WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-pion exchange term

  1. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  2. Pionic retardation effects in two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Friar, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Those two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces which arise from nuclear processes that involve only pions and nucleons are calculated. Among the processes which contribute are pion seagulls (e.g., nucleon-antinucleon pair terms) and overlapping, retarded pion exchanges. The resulting potential is shown to be a (v/c) 2 relativistic correction, and satisfies nontrivial constraints from special relativity. The relativistic ambiguities found before in treatments of relativistic corrections to the one-pion-exchange nuclear charge operator and two-body potential are also present in the three-nucleon potential. The resulting three-nucleon force differs from the original Tucson-Melbourne potential only in the presence of several new nonlocal terms, and in the specification of the choice of ambiguity parameters in the latter potential

  3. Pionic retardation effects in two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, S. A.; Friar, J. L.

    1986-09-01

    Those two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces which arise from nuclear processes that involve only pions and nucleons are calculated. Among the processes which contribute are pion seagulls (e.g., nucleon-antinucleon pair terms) and overlapping, retarded pion exchanges. The resulting potential is shown to be a (v/c)2 relativistic correction, and satisfies nontrivial constraints from special relativity. The relativistic ambiguities found before in treatments of relativistic corrections to the one-pion-exchange nuclear charge operator and two-body potential are also present in the three-nucleon potential. The resulting three-nucleon force differs from the original Tucson-Melbourne potential only in the presence of several new nonlocal terms, and in the specification of the choice of ambiguity parameters in the latter potential.

  4. Pionic retardation effects in two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, S.A.; Friar, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    Those two-pion-exchange three-nucleon forces which arise from nuclear processes that involve only pions and nucleons are calculated. Among the processes which contribute are pion seagulls (e.g., nucleon-antinucleon pair terms) and overlapping, retarded pion exchanges. The resulting potential is shown to be a (v-italic/c-italic)/sup 2/ relativistic correction, and satisfies nontrivial constraints from special relativity. The relativistic ambiguities found before in treatments of relativistic corrections to the one-pion-exchange nuclear charge operator and two-body potential are also present in the three-nucleon potential. The resulting three-nucleon force differs from the original Tucson-Melbourne potential only in the presence of several new nonlocal terms, and in the specification of the choice of ambiguity parameters in the latter potential.

  5. Perturbative renormalizability of chiral two-pion exchange in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon Valderrama, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the perturbative renormalizability of chiral two-pion exchange for singlet and triplet channels within effective field theory, provided that the one-pion exchange piece of the interaction has been fully iterated. We determine the number of counterterms/subtractions needed to obtain finite results when the cutoff is removed, resulting in three counterterms for the singlet channel and six for the triplet. The results show that perturbative chiral two-pion exchange reproduce the data up to a center-of-mass momentum of k∼200-300 MeV in the singlet channel and k∼300-400 MeV in the triplet.

  6. Two-pion exchange contributions to nuclear charge asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Niskanen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    An explicit 2π exchange (TPE) potential based on non-relativistic πNN and πΔN vertices with the baryon mass differences taken into account in the vertices is extended to the study of mirror nuclear systems. For the latter study, one must also include baryon mass differences in the intermediate state energy denominators. The TPE potential includes box and crossed box diagrams with two nucleons and those with one nucleon and one Δ. Nuclear charge asymmetry is characterized, in part, by a positive value for the difference Δa = |a nn | - |a pp | ∼ O(1 fm) and a positive value for the 3 H - 3 He binding energy difference ΔE ∼ O(100 keV). The charge asymmetry from baryon mass differences in the vertices is small on this scale and in the wrong direction compared to the empirical values. The contribution from baryon mass differences in the intermediate state energy denominators is positive and is of the order of the empirical scales, in contrast to the previous estimate of Δa ∼ +0.3 fm obtained from an SU(2) symmetric covariant field theoretical potential. This discrepancy between models of TPE is being investigated

