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Sample records for two-pressure humidity generator

  1. Consistency of the National Realization of Dew-Point Temperature Using Standard Humidity Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    The comparison of two high-range standard humidity generators used by Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial to realize dew-point temperature in the range from -10 °C to +95 °C has been performed using state-of-the art transfer standards and measurement procedures, over their overlapping range from -10 °C to +75 °C. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of agreement between the two generators, to determine any bias, and to quantify the level of consistency of the two realizations. The measurement procedures adopted to minimize the effect of the influence factors due to the transfer standards are described, and the results are discussed in the context of the declared calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs).

  2. Evaporation kinetics of laboratory-generated secondary organic aerosols at elevated relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacqueline; Imre, Dan; Beránek, Josef; Shrivastava, Manish; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2015-01-06

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) dominate atmospheric organic aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and health. Recent studies indicate that, contrary to previously held assumptions, at low relative humidity (RH) these particles are semisolid and evaporate orders of magnitude slower than expected. Elevated relative humidity has the potential to affect significantly formation, properties, and atmospheric evolution of SOA particles. Here we present a study of the effect of RH on the room-temperature evaporation kinetics of SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene. Experiments were carried out on α-pinene SOA particles generated, evaporated, and aged at evaporation begins with a relatively fast phase, during which 30-70% of the particle mass evaporates in 2 h, followed by a much slower evaporation rate. Evaporation kinetics at evaporates. In all cases, aging the particles prior to inducing evaporation reduces the evaporative losses; with aging at elevated RH leading to a more significant effect. In all cases, the observed SOA evaporation is nearly size-independent.

  3. Land use change effects on runoff generation in a humid tropical montane cloud forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Muñoz-Villers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF provide critical hydrological services to downstream regions throughout much of the humid tropics, catchment hydrology and impacts associated with forest conversion in these ecosystems remain poorly understood. Here, we compare the annual, seasonal and event-scale streamflow patterns and runoff generation processes of three neighbouring headwater catchments in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico with similar pedological and geological characteristics, but different land cover: old-growth TMCF (MAT, 20 yr-old naturally regenerating TMCF (SEC and a heavily grazed pasture (PAS. We used a 2 yr record of high resolution rainfall and stream flow data (2008–2010 in combination with stable isotope and chemical tracer data collected for a series of storms during a 6-week period of increasing antecedent wetness (wetting-up cycle. Our results showed that annual and seasonal streamflow patterns of the MAT and SEC were similar. In contrast, the PAS showed a 10% higher mean annual streamflow, most likely because of a lower rainfall interception. During the wetting-up cycle, storm runoff ratios increased at all three catchments (from 11 to 54% for the MAT, 7 to 52% for the SEC and 3 to 59% for the PAS. With the increasing antecedent wetness, hydrograph separation analysis showed progressive increases of pre-event water contributions to total stormflow (from 35 to 99% in the MAT, 26 to 92% in the SEC and 64 to 97% in the PAS. At all three sites, rainfall-runoff responses were dominated by subsurface flow generation processes for the majority of storms. However, for the largest and most intense storm (typically occurring once every 2 yr, sampled under wet antecedent conditions, the event water contribution in the PAS (34% on average was much higher than in the forests (5% on average, indicating that rainfall infiltration capacity of the PAS was exceeded. This result suggests that despite the high permeability of the

  4. An integrated evaluation of thirteen modelling solutions for the generation of hourly values of air relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregaglio, Simone; Donatelli, Marcello; Confalonieri, Roberto; Acutis, Marco; Orlandini, Simone

    2010-11-01

    The availability of hourly air relative humidity (HARH) data is a key requirement for the estimation of epidemic dynamics of plant fungal pathogens, in particular for the simulation of both the germination of the spores and the infection process. Most of the existing epidemic forecasting models require these data as input directly or indirectly, in the latter case for the estimation of leaf wetness duration. In many cases, HARH must be generated because it is not available in historical series and when there is the need to simulate epidemics either on a wide scale or with different climate scenarios. Thirteen modelling solutions (MS) for the generation of this variable were evaluated, with different input requirements and alternative approaches, on a large dataset including several sites and years. A composite indicator was developed using fuzzy logic to compare and to evaluate the performances of the models. The indicator consists of four modules: Accuracy, Correlation, Pattern and Robustness. Results showed that when available, daily maximum and minimum air relative humidity data substantially improved the estimation of HARH. When such data are not available, the choice of the MS is crucial, given the difference in predicting skills obtained during the analysis, which allowed a clear detection of the best performing MS. This study represents the first step of the creation of a robust modelling chain coupling the MS for the generation of HARH and disease forecasting models, including the systematic validation of each step of the simulation.

  5. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  6. The New INTA High-Range Standard Humidity Generator and Its Comparison with the Austrian National Humidity Standard Maintained at BEV/E+E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Robert; Mitter, Helmat

    2008-10-01

    A EUROMET collaborative project has been set up between Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) and E+E ELEKTRONIK Ges.m.b.H, the two designated laboratories of the Spanish and Austrian National Metrology Institutes, Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) and Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV), respectively. The objective of the project is to provide INTA with a new standard that covers the dew-point temperature range from - 27°C to +90°C with a gas flow up to 5 L· min-1 in the “two-pressure” mode, extended to 95°C when operated as a continuous flow “single-pressure” generator, and investigate the importance of the enhancement factors in the uncertainty estimations used in support of the participants’ calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) (The CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, http://www.bipm.fr/en/cipm-mra/ ). The equivalence of the Spanish and Austrian national standards is also to be evaluated, further supporting the outcomes of the Key Comparisons, in which both have already participated. The preliminary results obtained to date are reported and discussed in the context of the project and the consistency of the declared CMC’s.

  7. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    All matter is more or less hygroscopic. The moisture content varies with vapour concentration of the surrounding air and, as a consequence, most material properties change with humidity. Mechanical and thermal properties of many materials, such as the tensile strength of adhesives, stiffness of plastics, stoutness of building and packaging materials or the thermal resistivity of isolation materials, all decrease with increasing environmental humidity or cyclic humidity changes. The presence of water vapour may have a detrimental influence on many electrical constructions and systems exposed to humid air, from high-power systems to microcircuits. Water vapour penetrates through coatings, cable insulations and integrated-circuit packages, exerting a fatal influence on the performance of the enclosed systems. For these and many other applications, knowledge of the relationship between moisture content or humidity and material properties or system behaviour is indispensable. This requires hygrometers for process control or test and calibration chambers with high accuracy in the appropriate temperature and humidity range. Humidity measurement methods can roughly be categorized into four groups: water vapour removal (the mass before and after removal is measured); saturation (the air is brought to saturation and the `effort' to reach that state is measured); humidity-dependent parameters (measurement of properties of humid air with a known relation between a specific property and the vapour content, for instance the refractive index, electromagnetic spectrum and acoustic velocity); and absorption (based on the known relation between characteristic properties of non-hydrophobic materials and the amount of absorbed water from the gas to which these materials are exposed). The many basic principles to measure air humidity are described in, for instance, the extensive compilations by Wexler [1] and Sonntag [2]. Absorption-type hygrometers have small dimensions and can be

  8. Study and realization of a new humid air generator; towards the definition of a dew temperature reference; Etude et realisation d'un nouveau generateur d'air humide; vers la definition d'une reference en temperature de rosee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquart, B.

    2001-03-01

    The air humidity is an important parameter for several biological and physico-chemical processes. The aim of this thesis is the direct determination of the dew temperature without any link with the gravimetric reference. This document presents the realization and adjusting of a new humid air generator for the -80 deg. C to +15 deg. C range and the uncertainty linked with the dew temperature of the humid air generated. The first chapter recalls the definitions of humid air related data and the principles of the apparatuses used for the measurement of air humidity. The second chapter deals with temperature measurements while chapter 3 describes the new humid air generator built around an 'ideal' cell based on the theoretical definition of the dew temperature. Technical constraints due to temperature measurement and to hygrometers calibration are progressively integrated and introduced and lead to the practical realization of the device. Differences between the ideal cell and the prototype are estimated using a theoretical approach of mass and heat exchanges coupled with experimental results obtained with a previous prototype. Chapter 4 presents a first status of the device uncertainties with some possibilities of reduction of these uncertainties. (J.S.)

  9. A Life Cycle Assessment Case Study of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation with Humidity Swing Direct Air Capture of CO2 versus MEA-Based Postcombustion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Meinrenken, Christoph J; Kleijn, René; Sprecher, Benjamin; Lackner, Klaus S; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2017-01-17

    Most carbon capture and storage (CCS) envisions capturing CO2 from flue gas. Direct air capture (DAC) of CO2 has hitherto been deemed unviable because of the higher energy associated with capture at low atmospheric concentrations. We present a Life Cycle Assessment of coal-fired electricity generation that compares monoethanolamine (MEA)-based postcombustion capture (PCC) of CO2 with distributed, humidity-swing-based direct air capture (HS-DAC). Given suitable temperature, humidity, wind, and water availability, HS-DAC can be largely passive. Comparing energy requirements of HS-DAC and MEA-PCC, we find that the parasitic load of HS-DAC is less than twice that of MEA-PCC (60-72 kJ/mol versus 33-46 kJ/mol, respectively). We also compare other environmental impacts as a function of net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation: To achieve the same 73% mitigation as MEA-PCC, HS-DAC would increase nine other environmental impacts by on average 38%, whereas MEA-PCC would increase them by 31%. Powering distributed HS-DAC with photovoltaics (instead of coal) while including recapture of all background GHG, reduces this increase to 18%, hypothetically enabling coal-based electricity with net-zero life-cycle GHG. We conclude that, in suitable geographies, HS-DAC can complement MEA-PCC to enable CO2 capture independent of time and location of emissions and recapture background GHG from fossil-based electricity beyond flue stack emissions.

  10. Photocatalysis of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) over TiO2: the effect of oxygen and relative humidity on the generation of dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) and phosgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hsin-Hung; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2007-07-19

    Batch photocatalytic degradation of 80+/-2.5 ppm V trichloroethylene (TCE) was conducted to investigate the effect of the oxygen and relative humidity (RH) on the formation of the dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC) and phosgene. Based on the simultaneous ordinary differential equations (ODEs), the reaction rate constants of TCE ((2.31+/-0.28) approximately (9.41+/-0.63)x10(-2) min(-1)) are generally larger than that of DCAC ((0.94+/-1.25) approximately (9.35+/-1.71)x10(-3) min(-1)) by approximate one order. The phenomenon indicates the degradation potential of TCE is superior to that of DCAC. DCAC appreciably delivers the same degradation behavior with TCE that means there exists an optimum RH and oxygen concentration for photocatalysis of TCE and DCAC. At the time the peak yield of DCAC appears, the conversion ratio based on the carbon atom from TCE to DCAC is within the range of 30-83% suggesting that the DCAC generation is significantly attributed to TCE degradation. Regarding the phosgene formation, the increasing oxygen amount leads to the inhibitory effect on the phosgene yield which fall within the range of 5-15%. The formation mechanism of phosgene was also inferred that the Cl atoms attacking the C-C bond of DCAC results to the generation of phosgene rather than directly from the TCE destruction.

  11. Streamflow generation in humid West Africa: the role of Bas-fonds investigated with a physically based model of the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.

    2015-12-01

    In West Africa, the drought initiated in the 70's-80's together with intense land-use change due to increasing food demand produced very contrasted responses on water budgets of the critical zone (CZ) depending on the lithological and pedological contexts. In Sahel, streamflow increased, mostly due to increasing hortonian runoff from soil crusting, and so did groundwater storage. On the contrary, in the more humid southern Sudanian area, streamflow decreased and no clear signal has been observed concerning water storage in this hard-rock basement area. There, Bas-fonds are fundamental landscape features. They are seasonally water-logged valley bottoms from which first order streams originate, mostly composed of baseflow. They are a key feature for understanding streamflow generation processes. They also carry an important agronomic potential due to their moisture and nutrient availability. The role of Bas-fond in streamflow generation processes is investigated using a physically-based coupled model of the CZ, ParFlow-CLM at catchment scale (10km²). The model is evaluated against classical hydrological measurements (water table, soil moisture, streamflow, fluxes), acquired in the AMMA-CATCH observing system for the West African monsoon, but also hybrid gravity data which measure integrated water storage changes. The bas-fond system is shown to be composed of two components with different time scales. The slow component is characterized by the seasonal and interannual amplitude of the permanent water table, which is disconnected from streams, fed by direct recharge and lowered by evapotranspiration, mostly from riparian areas. The fast component is characterized by thresholds in storage and perched and permanent water tables surrounding the bas-fond during the wet season, which are linked with baseflow generation. This is a first step toward integrating these features into larger scale modeling of the critical zone for evaluating the effect of precipitation

  12. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  13. Photogated humidity-driven motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lidong; Liang, Haoran; Jacob, Jolly; Naumov, Panče

    2015-06-01

    Hygroinduced motion is a fundamental process of energy conversion that is essential for applications that require contactless actuation in response to the day-night rhythm of atmospheric humidity. Here we demonstrate that mechanical bistability caused by rapid and anisotropic adsorption and desorption of water vapour by a flexible dynamic element that harnesses the chemical potential across very small humidity gradients for perpetual motion can be effectively modulated with light. A mechanically robust material capable of rapid exchange of water with the surroundings is prepared that undergoes swift locomotion in effect to periodic shape reconfiguration with turnover frequency of <150 min-1. The element can lift objects ~85 times heavier and can transport cargos ~20 times heavier than itself. Having an azobenzene-containing conjugate as a photoactive dopant, this entirely humidity-driven self-actuation can be controlled remotely with ultraviolet light, thus setting a platform for next-generation smart biomimetic hybrids.

  14. Humid free efficient solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Manoj Kumar; Panjwani, Suresh Kumar; Mangi, Fareed Hussain; Khan, Danish; Meicheng, Li

    2017-09-01

    The paper examines the impact of the humidity on the Solar panels which makes a space for the drastic variation in the power generated and makes the device less efficient. Humidity readily affects the efficiency of the solar cells and creates a minimal layer of water on its surface. It also decreases the efficiency by 10-20% of the total power output produced. Moreover, to handle this issue, all around characterized measures are required to be taken to guarantee the smooth working of the solar panels utilized in humid areas. In connection with this issue, Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan which is located near the costal line touching Arabian Sea, was taken as a reference city to measure the humidity range. In Karachi, the average humidity lies between 25-70% (as per Pakistan Meteorological Department PMD), that indirectly leads in decreasing power acquired from a Solar Panel and develops various complexities for the solar system. The system on average experiences stability issues, such as those of power fluctuations etc., due to which, the whole solar system installed observes abnormal variations in acquired power. Silica Gel was used as a desiccant material in order to assure dryness over the solar panel. More than four experiments were conducted with the usage of water absorbent to improve the efficiency and to make system more power efficient.

  15. Academics explore humidity's benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Dave

    2008-11-01

    The effects of humidification on hospital superbugs are being explored by some of the UK's top academics, in what Dave Mortimer, national sales manager for Vapac Humidity Control, explains are the UK's first such studies.

  16. Diavik Waste Rock Project: Evolution of Mineral Weathering, Element Release, and Acid Generation and Neutralization during a Five-Year Humidity Cell Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff B. Langman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year, humidity-cell experiment was used to study the weathering evolution of a low-sulfide, granitic waste rock at 5 and 22 °C. Only the rock with the highest sulfide content (0.16 wt % released sufficient acid to overcome a limited carbonate acid-neutralization capacity and produce a substantial decline in pH. Leached SO4 and Ca quickly increased then decreased during the first two years of weathering. Sulfide oxidation continued to release acid and SO4 after carbonate depletion, resulting in an increase in acid-soluble elements, including Cu and Zn. With the dissolution of Al-bearing minerals, the pH stabilized above 4, and sulfide oxidation continued to decline until the end of the experiment. The variation in activation energy of sulfide oxidation correlates with changes in sulfide availability, where the lowest activation energies occurred during the largest releases of SO4. A decrease in sulfide availability was attributed to consumption of sulfide and weathered rims on sulfide grains that reduced the oxidation rate. Varying element release rates due to changing carbonate and sulfide availability provide identifiable geochemical conditions that can be viewed as neutralization sequences and may be extrapolated to the field site for examining the evolution of mineral weathering of the waste rock.

  17. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods. PMID:27657070

  18. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

  19. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

  20. Temperature, Humidity, And Polymer Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents analysis of experimental data on electrical resistivity of polymer (polyvinyl butyral) as function of temperature and relative humidity. Resulting theoretical expression for electrical resistivity resembles generally accepted empirical law for the corrosion rate.

  1. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  2. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  3. The near-surface methane humidity on Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Lora, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We retrieve vertical and meridional variations of methane mole fraction in Titan's lower troposphere by re-analyzing near-infrared ground-based observations from 17 July 2014 UT (Adamkovics et al., 2016). We generate synthetic spectra using atmospheric methane profiles that do not contain supersaturation or discontinuities to fit the observations, and thereby retrieve minimum saturation altitudes and corresponding specific humidities in the boundary layer. We relate these in turn to surface-level relative humidities using independent surface temperature measurements. We also compare our results with general circulation model simulations to interpret and constrain the relationship between humidities and surface liquids. The results show that Titan's lower troposphere is undersaturated at latitudes south of 60N, consistent with a dry surface there, but increases in humidity toward the north pole indicate appreciable surface liquid coverage. While our observations are consistent with considerably more liquid met...

  4. Screening in humid air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  5. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity...

  6. Effect of humidity on the filter pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Letourneau, P. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    The effects of humidity on the filter pressure drop have been reported in some previous studies in which it is difficult to draw definite conclusions. These studies show contradictory effects of humidity on the pressure drop probably due to differences in the hygroscopicity of the test aerosols. The objective of this paper is to present experimental results on the evolution of the filter pressure drop versus mass loading, for different test aerosols and relative humidities. Present results are compared to those found in various publication. An experimental device has been designed to measure filter pressure drop as the function of the areal density for relative humidity varying in the range of 9 % to 85 %. Experiments have been conducted with hygroscopic: (CsOH) and nonhygroscopic aerosols (TiO{sub 2}). Cesium hydroxyde (CsOH) of size of 2 {mu} M AMMD has been generated by an ultrasonic generator and the 0.7 {mu}m AMMD titanium oxyde has been dispersed by a {open_quotes}turn-table{close_quotes} generator. As it is noted in the BISWAS`publication [3], present results show, in the case of nonhygroscopic aerosols, a linear relationship of pressure drop to mass loading. For hygroscopic aerosols two cases must be considered: for relative humidity below the deliquescent point of the aerosol, the relationship of pressure drop to mass loading remains linear; above the deliquescent point, the results show a sudden increase in the pressure drop and the mass capacity of the filter is drastically reduced.

  7. Energy from humid air. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, T.K.; Groves, W.N.; Gruber, C.L.; Cheung, A.

    1979-02-01

    Results to date are presented for a research project which is in progress at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The goal of the research is to find a cost-effective process to convert the energy in humid air into mechanical work, which will be used to drive an electrical generator. The research is being carried out by computer modeling. Results for a natural draft tower show that it is not a cost-effective way to get energy from humid air. Parametric studies are presented for expansion-compression cycles. With suitable conditions, including large amounts of cooling during compression, this cycle has an attractive net work output. To avoid using all the output power to overcome machine losses, it appears necessary to use a one-machine mechanization. The most promising uses vortex flow to achieve the necessary expansion and subsequent compression with cooling. Power output and costs have been estimated for a vortex plant located in Puerto Rico.

  8. Effect of wind speed and relative humidity on atmospheric dust concentrations in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2014-07-15

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (>4m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport.

  9. Effect of Wind Speed and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Dust Concentrations in Semi-Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (> 4 m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport. PMID:24769193

  10. Thermal Conductivity of Humid Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, S. G. S.; Ribeiro, A. P. C.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, measurements of the thermal conductivity of humid air as a function of pressure, temperature, and mole fraction of water, for pressures up to 5 MPa and temperatures up to 430 K, for different water contents (up to 10 % vapor mole fraction) are reported. Measurements were performed using a transient hot-wire apparatus capable of obtaining data with an uncertainty of 0.8 % for gases. However, as moist air becomes corrosive above 373 K and at pressures >5 MPa, the apparatus, namely, the pressure vessel and the cells had to be modified, by coating all stainless-steel parts with a titanium nitride thin film coating, about 4 μm thick, obtained by physical vapor deposition. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor k = 2) of the present experimental thermal conductivity data is 1.7 %, while the uncertainty in the mole fraction is estimated to be better than 0.0006. Experimental details regarding the preparation of the samples, the precautions taken to avoid condensation in the tubes connected to the measuring cell, and the method developed for obtaining reliable values of the water content for the gas mixtures are discussed. A preliminary analysis of the application of the kinetic theory of transport properties in reacting mixtures to interpret the complex dependence of the thermal conductivity of humid air on water composition is addressed.

  11. Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  12. New BEV/E+E Elektronik Low-Frost-Point/High-Pressure Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, H.

    2015-08-01

    Currently, the humidity standard at BEV/E+E is limited in the lower frost-point range to at pressures up to 1 MPa and to at ambient pressure. The system is also mainly designed for use with pure nitrogen as the carrier gas. In recent years, there has been a demand for humidity measurements in non-air gases (NAG) in contrast to "air gases" such as nitrogen, synthetic air, and -free standard air, even at pressures up to 10 MPa and in the frost-point range down to . NAGs can be gases such as , , and gas mixtures such as natural gas. To fulfill the requirements for humidity standards—especially in the high-pressure range—and to give the opportunity to determine thermodynamic properties such as enhancement factors in different carrier gases, a new "low-frost-point/high-pressure humidity generator" has been designed and verified at BEV/E+E Elektronik. The new humidity generator is designed as a single-pass generator with a maximum standard flow of and can be operated in the two-pressure mode as well as in the single-pressure mode at pressures up to 10 MPa. The design of the saturator focussed on reliability at high pressures and on achieving sufficient saturation efficiency at temperatures down to at least . First results of verification are presented in the range of saturator temperatures from to and at pressures up to 10 MPa. High-pressure data are presented for nitrogen and methane as carrier gases.

  13. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Vattay, G; Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  14. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  15. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S; Hu, G; Howe, R C T; De Luca, A; Ali, S Z; Udrea, F; Gardner, J W; Ray, S K; Guha, P K; Hasan, T

    2015-11-30

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  16. CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, S.; Hu, G.; Howe, R. C. T.; de Luca, A.; Ali, S. Z.; Udrea, F.; Gardner, J. W.; Ray, S. K.; Guha, P. K.; Hasan, T.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.

  17. The Effect of Humidity on the Reliability of a Surface Micromachined Microengine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, M.T.; Eaton, W.P.; Irwin, L.W.; Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; Smith, N.F.; Tanner, D.M.; Walraven, J.A.

    1999-02-02

    Humidity is shown to be a strong factor in the wear of rubbing surfaces in polysilicon micromachines. We demonstrate that very low humidity can lead to very high wear without a significant change in reliability. We show that the volume of wear debris generated is a function of the humidity in an air environment. As the humidity decreases, the wear debris generated increases. For the higher humidity levels, the formation of surface hydroxides may act as a lubricant. The dominant failure mechanism has been identified as wear. The wear debris has been identified as amorphous oxidized silicon. Large slivers (approximately 1 micron in length) of debris observed at the low humidity level were also amorphous oxidized silicon. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the wear debris forms spherical and rod-like shapes. We compared two surface treatment processes: a fluorinated si- lane chain, (FITl) and supercritical C02 dried (SCC02). The microengines using the SCC02 process were found to be less reliable than those released with the FIX process under two humidity levels.

  18. Models for power transformers monitoring in the intelligent electrical network: humidity and temperature of bubble generation; Modelos para el monitoreo de transformadores de potencia en la red electrica inteligente: humedad y temperatura de generacion de burbujas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Garcia, Roberto; Ponce Noyola, David; Guzman Lopez, Arali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Betancourt Ramirez, Enrique; Tamez Torres, Gerardo [PROLEC GE, (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the development of two experimental models in order to ensure reliable operation of power transformers under emergency overload conditions. The first model estimates the moisture distribution in the transformer windings, while the second model estimates the safe operating temperature and time before steam bubbles generation presents. Additionally, an electronic device was designed and built, using the models developed, in order to monitor in real time both parameters. This device allows a more reliable operation of the transmission network, considering the transformers condition. [Spanish] Este documento presenta el desarrollo de dos modelos experimentales para asegurar la operacion confiable de transformadores de potencia bajo condiciones de sobrecarga de emergencia. El primer modelo estima la temperatura de operacion segura y el tiempo antes de que ocurra la generacion de burbujas de vapor. Ademas, se diseno y construyo un dispositivo electronico, usando los modelos desarrollados, con el fin de monitorear en tiempo real ambos parametros. Este dispositivo permite una operacion mas confiable de la red de transmision, considerando la condicion de los transformadores.

  19. Humidity Effects on Conductivity of DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xun-Ling; DONG Rui-Xin; LIN Qing-De

    2006-01-01

    We present a model related to the humidity to describe the conductivity of homogeneous DNA molecule,where the hydration of phosphate group and bases are taken into account. The calculated results show the oscillation feature of dⅠ/dⅤ-Ⅴ curves and the semiconductor behavior of DNA. With the relative humidity increasing, the voltage gap becomes narrow and the maximum of conductance increases nonlinearly. The conductivity of DNA approaches to stabilization when the relative humidity reaches a certain value. These results are in agreement with experimental measurements.

  20. Tropical Atmospheric Circulations with Humidity Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hsia, Chun-Hsiung; Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the effect of the moisture on the planetary scale atmospheric circulation over the tropics. The modeling we adopt is the Boussinesq equations coupled with a diffusive equation of humidity and the humidity dependent heat source is modeled by a linear approximation of the humidity. The rigorous mathematical analysis is carried out using the dynamic transition theory. In particular, we obtain the same types of transitions and hence the scenario of the El Ni\\~no mechanism as described in \\cite{MW2,MW3}. The effect of the moisture only lowers slightly the magnitude of the critical thermal Rayleigh number.

  1. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.;

    1999-01-01

    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...... and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  2. The uptake and release of humidity by wool irradiated with electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana HANZLÍKOVÁ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wool samples a degreased and stored in desiccator (WD, b degreased and stored freely (WF, c cleaned in water and stored freely (WW were irradiated by accelerated electron beam with doses within the range (0-400 kGy in air. Content of S-sulphonate as primary oxidation product was determined in WD using FTIR spectra inverted in the second-order derivative spectra. The uptake of humidity by all the samples at room temperature and 97% relative humidity was examined gravimetrically. As expected, the highest humidity uptake was observed for WD and the smallest one for WW. Development of the humidity uptake showed some fluctuation for all samples and, for WD the fluctuation corresponded with generated S-sulphonate, presumably due to formation of numerous H-bonds. The increasing uptake of humidity for WD and WW was observed up to 40 kGy dose while for WF, the uptake decreased below the initial level already from 16 kGy. Surface tension was measured using sink-float method combining stalagmometry. The initial surface tension of WW was higher than for WD and WF but, grew equally for all samples from 25 kGy. From 100 kGy dose the surface tension showed stabilized level. The humidity release by WD was measured using thermogravimetry. Variation of the rate humidity release around 100 °C, adequate for desorption of weakly bound water, and the mass residue of the heated wool for 120 °C corresponding to release of total water, showed an inverse dependence. It was concluded that content of S-sulphonate is responsible for variability of the sorption properties. The more S-sulphonate formed, the higher uptake of humidity and the lower rate of humidity release that can be observed. It is suggested that, within a certain range, a properly chosen dose can affect humidity uptake.

  3. Humidity control of an incubator using the microcontroller-based active humidifier system employing an ultrasonic nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, I; Burunkaya, M

    2002-01-01

    Relative humidity levels of an incubator were measured and controlled. An ultrasonic nebulizer system as an active humidifier was used to humidify the incubator environment. An integrated circuit-type humidity sensor was used to measure the humidity level of the incubator environment. Measurement and control processes were achieved by a PIC microcontroller. The high-performance and high-speed PIC provided the flexibility of the system. The developed system can be used effectively for the intensive care of newborns and/or premature babies. Since the humidifier generates an aerosol in ambient conditions, it is possible to provide the high relative humidity level for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes in medicine.

  4. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...... is controlled using wall mounted ventilation flaps. In the paper an algorithm for air flow control is presented meeting the needs for temperature and humidity while taking the air flow pattern in consideration. To obtain simple and realisable controllers a model based control design method is applied....... In the design dynamic models for temperature and humidity are very important elements and effort is put into deriving and testing the models. It turns out that non-linearities are dominating in both models making feedback linearization the natural design method. The air controller as well as the temperature...

  5. Dropwise condensation dynamics in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Chacon, Julian Eduardo

    Dropwise condensation of atmospheric water vapor is important in multiple practical engineering applications. The roles of environmental factors and surface morphology/chemistry on the condensation dynamics need to be better understood to enable efficient water-harvesting, dehumidication, and other psychrometric processes. Systems and surfaces that promote faster condensation rates and self-shedding of condensate droplets could lead to improved mass transfer rates and higher water yields in harvesting applications. The thesis presents the design and construction of an experimental facility that allows visualization of the condensation process as a function of relative humidity. Dropwise condensation experiments are performed on a vertically oriented, hydrophobic surface at a controlled relative humidity and surface subcooling temperature. The distribution and growth of water droplets are monitored across the surface at different relative humidities (45%, 50%, 55%, and 70%) at a constant surface subcooling temperature of 15 °C below the ambient temperature. The droplet growth dynamics exhibits a strong dependency on relative humidity in the early stages during which there is a large population of small droplets on the surface and single droplet growth dominates over coalescence effects. At later stages, the dynamics of droplet growth is insensitive to relative humidity due to the dominance of coalescence effects. The overall volumetric rate of condensation on the surface is also assessed as a function of time and ambient relative humidity. Low relative humidity conditions not only slow the absolute rate of condensation, but also prolong an initial transient regime over which the condensation rate remains significantly below the steady-state value. The current state-of-the-art in dropwise condensation research indicates the need for systematic experimental investigations as a function of relative humidity. The improved understanding of the relative humidity

  6. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  7. Aerosol light scattering measurements as a function of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D E; Malm, W C; Kreidenweis, S M

    2000-05-01

    The hygroscopic nature of atmospheric fine aerosol was investigated at a rural site in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park during July and August 1995. Passing the sample aerosol through an inlet, which housed an array of Perma Pure diffusion dryers, controlled the sample aerosol's relative humidity (RH). After conditioning the aerosol sample in the inlet, the light scattering coefficient and the aerosol size distribution were simultaneously measured. During this study, the conditioned aerosol's humidity ranged between 5% < RH < 95%. Aerosol response curves were produced using the ratio bspw/bspd; where bspw is the scattering coefficient measured at some RH greater than 20% and bspd is the scattering coefficient of the "dry" aerosol. For this work, any sample RH values below 15% were considered dry. Results of this investigation showed that the light scattering ratio increased continuously and smoothly over the entire range of relative humidity. The magnitude of the ratio at a particular RH value, however, varied considerably in time, particularly for RH values greater than approximately 60%. Curves of the scattering coefficient ratios as a function of RH were generated for each day and compared to the average 12-hour chemical composition of the aerosol. This comparison showed that for any particular RH value the ratio was highest during time periods of high sulfate concentrations and lowest during time periods of high soil or high organic carbon concentrations.

  8. The ASSET intercomparison of stratosphere and lower mesosphere humidity analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Thornton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from the first detailed intercomparison of stratosphere-lower mesosphere water vapour analyses; it builds on earlier results from the EU funded framework V "Assimilation of ENVISAT Data" (ASSET project. Stratospheric water vapour plays an important role in many key atmospheric processes and therefore an improved understanding of its daily variability is desirable. With the availability of high resolution, good quality Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS water vapour profiles, the ability of four different atmospheric models to assimilate these data is tested. MIPAS data have been assimilated over September 2003 into the models of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, the Belgian Institute for Space and Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB, the French Service d'Aéronomie (SA-IPSL and the UK Met Office. The resultant middle atmosphere humidity analyses are compared against independent satellite data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II. The MIPAS water vapour profiles are generally well assimilated in the ECMWF, BIRA-IASB and SA systems, producing stratosphere-mesosphere water vapour fields where the main features compare favourably with the independent observations. However, the models are less capable of assimilating the MIPAS data where water vapour values are locally extreme or in regions of strong humidity gradients, such as the southern hemisphere lower stratosphere polar vortex. Differences in the analyses can be attributed to the choice of humidity control variable, how the background error covariance matrix is generated, the model resolution and its complexity, the degree of quality control of the observations and the use of observations near the model boundaries. Due to the poor performance of the Met Office analyses the results are not included in

  9. Molecular formula composition of β-caryophyllene ozonolysis SOA formed in humid and dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Shuvashish; Fisseha, Rebeka; Putman, Annie L.; Rahn, Thom A.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the molecular formula composition of six β-caryophyllene SOA samples using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry under various reaction conditions. The SOA samples were generated in dry or low relative humidity (RH) chamber conditions with or without cyclohexane. All of the studied SOA mass spectra have three distinct clusters of hundreds of negative ions referred to as Group I (100 molecular formulas with higher average carbon numbers were observed in humid SOA than in dry SOA in the absence of cyclohexane, suggesting a decrease of cleavage reactions in humid condition. This study characterizes β-caryophyllene ozonolysis SOA based on ultrahigh mass resolution and demonstrates the significance of humidity in terms of the molecular distributions and relative abundances of the analytes. We also discuss the possible mechanism for the formation of Group I-III compounds based on the current understanding of SOA formation in the atmosphere.

  10. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  11. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  12. DESIGN NOTE: A simple and inexpensive humidity control chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K. D.; Huizinga, A.; Brett, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    A low-cost humidity control chamber is described which is capable of varying the relative humidity of an enclosed volume between nominal values of 1 and 97%. The humidity is controlled by varying the duty cycle of two fans supplying respectively dry and humid air to the chamber.

  13. Effects of Humidity and Surface on Photoalignment of Brilliant Yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    high humidity (a sealed box containing water, 80-90% RH) or low humidity (a closed box containing bentonite clay desiccant, ក% RH) for different...kept at high humidity (a sealed box containing water, 80- 90% RH) and one was kept at low humidity (a box containing bentonite clay desiccant, ក% RH

  14. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hong Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH.

  15. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  16. Heat or humidity, which triggers tree phenology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H.; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    An overwhelming number of studies confirm that temperature is the main driver for phenological events such as leafing, flowering or fruit ripening, which was first discovered by Réaumur in 1735. Since then, several additional factors which influence onset dates have been identified, such as length of the chilling period, photoperiod, temperature of the previous autumn, nutrient availability, precipitation, sunshine and genetics (local adaptations). Those are supposed to capture some of the remaining, unexplained variance. But our ability to predict onset dates remains imprecise, and our understanding of how plants sense temperature is vague. From a climate chamber experiment on cuttings of 9 tree species we present evidence that air humidity is an important, but previously overlooked, factor influencing the spring phenology of trees. The date of median leaf unfolding was 7 days earlier at 90% relative humidity compared to 40% relative humidity. A second experiment with cuttings shows that water uptake by above-ground tissue might be involved in the phenological development of trees. A third climate chamber experiment suggests that winter dormancy and chilling might be linked to dehydration processes. Analysis of climate data from several meteorological stations across Germany proves that the increase in air humidity after winter is a reliable signal of spring, i.e. less variable or susceptible to reversal compared to temperature. Finally, an analysis of long-term phenology data reveals that absolute air humidity can even be used as a reliable predictor of leafing dates. Current experimental work tries to elucidate the involved foliar uptake processes by using deuterium oxide marked water and Raman spectroscopy. We propose a new framework, wherein plants' chilling requirements and frost tolerance might be attributed to desiccation processes, while spring development is linked to re-humidification of plant tissue. The influence of air humidity on the spring

  17. Humidity fluctuations in the marine boundary layer measured at a coastal site with an infrared humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempreviva, A.M.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1996-01-01

    An extensive set of humidity turbulence data has been analyzed from 22-m height in the marine boundary layer. Fluctuations of humidity were measured by an ''OPHIR'', an infrared humidity sensor with a 10 Hz scanning frequency and humidity spectra were produced. The shapes of the normalized spectr...

  18. Nanomechanical humidity detection through porous alumina cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Boytsova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present here the behavior of the resonance frequency of porous anodic alumina cantilever arrays during water vapor adsorption and emphasize their possible use in the micromechanical sensing of humidity levels at least in the range of 10–22%. The sensitivity of porous anodic aluminium oxide cantilevers (Δf/Δm and the humidity sensitivity equal about 56 Hz/pg and about 100 Hz/%, respectively. The approach presented here for the design of anodic alumina cantilever arrays by the combination of anodic oxidation and photolithography enables easy control over porosity, surface area, geometric and mechanical characteristics of the cantilever arrays for micromechanical sensing.

  19. Study of dew water collection in humid tropical islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clus, O.; Ortega, P.; Muselli, M.; Milimouk, I.; Beysens, D.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryAn assessment of the potential for dew water to serve as a potable water source during a rainless season in a humid tropical climate was carried out in the Pacific islands of French Polynesia. The climate of these islands, in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations, wind and energy balance, is representative of the climate of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Measurements were obtained at two characteristic sites of this region; a mountainous island (Punaauia, Tahiti Island) and an atoll (Tikehau, Tuamotu Archipelago). Dew was measured daily on a 30° tilted, 1 m 2 plane collector equipped with a thermally insulated radiative foil. In addition, an electronic balance placed at 1 m above the ground with a horizontal 0.16 m 2 condensing plate made of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (Teflon) was used in Tahiti. Dew volume data, taken during the dry season from 16/5/2005 to 14/10/2005, were correlated with air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and visible plus infrared radiometer measurements. The data were also fitted to a model. Dew formation in such a tropical climate is characterized by high absolute humidity, weak nocturnal temperature drop and strong Trade winds. These winds prevent dew from forming unless protected e.g. by natural vegetal windbreaks. In protected areas, dew can then form with winds as large as 7 m/s. Such strong winds also hamper at night the formation near the ground of a calm and cold air layer with high relative humidity. As the cooling power is lower than in the Mediterranean islands because of the high absolute humidity of the atmosphere, both effects combine to generate modest dew yields. However, dew events are frequent and provide accumulated amounts of water attractive for dew water harvesting. Slight modifications of existing rain collection devices on roofs can enhance dew formation and collection. Dew harvesting thus appears as an attractive possibility to provide the local population with a

  20. Effects of Ambient Humidity on Plant Growth Enhancement by Atmospheric Air Plasma Irradiation to Plant Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, Thapanut; Amano, Takaaki; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Humidity is an important factor for plasma-bio applications because composition of species generated by atmospheric pressure plasmas significantly depends on the humidity. Here we have examined effects of humidity on the growth enhancement to study the mechanism. Experiments were carried out with a scalable DBD device. 10 seeds of Raphanus sativus L. were set for x = 5 mm and y = 3 mm below the electrodes. The humidity Hair was 10 - 90 %Rh. The ratio of length of plants with plasma irradiation to that of control increases from 1.2 for Hair = 10 %Rh to 2.5 for Hair = 50 %Rh. The ratio is 2.5 for Hair = 50-90 %Rh. This humidity dependence is similar to the humidity dependence of O2+-H2O,H3O*, NO2--H2Oand NO3--H2Odensities, whereas it is different from that of other species such as O3, NO, and so on. The similarity gives information on key species for the growth enhancement.

  1. Soil erosion in humid regions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Holz; Karl W.J. Williard; Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion has significant implications for land productivity and surface water quality, as sediment is the leading water pollutant worldwide. Here, erosion processes are defined. The dominant factors influencing soil erosion in humid areas are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of precipitation, soil moisture, soil porosity, slope steepness and length,...

  2. A geochemical examination of humidity cell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maest, Ann; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Humidity cell tests (HCTs) are long-term (20 to >300 weeks) leach tests that are considered by some to be the among the most reliable geochemical characterization methods for estimating the leachate quality of mined materials. A number of modifications have been added to the original HCT method, but the interpretation of test results varies widely. We suggest that the HCTs represent an underutilized source of geochemical data, with a year-long test generating approximately 2500 individual chemical data points. The HCT concentration peaks and valleys can be thought of as a “chromatogram” of reactions that may occur in the field, whereby peaks in concentrations are associated with different geochemical processes, including sulfate salt dissolution, sulfide oxidation, and dissolution of rock-forming minerals, some of which can neutralize acid. Some of these reactions occur simultaneously, some do not, and geochemical modeling can be used to help distinguish the dominant processes. Our detailed examination, including speciation and inverse modeling, of HCTs from three projects with different geology and mineralization shows that rapid sulfide oxidation dominates over a limited period of time that starts between 40 and 200 weeks of testing. The applicability of laboratory tests results to predicting field leachate concentrations, loads, or rates of reaction has not been adequately demonstrated, although early flush releases and rapid sulfide oxidation rates in HCTs should have some relevance to field conditions. Knowledge of possible maximum solute concentrations is needed to design effective treatment and mitigation approaches. Early flush and maximum sulfide oxidation results from HCTs should be retained and used in environmental models. Factors that complicate the use of HCTs include: sample representation, time for microbial oxidizers to grow, sample storage before testing, geochemical reactions that add or remove constituents, and the HCT results chosen for use

  3. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  4. Raoult's law revisited: accurately predicting equilibrium relative humidity points for humidity control experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Michael G; Bowler, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium relative humidity values for a number of the most commonly used precipitants in biological macromolecule crystallisation have been measured using a new humidity control device. A simple argument in statistical mechanics demonstrates that the saturated vapour pressure of a solvent is proportional to its mole fraction in an ideal solution (Raoult's Law). The same argument can be extended to the case where solvent and solute molecules are of different size.

  5. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  6. Fiberboard Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts

  7. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  8. Fiberboard humidity data for 9975 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-31

    The 9975 surveillance program is identifying a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in KAC beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis.Two efforts have been undertaken to better understand the levels and behavior of moisture within the fiberboard assemblies of the 9975 shipping package. In the first effort, an initial survey of humidity and temperature in the upper air space of 26 packages stored in KAC was made. The data collected within this first effort help to illustrate how the upper air space humidity varies with the local ambient temperature and package heat load. In the second effort, direct measurements of two test packages are providing a correlation between humidity and fiberboard moisture levels within the package, and variations in moisture throughout the fiberboard assembly. This effort has examined packages with cane fiberboard and internal heat levels of 5 and 10W to date. Additional testing is expected to include 15 and 19W heat levels, and then repeat the same four heat levels with softwood fiberboard assemblies. This report documents the data collected to date within these two efforts.

  9. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  10. Humidity Sensitive Properties of a Silicone-containing Polyelectrolyte Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jie YANG; Zong Wu YAO; You Si CHEN; Yang LI

    2006-01-01

    Resistive-type film humidity sensors were prepared with a silicone-containing polyelectrolyte (Si-PE) and their humidity sensitive properties have been investigated. The sensors so obtained show high sensitivity to humidity variation over a wide range of RH (20-96%).In addition, they exhibit high reversibility, quick response and well long-term stability.

  11. Regenerated Spider Silk Possess Mechanical Properties of Super- and Cyclic Contraction in Response to Environmental Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Evans, Samuel; Blackledge, Todd

    2013-06-01

    Major Ampullate (MA) spider silk is among the most impressive biomaterials due to its unparalleled mechanical properties, such as super-contraction and cyclic response to changes in humidity. Electro-spinning enables the generation of engineered silk fibers with controlled parameters and dimentions for various medical and commercial applications. However, their applications hinge on the ability to reproduce the mechanical properties such as a precise expansion-contraction response existed in natural silk fibers. Here, we successfully reproduced MA spider-silk fibers from solutions of natural MA silk proteins via electrospinning, which exhibit the super-contraction and cyclic response to humidity change in a manner mirroring the natural fibers.

  12. Determination of equilibrium humidities using temperature and humidity controlled X-ray diffraction (RH-XRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnow, Kirsten [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry - Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Steiger, Michael [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry - Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: michael.steiger@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2007-01-30

    Confined growth of crystals in porous building materials is generally considered to be a major cause of damage. We report on the use of X-ray diffraction under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH-XRD) for the investigation of potentially deleterious phase transition reactions. An improved procedure based on rate measurements is used for the accurate and reproducible determination of equilibrium humidities of deliquescence and hydration reactions. The deliquescence humidities of NaCl (75.4 {+-} 0.5% RH) and Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O (50.8 {+-} 0.7% RH) at 25 deg. C determined with this improved RH-XRD technique are in excellent agreement with available literature data. Measurement of the hydration of anhydrous Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to form Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O revealed an equilibrium humidity of 10.2 {+-} 0.3%, which is also in reasonable agreement with available data. In conclusion, dynamic X-ray diffraction measurements are an appropriate method for the accurate and precise determination of equilibrium humidities with a number of interesting future applications.

