p...
Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model
Wang, Rui-ze; Chen, Zhang-hua; Li, Yu-jie; Dong, Chao-fang
2013-12-01
Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill's quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at different temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at different temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal effects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at different stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.
Failure analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets based on the extended GTN damage model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Rui-ze Wang; Zhang-hua Chen; Yu-jie Li; Chao-fang Dong
2013-01-01
Based on the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and Hill’s quadratic anisotropic yield criterion, a combined experimental-numerical study on fracture initiation in the process of thermal stamping of Mg alloy AZ31 sheets was carried out. The aim is to predict the formability of thermal stamping of the Mg alloy sheets at diff erent temperatures. The presented theoretical framework was implemented into a VUMAT subroutine for ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. Internal damage evolution due to void growth and coalescence developed at diff erent temperatures in the Mg alloy sheets was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the thermal eff ects on the void growth, coalescence, and fracture behavior of the Mg alloy sheets were analyzed by the extended GTN model and forming limit diagrams (FLD). Parameters employed in the GTN model were determined from tensile tests and numerical iterative computation. The distribution of major and minor principal strains in the specimens was determined from the numerical results. Therefore, the corresponding forming limit diagrams at diff erent stress levels and temperatures were drawn. The comparison between the predicted forming limits and the experimental data shows a good agreement.
Damage-induced hydrolyses modelling of biodegradable polymers for tendons and ligaments repair.
Vieira, André C; Guedes, Rui M; Tita, Volnei
2015-09-18
The use of biodegradable synthetic grafts to repair injured ligaments may overcome the disadvantages of other solutions. Apart from biological compatibility, these devices shall also be functionally compatible and temporarily displayed, during the healing process, adequate mechanical support. Laxity of these devices is an important concern. This can cause failure since it may result in joint instability. Laxity results from a progressive accumulation of plastic strain during the cyclic loading. The functional compatibility of a biodegradable synthetic graft and, therefore, the global mechanical properties of the scaffold during degradation, can be optimised using computer-aiding and numerical tools. Therefore, in this work, the ability of numerical tools to predict the mechanical behaviour of the device during its degradation is discussed. Computational approaches based on elastoplastic and viscoplastic constitutive models are also presented. These models enable to simulate the plastic strain accumulation. These computational approaches, where the material model parameters depend on the hydrolytic degradation damage, are calibrated using experimental data measured from biodegradable suture fibres at different degradation steps. Due to durability requirements the selected materials are polydioxone (PDO) and polylactic acid and poly-caprolactone blend (PLA-PCL). Computational approaches investigated are able to predict well the experimental results for both materials, in full strain range until rupture and for different degradation steps. These approaches can be further used in more complex fibrous structures, to predict its global mechanical behaviour during degradation process.
Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.
2014-03-01
Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will esta