  7. Δ effects in pion-nucleon scattering and the strength of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Phillips, D.R.; Kolck, U. van

    2005-01-01

    We consider the relationship between p-wave πN scattering and the strength of the p-wave two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction (TPE3NI). We explain why effective theories that do not contain the Delta resonance as an explicit degree of freedom tend to overestimate the strength of the TPE3NI. The overestimation can be remedied by higher-order terms in these 'Delta-less' theories, but such terms are not yet included in state-of-the-art chiral effective field theory calculations of the nuclear force. This suggests that these calculations can predict the strength of the TPE3NI only to an accuracy of ±25%

  8. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: Role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    2004-01-01

    We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter in chiral perturbation theory by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual $\\Delta(1232)$-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, $\\bar E_0 = -16 $MeV, $\\rho_0 = 0.16 $fm$^{-3}$, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-...

  9. Chiral approach to nuclear matter: role of two-pion exchange with virtual delta-isobar excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, virtual delta-isobar excitation S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    2005-04-01

    We extend a recent three-loop calculation of nuclear matter by including the effects from two-pion exchange with single and double virtual Δ(1232)-isobar excitation. Regularization dependent short-range contributions from pion-loops are encoded in a few NN-contact coupling constants. The empirical saturation point of isospin-symmetric nuclear matter, E=-16 MeV, ρ=0.16 fm, can be well reproduced by adjusting the strength of a two-body term linear in density (and tuning an emerging three-body term quadratic in density). The nuclear matter compressibility comes out as K=304 MeV. The real single-particle potential U(p,k) is substantially improved by the inclusion of the chiral πNΔ-dynamics: it grows now monotonically with the nucleon momentum p. The effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface takes on a realistic value of M(k)=0.88M. As a consequence of these features, the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition gets lowered to the value T≃15 MeV. In this work we continue the complex-valued single-particle potential U(p,k)+iW(p,k) into the region above the Fermi surface p>k. The effects of 2 π-exchange with virtual Δ-excitation on the nuclear energy density functional are also investigated. The effective nucleon mass associated with the kinetic energy density is M(ρ)=0.64M. Furthermore, we find that the isospin properties of nuclear matter get significantly improved by including the chiral πNΔ-dynamics. Instead of bending downward above ρ as in previous calculations, the energy per particle of pure neutron matter E(k) and the asymmetry energy A(k) now grow monotonically with density. In the density regime ρ=2ρnuclear physics our results agree well with sophisticated many-body calculations and (semi)-empirical values.

  10. Contribution of the two-pion exchange potentials to the P-odd pp-scattering asymmetry at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.; Podgornov, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The P-odd asymmetry Asub(pp) of the pp-scattering is calculated within the potential approach for 15 and 45 MeV taking account of the isovector 2π-exchange in additionto the rho 0 ω-exchanges. The corresponding 2 π-potentials areobtained with the account of Δ-isobar configurations. The main contribution of the 2π-exchange to the Asub(pp) is shown to lie in the range of larger internucleon distances than that of the rho 0 , ω-exchange the former must be taken into account while calculating the Asub(pp). The obtained 2π-exchange contribution to the Asub(pp) is comparable with that of the rho 0 , ω-exchange

  11. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.

    2012-01-25

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 < M{\\pi}{\\pi} < 2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb-1. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 < Q2 < 80 GeV2, 32 < W < 180 GeV and |t| < 0.6 GeV2, where Q2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, |F(M{\\pi}{\\pi})|, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {\\rho}, {\\rho}' and {\\rho}" vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q2 dependence of the cross-section ratios {\\sigma}({\\rho}' \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) and {\\sigma}({\\rho}" \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained...

  12. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ashery, D.; Gueta, O.; Gurvich, E.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.

    2012-01-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 ππ -1 . The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 2 2 , 32 2 , where Q 2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M ππ ) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ' and ρ'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q 2 dependence of the cross-section ratios σ(ρ'→ππ)/ σ(ρ) and σ(ρ''→ππ)/ σ(ρ) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e + e - →π + π - . (orig.)