  13. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Wan, Yajuan; Yan, Xiao

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O(3) production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO(x) formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L(-1) in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst after 150-h reactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-06

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  15. Positive impedance humidity sensors via single-component materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jingwen; Peng, Zhijian; Shen, Zhenguang; Zhao, Zengying; Zhang, Guoliang; Fu, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Resistivity-type humidity sensors have been investigated with great interest due to the increasing demands in industry, agriculture and daily life. To date, most of the available humidity sensors have been fabricated based on negative humidity impedance, in which the electrical resistance decreases as the humidity increases, and only several carbon composites have been reported to present positive humidity impedance. However, here we fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors only via single-component WO3-x crystals. The resistance of WO3-x crystal sensors in response to relative humidity could be tuned from a negative to positive one by increasing the compositional x. And it was revealed that the positive humidity impedance was driven by the defects of oxygen vacancy. This result will extend the application field of humidity sensors, because the positive humidity impedance sensors would be more energy-efficient, easier to be miniaturized and electrically safer than their negative counterparts for their lower operation voltages. And we believe that constructing vacancies in semiconducting materials is a universal way to fabricate positive impedance humidity sensors.

  16. Field evaluation of polymer capacitive humidity sensors for Bowen ratio energy balance flux measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10) dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50), or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C), could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the profile

  17. Field Evaluation of Polymer Capacitive Humidity Sensors for Bowen Ratio Energy Balance Flux Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Savage

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of reliable, reasonably accurate and relatively inexpensive estimates of sensible heat and latent energy fluxes was investigated using a commercial combination thin-film polymer capacitive relative humidity and adjacent temperature sensor instrument. Long-term and unattended water vapour pressure profile difference measurements using low-power combination instruments were compared with those from a cooled dewpoint mirror hygrometer, the latter often used with Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB systems. An error analysis, based on instrument relative humidity and temperature errors, was applied for various capacitive humidity instrument models. The main disadvantage of a combination capacitive humidity instrument is that two measurements, relative humidity and temperature, are required for estimation of water vapour pressure as opposed to one for a dewpoint hygrometer. In a laboratory experiment using an automated procedure, water vapour pressure differences generated using a reference dewpoint generator were measured using a commercial model (Dew-10 dewpoint hygrometer and a combination capacitive humidity instrument. The laboratory measurement comparisons showed that, potentially, an inexpensive model combination capacitive humidity instrument (CS500 or HMP50, or for improved results a slightly more expensive model (HMP35C or HMP45C, could substitute for the more expensive dewpoint hygrometer. In a field study, in a mesic grassland, the water vapour pressure measurement noise for the combination capacitive humidity instruments was greater than that for the dewpoint hygrometer. The average water vapour pressure profile difference measured using a HMP45C was highly correlated with that from a dewpoint hygrometer with a slope less than unity. Water vapour pressure measurements using the capacitive humidity instruments were not as accurate, compared to those obtained using a dewpoint hygrometer, but the resolution magnitudes for the

  18. Effects of low humidity on the rat middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, H M; McGuirt, W F; Ayres, P H; Hayes, A W; Coggins, C R; Sagartz, J

    1994-09-01

    Secretory otitis media is common in the winter, and the possible risk factors are numerous. This study examines the effect of low humidity on the middle ear using a Sprague-Dawley rat model: 23 test rats housed for 5 days in a low-humidity environment (10% to 12% relative humidity) and 23 control rats housed at 50% to 55% relative humidity. Microscopic ear examinations were graded for otitis media with effusion (OME) before testing and on test days 3 and 5. The mucosa of the middle ears and eustachian tubes was examined histopathologically. Significantly more effusions were observed in the low-humidity group on test days 3 (P = .003) and 5 (P = .01), but no intergroup histopathologic differences were noted. We conclude that a low-humidity environment contributed to the development of OME in the test animals, and that low-humidity warrants further investigation as a contributing factor in childhood middle ear disease.

  19. Transfer efficiency of bacteria and viruses from porous and nonporous fomites to fingers under different relative humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo U; Gerba, Charles P; Tamimi, Akrum H; Kitajima, Masaaki; Maxwell, Sheri L; Rose, Joan B

    2013-09-01

    Fomites can serve as routes of transmission for both enteric and respiratory pathogens. The present study examined the effect of low and high relative humidity on fomite-to-finger transfer efficiency of five model organisms from several common inanimate surfaces (fomites). Nine fomites representing porous and nonporous surfaces of different compositions were studied. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, MS2 coliphage, and poliovirus 1 were placed on fomites in 10-μl drops and allowed to dry for 30 min under low (15% to 32%) or high (40% to 65%) relative humidity. Fomite-to-finger transfers were performed using 1.0 kg/cm(2) of pressure for 10 s. Transfer efficiencies were greater under high relative humidity for both porous and nonporous surfaces. Most organisms on average had greater transfer efficiencies under high relative humidity than under low relative humidity. Nonporous surfaces had a greater transfer efficiency (up to 57%) than porous surfaces (<6.8%) under low relative humidity, as well as under high relative humidity (nonporous, up to 79.5%; porous, <13.4%). Transfer efficiency also varied with fomite material and organism type. The data generated can be used in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to assess the risk of infection from fomite-transmitted human pathogens and the relative levels of exposure to different types of fomites and microorganisms.

  20. Experimental study of humidity changes on the performance of an elliptical single four-channel PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad; Ghazikhani, Mohsen; Khazaee, Iman

    2017-01-01

    Humidity and humidification in a proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM) can significantly affect the performance of these energy generating devices. Since protons (H+) needs to be accompanied by water molecules to pass from the anode side to the cathode side, the PEM fuel cell membrane should be sufficiently wet. Low or high amount of water in the membrane can interrupt the flow of protons and thus reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. In this context, several experimental studies and modeling have been carried out on PEM fuel cell and interesting results have been achieved. In this paper, the humidity and flow rate of gas in the anode and cathode are modified to examine its effect on fuel cell performance. The results show that the effect of humidity changing in the anode side is greater than that of the cathode so that at zero humidity of anode and 70 % humidity of the cathode, a maximum current flow of 0.512 A/cm2 for 0.12 V was obtained. However, at 70 % anode humidity and zero cathode humidity, a maximum flow of 0.86 A/cm2 for 0.13 V was obtained.

  1. Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, S. H.; Beau, I.; Bechtold, P.; Grandpeix, J.-Y.; Piriou, J.-M.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Soares, P. M. M.

    2004-10-01

    As part of the EUROCS (EUROpean Cloud Systems study) project, cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and parallel single-column model (SCM) tests of the sensitivity of moist atmospheric convection to mid-tropospheric humidity are presented. This sensitivity is broadly supported by observations and some previous model studies, but is still poorly quantified. Mixing between clouds and environment is a key mechanism, central to many of the fundamental differences between convection schemes. Here, we define an idealized quasi-steady 'testbed', in which the large-scale environment is assumed to adjust the local mean profiles on a timescale of one hour. We then test sensitivity to the target profiles at heights above 2 km. Two independent CRMs agree reasonably well in their response to the different background profiles and both show strong deep precipitating convection in the more moist cases, but only shallow convection in the driest case. The CRM results also appear to be numerically robust. All the SCMs, most of which are one-dimensional versions of global climate models (GCMs), show sensitivity to humidity but differ in various ways from the CRMs. Some of the SCMs are improved in the light of these comparisons, with GCM improvements documented elsewhere.

  2. Doing hydrology backwards in tropical humid catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real Rangel, R.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches in hydrology offer the possibility to predict water fluxes at the catchment scale based on the interpretation of the observed hydrological response at the catchment itself. Doing hydrology backwards (inferring precipitation and evapotranspiration rates at the catchment scale from streamflow measurements, see Kirchner (2009)) can be a useful methodology for estimating water fluxes at the catchment and regional scales. Previous studies using this inverse modeling approach have been performed in regions (UK, Switzerland, France, Eastern US) where energy-limited (in winter and early spring) and water-limited conditions (in summer) prevail during a large period of the year. However, such approach has not been tested in regions characterized by a quasi-constant supply of water and energy (e.g. humid tropics). The objective of this work is to infer annual rates of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the last decade in 10 catchments located in Mexico's tropical humid regions. Hourly discharge measurements during recession periods were analyzed and parameters for the nonlinear storage-discharge relationship of each catchment were derived. Results showed large variability in both catchment-scale precipitation and evapotranspiration rates among the selected study sites. Finally, a comparison was done between such estimates and those obtained from remotely-sensed data (TRMM for precipitation and MOD16 for evapotranspiration).

  3. Optical humidity detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keke; Liu, Shixuan; Chen, Shizhe; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Xuanqun; Wang, Wenyan; Wu, Yushang

    2017-02-01

    Humidity is an important environmental parameter, which is difficult to be measured accurately and quickly using traditional measurement methods. Under the environment of low temperature or high humidity, traditional humidity and temperature sensor has shortages in humidity measurement accuracy, corresponding time and wet fade speed. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a method to measure the environmental humidity with wavelength modulation technology and harmonic detection technology based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. H2O molecular absorption line near 1392 nm is selected as the characteristic spectra. The effects of temperature, pressure and water concentration on the absorption spectrum width, the wavelength modulation coefficient and the amplitude of the harmonic signal are analyzed. Humidity and temperature sensor is modified using temperature and pressure compensation model, and the influence of the water concentration variation is eliminated by the iterative algorithm. The new humidity and temperature sensor prototype is developed, and the structure of the optical system is simple, which is easy to be adjusted. The response frequency of the humidity detection is 40 Hz. The experiment was carried out for 3 months at Qingdao national basic weather station. Experimental results show that the consistency of the humidity and temperature data is very good, which can proves the validity of the humidity measurement technology.

  4. High Temperature Convective Drying of a Packed Bed with Humid Air at Different Humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sghaier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drying a packed bed of porous particle at high temperature with varying humidity of hot air is an attractive process. Despite, many researches on experimental and simulation on a fixed bed drying at low and average temperature are proposed. Few studies showed drying at high temperature with humid air or using superheated steam. The latest is compared to dry air. Approach: In this study, we show an experimental and numerical study of humid air drying of a fixed bed of moist porous alumina particles. The air velocity, the air temperature and the vapor pressure were varied from 1.7-2.3 m.sec-1, 120-160°C and 0.1-0.65 bar, respectively and the experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure. Then a mathematical describing heat and mass transfer during drying is developed. This model is based on the averaging volume approach using two scale changes. Results: From the experimental works, the solid temperature and the bed moisture content have been presented at different drying conditions. The previous results show that an increase in humidity leads to an increase of the wet bulb temperature and a decrease in the drying time. At the same drying temperature, the variation in the gas velocity affects also the drying time. In addition, we note that the drying time increases if the bed depth increases. The predicted results deduced from the developed model were compared with the experiment. Conclusion: The experimental and predicted results obtained from this study describing drying of a packed bed illustrate clearly the effect of the air humidity on the drying kinetics.

  5. Humidity affects the morphology of particles emitted from beclomethasone dipropionate pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Bhambri, Pallavi; Church, Tanya K; Lewis, David A; McDermott, Mark T; Elbayomy, Shereen; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2017-03-30

    The effects of propellant type, cosolvent content, and air humidity on the morphology and solid phase of the particles produced from solution pressurized metered dose inhalers containing the corticosteroid beclomethasone dipropionate were investigated. The active ingredient was dissolved in the HFA propellants 134a and 227ea with varying levels of the cosolvent ethanol and filled into pressurized metered dose inhalers. Inhalers were actuated into an evaporation chamber under controlled temperature and humidity conditions and sampled using a single nozzle, single stage inertial impactor. Particle morphology was assessed qualitatively using field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-helium ion microscopy. Drug solid phase was assessed using Raman microscopy. The relative humidity of the air during inhaler actuation was found to have a strong effect on the particle morphology, with solid spheroidal particles produced in dry air and highly porous particles produced at higher humidity levels. Air humidification was found to have no effect on the solid phase of the drug particles, which was predominantly amorphous for all tested formulations. A critical level of air relative humidity was required to generate porous particles for each tested formulation. This critical relative humidity was found to depend on the amount of ethanol used in the inhaler, but not on the type of propellant utilized. The results indicate that under the right circumstances water vapor saturation followed by nucleated water condensation or ice deposition occurs during particle formation from evaporating propellant-cosolvent-BDP droplets. This finding reveals the importance of condensed water or ice as a templating agent for porosity when particle formation occurs at saturated conditions, with possible implications on the pharmacokinetics of solution pMDIs and potential applications in particle engineering for drug delivery.

  6. Trehalose in hair care: heat styling benefits at high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Susan; Paul, Prem K C

    2012-01-01

    Human hair switches that have been treated with trehalose solution and straightened using hot irons show longevity of the straight style even in high-humidity conditions. This anti-humidity benefit is especially noticeable if the straight style has been created at low relative humidity. It is proposed that hot-iron straightening of trehalose-treated switches produces in situ glassy forms of the sugar that act as water sinks at high humidity to provide anti-humidity benefits. Adsorption isotherms and powder x-ray studies of different forms of trehalose and moisture uptake of hair treated with the sugar suggest that the ability of a glassy form of trehalose to regulate moisture in the fiber and consequently affect its viscoelastic properties is a major factor in providing long-lasting straight style in humid conditions.

  7. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Barthelmie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy developments offshore focus on larger turbines to keep the relative cost of the foundation per MW of installed capacity low. Hence typical wind turbine hub-heights are extending to 100 m and potentially beyond. However, measurements to these heights are not usually available, requiring extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes.

  8. Effects of Absolute Humidity on Flashover Voltage of Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Osamu; Hidaka, Kazuhiro; Mizuno, Yukio; Naito, Katsuhiko; Irie, Takashi; Nishikawa, Morio

    Effect of humidity on flashover voltage of three kinds of insulators is experimentally studied for about three years under natural humidity condition. It is found that the existing IEC humidity correction seems to be proper for most insulators regardless of the kinds of applied voltage but that change may be necessary for a cap and pin insulator unit under the application of positive and negative lightning impulse voltages.

  9. Roles of humidity and temperature in shaping influenza seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Anice C; Steel, John

    2014-07-01

    Experimental studies in guinea pigs demonstrated that influenza virus transmission is strongly modulated by temperature and humidity. A number of epidemiological studies have followed up on these findings and revealed robust associations between influenza incidence in temperate regions and local conditions of humidity and temperature, offering a long-awaited explanation for the wintertime seasonality of influenza in these locales. Despite recent progress, important questions remain as to the mechanism(s) by which humidity and/or temperature affects transmission.

  10. Thermal conductivity at different humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    The thermal conductivity (the l-value) of several alternative insulation products and a traditional product is determined under different humidity conditions in a specially constructed hot plate apparatus.The hot plate apparatus is constructed with an air gap on each side of the test specimen where...... humidified air can pass. Thus, it is possible to build up different degrees of moisture on each side of the test specimen.The thermal conductivity is determined for the following types of alternative insulation: sheep's wool, flax, paper insulation, perlite and mineral wool. The insulation products were...... by an accumulation of moisture as condensation in the parts of the insulation that lie immediately close to the cold side of the apparatus. The high l-values found are therefore of no practical importance in structures where no condensation occurs. Disregarding these condensation situations, the maximum increase...

  11. Electric Field and Humidity Trigger Contact Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we study the old problem of why identical insulators can charge one another on contact. We perform several experiments showing that, if driven by a preexisting electric field, charge is transferred between contacting insulators. This transfer happens because the insulator surfaces adsorb small amounts of water from a humid atmosphere. We believe the electric field then separates positively from negatively charged ions prevailing within the water, which we believe to be hydronium and hydroxide ions, such that at the point of contact, positive ions of one insulator neutralize negative ions of the other one, charging both of them. This mechanism can explain for the first time the observation made four decades ago that wind-blown sand discharges in sparks if and only if a thunderstorm is nearby.

  12. Thermal conductivity at different humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Rode, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    humidified air can pass. Thus, it is possible to build up different degrees of moisture on each side of the test specimen.The thermal conductivity is determined for the following types of alternative insulation: sheep's wool, flax, paper insulation, perlite and mineral wool. The insulation products were......The thermal conductivity (the l-value) of several alternative insulation products and a traditional product is determined under different humidity conditions in a specially constructed hot plate apparatus.The hot plate apparatus is constructed with an air gap on each side of the test specimen where...... Ekofiber Vind, Herawool (without support fibres), Heraflax, Isodan with and without salts, Miljø Isolering with and without salts, Perlite (water-repellent), and Rockwool A-batts for comparison.All measurements of the materials started with no affection of moisture. Nevertheless, results were achieved...

  13. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2008-11-01

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with humidity and selectively show high sensitivity to moisture at room temperature. In order to understand the mechanism of sensing, the films were examined by X-ray diffraction at elevated temperatures and in controlled atmospheres. Based on these observations and on conductivity measurements, a novel sensing mechanism based on protonic conduction within the surface layers adsorbed onto the hydrotungstite film is proposed.

  14. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  15. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  16. The Canopy Conductance of a Humid Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. T.; Hsieh, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Penman-Monteith equation is widely used for estimating latent heat flux. The key parameter for implementing this equation is the canopy conductance (gc). Recent research (Blaken and Black, 2004) showed that gc could be well parameterized by a linear function of An/ (D0* X0c), where An represents net assimilation, D0 is leaf level saturation deficit, and X0c is CO2 mole fraction. In this study, we tried to use the same idea for estimating gcfor a humid grassland. The study site was located in County Cork, southwest Ireland (51o59''N 8o46''W), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was the dominant grass species in this area. An eddy covariance system was used to measure the latent heat flux above this humid grassland. The measured gc was calculated by rearranging Penman-Monteith equation combined with the measured latent heat flux. Our data showed that the gc decreased as the vapor pressure deficit and temperature increased. And it increased as the net radiation increased. Therefore, we found out that the best parameterization of gc was a linear function of the product of the vapor deficit, temperature, and net radiation. Also, we used the gc which was estimated by this linear function to predict the latent heat flux by Penman-Monteith equation and compared the predictions with those where the gc was chosen to be a fixed value. Our analysis showed that this simple linear function for gc can improve the latent heat flux predictions (R square increased from 0.48 to 0.66).

  17. Homogenization of global radiosonde humidity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The global radiosonde network is an important source of upper-air measurements and is strongly connected to reanalysis efforts of the 20th century. However, measurements are strongly affected by changes in the observing system and require a homogenization before they can be considered useful in climate studies. In particular humidity measurements are known to show spurious trends and biases induced by many sources, e.g. reporting practices or freezing of the sensor. We propose to detect and correct these biases in an automated way, as has been done with temperature and winds. We detect breakpoints in dew point depression (DPD) time series by employing a standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) on DPD-departures from ERA-Interim. In a next step, we calculate quantile departures between the latter and the earlier part near the breakpoints of the time series, going back in time. These departures adjust the earlier distribution of DPD to the latter distribution, called quantile matching, thus removing for example a non climatic shift. We employ this approach to the existing radiosonde network. In a first step to verify our approach we compare our results with ERA-Interim data and brightness temperatures of humidity-sensitive channels of microwave measuring radiometers (SSMIS) onboard DMSP F16. The results show that some of the biases can be detected and corrected in an automated way, however large biases that impact the distribution of DPD values originating from known reporting practices (e.g. 30 DPD on US stations) remain. These biases can be removed but not corrected. The comparison of brightness temperatures from satellite and radiosondes proofs to be difficult as large differences result from for example representative errors.

  18. Attribution of observed surface humidity changes to human influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Katharine M; Gillett, Nathan P; Jones, Philip D; Thorne, Peter W

    2007-10-11

    Water vapour is the most important contributor to the natural greenhouse effect, and the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere is expected to increase under conditions of greenhouse-gas-induced warming, leading to a significant feedback on anthropogenic climate change. Theoretical and modelling studies predict that relative humidity will remain approximately constant at the global scale as the climate warms, leading to an increase in specific humidity. Although significant increases in surface specific humidity have been identified in several regions, and on the global scale in non-homogenized data, it has not been shown whether these changes are due to natural or human influences on climate. Here we use a new quality-controlled and homogenized gridded observational data set of surface humidity, with output from a coupled climate model, to identify and explore the causes of changes in surface specific humidity over the late twentieth century. We identify a significant global-scale increase in surface specific humidity that is attributable mainly to human influence. Specific humidity is found to have increased in response to rising temperatures, with relative humidity remaining approximately constant. These changes may have important implications, because atmospheric humidity is a key variable in determining the geographical distribution and maximum intensity of precipitation, the potential maximum intensity of tropical cyclones, and human heat stress, and has important effects on the biosphere and surface hydrology.

  19. Humidity Sensing Properties of Pre-irradiation Grafted HDPE Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jiao; Qun Fu; Xiang Geng; Zhen Li; Haijian Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE) films have been prepared by grafting sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) and acrylic acid (AA) onto HDPE using preirradiation method. The structure and surface morphology of both grafted and ungrafted HDPE films were observed by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The humidity sensing properties of grafted HDPE films were investigated. The results show that the impedance of the film decreases with increasing of relative humidity (RH). The films display high sensitivity with nearly three orders of magnitude change in the resistance during the relative humidity variation from 5% to 98%. Grafted HDPE films exhibit excellent properties as humidity sensors.

  20. Do honeybees, Apis mellifera scutellata, regulate humidity in their nest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W.; Dietemann, Vincent

    2006-08-01

    Honeybees are highly efficient at regulating the biophysical parameters of their hive according to colony needs. Thermoregulation has been the most extensively studied aspect of nest homeostasis. In contrast, little is known about how humidity is regulated in beehives, if at all. Although high humidity is necessary for brood development, regulation of this parameter by honeybee workers has not yet been demonstrated. In the past, humidity was measured too crudely for a regulation mechanism to be identified. We reassess this issue, using miniaturised data loggers that allow humidity measurements in natural situations and at several places in the nest. We present evidence that workers influence humidity in the hive. However, there are constraints on potential regulation mechanisms because humidity optima may vary in different locations of the nest. Humidity could also depend on variable external factors, such as water availability, which further impair the regulation. Moreover, there are trade-offs with the regulation of temperature and respiratory gas exchanges that can disrupt the establishment of optimal humidity levels. As a result, we argue that workers can only adjust humidity within sub-optimal limits.

  1. Miniature Flexible Humidity Sensitive Patches for Space Suits Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suit technologies demand improved, simplified, long-life regenerative sensing technologies, including humidity sensors, that exceed the performance of...

  2. Effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on interfacial temperature during early stages of drop evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatani, Yuki; Orejon, Daniel; Kita, Yutaku; Takata, Yasuyuki; Kim, Jungho; Sefiane, Khellil

    2016-04-01

    Understanding drop evaporation mechanisms is important for many industrial, biological, and other applications. Drops of organic solvents undergoing evaporation have been found to display distinct thermal patterns, which in turn depend on the physical properties of the liquid, the substrate, and ambient conditions. These patterns have been reported previously to be bulk patterns from the solid-liquid to the liquid-gas drop interface. In the present work the effect of ambient temperature and humidity during the first stage of evaporation, i.e., pinned contact line, is studied paying special attention to the thermal information retrieved at the liquid-gas interface through IR thermography. This is coupled with drop profile monitoring to experimentally investigate the effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on the drop interfacial thermal patterns and the evaporation rate. Results indicate that self-generated thermal patterns are enhanced by an increase in ambient temperature and/or a decrease in humidity. The more active thermal patterns observed at high ambient temperatures are explained in light of a greater temperature difference generated between the apex and the edge of the drop due to greater evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the presence of water humidity in the atmosphere is found to decrease the temperature difference along the drop interface due to the heat of adsorption, absorption and/or that of condensation of water onto the ethanol drops. The control, i.e., enhancement or suppression, of these thermal patterns at the drop interface by means of ambient temperature and relative humidity is quantified and reported.

  3. Energy-Efficient Management of Mechanical Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, Jr., Charles R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In hot and humid climates, it is challenging to energy-efficiently maintain indoor RH at acceptable levels while simultaneously providing required ventilation, particularly in high performance low cooling load homes. The fundamental problem with solely relying on fixed capacity central cooling systems to manage moisture during low sensible load periods is that they are oversized for cooler periods of the year despite being 'properly sized' for a very hot design cooling day. The primary goals of this project were to determine the impact of supplementing a central space conditioning system with 1) a supplemental dehumidifier and 2) a ductless mini-split on seasonal energy use and summer peak power use as well as the impact on thermal distribution and humidity control inside a completely furnished lab home that was continuously ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE 62.2-2013.

  4. Polypyrrole Porous Micro Humidity Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Lu, De-Hao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the design and fabrication of a capacitive micro humidity sensor integrated with a five-stage ring oscillator circuit on chip using the complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The area of the humidity sensor chip is about 1 mm2. The humidity sensor consists of a sensing capacitor and a sensing film. The sensing capacitor is constructed from spiral interdigital electrodes that can enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensing film of the sensor is polypyrrole, which is prepared by the chemical polymerization method, and the film has a porous structure. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to coat the sensing film. The post-CMOS process uses a wet etching to etch the sacrificial layers, and then the polypyrrole is coated on the sensing capacitor. The sensor generates a change in capacitance when the sensing film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance variation of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 99 kHz/%RH at 25 °C. PMID:22163459

  5. Polypyrrole Porous Micro Humidity Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Hao Lu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design and fabrication of a capacitive micro humidity sensor integrated with a five-stage ring oscillator circuit on chip using the complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The area of the humidity sensor chip is about 1 mm2. The humidity sensor consists of a sensing capacitor and a sensing film. The sensing capacitor is constructed from spiral interdigital electrodes that can enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensing film of the sensor is polypyrrole, which is prepared by the chemical polymerization method, and the film has a porous structure. The sensor needs a post-CMOS process to coat the sensing film. The post-CMOS process uses a wet etching to etch the sacrificial layers, and then the polypyrrole is coated on the sensing capacitor. The sensor generates a change in capacitance when the sensing film absorbs or desorbs vapor. The ring oscillator circuit converts the capacitance variation of the sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the humidity sensor is about 99 kHz/%RH at 25 °C.

  6. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangkertadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walking, briskwalking, and sitting with doing a moderate activity. Equations are functions of Ta(air temperature, Tg(globe temperature, v(wind velocity, RH(Relative humidity and Adu(body surface area. The output of the equations is scale of thermal comfort level referring to PMV (Predicted Mean Vote, where 0 is comfortable or neutral, +3 is very hot, -2 is cold, .etc. The equations are uniquely for the people wearing tropical clothing type (about 0.5 to 0.7 clo. The validation of the equations was done through comparison with other equations that originated from the studies of non-tropical humid climates. Simulations using the equations were also be done in order to know effect of micro climate on outdoor thermal comfort.Keywords: thermal comfort, tropical-humid, micro-climate, Manado

  7. The role of photoionization in negative corona discharge: The influences of temperature, humidity, and air pressure on a corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H. Y.; Lu, B. X.; Wang, M.; Guo, Q. F.; Feng, Q. K.

    2017-10-01

    The swarm parameters of the negative corona discharge are improved to calculate the discharge model under different environmental conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity, and air pressure are studied using a conventional needle-to-plane configuration in air. The electron density, electric field, electron generation rate, and photoelectron generation rate are discussed in this paper. The role of photoionization under these conditions is also studied by numerical simulation. The photoelectrons generated in weak ionization region are proved to be dominant.

  8. Piezoelectric Active Humidity Sensors Based on Lead-Free NaNbO₃ Piezoelectric Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li; Zhou, Di; Cao, Jun Cheng

    2016-06-07

    The development of micro-/nano-scaled energy harvesters and the self-powered sensor system has attracted great attention due to the miniaturization and integration of the micro-device. In this work, lead-free NaNbO₃ piezoelectric nanofibers with a monoclinic perovskite structure were synthesized by the far-field electrospinning method. The flexible active humidity sensors were fabricated by transferring the nanofibers from silicon to a soft polymer substrate. The sensors exhibited outstanding piezoelectric energy-harvesting performance with output voltage up to 2 V during the vibration process. The output voltage generated by the NaNbO₃ sensors exhibited a negative correlation with the environmental humidity varying from 5% to 80%, where the peak-to-peak value of the output voltage generated by the sensors decreased from 0.40 to 0.07 V. The sensor also exhibited a short response time, good selectively against ethanol steam, and great temperature stability. The piezoelectric active humidity sensing property could be attributed to the increased leakage current in the NaNbO₃ nanofibers, which was generated due to proton hopping among the H₃O⁺ groups in the absorbed H₂O layers under the driving force of the piezoelectric potential.

  9. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  10. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  11. A physically based analytical spatial air temperature and humidity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Theodore A. Endreny; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of urban surface air temperature and humidity influences human thermal comfort, the settling rate of atmospheric pollutants, and plant physiology and growth. Given the lack of observations, we developed a Physically based Analytical Spatial Air Temperature and Humidity (PASATH) model. The PASATH model calculates spatial solar radiation and heat...

  12. Optimizing the Materials Response in Humidity Capacitive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Noroozi Afshar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of humidity outputs on the cap of a cylindrical capacitance sensor is optimized by designing three different probes with direct and indirect windows. The time interval is measured within which 30-70 % humidity can influence the dielectric constant and conductivity of the capacitance when exposed to a range of relative humidity. It is then compared with a simple set-up including a simplified equivalent circuit. The direct probes had four and double outputs on the window of the cylindrical capacitive sensor while the indirect probe had a thin plastic layer only. We observed that the dielectric constant and its conductivity depend closely to the humidity outgoing pathway and also to the increasing rate of humidity between the capacitance plates. The final variation in the materials properties alters the capacitance of the sensor which is measured simply by a LCR. This technique presents a simple method for tracking the recovery and reliability of the humidity sensors over time and assists in optimizing and controlling the materials response to the relative environment humidity. As a result, by controlling the environment humidity rate (0.02 %/s., we could measure the increment rate of capacitance with accuracy of 0.01 pf/%.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE OF THE HIGH HUMIDITY AIR ELECTROSTATIC ELIMINATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴筱青; 何尉岚

    1990-01-01

    As for electrostatic elimination there are many means.But the high humidity air electrostatic eliminator has simple,efficient, lightproof and fireproof etc. advantages. Thus it is often used in some industrial enterprises. The aim of this paper is to introduce an experimental device of high humidity air electrostatic eliminator and its principle and experimental data.

  14. RESEARCH ON MICROWAVE HUMIDITY TESTING OF CERAMIC PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the principle of microwave humidity testing. According to the problems in the production procedure of ceramic products, a microwave humidity testing system is designed and analyzed for its advantages. Furthermore, the system has been applied to the production line that produces ceramic products and the testing results are also satisfying.

  15. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40° to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  16. On the distribution of relative humidity in cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed relative humidity statistics from measurements in cirrus clouds taken unintentionally during the Measurement of OZone by Airbus In-service airCraft project (MOZAIC. The shapes of the in-cloud humidity distributions change from nearly symmetric in relatively warm cirrus (warmer than −40°C to considerably positively skew (i.e. towards high humidities in colder clouds. These results are in agreement to findings obtained recently from the INterhemispheric differences in Cirrus properties from Anthropogenic emissions (INCA campaign (Ovarlez et al., 2002. We interprete the temperature dependence of the shapes of the humidity distributions as an effect of the length of time a cirrus cloud needs from formation to a mature equilibrium stage, where the humidity is close to saturation. The duration of this transitional period increases with decreasing temperature. Hence cold cirrus clouds are more often met in the transitional stage than warm clouds.

  17. Polyimide Humidity Integrated Sensor Fabricated Using the MEMS Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhong Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and sensing characteristics of Polyimide-based humidity sensor, based on that, a new integrated circuit of humidity measurement has been designed. It is a novel capacitive-type systems on a chip structure using the MEMS process. The results show that the new sensor presents sensing characteristics over a humidity range from 10%~70% RH at 20℃, and the sensor is able to fabricated together with Ics technology. The result shows that integration of humidity sensor with integrated circuit of humidity measurement is considerably easier when they are built in sensing groove. The appeal of a new structure like this brings the possibility of applications that would require the flexibility of simple screen printing.

  18. Variability of subtropical upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Ryoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS measurements for five northern winters shows significant longitudinal variations in subtropical upper tropospheric relative humidity (RH, not only in the climatological mean values but also in the local distributions and temporal variability. The largest climatological mean values in the northern subtropics occur over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, where there is also large day-to-day variability. In contrast, there are smaller mean values, and smaller variability that occurs at lower frequency, over the Indian and western Pacific oceans. These differences in the distribution and variability of subtropical RH are related to differences in the key transport processes in the different sectors. The large variability and intermittent high and low RH over the Eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to a smaller extent over the Indian ocean, are due to intrusions of high potential vorticity air into the subtropics. Intrusions seldom occur over the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, and here the subtropical RH is more closely linked to the location and strength of subtropical anticyclones. In this region there are eastward propagating features in the subtropical RH that are out of phase with the tropical RH, and are caused by modulation of the subtropical anticyclones by the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  19. Impact of temperature and humidity on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Lei

    1997-11-01

    This thesis deals with the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from five building materials and on the perception of air polluted by the material emissions. The impact was studied in the temperature range 18-28 deg. C and the humidity range 30-70%RH, corresponding to conditions often pertaining in normal non-industrial indoor environments. The five building materials used in the study were: PVC flooring, waterborne acrylic floor varnish, loomed polyamide carpet with latex backing, waterborn acrylic wall paint and acrylic sealant; all these materials are commonly use din buildings. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and perception of air pollutant emitted from the five building materials is described, using a specially developed exposure system. A computer-controlled exposure system was developed. The design of the system allowed the impact of temperature and humidity on the emission of pollutants from the materials to be judged separately from the impact on perception. The effect of temperature and humidity on emission and on perception was investigated at nine different combinations of three temperature levels 18 deg. C, 23 deg. C, 28 deg. C and three relative humidity levels 30%, 50%, 70%. A sensory panel assessed the acceptability of the air after facial exposure. Chemical measurements of the pollutants emitted were also made. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception of air quality during whole-body exposure is discussed. The influence of the pre-exposure temperature/humidity on perception of air quality and the time course of adaptation of air quality perception with different combinations of temperature and humidity were also investigated. It is recommended that future ventilation standards should include the effect of indoor air temperature and humidity in ventilation requirements. (EG) 86 refs.

  20. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  1. A calibration facility to provide traceable calibration to upper air humidity measuring sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Rosso, Lucia; Smorgon, Denis; Beltramino, Giulio; Fernicola, Vito

    2017-04-01

    Accurate knowledge and high quality measurement of the upper air humidity and of its profile in atmosphere is essential in many areas of the atmospheric research, for example in weather forecasting, environmental pollution studies and research in meteorology and climatology. Moving from the troposphere to the stratosphere, the water vapour amount varies between some percent to few part per million. For this reason, through the years, several methods and instruments have been developed for the measurement of the humidity in atmosphere. Among the instruments used for atmospheric sounding, radiosondes, airborne and balloon-borne chilled mirror hygrometer (CMH) and tunable diode laser absorption spectrometers (TDLAS) play a key role. To avoid the presence of unknown biases and systematic errors and to obtain accurate and reliable humidity measurements, these instruments need a SI-traceable calibration, preferably carried out in conditions similar to those expected in the field. To satisfy such a need, a new calibration facility has been developed at INRIM. The facility is based on a thermodynamic-based frost-point generator designed to achieve a complete saturation of the carrier gas with a single passage through an isothermal saturator. The humidity generator covers the frost point temperature range between -98 °C and -20 °C and is able to work at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1000 hPa (corresponding to a barometric altitude between ground level and approximately 12000 m). The paper reports the work carried out to test the generator performances, discusses the results and presents the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. The present work was carried out within the European Joint Research Project "MeteoMet 2 - Metrology for Essential Climate Variables" co-funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  2. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xing [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu Tianle, E-mail: zhutl@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Wan Yajuan; Yan Xiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O{sub 3} production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO{sub x} formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L{sup -1} in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after 150-h reactions.

  3. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  4. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  5. Single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Lin; Zhan, Xian-Cheng; Li, Lin-Li; Lin, Bing; Jiang, Lu

    2009-03-01

    A single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity is introduced. In the new method, kinetic parameters related to both moisture and temperature were obtained by a single pair of experiments: these related to moisture by one with a group of testing humidities and a fixed temperature, those related to temperature by the other with a group of testing temperatures and a constant humidity. By a simulation, the estimates for the kinetic parameters (E(a), m, A) obtained by the proposed method and the reported programmed humidifying and heating method were statistically evaluated and were compared with those obtained by the isothermal measurements at constant humidity. Results indicated that under the same experimental conditions, the estimates obtained by the proposed method were significantly more precise than those obtained by the reported programmed humidifying and heating method. The estimates obtained by the isothermal method at constant humidity were somewhat more precise than those obtained by the proposed method. However, the experimental period needed by the isothermal method at constant humidity was greatly longer than that needed by the proposed method. The stability of dicloxacillin sodium, as a solid state model, was investigated by the single time point isothermal drug stability experiments at constant humidity. The results indicated that the kinetic parameters obtained by the proposed method were comparable to those from the reported.

  6. Effects of humidity during photoprocessing on thin film metallization adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-03-01

    Humidity effects during photoprocessing on tantalum/chromium/gold thin film networks (TFNs) were investigated. Humidity conditions at various process steps were controlled by placing either desiccant or water in handling containers for the TFNs. The TFNs photoprocessed in humid conditions had a much higher occurrence of metallization failures compared to TFNs processed in dry conditions. Ceramic surface defects were shown to cause pores in the thin films, and these pores enhanced corrosion susceptibility for the films. This study resulted in a desiccated storage process for production of TFNs.

  7. Refractive Index of Humid Air in the Infrared: Model Fits

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2006-01-01

    The theory of summation of electromagnetic line transitions is used to tabulate the Taylor expansion of the refractive index of humid air over the basic independent parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, wavelength) in five separate infrared regions from the H to the Q band at a fixed percentage of Carbon Dioxide. These are least-squares fits to raw, highly resolved spectra for a set of temperatures from 10 to 25 C, a set of pressures from 500 to 1023 hPa, and a set of relative humidities from 5 to 60%. These choices reflect the prospective application to characterize ambient air at mountain altitudes of astronomical telescopes.

  8. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; Ujwala Ail; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji

    2005-06-01

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong -axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient, indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. A homemade apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response to exposure to controlled pulses of a sensing gas has been employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrotungstite films towards humidity.

  9. Modeling of humidity-related reliability in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of electronics that operate outdoor is strongly affected by environmental factors such as temperature and humidity. Fluctuations of these parameters can lead to water condensation inside enclosures. Therefore, modelling of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed...... to predict humidity-related reliability of a printed circuit board (PCB) located in a cabinet by combining structural reliability methods and non-linear diffusion models. This framework can, thus, be used for reliability prediction from a climatic point-of-view. The proposed numerical approach is then tested...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. Computational Model for Internal Relative Humidity Distributions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is developed for predicting nonuniform internal relative humidity distribution in concrete. Internal relative humidity distribution is known to have a direct effect on the nonuniform drying shrinkage strains. These nonuniform drying shrinkage strains result in the buildup of internal stresses, which may lead to cracking of concrete. This may be particularly true at early ages of concrete since the concrete is relatively weak while the difference in internal relative humidity is probably high. The results obtained from this model can be used by structural and construction engineers to predict critical drying shrinkage stresses induced due to differential internal humidity distribution. The model uses finite elment-finite difference numerical methods. The finite element is used to space discretization while the finite difference is used to obtain transient solutions of the model. The numerical formulations are then programmed in Matlab. The numerical results were compared with experimental results found in the literature and demonstrated very good agreement.

  14. NOS CO-OPS Meteorological Data, Relative Humidity, 6-Minute

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has Relative Humidity data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). WARNING: These preliminary data have not...

  15. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Pryor, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Wind energy developments offshore focus on larger turbines to keep the relative cost of the foundation per MW of installed capacity low. Hence typical wind turbine hub-heights are extending to 100 m and potentially beyond. However, measurements to these heights are not usually available, requiring...... extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected...... wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher...

  16. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors and System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated the technical feasibility of creating surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors that respond rapidly (under 0.5 second) and reversibly...

  17. Searching for new solutions Humidity measurements in the environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Creţu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available More attention is nowadays being paid to thequality of the air we breathe, resulting in an increasingneed for humidity measurements in the home and officeenvironments. Maintaining the proper level of relativehumidity is also necessary to avoid conditions of extremehumidity condensation in buildings.The facts that construction problems and excessive waterand humidity often go together is well-known around theworld today. Moisture and water damage is a wellknown problem in construction in many countries.Problems of all construction are caused by humidity and50 per cent of all buildings have some kind of moisturerelatedproblems. Growing awareness of percentages suchas these has led to greater attention being paid toconstruction humidity and its measurement throughoutthe world in recent years.This paper presents a condensed review of nowadayshumidity sensors technology, problem implicated andsome modern tendencies.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Shock Induced Separation Delay by Air Humidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr DOERFFER; Slawomir DYKAS

    2005-01-01

    @@ In this paper numerical calculations of the dry and humid air flows in the nozzle are presented. The dry air flow (adiabatic flow) and the humid air flow (flow with homogeneous condensation, diabatic flow) are modeled with the use of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The comparison of these two types of flow is carried out. The influence of the air humidity on the shock wave location and its interaction with the boundary layer is examined. Obtained numerical results present a first numerical approach of the condensation and evaporation process in transonic flow of humid air. The phenomena considered here are very complex and complicated and need further in-depth numerical analysis.

  19. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  20. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Mraović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%. Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag’s IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  1. Novel Polymer Resistive-type Humidity Sensitive Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Humidity sensors have been widely investigated in recent years[1,2].In this work,two kinds of polymer resistive-type humidity sensitive materials were prepared as follows: 1) polymer electrolyte with an IPN structure formed by the simultaneous quaternization and crosslinking of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) with 1,4-dibromobutane (DBB) and diethyltriamine (DETA) respectively; 2) silicon-containing polyelectrolyte with crosslinking structure formed by a sim...

  2. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-07-28

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  3. Differences in heat sensitivity between Japanese honeybees and hornets under high carbon dioxide and humidity conditions inside bee balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Michio; Nishimura, Yasuichiro; Sakamoto, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Upon capture in a bee ball (i.e., a dense cluster of Japanese honeybees forms in response to a predatory attack), an Asian giant hornet causes a rapid increase in temperature, carbon dioxide (CO₂), and humidity. Within five min after capture, the temperature reaches 46°C, and the CO₂ concentration reaches 4%. Relative humidity gradually rises to 90% or above in 3 to 4 min. The hornet dies within 10 min of its capture in the bee ball. To investigate the effect of temperature, CO₂, and humidity on hornet mortality, we determined the lethal temperature of hornets exposed for 10 min to different humidity and CO₂/O₂ (oxygen) levels. In expiratory air (3.7% CO₂), the lethal temperature was ≥ 2° lower than that in normal air. The four hornet species used in this experiment died at 44-46°C under these conditions. Hornet death at low temperatures results from an increase in CO₂ level in bee balls. Japanese honeybees generate heat by intense respiration, as an overwintering strategy, which produces a high CO₂ and humidity environment and maintains a tighter bee ball. European honeybees are usually killed in the habitat of hornets. In contrast, Japanese honeybees kill hornets without sacrificing themselves by using heat and respiration by-products and forming tight bee balls.

  4. A Humidity Sensing Organic-Inorganic Composite for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the effect of varying humidity levels on the electrical parameters and the multi frequency response of the electrical parameters of an organic-inorganic composite (PEPC+NiPc+Cu2O-based humidity sensor. Silver thin films (thickness ~200 nm were primarily deposited on plasma cleaned glass substrates by the physical vapor deposition (PVD technique. A pair of rectangular silver electrodes was formed by patterning silver film through standard optical lithography technique. An active layer of organic-inorganic composite for humidity sensing was later spun coated to cover the separation between the silver electrodes. The electrical characterization of the sensor was performed as a function of relative humidity levels and frequency of the AC input signal. The sensor showed reversible changes in its capacitance with variations in humidity level. The maximum sensitivity ~31.6 pF/%RH at 100 Hz in capacitive mode of operation has been attained. The aim of this study was to increase the sensitivity of the previously reported humidity sensors using PEPC and NiPc, which has been successfully achieved.

  5. Variations of relative humidity in relation to meningitis in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, M. W.; Hopson, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    The meningitis belt is a region covering Sub-Saharan Africa from the Sahel of West Africa eastward to western Ethiopia. The region is prone to meningitis epidemics during the dry season extending from approximately January to May, depending on the region. Relative humidity has been found to be a critical environmental factor indicating the susceptibility of a region to meningitis epidemics. This study evaluates the variation of relative humidity across West Africa over 30 dry-seasons (1979 - 2009) using the NASA-MERRA dataset. The method of self-organizing maps is employed to characterize the changes in relative humidity patterns across the region within a given dry season as well as changes over the 30 years. A general pattern of changes in relative humidity is indicated as the rainbelt retreats to the south at the onset of the dry season and then returns to the region at the end of the dry season. Within each dry season there is a unique pattern. The climatological conditions of relative humidity at the onset of the dry season provide an indication of the moisture environment for the entire dry season. Year to year variation in the relative humidity patterns are found to be gradual. Future applications involve using the results from the SOM evaluation to be used for future decisions involving prevention of meningitis epidemics.

  6. Development of Smart Ventilation Control Algorithms for Humidity Control in High-Performance Homes in Humid U.S. Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Ticci, Sara

    2017-04-11

    Past field research and simulation studies have shown that high performance homes experience elevated indoor humidity levels for substantial portions of the year in humid climates. This is largely the result of lower sensible cooling loads, which reduces the moisture removed by the cooling system. These elevated humidity levels lead to concerns about occupant comfort, health and building durability. Use of mechanical ventilation at rates specified in ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013 are often cited as an additional contributor to humidity problems in these homes. Past research has explored solutions, including supplemental dehumidification, cooling system operational enhancements and ventilation system design (e.g., ERV, supply, exhaust, etc.). This project’s goal is to develop and demonstrate (through simulations) smart ventilation strategies that can contribute to humidity control in high performance homes. These strategies must maintain IAQ via equivalence with ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013. To be acceptable they must not result in excessive energy use. Smart controls will be compared with dehumidifier energy and moisture performance. This work explores the development and performance of smart algorithms for control of mechanical ventilation systems, with the objective of reducing high humidity in modern high performance residences. Simulations of DOE Zero-Energy Ready homes were performed using the REGCAP simulation tool. Control strategies were developed and tested using the Residential Integrated Ventilation (RIVEC) controller, which tracks pollutant exposure in real-time and controls ventilation to provide an equivalent exposure on an annual basis to homes meeting ASHRAE 62.2-2013. RIVEC is used to increase or decrease the real-time ventilation rate to reduce moisture transport into the home or increase moisture removal. This approach was implemented for no-, one- and two-sensor strategies, paired with a variety of control approaches in six humid climates (Miami

  7. Use of sorption technology for treatment of humidity condensate for potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjarapu, Sundara R. M.; Symons, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    This research focused on the testing of the original potable water processor aboard Space Station Freedom that was to produce potable water from the humidity condensate and additional water generated by carbon dioxide reduction. Humidity condensate was simulated by an influent water model 'Ersatz'. The humidity condensate was treated with multifiltration (MF) beds that consisted of a train of sorption beds (referred to as 'Unibed') designed to remove specific contaminants. For the complete simulated MF system runs tested for 100 bed volumes (BV) (volume processed/total column volume), 0.6 percent of the TOC was removed by the SAC/IRN 77 (Strong Acid Cation exchange resin), 39.6 percent of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed by the WBA/IRA 68 (Weak Base Anion exchange resin), 13.2 percent of the TOC was removed by activated carbon adsorption (580-26), and the remaining sorbent media acted as polishing units to remove an additional 1.6 percent of the TOC at steady state. At steady state, 45 percent of the influent TOC passed through the MF bed.

  8. Variation of elastic moduli of clays with humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, U.; Prasad, M.

    2012-12-01

    The elastic moduli of clays are highly variable. The reported values of elastic moduli of clays in the literature provide a large range: ranging from 0.15 GPa to 400 GPa. One of the many probable reasons for this variation is different external experimental environments leading to varied amounts of cations and bound water in the interlayers. The clay structure is affected by the kind of water associated with it: free water and bound water, the water in the interlayer. Smectite and mixed-layered illite-smectite (I-S) are capable of retaining significant electrostatic bound water in excess of 200C and can rapidly adsorb moisture from the air depending upon the humidity conditions. These can lead to the variation in their elastic properties. Prior experimental studies of acoustic velocity measurement in compacted clay pellets showed comparable trends (Figure 1) but different velocities for same reported porosity. This can be attributed to the humidity difference in the lab ambient conditions where the measurements were made. Molecular simulation studies on montmorillonite clays shows similar dependence of Young's Modulus on the hydration state of the clays (Pal Bathija 2009). In this paper, we studied the effect of humidity on the elastic properties of compacted pellets of Na-montmorillonite. This can be achieved by placing the Na-montmorillonite pellets in bell jars containing different saturated salt solutions. These salt solutions are used as a standard for relative humidity measurements. Figure 2 shows an experimental set-up used to the experiment. We will present the results of the variation of elastic properties of clays with varying humidity conditions. Preliminary results suggest that acoustic velocities through the compacted Na-montmorillonite pellet depend on the humidity conditions. The varying amount of interlayer clay-bound water and capillary condensation of water in small micropores in clays with varying humidity conditions resulted in the change in the

  9. Dry heat microbial reduction at various humidity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Klaus; Schuehlein, Karl-Heinz

    In accordance with interplanetary protection requirements space-craft intended to land on other planets must be of high microbiological purity. High temperatures and long exposure times are needed, to sufficiently treat space craft materials with dry heat. Humidity has been reported to have a major influence on dry heat inactivation of microorganisms. Data obtained in the 1970es show, that dry heat sterilization lethality in the temperature range 104C to 125C increased significantly if environmental humidity during treatment was lowered. However, lethality of the process might no longer be affected by humidity at temperatures under 125C. In order to expand the available body of data, an equipment for simultaneous exposure of multiple inoculated coupons under controlled ambient temperature conditions has been designed. The thermal exposure concept is based on constant heat radiation from an insulated heating block. Exposure chambers are continuously flushed by a pre-heated stream of air of controlled absolute humidity. The systems allows for rapid heating of steel carriers loaded with a defined number of bacterial spores. Relative sterilization effectiveness under changing exposure conditions including heat-up and cool down phases was determined, based on temperature profiles. Parallel exposure of 20 replicate carriers allowed for statistical analysis of the kill time by evaluation of the number of samples showing growth / no growth (fraction negative analysis). Experiments performed at temperatures between 120C and 200C at 5 absolute humidity conditions between 0.1 and 10 g/m of air showed no clear influence of absolute humidity. Pre-equilibration of the spores at relative humidity levels of 15, 48, and 85 percent showed higher sensitivity of the spores pre-incubated under dry conditions.

  10. Intensity of African Humid Periods Estimated from Saharan Dust Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Werner; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Beuscher, Sarah; Krüger, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    North Africa experienced dramatic changes in hydrology and vegetation during the late Quaternary driven by insolation-induced shifts of the tropical rain belt and further modulated by millennial-scale droughts and vegetation-climate feedbacks. While most past proxy and modelling studies concentrated on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the last African humid period, little is known about the intensities and characteristics of pre-Holocene humid periods. Here we present a high-resolution record of fine-grained eastern Saharan dust from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea spanning the last 180 kyr, which is based on the clay mineral composition of the marine sediments, especially the kaolinite/chlorite ratio. Minimum aeolian kaolinite transport occurred during the African Humid Periods because kaolinite deflation was hampered by increased humidity and vegetation cover. Instead, kaolinite weathering from kaolinite-bearing Cenozoic rocks was stored in lake basins, river beds and soils during these periods. During the subsequent dry phases, fine-grained dust was mobilised from the desiccated lakes, rivers and soils resulting in maximum aeolian uptake and transport of kaolinite. The kaolinite transport decreased again when these sediment sources exhausted. We conclude that the amount of clay-sized dust blown out of the Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is proportional to the intensity of the kaolinite weathering and accumulation in soils and lake sediments, and thus to the strength of the preceding humid period. These humid periods provided the windows for the migration of modern humans out of Africa, as postulated previously. The strongest humid period occurred during the Eemian and was followed by two weaker phases centred at ca. 100 ka and ca. 80 ka. PMID:28129378

  11. Influence of fine water droplets to temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Hamzah, A.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Roslizar, A.; Jumaidin, R.

    2015-05-01

    Excessively dry air can cause dry skin, dry eyes and exacerbation of medical conditions. Therefore, many researches have been done in order to increase humidity in our environment. One of the ways is by using water droplets. Nowadays, it is well known in market stand fan equipped with water mister in order to increase the humidity of certain area. In this study, the same concept is applied to the ceiling fan. This study uses a model that combines a humidifier which functions as cooler, ceiling fan and scaled down model of house. The objective of this study is to analyze the influence of ceiling fan humidifier to the temperature and humidity in a house. The mechanism of this small model uses batteries as the power source, connected to the fan and the humidifier. The small water tank's function is to store and supply water to the humidifier. The humidifier is used to cool the room by changing water phase to fine water droplets. Fine water droplets are created from mechanism of the humidifier, which is by increasing the kinetic energy of water molecule using high frequency vibration that overcome the holding force between water molecules. Thus, the molecule of water will change to state of gas or mist. The fan is used to spread out the mist of water to surrounding of the room in order to enhance the humidity. Thermocouple and humidity meter are used to measure temperature and humidity in some period of times. The result shows that humidity increases and temperature decreases with time. This application of water droplet can be applied in the vehicles and engine in order to decrease the temperature.

  12. Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    1999-11-09

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

  13. Quantitative analysis of differences in the humidity among GCMs and propagation of uncertainty into irrigational water withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Future water availability is one of key social issues under ongoing climate change. Since 70% of human water abstraction is for irrigational use, accurate evaluation of irrigational water is highly desirable for reliable estimation of water demand. However, recent studies on future hydrological environments projected by different impact models showed that there are substantial differences in their results between the models. A large part of the differences is considered to be attributable to different calculation schemes implemented by different impact models and input data driving the models. To obtain more reliable future projections, it is crucial to identify possible sources of these differences in both meteorological data sets and the impact models.We investigated possible sources of uncertainty in quantitative evaluation of irrigational water with a global hydrological model, H08. Since irrigational water is primarily lost from croplands via evapotranspiration, we focus on uncertainties in data of the atmospheric humidity, a major determinant of evapotranspiration, generated by general circulation models (GCMs). In fact, although great attention has been paid for GCM biases in the temperature and precipitation in most climate impact studies, less attention has been paid for GCM biases in the humidity. To evaluate propagation of uncertainty in humidity data into irrigational water withdrawal, we used bias-corrected meteorological data, for all meteorological elements but for the humidity, of five GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM and NorESM1-M). We detected differences of over 10%RH between the GCMs in monthly humidity data averaged over irrigated croplands over the world. Estimation of annual global irrigational water withdrawal from the five GCMs ranges 1,218-1,341 km3/yr. We made sensitivity analysis by adding hypothetical humidity biases of 5%RH to the GCM humidity data; annual global irrigational water withdrawal would be changed

  14. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice C Lowen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. Twenty experiments performed at relative humidities from 20% to 80% and 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, or 30 degrees C indicated that both cold and dry conditions favor transmission. The relationship between transmission via aerosols and relative humidity at 20 degrees C is similar to that previously reported for the stability of influenza viruses (except at high relative humidity, 80%, implying that the effects of humidity act largely at the level of the virus particle. For infected guinea pigs housed at 5 degrees C, the duration of peak shedding was approximately 40 h longer than that of animals housed at 20 degrees C; this increased shedding likely accounts for the enhanced transmission seen at 5 degrees C. To investigate the mechanism permitting prolonged viral growth, expression levels in the upper respiratory tract of several innate immune mediators were determined. Innate responses proved to be comparable between animals housed at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C, suggesting that cold temperature (5 degrees C does not impair the innate immune response in this system. Although the seasonal epidemiology of influenza is well characterized, the underlying reasons for predominant wintertime spread are not clear. We provide direct, experimental evidence to support the role of weather conditions in the dynamics of influenza and thereby address a long-standing question fundamental to the understanding of influenza epidemiology and evolution.

  15. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  16. Fabrication of Porous Silicon Based Humidity Sensing Elements on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Jalkanen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A roll-to-roll compatible fabrication process of porous silicon (pSi based sensing elements for a real-time humidity monitoring is described. The sensing elements, consisting of printed interdigitated silver electrodes and a spray-coated pSi layer, were fabricated on a coated paper substrate by a two-step process. Capacitive and resistive responses of the sensing elements were examined under different concentrations of humidity. More than a three orders of magnitude reproducible decrease in resistance was measured when the relative humidity (RH was increased from 0% to 90%. A relatively fast recovery without the need of any refreshing methods was observed with a change in RH. Humidity background signal and hysteresis arising from the paper substrate were dependent on the thickness of sensing pSi layer. Hysteresis in most optimal sensing element setup (a thick pSi layer was still noticeable but not detrimental for the sensing. In addition to electrical characterization of sensing elements, thermal degradation and moisture adsorption properties of the paper substrate were examined in connection to the fabrication process of the silver electrodes and the moisture sensitivity of the paper. The results pave the way towards the development of low-cost humidity sensors which could be utilized, for example, in smart packaging applications or in smart cities to monitor the environment.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis in Humidity Measurements by the Psychrometer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunyuan; Chen, Chiachung

    2017-01-01

    The most common and cheap indirect technique to measure relative humidity is by using psychrometer based on a dry and a wet temperature sensor. In this study, the measurement uncertainty of relative humidity was evaluated by this indirect method with some empirical equations for calculating relative humidity. Among the six equations tested, the Penman equation had the best predictive ability for the dry bulb temperature range of 15–50 °C. At a fixed dry bulb temperature, an increase in the wet bulb depression increased the error. A new equation for the psychrometer constant was established by regression analysis. This equation can be computed by using a calculator. The average predictive error of relative humidity was <0.1% by this new equation. The measurement uncertainty of the relative humidity affected by the accuracy of dry and wet bulb temperature and the numeric values of measurement uncertainty were evaluated for various conditions. The uncertainty of wet bulb temperature was the main factor on the RH measurement uncertainty. PMID:28216599

  18. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more...

  19. Polyimide-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao; Gong, Yuan; Wu, Yu; Wu, Huijuan

    2015-03-01

    A fiber-optic humidity sensor has been fabricated by coating a moisture sensitive polymer film to the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The Bragg wavelength of the polyimide-coated FBG changes while it is exposed to different humidity conditions due to the volume expansion of the polyimide coating. The characteristics of sensors, including sensitivity, temporal response, and hysteresis, were improved by controlling the coating thickness and the degree of imidization during the thermal curing process of the polyimide. In the relative humidity (RH) condition ranging from 11.3% RH to 97.3% RH, the sensitivity of the sensor was about 13.5 pm/% RH with measurement uncertainty of ±1.5% RH.

  20. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  1. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  2. Hologram-based humidity indicator for domestic and packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, I.; Jallapuram, R.; Toal, V.; Martin, S.

    2007-04-01

    A passive indicator for Relative Humidity based on a photopolymer recorded hologram has been developed. The indicator works on the principle that the wavelength reconstructed by a reflection hologram is dependent on the spacing between the fringe planes of the hologram. As the Relative Humidity changes, the hologram swells or shrinks and the apparent colour of the reconstructed image changes. The response time, operational range and reversibility of the indicator have been studied in a controlled humidity environment. Response times from less than a minute to tens of minutes depending on the holograms physical properties have been measured. Indicators with different operational ranges have been designed. For some indicators the operational range extends from 10% RH to 80% RH. The indicator is completely reversible in its present formulation. It could have an extensive market in industrial monitoring, food packaging and household applications.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Humidity sensitive organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, I.; Karimov, Kh S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Qazi, I.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Khan, T. A.; Amin, T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the experimental results for the humidity dependent properties of an organic field effect transistor. The organic field effect transistor was fabricated on thoroughly cleaned glass substrate, in which the junction between the metal gate and the organic channel plays the role of gate dielectric. Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and semitransparent Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum thermal evaporation on the glass substrate with preliminarily deposited Ag source and drain electrodes. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated device were performed. The effect of humidity on the drain current, drain current-drain voltage relationship, and threshold voltage was investigated. It was observed that humidity has a strong effect on the characteristics of the organic field effect transistor.

  4. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  5. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimoto, Takeshi E-mail: iimoto@rcnst.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2004-09-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m{sup -3}){sup -1}(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 deg. C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  6. Application of activated charcoal radon collectors in high humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Tokonami, Shinji; Morishita, Yasuaki; Kosako, Toshiso

    2005-01-01

    Most commercially based activated charcoal radon collectors were designed for use in indoor environments. However, at present, they are often used for research in radon surveys in unique environments, such as in the bathrooms, underground areas, mines, caves and tunnels. In these environments, the relative humidity would be around 100%, and a change in the sensitivity of cpm(Bq m(-3))(-1)(radon) would occur. For this study, the reduction in the sensitivity of activated charcoal radon collector due to environmental humidity was investigated, and the data correction was discussed. Here, ST-100 (Pico-Rad) was selected as an example of a familiar activated charcoal radon collector. According to our performance test, the humidity of 90% (20 degrees C) resulted in a 15% reduction of the sensitivity for 24 h collection. The ST-100 user should discuss the necessity of data correction by comparing the change of sensitivity with other levels of estimation errors.

  7. A flexible humidity sensor based on KC-MWCNTs composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Chu, Jin; Aldalbahi, Ali; Rivera, Manuel; Wang, Lidan; Duan, Shukai; Feng, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC) to form a flexible composite via evaporative casting method. The glycerin was used as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the composite. The KC-CNTs was examined by using FESEM and Raman, and then the humidity sensing properties of the samples were characterized under alternating current (AC). The purpose for using AC power supply is to avoid the possible polarization effect during measurements of the humidity properties. The experimental data exhibit that the fabricated sensors have high response to relative humidity (RH) with good repeatability, stability, and low hysteresis. A phenomenon that the impedance of the sensor decreases with ascending RH was also found and the basic sensing mechanisms were discussed.

  8. Humidity Testing of PME and BME Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.; Herzberger, Jaemi

    2014-01-01

    Cracks in ceramic capacitors are one of the major causes of failures during operation of electronic systems. Humidity testing has been successfully used for many years to verify the absence of cracks and assure quality of military grade capacitors. Traditionally, only precious metal electrode (PME) capacitors were used in high reliability applications and the existing requirements for humidity testing were developed for this type of parts. With the advance of base metal electrode (BME) capacitors, there is a need for assessment of the applicability of the existing techniques for the new technology capacitors. In this work, variety of different PME and BME capacitors with introduced cracks were tested in humid environments at different voltages and temperatures. Analysis of the test results indicates differences in the behavior and failure mechanisms for BME and PME capacitors and the need for different testing conditions.

  9. Exposure of Bed Bugs to Metarhizium anisopliae at Different Humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Kevin R; Feldlaufer, Mark F; Kramer, Matthew; St Leger, Raymond J

    2014-12-01

    Bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. were exposed to conidia (spores) of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae by feeding, aerosol spray, or contact with a treated surface. Feeding experiments demonstrated that bed bugs were innately susceptible to this fungus. However, only at 98% humidity were mortality rates high, regardless of whether bed bugs were sprayed with a fungal solution or contacted a treated surface. Mortality in treated bed bugs at ambient humidity did not increase when these bed bugs were kept in aggregation with other bed bugs that had recently blood fed to repletion. Based on these laboratory studies, we conclude that M. anisopliae is a poor pathogen for use in control of bed bugs, particularly at humidities that would likely be encountered under field conditions. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  10. Humidity Data for 9975 Shipping Packages with Softwood Fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-12

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with softwood fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. Comparable measurements with cane fiberboard have been reported previously. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package, especially at lower heat loads.

  11. Humidity control in the inspection of masonry structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ulybin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of wetting of masonry structures were considered: its causes, consequences and methods of humidity control. The classification of destructions that occur in the masonry as a result of its moistening was given. Destruction processes under wetting of different origin were briefly described. The experimentally ascertained impact of humidity on the strength of different kinds of brick was presented. The influence of this factor is often missed in the material testing and analysis of structures. The comparison between different methods of moisture control was given. A technique for measuring the moisture using the calcium carbide method was pictured; this method is little known in Russia. The advantages and disadvantages of non-destructive methods were discussed. Special attention was paid to the definition of errors in electrical control methods, occurring due to existence of salts in the masonry. The recommendations for combined use of different methods of humidity control were given.

  12. Kinetic Stability of MOF-5 in Humid Environments: Impact of Powder Densification, Humidity Level, and Exposure Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yang; Purewal, Justin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Chunchuan; Soltis, Rick; Warner, James; Veenstra, Mike; Gaab, Manuela; Müller, Ulrich; Siegel, Donald J

    2015-05-05

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous, crystalline materials with potential applications in the capture, storage, and separation of gases. Of the many known MOFs, MOF-5 has attracted considerable attention because of its ability to store gaseous fuels at low pressure with high densities. Nevertheless, MOF-5 and several other MOFs exhibit limited stability upon exposure to reactive species such as water. The present study quantifies the impact of humid air exposure on the properties of MOF-5 as a function of exposure time, humidity level, and morphology (i.e., powders vs pellets). Properties examined include hydrogen storage capacity, surface area, and crystallinity. Water adsorption/desorption isotherms are measured using a gravimetric technique; the first uptake exhibits a type V isotherm with a sudden increase in uptake at ∼50% relative humidity. For humidity levels below this threshold only minor degradation is observed for exposure times up to several hours, suggesting that MOF-5 is more stable than generally assumed under moderately humid conditions. In contrast, irreversible degradation occurs in a matter of minutes for exposures above the 50% threshold. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that molecular and/or dissociated water is inserted into the skeletal framework after long exposure times. Densification into pellets can slow the degradation of MOF-5 significantly, and may present a pathway to enhance the stability of some MOFs.

  13. Heat and humidity buildup under earmuff-type hearing protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickie R Davis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major barrier to effective wear of hearing protection is comfort. This study examined several comfort indicators in the earmuff-type hearing protectors. Twenty subjects wore hearing protectors instrumented with two different temperature/humidity measurement systems (Omega and iButton while walking a corridor for about 25 min. The instruments recorded the temperature and humidity every 10 s and their results were compared. In addition, skin surface pH was measured at the ear canal entrance before and after the task. Finally, the subject indicated earmuff comfort at the beginning and end of the session. Earmuff comfort decreased significantly over the course of the walking task. Ear canal pH became slightly less acidic, but the change was not statistically significant. The two temperature/humidity systems provided comparable results. Heat increased at about 0.3°F while humidity built up at about 0.5%/min. However, the study found some limitations on the instrumentation. The complexity of the electrical connections and equipment in the Omega probe system led to loss of three subject′s data. The iButton device was more robust, but provided only 256 gradations of temperature and relative humidity. Even with its limitations, the iButton device would be a valuable tool for field studies. The present study showed that the buildup of heat and humidity can be modeled using linear equations. The present study demonstrates that relatively inexpensive tools and a low-exertion task can provide important information about the under-earmuff environment, which can inform assumptions about comfort during use.

  14. A contemporary assessment of change in humid tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Rudel, Thomas K; Aide, T Mitchell; Defries, Ruth; Emerson, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades the rate and geographic extent of land-use and land-cover change has increased throughout the world's humid tropical forests. The pan-tropical geography of forest change is a challenge to assess, and improved estimates of the human footprint in the tropics are critical to understanding potential changes in biodiversity. We combined recently published and new satellite observations, along with images from Google Earth and a literature review, to estimate the contemporary global extent of deforestation, selective logging, and secondary regrowth in humid tropical forests. Roughly 1.4% of the biome was deforested between 2000 and 2005. As of 2005, about half of the humid tropical forest biome contained 50% or less tree cover. Although not directly comparable to deforestation, geographic estimates of selective logging indicate that at least 20% of the humid tropical forest biome was undergoing some level of timber harvesting between 2000 and 2005. Forest recovery estimates are even less certain, but a compilation of available reports suggests that at least 1.2% of the humid tropical forest biome was in some stage of long-term secondary regrowth in 2000. Nearly 70% of the regrowth reports indicate forest regeneration in hilly, upland, and mountainous environments considered marginal for large-scale agriculture and ranching. Our estimates of the human footprint are conservative because they do not resolve very small-scale deforestation, low-intensity logging, and unreported secondary regrowth, nor do they incorporate other impacts on tropical forest ecosystems, such as fire and hunting. Our results highlight the enormous geographic extent of forest change throughout the humid tropics and the considerable limitations of the science and technology available for such a synthesis.

  15. Characterization of the Humidity Calibration Chamber by Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, J.; Sairanen, H.; Grahn, P.; Högström, R.; Lakka, A.; Heinonen, M.

    2017-07-01

    At the Centre for Metrology MIKES of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT MIKES), we have been developing a humidity calibration apparatus for radiosondes within an EMRP Project Metrology for Essential Climate Variables. The minimum air temperature and absolute humidity are -80°C and 2.576 × 10^{-4} g\\cdot m^{-3} (corresponding the dew-point temperature -90°C), respectively. Recent developments for the apparatus extend its pressure operation range down to 7 hPa (abs). When operating in such dry conditions, the efficiency in calibration is highly limited by the time of humidity stabilization in a measurement chamber: Because the water vapor pressure is very low, the adsorption and desorption of water molecules at the chamber walls have a significant effect on the spatial and temporal humidity differences in the chamber. Inhomogeneity in humidity field inside the calibration chamber increases calibration uncertainty. In order to understand how varying parameters such as pressure, temperature, inflow speed and geometry of chamber effect on stabilization time of humidity field, computational fluid dynamics simulations were developed using Comsol software. Velocity and pressure of fluid, water vapor diffusion, temperature as well as adsorption/desorption of water molecules on the chamber walls were included in the simulations. Adsorption and desorption constants for water on the measurement chamber wall were determined experimentally. The results show that the flow speed and the surface area are the dominant parameters affecting the stabilization time of a calibration chamber. It was also discovered that more homogenous water vapor concentration field is obtained at low pressures.

  16. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  17. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation.

  18. Intellective high-precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Zhou, Qinhe; Kuang, Yongcong; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Zhixin

    2001-09-01

    Considering that the resistance of macromolecule resistor varies in a wide range and humidity sensor component is sensitive to temperature as well, a intelligent high- precision macromolecule resistance temperature/humidity instrument was proposed in this paper, the instrument is based on the integration of frequency-and-period-measuring method, and sensing characteristic calculation and compensation using interpolation. Practical applications show that the instrument has the advantages of high precision, simple peripheral circuit, low cost, suitability for remote measurement, strong ability of anti-interference and wide operation range.

  19. Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Bakelite Resistivity

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaldi, R; Barret, V; Bastid, N; Blanchard, G; Chiavassa, E; Cortese, P; Crochet, Philippe; Dellacasa, G; De Marco, N; Dupieux, P; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Ferretti, A; Gallio, M; Lamoine, L; Luquin, Lionel; Manso, F; Mereu, P; Métivier, V; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Rahmani, A; Royer, L; Roig, O; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, Ermanno

    1999-01-01

    Presentation made at RPC99 and submitted to Elsevier PreprintThe use of phenolic or melaminic bakelite as RPC electrodes is widespread. The electrode resistivity is an important parameter for the RPC performance. As recent studies have pointed out, the bakelite resistivity changes with temperature and is influenced by humidity. In order to gain a quantitative understanding on the influence of temperature and humidity on RPC electrodes, we assembled an apparatus to measure resistivity in well-controlled conditions. A detailed description of the experimental set-up as well as the first resistivity measurements for various laminates in different environmental conditions are presented.

  20. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  1. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite,have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong b-axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient,indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. Ahome made apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response t...

  2. The Humidity Sensor Using the Polyacrylic Emulsion Containing Magnesium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Han Yu; Jung-Chuan Chou; Tai-Ping Sun; Shen-Kan Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    An impedance type humidity sensor based on the polyacrylic emulsion containing magnesium chloride (MgCl2)without chemical modification was investigated. The impedances of the sensor were measured from various relative humidity in the frequency range between 0.1kHz and 100 kHz. The sensor has a good sensitivity from 60%RH to 90%RH. According to the experimental results, the response time is about 240 seconds in the adsorption process and 310 seconds in the desorption process.

  3. Humidity-dependent phase state of SOA particles from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saukko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical phase state (solid, semi-solid, or liquid of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles has important implications for a number of atmospheric processes. We report the phase state of SOA particles spanning a wide range of oxygen to carbon ratios (O/C, used here as a surrogate for SOA oxidation level, produced in a flow tube reactor by photo-oxidation of various atmospherically relevant surrogate anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The phase state of laboratory-generated SOA was determined by the particle bounce behavior after inertial impaction on a polished steel substrate. The measured bounce fraction was evaluated as a function of relative humidity and SOA oxidation level (O/C measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS.

    The main findings of the study are: (1 Biogenic and anthropogenic SOA particles are found to be solid or semi-solid until a relative humidity of at least 50 % RH at impaction is reached. (2 Long-chain alkanes produce liquid SOA particles when generated at low oxidation level of O/C<0.2, but at higher oxidation levels they solidify. (3 Increasing sulphuric acid (H2SO4 within the SOA particles reduces the threshold of humidity-induced phase changes. (4 The bounce behavior of the various SOA systems did not show a consistent linear relationship with the particle O/C. Rather, the molar mass of the gas-phase VOC precursor showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the RH-induced phase change of the formed SOA particles.

  4. Assimilating synthetic hyperspectral sounder temperature and humidity retrievals to improve severe weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas A.; Koch, Steven; Li, Zhenglong

    2017-04-01

    Assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models has proven vital to generating accurate model analyses of tropospheric temperature and humidity where few conventional observations exist. Applications to storm-scale models are limited since the low temporal resolution provided by polar orbiting sensors cannot adequately sample rapidly changing environments associated with high impact weather events. To address this limitation, hyperspectral sounders have been proposed for geostationary orbiting satellites, but these have yet to be built and launched in part due to much higher engineering costs and a lack of a definite requirement for the data. This study uses an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) approach to simulate temperature and humidity profiles from a hypothetical geostationary-based sounder from a nature run of a high impact weather event on 20 May 2013. The simulated observations are then assimilated using an ensemble adjustment Kalman filter approach, testing both hourly and 15 minute cycling to determine their relative effectiveness at improving the near storm environment. Results indicate that assimilating both temperature and humidity profiles reduced mid-tropospheric both mean and standard deviation of analysis and forecast errors compared to assimilating conventional observations alone. The 15 minute cycling generally produced the lowest errors while also generating the best 2-4 hour updraft helicity forecasts of ongoing convection. This study indicates the potential for significant improvement in short-term forecasting of severe storms from the assimilation of hyperspectral geostationary satellite data. However, more studies are required using improved OSSE designs encompassing multiple storm environments and additional observation types such as radar reflectivity to fully define the effectiveness of assimilating geostationary hyperspectral observations for high impact weather forecasting

  5. Temperature and humidity dependence of ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakshatharan, S. Sunjai; Punning, Andres; Aabloo, Alvo

    2017-04-01

    The ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators with carbonaceous electrodes and ionic liquid electrolytes are distinguished by their ability for operation in open air. Nevertheless, their behavior is influenced by at least two parameters of the ambient environment - temperature and humidity. Both parameters affect many factors of the IEAP materials: viscosity and ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, specific capacitance of the electrodes, stiffness of the polymer, etc. This circumstance makes it difficult to comprehend the actual physical and electrochemical processes occurring in the IEAP materials as well as hinders the control of the actuators in the possible applications. This work is focused on characterizing the temperature and humidity-dependence of the electromechanical and electrochemical response of IEAP actuators. An extensive experiment was performed with several types of IEAP actuators in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. The characterization of electrical and electromechanical response measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging from 0°C to +60°C and relative humidity ranging from 0% to 90%. The result showing that impact of both parameters on IEAP actuators is easily recognizable.

  6. Design of precision measurement circuits for the relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanpeng; Gao, Guanwang; Sha, Zhanyou

    2009-07-01

    The two methods of the relative humidity measurement are introduced in this paper. The one is adopting transistor and operational amplifier to compose a logarithmic amplifier, by which to realize the linearization of exponent mode character curve of moisture-sensitive resistor. And using the positive temperature coefficient of the adjustable current source (+0.33%/°C) compensate the negative temperature coefficient of the thermistor (-0.36%/°C). Zero temperature drift is realized by the methods and the measurement accuracy reached +/-2%. The two is adopting intelligent temperature/relative humidity sensor, which combined the multiple parameter sensor and transmitter, to realize the accurately measurement not only of the relative humidity, but also of the temperature and dew point. Through the 2-wires serial port the system can be connected to MCS-51 MCU. The accuracy of the relative humidity measurement is +/-1.8% the nonlinear error can be reduced to +/-0.1% after software arithmetic compensation. The temperature range measured is -40{ + 123.8°C. The accuracy of dew point measurement is ?+/-1°C

  7. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...

  8. Intrinsic and Ionic Conduction in Humidity-Sensitive Sulfonated Polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Tong, H.D.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of humidity on the conductivity of sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) and polyaniline (PANI) is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Separation of intrinsic (q) and ionic charge (i) mobility was observed using combination of ac and dc impedance measurements at

  9. Humidity Sensors Principle, Mechanism, and Fabrication Technologies: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity measurement is one of the most significant issues in various areas of applications such as instrumentation, automated systems, agriculture, climatology and GIS. Numerous sorts of humidity sensors fabricated and developed for industrial and laboratory applications are reviewed and presented in this article. The survey frequently concentrates on the RH sensors based upon their organic and inorganic functional materials, e.g., porous ceramics (semiconductors, polymers, ceramic/polymer and electrolytes, as well as conduction mechanism and fabrication technologies. A significant aim of this review is to provide a distinct categorization pursuant to state of the art humidity sensor types, principles of work, sensing substances, transduction mechanisms, and production technologies. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the different humidity sensors such as electrical and statistical data will be detailed and gives an added value to the report. By comparison of overall prospects of the sensors it was revealed that there are still drawbacks as to efficiency of sensing elements and conduction values. The flexibility offered by thick film and thin film processes either in the preparation of materials or in the choice of shape and size of the sensor structure provides advantages over other technologies. These ceramic sensors show faster response than other types.

  10. Factors affecting relative humidity during wood vacuum drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; CAI Ying-chun

    2009-01-01

    Effects of pressure and temperature in the chamber during vacuum drying on the relative humidity and evaporation of wood surface were investigated by using the vacuum chamber. The setting temperature during vacuum drying included dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the cooling water in the condenser. Results indicated that relative humidity during vacuum drying was affected by the dry-bulb temperature td, the wet-bulb temperature tw and the temperature difference between the air in the vacuum chamber and the water in the condenser. Relative humidity of wood decreased with the increase in temperature at the given temperature of the water in the condenser. The relative humidity was affected slightly by pressure in the vacuum chamber pA, and it decreased from 70% to 65% with pA increased from 50 kPa to 101 kPa. Moreover, there was nearly no evaporation under the vacuum without external heating.

  11. Limiting criteria for human exposure to low humidity indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David; Fang, Lei; Meyer, H.;

    2002-01-01

    % RH. The subjects performed simulated office work throughout each exposure. Building Related Symptom (BRS) intensity was reported on visual-analogue scales. Tests of eye, nose and skin function were applied. In these short exposures subjective discomfort, though significantly increased by low humidity...

  12. Water repellency of soils; the influence of ambient relative humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doerr, S.H.; Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Shakesby, R.A.; Bryant, R.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) are of concern during or following rainfall or irrigation, and are often preceded by conditions of high atmospheric relative humidity (RH). Assessments of repellency are, however, commonly conducted on air-dried samples at ambient laboratory

  13. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  14. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  15. 40 CFR 86.344-79 - Humidity calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humidity calculations. (a) The following abbreviations (and units) are used in this section: BARO....562 715.655 720.781 725.939 731.130 736.354 741.611 746.901 752.224 3 757.581 762.971 768.396...

  16. Impact of ambient humidity on child health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Sun, Yunzong; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host) and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed.

  17. Humidity affects the performance of von Frey monofilaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Ellehuus-Hilmersson, C

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of tactile and nociceptive thresholds of the skin with calibrated polyamide monofilaments is an established testing method both in animal and in human research. It is known that changes in relative humidity may affect the physical properties of the monofilaments. As this effect has only...

  18. Dropwise Condensation Experiments with Humid Air at a Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, P.; Philipp, Ch; Gross, U.

    2012-11-01

    A new test facility has been developed to investigate dropwise condensation heat transfer in a humid air environment. It is designed as a closed loop system in which air is circulated by a fan, enabling investigations in the following parameter ranges: velocity up to 20 m/s; Reynolds number up to 20,000; temperature 20 to 100 °C relative humidity up to 100 %. Heat transfer measurements are done with a specifically designed micro sensor which is flush mounted at one of the vertical surfaces of a horizontal flow channel 12 mm × 32 mm (inner width and height, respectively) and covered at its air-side surface by a newly developed polymer layer containing 20 % of carbon nanotubes for improvement of the thermal conductivity. A total of 8 thermocouples is embedded inside the sensor. Their readings serve as input data to a numerical model which enables consideration of heat losses and evaluation of surface temperature and heat flux. The measuring system allows to analyse the effects of heat flux, air-to-wall temperature difference, absolute and relative humidity, and Reynolds number on the heat transfer coefficient. Single phase heat transfer results show excellent agreement with well established correlations for turbulent air flow. The onset of dropwise condensation was detected with very good repeatability. This paper covers details of the experimental device, measuring system and data evaluation including accuracy considerations. Single phase and preliminary dropwise condensation results with humid air are reported.

  19. Cosmic rays intensity and atmosphere humidity at near earth surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskomov, V. V.; Sedov, A. N.; Saduyev, N. O.; Kalikulov, O. A.; Naurzbayeva, A. Zh; Alimgazinova, N. Sh; Kenzhina, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies of estimation the mutual influence of humidity and flux of cosmic rays in first approximation were carried out. Normalized cross-correlation function of time series of neutron monitors count rate and level of relative atmosphere humidity near cosmic rays registration point is studied. Corrected and uncorrected on pressure minute and hour data of 6NM64 neutron monitor count rate were used for the study. Neutron monitor is located in Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, at an altitude of 850 m above sea level. Also, data from NM64 neutron monitor of Tien Shan mountain research station of Institute of Ionosphere, located at an altitude of 3340 m above sea level were used. Uncorrected on pressure cosmic rays intensity better reflects the changes in relative atmosphere humidity. Average and sometimes strong relationship is often observed by time changes of atmosphere humidity near the point of cosmic rays detection and their intensity: the value of normalized cross-correlation function of respective signals, even in case of their long duration and a large number of data (eg, for minute changes at intervals of up to several months) covers 0.5 - 0.75 range, sometimes falling to ∼⃒ 0.4.

  20. Temperature dependence of thermally-carbonized porous silicon humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, M.; Paski, J.; Salonen, J.; Lehto, V.-P.

    2005-06-01

    Thermal carbonization of porous silicon (PS) at 820 °C under acetylene atmosphere is an appropriate method for humidity sensing purposes. It produces stable and hydrophilic surface still maintaining originally large specific surface area of PS. We report the temperature dependence of various electrical param- eters measured for the thermally-carbonized PS humidity sensor. Capacitance of the sensor in dry air (6 RH%) is almost constant at various temperatures, whereas in higher relative humidity values, the temperature dependence becomes evident. The resistance variation of the sensor is less dependent on RH as the temperature increases. While the capacitance showed linear behavior as a function of temperature, the resistance had a clear non-linear temperature dependence. In order to get information about the effects of frequency on capacitance values, we measured a phase angle and admittance of the sensor as a function of frequency at three different temperatures in low and high humidity. According to these results, it is preferable to operate this sensor construction using low frequency (<1 kHz).

  1. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    parameters such as openings in the enclosure (drain holes, intentional openings or leak) and sealing and casing material. Related corrosion reliability issues due to humidity buildup have been evaluated using an interdigitated surface insulation resistance pattern placed inside the enclosure during exposure...

  2. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...

  3. Effects of Humidity on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Mahapatra, Manoj K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Wachsman, E. D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Liu, Meilin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gerdes, Kirk R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report summarizes results from experimental studies performed by a team of researchers assembled on behalf of the Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program. Team participants employed a variety of techniques to evaluate and mitigate the effects of humidity in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode air streams on cathode chemistry, microstructure, and electrochemical performance.

  4. Determination of partition and diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde in selected building materials and impact of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Jianshun S; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-chamber test method was used. Results showed that a higher relative humidity led to a larger effective diffusion coefficient for two kinds of wallboards and carpet. The carpet was also found to be very permeable resulting in an effective diffusion coefficient at the same order of magnitude with the formaldehyde diffusion coefficient in air. The partition coefficient (K(ma)) of formaldehyde in conventional wallboard was 1.52 times larger at 50% RH than at 20% RH, whereas it decreased slightly from 50% to 70% RH, presumably due to the combined effects of water solubility of formaldehyde and micro-pore blocking by condensed moisture at the high RH level. The partition coefficient of formaldehyde increased slightly with the increase of relative humidity in "green" wallboard and "green" carpet. At the same relative humidity level, the "green" wallboard had larger partition coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient than the conventional wallboard, presumably due to the micro-pore structure differences between the two materials. The data generated could be used to assess the sorption effects of formaldehyde on building materials and to evaluate its impact on the formaldehyde concentration in buildings.

  5. The effect of humidity on ionic wind velocity in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She; Nobelen, J. C. P. Y.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the evolution of portable electronics and LED lightning system, advances in air cooling technologies must also keep pace. Active cooling by ionic wind, which is usually generated by corona discharge, can greatly reduce the noise and lifetime issues compared to the mechanical fans. The wind is induced when a gas discharge is formed, and neutral molecules gain their energy by the momentum transfer of ion-neutral collisions. However, there is few discussion about the effect of gas composition such as humidity on the wind generation and the physical mechanism is not clear. In the experiment, a positive 5-20 kV DC voltage is applied to the needle-cylinder electrodes with separation of 20 mm. The ionic wind velocity is measured by hot wire anemometry. As the relative humidity (RH) in the ambient air increases, the velocity is found to be severely inhibited. The current is also measured between the cylinder electrode and earth. The results show that the DC component of corona current decreases when RH increases. Since both the discharge current and the ion mobility are reduced when RH increases, their combined effects determine the ionic wind velocity. This work is supported by STW project 13651.

  6. Design Point Performance and Optimization of Humid Air Turbine Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D. Brighenti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the recent drive towards higher thermal efficiencies and lower emission levels in the power generation market, advanced cycle power plants have become an increasingly appealing option. Among these systems, humid air turbines have been previously identified as promising candidates to deliver high efficiency and power output with notably low overall system volume, weight and emissions footprint. This paper investigates the performance of an advanced humid air turbine power cycle and aims to identify the dependencies between key cycle design variables, thermal performance, weight and cost by means of a parametric design optimization approach. Designs of the main heat exchangers are generated, aiming to ascertain the relationship between their technology level and the total weight and acquisition cost of them. The research outcomes show that the recuperator and the intercooler are the two components with the largest influence on the thermal efficiency and the total cost. The total weight of the power system is driven by the technology level of the recuperator and the economizer. Finally, the effectiveness of the aftercooler seems to have the greatest impact in reducing the total acquisition cost of the system with minimum penalty on its thermal efficiency.

  7. Structuring of nanomodified concrete cured in different temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues on the influence of the curing conditions on the formation of structure and properties of the concrete with nanomodifiers. Mechanochemically activated waste generated by the production of mineral fertilizers was used as nanomodified additives. It was established that providing favorable conditions for the initial structuring of concrete was the purpose of erecting structures made of concrete mix with said nanomodified additives in different temperature and humidity environments. It is provided that different types of production waste gaining the properties of efficient additives for binders, concrete mixes and compositions made on their basis as the result of the corresponding processing will be used as mineral fillers. Production waste is generally characterized by a heterogeneous composition and structure, by impurity content and by low chemical activity. Thus, one of the methods for increasing the efficiency of the waste is mechanical, chemical or physical activation. As the result of such activation, nanosizeparticles appear, and additional defects of mineral lattices are generated, which leads to accelerating the elementary interaction of the surface layer particles. Data on the research of macro- and microstructure of concrete and composites with nanomodifiers cured in different temperature and humidity conditions is given in the table.