  13. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4< M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}} <2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2< Q{sup 2}<80 GeV{sup 2}, 32two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho}{sup '} and {rho}'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q{sup 2} dependence of the cross-section ratios {sigma}({rho}{sup '} {yields} {pi}{pi})/{sigma}({rho}) and {sigma}({rho}'' {yields} {pi}{pi})/{sigma}({rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. (orig.)

  14. Study of the Two Pion Photoproduction on Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Lewis P. Graham, Jr.

    Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong inter-action physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the γN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Δ resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large Acceptance

  15. Study of the Two-pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Lewis P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong interaction physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the yN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Delta resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large

  16. Probing the 'nutcracker' by two-pion correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi; Morita, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the 'nutcracker' phenomenon by studying two-pion correlation functions of non-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We apply the full (3+1)-dimensional hydro-dynamic model with first order phase transition. Based on numerical results which shows the 'nutcracked' freeze-out hypersurface, we calculate the two-pion correlation functions. In the case of snapshot hypersurfaces which clearly show the nut-shell structure, we find a interesting behavior at high relative momenta. We discuss the possibility of observing the phenomenon in heavy ion experiments. (author)

  17. Distortion of two-pion interferometry by multipion correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.N.; Liu, Y.M.; Wang, S.; Liu, Q.J.; Jiang, J.; Keane, D.; Shao, Y.; Chu, S.Y.; Fung, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Multipion correlations arising from the symmetrization of the n-pion wave function affect the extracted information from two-pion correlation measurements. The influence of multipion correlations on a sample of like-pion pairs can be expressed as a multipion correlation factor, the distribution of which offers good sensitivity to the multipion correlation effect. Analyses of the multipion correlation factor for two Bevalac streamer chamber data samples of 2.1A GeV Ne+Pb and 1.8A GeV Ar+Pb collisions show that the multipion correlation effect in the former sample is greater than in the latter. This result mainly arises from the fact that the pion source for Ne projectiles is smaller than for Ar projectiles. The residual correlations in the reference sample are related to the multipion correlation factor in multipion events, which can be expressed as a residual correlation factor. The influence of multipion correlations on two-pion interferometry analyses arises from the ratio of the residual correlation factor to the multipion correlation factor

  18. P-odd two-pion potentials and asymmetry of pp scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musakhanov, M.M.; Podgornov, Y.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The asymmetry of pp scattering A/sub p//sub p/ is calculated using the potential approach for incident proton energies of 15 and 45 MeV taking into account the isovector P-odd two-pion interaction. The corresponding 2π potentials are obtained in the static approximation of the noncovariant technique taking into account Δ-isobar configurations. The pion-baryon cutoff form factors are taken from chiral bag models. Owing to the lack of reliable information on the nucleon bag radius R, the contribution of 2π exchange to A/sub p//sub p/ is given for the fairly wide range R = 0.4--1.0 F. The strong interaction is taken into account by the introduction of the phenomenological Reid soft-core and Paris potentials. It is shown that most of the 2π-exchange contribution comes from the region where the internucleon separations are larger than they are where the contribution of rho 0 - and ω-meson exchange dominates and that the former contribution must be included in A/sub p//sub p/. The resulting contribution of the 2π potential to A/sub p//sub p/ is of the same order as the contribution of the rho 0 and ω potentials

  19. Pomeron-Odderon interference effects in electroproduction of two pions

    CERN Document Server

    Hägler, P; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V

    2002-01-01

    We study Pomeron-Odderon interference effects giving rise to charge and single-spin asymmetries in diffractive electroproduction of a pi sup + pi sup - pair. We calculate these asymmetries, originating from both longitudinal and transverse polarizations of the virtual photon, in the framework of QCD and in the Born approximation, in a kinematical domain accessible to HERA experiments. We predict a sizable charge asymmetry with a characteristic dependence on the invariant mass of the pi sup + pi sup - pair, which makes this observable very important for establishing the magnitude of the Odderon exchange in hard processes. The single-spin asymmetry turns out to be rather small. We briefly discuss future improvements of our calculations and their possible effects on the results. (orig.)