  8. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  9. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  10. Research on Monitoring of Soil Humidity Based on AMSR-E Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish AMSR-E soil humidity monitoring model to realize the real-time monitoring of soil humidity.[Method] By dint of evaporation(small type) in Guangxi,daily precipitation,daily average maximum temperature,daily minimum relative humidity,≤ 5 mm precipitation day,as well as AMSR-E soil humidity data,with Stepwise regression method,soil humidity real-time monitoring was studied based on GIS technology,and monitoring result.[Result] The low soil humidity in Guangxi on September 2...

  11. Effect of humidity on the composition of isoprene photooxidation secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Nguyen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (RH on the composition and concentrations of gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from the photooxidation of isoprene under high-NOx conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed with hydrogen peroxide as the OH precursor and in the absence of seed aerosol. The relative yields of most gas-phase products were the same regardless of initial water vapor concentration with exception of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde, which were considerably affected by RH. A significant change was observed in the SOA composition, with many unique condensed-phase products formed under humid (90 % RH vs. dry (<2 % RH conditions, without any detectable effect on the rate and extent of the SOA mass growth. There is a 40 % reduction in the number and relative abundance of distinct particle-phase nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC detected by high resolution mass spectrometry. The suppression of condensation reactions, which produce water as a product, is the most important chemical effect of the increased RH. For example, the total signal from oligomeric esters of 2-methylglyceric acid was reduced by about 60 % under humid conditions and the maximum oligomer chain lengths were reduced by 7–11 carbons. Oligomers formed by addition mechanisms, without direct involvement of water, also decreased at elevated RH but to a much smaller extent. The observed reduction in the extent of condensation-type oligomerization at high RH may have substantial impact on the phase characteristics and hygroscopicity of the isoprene aerosol. The reduction in the amount of organic nitrates in the particle phase has implications for understanding the budget of NOC compounds.

  12. Moisture and dynamical interactions maintaining decoupled Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in the presence of a humidity inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Solomon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations suggest that processes maintaining subtropical and Arctic stratocumulus differ, due to the different environments in which they occur. For example, specific humidity inversions (specific humidity increasing with height are frequently observed to occur near cloud top coincident with temperature inversions in the Arctic, while they do not occur in the subtropics. In this study we use nested LES simulations of decoupled Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus (AMPS clouds observed during the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Indirect and SemiDirect Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC to analyze budgets of water components, potential temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy. These analyses quantify the processes that maintain decoupled AMPS, including the role of humidity inversions. Key structural features include a shallow upper entrainment zone at cloud top that is located within the temperature and humidity inversions, a mixed layer driven by cloud-top cooling that extends from the base of the upper entrainment zone to below cloud base, and a lower entrainment zone at the base of the mixed layer. The surface layer below the lower entrainment zone is decoupled from the cloud mixed-layer system. Budget results show that cloud liquid water is maintained in the upper entrainment zone near cloud top (within a temperature and humidity inversion due to a down gradient transport of water vapor by turbulent fluxes into the cloud layer from above and direct condensation forced by radiative cooling. Liquid water is generated in the updraft portions of the mixed-layer eddies below cloud top by buoyant destabilization. These processes cause at least 20% of the cloud liquid water to extend into the inversion. The redistribution of water vapor from the top of the humidity inversion to its base maintains the cloud layer, while the mixed layer-entrainment zone system is continually losing total water. In this decoupled system, the humidity inversion is

  13. IONIC SELF-ASSEMBLY AND HUMIDITY SENSITIVITY OF POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-hu Yu; De-sheng Jiang

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer thin films of alternately adsorbed layers of polyelectrolytes PDDA and PS-119 were formed on both planar silica substrates and optical fibers through the ionic self-assembly technique. Intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavities were fabricated by stepwise assembling the polyelectrolytes onto the ends of optical fibers for the purposes of fiber optical device and sensor development. Ionically assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films, in whichthere are hydrophilic side groups with strong affinity towards water molecules, are a category of humidity-sensitive functional materials. The polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film Fabry-Perot cavity-type fiber optical humidity sensor can work over a wide range from about 0% RH to about 100% RH with a response time less than 1 s.

  14. Influence of Humidity on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Montero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the influence of the relative humidity (RH on the wavelength of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS, performing tests with five FBGS at different humidity and temperature conditions. These tests were performed in a climate chamber whose RH changes according to a scheduled profile from 30% to 90%, in steps of 10%. These profiles were repeated for a wide range of temperatures from 10∘C to 70∘C, in steps of 10∘C. Two different types of instrumentation methods have been tested, spot welding and epoxy bonding, in two different materials, steel and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP. We discuss the results for each type of sensor and instrumentation method by analyzing the linearity of the Bragg wavelength with RH and temperature.

  15. Humidity buffering of interior spaces by porous, absorbent insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation made from wool will have a detectable, but small, moderating influence onvariation in the indoor relative humidity in a house with less than half an air change per hour andwith porous wall surfaces, such as paper, limewash or silicate paint.Water vapour distributes itself fairly...... to practical insignificance.Absorbent insulation will only have a useful influence on the indoor climate if the entire wall isredesigned to give a much more porous structure. This development would conflict with thecustom of putting a vapour barrier or vapour retarder close to the inside surface of a wall....... A morepractical way of moderating the indoor relative humidity would be to use an absorbent interiorfinish instead of the customary gypsum board. The excellent performance of end grain wood as aninterior finish is shown for comparison.The experiments reported here show the influence on the daily variation...

  16. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  17. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Rafique Memon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench. The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity. Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays

  18. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-16

    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)μm)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved.

  19. The humidity sensing properties and mechanism of strontium-hexaferrite

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hui-Feng; Shao, Gang-Qin; Gao, Zhen-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Hua; Girish, H -N

    2016-01-01

    The humidity sensing properties of n-type strontium-hexaferrite semiconductors are investigated at room temperature. The involved materials include hexaferrites of pure Z-type (Sr3Co2Fe24O41) and X-type (Sr2Co2Fe28O46) / W-type (SrCo2Fe16O27) mixture, in which Fe3+ / Fe2+ ions have different lattice sites. The contact and reactions between water and material surface are demonstrated considering the formation of oxide ion vacancy, singly-ionized / fully-ionized oxide ion vacancy, and the chemisorbed / physisorbed / condensed water. An impedance spectra model is proposed considering the material-electrode interface, interior material, grain boundary, absorbed water and Warburg response. The mechanism of electronic coupled with protonic conduction and humidity sensing mechanism are explained.

  20. Retrieval of relative humidity from CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available data was collected over 23 hours. The above data sets were used to determine the retrieved relative humidity and compared with Irene (near to Pretoria) weather balloon humidity measurements. The results of the comparative study are presented...

  1. Propagation of biases in humidity in the estimation of global irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Masaki

    2015-07-01

    Although different GHMs have different sensitivities to atmospheric humidity because different types of potential evapotranspiration formulae are implemented in them, bias correction of the humidity should be applied to forcing data, particularly for the evaluation of evapotranspiration and irrigation water.

  2. Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

    2012-02-01

    Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

  3. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  4. Humidity Buildup in Electronic Enclosures Exposed to Constant Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2017-01-01

    Electronic components and devices are exposed to a wide variety of climatic conditions, therefore the protection of electronic devices from humidity is becoming a critical factor in the system design. The ingress of moisture into typical electronic enclosures has been studied with defined....... The moisture buildup inside the enclosure has been simulated using an equivalent RC circuit consisting of variables like controlled resistors and capacitors to describe the diffusivity, permeability, and storage in polymers....

  5. The influence of humidity, temperature, and oral contraceptive in tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Raul A. R. C.; Ribeiro, Tânia L. C.; Moreira, Sandra M. B.; Baptista, António M. G.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain whether the quantity and quality of tear and eye subjective comfort are influenced by the temperature, humidity and oral Contraceptives Taking or Non-taking (CTNT). Forty-one students, females, from the University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, aged (mean+/-1standard deviation) of 21.51+/-1.85 years, ranging from 20 to 30 years, participated in this study. The McMonnies Questionnaire (MMQ), Break Up Time (BUT) and Phenol Red Test (PRT) were accessed between 14-17 hours in four sets of visits throughout the year: Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4. The PRT and BUT values (mean+/-1standard deviation) for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 were respectively 23.88+/-6.50mm, 22.29+/-8.00mm, 23.61+/-6.75mm, 22.88+/-7.00mm and 6.02+/-1.58s, 5.62+/-1.22s, 5.23+/-0.88s, 5.53+/-1. 42s. The MMQ scores for Visit 1, Visit 2, Visit 3 and Visit 4 ranged from 2-13, 2-15, 1-14 and 2-14 with medians of 6, 7, 6 and 6, respectively. The influence of temperature, humidity and CTNT on PRT, BUT and MMQ were evaluated using generalized linear mixed model. For BUT and MMQ statistical significant effects were found regarding temperature and humidity. The temperature and humidity influenced the tear quality and subjective comfort but did not influence the tear quantity. The CTNT did not influence tear quantity, quality or subjective eye comfort.

  6. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karmous Mohamed Salah; Jean Louis Robert

    2011-10-01

    Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite was examined by X-ray powder diffraction simulation at various relative humidities (RH). The basal spacing of the Ca-saponite increased stepwise with increase in RH. The (00) reflections observed reflect single or dual hydration states of smectite. Quasi-rational, intermediate, or asymmetrical reflections were observed for all XRD patterns and reflecting heterogeneity of the samples, especially along the transition between two hydration states.

  7. Impact of ambient humidity on child health: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Changes in relative humidity, along with other meteorological factors, accompany ongoing climate change and play a significant role in weather-related health outcomes, particularly among children. The purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the relationship between ambient humidity and child health, and to propose directions for future research. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, OvidSP and EBSCO host and review of reference lists, to supplement relevant studies, were conducted in March 2013. All identified records were selected based on explicit inclusion criteria. We extracted data from the included studies using a pre-designed data extraction form, and then performed a quality assessment. Various heterogeneities precluded a formal quantitative meta-analysis, therefore, evidence was compiled using descriptive summaries. RESULTS: Out of a total of 3797 identified records, 37 papers were selected for inclusion in this review. Among the 37 studies, 35% were focused on allergic diseases and 32% on respiratory system diseases. Quality assessment revealed 78% of the studies had reporting quality scores above 70%, and all findings demonstrated that ambient humidity generally plays an important role in the incidence and prevalence of climate-sensitive diseases among children. CONCLUSIONS: With climate change, there is a significant impact of ambient humidity on child health, especially for climate-sensitive infectious diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory system diseases, and pediatric allergic diseases. However, some inconsistencies in the direction and magnitude of the effects are observed.

  8. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  9. Application of Humidity Data for Predictions of Influenza Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J.; Thrastarson, H. T.; Yeo, E.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal influenza outbreaks infect millions of people, cause hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, and leave an immense economic footprint. Potential forecasting of the timing and intensity of these outbreaks can help mitigation and response efforts (e.g., the management and organization of vaccines, drugs and other resources). Absolute (or specific) humidity has been identified as an important driver of the seasonal behavior of influenza outbreaks in temperate regions. Building upon this result, we incorporate humidity data from both NASA's AIRS (Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder) instrument and ERA-Interim re-analysis into a SIRS (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) type numerical epidemiological model, comprising a prediction system for influenza outbreaks. Data for influenza activity is obtained from sources such as Google Flu Trends and the CDC (Center for Disease Control) and used for comparison and assimilation. The accuracy and limitations of the prediction system are tested with hindcasts of outbreaks in the United States for the years 2005-2015. Our results give support to the hypothesis that local weather conditions drive the seasonality of influenza in temperate regions. The implementation of influenza forecasts that make use of NCEP humidity forecasts is also discussed.

  10. The response of poly (vinyl alcohol) to humidity

    CERN Document Server

    Spindura, J

    2000-01-01

    material that swells, although it has been shown that not all the amorphous material swells to the same extent. The glass transition temperature (T sub g) could not be followed with DSC as the semicrystalline nature of the samples masked this transition and hence DMA was used to follow the changes in T sub g with both annealing and moisture content. A decrease in T sub g with increasing humidity was clearly observed. An interesting observation was the increase in T sub g for films exposed to humidity and then dried before analysis as XRD showed no corresponding increase in crystallinity. For fibre samples the crystallinity was found to be greatly increased by the orientation processes which gave rise to very large melting enthalpies in the DSC suggesting that there is more and/or stronger bonding opportunities within the fibre samples. This thesis aims to investigate the effects of heat treatments, humidity and hydrogen bonding on thin film and fibre samples of poly (vinyl alcohol). A number of different tech...

  11. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar Irani, Farid; Tunaboylu, Bahadir

    2016-11-30

    In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs) using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz) in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  12. SAW Humidity Sensor Sensitivity Enhancement via Electrospraying of Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Sayar Irani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we investigated the influence of the surface coatings of silver nanowires on the sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW humidity sensors. Silver nanowires, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP, which is a hydrophilic capping agent, were chemically synthesized, with an average length of 15 µm and an average diameter of 60 nm. Humidity sensors, with 433 MHz frequency dual-port resonator Rayleigh-SAW devices, were coated by silver nanowires (AgNWs using the electrospray coating method. It was demonstrated that increasing thickness of coated AgNW on the surfaces of SAW devices results in increased sensitivity. The highest frequency shift (262 kHz in these SAW devices was obtained with an injection of 0.5 mL of the AgNW solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL at an injection rate of 1 mL/h. It also showed the highest humidity sensitivity among the other prepared SAW devices.

  13. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  14. Dynamic programming approach for newborn's incubator humidity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattoura, D; Villon, P; Farges, G

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the human skin have been studied for a long time. A special interest has been shown in the water permeability of the premature infant's skin, which is known to be an important factor in the maintenance of a controlled water and heat balance. The rate of evaporative heat exchange between the skin surface of a very premature infant and the surrounding incubator air may be so high that evaporative heat loss alone may exceed the infant's total metabolic heat production. However, it has been demonstrated in several investigations published in recent years that basal evaporative water loss can be consistently reduced by increasing the ambient humidity. Nevertheless, the passive humidification system (water reservoir) used in most incubators cannot achieve high and steady humidity levels. In this paper, we propose an active humidification system. The algorithm is based on a combination of optimal control theory and dynamic programming approach. The relative-humidity (R.H.) regulation is performed in range of 35-90% at 33 degrees C with small oscillations (+/- 0.5% R.H.) around the reference value (i.e., prescribed R.H.).

  15. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  16. Humidification tower for humid air gas turbine cycles: Experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, A. [DIMSET (TPG), University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In the HAT (humid air turbine) cycle, the humidification of compressed air can be provided by a pressurised saturator (i.e. humidification tower or saturation tower), this solution being known to offer several attractive features. This work is focused on an experimental study of a pressurised humidification tower, with structured packing. After a description of the test rig employed to carry out the measuring campaign, the results relating to the thermodynamic process are presented and discussed. The experimental campaign was carried out over 162 working points, covering a relatively wide range of possible operating conditions. It is shown that the saturator behaviour, in terms of air outlet humidity and temperature, is primarily driven by, in decreasing order of relevance, the inlet water temperature, the inlet water over inlet dry air mass flow ratio and the inlet air temperature. The exit relative humidity is consistently over 100%, which may be explained partially by measurement accuracy and droplet entrainment, and partially by the non-ideal behaviour of air-steam mixtures close to saturation. Experimental results have been successfully correlated using a set of new non-dimensional groups: such a correlation is able to capture the air outlet temperature with a standard deviation {sigma} = 2.8 K. (author)

  17. A new retrieval algorithm for tropospheric temperature, humidity and pressure profiling based on GNSS radio occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Gottfried; Li, Ying; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Schwärz, Marc; Schwarz, Jakob; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    2017-04-01

    The GNSS radio occultation (RO) technique is an important remote sensing technique for obtaining thermodynamic profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure in the Earth's troposphere. However, due to refraction effects of both dry ambient air and water vapor in the troposphere, retrieval of accurate thermodynamic profiles at these lower altitudes is challenging and requires suitable background information in addition to the RO refractivity information. Here we introduce a new moist air retrieval algorithm aiming to improve the quality and robustness of retrieving temperature, humidity and pressure profiles in moist air tropospheric conditions. The new algorithm consists of four steps: (1) use of prescribed specific humidity and its uncertainty to retrieve temperature and its associated uncertainty; (2) use of prescribed temperature and its uncertainty to retrieve specific humidity and its associated uncertainty; (3) use of the previous results to estimate final temperature and specific humidity profiles through optimal estimation; (4) determination of air pressure and density profiles from the results obtained before. The new algorithm does not require elaborated matrix inversions which are otherwise widely used in 1D-Var retrieval algorithms, and it allows a transparent uncertainty propagation, whereby the uncertainties of prescribed variables are dynamically estimated accounting for their spatial and temporal variations. Estimated random uncertainties are calculated by constructing error covariance matrices from co-located ECMWF short-range forecast and corresponding analysis profiles. Systematic uncertainties are estimated by empirical modeling. The influence of regarding or disregarding vertical error correlations is quantified. The new scheme is implemented with static input uncertainty profiles in WEGC's current OPSv5.6 processing system and with full scope in WEGC's next-generation system, the Reference Occultation Processing System (rOPS). Results from

  18. Thin tantalum-silicon-oxygen/tantalum-silicon-nitrogen films as high-efficiency humidity diffusion barriers for solar cell encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuer, H. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Henning.Heuer@izfp-d.fraunhofer.de; Wenzel, C. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Herrmann, D. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW) Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Huebner, R. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Leibniz Institut fuer Festkoerper-und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (IFW) Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Z.L. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Max-Planck-Gesellschaft fuer Metallforschung (MPI) Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bartha, J.W. [Institut fuer Halbleiter-und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM) Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-12-05

    Flexible thin-film solar cells require flexible encapsulation to protect the copper-indium-2 selenide (CIS) absorber layer from humidity and aggressive environmental influences. Tantalum-silicon-based diffusion barriers are currently a favorite material to prevent future semiconductor devices from copper diffusion. In this work tantalum-silicon-nitrogen (Ta-Si-N) and tantalum-silicon-oxygen (Ta-Si-O) films were investigated and optimized for thin-film solar cell encapsulation of next-generation flexible solar modules. CIS solar modules were coated with tantalum-based barrier layers. The performance of the thin-film barrier encapsulation was determined by measuring the remaining module efficiency after a 1000 h accelerated aging test. A significantly enhanced stability against humidity diffusion in comparison to non-encapsulated modules was reached with a reactively sputtered thin-film system consisting of 250 nm Ta-Si-O and 15 nm Ta-Si-N.

  19. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. II. Increased severity of apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K E

    1975-01-01

    Apneic spells were recorded in 8 of 19 premature infants nursed in high and low humidity alternately in servocontrol incubators. A significantly greater proportion of severe apnea occurred in low than in high humidity. It is postulated that this frequency and severity was due to the increased (as well as widely fluctuating) ambient temperature during low humidity.

  20. Building America Case Study: Energy Efficient Management of Mechanical Ventilation and Relative Humidity in Hot-Humid Climates, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    In hot and humid climates, it is challenging to energy-efficiently maintain indoor RH at acceptable levels while simultaneously providing required ventilation, particularly in high performance low cooling load homes. The fundamental problem with solely relying on fixed capacity central cooling systems to manage moisture during low sensible load periods is that they are oversized for cooler periods of the year despite being 'properly sized' for a very hot design cooling day. The primary goals of this project were to determine the impact of supplementing a central space conditioning system with 1) a supplemental dehumidifier and 2) a ductless mini-split on seasonal energy use and summer peak power use as well as the impact on thermal distribution and humidity control inside a completely furnished lab home that was continuously ventilated in accordance with ASHRAE 62.2-2013.

  1. Roller compaction: Effect of relative humidity of lactose powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Chalak S; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Palzer, Stefan; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2016-09-01

    The effect of storage at different relative humidity conditions, for various types of lactose, on roller compaction behaviour was investigated. Three types of lactose were used in this study: anhydrous lactose (SuperTab21AN), spray dried lactose (SuperTab11SD) and α-lactose monohydrate 200M. These powders differ in their amorphous contents, due to different manufacturing processes. The powders were stored in a climatic chamber at different relative humidity values ranging from 10% to 80% RH. It was found that the roller compaction behaviour and ribbon properties were different for powders conditioned to different relative humidities. The amount of fines produced, which is undesirable in roller compaction, was found to be different at different relative humidity. The minimum amount of fines produced was found to be for powders conditioned at 20-40% RH. The maximum amount of fines was produced for powders conditioned at 80% RH. This was attributed to the decrease in powder flowability, as indicated by the flow function coefficient ffc and the angle of repose. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was also applied to determine the velocity of primary particles during ribbon production, and it was found that the velocity of the powder during the roller compaction decreased with powders stored at high RH. This resulted in less powder being present in the compaction zone at the edges of the rollers, which resulted in ribbons with a smaller overall width. The relative humidity for the storage of powders has shown to have minimal effect on the ribbon tensile strength at low RH conditions (10-20%). The lowest tensile strength of ribbons produced from lactose 200M and SD was for powders conditioned at 80% RH, whereas, ribbons produced from lactose 21AN at the same condition of 80% RH showed the highest tensile strength. The storage RH range 20-40% was found to be an optimum condition for roll compacting three lactose powders, as it resulted in a minimum amount of fines in the

  2. [Humidity as a necessary condition for latent fingerprint detection with ninhydrin--a practice-oriented and inexpensive method using potassium citrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2010-01-01

    Ninhydrin is a common reagent for latent fingerprint detection on porous surfaces, and water in the form of humidity is an essential factor in the developing process. Beside climatic chambers running on electricity, the required humidity can also be reached by using saturated salt solution. The influence of different climatic conditions on the developing process is shown by using test strips (as analytical standards). For the developing process, a saturated solution of tripotassium citrate at room temperature proved to be particularly suitable. Tripotassium citrate is a non-hazardous compound, which is also used as a food additive without quantitative limitation, is environmentally safe and produced from renewable resources. In a closed box, a saturated tripotassium citrate solution generates a relative humidity of about 64% in a temperature range of 15 to 35 degrees C.

  3. Autogenous Deformation and Change of the Relative Humidity in Silica Fume-Modified Cement Paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1996-01-01

    Even during sealed curing and at a constant temperature a hardening cement paste will deform and the relative humidity within its pores will lower. This autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change may be so significant that the cement paste cracks if the deformation is restrained....... This article focuses on the influence of silica fume addition on autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change. Continuous measurement of autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change for more than 1 year and 1« years, respectively, was performed. The investigations show...... thatsilica fume addition markedly increases the autogenous shrinkage as well as the autogenous relative humidity change....

  4. Effect of fabric texture and material on perceived discomfort at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif W.; Mackeprang, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of material (cotton/polyester) and texture (woven/knitted) of the inner layer of a clothing ensemble on human discomfort at high skin humidity. No clear effect on discomfort of material and texture could be detected. However, acceptability of skin humidity de......-crea-sed with increasing relative skin humidity. A model was developed that predicts the percentage of persons dissatisfied due to humid skin as a function of relative skin humidity. The model applies for woven and knitted cot-ton and polyester materials and for activity levels typical for office work. Even at very high...

  5. Spaceborne infrared Fourier-transform spectrometers for temperature and humidity sounding of the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Yu. M.; Zavelevich, F. S.; Nikulin, A. G.; Kozlov, D. A.; Monakhov, D. O.; Kozlov, I. A.; Arkhipov, S. A.; Tselikov, V. A.; Romanovskii, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A spaceborne Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was designed for measuring the spectra of the outgoing Earth's atmosphere radiation and serves for providing for the needs of online meteorology and climatology with regard to obtaining the following kinds of data: vertical profiles of temperature and humidity profiles in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, the general and altitudinal ozone distribution, concentrations of small gaseous constituents, temperature of the underlying surface, etc. At present, works are underway at the Keldysh Research Centre for creating IKFS-series FTIR spectrometers for satellites in Sun-synchronous orbits: the IKFS-2 instrument for the Meteor-M spacecraft no. 2 of the Meteor-3M space complex (developed and supplied for testing together with the spacecraft) and an advanced IKFS-3 instrument for the Meteor-MP fourth-generation hydrometeorological and oceanographic space complex for Earth monitoring (at the developmental stage). The composition, functional diagram, and technical specifications of the FTIR spectrometers are presented.

  6. Identification of the Temperature and The Relative Humidity in a Heating, Ventilating and air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Fernández Rodríguez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This document demonstrates mathematical models for the variation of the drive temperature and therelative humidity as part of climate control for a room dedicated to the formulation of vaccines. Thesemodels will allow a correct estimate of the dynamic behaviors of these variables and further design inthe future, of controllers with better benefits than the existing ones. A methodology is proposed forsystem identification, that will guarantee a bigger and better organization and integration of steps tocontinue to achieve the proposed objectives. Also an interesting idea is the generation and applicationof pseudo-random binary signals (PRBS during the identification. The estimate of the parameters andsimulation according to the selected structures, are carried out with the mathematical tool Matlab®.For the validation of the resulting pattern a statistical technique analysis is utilized apart from datacomparison.

  7. Dynamics of Environmental Humidity and Water Content in Tobacco Leaf and Metabolism of Starch During Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; YUAN Hong-tao; CHEN Jiang-hua; WANG Na

    2003-01-01

    Effect of environmental humidity and water content in tobacco leaf on starch metabolism was studied by using the electric-heated auto-controlled flue-curing barn supplied by Henan Agricultural University, China. The results indicated that the degradation of starch and decrease of water content in tobacco leaf during early yellowing at low humidity was the most rapid, and the water loss was the highest while the lowest under high humidity. The duration for starch degradation under low humidity was longer than that of CK. So the starch residue in cured leaf of different treatment took the order of high humidity yellowing treatment>low humidity yellowing treatment> CK. When the leaf water content was decreased to around 50%, the starch degradation became slow and the content of starch was stable. Starch degradation and decrease of leaf water content was not synchronous. Starch in tobacco leaf during yellowing degraded more rapidly when humidity was decreased at a high speed, but the degradation stopped earlier at late stage. There was a quicker and higher degradation of starch under high environmental humidity. When the humidity decreased to 70 %,the content of starch was stable. The activity of amylase began to decrease when relative humidity was below 75 %, but it kept a high level of activity when the environmental humidity was below 70 %.

  8. Discomfort due to skin humidity with different fabric textures and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif Winsnes; Mackeprang, Jørgen;

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the possible effects of material and texture of the inner clothing layer on human comfort. A highly hygroscopic material (cotton) and a material of low hygroscopicity (polyester) were tested. Also, it was tested whether fabric texture (knitted/woven) influenced the perceived...... due to humid skin or clothing for persons engaged in office work, wearing woven or knitted inner layers made of polyester or cotton. The model allows upper limits for air humidity to be determined for indoor environments. In the comfort zone of temperatures, the model predicts only a moderate...... impacted the clothing comfort, perceived skin humidity or humidity of clothing, or the acceptability of skin humidity. Clothing comfort and acceptability deteriorated significantly with increasing skin humidity. In addition, the subjects perceived their skin or clothing as being more humid with increasing...

  9. Effect of Three-Dimensional Printed Personalized Moisture Chamber Spectacles on the Periocular Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chan Hee; Kim, Jae Yong; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon; Lim, Byeong Gak; Chung, Jin Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effect of three-dimensional (3D) printed personalized moisture chamber spectacles (PMCS) on the periocular humidity. Methods. Facial computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on 10 normal subjects. PMCS was designed based on volume rendered CT images and produced using a 3D printer. Periocular humidity of PMCS and commercially available uniformed moisture chamber spectacles (UMCS) were measured for 30 minutes via microhydrometer. Results. The mean ambient humidity was 15.76 ± 1.18%. The mean periocular humidity was 52.14 ± 3.00% in PMCS and 37.67 ± 8.97% in UMCS. The difference was significant (P 3D printer provides appropriate fitness for the semiclosed humid chamber. PMCS showed higher performance than UMCS. The wearing of PMCS would be an effective method to provide high enough periocular humidity in low humidity environment.

  10. Analyses of Inhomogeneities in Radiosonde Temperature and Humidity Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Panmao; Eskridge, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Twice daily radiosonde data from selected stations in the United States (period 1948 to 1990) and China (period 1958 to 1990) were sorted into time series. These stations have one sounding taken in darkness and the other in sunlight. The analysis shows that the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series are highly correlated. Therefore, the Easterling and Peterson technique was tested on the 0000 and 1200 time series to detect inhomogeneities and to estimate the size of the biases. Discontinuities were detected using the difference series created from the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series. To establish that the detected bias was significant, a t test was performed to confirm that the change occurs in the daytime series but not in the nighttime series.Both U.S. and Chinese radiosonde temperature and humidity data include inhomogeneities caused by changes in radiosonde sensors and observation times. The U.S. humidity data have inhomogeneities that were caused by instrument changes and the censoring of data. The practice of reporting relative humidity as 19% when it is lower than 20% or the temperature is below 40°C is called censoring. This combination of procedural and instrument changes makes the detection of biases and adjustment of the data very difficult. In the Chinese temperatures, them are inhomogeneities related to a change in the radiation correction procedure.Test results demonstrate that a modified Easterling and Peterson method is suitable for use in detecting and adjusting time series radiosonde data.Accurate stations histories are very desirable. Stations histories can confirm that detected inhomogeneities are related to instrument or procedural changes. Adjustments can then he made to the data with some confidence.

  11. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapardanis, Steven [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Hudpeth, Mathew [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  12. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapardanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10−5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  13. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10-5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  14. Measurement of NPK, Temperature, Moisture, Humidity using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gaikwad S.V,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In India, where the economy is mainly base on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic and are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarifies of land reservoir water and overused of fertilizers so we need to control these parameters. This system made wireless sensor network for monitoringagricultural environments for various factors such as NPK, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance.By using pH sensors we get the information about the soil and analyze the acid level of the soil. By which we can apply fertilizer to the place where it needs, also we can avoid over fertilization of the crops. We used humidity sensor to sense the weather. By this the farmer can get idea about the climate. If there is any chance for rainfall; the farmer need not irrigate the crop field. This Seminar reports the design and development of a smart wireless sensor network (WSN for an agricultural environment. Monitoring agricultural environments for various factors such as Nitrates, Zink, Potassium, Phosphorus, Humidity and Temperature along with other factors can be of significance. The ability to document and detail changes in parameters of interest has become increasingly valuable. Investigations were performed for a remote monitoring system using WiFi, where the wireless sensor nodes are based on WSN802G modules. These nodes send data wirelessly to a central server, which collects the data, stores it and allows it to be analyzed and displayed as needed.

  15. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  16. Adaptive thermal comfort standards in the hot-humid tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). Oxford Centre for Sustainable Development

    2004-07-01

    Field studies conducted in tropical climates have found that the International standard for indoor climate, IS07730 based on Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV/PPD) equations, does not adequately describe comfortable conditions. This paper presents some of the evidence and suggests ways in which International standards are failing and how they might be complemented using adaptive comfort standards derived from the results of local comfort surveys. In particular the implications of air movement and humidity for adaptive comfort standards are considered. (author)

  17. Droplet pattern and condensation gradient around a humidity sink

    OpenAIRE

    González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.; Narhe, R.D. (Ramchandra D.); Guadarrama-Cetina, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a water drop saturated with NaCl and the growth of pure water droplets in a breath figure pattern (BF) condensing around it. This salty drop acts as a humidity sink, inhibiting the BF inside a ring at a distance r=δ from the sink center and slowing down BF growth outside the ring. The initial salty drop is taken either from a salt-saturated solution (type I experiment) or by placing an NaCl crystal on the substrate (type II experiment). The results are similar, pr...

  18. HUMIDITY AND VENTILATION OF AN UNDERGRAUND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS STOREHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rendulić

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground storehouse for explosives situated in the adit of an abandoned bench of quarry has to have a secure artificial air flow in accordance with appropriate humidity of the outside air. Besides the corresponding protective measures which have to be taken during the manipulation in future storehouse, it is important to consider the evaporation from wet materials and that is possible only when air is not saturated with moisture. Ventilation system should be operated from outside the storehouse (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Pressure and Humidity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Polkko, J.; Kemppinen, O.; Leinonen, J.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). MetBaro and MetHumi are part of the scientific payload of the MNL. Main scientific goal of both devices is to measure the meteorological phenomena (pressure and humidity) of the Martian atmosphere and complement the previous Mars mission atmospheric measurements (Viking and Phoenix) for better understanding of the Martian atmospheric conditions.

  20. Breed differences in calving interval in the humid Mexican tropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Medina, Aída Lorena; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro; Soriano Robles, Ramón; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of breed, breed and sex of the calf, farm, calving number (CN), type of calving, and their interactions on CI using records from four different beef breeds performing in the humid tropical environment of Mexico. The influence of these factors on CN was also evaluated. CI and CN varied with farm, breed of the dam, and with breed of the dam by calf breed interaction (PAngus cows, although with an apparent unexpected negative impact on CN.

  1. Hygromechanical behaviour of CFRP under cyclic humidity loadings

    CERN Document Server

    Hauviller, Claude

    2001-01-01

    Stable lightweight structures are key issues in the design and construction of the LHC high precision particle detectors. This paper presents the results of long term measurements performed on plates manufactured in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), material selected for these structures, subjected to cyclic humidity loadings. Test procedures are detailed; results on moisture absorption are described together with the related displacement measurements. These results indicate that cycling composites in the operating conditions of the LHC trackers does not provoke any major internal damage.

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation for synthesis of sub-20nm ZnO nanopods and their application to optical humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, R; Ritter, S; Meissner, K E

    2014-02-17

    We present a novel method for colloidal synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanopods by heterogeneous nucleation on zero-dimensional ZnO nanoparticle 'seeds'. Ultra-small ZnO nanopods, multi-legged structures with sub-20 nm individual leg diameters, can be synthesized by hydrolysis of a Zn2+ precursor growth solution in presence of ∼4 nm ZnO seeds under hydrothermal conditions via microwave-assisted heating in as little as 20 min of reaction time. One-dimensional ZnO nanorods are initially generated in the reaction mixture by heterogeneous nucleation and growth along the [0001] direction of the ZnO crystal. Growth of one-dimensional nanorods subsequently yields to an 'attachment' and size-focusing phase where individual nanorods fuse together to form multi-legged nanopods having diameters ∼15 nm. ZnO nanopods exhibit broad orange-red defect-related photoluminescence in addition to a near-band edge emission at 373 nm when excited above the band-gap at 350 nm. The defect-related photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopods has been applied towards reversible optical humidity sensing at room temperature. The sensors demonstrated a linear response between 22% and 70% relative humidity with a 0.4% increase in optical intensity per % change in relative humidity. Due to their ultra-small dimensions, ZnO nanopods exhibit a large dynamic range and enhanced sensitivity to changes in ambient humidity, thus showcasing their ability as a platform for optical environmental sensing.

  3. Decrease of Building’s Humidity with Epiphyte and Xerophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Laksmiani Wahjutami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the research phase in Environmental Sciences Doctoral study program that is interdisciplinary research, ongoing. Architecture disciplines collaborate with the disciplines of biology to solve the problem of the microclimate in the built. Paradigm used as benchmarks is bioclimatic architecture in which there is a relationship between elements of the building, climate, and living organisms. Living organisms - in this case the plant - used as a tool to solve the problem of the microclimate in buildings. Plant is one of the living organisms that grow and thrive in their respective habitats and the climate of each character. Several studies have shown that plants are able to lower both ambient temperature and the temperature inside the building. In this study, the problem is the existence of a higher humidity levels in small type of dwelling (STD that has been totally renovated. Meanwhile Epiphytic and Xerophyte are plants that live by absorbing surrounding moisture. In the next stage of research, it is expected that the capability of Epiphyte and Xerophyte’s plants to reduce the building’s humidity proven. From the interpretation Q.S. 23: 17, implied that: Allah has bring down the water to the earth to grow a variety of plants [1]. The diversity of these plants would be useful for people who have sense. Building as the built environment will become sustainable environment when the human capable of utilizing plants as part of it.

  4. Sticky gecko feet: the role of temperature and humidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Niewiarowski

    Full Text Available Gecko adhesion is expected to be temperature insensitive over the range of temperatures typically experienced by geckos. Previous work is limited and equivocal on whether this expectation holds. We tested the temperature dependence of adhesion in Tokay and Day geckos and found that clinging ability at 12 degrees C was nearly double the clinging ability at 32 degrees C. However, rather than confirming a simple temperature effect, our data reveal a complex interaction between temperature and humidity that can drive differences in adhesion by as much as two-fold. Our findings have important implications for inferences about the mechanisms underlying the exceptional clinging capabilities of geckos, including whether performance of free-ranging animals is based solely on a dry adhesive model. An understanding of the relative contributions of van der Waals interactions and how humidity and temperature variation affects clinging capacities will be required to test hypotheses about the evolution of gecko toepads and is relevant to the design and manufacture of synthetic mimics.

  5. Sticky gecko feet: the role of temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Peter H; Lopez, Stephanie; Ge, Liehui; Hagan, Emily; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Gecko adhesion is expected to be temperature insensitive over the range of temperatures typically experienced by geckos. Previous work is limited and equivocal on whether this expectation holds. We tested the temperature dependence of adhesion in Tokay and Day geckos and found that clinging ability at 12 degrees C was nearly double the clinging ability at 32 degrees C. However, rather than confirming a simple temperature effect, our data reveal a complex interaction between temperature and humidity that can drive differences in adhesion by as much as two-fold. Our findings have important implications for inferences about the mechanisms underlying the exceptional clinging capabilities of geckos, including whether performance of free-ranging animals is based solely on a dry adhesive model. An understanding of the relative contributions of van der Waals interactions and how humidity and temperature variation affects clinging capacities will be required to test hypotheses about the evolution of gecko toepads and is relevant to the design and manufacture of synthetic mimics.

  6. Zinc corrosion runoff process induced by humid tropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, L. [Center for Investigation and Advanced Study (CINVESTAV-Merida), Applied Physics Department, Carr. Ant. a Progreso, Km.6, C.P. 97310, Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Meraz, E. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico); Acosta, M. [Universidad Juarez Autonoma de Tabasco, Division Academica de Ciencias Basicas, Km 1 Carretera Cunduacan-Jalpa de M., A.P. 24, C.P. 86690, Cunduacan, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel are frequently used metals in building application. They have relatively good atmospheric resistance to corrosion, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective rust on its surface, which acts as barrier between the metal and environment. However, some part of the rust can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process, called metal runoff, contributes for zinc dispersion in soils and waters. In order to make accurate estimation of zinc runoff induced by atmosphere in humid tropical climate, samples of pure Zn and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed in the Gulf of Mexico. The data reveal that this process is strongly influenced by factors which determine the aggressivity of the environment (pluvial precipitations, cycles of dry and rainy periods, atmospheric pollutants, air humidity). High annual rates of zinc runoff (6.5 - 8.5 {+-} 0.30 g Zn m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}) were released, being the runoff 63 - 87% of the zinc corrosion rust. The zinc mass loss has been related to several independent parameters, presenting linear equation, which indicates the air contaminant SO{sub 2} as the major factor controlling the runoff of zinc. The reported results show higher runoff of zinc samples, compared to that of hot dip galvanized steel. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Evaporation of sulfate aerosols at low relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Roldin, Pontus; Duplissy, Jonathan; Rondo, Linda; Tröstl, Jasmin; Slowik, Jay G.; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Kürten, Andreas; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Kirkby, Jasper; Petäjä, Tuukka; Baltensperger, Urs; Boy, Michael; Curtius, Joachim; Flagan, Richard C.; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M.; Stratmann, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Evaporation of sulfuric acid from particles can be important in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus. However, the equilibrium constant for the dissociation of H2SO4 to bisulfate ions, which is the one of the fundamental parameters controlling the evaporation of sulfur particles, is not well constrained. In this study we explore the volatility of sulfate particles at very low relative humidity. We measured the evaporation of sulfur particles versus temperature and relative humidity in the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We modelled the observed sulfur particle shrinkage with the ADCHAM model. Based on our model results, we conclude that the sulfur particle shrinkage is mainly governed by H2SO4 and potentially to some extent by SO3 evaporation. We found that the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of H2SO4 to HSO4-(KH2SO4) and the dehydration of H2SO4 to SO3 (xKSO3) are KH2SO4 = 2-4 × 109 mol kg-1 and xKSO3 ≥ 1.4 × 1010 at 288.8 ± 5 K.

  8. Significant accumulation of nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junyu; Gu, Baojing; Schlesinger, William H.; Ju, Xiaotang

    2016-04-01

    Soil nitrate is important for crop growth, but it can also leach to groundwater causing nitrate contamination, a threat to human health. Here, we report a significant accumulation of soil nitrate in Chinese semi-humid croplands based upon more than 7000 samples from 141 sites collected from 1994 to 2015. In the 0-4 meters depth of soil, total nitrate accumulation reaches 453 ± 39, 749 ± 75, 1191 ± 89, 1269 ± 114, 2155 ± 330 kg N ha-1 on average in wheat, maize, open-field vegetables (OFV), solar plastic-roofed greenhouse vegetables (GHV) and orchard fields, respectively. Surprisingly, there is also a comparable amount of nitrate accumulated in the vadose-zone deeper than 4 meters. Over-use of N fertilizer (and/or manure) and a declining groundwater table are the major causes for this huge nitrate reservoir in the vadose-zone of semi-humid croplands, where the nitrate cannot be denitrified due to the presence of oxygen and lack of carbon sources. Future climatic change with more extreme rainfall events would increase the risk of accumulated nitrate moving downwards and threatening groundwater nitrate contamination.

  9. Humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation: The reference condition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveršnik, Klemen; Jurečič, Rok

    2016-03-16

    Accelerated and stress stability data is often used to predict shelf life of pharmaceuticals. Temperature, combined with humidity accelerates chemical decomposition and the Arrhenius equation is used to extrapolate accelerated stability results to long-term stability. Statistical estimation of the humidity-corrected Arrhenius equation is not straightforward due to its non-linearity. A two stage nonlinear fitting approach is used in practice, followed by a prediction stage. We developed a single-stage statistical procedure, called the reference condition approach, which has better statistical properties (less collinearity, direct estimation of uncertainty, narrower prediction interval) and is significantly easier to use, compared to the existing approaches. Our statistical model was populated with data from a 35-day stress stability study on a laboratory batch of vitamin tablets and required mere 30 laboratory assay determinations. The stability prediction agreed well with the actual 24-month long term stability of the product. The approach has high potential to assist product formulation, specification setting and stability statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Humidity control of particle emissions in aeolian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Humidity is an important control of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust emissions. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this control through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity (RH) of the pore air in real time. RH was varied between 15% and 80% and the critical wind speed determined for the release of particles to the air stream. The results strongly support earlier suggestions that fine particles are most affected in relatively dry atmospheres, particularly those which are tightly packed. An analytical model is proposed to describe this relationship which depends on determination of the matric potential from the Kelvin equation. The total contact area between particle asperities adjoined by pendular rings is represented as a power function of the number of layers of adsorbed water. The value of the exponent appears to be governed by the surface roughness of the particles and their packing arrangement. Parallel developments in colloid interface science and atomic force microscopy, relevant to industrial and pharmaceutical applications, support these conclusions in principle and will likely have an important bearing on future progress in parameterization of the proposed model.