  20. Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, Simone

    2012-10-08

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32{sup 3} x 64 and a 40{sup 3} x 64 lattice with N{sub f}=2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.

  1. Scattering phase shift for elastic two pion scattering and the rho resonance in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzwiller, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute scattering phase shifts for elastic two-pion scattering in the isospin I=1 channel. Using Luescher's formalism, we derive the scattering phase shifts for different total momenta of the two-pion system in a non-rest frame. Furthermore we analyse the symmetries of the non-rest frame lattices and construct 2-pion and rho operators transforming in accordance with these symmetries. The data was collected for a 32 3 x 64 and a 40 3 x 64 lattice with N f =2 clover improved Wilson fermions at a pion mass around 290 MeV and a lattice spacing of about 0.072 fm.

  2. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Dagmar; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, Vojtěch; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slívová, J.; Specht, H. J.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, Michal; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 714, 1/2 (2003), s. 124-144 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0879; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : two-pion correlation function * heavy-ion collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.761, year: 2003

  3. Effect of two-pion exchange in nucleon-nucleon scattering in high partial waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun ar Rashid, A.M.; Chaudhury, T.K.

    1983-01-01

    The work of Brown and Durso (Phys. Lett. 35B, 120 (1971)) on the soft-pion determination of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction is extended by using the most general form of the ΔNπ interaction which involves an arbitrary parameter Z. It is shown that both the annihilation channel helicity amplitude fsub(+)sup((O))(t) as well as peripheral proton-proton scattering phase shifts seem to favour Z=1/2. (author)

  4. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of a two-pion interferometry (HBT) analysis in Pb+Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV. A detailed study of the Bertsch-Pratt HBT radius parameters has been performed as function of the mean pair transverse momentum k t and in bins of the centrality of the collision. From these results we extract model-dependent information about the space-time evolution of the reaction. An investigation of the effective volume of the pion emitting system provides an important tool to study the properties of thermal pion freeze-out

  5. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H. E-mail: appels@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.V

    2003-02-10

    Results are presented of a two-pion interferometry (HBT) analysis in Pb+Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV. A detailed study of the Bertsch-Pratt HBT radius parameters has been performed as function of the mean pair transverse momentum k{sub t} and in bins of the centrality of the collision. From these results we extract model-dependent information about the space-time evolution of the reaction. An investigation of the effective volume of the pion emitting system provides an important tool to study the properties of thermal pion freeze-out.

  6. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  7. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=900 GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; de Rooij, R. S.; Grelli, A.; Ivan, C.G.; Kamermans, R.; Mischke, A.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Peitzmann, T.; Simili, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at square(s)=900 GeV performed by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Our analysis shows an increase of the Hanbury Brown–Twiss radius with increasing event multiplicity, in line with other measurements

  8. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: two-pion contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, Gilberto [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hoferichter, Martin [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Procura, Massimiliano [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Stoffer, Peter [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theory)and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-04-27