  11. Using Relative Humidity Forecasts to Manage Meningitis in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.; Adams-Forgor, A.; Akweogno, P.; Awine, T.; Dalaba, M.; Dukic, V.; Dumont, A.; Hayden, M.; Hodgson, A.; Hopson, T. M.; Hugonnet, S.; Yoksas, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur quasi-regularly and with devastating impact. In 2008, for example, eighty-eight thousand people contracted meningitis and over five thousand died. Until very recently, the protection provided by the only available vaccine was so limited and short-lived that the only practical strategy for vaccination was reactive: waiting until an epidemic occurred in the region and then vaccinating in that region to prevent the epidemic's further growth. Even with that strategy, there were still times when demand outpaced available vaccine. While a new vaccine has recently been developed that is effective and inexpensive enough to be used more broadly and proactively, it is only effective against the strain of bacteria that causes the most common kind of bacterial meningitis. As a result, there will likely be continued need for reactive vaccination strategies. It is widely known that meningitis epidemics in the Sahel occur only in the dry season. Our project investigated this relationship, and several independent lines of evidence demonstrate a robust relationship between the onset of the rainy season, as marked by weekly average relative humidity above 40%, and the end of meningitis epidemics. These lines of evidence include statistical analysis of two years of weekly meningitis and weather data across the Sahel, cross-correlation of ten years of meningitis and weather data in the Upper East region of northern Ghana, and high-resolution weather simulations of past meningitis seasons to interpolate available weather data. We also adapted two techniques that have been successfully used in public health studies: generalized additive models, which have been used to relate air quality and health, and a linearized version of the compartmental epidemics model that has been used to understand MRSA. Based on these multiple lines of evidence, average weekly relative humidity forecast two weeks in advance appears consistently and strongly related to

  12. Understanding Decreases in Land Relative Humidity with Global Warming: Conceptual Model and GCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael P.; O'Gorman, Paul A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of secondary importance for the increase in specific humidity over land, but it matters more for the decrease in relative humidity. Further analysis shows there is a strong feedback between changes in surface-air temperature and relative humidity, and this can amplify the influence on relative humidity of factors such as stomatal conductance and soil moisture.

  13. An XPS study of copper corrosion originated by formic acid vapour at 40% and 80% relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, E.; Torres, C.L.; Bastidas, J.M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    Copper corrosion products originated by the action of formic acid vapours at 40% and 80% relative humidity for a period of 21 days were analysed. Three formic vapour concentration levels (10, 100 and 300 ppm) were generated in laboratory tests at 30 C. The corrosion product layers were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with Ar{sup +}-ion sputtering. The components identified in the patina layers were cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH){sub 2}) and copper formate (Cu(HCOO){sub 2}). Copper formate was formed by a complex mechanism including copper hydroxide and formic acid. (orig.)

  14. SURFACE REARRANGEMENTS OF OXYGEN PLASMA TREATED POLYSTYRENE: SURFACE DYNAMICS AND HUMIDITY EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Li; Kyunghui Oh; Hyuk Yu

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of oxygen plasma treated polystyrene (PS) surfaces was investigated upon storing them in the air under controlled humidity conditions. The methods of water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to infer the surface properties and structure. Chemical groups containing oxygen were formed on the PS surface with the plasma treatment,demonstrated by water contact angle and XPS. The surface polarity decayed markedly on time, as assessed by steady increase in the water contact angle as a function of storage time, from zero to around 60°. The observed decay is interpreted as arising from surface rearrangement processes to burying polar groups away from the uppermost layer of the surfaces, which is in contact with air. On the other hand, XPS results show that the chemical composition in the first 3 nm surface layer is unaffected by the surface aging, and the depth profile of oxygen is essentially the same with time. A possible change of PS surface roughness was examined by AFM, and it showed that the increase of water contact angle during surface aging could not be attributed to surface roughness. Thus, it is concluded that surface aging is attributable to surface reorganization and the motion of oxygen containing groups is confined within the XPS probing depth. SFG spectroscopy, which is intrinsically interface-specific, was used to detect the chemical structure of PS surface at the molecular level after various aging times.The results are interpreted as follows. During the aging of the plasma treated PS surfaces, the oxygen containing groups undergo reorientation processes toward the polymer bulk and/or parallel to the surface, while the CH2 moiety stands up on the PS surface. Our results indicate that the surface configuration changes do not require large length scale segmental motions or migration of macromolecules. Motions that are

  15. Dynamic electrophysical characterization of rubidium polytungstate, Rb{sub 4}W{sub 11}O{sub 35}, under fast humidity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravina, S.L. [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46, Nauki Ave., Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Morozovsky, N.V., E-mail: nicholas.v.morozovsky@gmail.com [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46, Nauki Ave., Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Solodovnikov, S.F. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3, Acad. Lavrent' ev Ave., Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov St. 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Basovich, O.M. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Sakh' yanova Str., Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Khaikina, E.G. [Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Sakh' yanova Str., Ulan-Ude 670047 (Russian Federation); Buryat State University, 24 a, Smolin St., Ulan-Ude 670000 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The electrophysical reaction of rubidium polytungstate Rb{sub 4}W{sub 11}O{sub 35} (RWO) on fast humidity impact has been investigated by studying the influence of wet air pulse of 1–3 s of duration on the peculiarities of dynamic current–voltage (I–V-) and charge-voltage (Q–V-) loops and transient current–time (I–t-) curves. The revealed peculiarities of hysteretic I–V- and Q–V-loops and I–t-curves for RWO subjected to humidity impact were compared with similar ones observed for water damaged hydrogen-bounded ferroelectric triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals. The obtained data indicate at least two possible scenarios of polar reaction on the humidity impact, namely protonic/ionic space charge transfer and ferroelectric-like reversible polarization in surface RWO conglomerate disturbed by dipolar H{sub 2}O adsorbate. Owing to a high surface activity the RWO can be considered as one of promising materials for creating humidity sensitive elements of environment monitoring systems. The direct humidity-to-frequency conversion was realized using LC resonance or RC-relaxation generating units. - Highlights: • Electrophysical reaction of Rb{sub 4}W{sub 11}O{sub 35} on fast humidity impact was studied. • Dynamic current- and charge-voltage loops and transient currents were examined. • Appearance of displacement current maxima under wet air pulse was revealed. • Ionic transfer and ferroelectric-like polarization are likely reasons of the maxima.

  16. Design and Testing of a Controller for the Martian Atmosphere Pressure and Humidity Instrument DREAMS-P/H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapani Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), driven by the goal of performing a soft landing on Mars, is planning to launch the Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)[1] simultaneously with the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) as a part of the ExoMars program towards Mars in 2016. As a secondary objective, the EDM will gather meteorological data and observe the electrical environment of the landing site with its Dust characterisation, Risk assessment, and Environmental Analyser on the Martian Surface (DREAMS). The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is participating in the project by designing, building and testing a pressure and a humidity instrument for Mars, named DREAMS-P and DREAMS-H, respectively. The instruments are based on previous FMI designs, including ones flown on board the Huygens, Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory.[2] Traditionally, the FMI pressure and humidity instruments have been controlled by an FPGA. However, the need to incorporate more autonomy and modifiability into instruments, cut the development time and component costs, stimulated interest to study a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Microcontroller Unit (MCU) based instrument design. Thus, in the DREAMS-P/H design, an automotive MCU is used as the instrument controller. The MCU has been qualified for space by tests in and outside FMI. The DREAMS-P/H controller command and data interface utilizes a RS-422 connection to receive telecommands from and to transmit data to the Central Electronics Unit (CEU) of the DREAMS science package. The two pressure transducers of DREAMS-P and one humidity transducer of DREAMS-H are controlled by a single MCU. The MCU controls the power flow for each transducer and performs pulse counting measurements on sensor and reference channels to retrieve scientific data. Pressure and humidity measurements are scheduled and set up according to a configuration table assigned to each transducer. The configuration tables can be modified during the flight. The whole

  17. Badlands in humid regions - redbed desertification in Nanxiong Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luobin; Hua, Peng; Simonson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The redbed badlands in Nanxiong City, China, well represent badlands in humid regions. The erosion rate in humid regions is much higher than that in arid regions and can reach 1 cm per month during the summer. The purpose of this study is to introduce the research of badlands in China, which have not been extensively studied so far, and to compare the badlands between arid and humid regions. Furthermore, the aim is to study the impact of mineralogical and chemical composition on the disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands. For the purpose of this study field observations, sampling, and digging profiles were done. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Nanxiong Basin badland lithologies were determined by XRD, XRF and thin sections. Weathering resistance, process of weathering, and disintegration features were studied by weathering experiments under natural conditions. Weathering profiles can be easily divided into four layers: regolith, a strongly weathered layer, a poorly weathered layer, and an unweathered sediment. The depth of the weathering profile is influenced by the weathering resistance of the soft rock. Weathering resistance affects the erosion rate and evolution of landforms in badlands by influencing the rate from unweathered rock to regolith. Analyzed sediments have high content of illite and illite-smectite interstratifications. This composition of clay minerals together with poor sediment consolidation jointly leads to weathering prone sediment. The weathering and disintegration of soft rock in Nanxiong Basin badlands has a close relationship with rainfall. Sheet erosion, a kind of solid-liquid phase flow, formed in the regolith of the badland during rainfall events and can be the most instrumental to erosion. The mineral composition and liquidity plasticity index were also analyzed, and the results show that the regolith are low liquid limit silts with liquid limit of 21%-25%, plastic limit of 13%-18% and plasticity index

  18. Clouds and relative humidity in climate models; or what really regulates cloud cover?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walcek, C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The response and impact of clouds remains one of the largest outstanding questions in GCMs. Clouds are not homogeneous, though they are treated as such in the models. When averaged over areas typically used as numerical grid elements by GCMs, observations suggest that there are some clouds at all relative humidities. Fractional cloud cover at 100% relative humidity is rarely 100%, and totally clear skies rarely occur, even for low relative humidities. Relative humidity is the best single indicator of cloud coverage. However, if there is a relationship between cloud coverage and relative humidity, our current models and observations are inadequate to reveal exactly what that relationship is. It does appear that cloud coverage decreases exponentially as humidity falls below 100%. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Effect of humid air exposure on photoemissive and structural properties of KBr thin film photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Rai, R; Ghosh, N; Singh, B K

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of water molecule absorption on photoemissive and structural properties of potassium bromide (KBr) thin film photocathode under humid air exposure at relative humidity (RH) 65%. It is evident from photoemission measurement that the photoelectron yield of KBr photocathode is degraded exponentially with humid air exposed time. Structural studies of the "as-deposited" and "humid air aged" films reveal that there is no effect of RH on film's crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure. However, the average crystallite size of "humid air exposed film" KBr film has been increased as compared to "as-deposited". In addition, topographical properties of KBr film are also examined by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) and it is observed that granular characteristic of film has been altered, even for short exposure to humid air.

  20. Understanding decreases in land relative humidity with global warming: conceptual model and GCM simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Climate models simulate a strong land-ocean contrast in the response of near-surface relative humidity to global warming: relative humidity tends to increase slightly over oceans but decrease substantially over land. Surface energy balance arguments have been used to understand the response over ocean but are difficult to apply over more complex land surfaces. Here, a conceptual box model is introduced, involving moisture transport between the land and ocean boundary layers and evapotranspiration, to investigate the decreases in land relative humidity as the climate warms. The box model is applied to idealized and full-complexity (CMIP5) general circulation model simulations, and it is found to capture many of the features of the simulated changes in land relative humidity. The box model suggests there is a strong link between fractional changes in specific humidity over land and ocean, and the greater warming over land than ocean then implies a decrease in land relative humidity. Evapotranspiration is of sec...

  1. Development of La3+ Doped CeO2 Thick Film Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensitive characteristics of the sensor fabricated from 10 mol% La2O3 doped CeO2 nanopowders with particle size 17.26 nm synthesized via hydrothermal method were investigated at different frequencies. It was found that the sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response-recovery characteristics, and narrow hysteresis loop at 100 Hz in the relative humidity range from 11% to 95%. The impedance of the sensor decreases by about five orders of magnitude as relative humidity increases. The maximum humidity hysteresis is about 6% RH, and the response and recovery time is 12 and 13 s, respectively. These results indicate that the nanosized La2O3 doped CeO2 powder has potential application as high-performance humidity sensor.

  2. Retrieval of Layer Averaged Relative Humidity Profiles from MHS Observations over Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Gangwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the retrieval of the atmospheric layer averaged relative humidity profiles using data from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS onboard the MetOp satellite. The retrieval has been innovatively performed by firstly retrieving humidity for pairs of thick overlapping layers (TOLs used subsequently to derive humidity for associated thin isolated layer (TIL. A water vapour dependent (WVD algorithm has been developed and applied to infer the humidity of TOLs. Thus, the retrieved profiles have been finally compared with standard algorithm (NORM. These algorithms have been developed based on radiative transfer simulations and study of sensitivities of MHS channels on humidity of various types of layers (TOL, TIL. The algorithm has been tested with MHS data and validated using concurrent radiosonde as well as NCEP reanalysis data indicating profile errors of ~15% and ~19%, respectively.

  3. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  4. Density of loose-fill insulation material exposed to cyclic humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a climate that is characterised as cyclic humidity conditions (a constant temperature and a relative humidity alternating between two predetermined constant relative humidity levels). A better understanding of the behaviour of granulated loose-fill material...... is provided and a standardised method is proposed. This enables control of the settling and prediction of densities necessary to prevent settling. The Nordtest, Organisation for Testing in Scandinavia funded the Nordtest Projekt 1623-03....

  5. A NOVEL RESISTIVE HUMIDITY SENSOR BASED ON SODIUM POLYSTYRENESULFONATE/TiO2 NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Mu-jie Yang; Yong She

    2002-01-01

    A resistive humidity sensor was prepared based on sodium polystyrenesulfonate (NaPSS)/TiO2 nanocomposites,and its electrical response to humidity was examined. The sensor exhibits better linearity, smaller hysteresis (< 4% RH) and quicker response (absorption: less than 2 s; desorption: less than 20 s) in comparison with sensor composed of NaPSS. The effect of concentration of NaPSS and TiO2 on humidity response of sensors was discussed.

  6. A New Humidity-Sensitive Material Based on PPBT Prepared with Palladium Complex Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Soluble Poly(propargyl benzoate) (PPBT) with p -conjugated structure was synthesized using a novel bis(triphenylphosphine)-bisacetylide palladium complex catalyst [Pd(PPh3)2(Co CCH2OOCPh)2] (PPB). An interdigital gold electrode was covered by screen printing films of doped PPBT (DPPBT) to prepare a resistance-type humidity sensor, which exhibits electrical response towards relative humidity (RH%) variations in the range 11%-96%. PPBT shows promise as a new humidity-sensitive material.

  7. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... emission of wall paint and floor varnish did increase significantly with increasing air humidity....

  8. Desiccation Stress and the Effect of Humidity in Mosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Arinola FAJUKE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosses show fair degree of structural adaptations to different environmental conditions. The effects caused by desiccation were determined in the shoots of six moss species, collected from various locations of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife campus, Osun State, Nigeria. Using 0.1 g of fresh weights, desiccation of moss species over time at 0%, 52%, and 100% relative humidity, were determined by putting the shoots into desiccators and reweighing at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and on the 8th day. It was concluded that the locations of the moss species, and the fact that the cell walls of all the mosses were thick, were regarded as the adaptations which helped these mosses survived desiccation stress.

  9. Optical sensor for measuring humidity, strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical sensor (100) adapted to measure at least three physical parameters, said optical sensor comprising a polymer-based optical waveguide structure comprising a first Bragg grating structure (101) being adapted to provide information about a first, a second...... and a third physical parameter, a second Bragg grating structure (102) being adapted to provide information about the second and the third physical parameter only, and a third Bragg grating structure (103) being adapted to provide information about the third physical parameter only. The invention further...... relates to a method for measuring the first, the second and the third physical parameter. Preferably, the first, the second and the third physical parameter, are humidity, strain and temperature, respectively....

  10. Humidity Sensing Properties of Surface Modified Polyaniline Metal Oxide Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline- (PANI praseodymium Oxide (Pr2O3 composites have been synthesized by in situ polymerization method with different weight percentages. The synthesized composites have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The temperature dependent conductivity shows that the conductivity is due to the hopping of polarons and bipolarons. These composites show negative thermal coefficient (α behavior as a function of temperature, which is characteristic behavior of semiconducting materials. Sensor studies have been carried out by two-probe method and found that the sensitivity increases with increase in % RH. It is noticed that stability increase is due to the presence of Pr2O3 in polyaniline up to 30 wt%. A fast recovery and response time along with high sensitivity make these composites suitable for humidity sensors.

  11. The temperature and humidity monitoring system for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, Miriam [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector to be constructed at FAIR consists of lead tungstate (PWO) crystals, which have a temperature dependent light yield. To achieve the design energy resolution, the EMC must be operated at -25 {sup circle} C, where temperature fluctuations of at most 0.1 {sup circle} C are acceptable. This results in high demands on the precision and resolution of the temperature monitoring. Ultra-thin platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are needed to measure the temperature in the densely packed EMC. The RTDs are read out by the temperature and humidity monitoring system for PANDA (THMP). Both have been developed at Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum. Not only the RTDs, but also the readout electronics has to be calibrated individually to suffice the high demands. Both, the calibration procedure and improvements in the electronic read out system are presented.

  12. Superhydrophobic paper with superior stability against deformations and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Pan, Sai; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Superhydrophobic coatings on paper were achieved by means of incorporating micro-nano hierarchical topography, where the water droplet was repelled and rested in a spherical shape. A silica sol, which was prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) as co-precursor, was poured on the paper to form a superhydrophobic surface. The coating was fluorine-free, environmentally friend, and could be easily fabricated on different kinds of papers. Besides, the transmittance of prepared coating reached up to 92% in visible light range, and the words on treated paper showed a good visualization. Moreover, the treated paper showed superior mechanical durability against 100 times of deformation, remarkable stability towards both the acidic and basic solutions. The treated paper could withstand 70 cycles of water condensation test (from 60 °C, 90% relative humidity to 10 °C) without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting a long-term protection for paper.

  13. The glass transition process in humid biopolymers. DSC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunina, N A; Belopolskaya, T V; Tsereteli, G I [V.A. Fock Research Institute for Physics of Saint-Petersburg State University, 198504, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    Thermal properties of native and denatured biopolymers with quite different chemical and steric structure (globular and fibrillar proteins, DNA, starches) were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations of water. It was shown that both native and denatured humid biopolymers are glassy systems. The glass transition temperature of these systems strongly depends on percentage of water, with water being simultaneously an intrinsic element of systems' ordered structure and a plasticizer of its amorphous state. On the base of the absolute values of heat capacities for biopolymer-water systems as a whole, heat capacities for biopolymers themselves were calculated as functions on water concentration at fixed temperatures. The S-shaped change of heat capacity observed on diagrams of state both for native and denatured biopolymers is the manifestation of biopolymers' passing through the vitrification region, as it occurs for denatured samples at heating.

  14. Conductivity at Low Humidity of Materials Derived from Ferroxane Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lapina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylic-acid-stabilised γ-FeOOH particles (ferroxanes are synthesized using a precipitation from aqueous solution, and a following reaction with acetic acid. The materials produced with these powders are investigated by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and impedance spectroscopy. Conductivity of both sintered and unsintered materials decreases strongly with a decrease in water partial pressure in the atmosphere during the test. The highest conductivity (7·10−3 S cm−1 is measured in air (pH2O = 0.037 atm at room temperature on sintered material. The conductivity values are compared with other works in the literature and the dependence of conductivity on surface area and pore size is discussed. It is suggested that both unsintered and sintered materials act as proton conductors at room temperature under moderate humidity conditions.

  15. D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-15

    This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

  16. Tropical upper tropospheric humidity variations due to potential vorticity intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Four cases (March 2009, May 2009, April 2010 and February 2012) are presented in which the ERA-interim relative humidity (RH) shows consistent increase by more than 50 % in the upper troposphere (200-250 hPa) over tropics at the eastward side of the potential vorticity (PV) intrusion region. The increase in RH is confirmed with the spaceborne microwave limb sounder observations and radiosonde observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and is observed irrespective of whether the PV intrusions are accompanied by deep convection or not. It is demonstrated that the increase in RH is due to poleward advection induced by the PV intrusions in their eastward side at the upper tropospheric heights. It is suggested that the low-latitude convection, which is not necessarily triggered by the PV intrusion, might have transported water vapour to the upper tropospheric heights.

  17. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Zhang; Cheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index) is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5%of the annual precipitation.

  18. Land Degradation Processes in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Tebebu, Tigist; Belachew, Meseret; Langendoen, Eddy; Giri, Shree; Tilahun, Seifu

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation after forest clearing forces a distinct pattern on agricultural production starting with high yields just after clearing to poor productivity or even abandonment after 30-40 years. In the humid Ethiopian highlands forest soils have initial a high organic matter content that decreases with time after clearing. When the organic matter becomes less than 3%, aggregates break up, other cementing elements are being leached out and the texture becomes finer. Since settling velocity in water is related to particle size, the finer soil increases sediment concentration in the infiltration water and hardpan formation accelerates restricting deep percolation of water. This in turn affect the hydrology in which an excess water flows more rapidly as lateral flow to valley bottoms which become wetter with gully formation starting to transmit the additional water down slope approximately 10 years after the initial clearing. This degradation pattern occurs in all soils in the Ethiopian highlands, but the severity varies with climate and parent material. Although we do not yet understand to what degree these factors influence the degradation pattern, it is important to recognize the process because it directly affects the effectiveness of imposed management practices. In this presentation, we will highlight the degradation process for two watersheds in the semi humid Ethiopian highlands. We will document how soil properties changes and discuss hardpan formation and gully development. In addition, we will consider the effect of presently implemented governmental sponsored conservation practices and alternative management practices that might be more beneficial. We are looking forward to discussions on combating the effect of soil degradation in tropical monsoonal regions.

  19. Single-Antenna Temperature- and Humidity-Sounding Microwave Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Pukala, David M.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Tanner, Alan B.; Bruneau, Peter J.; Johnson, Alan K.; Kagaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    For humidity and temperature sounding of Earth s atmosphere, a single-antenna/LNA (low-noise amplifier) is needed in place of two separate antennas for the two frequency bands. This results in significant mass and power savings for GeoSTAR that is comprised of hundreds of antennas per frequency channel. Furthermore, spatial anti-aliasing would reduce the number of horns. An anti-aliasing horn antenna will enable focusing the instrument field of view to the hurricane corridor by reducing spatial aliasing, and thus reduce the number of required horns by up to 50 percent. The single antenna/receiver assembly was designed and fabricated by a commercial vendor. The 118 183-GHz horn is based upon a profiled, smooth-wall design, and the OMT (orthomode transducer) on a quad-ridge design. At the input end, the OMT presents four ver y closely spaced ridges [0.0007 in. (18 m)]. The fabricated assembly contains a single horn antenna and low-noise broadband receiver front-end assembly for passive remote sensing of both temperature and humidity profiles in the Earth s atmosphere at 118 and 183 GHz. The wideband feed with dual polarization capability is the first broadband low noise MMIC receiver with the 118 to 183 GHz bandwidth. This technology will significantly reduce PATH/GeoSTAR mass and power while maintaining 90 percent of the measurement capabilities. This is required for a Mission-of-Opportunity on NOAA s GOES-R satellite now being developed, which in turn will make it possible to implement a Decadal-Survey mission for a fraction of the cost and much sooner than would otherwise be possible.

  20. Hydrologic Evaluation of a Humid Climate Poplar Phytoremediation Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K.; Rabideau, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    The emplacement of hybrid poplar trees to function as phytoremediation barriers is an appealing and sustainable groundwater management strategy because of low maintenance costs and the potential to extract large amounts of groundwater without pumping. While the effectiveness of poplar barriers has been assessed by groundwater quality monitoring, less attention has been given to physical hydrologic evaluations needed to improve barrier designs. In this research, a five year hydrologic evaluation was conducted at a poplar phytoremediation site in western NY, with the goal of quantifying ETg (evapotranspiration from groundwater) as a measure of the barrier's effectiveness in a humid climate. To consider transpiration from both vadose zone and groundwater, the hydrologic evaluation included four components: physical ET measurements, theoretical ET calculations, analysis of diurnal groundwater table fluctuations, and vadose zone modeling. The direct measurements of ETT (total) were obtained using sap flow meters installed on multiple trees within the barrier. These data were interpreted using a regression model that included theoretical ET calculations and site-specific measurements of weather parameters and poplar trunk area. Application of this model was challenged by the spatial variation in rooting depth as determined by tree excavations. To further quantify the removal of groundwater by the phytobarrier (ETg), the White Method was applied to interpret diurnal groundwater fluctuations from monitoring wells located within the barrier, in conjunction with a variably saturated-saturated flow model configured to confirm water extraction from ETg. Taken together, the results of this five year hydrologic evaluation highlight the complexity in quantifying humid climate groundwater extraction, as a large number of variables were found to influence these rates. Improved understanding of these controls will contribute to improved barrier designs that maximize ETg.

  1. Short term change in relative humidity during the festival of Diwali in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Nandita D.

    2015-07-01

    The changes in humidity levels during the Diwali festivities have been examined over a period of 13 years at three Indian metro cities: Ahmedabad, New Delhi and Kolkata. A small short term increase in relative humidity even in the absence of transport of humid air from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been observed. The relative humidity levels were found to be exceeding the ambient levels during night and lying below the ambient levels during morning hours, indicating an increase in the survival rates of viruses responsible for the transmission of viral infections, as well as triggering immune-mediated illnesses such as asthma during Diwali.

  2. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field effect devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BEHIYE BOYARBAY KANTAR; MUH˙ITT˙IN ÖZTÜRK; H˙IDAYET ÇET˙IN

    2017-02-01

    Recently, unknown-manner changes in charge neutrality point (CNP) positioning were ascribed to humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exactmeans of humidity interacting with hydrophobicgraphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene surfaces with surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS). SERS analysis shows that the lithographic-process-applied graphenedoes not have the same properties as those of pristine graphene. Furthermore, this study has experimentally investigated the effect of humidity on the transfer characteristics of GFET and proposed a model to explain the formationof asymmetric $I_{\\rm DS}–V_{\\rm bg}$ branches in accordance with the SERS results and humidity responses.

  3. System-in Package of Integrated Humidity Sensor Using CMOS-MEMS Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2015-10-01

    Temperature/humidity microchips with micropump were fabricated using a CMOS-MEMS process and combined with ZigBee modules to implement a sensor system in package (SIP) for a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) and/or a wireless communication system. The current of a diode temperature sensor to temperature and a normalized current of FET humidity sensor to relative humidity showed linear characteristics, respectively, and the use of the micropump has enabled a faster response. A wireless reception module using the same protocol as that in transmission systems processed the received data within 10 m and showed temperature and humidity values in the display.

  4. Humidity sensing properties of Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles synthesized via sonochemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Hamed; Ghanbari, Davood

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on humidity sensor based Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles. The sonochemical method was employed to prepare nanoparticles and impedance analysis was used to characterize sensitivity, response, and recovery time of the prepared sensor. The Ni(OH)2 sensor was found to have high sensitivity and fast response/recovery time to humidity, and its impedance changed approximately two orders of magnitude from about 2.01 MΩ in dry air 20% RH (relative humidity) to 0.0258 MΩ in 90% RH air. Our results demonstrate the potential application of Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles for fabricating high performance humidity sensors.

  5. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  6. Design of ispPAC-based Humidity Sensor Signal Processing Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duren Liu; Jin Liu; Zhichun Ren

    2006-01-01

    The widely used sensitive etements of humidity sensors can be divided into 3 types, i.e., resistor, capacitor, and electrolyte. Humidity sensors consisting of these sensitive elements have corresponding signal processing circuit unique to each type of sensitive elements. This paper presents an ispPAC (in-system programmable Programmable Analog Circuit)-based humidity sensor signal processing circuit designed with software method and implemented with in-system programmable simulators. Practical operation shows that humidity sensor signal processing circuits of this kind, exhibit stable and reliable performance.

  7. Retrofit device and method to improve humidity control of vapor compression cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Robert Paul; Hahn, David C.; Scaringe, Robert P.

    2016-08-16

    A method and device for improving moisture removal capacity of a vapor compression system is disclosed. The vapor compression system is started up with the evaporator blower initially set to a high speed. A relative humidity in a return air stream is measured with the evaporator blower operating at the high speed. If the measured humidity is above the predetermined high relative humidity value, the evaporator blower speed is reduced from the initially set high speed to the lowest possible speed. The device is a control board connected with the blower and uses a predetermined change in measured relative humidity to control the blower motor speed.

  8. Impact of Humidity on In Vitro Human Skin Permeation Experiments for Predicting In Vivo Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    In vitro skin permeation studies have been commonly conducted to predict in vivo permeability for the development of transdermal therapeutic systems (TTSs). We clarified the impact of humidity on in vitro human skin permeation of two TTSs having different breathability and then elucidated the predictability of in vivo permeability based on in vitro experimental data. Nicotinell(®) TTS(®) 20 and Frandol(®) tape 40mg were used as model TTSs in this study. The in vitro human skin permeation experiments were conducted under humidity levels similar to those used in clinical trials (approximately 50%) as well as under higher humidity levels (approximately 95%). The skin permeability values of drugs at 95% humidity were higher than those at 50% humidity. The time profiles of the human plasma concentrations after TTS application fitted well with the clinical data when predicted based on the in vitro permeation parameters at 50% humidity. On the other hand, those profiles predicted based on the parameters at 95% humidity were overestimated. The impact of humidity was higher for the more breathable TTS; Frandol(®) tape 40mg. These results show that in vitro human skin permeation experiments should be investigated under realistic clinical humidity levels especially for breathable TTSs.

  9. Effects of relative humidity on the characterization of a photochemical smog chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoshuo Hu; Yongfu Xu; Long Jia

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in many atmospheric chemical reactions.A self-made indoor environmental smog chamber was used to investigate the effects of relative humidity (RH) on its characterization,which included the wall effects of reactive species such as O3 and NOx,and the determination of chamber-dependent OH radicals in terms of CO-NOx irradiation experiments.Results showed that the rate constant of O3 wall losses increased with increasing RH,and that their relationship was linearly significant.Although RH affected the rate constant of NOx wall losses,their relationship was not statistically significant.Background air generated a small amount of ozone at both high and low RH.When RH varied from 5% to 79%,the apparent rate constant kNO2→HONO for the conversion of NO2 into gas phase HONO was estimated in the range of 0.70× 10-3-2.5× 10-3 min-1.A linear relationship between kNO2-HoNo and RH was obtained as kNO2-HONO (10-3 min-1) =-0.0255RH + 2.64,with R2 and P value being 0.978 and < 0.01.To our knowledge,this is the first report on their relationship.The generation mechanism for HONO and OH was also discussed in this work.

  10. A quantitative reconstruction of changes in relative humidity during the Younger Dryas in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, O.; Kahmen, A.; Brauer, A.; Sachse, D.

    2013-12-01

    Hydroclimatic changes have a profound effect on terrestrial ecosystems from regional to continental scales. However, past hydrological changes linked to abrupt climate shifts and their effect on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood due to the lack of direct quantitative hydrological reconstructions. In addition, most paleoclimate proxies record the environmental response to hydrological variations, such as vegetation changes inferred by changes in pollen abundance, rather than hydroclimatic change itself. Over the last decade hydrogen isotope ratios (δD value) of lipid biomarkers have emerged as a novel and direct hydrological proxy, since it aims to reconstruct the δD values of the water source used by photosynthetic organisms. However, the hydrogen isotope ratio of source water (such as precipitation) is an integrated signal of condensation temperature, moisture pathway, precipitation amount and evaporation. As such, it is difficult to separate a single parameter, for example relative humidity, required for a true quantitative interpretation. Here we present a novel approach to quantify changes in relative humidity (Δrh) based on the hydrogen isotope composition of terrestrial and aquatic n-alkanes. In this proof-of-concept study we generate a high-resolution Δrh record for the Younger Dryas period (YD) of Western Europe from Lake Meerfelder Maar, (MFM, Germany). We use aquatic macrophyte biomarker δD values as a recorder of lake water δD (aq), which represents an integrated annual precipitation signal, and terrestrial leaf wax n-alkane δD values (terr) as a record of leaf-water evapotranspiration. Therefore we consider the isotopic difference between δDterr and δDaq (ɛterr-aq) as a measure of mean leaf water enrichment (ΔL), which is mainly controlled by relative humidity and temperature. By employing a modified and parameterized Craig-Gordon leaf-water model we are able to extract past changes in relative humidity from a sedimentary record

  11. Characteristics of Arctic low-tropospheric humidity inversions based on radio soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nygård

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Humidity inversions have a high potential importance in the Arctic climate system, especially for cloud formation and maintenance, in wide spatial and temporal scales. Here we investigate the climatology and characteristics of humidity inversions in the Arctic, including their spatial and temporal variability, sensitivity to the methodology applied and differences from the Antarctic humidity inversions. The study is based on data of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA from 36 Arctic stations between the years 2000–2009. The results indicate that humidity inversions are nearly all the time present on multiple levels in the Arctic atmosphere. Almost half (48% of the humidity inversions were found at least partly within the same vertical layer with temperature inversions, whereas the existence of the other half may, at least partly, be linked to uneven vertical distribution of horizontal moisture transport. A high atmospheric surface pressure was found to increase the humidity inversion occurrence, whereas relationships between humidity inversion properties and cloud cover were generally relatively weak, although for some inversion properties systematic. The statistics of Arctic humidity inversion properties, especially inversion strength, depth and base height, proved to be very sensitive to the instruments and methodology applied. For example, the median strength of the strongest inversion in a profile was twice as large as the median of all Arctic inversions. The most striking difference between the Arctic and Antarctic humidity inversions was the much larger range of the seasonal cycle of inversion properties in the Arctic. Our results offer a baseline for validation of weather prediction and climate models and also encourage for further studies on humidity inversions due to the vital, but so far poorly understood, role of humidity inversions in Arctic cloud processes.

  12. The anthropogenic influence on heat and humidity in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda Diaz, H. A.; O'Brien, T. A.; Stone, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Heatwaves, and extreme temperatures in general, have a wide range of negative impacts on society, and particularly on human health. In addition to temperature, humidity plays a key role in regulating human body temperature, with higher humidities tending to reduce the effectiveness of perspiration. There is recent theoretical and observational evidence that co-occurring extreme heat and humidity can potentially have a much more dramatic impact on human health than either extreme in isolation. There is an abundance of observational evidence indicating that anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have contributed to an increase in the intensity and frequency of temperature extremes on a global scale. However, aside from purely thermodynamically-driven increases in near-surface humidity, there is a paucity of similar evidence for anthropogenic impacts on humidity. Thermodynamic scaling would suggest that air masses originating from the ocean would be associated with higher specific humidity in a warmer world, and transpiration from irrigated crops could further increase humidity in warm air masses. In order to explore the role of anthropogenic GHG forcing on the co-occurrence of temperature and humidity extremes in the Midwestern United States (US), we evaluate a large ensemble of global climate model simulations with and without anthropogenic GHG forcing. In particular, we examine differences between the probability distributions of near-surface temperature, humidity, wet-bulb temperature, and the joint distribution of temperature and humidity in this ensemble. Finally, we explore augmenting this experimental framework with additional simulations to explore the role of anthropogenic changes in the land surface, and in particular irrigated crops, on co-occurring extreme heat and humidity.

  13. Adjustment of web-building initiation to high humidity: a constraint by humidity-dependent thread stickiness in the spider Cyrtarachne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuki G.; Kusahara, Miki; Maezono, Yasunori; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    Cyrtarachne is an orb-weaving spider belonging to the subfamily Cyrtarachninae (Araneidae) which includes triangular-web-building Pasilobus and bolas spiders. The Cyrtarachninae is a group of spiders specialized in catching moths, which is thought to have evolved from ordinary orb-weaving araneids. Although the web-building time of nocturnal spiders is in general related to the time of sunset, anecdotal evidence has suggested variability of web-building time in Cyrtarachne and its closely related genera. This study has examined the effects of temperature, humidity, moonlight intensity, and prey (moths) availability on web-building time of Cyrtarachne bufo, Cyrtarachne akirai, and Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) have revealed that humidity, and not prey availability, was the essential variable that explained the daily variability of web-building time. Experiments measuring thread stickiness under different humidities showed that, although the thread of Cyrtarachne was found to have strong stickiness under high humidity, low humidity caused a marked decrease of thread stickiness. By contrast, no obvious change in stickiness was seen in an ordinary orb-weaving spider, Larinia argiopiformis. These findings suggest that Cyrtarachne adjusts its web-building time to favorable conditions of high humidity maintaining strong stickiness, which enables the threads to work efficiently for capturing prey.

  14. Maneuvering the Internal Porosity and Surface Morphology of Electrospun Polystyrene Yarns by Controlling the Solvent and Relative Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a simple and reliable method for generating polystyrene (PS) yarns composed of bundles of nanofibrils by using a proper combination of solvent and relative humidity. We elucidated the mechanism responsible for the formation of this new morphology by systematically investigating the molecular interactions among the polymer, solvent(s), and water vapor. We demonstrated that vapor-induced phase separation played a pivotal role in generating the yarns with a unique structure. Furthermore, we discovered that the low vapor pressure of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was critical to the evolution of pores in the interiors. On the contrary, the relatively high vapor pressure of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hindered the formation of interior pores but excelled in creating a rough surface. In all cases, our results clearly indicate that the formation of either internal porosity or surface roughness required the presence of water vapor, a nonsolvent of the polymer, at a proper level of relative humidity. The exact morphology or pore structure was dependent on the speed of evaporation for the solvent(s) (DMF, THF, and their mixtures), as well as the inter-diffusion and penetration of the nonsolvent (water) and solvent(s). Our findings can serve as guidelines for the preparation of fibers with desired porosity both internally and externally through electrospinning. PMID:23530752

  15. Effect of relative humidity on lipid oxidation in freezedried emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinachoti, P.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stability was studied in a freeze-dried emulsion consisting of linoleic acid (LA, Tween-20, sucrose and maltodextrin in the presence of a catalyst (FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Changes in residual LA and conjugated dienes as a function of time were monitored at 0, 32, 43 and 75% relative humidities (RH. Based on GC analyses, LA oxidation was more significant in the surface fraction than the entrapped. The loss of surface oil upon storage may also be due to partial entrapment. However faster oxidation of the surface oil was confirmed by measurement of diene conjugation. Oxidation was more rapid at the lower relative humidities (0 and 32% RH and decreased with increasing RH. At high moisture, physical modifications in the sample were observed, including reduced porosity, structural collapse, reduction of the surface oil and coalescence of oil droplets triggered by sucrose crystallization. These may be responsible for the decreased oxidation. Sucrose crystallization at the higher humidities inhibited oxidation. In addition, while samples with similar glass transition temperature (Tg range behaved differently, samples with different glass transition range showed similar oxidative behaviour. Microstructural changes leading to oil entrapment and oil droplet coalescence were found to be significant, in this case.Se ha estudiado la estabilidad oxidativa en una emulsión liofilizada compuesta de ácido linoleico (LA, Tween-20, sacarosa y maltodextrina en presencia de un catalizador (FeSO4/ácido ascórbico. Los cambios en ácido linoleico remanente (LA y dienos conjugados en función del tiempo fueron monitorizados a humedades relativas (RH del 0, 32, 43 y 75%. Basado en análisis por cromatografía gaseosa, la oxidación de LA fue más significativa en la fracción superficial que en la encapsulada. La pérdida de aceite superficial con el almacenamiento puede deberse también al encapsulado parcial. Sin embargo, la más rápida oxidación del aceite

  16. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving

  17. Abiotic Controls on Macroscale Variations of Humid Tropical Forest Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation of tropical forest tree height is a key indicator of ecological processes associated with forest growth and carbon dynamics. Here we examine the macroscale variations of tree height of humid tropical forests across three continents and quantify the climate and edaphic controls on these variations. Forest tree heights are systematically sampled across global humid tropical forests with more than 2.5 million measurements from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS satellite observations (2004–2008. We used top canopy height (TCH of GLAS footprints to grid the statistical mean and variance and the 90 percentile height of samples at 0.5 degrees to capture the regional variability of average and large trees globally. We used the spatial regression method (spatial eigenvector mapping-SEVM to evaluate the contributions of climate, soil and topography in explaining and predicting the regional variations of forest height. Statistical models suggest that climate, soil, topography, and spatial contextual information together can explain more than 60% of the observed forest height variation, while climate and soil jointly explain 30% of the height variations. Soil basics, including physical compositions such as clay and sand contents, chemical properties such as PH values and cation-exchange capacity, as well as biological variables such as the depth of organic matter, all present independent but statistically significant relationships to forest height across three continents. We found significant relations between the precipitation and tree height with shorter trees on the average in areas of higher annual water stress, and large trees occurring in areas with low stress and higher annual precipitation but with significant differences across the continents. Our results confirm other landscape and regional studies by showing that soil fertility, topography and climate may jointly control a significant variation of forest height and

  18. Humidity Effect and Its Influence on the Seasonal Distribution of Precipitation δ18O in Monsoon Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinping; LIU Jingmiao; HE Yuanqing; TIAN Lide; YAO Tandong

    2005-01-01

    rainfall, small △Td and weak evaporation enrichment function of stable isotopes in thefalling raindrops, under the influence of vapor from the oceans; but they are relatively higher because of the dry air, light rainfall, great △Td and strong evaporation enrichment function in falling raindrops, under the control of the continental air mass. Therefore, the δ18O in precipitation at Kunming can be used to indicate the humidity situation in the atmosphere to a certain degree, and thus indicate the intensity of the precipitation and the strength of the monsoon indirectly. The humidity effect changes not only the magnitude of the stable isotopic ratio in precipitation but also its seasonal distribution due to its influence on the strength of the evaporation enrichment of stable isotopes in falling raindrops and the direction of the net mass transfer of stable isotopes between the atmosphere and the raindrops. Consequently, it is inferred that the humidity effect is probably one of the foremost causes generating the amount effect.

  19. Synthesis and Humidity Sensing Properties of Sn-Doped Nano-TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raji

    2011-01-01

    30%–97% in a self-designed humidity chamber, and the results revealed that the sensitivity factor increased with an increase in tin molar ratio. Among them, TiO2—20 wt% of SnO2 possessed the highest humidity sensitivity, while the pure TiO2 and SnO2 composite possessed a low sensitivity.

  20. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-01-09

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing properties. Here, it is demonstrated that multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)- and reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO)-based conductive films have opposite humidity/electrical resistance responses: MWCNTs increase their electrical resistance (positive response) and rGOs decrease their electrical resistance (negative response). The authors propose a new phenomenology that describes a

  1. The impact of relative humidity and atmospheric pressure on mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chun Quan; Yang, Jun; Ou, Qiao Qun; Liu, Hua Zhang; Lin, Guo Zhen; Chen, Ping Yan; Qian, Jun; Guo, Yu Ming

    2014-12-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of ambient temperatures on mortality, little evidence is on health impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. This study aimed to assess the impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity on mortality in Guangzhou, China. This study included 213,737 registered deaths during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the effects of atmospheric pressure/relative humidity. We found significant effect of low atmospheric pressure/relative humidity on mortality. There was a 1.79% (95% confidence interval: 0.38%-3.22%) increase in non-accidental mortality and a 2.27% (0.07%-4.51%) increase in cardiovascular mortality comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of atmospheric pressure. A 3.97% (0.67%-7.39%) increase in cardiovascular mortality was also observed comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of relative humidity. Women were more vulnerable to decrease in atmospheric pressure and relative humidity than men. Age and education attainment were also potential effect modifiers. Furthermore, low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity increased temperature-related mortality. Both low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are important risk factors of mortality. Our findings would be helpful to develop health risk assessment and climate policy interventions that would better protect vulnerable subgroups of the population. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670... may correct NOX emissions for the effects of intake-air humidity or temperature. Use the NOX...

  3. Polymer Optical Fibre Bragg Grating Humidity Sensor at 100ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated a polymer optical fibre Bragg grating humidity sensor that can be operated up to 100ºC. The sensor has been fabricated from a polycarbonate (PC) microstructured polymer optical fibre Bragg grating (mPOFBG). PC mPOFBG gave a relative humidity (RH) sensitivity of 6.95±0.83 pm...

  4. Sealed Attics Exposed to Two Years of Weathering in a Hot and Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Railkar, Sudhir [GAF; Shiao, Ming C [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Field studies in a hot, humid climate were conducted to investigate the thermal and hygrothermal performance of ventilated attics and non-ventilated semi-conditioned attics sealed with open-cell and with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation. Moisture pin measurements made in the sheathing and absolute humidity sensor data from inside the foam and from the attic air show that moisture is being stored in the foam. The moisture in the foam diffuses to and from the sheathing dependent on the pressure gradient at the foam-sheathing interface which is driven by the irradiance and night-sky radiation. Ventilated attics in the same hot, humid climate showed less moisture movement in the sheathing than those sealed with either open- or closed-cell spray foam. In the ventilated attics the relative humidity drops as the attic air warms; however, the opposite was observed in the sealed attics. Peaks in measured relative humidity in excess of 80 90% and occasionally near saturation (i.e., 100%) were observed from solar noon till about 8 PM on hot, humid days. The conditioned space of the test facility is heated and cooled by an air-to-air heat pump. Therefore the partial pressure of the indoor air during peak irradiance is almost always less than that observed in the sealed attics. Field data will be presented to bring to light the critical humidity control issues in sealed attics exposed to hot, humid climates.