    In this third paper of a series dedicated to a dispersive treatment of the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) tensor, we derive a partial-wave formulation for two-pion intermediate states in the HLbL contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g−2){sub μ}, including a detailed discussion of the unitarity relation for arbitrary partial waves. We show that obtaining a final expression free from unphysical helicity partial waves is a subtle issue, which we thoroughly clarify. As a by-product, we obtain a set of sum rules that could be used to constrain future calculations of γ{sup ∗}γ{sup ∗}→ππ. We validate the formalism extensively using the pion-box contribution, defined by two-pion intermediate states with a pion-pole left-hand cut, and demonstrate how the full known result is reproduced when resumming the partial waves. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we provide an evaluation of the full pion box, a{sub μ}{sup π-box}=−15.9(2)×10{sup −11}. As an application of the partial-wave formalism, we present a first calculation of ππ-rescattering effects in HLbL scattering, with γ{sup ∗}γ{sup ∗}→ππ helicity partial waves constructed dispersively using ππ phase shifts derived from the inverse-amplitude method. In this way, the isospin-0 part of our calculation can be interpreted as the contribution of the f{sub 0}(500) to HLbL scattering in (g−2){sub μ}. We argue that the contribution due to charged-pion rescattering implements corrections related to the corresponding pion polarizability and show that these are moderate. Our final result for the sum of pion-box contribution and its S-wave rescattering corrections reads a{sub μ}{sup π-box}+a{sub μ,J=0}{sup ππ,π-pole} {sup LHC}=−24(1)×10{sup −11}.

  9. CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

  10. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=900 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Abramyan, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Antolfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Barile, F; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borisov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo, E; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Corrales Morales, Y; Cormier, T M; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Delgado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jiménez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Hu, S; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lenhardt, M; Leistam, L; Lehnert, J; Lenti, V; Leon, H; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lopez, X; Lopez Noriega, M; Lopez-Ramírez, R; Lopez Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Malagalage, K J; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Hernández, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Maruyama, Y; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Panse, R; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Pospísil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román Lopez, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Domingues da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, E; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vasileiou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I K; Yuan, X; Yurevich, V; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at sqrt(s)=900 GeV performed by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Our analysis shows an increase of the HBT radius with increasing event multiplicity, in line with other measurements done in particle- and nuclear collisions. Conversely, the strong decrease of the radius with increasing transverse momentum, as observed at RHIC and at Tevatron, is not manifest in our data.

  11. Terms of trade and exchange rate regimes in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Broda

    2002-01-01

    Since Friedman (1953), an advantage often attributed to flexible exchange rate regimes over fixed regimes is their ability to insulate more effectively the economy against real shocks. I use a post-Bretton Woods sample (1973-96) of seventy-five developing countries to assess whether the responses of real GDP, real exchange rates, and prices to terms-of-trade shocks differ systematically across exchange rate regimes. I find that responses are significantly different across regimes in a way tha...

  12. Two pion mediated scalar isoscalar NN interaction in the nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaskulov, Murat M.; Oset, E.; Vacas, M.J. Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We study the modification of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nuclear medium in the scalar isoscalar channel, mediated by the exchange of two correlated (σ channel) or uncorrelated pions. For this purpose we use a standard approach for the renormalization of pions in nuclei. The corrections obtained for the NN interaction in the medium in this channel are of the order of 20% of the free one in average, and the consideration of short-range correlations plays an important role in providing these moderate changes. Yet, the corrections are sizable enough to suggest further studies of the stability and properties of nuclear matter

  13. Foreign exchange risk in terms of global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Buszko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fx risk is one of the most important types of risk of financial activity. In practice, this risk comprises several risk aspects related to currencies exchanging, however most often it is identified with unexpected changes of their prices. In terms of the global financial crisis of 2007–2009, the fx risk has raised significantly, revealing a high daily volatility, increased spreads and the reversal of long-term exchange rate trends. Such increased risk especially influenced emerging markets economies, including Poland. Its consequence was quick strengthening of Polish currency at the beginning of the global crisis followed by a very sudden fall of its value. This event led to a substantial increase of banking risk, investment funds and corporate operations. It changed the structure of GDP sources as well as generated huge losses for exporting companies, using currency options hedging strategies.

  14. Catalytic heat exchangers - a long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik A. [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A long-term evaluation concerning catalytic heat exchangers (CHEs) has been performed. The idea concerning CHEs was originally described in a number of reports issued by Catator almost a decade ago. The general idea with CHEs is to combust a fuel with a catalyst inside a heat exchanger to enable an effective heat transfer. The first design approaches demonstrated the function and the possibilities with CHEs but were defective concerning the heat exchanger design. Consequently, a heat exchanger company (SWEP International AB), which was specialised on brazed plate-type heat exchangers, joined the continued development project. Indeed, the new design approach containing Catator's wire-mesh catalysts and SWEP's plate-type heat exchangers enabled us to improve the concept considerably. The new design complied with a number of relevant technical demands, e.g.: Simplicity; Compactness and integration (few parts); High thermal efficiency; Low pressure drop; Excellent emissions; High turn-down ratio; Reasonable production cost. Spurred by the technical progresses, the importance of a long-term test under realistic conditions was clear. A long-term evaluation was initialised at Sydkraft Gas premises in Aastorp. The CHE was installed on a specially designed rig to enable accelerated testing with respect to the number of transients. The rig was operated continuously for 5000 hours and emission mapping was carried out at certain time intervals. Following some problems during the initial phase of the long-term evaluation, which unfortunately also delayed the project, the results indicated very stable conditions of operation. The emissions have been rather constant during the course of the test and we cannot see any tendencies to decreased performances. Indeed, the test verifies the function, operability and reliability of the CHE-concept. Apart from domestic boilers we foresee a number of interesting and relevant applications in heating and process technology. Since

  15. Polarization Observables from two-pion and ρ meson photoproduction on polarized HD target at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, Irene [Univ. of Rome, Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    The preliminary results discussed in this theses have been carried out with the Nuclear Physics group of the Department of Physics at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, under the supervision of Prof. A. D’Angelo.On March 2012 I joined the CLAS collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, in Virginia, USA, and became a term member after a probation period of 9 months. As a member I could participate to the g14 data taking, started on November 18th 2011 and finished on May 18th 2012. In that period I was in charge of the timing calibration of the CLAS forward electromagnetic spectrometer. For the duration of the experiment, I was also responsible of the Raman laboratory located at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, where the Raman measurements were performed. The Raman measurements were crucial for determining the relative concentrations of H2 and D2 in the Hydrogen-Deuteride gas which was used for the target of the g14 experiment.

  16. Two-pion correlation measurements in 450 GeV/c p-A collisions at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, A.

    1995-06-01

    The Bose-Einstein correlation (interferometry) studies on two pions are carried out on the data obtained from the 450 GeV/C fixed target p-A experiments at the CERN SPS. THe multi-track event data sets for p-Be and p-W collisions at the NA34 (HELIOS/1) experiment and two track event data sets for p-Be, p-S and p-Pb collisions from the NA44 (Focusing spectrometer) are mainly employed in both the one and two dimensional analyses. The following investigations are made: (1) consistency in the interferometry analysis results on the p-Be data sets obtained from the two independent experiments. (2) comparison of the p-Be interactions with the p-p interactions to investigate the validity of a crude approximation of lower nucleus numbered p-A interactions to p-p interactions. (3) consistency study of different nominal spectrometer setting p-Pb data sets. (4) target dependence; relationships between geometrical target radii and parameters resulting from the correlation. (5) charged particle multiplicity density dependences of R t and R l parameters by means of a simple hydrodynamical picture of a freeze-out at a constant particle density. 89 refs

  17. Exact exchange-correlation potential and approximate exchange potential in terms of density matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; March, N.H.

    1995-01-01

    An exact expression in terms of density matrices (DM) is derived for δF[n]/δn(r), the functional derivative of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional. The derivation starts from the differential form of the virial theorem, obtained here for an electron system with arbitrary interactions, and leads to an expression taking the form of an integral over a path that can be chosen arbitrarily. After applying this approach to the equivalent system of noninteracting electrons (Slater-Kohn-Sham scheme) and combining the corresponding result with the previous one, an exact expression for the exchange-correlation potential v xc (r) is obtained which is analogous in character to that for δF[n]/δn(r), but involving, besides the interacting-system DMs, also the noninteracitng DMs. Equating the former DMs to the latter ones, we reduce the result for the exact v xc (r) to that for an approximate exchange-only potential v x (r). This leads naturally to the Harbola-Sahni exchange-only potential