  5. Complete protection of sodium valproate from humidity by using a hydrotalcite composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Akasaka, Hiroko; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo

    2009-01-01

    Complete protection of sodium valproate from humidity was successfully accomplished by intercalation into a hydrotalcite-like compound. The obtained hybrid of sodium valproate and the hydrotalcite-like compound was stable and not at all hygroscopic. Even under a relative humidity of 97%, the adsorbed amount of water was less than 0.5%.

  6. Effect of Three-Dimensional Printed Personalized Moisture Chamber Spectacles on the Periocular Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Hee Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the effect of three-dimensional (3D printed personalized moisture chamber spectacles (PMCS on the periocular humidity. Methods. Facial computed tomography (CT scanning was conducted on 10 normal subjects. PMCS was designed based on volume rendered CT images and produced using a 3D printer. Periocular humidity of PMCS and commercially available uniformed moisture chamber spectacles (UMCS were measured for 30 minutes via microhydrometer. Results. The mean ambient humidity was 15.76±1.18%. The mean periocular humidity was 52.14±3.00% in PMCS and 37.67±8.97% in UMCS. The difference was significant (P<0.001. Additionally, PMCS always demonstrated lower humidity than dew points. Conclusion. PMCS made by 3D printer provides appropriate fitness for the semiclosed humid chamber. PMCS showed higher performance than UMCS. The wearing of PMCS would be an effective method to provide high enough periocular humidity in low humidity environment.

  7. Using the scanning probe microscope to measure the effect of relative humidity on sample stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J. M.; Huson, M. G.

    2002-10-01

    The ability to manipulate environmental conditions while obtaining nanoscale information about a sample is invaluable. The current article describes the construction and use of a chamber to control the relative humidity while using the scanning probe microscope (SPM) to monitor changes in sample stiffness. Although the experimental setup described is simple, this work shows that the complex relationship between temperature and relative humidity needs to be fully understood for successful operation of the apparatus. In TappingMode™, increases in relative humidity caused the free amplitude of the oscillating cantilever to decrease. Force-distance measurements taken on glass, however, showed no changes in detector sensitivity, suggesting that force-distance mode could be used to measure changes sample stiffness as a function of relative humidity. Using the SPM in force-distance mode, three moisture-sensitive materials (gelatine, wool fibers, and cotton fibers), were examined as the relative humidity was gradually increased from ambient conditions to just under 100%. The results showed that each of the materials softened as the humidity increased and that the experiments were reproducible. From the data, it was estimated that gelatine passed through a glass transition at about 86% relative humidity at room temperature. Wool passed through a glass transition at about 85% relative humidity, which is consistent with previous findings.

  8. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  9. Surface-type humidity sensor based on cellulose-PEPC for telemetry systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kh. S. Karimov; M.Saleem; T. A. Qasuria; M. Farooq

    2011-01-01

    Au/cellulose-PEPC/Au surface-type humidity sensors were fabricated by drop-casting cellulose and poly-N-epoxypropylcarbazole (PEPC) blend thin films. A blend of 2wt% of each cellulose and PEPC in benzol was used for the deposition of humidity sensing films. Blend films were deposited on glass substrates with preliminary deposited surface-type gold electrodes. Films of different thicknesses of cellulose and PEPC composite were deposited by drop-casting technique. A change in electrical resistance and capacitance of the fabricated devices was observed by increasing the relative humidity in the range of 0-95% RH. It was observed that the capacitances of the sensors increase, while their resistances decrease with increasing the relative humidity. The sensors were connected to op-amp square wave oscillators. It was observed that with increasing the relative humidity, the oscillator's frequencies were also increased in the range of 4.2-12.0 kHz for 65/μm thick film sample, 4.1-9.0 kHz for 88 μm thick film sample, and 4.2-9.0 kHz for 210 μm sample. Effects of film thickness on the oscillator's frequency with respect to humidity were also investigated. This polymer humidity sensor controlled oscillator can be used for short-range and long-range remote systems at environmental monitoring and assessment of the humidity level.

  10. Experimental study of humid air reverse diffusion combustion in a turbulent flow field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Bing; ZANG Shusheng; GU Xin

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the differences between the propane/air turbulent diffusion reactive flows past bluff-body and the propane/humid air turbulent diffusion reactive flows in the same conditions.The velocity distributions of the non-humid reactive flow fields and the humid reactive flow fields were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques.The temperature fields were measured by high temperature thermocouples,and NOx distributions were obtained by using gas detection instruments.The results show that although humid air reactive flow fields are similar to non-humid flow fields in general,there are some differences in the humid air combustion flow field comparing with the non-humid combustion flow field:the center of the reversed-flow region goes forward;the dimension of the reversed-flow region is smaller;the peak temperature and NOx formation are reduced.It is suggested that humid air combustion is helpful to shorten the axial length of combustors,and reduce the formation of pollutants.

  11. The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Susceptibility of Flour Beetles to Organophosphorus Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Chadha

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the temperature and humidity on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. to malathion and diazinon, has been investigated. It has been found that temperature significantly influences the susceptibility of T. castaneum to malathion though not to diazinon. Humidity, however, influences the susceptibility if the insect to both insecticides.

  12. Dynamics of adaptation of stomatal behaviour to moderate or high relative air humidity in Tradescantia virginiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Meeteren, van U.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used to measure stomatal closure in response to desiccation of Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown under high (90%) and moderate (55%) relative humidities (RHs), or transferred between these humidities. Stomata in leaves grown at high RH were less responsive to

  13. Development of Fiber-Optic Humidity Sensor Probe with Gelatin Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhiruddin Maddu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Humidity sensor based on optical fiber with gelatin cladding has been developed. In this humidity sensor probe, the origin cladding of optical fiber is replaced by gelatin coating as humidity sensitive cladding. Testing of the optical fiber sensor probe was conducted by measuring of light intensity transmitted on the optical fiber probe for each variation of different humidity treatments. Response of the optical fiber sensor probe measured from 42%RH to 99%RH, the results show an optical transmission curve varied with relative humidity (RH. Optical transmission in the optical fiber probe increase with RH value at a specific wavelength range, that is from green to red spectrum bands (500 nm - 700 nm, where a significant variation from 600 nm to 650 nm in yellow to red spectrum bands. Wavelength where is a maximum intensity of optical transmission occurs at 610 nm. Therefore, the optical fiber humidity sensor probe could response humidity form 42%RH to 99%RH with the best response in humidity range of 60%RH to 72%RH that is have a good  linearity and sensitivity

  14. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennafirme, Simone F., E-mail: sipennafirme@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Marinha; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: machado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles

  15. Relative humidity sensor based on SMS fiber structure using multimode coreless fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrani, Sanif; Hatta, Agus M.; Kusumawardhani, Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode (SMS) optical fiber structure using multimode coreless have been able to sense changes in relative humidity. In this experiment the measured humidity is 60 % -90 %, while the method is done by comparing the relative humidity changes with the change in output power in the optical fiber. Then the underlying phenomena is the change in the refractive index of air as the cladding MMF coreless due to changes in relative humidity. It has been done three length variations MMF coreless to add sensitivity sensor, and the obtained sensor by 22.30 mm MMF length have the greatest sensitivity, that is 0.0747 dBm / %. Obtained conclusions on length variation will cause any change in the sensitivity significantly in relative humidity between 75 % -80 %.

  16. Effect of Air Humidity on Sex Ratio and Development of Ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Nedvěd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Length of development of larvae and pupae of the invasive alien ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis, their survival rates, sex ratio, and fresh mass of the emerged adults were measured at three contrasting levels of relative air humidity: 30, 60, and 90%, 25°C and photoperiod 16L : 8D. Overall sex ratio was 51%, but there was a strong trend for higher proportion of males at low humidity and higher proportion of females at high humidity. Survival rate, larval developmental time, and adult mass were all differently influenced by air humidity depending on the food type. In individuals fed with aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum there was a trend for better survival, shorter development, and higher mass gained at higher humidity. These trends were opposite or nonsignificant in individuals fed with frozen eggs of moth Ephestia kuehniella.

  17. Warehouse multipoint temperature and humidity monitoring system design based on Kingview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yanghui; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Jingyun

    2017-04-01

    Storage is the key link of modern logistics. Warehouse environment monitoring is an important part of storage safety management. To meet the storage requirements of different materials, guarantee their quality in the greatest extent, which has great significance. In the warehouse environment monitoring, the most important parameters are air temperature and relative humidity. In this paper, a design of warehouse multipoint temperature and humidity monitoring system based on King view, which realizes the multipoint temperature and humidity data real-time acquisition, monitoring and storage in warehouse by using temperature and humidity sensor. Also, this paper will take the bulk grain warehouse as an example and based on the data collected in real-time monitoring, giving the corresponding expert advice that combined with the corresponding algorithm, providing theoretical guidance to control the temperature and humidity in grain warehouse.

  18. A high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shi-liang; Wang, Wen-juan; Hu, Chun-hai

    2014-12-01

    A novel high sensitivity humidity sensor based on micro-ring resonator with three coupling points (MRRTCP) is reported. Since the dielectric constant of Polyimide is highly sensible to the relative humidity of the environment, we choose the Polyimide (PI) as the moisture material. The effective refractive index of the sensing part of the sensor changes as the relative humidity of the environment changes, this leading to an obvious shift of the output spectrum. The sensing range of the relative humidity sensor is 0~100%RH, and the sensitivity is 0.0017μm/%RH, and the structure is relatively simple and could be used in micro-scale humidity sensing.

  19. Effects of humidity on sterilization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with plasma-excited neutral gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effects of relative humidity on the sterilization process using a plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals were separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas is nitrogen mixed with 0.1% oxygen, and the relative humidity in the source gas is controlled by changing the mixing ratio of water vapor. The relative humidity near the sample in the reactor chamber is controlled by changing the sample temperature. As a result, the relative humidity near the sample should be kept in the range from 60 to 90% for the sterilization of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When the relative humidity in the source gas increases from 30 to 90%, the sterilization effect is enhanced by the same degree.

  20. Humidity sensor base on the ZnO nanorods and fiber modal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Huan; Cao, Zhigang; Zhang, Xinyu; Yin, Chenchen; Li, Kang; Zhang, Guosheng; Yu, Benli

    2016-10-01

    A novel fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor is composed of a fiber Michelson modal interferometer (MMI) and the ZnO nanorods which grown on the fiber to improve the sensitivity of the sensor. Two standard single mode fibers are spliced to form the MMI, misaligned splicing program is used at the spliced point. Relative humidity sensing experiment shows that the intensity of interference spectrum changes linearly with relative humidity. With the relative humidity increasing in the range from 30% to 85%, the intensity of the dip in the interference spectrum linearly increases higher than 50%. The relative humidity response of the sensor is induced by the interference between core mode and cladding mode. The ZnO nanorods with high surface to volume ratio grown outside of the fiber cladding enhance the sensitivity of the sensor.

  1. Modeling validation and control analysis for controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jing-Nang; Lin, Tsung-Min; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14 °C, 0006 kg(w)/kg(da) in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  2. A Method to Measure Humidity Based on Dry-Bulb and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongping Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to analyze the theory of measuring humidity based on dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. And a theoretical formula is deduced for the calculation of relative humidity from dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Through analysis of the theoretical formula, a two-dimensional conversion table is produced to transform dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures into relative humidity. A method is proposed to obtain humidity by combining searching table and linear smoothing algorithm, which is suitable for rapid control. Error analysis and experimental data indicate that the relative error is less than 4%. The proposed method has certain value for humidity control in industrial control process.

  3. Analysis of building envelope insulation performance utilizing integrated temperature and humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Cheng-Jui; Chen, Shih-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building's envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity) within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics) is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC) combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors) for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM) that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF) to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS). This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  4. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  5. Composition and Humidity Response of the Black Widow Spider's Gumfoot Silk and its Implications on Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Zhang, Ci; Cool, Lydia Rose; Blackledge, Todd. A.; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Humidity plays an important part in the performance of biomaterials such as pollen, gecko toe, wheat awns, bird feathers and dragline silk. Capture silk produced by web building spiders form an interesting class of humidity responsive biological glues. The adhesive properties of the widely studied `viscid silk' produced by orbweb-weaving spiders is highly humidity sensitive. On the other hand, relatively less is known about the dependence of composition and humidity response towards adhesion for `gumfoot' silk produced by cobweb-weaving spiders. In the present study, we investigate the gumfoot silk produced by Black Widow using adhesion mechanics, microscopy and spectroscopic methods. The results show the presence of hygroscopic salts, glycoproteins and previously known spider coating peptides in silk and their importance in the humidity response and adhesion. The current study elucidates the role of constituents of capture silk in its adhesion mechanism and offers insights to novel ways for fabricating bio-inspired adhesives.

  6. Modeling Validation and Control Analysis for Controlled Temperature and Humidity of Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Nang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study constructs an energy based model of thermal system for controlled temperature and humidity air conditioning system, and introduces the influence of the mass flow rate, heater and humidifier for proposed control criteria to achieve the controlled temperature and humidity of air conditioning system. Then, the reliability of proposed thermal system model is established by both MATLAB dynamic simulation and the literature validation. Finally, the PID control strategy is applied for controlling the air mass flow rate, humidifying capacity, and heating, capacity. The simulation results show that the temperature and humidity are stable at 541 sec, the disturbance of temperature is only 0.14°C, 0006 kgw/kgda in steady-state error of humidity ratio, and the error rate is only 7.5%. The results prove that the proposed system is an effective controlled temperature and humidity of an air conditioning system.

  7. Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Shaman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent reanalysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here, we extend these findings to the human population level, showing that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions.

  8. Dielectric Properties of Capacitive-Type Humidity Sensor Made under Different Pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Xiao-hua Wang

    2006-01-01

    Capacitive humidity sensors were made of nanometer barium titanate. The pellets were prepared under different pressures between 3920N to 7850N force. The capacitance changes in three orders of magnitude in the relative humidity range of 10% ~ 98%, indicating high humidity sensitivity of the sensors. At a certain measuring frequency, the capacitance of the sensors increases as increasing of the preparation pressure, while the sensitivity of the sensors basically remains the same. The frequencies corresponding to the peaks of the dielectric loss of the sensors move to the higher frequency direction as increasing of the relative humidity. At a certain humidity, the frequencies corresponding to the peaks of the dielectric loss move to the higher frequency direction as increasing of the preparation pressure.

  9. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Wilhelm; Grooten, Mart; Wernaart, Twan; van der Geld, Cees

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0-12 m/s with an error of ± 0.13 m/s, temperature 0-100 °C with an error of ± 0.07 °C and relative humidity 0-100% with accuracy better than 2 % RH above 50 °C. Main advantage over conventional humidity sensors is the high sensitivity at high RH at temperatures exceeding 50 °C, with accuracy increasing with increasing temperature. The sensors are non-intrusive and resist highly humid environments.

  10. Experimental study of humidity distribution inside electronic enclosure and effect of internal heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion reliability of electronic products is a key factor for electronics industry, and today there is a large demand for performance reliability in a wide range of temperature and humidity during day and night time periods. Corrosion failures are still a challenge due to the combined effects...... of temperature, humidity and corrosion accelerating species in the atmosphere. Moreover the surface region of printed circuit board assemblies is often contaminated by various aggressive chemical species.This study describes the overall effect of the exposure to severe climate conditions and internal heat cycles...... on the humidity and temperature profile inside typical electronic enclosures. Defined parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, temperature and time of the internal heat cycle, thermal mass, and ports/openings size. The effect of the internal humidity on electronic reliability has been...

  11. Imaging the Spatial Evolution of Degradation in Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells After Exposure to Humid Air

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhaoning

    2017-09-14

    Monolithically integrated two-terminal perovskite/Si tandem solar cells promise to achieve high power conversion efficiency. However, there is a concern that the stability of the perovskite top cell will limit the long-term performance of tandem devices. To investigate the impact of perovskite cell degradation on the photocurrent generation and collection in the individual subcells, we employed light beam induced current mapping to spatially resolve the photocurrent under controlled humidity conditions. The evolution of the device behavior is consistent with the formation of an optically transparent hydrated perovskite phase that allows the bottom Si cell to continue to generate photocurrent at the probing wavelength (532 nm). Additional measurements were performed on perovskite thin films on glass substrates to verify the interpretation.

  12. 500 CFM portable exhauster temperature and humidity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIELICKI, B.E.

    1999-05-20

    500 cfm portable exhausters will be utilized on single shell tanks involved in saltwell pumping. This will be done, in part, to remove flammable gases from the tank vapor space. The exhaust filter train, fan, stack, and associated instrumentation and equipment are mounted on a portable skid. The design analysis and basis for the skid system design are documented in reference 1. A pumped drainage collection system is being added to the existing portable exhausters. Additional equipment and instrumentation are also being added to the exhausters, including a vacuum pump cabinet and a generic effluent monitoring system (GEMS). The GEMS will provide sampling and monitoring capabilities. The purpose of this analysis is three fold. First, to determine the maximum saltwell tank vapor space temperature. Second, to determine an allowable exhauster inlet air temperature increase to ensure the humidity is less than 70%. Third, to assess potential adverse temperature effects to the continuous air monitor (CAM) sample head. The results of this analysis will be used to ensure that air stream temperatures in the portable exhausters are increased sufficiently to prevent condensation from forming on either the pre or HEPA filters without adversely effecting the CAM.

  13. Impact of HVAC control improvements on supermarket humidity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattar, M.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitored data from two supermarkets where the impact of implementing minor HVAC control improvements was evaluated. The control improvements were intended to increase the dehumidification capacity of the HVAC system and lower space humidity levels. Direct digital control (DDC) was installed at each store to monitor system performance and implement the control improvements. At the first test store, a 33,400 ft{sup 2} (3,104 m{sup 2}) supermarket near Minneapolis, a conventional 50 ton (176 kW) split system conditioned the sales area. At the second store, a 50,000 ft{sup 2} (4,647 m{sup 2}{minus}) supermarket near Indianapolis, three rooftop units (RTUs) with a total capacity of 98 tons (344 kW) conditioned the store. The results from both supermarkets confirm the impact that supply airflow and part-load control of evaporator coil temperatures can have on dehumidification performance. Seemingly minor control adjustments can often have a big impact on the performance of supermarket HVAC systems. Even enhanced dehumidification technologies, such as heat pipe-assisted evaporator coils, can benefit from minor system tuning.

  14. Droplet pattern and condensation gradient around a humidity sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J; Narhe, R D; Beysens, D A; González-Viñas, W

    2014-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a water drop saturated with NaCl and the growth of pure water droplets in a breath figure pattern (BF) condensing around it. This salty drop acts as a humidity sink, inhibiting the BF inside a ring at a distance r=δ from the sink center and slowing down BF growth outside the ring. The initial salty drop is taken either from a salt-saturated solution (type I experiment) or by placing an NaCl crystal on the substrate (type II experiment). The results are similar, provided that the initial time for type II evolution is taken at the end of the crystal dissolution. The evolution of the salty drop radius R is deduced from the establishment of a three-dimensional hyperbolic concentration profile around the salty drop. This profile scales with r/δ. Accounting for the salt concentration decrease with salty drop growth, R is seen to grow as t5. In the region r>δ, water droplets nucleate and grow. The rate of evolution of the water droplets at constant r/δ can be used to determine the local water pressure. The corresponding data reasonably agree with a hyperbolic water vapor profile around the salty drop. These results can be applied to the growth of BF patterns to determine whether hyperbolic or linear water vapor profiles apply.

  15. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research & Development, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  16. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  17. Simulation of ventilated facades in hot and humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, M. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Alfred Getz vei 3, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Marques da Silva, F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia (LNEC), Civil Structures Department, Av. do Brasil 101, Lisboa (Portugal); Amato, A. [Davis Langdon Management Consulting, MidCity Place, 71 High Holborn, London WC1 V 6QS (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The Hong Kong climate is sub-tropical with hot and humid weather from May to September and temperate climate for the remaining 7 months period. A mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning (MVAC) system is usually operated to avoid the high temperatures resulting in high peak cooling loads. The facade design has a significant influence on the energy performance of office buildings. This work evaluates different ventilated facade designs in respect to energy savings. Thermal building simulations (TRNSYS) were linked to nodal airflow network simulations (COMIS) for detailed ventilated double-skin facade performance. In order to validate the model, simulations were carried out for an office building in Lisboa; the results were compared with measured data from the same building. The simulation results of surface and air temperatures show good agreement with the measurements. The results of the study can be used to reduce surface temperatures by using different materials for the roller blind that is positioned in the cavity of the double-skin facade. The results can further be used to reduce the high peak cooling loads during the summer period. This may result in significant energy savings and a reduction in the system's cooling capacity. It proved that a careful facade design can play an important role in highly glazed buildings and provides potential for energy efficiency. (author)

  18. Temperature and Humidity Control in Multi-Layered Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck Weon

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure a property of a multilayered fabric system by using heat energy and vapor flow in terms of thermodynamics. By observing change in the heat energy and vapor flow passing through the multilayered fabric system, this research is able to provide precise information about a property of individual fabric layer composing the multilayered fabric system. This new research idea originates from a concept that, when heat energy and vapor flow pass through the layer or membrane, the amount of the heat energy and vapor flow is changed in accordance with a function of the layer or membrane. In particular, the amount of the vapor flow is apparently changed according to the fabric or membranes' structure and material property in a given environmental condition. The research conducts an experiment by using 'the energy source,' which is newly and innovatively developed, measuring temperature and relative humidity in the multilayered system. Through experimental data, the research calculates the amount of heat energy flow in the microclimates and fabric by using Stefan Boltzmann equation, Newton's law of cooling, Fourier's law, and Clausius- Clapeyron Relation. The research explains what properties of the fabric layers influence the energy flow attributable to conduction in the multilayered system consisting individual layers. In addition, the research shows that it is possible to build an optimized multilayered system under a variety of environmental conditions.

  19. An inductive telemetric measurement system for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioli, D.; Sardini, E.; Serpelloni, M.

    2008-11-01

    In some specific applications, the measuring environment can have unsuitable characteristics for a correct electronic functioning; it is not possible to connect a sensitive element to the conditioning electronics by standard cables or by a radiofrequency link. A possible solution could be a contactless link with a passive sensor inside the measuring environment and a readout outside. This paper discusses the telemetric system consisting of two contactless coupled planar inductors. The two inductors form a coupled transformer in air, with the primary one connected to the measurement electronics and the secondary one working as the sensitive element. A polymer deposited on the secondary one is sensible to the humidity, and changes its dielectric permittivity causing a variation of the inductor parasitic capacitance. A conditioning electronics measures frequency resonances, while the system extracts the corresponding capacitance values, compensating the distance variation as well. The whole system has been tested in the laboratory, and several results have been reported. These show about 200 fF variation over 1.7 pF for a change of the RH between 60% and 90% at a constant temperature of 22 °C. Moreover, the measured data are compensated on distance variation changing from 15 mm up to 30 mm. The complete explanation of the whole measurement system is described here. The low cost of the sensors and conditioning electronics implies a high diffusion in many application fields, from food packages to automotive.

  20. Environmental dust effects on aluminum surfaces in humid air ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Hassan, Ghassan; Ali, Haider; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser

    2017-01-01

    Environmental dusts settle on surfaces and influence the performance of concentrated solar energy harvesting devices, such as aluminum troughs. The characteristics of environmental dust and the effects of mud formed from the dust particles as a result of water condensing in humid air conditions on an aluminum wafer surface are examined. The dissolution of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds in water condensate form a chemically active mud liquid with pH 8.2. Due to gravity, the mud liquid settles at the interface of the mud and the aluminum surface while forming locally scattered patches of liquid films. Once the mud liquid dries, adhesion work to remove the dry mud increases significantly. The mud liquid gives rise to the formation of pinholes and local pit sites on the aluminum surface. Morphological changes due to pit sites and residues of the dry mud on the aluminum surface lower the surface reflection after the removal of the dry mud from the surface. The characteristics of the aluminum surface can address the dust/mud-related limitations of reflective surfaces and may have implications for the reductions in the efficiencies of solar concentrated power systems. PMID:28378798

  1. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  2. Retrievals on Tropical small scale humidity variability from multi-channel microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhao; Zuidema, Paquita; Turner, David

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale atmospheric humidity structure is important to many atmospheric process studies. In the Tropics especially, convection is sensitive to small variations in humidity. High temporal-resolution humidity profiles and spatially-resolved humidity fields are valuable for understanding the relationship of convection to tropical humidity, such as at convectively-induced cold pools and as part of the shallow-to-deep cloud transition. Radiosondes can provide high resolution vertical profiles of temperature and humidity, but are relatively infrequent. Microwave radiometers (MWR) are able to profile and scan autonomously and output measurements frequently (~1 Hz). To date, few assessments of microwave humidity profiling in the Tropics have been undertaken. Löhnert et al. (2009) provide one evaluation for Darwin, Australia. We build on this using four months of data from the equatorial Indian Ocean, at Gan Island, collected from University of Miami's (UM) multi-channel radiometer during the Dynamics of Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign. Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Water Vapor Path (WVP) are physically retrieved using the MWR RETrieval (MWRRET) algorithm (Turner et al., 2007b), and humidity profiles in the tropics are retrieved using the Integrated Profiling Technique (Löhnert et al., 2004). Tropical temperature variability is weak and a climatological temperature profile is assumed, with humidity information drawn from five channels between 22 to 30 GHz. Scanning measurements were coordinated with the scanning pattern of NCAR's S-Pol-Ka radar. An analysis of the humidity information content gathered from both the profiling and scanning measurements will be presented.

  3. Effects of eggshell cuticle removal and incubation humidity on embryonic development and hatchability of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, E D; Brake, J; Gildersleeve, R P

    1987-05-01

    The effects of eggshell cuticle removal and two levels of incubation humidity 28.3 C [50% relative humidity (RH)] and 30.0 C (55% RH) wetbulb temperature (WB) on embryonic mortality and hatchability were determined from broiler hatching eggs laid during 38, 42, 48, and 54 weeks of age. Variables measured were: egg weight loss during the first 17 days of incubation, hatch at Days 19.5 and 20.5 of incubation, hatch of fertile eggs, stage of embryonic mortality, and chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. Day 0 to 17 percentage egg weight loss was increased when the incubation humidity was lowered and the loss was greater than that observed after cuticle removal. A greater percentage of chicks hatched on Day 19.5 at 28.3 C than at 30.0 C WB. The percentage hatch of 38-week fertile eggs was improved at the higher humidity; the higher humidity also decreased late dead and increased pipped embryonic mortalities. Cuticle removal decreased early dead and increased late dead mortality. At Week 38 cuticle removal and lower humidity resulted in a decrease in chick weight at 21.5 days of incubation. For Weeks 42, 48, and 54 combined, pipped mortality was increased by higher humidity and late dead mortality was increased by cuticle removal. Water loss from the egg was increased by cuticle removal or by lowering incubation humidity from 30.0 C to 28.3 C WB, or by both, but lowering humidity was more effective. Changes in humidity and cuticle removal may affect vital gas exchange to different degrees.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Some Techniques for the Objective Analysis of Humidity for Regional Scale Numerical Weather Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert Gary

    Several topics relating to the objective analysis of humidity for regional scale numerical weather prediction are investigated. These include: (1) sampling the humidity field; (2) choosing an analysis scheme; (3) choosing an analysis variable; (4) using surface data to diagnose upper -air humidity (SFC-DIAG); (5) using cloud analysis data to diagnose surface and upper-air humidities (3DNEPH-DIAG); and (6) modeling the humidity lateral autocorrelation function. Regression equations for the diagnosed humidities and several correlation models are developed and validated. Four types of data are used in a preliminary demonstration: observations (radiosonde and surface), SFC-DIAG data, 3DNEPH-DIAG data, and forecast data from the Drexel/NCAR Limited-Area and Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS). The major conclusions are: (1) independent samples of relative humidity can be obtained by sampling at intervals of two days and 1750 km, on the average; (2) Gandin's optimum interpolation (OI) is preferable to Cressman's successive correction and Panofsky's surface fitting schemes; (3) relative humidity (RH) is a better analysis variable than dew-point depression; (4) RH*, the square root of (1-RH), is better than RH; (5) both surface and cloud analysis data can be used to diagnose the upper-air humidity; (6) pooling dense data prior to OI analysis can improve the quality of the analysis and reduce its computational burden; (7) iteratively pooling data is economical; (8) for the types of data considered, use of more than about eight data in an OI point analysis cannot be justified by expectations of further reducing the analysis error variance; and (9) the statistical model in OI is faulty in that an analyzed humidity can be biased too much toward the first guess.

  5. Spider silk as a novel high performance biomimetic muscle driven by humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Dhinojwala, Ali; Sahni, Vasav; Blackledge, Todd A

    2009-07-01

    The abrupt halt of a bumble bee's flight when it impacts the almost invisible threads of an orb web provides an elegant example of the amazing strength and toughness of spider silk. Spiders depend upon these properties for survival, yet the impressive performance of silk is not limited solely to tensile mechanics. Here, we show that silk also exhibits powerful cyclic contractions, allowing it to act as a high performance mimic of biological muscles. These contractions are actuated by changes in humidity alone and repeatedly generate work 50 times greater than the equivalent mass of human muscle. Although we demonstrate that this response is general and occurs weakly in diverse hydrophilic materials, the high modulus of spider silk is such that it generates exceptional force. Furthermore, because this effect already operates at the level of single silk fibers, only 5 microm in diameter, it can easily be scaled across the entire size range at which biological muscles operate. By contrast, the most successful synthetic muscles developed so far are driven by electric voltage, such that they cannot scale easily across large ranges in cross-sectional areas. The potential applicability of silk muscles is further enhanced by our finding that silkworm fibers also exhibit cyclic contraction because they are already available in commercial quantities. The simplicity of using wet or dry air to drive the biomimetic silk muscle fibers and the incredible power generated by silk offer unique possibilities in designing lightweight and compact actuators for robots and micro-machines, new sensors, and green energy production.

  6. Effects of ozone and relative humidity on fluorescence spectra of octapeptide bioaerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna; Corson, Elizabeth; Eshbaugh, Jonathan; Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Coleman, Mark; Bare, Christopher; Kinahan, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ozone and relative humidity (RH) at common atmospheric levels on the properties of single octapeptide bioaerosol particles were studied using an improved rotating reaction chamber, an aerosol generator, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS), an improved single particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS), and equipments to generate, monitor and control the ozone and RH. Aerosol particles (mean diameter 2 μm) were generated from a slurry of octapeptide in phosphate buffered saline, injected into the rotating chamber, and kept airborne for hours. Bioaerosols were sampled from the chamber hourly for the measurements of particle-size distribution, concentration, total fluorescence excited at 355-nm, and single particle fluorescence spectra excited at 266-nm and 351-nm under different controlled RH (20%, 50%, or 80%) and ozone concentration (0 or 150 ppb). The results show that: (1) Particle size, concentration, and the 263-nm-excited fluorescence intensity decrease at different rates under different combinations of the RH and ozone concentrations used. (2) The 263-nm-excited UV fluorescence (280-400 nm) decreased more rapidly than the 263-nm-excited visible fluorescence (400-560 nm), and decreased most rapidly when ozone is present and RH is high. (3) The UV fluorescence peak near 340 nm slightly shifts to the shorter wavelength (blue-shift), consistent with a more rapid oxidation of tryptophan than tyrosine. (4) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence (430-580 nm/380-700 nm) increases when ozone is present, especially when the RH is high. (5) The 351/355-nm-excited fluorescence increase that occurs as the tryptophan emission in the UV decreases, and the observation that these changes occur more rapidly at higher RH with the present of ozone, are consistent with the oxidation of tryptophan by ozone and the conversion of the resulting ozonides to N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine.

  7. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, George [Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Sub Centre, Kottayam South P.O, Kottayam-686 039, Kerala (India); James, E.J. [Water Institute and Dean (Research), Karunya University, Coimbatore-641 114, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987) in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow) which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010). The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62% when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  8. Flood moderation by large reservoirs in the humid tropics of Western ghat region of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abe, E. J. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerala State located in the humid tropics receives an average rainfall of 2810 mm. On an average 85% of this rainfall is received during the two monsoons spread from June to November. Midland and lowland regions of several of the river basins of Kerala experience severe flood events during the monsoons. Idamalayar hydro-electric project (1987 in Periyar River basin envisages flood control apart from power generation. This paper analyzes the flood moderation by Idamalayar reservoir considering the storage regime (inflow and outflow which is subjected to a strong inter annual variability. The role of Idamalayar reservoir in controlling the monsoon floods is analyzed using daily data (1987-2010. The results of analysis show that the flood moderation by the reservoir is 92% when water storage is less than 50%. The reduction is 87% when reservoir storage is between 50 to 90% and moderation reduces to 62 % when the reservoir storage is above 90%. Non-parametric trend analysis of fifty years of hydrologic data shows a reducing trend in inflow and storage during south-west monsoon which reduced spill and subsequent flood events during north-east monsoon.

  9. Temperature and Humidity Sensor Powered by an Individual Microbial Fuel Cell in a Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are of increasing interest as bioelectrochemical systems for decomposing organic materials and converting chemical energy into electricity. The main challenge for this technology is that the low power and voltage of the devices restricts the use of MFCs in practical applications. In this paper, a power management system (PMS is developed to store the energy and export an increased voltage. The designed PMS successfully increases the low voltage generated by an individual MFC to a high potential of 5 V, capable of driving a wireless temperature and humidity sensor based on nRF24L01 data transmission modules. With the PMS, MFCs can intermittently power the sensor for data transmission to a remote receiver. It is concluded that even an individual MFC can supply the energy required to power the sensor and telemetry system with the designed PMS. The presented PMS can be widely used for unmanned environmental monitoring such as wild rivers, lakes, and adjacent water areas, and offers promise for further advances in MFC technology.

  10. An Oceanic Perspective on the African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. M.; Demenocal, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Grousset, F. E.; Eglinton, T. I.; Wagner, T.

    2008-12-01

    Data gathered from cores drilled off NW Africa have been instrumental in understanding recent climate change in northern Africa, including the most recent African Humid Period (AHP). Early work by deMenocal et al. (2000, Quat. Sci. Rev. 19: 347-361) showed that dust (as terrigenous percent) increased and then decreased abruptly at the onset and termination of the AHP, and linked that on/off switch to a threshold crossing in precessional index. However, this perspective differs from recent lacustrine and palynological evidence from Lake Yoa in the eastern Sahara suggesting a more gradual transition out of the AHP (Kroepelin et al., 2008, Science 320: 765-768). We will present major and trace element and radiogenic isotope data from the last ~25 kyr at ODP 658C off Mauritania. Large and abrupt shifts, notably in Sr isotope ratios, are contemporaneous with changes observed in dust flux and cannot be explained simply by changes in geologic source terrane or grain size sorting that might result from a shift in wind direction or wind speed. We envisage the addition of highly weathered, authigenic mineral phase(s) formed in lakes during the AHP. Additionally, we will present new data from the recent CHEETA (Changes in the Holocene Environment of the Eastern Tropical Atlantic) sediment coring cruise, a transect of 28 coring stations from Gibraltar to Senegal. Preliminary results suggest that the abrupt termination of the AHP near 5.5 ka BP can be traced from Senegal to the Canary Islands (roughly 18-28°N), suggesting that the end of the AHP was indeed abrupt along the western African margin whereas it was more gradual in the eastern Sahara.

  11. Aerosol hygroscopicity at high (99 to 100% relative humidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Ruehl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopicity of an aerosol largely determines its influence on climate and, for smaller particles, atmospheric lifetime. While much aerosol hygroscopicity data is available at lower relative humidities (RH and under cloud formation conditions (RH>100%, relatively little data is available at high RH (99.2 to 99.9%. We measured the size of droplets at high RH that had formed on particles composed of one of seven compounds with dry diameters between 0.1 and 0.5 μm, and calculated the hygroscopicity of these compounds. We use a parameterization of the Kelvin term, in addition to a standard parameterization (κ of the Raoult term, to express the hygroscopicity of surface-active compounds.

    For inorganic compounds, hygroscopicity could reliably be predicted using water activity data and assuming a surface tension of pure water. In contrast, most organics exhibited a slight to mild increase in hygroscopicity with droplet diameter. This trend was strongest for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, the most surface-active compound studied. The results suggest that partitioning of surface-active compounds away from the bulk solution, which reduces hygroscopicity, dominates any increases in hygroscopicity due to reduced surface tension. This is opposite to what is typically assumed for soluble surfactants. Furthermore, we saw no evidence that micellization limits SDS activity in micron-sized solution droplets, as observed in macroscopic solutions. These results suggest that while the high-RH hygroscopicity of inorganic compounds can be reliably predicted using readily available data, surface-activity parameters obtained from macroscopic solutions with organic solutes may be inappropriate for calculations of the hygroscopicity of micron-sized droplets.

  12. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2013-08-15

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr{sub 3}FeMO{sub 7−δ} (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry.

  13. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  14. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product.

  15. Optical fiber waist-enlarged bitaper-based Michelson interferometric humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengbing; Chen, Zhemin; Pan, Sunqiang; Li, Guoshui; Zhang, Jianfeng; Cheng, Jia

    2015-02-01

    An optical fiber waist-enlarged bitaper-based Michelson interferometric sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for humidity measurement. The waist enlarged bitaper is created for light coupling between core mode and cladding modes propagating in the fiber interferometer. A chitason layer is plated onto the surface of the interferometer to act as a humidity-to-refractive index (RI) transducer and thus humidity measurement can be realized by monitoring the wavelength shifts of its interferogram induced by RI variations. The influence of the coating thickness and concentration of chitason on relative humidity (RH) measurement is experimentally studied. The coating sensor demonstrates an optimal humidity-sensing ability, with a humidity sensitivity and fast time-response of ~26 pm/%RH and ~5 s respectively, when it is 3-dip coated in chitason solutions of the concentration of 1 wt.%. The proposed humidity sensor is compact, cost-effective and of easy-operation, therefore it has potentials in many practical applications.

  16. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002 peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002 peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product.

  17. Crystallization speed of salbutamol as a function of relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Narygina, Olga; Resch, Christian; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-07-15

    Spray dried salbutamol sulphate and salbutamol base particles are amorphous as a result of spray drying. As there is always the risk of recrystallization of amorphous material, the aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature and humidity dependent recrystallization of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and base. Therefore in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) studies of the crystallization process at various temperature (25 and 35 °C) and humidity (60%, 70%, 80%, 90% relative humidity) conditions were performed. It was shown that the crystallization speed of salbutamol sulphate and base is a non-linear function of both temperature and relative humidity. The higher the relative humidity the higher is the crystallization speed. At 60% relative humidity salbutamol base as well as salbutamol sulphate were found to be amorphous even after 12 h, however samples changed optically. At 70% and 90% RH recrystallization of salbutamol base is completed after 3 h and 30 min and recrystallization of salbutamol sulphate after 4h and 1h, respectively. Higher temperature (35 °C) also leads to increased crystallization speeds at all tested values of relative humidity.

  18. Impact of temperature and humidity on chemical and sensory emissions from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Clausen, G; Fanger, P O

    1999-09-01

    The chemical and sensory emissions from five building materials (carpet, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring, sealant, floor varnish and wall paint) were tested under different combinations of temperature and relative humidity in the ranges 18-28 degrees C and 30-70% relative humidity (RH). The experiment was performed in a climate chamber where a specially designed test system was built to study emissions from the five materials. The test system could provide different temperatures and humidities of air around the materials, while the air, after being polluted by the emissions from the materials, could be reconditioned to 23 degrees C and 50% RH for sensory assessments. The experiment was designed to separate the direct impact of temperature and humidity on perception from the impact on sensory emission. The study found little influence of temperature on the emissions from the five materials whether expressed in chemical or sensory terms. The effect of humidity was found to be significant only for the waterborne materials--floor varnish and wall paint. Compared with the direct impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air quality, the impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emissions from the building materials has a secondary influence on perceived air quality.

  19. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-04-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

  20. Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Harry M.; Imalka Jayawardena, K. D. G.; Stoeva, Zlatka; Shkunov, Maxim; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2017-03-01

    Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity (RH) and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3‑x)Cl x PSCs with active area ≈1 cm2. We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance weakly depends on annealing time, but at higher (30%–40% RH) or lower (0%–15% RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of PSCs. The findings of this work open a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

  1. Effects of ambient humidity on the optimum annealing time of mixed-halide Perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Harry M; Jayawardena, K D G Imalka; Stoeva, Zlatka; Shkunov, Maxim; Silva, S Ravi P

    2017-03-17

    Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity (RH) and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl x PSCs with active area ≈1 cm(2). We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance weakly depends on annealing time, but at higher (30%-40% RH) or lower (0%-15% RH) humidities it is very sensitive. Processing in humid environments is shown to lead to the growth of both larger Perovskite grains and larger voids; similar to the effect of thermal annealing, which also leads to grain growth. Therefore, samples which are annealed for too long under high humidity show loss of performance due to low open circuit voltage caused by an increased number of shunt paths. Based on these results it is clear that humidity and annealing time are closely interrelated and both are important factors affecting the performance of PSCs. The findings of this work open a route for reduced annealing times to be employed by control of humidity; critical in roll-to-roll manufacture where low manufacturing time is preferred for cost reductions.

  2. Retrieval and Validation of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from SAPHIR aboard Megha-Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nizy; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Raju C, Suresh; Pillai Renju, Ramachandran; Oommen John, Viju

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) has been derived from brightness temperature of SAPHIR payload aboard Megha-Tropiques (MT) mission. The channels of SAPHIR are very close to the water vapor absorption peak at 183.31GHz. First three channels at 183.31±0.2 GHz, 183.31±1.1 GHz and 183.31±2.8 are used for upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) studies. The channel at 183.31±0.2 GHz enables retrieval of humidity up to the highest altitude possible with the present nadir looking microwave humidity sounders. Transformation coefficients for the first three channels for all the incidence angles have been derived using the simulated brightness temperatures and Jocobians with Chevellier data set as input to the radiative transfer model ARTS. These coefficients are used to convert brightness temperatures to upper tropospheric humidity from different channels. A stringent deep convective cloud screeing has been done using the brightness temperatures of SAPHIR itself. The retrieved UTH has been validated with the Jacobian weighted UTH derived from collocated radiosonde observations and also with the humidity profiles derived from ground based microwave radiometer data. UTH variation over the inter-tropical region on global basis has been studied for one year, taking the advantage of the first humidity product with high spatial and temporal resolution over the tropical belt, unbiased with specific local times of the satellite pass. These data set have been used to adress the seasonal and spatial variability of humidity in the tropical upper tropospheric region and humidity variability during Indian monsoon. The details of the MT-SAPHIR characteristics, methodology and results will be presented. begin{enumerate} begin{center}

  3. Humidity-dependent phase state of SOA particles from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saukko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical phase state (solid, semi-solid, or liquid of secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles has important implications for a number of atmospheric processes. We report the phase state of SOA particles spanning a wide range of oxygen to carbon ratios (O / C, used here as a surrogate for SOA oxidation level, produced in a flow tube reactor by photo-oxidation of various atmospherically relevant surrogate anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs. The phase state of laboratory-generated SOA was determined by the particle bounce behavior after inertial impaction on a polished steel substrate. The measured bounce fraction was evaluated as a function of relative humidity and SOA oxidation level (O / C measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS.

    The main findings of the study are: (1 biogenic and anthropogenic SOA particles are found to be amorphous solid or semi-solid based on the measured bounced fraction (BF, which was typically higher than 0.6 on a 0 to 1 scale. A decrease in the BF is observed for most systems after the SOA is exposed to relative humidity of at least 80% RH, corresponding to a RH at impaction of 55%. (2 Long-chain alkanes have a low BF (indicating a "liquid-like", less viscous phase particles at low oxidation levels (BF < 0.2 ± 0.05 for O / C = 0.1. However, BF increases substantially upon increasing oxidation. (3 Increasing the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 in solid SOA particles (here tested for longifolene SOA causes a decrease in BF levels. (4 In the majority of cases the bounce behavior of the various SOA systems did not show correlation with the particle O / C. Rather, the molar mass of the gas-phase VOC precursor showed a positive correlation with the resistance to the RH-induced phase change of the formed SOA particles.

  4. Dissimilarity between temperature-humidity in the atmospheric surface layer and implications for estimates of evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelli, D. M.; Dias, N. L.; Chamecki, M.

    2012-12-01

    In several methods used in water resources to estimate evaporation from land and water surfaces, a fundamental assumption is that temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) fluctuations behave similarly in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). In the Energy-Budget Bowen Ratio method it is assumed that both eddy diffusivities are equal, while in the variance method it is often assumed that all the Monin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) functions for the two scalars are equal. However, it is well-known that the T-q similarity does not always hold and that the dissimilarity found in practice can significantly impact the estimates of evaporation. Given the frequent dissimilarity between temperature and humidity, two important problems arise. The first one is related to the choice of the function used to characterize scalar similarity, given that not all commonly used functions are equally capable of identifying scalar dissimilarity. The second problem is associated with the identification of the physical mechanisms behind scalar dissimilarity in each particular case: local advection, nonstationarity, surface heterogeneity, active/passive roles of the scalars, entrainment fluxes at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer are typically cited as possible causes, but seldom a convincing argument is presented. In this work we combine experimental data and numerical simulations to study similarity between T and q in the ASL. Data measured over a lake in Brazil suggests a strong relationship between scalar similarity and the balance between local production and dissipation of scalar variance, which is in practice related to the strength of the surface forcing. Scalar variance and covariance budgets are used to derive a set of dimensionless Scalar Flux numbers that are capable of diagnosing the balance between gradient production and molecular dissipation of scalar variance and covariance. Experimental data shows that these Scalar Flux numbers are good predictors of scalar (dis

  5. High Temperature Humidity Sensor for Detection of Leak Through Slits and Cracks in Pressurized Nuclear Power Reactor Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdulal Saha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The leak before break (LBB concept is well known to nuclear power reactor. The problem is common to water power reactor. This is based on the premise that a detectable leak will develop before catastrophic break occurs. The main purpose of the present study is to develop tape cast MgCr2O4+35mole% TiO2 and gel cast g-Al2O3 humidity sensor for use in LBB applications at 3000C. The material capacitance varies with transient injection of water vapour adsorption. In actual plant, the sensors are placed on a steam pipe surrounded by heat insulation. The pipe unites the nuclear reactor and power generator. The analysis of humidity distribution in the annulus is calculated assuring leak rate 0.1gpm in a 30 m long tube. In this paper, analysis is done on the basis of the two types of sensor using AC frequency. Performance characteristics are observed for the LLB application.

  6. A systematic experimental study on the evaporation rate of supercooled water droplets at subzero temperatures and varying relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, S.; Reutzsch, J.; Roth, N.; Weigand, B.

    2017-05-01

    Supercooled water droplets (SWD) are present in clouds at high altitude and subjected to very low temperatures and high relative humidity. These droplets exist in a metastable state. The understanding of the evaporation of SWD at these extreme conditions is of high interest to understand rain, snow, and hail generating mechanisms in clouds. This paper focuses on the experimental results of the measurements of the evaporation rates β of supercooled water droplets. For this purpose, single SWDs are trapped by means of optical levitation. During the evaporation process, the elastically scattered light in the forward regime is recorded and evaluated. Experiments have been performed for different relative humidities φ at three constant ambient temperatures, namely, {T_∞}=268.15; 263.15; 253.15 {{K}} ({t_∞} = -5; -10; -20°C). The experimental data agrees well with direct numerical simulations (DNS) carried out with the in-house code Free Surface 3D (FS3D) and shows that the use of a simplified model is permissible for these ambient conditions.

  7. Evaluation of a ZrO2 composite membrane in PEM fuel operating at high temperature and low relativity humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, C.; Alvarez, A.; Godinez, Luis A.; Herrera, O.E.; Merida, W.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2011-01-15

    Using proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFC's) is a sustainable way to generate electrical power. High temperature PEMFC's (HT - PEMFC's) have enhanced electrode kinetics, increased CO tolerance and simplified water management that these operation conditions imply. Unfortunately, Nafion and other perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSA) are characterized by a decreased proton conductivity at high temperatures (above 100 degree C) due to dehydration which also causes shrinkage and increases the contact resistance between the membrane and the electrode. For these reasons, fuel cell research aims to create new membranes capable of working at high temperatures and low relative humidity conditions. The inclusion of inorganic materials into the Nafion matrix are employed to improve the mechanical properties of the membrane and enhance the membrane's hydration. In this study, the composite membrane ZrO2 showed better performance at high temperature and low relative humidity than commercial Nafion membrane. The performance results confirmed that composite membranes retain water and help retain the membrane hydration.

  8. Set-up and characterization of a humidity sensor realized in LTCC-technology

    CERN Document Server

    Smetana, W

    2008-01-01

    A new type of integrated temperature and humidity sensor applying LTCC-technology has been developed and characterized. In this approach, sensing elements are implemented using heated metal resistors (Pt-elements), where one is exposed to the humid environment that causes the sensor element to cool down with increased humidity, while the other one is sealed from the environment. Sensor design is based on FEA (Finite Element Analyses) where the critical design parameters have been analyzed with regard to the performance characteristic of the device. The set-up of sensor element will be shown and the functional capability will be demonstrated by experimental results.

  9. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  10. The design of an embedded system for controlling humidity and temperature room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Teguh, R.; Didik Eko, S.; Laksono, Pringgo D.; Jamaluddin, Anif

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the system is to design an embedded system for maintenance confortable room. The confortable room was design by controlling temperature (on range 18 - 34 °C) and humidity (on range 40% - 70%.) of room condition. Temperature and humidity of room were maintained using four variable such as lamp for warm, water pump for distributing water vapour, a fan for air circullation and an exhaust-fan for air cleaner. The system was constucted both hardware (humidity sensor, microcontroller, pump, lamp, fan) and software (arduino IDE). The result shows that the system was perfectly performed to control room condition.

  11. How to Use the DHT22 Sensor for Measuring Temperature and Humidity with the Arduino Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Mihai

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to achieve a functional system in terms of hardware and software, to measure temperature and humidity. Also, this system will allow to monitoring the time. In this, we use an Arduino board with interfacing a sensor placed in local environment to measure temperature and humidity. The paper aims to achieve the following goals: achieving a functional system in terms of hardware and software that allows measuring and monitoring temperature, humidity and the time; using a development board for the communication with the sensor and clock; implementation a program that allows requirements.

  12. On the Temperature and Humidity Dissimilarity in the Marine Surface Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kelly, Mark C.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The dissimilarity of temperature and humidity transfer in the marine surface layer (MSL) is investigated through the relative transport efficiency and correlation coefficient of these two scalars. We examine their variability and relationship with mean values, as well as spectral characteristics...... there is an efficient latent heat transfer but negligible sensible heat transfer. Our data suggest that parametrization of humidity fluxes via similarity theory could still be reliable when the correlation coefficient >0.5, and in near-neutral conditions the humidity flux can be estimated without use of the sensible...

  13. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaẑ; Turk, Goran; Srpĉiĉ, Stanislav;

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity...

  14. Integrated passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a surface acoustic wave-based passive and wireless sensor that can measure magnetic field, temperature and humidity. A thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor, a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate and a humidity sensitive hydrogel are integrated together with a surface acoustic wave transducer to realize the multifunctional sensor. The device is characterized using a network analyzer under sequentially changing humidity, temperature and magnetic field conditions. The first hand results show the sensor response to all three sensing parameters with small temperature interference on the magnetic signals. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Exergy analysis of air cooling systems in buildings in hot humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpuche, M.G. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Posgrado en Ingenieria; Heard, C. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico DF (Mexico); Best, R.; Rojas, J. [UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of using air cooling desiccant systems on reaching thermal comfort conditions in the interior of a building, supposing this to be an open system. Exergy analysis has been carried out for the different design temperatures and relative humidity conditions within those established for ASHRAE summer thermal comfort conditions. The climatic conditions of a hot humid climate such as Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico, are used as an example. A novel reference state has been used for the exergy analysis, since this varies according to the fluctuation of the ambient temperature and humidity. (author)

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF AIR HUMIDITY ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF SLATINA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-MARIA OPREA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a thorough analysis of air humidity in the area of Slatina city, in terms of relative humidity, fume tension and saturation deficit for the period 1977 – 2006. The aim of this analysis is to highlight the evolution in time and space of this meteorological element, but especially to observe its contribution to pollution of the urban area. The article sums up the author’s personal conclusions, emphasizing the role of air humidity on pollution, through stimulating chemical reactions (from the atmosphere and favoring wet smog.

  17. Plant injury by air pollutants: influence of humidity on stomatal apertures and plant response to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, H W; Daines, R H

    1969-03-14

    Ozone injury to Bel W3 tobacco and pinto bean plants increases with increasing humidity. The degree of plant injury sustained correlates well with porometer measurements; this indicates that the size of stomatal apertures increases with increasing humidity. Humidity may therefore influence plant response to all pollutants and may account in part for the greater sensitivity of plants to ozone-type injury in the eastern United States compared with the same species of plants grown in the Southwest. with those grown in the Southwest.

  18. Influence of humidity on the convective heat transfer from small cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, M.; Venzke, H.; Durst, F.; Melling, A.

    The convective heat transfer from a cylinder to a humid air stream flowing normal to the cylinder was investigated experimentally at atmospheric pressure over a range of variables which is relevant to the use of hot-wire anemometry: air temperatures between 30°C and 70°C and velocities between 12 and 37 m/s. For molar fractions of water vapour up to 0.27, the heat transfer increased with increasing humidity. The ratio of heat transfer rates in humid air and dry air is a unique function of the molar fraction of water vapour, independent of the air temperature and flow velocity.

  19. Effects of low humidity on small premature infants in servocontrol incubators. I. Decrease in rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaumkar, T K; Scott, K

    1975-01-01

    19 small premature infants in servocontrol incubators, whose abdominal skin temperature was 36.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, were subjected to alternate high- and low-humidity environments. With low humidity, rectal temperature dropped significantly below abdominal skin temperature. Skin was the predominant site of evaporative heat loss. The temperature was lower on naked skin than on an area covered by adhesive tape. Thus, servocontrol with low humidity increases evaporative heat loss and engenders a cycle of events that results in paradoxical body temperature decrease as the incubator temperature increases.

  20. The course, stratification and possibility of simulating relative air humidity in winter wheat stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Pokorný, Radovan; Středa, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was: (i) long-term (2010, 2011 and 2013) evaluation of the relative air humidity in the winter wheat canopy, (ii) finding of relationships between relative air humidity in canopy and computed or measured meteorological values (precipitation totals, evapotranspiration, moisture balance, specific air humidity, volume soil moisture, % of available soil water content, value of soil water potential), (iii) testing of simulation of daily relative air humidity, based on selected meteorological values and potential evapotranspiration (FAO Penman-Monteith method) and actual evapotranspiration, (iv) testing of simulation of relative air humidity hourly values in the wheat canopy, (v) evaluation of dependence between relative air humidity and leaf wetness. The measurement was performed at the experimental field station of Mendel University in Žabčice (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). Data recording for wheat canopy was conducted by means of a meteostation equipped with digital air humidity and air temperature sensors positioned in the ground, effective height of the stand and in 2 m above the ground. The main vegetation period of wheat was divided into three stages to evaluate differences in various growing phases of wheat. The data from nearby standard climatological stations and from agrometeorological station in Žabčice were used for establishment of relationships between relative air humidity in winter wheat canopy and surrounding environment by correlation and regression analysis. Relative air humidity above 90% occurred substantially longer on the ground and at the effective height of the stand in comparison with the height of 2 m. By means of regression analysis we determined that the limit of 90% was reached in the canopy when at the climatological station it was just 60 to 90% for ground level and 70 to 90% for effective height, especially during the night. Slight dependence between measured or computed meteorological variables and

  1. The Effect of Air Humidity on Shock Wave Induced Incipient Spearation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiotrDOERFFER; AndrzejSZUMOWSKI; 等

    2000-01-01

    During earlier research on shock wave/boundary layer interaction control,the effect of air humidity on flow separation has been observed.This has inspired a more detailed study on the effect of air humidity on shock induced incipient separation and on the involved preocesses.The phenomenon has a twofold nature.In supersonic flow the condensation of humidity causes flow retadation due to heat addition.The consequent weakenling of the shock wave reduces the tendency towards separatio.On the other hand,the incipient separation is postponed at the same Mach numers of interaction.

  2. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert\\'s fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  3. Simulation of electronic circuit sensitivity towards humidity using electrochemical data on water layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    the effect on circuit and PCBA (printed circuit board assembly) layout design. This paper elucidates a methodology for analyzing the sensitivity of an electronic circuit based on parasitic circuit analysis using data on electrical property of the water layer formed under humid as well as contaminated......Climatic conditions like temperature and humidity have direct influence on the operation of electronic circuits. The effects of temperature on the operation of electronic circuits have been widely investigated, while the effect of humidity and solder flux residues are not well understood including...

  4. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  5. Reconstructing Past Humidity Conditions Using Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Ritika; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Pokharia, Anil K.

    2017-04-01

    Variation of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) in the perspective of climate change is a subject of concern given its pivotal role in sustaining the food and economic security of the Indian subcontinent. In this context, reconstruction of variation in moisture conditions (relative humidity (RH) and rainfall) associated with ISM has been carried out using tree ring archives located primarily over the Tibetan plateau [1,2]. However, limited studies have documented past variation of monsoonal RH over the main Indian landmass [3]. Here we present the potential of rice, the staple food of many ancient civilisations in Asia, to infer atmospheric moisture conditions prevalent over north-western India during 4,600 - 3500 years BP. Since rainfall associated with ISM is a crucial factor which governs rice productivity over Indian subcontinent, the rice crop is cultivated primarily during the ISM season. The sensitivity of oxygen and carbon isotope composition in the organic matter of rice and other plants (δ18OOM,δ13COM) to RH has been studied [4,5]. Thus, the present study uses stable isotope technique to decipher paleo-RH conditions using rice grains retrieved from archaeological sites belonging to the Mature Harappan phase and Chalcolithic period. The archaeo-samples were subjected to SEM/EDAX analysis to identify the morphology and elemental composition, followed by analysis for both δ18OOMgnd δ13COMafter treatment for carbonateremoval. The results obtained were compared with the observations of δ18OOM and δ13COMmeasured on modern day rice grains sampled across twenty three sites across India which experienced RH ranging from 67% to 89% (Kaushal and Ghosh (under review)). The study showed that decrease in RH was manifested as significant increase in δ18OOMvalues together with increase in the crop's intrinsic water use efficiency, as calculated from δ13COM. Based on this comparison; we inferred that the regional climate during the cultivation of the archaeo

  6. Investigations on the Sensing Mechanism of Humidity Sensors Based on Poly(4-vinylpyridine)/carbon Black Composite by AC Impedance Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Investigations on the sensing mechanism is important for understanding the electrical responses of humidity sensors to humidity change,and could provide guidelines for the design and synthesis of humidity sensitive materials with desirable properties.In this work,the sensing mechanism of humidity sensors based on quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP)/carbon black (CB) composite[1] was studied by measuring their AC impedance spectra at various humidities at room temperature.Under low humidity...

  7. Influence of iodine on the treatment of spacecraft humidity condensate to produce potable water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, James M.; Muckle, Susan V.

    1990-01-01

    Several compounds in the ersatz humidity condensate do react with iodine to form iodine-substituted organic compounds (TOI), most notably phenol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, and sodium formate. Iodination of the ersatz humidity condensate produced 3.0 to 3.5 mg/L of TOI within 24 hours. The TOI that was produced by the passage of the ersatz humidity condensate through the first iodinated resin (IR) in the adsorption system was removed by the granular activated carbon that followed. TOI detected in the final effluent was formed by the reaction of the non-adsorbable condensate compounds with the final IR in the treatment series. The activated carbon bed series in the adsorption system performed poorly in its removal of TOC. The rapid breakthrough of TOC was not surprising, as the ersatz humidity condensate contained several highly soluble organic compounds, alcohols and organic acids.

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. Retrieval of humidity and temperature profiles over the oceans from INSAT 3D satellite radiances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Krishnamoorthy; Deo Kumar; C Balaji

    2016-03-01

    In this study, retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles of atmosphere from INSAT 3D-observed radiances has been accomplished. As the first step, a fast forward radiative transfer model using an Artificial neural network has been developed and it was proven to be highly effective, giving a correlationcoefficient of 0.97. In order to develop this, a diverse set of physics-based clear sky profiles of pressure (P), temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) has been developed. The developed database was further used for geophysical retrieval experiments in two different frameworks, namely, an ANN and Bayesianestimation. The neural network retrievals were performed for three different cases, viz., temperature only retrieval, humidity only retrieval and combined retrieval. The temperature/humidity only ANN retrievals were found superior to combined retrieval using an ANN. Furthermore, Bayesian estimation showed superior results when compared with the combined ANN retrievals.

  10. The sensitivity of latent heat flux to the air humidity approximations used in ocean circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Niiler, Pearn P.

    1990-01-01

    In deriving the surface latent heat flux with the bulk formula for the thermal forcing of some ocean circulation models, two approximations are commonly made to bypass the use of atmospheric humidity in the formula. The first assumes a constant relative humidity, and the second supposes that the sea-air humidity difference varies linearly with the saturation humidity at sea surface temperature. Using climatological fields derived from the Marine Deck and long time series from ocean weather stations, the errors introduced by these two assumptions are examined. It is shown that the errors reach above 100 W/sq m over western boundary currents and 50 W/sq m over the tropical ocean. The two approximations also introduce erroneous seasonal and spatial variabilities with magnitudes over 50 percent of the observed variabilities.

  11. A Humidity-Dependent Lifetime Derating Factor for DC Film Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Film capacitors are widely assumed to have superior reliability performance than Aluminum electrolytic capacitors in DC-link design of power electronic converters. However, the assumption needs to be critically judged especially for applications under high humidity environments. This paper proposes...... a humidity-dependent lifetime derating factor for a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors. It overcomes the limitation that the humidity impact is not considered in the state-of-the-art DC film capacitor lifetime models. The lifetime derating factor is obtained based on a total of 8,700 hours...... accelerated testing of film capacitors under different humidity conditions, enabling a more justified lifetime prediction of film capacitors for DC-link applications under specific climatic environments. The analysis of the testing results and the detailed discussion on the derating factor with different...

  12. A Ceramic Thick Film Humidity Sensor Based on MnZn Ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Egan

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A ceramic thick film humidity sensor, produced from MnZn ferrite, is presented. The proposed sensing mechanism is a combination of proton hopping, hydronium diffusion, and vacancy donor traps releasing electrons into the conduction band. The sensor structure comprises a two-layer device; the first layer is an interdigitated conductor and the second layer is a 30μm thick sensing layer. The effects of sintering the sensing pastes in air and vacuum have been reported. The air-fired sample exhibits the highest humidity sensitivity (1.54%/RH% and the lowest temperature sensitivity (0.37%/oC. The vacuum-fired sample has the lowest humidity sensitivity (0.043%/RH and the highest temperature sensitivity (0.77%/oC. The sensitivity results indicate that the air-fired sample has the best potential for use in humidity sensing applications.

  13. Retrieval of sea surface humidity and back radiation from satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    originally proposed by Schlussel in 1995. Results for surface humidity and back radiation over the Arabian Sea for the year 2000 is presented and have shown them to be in agreement with the atmospheric and oceanographic precesses operating during...

  14. Influence of ambient humidity on the attachment ability of ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Heepe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many insects possess adhesive foot pads, which enable them to scale smooth vertical surfaces. The function of these organs may be highly affected by environmental conditions. Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae possess dense tarsal soles of tenent setae, supplemented with an adhesive fluid. We studied the attachment ability of the seven-spotted ladybird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata at different humidities by horizontal traction experiments. We found that both low (15% and high (99% relative humidities lead to a decrease of attachment ability. The significantly highest attachment forces were revealed at 60% humidity. This relationship was found both in female and male beetles, despite of a deviating structure of adhesive setae and a significant difference in forces between sexes. These findings demonstrate that not only dry adhesive setae are affected by ambient humidity, but also setae that stick due to the capillarity of an oily secretion.

  15. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MTSA technology specifically addresses the thermal, CO2 and humidity control challenges faced by Portable Life Support Systems (PLSS) to be used in NASA's...

  16. Effect of Humidity and Hydrophobicity on the Tribological Properties of Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chih Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tribological properties of two distinctive alkanethiol SAMs, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA and 1-octadecanethiol (ODT, on gold substrates in various humidity conditions were examined by lateral force microscopy (LFM. The results suggest that hydrophobic ODT SAM is insensitive to humidity. The difference of lateral force signal is within ±10% regardless of humidity. The lateral force signal of hydrophilic MHA SAMs has a significant decrease in signal in humid environments. The influence of bulk water was also investigated by LFM. By imaging under water, the capillary force is eliminated on ODT SAMs, which leads to a lower lateral force. However, the lateral force image was reversed on MHA SAMs, which suggested that hydrophobic forces dominated in water.

  17. Ultra-compact TDLAS humidity measurement cell with advanced signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A.; Strzoda, R.; Schrobenhauser, R.; Weigel, R.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy humidity measurements with an ultra-compact measurement cell are presented. The optical path length is 2 cm. The system uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser at 1.854 μm. The main limiting factor of the humidity resolution is not the noise but interference fringes produced by reflecting surfaces. Next to the system setup, a novel rejection method to eliminate these fringes, based on Fourier domain analysis of the absorption line, is described. In contrast to other fringe rejection methods, the presented method is able to handle fringes, whose free spectral range is in the range of the half width of the absorption line. The achievable humidity resolution for the presented cell is below 0.25 % relative humidity at room temperature.

  18. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  19. Defining the role of humidity in the ambient degradation of few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Sumeet; Sabri, Ylias; Ahmed, Taimur; Field, Matthew R.; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Arash, Aram; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Bansal, Vipul; Balendhran, Sivacarendran

    2017-03-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) is an emerging material of interest for applications in electronics. However, lack of ambient stability is hampering its incorporation in practical devices as it demands for an inert operating environment. Here, we study the individual effects of key environmental factors, such as temperature, light and humidity on the deterioration of BP. It is shown that humidity on its own does not cause material degradation. In fact, few-layer BP is employed as a recoverable humidity sensor. This study eliminates humidity as an active parameter in BP degradation. Hence, by simply isolating BP from light, its lifetime can be prolonged even in the presence of O2. As such, this study opens the pathway for devising new strategies for the practical implementation of BP.

  20. Evidence of a humid mid-Holocene in the western part of Chinese Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Chengbang; FENG Zhaodong; TANG Lingyu

    2003-01-01

    Field works show that the wetland/swamp layers were distributed ubiquitously in the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Universality of the wetland/swampy layer and the consistency of the age reveal that the layer was developed under the humid climatic condition. Dated between 9 and 3.8 kaBP, the wetland/swampy layer is full of aquatic mollusks and has the highest tree and shrub pollen, indicating a humid mid-Holocene. Variations of grain size suggest that winter monsoon weakened during 9-3.8 kaBP while climate change to humid and vegetation cover increased from 9 kaBP onward. After 5.9 kaBP, the humidity declined gradually. In 3.8 kaBP, summer monsoon sharply retreated, and the climate changed to dry.

  1. Temperature and humidity independent control (THIC) of air-conditioning system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main components of the Temperature and Humidity Independent Control (THIC) of air-conditioning systems, including dehumidification devices, high-temperature cooling devices and indoor terminal devices.

  2. Tapered Fiber Coated with Hydroxyethyl Cellulose/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite for Relative Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple relative humidity (RH sensor is demonstrated using a tapered fiber coated with hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinylidene fluoride (HEC/PVDF composite as a probe. This coating acts as an inner cladding whose refractive index decreases with the rise in humidity and thus allows more light to be transmitted in humid state. A difference of up to 0.89 dB of the transmitted optical power is observed when RH changes from 50% to 80% in case of the silica fiber probe. The proposed sensor has a sensitivity of about 0.0228 dB/%RH with a slope linearity of more than 99.91%. In case of the plastic optical fiber (POF probe, the output voltage of the sensor increases linearly with a sensitivity of 0.0231 mV/%RH and a linearity of more than 99.65% as the relative humidity increases from 55% to 80%.

  3. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  4. Study on Porous Silicon with P-N Junction Sensor for Humidity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuzhe Tu; Zhenhong Jia

    2006-01-01

    Porous materials used for humidity sensing have been commercialized. In this paper, the preparation and humidity sensing characteristics of porous silicon with P-N junctions (PNJPS) are studied. PNJPS is made by electro-chemical anodic etched method from silicon wafers with P-N junctions. Its porous structure is verified by scanning electronic micrograph.Experiments also show that PNJPS has high sensitivity, short response time (less than 30 seconds), and long-term stability.

  5. High accuracy acoustic relative humidity measurement in duct flow with air

    OpenAIRE

    Cees van der Geld; Twan Wernaart; Mart Grooten; Wilhelm van Schaik

    2010-01-01

    An acoustic relative humidity sensor for air-steam mixtures in duct flow is designed and tested. Theory, construction, calibration, considerations on dynamic response and results are presented. The measurement device is capable of measuring line averaged values of gas velocity, temperature and relative humidity (RH) instantaneously, by applying two ultrasonic transducers and an array of four temperature sensors. Measurement ranges are: gas velocity of 0–12 m/s with an error of ±0.13 m/s, temp...

  6. Synthesis and application of a hydrophobic hypercrosslinked polymeric resin for removing VOCs from humid gas stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Chao Long; Hong Ming Qian; Ying Lia; Ai Min Li; Quan Xing Zhanga

    2009-01-01

    A hydrophobic hypercrosslinked polymeric resin LC-1 was prepared and characterized.The properties of LC-1 resin were compared with those of a commercial hypercrosslinked polymer NDA-201 resin.In addition,the dynamic adsorption of trichloroethylene(TCE)onto LC.1 under dry and humid conditions at 303 K was investigated,the result shows that LC-1possesses high hydrophobic property and can remove TCE from gas stream without effect of high humidity efficiently.

  7. Towards a new proxy of continental atmospheric humidity: the triple oxygen isotopic composition of plant biosilica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A. E.; Pauchet, S.; Landais, A.; Piel, C.; Devidal, S.; Roy, J.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.; Pasturel, M.; Cornuault, P.; Xin, J.; Mazur, J. C.; Prie, F.; Bentaleb, I.

    2016-12-01

    There is a serious lack of proxy suitable for reconstructing, in a quantitative way, past changes of continental atmospheric humidity. This reduces the possibility to make model-data comparisons necessary for the implementation of climate models. Over the past 10 years, analytical developments have enabled a few laboratories to reach sufficient precision for measuring the triple oxygen isotopes, expressed by the 17O-excess, in water, water vapor, atmospheric oxygen, and minerals. The 17O-excess represents an alternative to d-excess for investigating relative humidity conditions that prevail during water evaporation. The 17O-excess of water results from the increase of kinetic isotopic fractionation at evaporative sites as a function of decreasing relative humidity. This mechanism occurs at large scales, i.e. during seawater evaporation or during plant canopies transpiration. Unlike deuterium-excess, 17O-excess is supposed to be insensitive to temperature and less sensitive than δD and δ18O to equilibrium fractionation during transport and precipitation. Additionally, the 17O-excess is recorded in biogenic minerals less prone to weathering than organic compounds. Here, we calibrate the 17O-excess of plant biosilica as a new air humidity proxy. First, we examined the behavior of the 17O-excess in soil water, leaf water and phytoliths in growth chambers in response to changes in relative humidity. Second, we measured the 17O-excess of soil phytolith assemblages from inter-tropical savannas and forests distributed along humidity transects. Both approaches show similar dependency of phytolith 17O-excess to relative humidity. The results allow to discuss future calibration directions aimed at estimating the precision of the obtained relationship and at quantifying the successive isotopic fractionations in play at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, to provide a strong proxy of past atmospheric relative humidity.

  8. Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2013-07-01

    The topic of this Building America expert meeting was 'Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,' which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  9. In optics humidity compensation in NDIR exhaust gas measurements of NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Buchner, Rainer; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA.......NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA....

  10. Humidity Sensitive Properties of a Coplymer of Quaternary Ammonium Salt with Polyether-salt Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Humidity sensors have been widely used in meteorology, process controlling, agriculture and manufacturing. In recent year, more attention has been paid to resistive-type polymeric humidity sensors. Polyelectrolytes are the most usually used materials for their advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, easy preparation, low cost, etc[1,2]. In this paper quaternized and salt-doped copolymer of 2-(dimethylamino) ethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate ...

  11. [Effects of incubation temperature and substrate humidity on embryonic development of Mauremys mutica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Hong; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Chen, Yong-Le

    2010-01-01

    Yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica) eggs were incubated in vermiculite under nine combinations of temperature and humidity, i. e., 25 degrees C and -12 kPa, 29 degrees C and -12 kPa, 33 degrees C and -12 kPa, 25 degrees C and -150 kPa, 29 degrees C and -150 kPa, 33 degrees C and -150 kPa, 25 degrees C and -300 kPa, 29 degrees C and -300 kPa, and 33 degrees C and -300 kPa, aimed to study the effects of incubation temperature and its interaction with substrate humidity on the embryonic development of M. mutica. The initial egg mass, incubation temperature, substrate humidity, and the interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity had significant effects on the mass increment of egg in the course of hatching. At the same temperature, eggs incubated in wetter substrates (-12 kPa) gained more mass than those incubated in drier substrates (-150 kPa and -300 kPa). Incubation temperature affected hatching period significantly, while substrate humidity and its interaction with temperature did not. Both incubation temperature and substrate humidity affected hatching success and shell crack rate significantly. Abnormal hatchlings were found when incubated at 25 degrees C and 33 degrees C, but not at 29 degrees C. Incubation temperature had significant effects on the hatchling mass, carapace length and width, plastron length and width, body height, and tail length; while substrate humidity only affected hatchlings plastron length. The interaction of incubation temperature and substrate humidity did not affect the morphology of hatchlings.

  12. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaž; Turk, Goran; Srpcic, Stanislav;

    2012-01-01

    fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Numerical results for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented....

  13. Effect of relative humidity on migration of BP from paperboard into a food simulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Line Lundbæk; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH).......In the scientific literature it is obligatory to control and report the test time and temperature applied when testing migration but it is not current practice to either control or report the relative humidity (RH)....

  14. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  15. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-11-01

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications.

  16. MoS2-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ze, Lu; Yueqiu, Gong; Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS2 and MoS2-modified ZnO QDs (MoS2@ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS2 and MoS2@ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11-95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS2@ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  17. Relative humidity influence on the spreading dynamics of sessile drops of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutin, David; Bouzeid, Wassim

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effect of relative humidity on the initial stages of spreading dynamics for drops of whole human blood. A range of relative humidities from 8% to 90% was studied. Drops of the same volume were gently deposited on ultra-clean microscope glass substrates. We show that the drop spreading is driven by two distinct regimes. The first is characterized by fast dynamics and competition between viscous forces and capillary forces, whereas the second regime is characterized by competition between viscous dissipation and evaporation and exhibits slower dynamics. At early stages of spreading, the power law r(t) ~ tn (n = 0.65) was observed regardless of the humidity. At later stages of spreading, the exponent of the power law r(t) ~ tn (n = 0.19) was found to be higher than that of Tanner's law because of the effect of humidity and Marangoni stresses. Spreading time and spreading dynamics were found to be related to relative humidity. This is explained by the adhesion of red blood cells to the substrate that is similar to the mechanism observed for nanofluid droplets. The mean velocity of the triple line followed the same behavior as Tanner's model, where the final wetting radius and the apparent contact angle are functions of relative humidity.

  18. Prediction of concrete compressive strength considering humidity and temperature in the construction of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Seung Hee; Jang, Kyung Pil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Jin-Wook [Department of Civil Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jang Hwa [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Yong, E-mail: yunkim@cnu.ac.kr [Structural Engineering Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Compressive strength tests for three concrete mixes were performed. • The parameters of the humidity-adjusted maturity function were determined. • Strength can be predicted considering temperature and relative humidity. - Abstract: This study proposes a method for predicting compressive strength developments in the early ages of concretes used in the construction of nuclear power plants. Three representative mixes with strengths of 6000 psi (41.4 MPa), 4500 psi (31.0 MPa), and 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) were selected and tested under various curing conditions; the temperature ranged from 10 to 40 °C, and the relative humidity from 40 to 100%. In order to consider not only the effect of the temperature but also that of humidity, an existing model, i.e. the humidity-adjusted maturity function, was adopted and the parameters used in the function were determined from the test results. A series of tests were also performed in the curing condition of a variable temperature and constant humidity, and a comparison between the measured and predicted strengths were made for the verification.

  19. Evaluation of Temperature and Humidity Profiles of Unified Model and ECMWF Analyses Using GRUAN Radiosonde Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Noh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and water vapor profiles from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA and the United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO Unified Model (UM data assimilation systems and from reanalysis fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF were assessed using collocated radiosonde observations from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN for January–December 2012. The motivation was to examine the overall performance of data assimilation outputs. The difference statistics of the collocated model outputs versus the radiosonde observations indicated a good agreement for the temperature, amongst datasets, while less agreement was found for the relative humidity. A comparison of the UM outputs from the UKMO and KMA revealed that they are similar to each other. The introduction of the new version of UM into the KMA in May 2012 resulted in an improved analysis performance, particularly for the moisture field. On the other hand, ECMWF reanalysis data showed slightly reduced performance for relative humidity compared with the UM, with a significant humid bias in the upper troposphere. ECMWF reanalysis temperature fields showed nearly the same performance as the two UM analyses. The root mean square differences (RMSDs of the relative humidity for the three models were larger for more humid conditions, suggesting that humidity forecasts are less reliable under these conditions.

  20. Sensitive and Fast Humidity Sensor Based on A Redox Conducting Supramolecular Ionic Material for Respiration Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Zhang, Li; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-01-03

    Real-time monitoring of respiratory rate (RR) is highly important for human health, clinical diagnosis, and fundamental scientific research. Exhaled humidity-based RR monitoring has recently attracted increased attention because of its accuracy and portability. Here, we report a new design of an exhaled humidity sensor for the real-time monitoring of the RR based on a synthetic redox conducting supramolecular ionic material (SIM). The humidity-dependent conducting SIM is prepared by ionic self-assembly in aqueous solutions of electroactive 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,10-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) decane (C10(mim)2). By taking full advantage of the high hygroscopicity and water stability arising from the ionic and hydrophobic interactions between two building blocks (i.e., ABTS and C10(mim)2), the SIM-based humidity sensor exhibits both high sensitivity (less than 0.1% relative humidity) and fast response time (∼37 ms). These excellent properties allow this humidity sensor to noninvasively monitor the RRs of not only humans but also rats that have a much faster RR and much smaller tidal volume than humans. Moreover, this sensor could also be efficiently used for the real-time monitoring of the recovery process of rats from anesthesia.

  1. Segregated residential air conditioner load model behavior with temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadj, C.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; El Ferik, S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper considered the impact of outdoor weather conditions on air conditioning residential loads in Saudi Arabia. Humidity and temperature loads were analyzed separately. Weather data were collected for a period of 6 months at a typical household in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Inside and outside temperatures, and electrical variables of the household power system were recorded every 5 minutes. Humidity levels were then divided into 3 different comfort levels. A 3-dimensional analysis of the data was then conducted. Mathematical equations were obtained to represent power usage related to humidity and temperature. A regression model was then used to evaluate the influence of humidity on power loads. Field data were then used to validate the regression model. Results of the study showed that the model was able to accurately predict power consumption profiles related to air conditioning in the region. It was concluded that the division of humidity levels into 3 discrete intervals allowed for an improved understanding of the nonlinear relationship between humidity, temperature, and power demand. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Model, Proxy and Isotopic Perspectives on the East African Humid Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Cook, Benjamin I.; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    Both North and East Africa experienced more humid conditions during the early and mid-Holocene epoch (11,000-5000yr BP; 11-5 ka) relative to today. The North African Humid Period has been a major focus of paleoclimatic study, and represents a response of the hydrological cycle to the increase in boreal summer insolation and associated ocean, atmosphere and land surface feedbacks. Meanwhile, the mechanisms that caused the coeval East African Humid Period are poorly understood. Here, we use results from isotopeenabled coupled climate modeling experiments to investigate the cause of the East African Humid Period. The modeling results are interpreted alongside proxy records of both water balance and the isotopic composition of rainfall. Our simulations show that the orbitally-induced increase in dry season precipitation and the subsequent reduction in precipitation seasonality can explain the East African Humid Period, and this scenario agrees well with regional lake level and pollen paleoclimate data. Changes in zonal moisture flux from both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean account for the simulated increase in precipitation from June through November. Isotopic paleoclimate data and simulated changes in moisture source demonstrate that the western East African Rift Valley in particular experienced more humid conditions due to the influx of Atlantic moisture and enhanced convergence along the Congo Air Boundary. Our study demonstrates that zonal changes in moisture advection are an important determinant of climate variability in the East African region.

  3. High humidity leads to loss of infectious influenza virus from simulated coughs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Noti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of relative humidity in the aerosol transmission of influenza was examined in a simulated examination room containing coughing and breathing manikins. METHODS: Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (4 µM aerodynamic diameters adjacent to the breathing manikin's mouth and also at other locations within the room. At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7-73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay. RESULTS: Total virus collected for 60 minutes retained 70.6-77.3% infectivity at relative humidity ≤23% but only 14.6-22.2% at relative humidity ≥43%. Analysis of the individual aerosol fractions showed a similar loss in infectivity among the fractions. Time interval analysis showed that most of the loss in infectivity within each aerosol fraction occurred 0-15 minutes after coughing. Thereafter, losses in infectivity continued up to 5 hours after coughing, however, the rate of decline at 45% relative humidity was not statistically different than that at 20% regardless of the aerosol fraction analyzed. CONCLUSION: At low relative humidity, influenza retains maximal infectivity and inactivation of the virus at higher relative humidity occurs rapidly after coughing. Although virus carried on aerosol particles 40% will significantly reduce the infectivity of aerosolized virus.

  4. Humidity effect on nanoscale electrochemistry in solid silver ion conductors and the dual nature of its locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, M Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-02-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically nonlocal cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and nonlocal) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  5. Airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator as a self-powered sensor for detecting humidity and airflow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengyu; Chen, Jie; Tian, Li; Leng, Qiang; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo

    2014-10-08

    Humidity sensors are commonly based on the resistance change of metal oxide semiconductors, which show high sensitivity in low humidity but low sensitivity in high humidity. In this work, we design a novel humidity sensor based on the airflow-induced triboelectric nanogenerator (ATNG) that can serve as a self-powered sensor to detect humidity (especially in high humidity) and airflow rate. The output current or voltage change is investigated under different humidity (20-100% relative humidity) at fixed airflow rate and different airflow rates (15-25 L/min) at a fixed humidity. The working principle of the ATNG-based sensor is illustrated. We find that both output current and voltage can serve as a variable for detecting humidity, while only the output current can serve as a variable for determining airflow rate. Our study demonstrates an innovative approach toward detection of humidity and airflow rate with advantages of self-power, multifunction, low cost, simple fabrication, and high sensitivity.

  6. The effects of varying humidity on copper sulfide film formation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Thomas Michael; Missert, Nancy A.; Barbour, John Charles; Sullivan, John Patrick; Copeland, Robert Guild; Campin, Michael J. (International Sematech, Austin, TX)

    2004-02-01

    Detailed experiments involving extensive high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed significant microstructural differences between Cu sulfides formed at low and high relative humidity (RH). It was known from prior experiments that the sulfide grows linearly with time at low RH up to a sulfide thickness approaching or exceeding one micron, while the sulfide initially grows linearly with time at high RH then becomes sub-linear at a sulfide thickness less than about 0.2 microns, with the sulfidation rate eventually approaching zero. TEM measurements of the Cu2S morphology revealed that the Cu2S formed at low RH has large sized grains (75 to greater than 150 nm) that are columnar in structure with sharp, abrupt grain boundaries. In contrast, the Cu2S formed at high RH has small equiaxed grains of 20 to 50 nm in size. Importantly, the small grains formed at high RH have highly disordered grain boundaries with a high concentration of nano-voids. Two-dimensional diffusion modeling was performed to determine whether the existence of localized source terms at the Cu/Cu2S interface could be responsible for the suppression of Cu sulfidation at long times at high RH. The models indicated that the existence of static localized source terms would not predict the complete suppression of growth that was observed. Instead, the models suggest that the diffusion of Cu through Cu2S becomes restricted during Cu2S formation at high RH. The leading speculation is that the extensive voiding that exists at grain boundaries in this material greatly reduces the flux of Cu between grains, leading to a reduction in the rate of sulfide film formation. These experiments provide an approach for adding microstructural information to Cu sulfidation rate computer models. In addition to the microstructural studies, new micro-patterned test structures were developed in this LDRD to offer insight into the point defect structure of Cu2S and to permit measurement of surface reaction

  7. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  8. Effect of humidity on nitric acid uptake to mineral dust aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first laboratory observation of HNO3 uptake by airborne mineral dust particles. The model aerosols were generated by dry dispersion of Arizona Test Dust (ATD, SiO2, and by nebulizing a saturated solution of calcium carbonate. The uptake of 13N-labeled gaseous nitric acid was observed in a flow reactor on the 0.2–2 s reaction time scale at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The amount of nitric acid appearing in the aerosol phase at the end of the flow tube was found to be a linear function of the aerosol surface area. SiO2 particles did not show any significant uptake, while the CaCO3 aerosol was found to be more reactive than ATD. Due to the smaller uncertainty associated with the reactive surface area in the case of suspended particles as compared to bulk powder samples, we believe that we provide an improved estimate of the rate of uptake of HNO3 to mineral dust. The fact that the rate of uptake was smaller at a concentration of 1012 than at 1011 was indicative of a complex uptake mechanism. The uptake coefficient averaged over the first 2 s of reaction time at a concentration of 1012 molecules cm-3 was found to increase with increasing relative humidity, from 0.022±0.007 at 12% RH to 0.113±0.017 at 73% RH , which was attributed to an increasing degree of solvation of the more basic minerals. The extended processing of the dust by higher concentrations of HNO3 at 85% RH led to a water soluble coating on the particles and enhanced their hygroscopicity.

  9. Application of neural networks to determine moisture content on humidity-attenuated NIR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States); Philipp, B.L. [ICF Kaiser, Richland, WA (United States); Thompson-Bachmeier, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Moisture has been identified as one of the critical tank waste parameters that impacts the safety status of the wastes, particularly tanks containing ferro/ferricyanide materials. Since water content is affected by a number of factors, including gravity, one hypothesis, currently being tested by Westinghouse Hanford`s Waste Tank Safety organization, is that the surface of the waste contains a minimum of water compared to the material deeper in the tank. Assuming this hypothesis is correct, a minimum internal waste water content will be obtained by measuring the surface water content. Near infrared analysis is a nondestructive technique that takes advantage of the tendency of water molecules to absorb specific wavelengths of NIR energy. When a sample containing water is exposed to those wavelengths, a certain portion of the energy will be absorbed by the water, and the remainder will be reflected. By measuring the reflected energy, the concentration of water in the sample can be determined. An initial investigation into the feasibility of remote sensing for hot cell and waste tank applications was performed at the University of Washington`s Center for Process Analytical Chemistry (CPAC) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The BY-104 waste tank simulant test data showed that for these samples, ten percent of the incident radiation is scattered. When collected, this signal is available for determining moisture content because the moisture content of the waste affects the scattering. However, atmospheric relative humidity causes a signal attenuation that will impact any in situ measurements being obtained. For simulation, this spectra was used along with software generated atmospheric transmission data from 0-60 meters to produce a modified sample set. These data are analyzed using a backpropagation neural network algorithm to construct a model that would predict surface moisture content.