  18. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahn, S.U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Ferroli, R.Baldini; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Ban, J.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanc, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Bottger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.P.; Coli, S.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; D'Erasmo, G.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H.H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Remigis, R.; de Rooij, R.; Delagrange, H.; Delgado Mercado, Y.; Dellacasa, G.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Denes, E.; Deppman, A.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dominguez, I.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H.A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furano, F.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Gemme, R.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Girard, M.R.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grajcarek, R.; Gramling, J.L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernandez, C.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jancurova, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, S.P.; Jena, S.; Jirden, L.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, E.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M.M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, H.N.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S.H.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Koch, K.; Kohler, M.K.; Kolevatov, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskih, A.; Kornas, E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kozlov, K.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krumbhorn, D.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D.T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.C.; Lefevre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, L.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Noriega, M.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M.G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A.J.; Petracek, V.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rademakers, O.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S.S.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saiz, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P.A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Sinha, B.C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sogaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A.J.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urban, J.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.K.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.

    2013-07-16

    The first measurement of two-pion Bose--Einstein correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC.

  19. On separation of exchange term from the coefficient of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetoelectroelastics; exchange coefficient; magnetoelectric effect; piezoelectric effect; piezomagnetic effect. PACS Nos 51.40.+p; 72.55.+s. Magnetoelectroelastics, also known as piezoelectromagnetic smart materials, actually possess magnetoelectric, piezomagnetic, and piezoelectric effects. In this class of mag-.

  20. Characteristics of unnatural parity meson exchange term, and nonevasive component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masako

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of scattering amplitude, which were found from the amplitude analysis of π (K)N scattering, are as follows. The Regge pole model of natural parity mesons is good for s dependence. The behavior of the imaginary part of the amplitude is stipulated by Δn(s channel net helicity flip). The phase is in agreement with Regge phase for Δn=1, but deviates for Δn=0. EXD is almost good except tensor meson exchange part. Relations such as Isub(t)=1 in case of /f sub(Δn=1)/>>/f sub(Δn=0)/, and Isub(t)=0 in case of /f sub(Δn=0)/>>/f sub(Δn=1)/ exist between the magnitudes of t channel exchanged quantum number and residue. The consistent theory for two body scattering amplitude has not yet been obtained. As examples, the processes Psub(s)B → VB (or Δ) and γN → Psub(s)B (or Δ) were analyzed, The s dependence and the t dependence of the cross section were investigated. The resonance amplitude for γN → Psub(s)B (or Δ) has been studied with resonance parameters. The position of dip and the coupling strength were found. These data resulted from the separation of natural parity meson exchange and unnatural parity meson exchange. The matching with the model amplitude in photo - π production process was examined. Construction of the model amplitude and the remaining problems are introduced and discussed. (Kato, T.)

  1. THREATS AND BENEFITS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES FOR UKRAINE IN TERMS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Glushchenko; Svitlana Tkalenko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine threats and benefits of exchange rate regimes in terms of the integration of Ukraine into the European community. Emphasizing features of the manifestation of currency exchange rate in Ukrainian practice is a precondition for choosing the optimal exchange rate regime for Ukraine, which, in its turn, will provide an opportunity to reduce inflation and implement effective tools of monetary and fiscal policies to promote further economic growth and compet...

  2. Influence of market factors on the pricing of exchange traded metals in the medium term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of comparison of the influence of the stock exchange factors on the pricing of nonferrous metals for medium term with similar results for short term, it has been established that the main attention should be paid to the changes in the pricing environment on the metal market as a function of the prices of exchange traded metals. The situation on the market of energy carriers (hydrocarbons) and the European, American, and Asian stock exchanges can be based on parity and even significantly influence the variation of the metal prices. In the medium term, constructive development of metal trade should be reasonably promoted by changing the elasticity of supply with regard to prices for exchange traded metals and by applying the stock exchange factors that positively influence the pricing on commodity and stock markets.