  10. Evaluating tropospheric humidity observations from modern space-borne microwave instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, I.; Ferraro, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Two main sources of tropospheric humidity data include radiosonde measurements as well as observations from space-borne microwave instruments operating at the frequencies close to the water vapor absorption line at 183 GHz. Radiosonde data are available for a long-period and have a high vertical resolution compared to the microwave satellite data. On the other hand, satellite data provide global coverage, but radiosonde stations are very sparse. Both space-based and radiosonde observations are prone to different errors. Radiosonde data are affected by several factors including sensor contamination, daytime radiation bias, sensor icing in mid-upper troposphere, and discontinuity in the data because of the difference between observations from different sonde sensors. Microwave satellite data are also prone to several errors including calibration drift, geolocation error, sensor degradation, and inter-satellite biases. We present the results of evaluating observations from microwave instruments aboard recently launched the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP, ATMS instrument) and Megha-Tropiques (SAPHIR instrument) satellites. The study includes inter-comparison and inter-calibration of observations of similar channels from the two satellites, evaluation of the satellite data using high-quality radiosonde data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, as well as geolocation error correction. The results of this study are valuable for generating climate data records from these instruments as well as for extending current climate data records from similar instruments such as AMSU-B and MHS to the ATMS and SAPHIR instruments. Brightness temperatures from different SAPHIR channels Inter-comparing SAPHIR and ATMS data (observations and simulations)

  11. How Ambient Humidity May Affect the Transmission of Viral Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey; Elankumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    Viral infectious diseases such as influenza have been a great burden to public health. The airborne transmission route is an important venue for the spread of many respiratory viral diseases. Many airborne viruses have been shown to be sensitive to ambient humidity, yet the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon remain elusive. A thorough understanding of this phenomenon may provide insight into the temporal and spatial distribution of diseases. For instance, studies have repeatedly suggested ambient humidity as an important environmental determinant in the transmission of influenza in temperate regions. Further, knowing how to optimize humidity so as to minimize virus survival may have practical implications for disease prevention. In this talk, we will discuss multiple mechanisms that may account for the association between humidity and viability of viruses in aerosols, including water activity, surface inactivation, salt toxicity, and conformational changes to the virus in response to varying pH. As a case study, we will discuss our work on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on survival of influenza A virus (IAV) and how it may contribute to the transmission patterns of seasonal flu around the world. We measured the change in viability of IAV in droplets at various RHs. Results suggest three potential regimes defined by humidity: physiological (~100% RH) with high viability, concentrated (~50% to near 100% RH) with lower viability, and dry (<~50% RH) with high viability. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic basis for the dependence of IAV's transmission on humidity. In temperate regions, the increase in influenza activity in winter may be due to enhanced transmission via the aerosol route thanks to IAV's higher viability in droplets at low RH. In tropical regions, transmission could be enhanced due to high viability of IAV at extremely high RH (rainy season), as observed in our study, possibly through both the aerosol route and the contact

  12. Evaluation of humidity sensing properties of TMBHPET thin film embedded with spinel cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Azmer, Mohamad Izzat; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Assiri, Mohammad S.; Kalam, Abul; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the enhanced sensing parameters of previously reported TMBHPET-based humidity sensor. Significant improved sensing performance has been demonstrated by coupling of TMBHPET moisture sensing thin film with cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (synthesized by eco-benign ultrasonic method). The mean size of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles has been estimated to be 6.5 nm. It is assumed that the thin film of organic-ceramic hybrid matrix (TMBHPET:CoFe2O4) is a potential candidate for humidity sensing utility by virtue of its high specific surface area and porous surface morphology (as evident from TEM, FESEM, and AFM images). The hybrid suspension has been drop-cast onto the glass substrate with preliminary deposited coplanar aluminum electrodes separated by 40 µm distance. The influence of humidity on the capacitance of the hybrid humidity sensor (Al/TMBHPET:CoFe2O4/Al) has been investigated at three different frequencies of the AC applied voltage ( V rms 1 V): 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz. It has been observed that at 100 Hz, under a humidity of 99 % RH, the capacitance of the sensor increased by 2.61 times, with respect to 30 % RH condition. The proposed sensor exhibits significantly improved sensitivity 560 fF/ % RH at 100 Hz, which is nearly 7.5 times as high as that of pristine TMBHPET-based humidity sensor. Further, the capacitive sensor exhibits improved dynamic range (30-99 % RH), small hysteresis ( 2.3 %), and relatively quicker response and recovery times ( 12 s, 14 s, respectively). It is assumed that the humidity response of the sensor is associated with the diffusion kinetics of water vapors and doping of the semiconductor nanocomposite by water molecules.

  13. Humidity independent mass spectrometry for gas phase chemical analysis via ambient proton transfer reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongying; Huang, Guangming, E-mail: gmhuang@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-03-31

    Graphical abstract: Direct and humidity independent mass spectrometry analysis of gas phase chemicals could be achieved via ambient proton transfer ionization, ion intensity was found to be stable with humidity ranged from ∼10% to ∼100%. - Highlights: • A humidity independent mass spectrometric method for gas phase samples analysis. • A universal and good sensitivity method. • The method can real time identify plant released raw chemicals. - Abstract: In this work, a humidity independent mass spectrometric method was developed for rapid analysis of gas phase chemicals. This method is based upon ambient proton transfer reaction between gas phase chemicals and charged water droplets, in a reaction chamber with nearly saturate humidity under atmospheric pressure. The humidity independent nature enables direct and rapid analysis of raw gas phase samples, avoiding time- and sample-consuming sample pretreatments in conventional mass spectrometry methods to control sample humidity. Acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene were used to evaluate the analytical performance of present method. The limits of detection for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta-xylene are in the range of ∼0.1 to ∼0.3 ppbV; that of benzene is well below the present European Union permissible exposure limit for benzene vapor (5 μg m{sup −3}, ∼1.44 ppbV), with linear ranges of approximately two orders of magnitude. The majority of the homemade device contains a stainless steel tube as reaction chamber and an ultrasonic humidifier as the source of charged water droplets, which makes this cheap device easy to assemble and facile to operate. In addition, potential application of this method was illustrated by the real time identification of raw gas phase chemicals released from plants at different physiological stages.

  14. Influence of Ambient Humidity on the Voltage Response of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zicai; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Kruusamäe, Karl; Chang, Longfei; Asaka, Kinji

    2016-03-31

    Electrical potential based on ion migration exists not only in natural systems but also in ionic polymer materials. In order to investigate the influence of ambient humidity on voltage response, classical Au-Nafion IPMC was chosen as the reference sample. Voltage response under a bending deformation was measured in two ways: first, continuous measurement of voltage response in the process of absorption and desorption of water to study the tendency of voltage variation at all water states; second, measurements at multiple fixed ambient humidity levels to characterize the process of voltage response quantitatively. Ambient humidity influences the voltage response mainly by varying water content in ionic polymer. Under a step bending, the amplitude of initial voltage peak first increases and then decreases as the ambient humidity and the inherent water content decrease. This tendency is explained semiquantitatively by mass storage capacity related to the stretchable state of the Nafion polymer network. Following the initial peak, the voltage shows a slow decay to a steady state, which is first characterized in this paper. The relative voltage decay during the steady state always decreases as the ambient humidity is lowered. It is ascribed to progressive increase of the ratio between the water molecules in the cation hydration shell to the free water. Under sinusoidal mechanical bending excitation in the range of 0.1-10 Hz, the voltage magnitude increases with frequency at high ambient humidity but decreases with frequency at low ambient humidity. The relationship is mainly controlled by the voltage decay effect and the response speed.

  15. Atomic force microscope adhesion measurements and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations at different humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Jeremias; Reischl, Bernhard; Sairanen, Hannu; Korpelainen, Virpi; Husu, Hannu; Heinonen, Martti; Raiteri, Paolo; Rohl, Andrew L.; Nordlund, Kai; Lassila, Antti

    2017-03-01

    Due to their operation principle atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are sensitive to all factors affecting the detected force between the probe and the sample. Relative humidity is an important and often neglected—both in experiments and simulations—factor in the interaction force between AFM probe and sample in air. This paper describes the humidity control system designed and built for the interferometrically traceable metrology AFM (IT-MAFM) at VTT MIKES. The humidity control is based on circulating the air of the AFM enclosure via dryer and humidifier paths with adjustable flow and mixing ratio of dry and humid air. The design humidity range of the system is 20-60 %rh. Force-distance adhesion studies at humidity levels between 25 %rh and 53 %rh are presented and compared to an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The uncertainty level of the thermal noise method implementation used for force constant calibration of the AFM cantilevers is 10 %, being the dominant component of the interaction force measurement uncertainty. Comparing the simulation and the experiment, the primary uncertainties are related to the nominally 7 nm radius and shape of measurement probe apex, possible wear and contamination, and the atomistic simulation technique details. The interaction forces are of the same order of magnitude in simulation and measurement (5 nN). An elongation of a few nanometres of the water meniscus between probe tip and sample, before its rupture, is seen in simulation upon retraction of the tip in higher humidity. This behaviour is also supported by the presented experimental measurement data but the data is insufficient to conclusively verify the quantitative meniscus elongation.

  16. Temperature and Humidity Profiles in the TqJoint Data Group of AIRS Version 6 Product for the Climate Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Fang, Fan; Hearty, Thomas J.; Theobald, Michael; Vollmer, Bruce; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) mission is entering its 13th year of global observations of the atmospheric state, including temperature and humidity profiles, outgoing long-wave radiation, cloud properties, and trace gases. Thus AIRS data have been widely used, among other things, for short-term climate research and observational component for model evaluation. One instance is the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) which uses AIRS version 5 data in the climate model evaluation. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the home of processing, archiving, and distribution services for data from the AIRS mission. The GES DISC, in collaboration with the AIRS Project, released data from the version 6 algorithm in early 2013. The new algorithm represents a significant improvement over previous versions in terms of greater stability, yield, and quality of products. The ongoing Earth System Grid for next generation climate model research project, a collaborative effort of GES DISC and NASA JPL, will bring temperature and humidity profiles from AIRS version 6. The AIRS version 6 product adds a new "TqJoint" data group, which contains data for a common set of observations across water vapor and temperature at all atmospheric levels and is suitable for climate process studies. How different may the monthly temperature and humidity profiles in "TqJoint" group be from the "Standard" group where temperature and water vapor are not always valid at the same time? This study aims to answer the question by comprehensively comparing the temperature and humidity profiles from the "TqJoint" group and the "Standard" group. The comparison includes mean differences at different levels globally and over land and ocean. We are also working on examining the sampling differences between the "TqJoint" and "Standard" group using MERRA data.

  17. Trace-metal sources and their release from mine wastes: examples from humidity cell tests of hardrock mine waste and from Warrior Basin coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Desborough, G.A.; White, W.W.; Lapakko, K.A.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Fey, David L.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of metal and acid contamination from mine-waste piles, it is important to identify the mineralogic source of trace metals and their mode of occurrence. Microscopic analysis of mine-waste samples from both hard-rock and coalmine waste samples demonstrate a microstructural control, as well as mineralogic control, on the source and release of trace metals into local water systems. The samples discussed herein show multiple periods of sulfide mineralization with varying concentrations of trace metals. In the first case study, two proprietary hard-rock mine-waste samples exposed to a series of humidity cell tests (which simulate intense chemical weathering conditions) generated acid and released trace metals. Some trace elements of interest were: arsenic (45-120 ppm), copper (60-320 ppm), and zinc (30-2,500 ppm). Untested and humidity cell-exposed samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX), and electron microprobe analysis. Studies of one sample set revealed arsenic-bearing pyrite in early iron- and magnesium-rich carbonate-filled microveins, and iron-, copper-, arsenic-, antimony-bearing sulfides in later crosscutting silica-filled microveins. Post humidity cell tests indicated that the carbonate minerals were removed by leaching in the humidity cells, exposing pyrite to oxidative conditions. However, sulfides in the silica-filled veins were more protected. Therefore, the trace metals contained in the sulfides within the silica-filled microveins may be released to the surface and (or) ground water system more slowly over a greater time period. In the second case study, trace metal-rich pyrite-bearing coals from the Warrior Basin, Alabama were analyzed. Arsenic-bearing pyrite was observed in a late-stage pyrite phase in microfaults and microveins that crosscut earlier arsenic.

  18. Lower-tropospheric humidity: climatology, trends and the relation to the ITCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Läderach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropical region is an area of maximum humidity and serves as the major humidity source of the globe. Among other phenomena, it is governed by the so-called Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ which is commonly defined by converging low-level winds or enhanced precipitation. Given its importance as a humidity source, we investigate the humidity fields in the tropics in different reanalysis data sets, deduce the climatology and variability and assess the relationship to the ITCZ. Therefore, a new analysis method of the specific humidity distribution is introduced which allows detecting the location of the humidity maximum, the strength and the meridional extent. The results show that the humidity maximum in boreal summer is strongly shifted northward over the warm pool/Asia Monsoon area and the Gulf of Mexico. These shifts go along with a peak in the strength in both areas; however, the extent shrinks over the warm pool/Asia Monsoon area, whereas it is wider over the Gulf of Mexico. In winter, such connections between location, strength and extent are not found. Still, a peak in strength is again identified over the Gulf of Mexico in boreal winter. The variability of the three characteristics is dominated by inter-annual signals in both seasons. The results using ERA-interim data suggest a positive trend in the Gulf of Mexico/Atlantic region from 1979 to 2010, showing an increased northward shift in the recent years. Although the trend is only weakly confirmed by the results using MERRA reanalysis data, it is in phase with a trend in hurricane activity – a possible hint of the importance of the new method on hurricanes. Furthermore, the position of the maximum humidity coincides with one of the ITCZ in most areas. One exception is the western and central Pacific, where the area is dominated by the double ITCZ in boreal winter. Nevertheless, the new method enables us to gain more insight into the humidity distribution, its variability and

  19. Spatially resolved resistance of NiO nanostructures under humid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Christopher B [ORNL; Ievlev, Anton [ORNL; Collins, Liam F [ORNL; Muckley, Eric S [ORNL; Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The spatially resolved electrical response of polycrystalline NiO films composed of 40 nm crystallites was investigated under different relative humidity levels (RH). The topological and electrical properties (surface potential and resistance) were characterized with sub 25nm resolution using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and conductive scanning probe microscopy under argon atmosphere at 0%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity. The dimensionality of surface features obtained through autocorrelation analysis of topological maps increased linearly with increased relative humidity, as water was adsorbed onto the film surface. Surface potential decreased from about 280mV to about 100 mV and resistance decreased from about 5 G to about 3 G , in a nonlinear fashion when relative humidity was increased from 0% to 80%. Spatially resolved surface potential and resistance of the NiO films was found to be heterogeneous throughout the film, with distinct domains that grew in size from about 60 nm to 175 nm at 0% and 80% RH levels, respectively. The heterogeneous character of the topological, surface potential, and resistance properties of the polycrystalline NiO film observed under dry conditions decreased with increased relative humidity, yielding nearly homogeneous surface properties at 80% RH, suggesting that the nanoscale potential and resistance properties converge with the mesoscale properties as water is adsorbed onto the NiO film.

  20. Trends of surface humidity and temperature during 1951-2012 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Q.; Xu, Z.; Peng, D.; Yang, X.; Yang, G.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, two datasets, a long time series (1951-2012) of daily surface observations at one meteorological station and a shorter time series (1979-2012) of three-hourly data with 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution were analysed by using non-parametric methods to identify annual and seasonal variations in surface humidity and temperature. The results reveal that: (1) saturation water vapour pressure increased exponentially with temperature. Actual daily values at Beijing Meteorological Station are very close to the theoretical values estimated by using the simplified Clausius-Clapeyron equation, but with seasonal variations. (2) For both long- and short-term data, clear increasing tendencies of annual saturation specific humidity and temperature are found. Decreasing and drying trends were detected for winter. (3) The annual relative humidity showed a decreasing trend except for some suburban areas, somehow related to the lower temperature and increased specific humidity in those areas. (4) Regional changes in topography and elevation likely influenced trends in surface humidity, while local land use showed little effect on it.

  1. Human-Finger Electronics Based on Opposing Humidity-Resistance Responses in Carbon Nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing properties. Here, it is demonstrated that multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)- and reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO)-based conductive films have opposite humidity/electrical resistance responses: MWCNTs increase their electrical resistance (positive response) and rGOs decrease their electrical resistance (negative response). The authors propose a new phenomenology that describes a "net"-like model for MWCNT films and a "scale"-like model for rGO films to explain these behaviors based on contributions from junction resistances (at interparticle junctions) and intrinsic resistances (of the particles). This phenomenology is accordingly validated via a series of experiments, which complement more classical models based on proton conductivity. To explore the practical applications of the converse humidity/resistance responses, a humidity-insensitive MWCNT/rGO hybrid conductive films is developed, which has the potential to greatly improve the stability of carbon-based electrical device to humidity. The authors further investigate the application of such films to human-finger electronics by fabricating transparent flexible devices consisting of a polyethylene terephthalate substrate equipped with an MWCNT/rGO pattern for gesture recognition, and MWCNT/rGO/MWCNT or rGO/MWCNT/rGO patterns for 3D noncontact sensing, which will be complementary to existing 3D touch technology.

  2. A Low-Power Integrated Humidity CMOS Sensor by Printing-on-Chip Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A low-power, wide-dynamic-range integrated humidity sensing chip is implemented using a printable polymer sensing material with an on-chip pulse-width-modulation interface circuit. By using the inkjet printing technique, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene/polystyrene sulfonate that has humidity sensing features can be printed onto the top metal layer of a 0.35 μm CMOS IC. The developed printing-on-chip humidity sensor achieves a heterogeneous three dimensional sensor system-on-chip architecture. The humidity sensing of the implemented printing-on-chip sensor system is experimentally tested. The sensor shows a sensitivity of 0.98% to humidity in the atmosphere. The maximum dynamic range of the readout circuit is 9.8 MΩ, which can be further tuned by the frequency of input signal to fit the requirement of the resistance of printed sensor. The power consumption keeps only 154 μW. This printing-on-chip sensor provides a practical solution to fulfill an ultra-small integrated sensor for the applications in miniaturized sensing systems.

  3. Effect of relative humidity on the peeling behavior of a thin film on a rigid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhilong; Wang, Cong; Yang, Yazheng; Chen, Shaohua

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by gecko adhesion in humid environments, a modified Kendall's model is established in order to investigate the effect of relative humidity on the interfacial peeling behavior of a thin film adhering on a rigid substrate. When the humidity is less than 90%, a monolayer of water molecules adsorbed on the substrate surface induces a strong disjoining pressure at the interface. As a result, the steady-state peel-off force between the thin film and substrate is significantly enhanced. When the humidity is greater than 90%, water molecules condense into water droplets. Four different peeling models are established on this occasion, depending on the surface wettability of the film and substrate. It is found that the steady-state peel-off force is influenced by the water meniscus in a complicated manner, which is either enhanced or reduced by the water capillarity comparing to that predicted by the classical Kendall's model, i.e., a dry peeling model. It should be noted that, at the vicinity of the wetting transition, the peel-off force of the four models can be reduced to an identical one, which means the four peeling models can transit from one to another continuously. The present model, as an extension of the classical Kendall's one, should be useful not only for understanding gecko adhesion in humid environments, but also for analyzing interface behaviors of a film-substrate system in real applications.

  4. Sporicidal properties from surface micro-discharge plasma under different plasma conditions at different humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J.; Klaempfl, T. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.; Morfill, G. E.; Shimizu, T.

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, bacterial endospores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are exposed to the surface micro-discharge plasma for 5 min and the humidity and power consumption are varied. At the low humidity of 5.5 ± 0.5 g m-3, almost no sporicidal effect (<0.5 log) is observed. At the high humidity of 17.9 ± 0.6 g m-3, the spore reduction increases monotonically up to 3.5 log with increasing power consumption. At a humidity of 10.4 ± 0.6 g m-3, the spores are inactivated in a limited range of power consumption with a maximum reduction of ˜2.5 log. The survival curves show a single-slope decrease of the spores. The contribution of heat and UV to the sporicidal effect as well as the inactivation of spores by the short-lived species from the plasma are ruled out. The concentration of ozone, one indicator for the long-lived species, is measured and no correlation with the sporicidal effect is found. In conclusion, water-related reactive species, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, appear to be responsible for the sporicidal effect under the investigated conditions. Furthermore, condensation of water at high humidity enables the plasma-activated water containing both long-lived and short-lived reactive species to contribute to the sporicidal effect.

  5. Exploiting the igloo principle and greenhouse effect to regulate humidity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Karthick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic epidermal necrolysis can be fatal and nursing care with careful monitoring of temperature and humidity can improve survival rate. We adapted the greenhouse and igloo principle using a common hood to monitor the temperature and humidity. Methods: A small heater with a regulator was placed in a mini hood and temperature was recorded inside the uncovered hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The regular hood was placed over a volunteer and the temperature was measured inside the open hood and hood covered with green cloth and aluminium foil separately. The relative humidity was also monitored using Zeal mercury dry - wet bulb hygrometer. Results: Temperature increase was most marked in the foil-covered hood followed by cloth-covered hood, both with the heater and the volunteer. Similarly, in the volunteer study, the humidity was best maintained inside the aluminium foil-covered hood. Conclusion: We recommend the use of regular hood with suitable cover to monitor the humidity and temperature of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis.

  6. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO2-TiO2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant.

  7. AC Response to Humidity and Propane of Sprayed Fe-Zn Oxide Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro AVILA-GARCÍA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron-zinc oxide films with different Zn contents were ultrasonically sprayed on glass substrates and inter-digital gold electrodes were evaporated upon them. Films were deposited from solutions containing 2, 10 and 30 at. % Zn. Hematite, amorphous and Franklinite structures turned out, respectively. They were assessed as humidity and propane detectors under alternating-current conditions for frequencies from 1 to 105 Hz and temperatures 30 and 250 oC. Their impedances in dry air, humid air and humid air plus propane were determined from voltage measurements with a Lock-In amplifier. Sensitivities to humidity (53 % RH. and 189, 500 and 786 ppm of propane from the response of the resistance, reactance and also the total impedance were determined as functions of frequency. The maximum sensitivity to humidity ranges from 24 % up to 308 %. For propane, the maximum sensitivity ranges from 45 % up to 711 %. The largest sensitivity values correspond in all cases to reactance. From the dynamical response, the response and recovery times are determined, along with the concentration-dependence of the sensitivity. The sensing mechanisms are commented.

  8. High sensitivity flexible Lamb-wave humidity sensors with a graphene oxide sensing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Xingli; Chen, Jinkai; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaozhi; Xu, Yang; Xu, Zhen; Fu, Y Q; Luo, J K

    2015-04-28

    This paper reports high performance flexible Lamb wave humidity sensors with a graphene oxide sensing layer. The devices were fabricated on piezoelectric ZnO thin films deposited on flexible polyimide substrates. Two resonant peaks, namely the zero order antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0) mode Lamb waves, were observed and fitted well with the theoretical analysis and modelling. With graphene oxide microflakes as the sensing layer, the sensing performance of both wave modes was investigated. The humidity sensitivity of the A0 mode is 145.83 ppm per %RH (at humidity 85%RH), higher than that of S0 mode of 89.35 ppm per %RH. For the first time, we have demonstrated that the flexible humidity sensors work as usual without noticeable deterioration in performance even under severe bending conditions up to 1500 με. Also the sensors showed an excellent stability upon repeated bending for thousand times. All the results demonstrated that the Lamb wave flexible humidity sensors have a great potential for application in flexible electronics.

  9. Modelling of the humidity effect on the barrier height in SnO{sub 2} varistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovsky, I. [Department of Radioelectronics, Dniepropetrovsk National University, Dniepropetrovsk 49050 (Ukraine); Glot, A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: alexglot@mixteco.utm.mx; Traversa, E. [Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Tin dioxide based SnO{sub 2}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic device with combined varistor and humidity-sensitive properties is studied. This varistor-sensor has high humidity sensitivity coefficient of about 420 at low electric field and high non-linearity coefficient of about 50 at electric field 3500 V cm{sup -1}. Current-voltage characteristics of the samples with separate electrodes for the central and the peripheral parts are studied in air with different relative humidity. It is shown that current through the peripheral part of a sample is increased much stronger than through the central part. The observed increase of low-field current on relative humidity is explained by the decrease of the barrier height. The estimations of the lowering of the barrier height in a humid air is performed using the suggested models.

  10. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  11. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  12. Regional difference of aridity/humidity conditions changeover China during the last thirty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yunhe; WU Shaohong; ZHENG Du; YANG Qingye

    2005-01-01

    The meteorological data of 616 stations in China were used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index by applying the modified FAO-Penman-Monteith model. Regional difference of trends in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index over China and their interdecadal variations were analyzed from 1971 to 2000. The results show that all the four climatic factors trends have obvious regional difference and interdecadal variations. Annual precipitation during the 30-year period shows an increasing trend over most regions of China, with decreasing trends in potential evapotranspiration and aridity/humidity index. Most regions in China become more humid, especially significant in northern Xinjiang, eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, and northern Yunnan. The average value over China would mask the regional difference of climate change because of the complex environmental condition in China. Therefore regional difference should be analyzed to further understand climate change and its impacts. Both water supply and demand need to be considered when attempting to study regional aridity/humidity conditions.

  13. Designing and adjusting the thickness of polyvinylpyrrolidone waveguide layer on plasmonic nanofilm for humidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiqing; Bai, Lan; Guo, Lijiao; Cao, Baosheng; Wu, Jinlei; He, Yangyang

    2017-01-01

    We developed a fast response and high-resolution plasmonic waveguide sensor for sensing environmental humidity by converting the optical signal in the visible light region. The sensor was designed as a layer-on-layer film structure in which the hydrophilic polymer of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) film served as the waveguide layer and was dip-coated onto the plasmonic gold (Au) nanofilm for sensing the environmental humidity. The amount of the absorbed water molecules on the PVP layer could affect the refractive index and thickness of the PVP, leading to a shift of the surface plasmon resonance peak position of Au nanofilm at the different order modes of the waveguide. The theoretic calculations indicated that the optimal thickness of the waveguide layer on the Au nanofilm ranged from 550 to 650 nm. By adjusting the thickness of the PVP layer to 560 nm, the high-resolution optical signals were observed in the visible light region with the humidity shifts ranging from 11% to 85% relative humidity (RH). Our work details a successful attempt to design and prepare the plasmonic waveguide sensor with the lost-cost polymer as the sensing layer for real-time detection of environmental humidity.

  14. Analysis of Building Envelope Insulation Performance Utilizing Integrated Temperature and Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of high energy consumption for air conditioning in indoor spaces is the thermal storage characteristics of a building’s envelope concrete material; therefore, the physiological signals (temperature and humidity within concrete structures are an important reference for building energy management. The current approach to measuring temperature and humidity within concrete structures (i.e., thermocouples and fiber optics is limited by problems of wiring requirements, discontinuous monitoring, and high costs. This study uses radio frequency integrated circuits (RFIC combined with temperature and humidity sensors (T/H sensors for the design of a smart temperature and humidity information material (STHIM that automatically, regularly, and continuously converts temperature and humidity signals within concrete and transmits them by radio frequency (RF to the Building Physiology Information System (BPIS. This provides a new approach to measurement that incorporates direct measurement, wireless communication, and real-time continuous monitoring to assist building designers and users in making energy management decisions and judgments.

  15. Fiber optic humidity sensor based on the graphene oxide/PVA composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youqing; Shen, Changyu; Lou, Weimin; Shentu, Fengying

    2016-08-01

    Fiber optic humidity sensor based on an in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) coated with graphene oxide (GO)/PVA composite film was investigated. The MZI is constructed of two waist-enlarged tapers. The length between two waist-enlarged tapers is 20 mm. By comparing the experiment results of MZI coated with different GO/PVA composite films, composite film formed by the ratio of 0.3 g PVA mixed with 10 ml GO dispersion shows a better performance of relative humidity sensing. By using the molecular structure model of the composited GO/PVA, the operation mechanism between GO/PVA composite film and water molecules was illustrated. The sensitivity of 0.193 dB/%RH with a linear correlation coefficient of 99.1% and good stability under the relative humidity range of 25-80% was obtained. Temperature effect on the proposed fiber optic humidity sensor was also considered and analyzed. According to the repetitive experimental results, the proposed humidity sensor shows a good repeatability.

  16. Microwatt-Powered, Low-Cost, Printed Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors for Distributed Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of novel conductometric humidity sensors that employ an ultrathin film of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The GO film is deposited with a shadow mask using an electrospray emitter operated at atmospheric pressure; no post treatments-including annealing or doping- were applied to the GO sensors. The Van der Pauw electrode structure used in the sensor had 50 μm linewidths separated by 600 μm and was fabricated with the lift-off metallization technique. In dynamic humidity tests conducted at atmospheric pressure, the sensor tracks the response of a commercial sensor and reacts to changes in humidity in less than 500 ms. There is a quadratic dependence of the relative humidity on the sensor resistance for the relative humidity range between 3% and 63%, with more than a three-fold change in resistance over the range. The power consumption of the sensor is less than 30 μW while drawing 7 μA, and less than 15 μW while drawing 5 μA. Our devices are promising candidates for deployment in a distributed sensor network due to their low cost, small size, and low power consumption.

  17. Anomalies in relative humidity profile in the boundary layer during convective rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rohit; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Saha, Upal; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-07-01

    Radiometric observations of relative humidity profile at Kolkata show a significant fall at around 1 to 2 km height during convective rain events. An extensive investigation shows that the fall of relative humidity is not seen during calm conditions but is strongly related to the characteristics of temperature lapse rate profiles. Moreover, the phenomenon may have strong association with boundary layer structure. The reason for such anomalies in the planetary boundary layer humidity profile might be due to the release of latent heat at the mentioned altitude. The abundance of pollutant aerosols in urban regions has also been found to contribute to this relative humidity anomaly. It has also been reported that this boundary layer relative humidity is accompanied by high latent heat release and condensation of vapour to liquid which is not much prominent in other rain types as observed in stratiform rain. Hence, convective rain produces some unique boundary layer characteristics which have also been partially supported with allied satellite and multi-station observations.

  18. Effect of humidity on microstructure and properties of YBCO film prepared by TFA-MOD method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lianhong; LI Tao; GU Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial YBCO superconducting films were deposited on the single crystal LaAlO3. (001) substrate by metal organic deposition method. All YBCO films were fired at 820 ℃ in humidity range of 2.6%-19.7% atmosphere. Microstructure of YBCO thin films was ana-lyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Superconducting properties of YBCO films were measured by four-probe method. XRD results showed that the second phase (such as BaF2)and a-axis-oriented grains existed in the films prepared at 2.6% humidity condition; a-axis-oriented grains increased in the film prepared at higher than 4.2% humidity condition; almost pure c-axias-oriented grains existed in the films fired at 4.2% humidity condition. Morphologies of the YBCO films showed that all films had a smooth and crack-free surface. YBCO film prepared at 4.2% humidity condition showed Jc value of 3.3 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field.

  19. Humidity Sensitivity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks Deposited by Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Cui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the humidity sensitivity of deposited multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT networks using ac dielectrophoresis (DEP between interdigitated electrodes (IDEs. MWCNTs dispersed in ethanol were trapped and enriched between IDEs on a Si/SiO2 substrate under a positive DEP force. After the DEP process, the ethanol was evaporated and the MWCNT network on a substrate with IDEs was put into a furnace for repeated thermal annealing. It was found that the resistance stability of the network was effectively improved through thermal annealing. The humidity sensitivity was obtained by measuring the resistance of the MWCNT network with different relative humidity at room temperature. The experimental results show the resistance increases linearly with increasing the relative humidity from 25% to 95% RH with a sensitivity of 0.5%/%RH. The MWCNT networks have a reversible humidity sensing capacity with response time and recovery time of about 3 s and 25 s, respectively. The resistance is dependent on temperature with a negative coefficient of about -0.33%/K in a temperature range from 293 K to 393 K.

  20. Effects of Humidity and Surfaces on the Melt Crystallization of Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Won Kim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt crystallization of ibuprofen was studied to understand the effects of humidity and surfaces. The molecular self-assembly during the amorphous-to-crystal transformation was examined in terms of the nucleation and growth of the crystals. The crystallization was on Al, Au, and self-assembled monolayers with –CH3, –OH, and –COOH functional groups. Effects of the humidity were studied at room temperature (18–20 °C with relative humidity 33%, 75%, and 100%. Effects of the surfaces were observed at −20 °C (relative humidity 36% to enable close monitoring with slower crystal growth. The nucleation time of ibuprofen was faster at high humidity conditions probably due to the local formation of the unfavorable ibuprofen melt/water interface. The crystal morphologies of ibuprofen were governed by the nature of the surfaces, and they could be associated with the growth kinetics by the Avrami equation. The current study demonstrated the effective control of the melt crystallization of ibuprofen through the melt/atmosphere and melt/surface interfaces.

  1. Downscaling humidity with Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D. W.; Cayan, D. R.

    2016-07-01

    Humidity is important to climate impacts in hydrology, agriculture, ecology, energy demand, and human health and comfort. Nonetheless humidity is not available in some widely-used archives of statistically downscaled climate projections for the western U.S. In this work the Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) statistical downscaling method is used to downscale specific humidity to a 1°/16° grid over the conterminous U.S. and the results compared to observations. LOCA reproduces observed monthly climatological values with a mean error of ~0.5 % and RMS error of ~2 %. Extreme (1-day in 1- and 20-years) maximum values (relevant to human health and energy demand) are within ~5 % of observed, while extreme minimum values (relevant to agriculture and wildfire) are within ~15 %. The asymmetry between extreme maximum and minimum errors is largely due to residual errors in the bias correction of extreme minimum values. The temporal standard deviations of downscaled daily specific humidity values have a mean error of ~1 % and RMS error of ~3 %. LOCA increases spatial coherence in the final downscaled field by ~13 %, but the downscaled coherence depends on the spatial coherence in the data being downscaled, which is not addressed by bias correction. Temporal correlations between daily, monthly, and annual time series of the original and downscaled data typically yield values >0.98. LOCA captures the observed correlations between temperature and specific humidity even when the two are downscaled independently.

  2. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-03-23

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance responses: rGO films (< 11 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “0”), rGO films (around 11-13 h, balance point) and rGO films (> 13 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “1”). We propose a new mechanism that describes a “scale”-like model for rGO films to explain these behaviors based on contributions from Ohm-contact resistance and capacitive reactance at interplate junctions, and intrinsic resistances of the nanoplates, respectively. This mechanism is accordingly validated via a series of experiments and electrical impedance spectroscopies, which complement more classical models based on proton conductivity. To explore the practical applications of the converse humidity/resistance responses, three simple flexible logic devices were developed, i) a rGO pattern for humidity-insensitive conductive film, which has the potential to greatly improve the stability of carbon-based electrical device to humidity; ii) a Janus pattern of rGO films for gesture recognition, which is very useful to human/machine interactions; iii) a sandwich pattern of rGO films for 3-dimensional (3D) noncontact sensing, which will be complementary to existing 3D touch technique.

  3. Instant Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Elaina

    2017-01-01

    Generation Z students (born between 1995-2010) have replaced millennials on college campuses. Generation Z students are entrepreneurial, desire practical skills with their education, and are concerned about the cost of college. This article presents what need to be known about this new generation of students.

  4. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  5. Effects of High-Humidity Aging on Platinum, Palladium, and Gold Loaded Tin Oxide—Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Nishibori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation of high-humidity aging effects on the total volatile organic compound (T–VOC gas-sensing properties of platinum, palladium, and gold-loaded tin oxide (Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 thick films. The sensor responses of the high-humidity aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, a non-aged Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2, and a high-humidity aged Pt/SnO2 to T–VOC test gas have been measured. The high-humidity aging is an effective treatment for resistance to humidity change for the Pt,Pd,Au/SnO2 but not effective for the Pt/SnO2. The mechanism of the high-humidity aging effects is discussed based on the change of surface state of the SnO2 particles.

  6. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  7. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  8. Humidity Sensing Properties of Paper Substrates and Their Passivation with ZnO Nanoparticles for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchos, Georgios; Dubourg, Georges; Afroudakis, Georgios; Georgopoulos, Markos; Tsouti, Vasiliki; Makarona, Eleni; Crnojevic-Bengin, Vesna; Tsamis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of humidity on paper substrates and propose a simple and low-cost method for their passivation using ZnO nanoparticles. To this end, we built paper-based microdevices based on an interdigitated electrode (IDE) configuration by means of a mask-less laser patterning method on simple commercial printing papers. Initial resistive measurements indicate that a paper substrate with a porous surface can be used as a cost-effective, sensitive and disposable humidity sensor in the 20% to 70% relative humidity (RH) range. Successive spin-coated layers of ZnO nanoparticles then, control the effect of humidity. Using this approach, the sensors become passive to relative humidity changes, paving the way to the development of ZnO-based gas sensors on paper substrates insensitive to humidity. PMID:28273847

  9. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  10. Development and Application of Grid-GA Model in a Semi-Humid and Semi-Arid Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Li, Z.; Bao, H.; Yu, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Modeling the hydrologic processes in semi-arid and semi-humid basins is specially challenging due to the specific characteristics of these basins. In this paper, combining with GIS technology and DEM, the Grid- and Green-Ampt infiltration approach-based distributed hydrologic model of the runoff-production in excess infiltration is developed (Grid-GA model). In Grid-GA model, the Green-Ampt infiltration approach has improved in three parts: (1) the effective hydraulic conductivity of the wetting front at saturation, is power function decaying with the depth of the wetting front; (2) F, the cumulative infiltration, is modified at the end of every time step; (3) the moisture content rate of the soil, is redistribution during the infiltration process. In flow concentration formation, there are kinematic wave approach for un-channel grid and Muskingum approach for channel grid. The model described that includes vegetation and root interception, evapotranspiration, and runoff generation via the excess infiltration mechanism, as well as subsurface via the Darcian approach used by TOPMODEL, runoff concentration, and flow routing. The water exchange among grids within the watershed and the runoff routing along the river drainage networks are taken into consideration in the model. The Grid-GA model is applied to Gaoli basin in Yi River, a tributary of the Yishusi Watershed, with an area of 552 km2 for flood simulation. The results show that the model performs well in the simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in the semi-humid and semi-arid region.

  11. How important is tropospheric humidity for coastal rainfall in the tropics?

    CERN Document Server

    Bergemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has community have shown that tropical convection and rainfall is sensitive to mid-tropospheric humidity. Therefore it has been suggested to improve the representation of moist convection by making cumulus parameterizations more sensitive to mid-tropospheric moisture. Climate models show considerable rainfall biases in coastal tropical areas, where approx. 33 % of the overall rainfall received is associated with coastal land-sea interaction. Building on an algorithm to objectively identify rainfall that is associated with land-sea interaction we investigate whether the relationship between rainfall in coastal regions and atmospheric humidity differs from that over the open ocean or over inland areas. We combine 3-hourly satellite estimates of rainfall with humidity estimates from reanalyses and investigate if coastal rainfall reveals the well known relationship between area-averaged precipitation and column integrated moisture. We find that rainfall that is associated with coastal land-sea eff...

  12. Degradation testing and failure analysis of DC film capacitors under high humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Metallized polypropylene film capacitors are widely used for high-voltage DC-link applications in power electronic converters. They generally have better reliability performance compared to aluminum electrolytic capacitors under electro-thermal stresses within specifications. However......, the degradation of the film capacitors is a concern in applications exposed to high humidity environments. This paper investigates the degradation of a type of plastic-boxed metallized DC film capacitors under different humidity conditions based on a total of 8700 h of accelerated testing and also post failure...... of interest is also presented. The study enables a better understanding of the humidity-related failure mechanisms and reliability performance of DC film capacitors for power electronics applications....

  13. Humidity effect on electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyang; Dong, Xiaoli; Yuan, Shouyi; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we compare the performance of Li-O2 batteries in pure/dry O2, pure O2 with a relative humidity (RH) of 15% and ambient air with an RH of 50%, and analyze the ambient humidity effect on the reactions in the carbon-based catalytic electrode. Electrochemical investigation indicates that discharge capacities of Li-O2 batteries increased with growth of RH value, but cyclic ability and rate performance are influenced in an opposite way. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest that ambient humidity affects not only the Li2O2/O2 conversion, LiCO3/CO2 conversion and LiOH formation but also the morphology of discharge products in porous catalytic electrode over charge/discharge cycle. These results may be important for developing Li-air battery.

  14. THE IMPACT OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE RADIATIVE PROPERTY AND RADIATIVE FORCING OF SULFATE AEROSOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立盛; 石广玉

    2001-01-01

    With the data of complex refractive index of sulfate aerosol, the radiative properties of the aerosol under 8 relative humidity conditions are calculated in this paper. By using the concentration distribution from two CTM models and LASG GOALS/AGCM, the radiative forcing due to hygroscopic sulfate aerosol is simulated. The results show that: (1) With the increase of relative humidity, the mass extinction coefficiency factor decreases in the shortwave spectrum: single scattering albedo keeps unchanged except for a little increase in longwave spectrum, and asymmetry factor increases in whole spectrum. (2) Larger differences occur in radiative forcing simulated by using two CTM data, and the global mean forcing is -0. 268 and -0. 816 W/m2,respectively. (3) When the impact of relative humidity on radiative property is taken into account,the distribution pattern of radiative forcing due to the wet particles is very similar to that of dry sulfate, but the forcing value decreases by 6%.

  15. Preparation and properties of DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings for high humidity tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhibin; Wu, Guizhi; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2016-06-01

    The DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings with different modulus ratios were deposited by magnetron sputtering in this study. The morphology, structure, composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were investigated using several analytical techniques (FESEM, AFM, TEM, AES, XPS, nanoindentation and high humidity tribological test). The results showed that the well-defined multilayer coatings were composed of densely packed particles in which many nanocrystallines with some kinds of defects were distributed in matrix. The incorporation of oxygen into the lattice led to the degraded chemical stability. The coating’s hardness and elastic modulus were almost in the same range. Moderate improvement on the high humidity tribological properties were obtained, which was important for the extension of the service life of MoS2 in humid air.

  16. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  17. Thin films from hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide) copolymers as optical indicators for humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, K.; Todorova, L.; Christova, D.; Vasileva, M.; Georgiev, R.; Madjarova, V.; Babeva, T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we study thin films from poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PDMAA/PEO) copolymers of different composition and structure in order to implement them as sensitive media for optical indicators for humidity. PDMAA/PEO di- and triblock copolymers were synthesized via redox polymerization in aqueous media. Thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by spin coating method using polymers solutions with appropriate concentrations. Refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness of the films are calculated from reflectance spectra of the films deposited on silicon substrates using non-linear curve fitting method. Sensing properties of the films were tested by films exposure to different humidity levels followed by in-situ monitoring of the changes in the optical properties. The influence of the polymer structure and postdeposition annealing on the optical and sensing properties of the films was investigated. The potential application of selected polymers for optical sensing of humidity were demonstrated and discussed.

  18. Design and implementation of temperature and humidity monitoring system for poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Hindriyanto Dwi; Somya, Ramos; Fibriani, Charitas; Purwoko, Angga; Sadiyah, Ulfa

    2016-10-01

    Automatic monitoring system gains significant interest in poultry industry due to the need of consistent environment condition. Appropriate environment increase the feed conversion ratio as well as birds productivity. This will increase the competitiveness of the poultry industry. In this research, a temperature and humidity monitoring system is proposed to observer the temperature and relative humidity of a poultry house. The system is intended to be applied in the poultry industry with partnership schema. The proposed system is equipped with CCTV for visual monitoring. The measured temperature and humidity implement wireless sensor network technology. The experiment results reveals that proposed system have the potential to increase the effectiveness of monitoring of poultry house in poultry industry with partnership schema.

  19. Relative humidity multi-point optical sensors system based on fast Fourier multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Lopez-Torres, D.; Elosua, C.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.; Arregui, F. J.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new multipoint optical fiber system for relative humidity measurements based on SnO2-FP (Fabry-Pérot) sensing heads and an optical interrogator as single active device is presented and characterized. The interrogation of the sensing heads is carried out by monitoring the Fast Fourier Transform phase variations of the FP (Fabry-Pérot) interference frequencies. This method allows to multiplex several sensors with different wavelength spacing interference pattern. The sensors operate within a wide humidity range (20%-90% relative humidity) with low crosstalk between them. Five sensing heads have been measured using two different channels of the optical interrogator. The availability of four channels in the interrogator allows to multiplex a higher number of sensors, reducing proportionally the cost of each sensing point.

  20. Experimental study on velocity characteristics of recirculation zone in humid air non-premixed flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of the flow field within the recirculation zone on flame structure,the characteristic velocity fields of methane/humid air flame in nonpremixed combustion behind a disc bluff-body burner were experimentally studied by particle image velocimeter (PIV).The results show that two stagnation points exist on the centerline in the recirculation zone flame.However,the distance of the two stagnation points in humid air combustion shortens,and the minimal dimensionless velocity increases compared with the conventional nonhumid air combustion.In addition,the positional curves of the minimal velocities can be partitioned into three phases representing three different flame patterns.The analysis of axial minimal velocities on the centerline and their positions under different co-flow air velocity conditions reveals that fuel-to-air velocity ratio is the crucial parameter that governs humid air combustion flame characteristics.