  3. Social preferences influence the short-term exchange of social grooming among male bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbeck, Martin; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2015-03-01

    The emotional mediation hypothesis proposes a mediating role of social bonds in the exchange of services. This model predicts that the form of short-term exchange of services depends on the relationship between the individuals involved. Here, we test this prediction in the exchange of grooming among males in a wild bonobo community for which close relatedness could be excluded. As bonobo males hardly engage in food sharing or agonistic support, grooming is mainly exchanged for grooming. While overall grooming, both given and received, correlates across dyads and within sessions, the form of grooming exchange within a given session differs according to dyadic association preferences. Individuals with a higher tendency to associate, ergo more familiar individuals, exhibit larger time differences and reduced reciprocation in consecutive grooming bouts than less familiar individuals. These results support the idea that emotional components are involved in the exchange of services between unrelated individuals.

  4. Semihard scattering unraveled from collective dynamics by two-pion azimuthal correlations in 158A GeV/c Pb+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Baur, R; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Z; Fuchs, Ch; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Huovinen, P; Lenkeit, B; Marín, A; Messer, F; Messer, M; Milosevic, J; Miśkowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Shimansky, S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Voigt, C; Voloshin, S; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    2004-01-23

    Elliptic flow and two-particle azimuthal correlations of charged hadrons and high-p(T) pions (p(T)>1 GeV/c) have been measured close to midrapidity in 158A GeV/c Pb+Au collisions by the CERES experiment. Elliptic flow (v(2)) rises linearly with p(T) to a value of about 10% at 2 GeV/c. Beyond p(T) approximately 1.5 GeV/c, the slope decreases considerably, possibly indicating a saturation of v(2) at high p(T). Two-pion azimuthal anisotropies for p(T)>1.2 GeV/c exceed the elliptic flow values by about 60% in midcentral collisions. These nonflow contributions are attributed to nearside and back-to-back jetlike correlations, the latter exhibiting centrality dependent broadening.

  5. Semihard scattering unraveled from collective dynamics by two-pion azimuthal correlations in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Baur, R; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Huovinen, P; Lenkeit, B C; Marin, A; Messer, F; Messer, M; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Shimansky, S S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Voigt, C A; Voloshin, S A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    2004-01-01

    Elliptic flow and two-particle azimuthal correlations of charged hadrons and high-$p_{T}$ pions ($p_{T}>$1 GeV/c) have been measured close to midrapidity in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions by the CERES experiment. Elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) rises linearly with $p_{T}$ to a value of about 10% at 2 GeV/c. Beyond $p_{T} \\approx $1.5 Ge V/c, the slope decreases considerably, possibly indicating a saturation of $v_{2}$ at high $p_{T}$. Two-pion azimuthal anisotropies for $p_{T} >$1.2 GeV/c exceed the elliptic flow values by about 60% in midcentral collisions. These nonflow contributions are attributed to nearside and back-to-back jetlike correlations, the latter exhibiting centrality dependent broadening.

  6. On the exchange term of the interacting boson-fermion hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange term of the Interacting Boson Fermion Model is investigated by using I. Talmi's method based on the shell model. A quadrupole operator of a three-proton system is formed; the protons are quadrupole-coupled to the neutron-bosons. Seniority conserving and seniority non conserving terms are considered. The particle number dependence of the parameters is investigated for the single-j shell. The relation between exchange and direct, seniority non conserving terms is examined. Approximate formulas are given for the multi-j shell. (orig.)

  7. Long Term Validity of Monetary Exchange Rate Model: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there is a long term relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals within the periods of 1998:1-2011:2 in Turkey. This relationship has been analysed by using structural VAR (SVAR model. Besides, Granger causality test and Dolado-Lütkepohl Granger causality test were used to determine if there were a causality relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals. As a result of the SVAR model, the relationship among the series related to nominal exchange rate and money supply, GDP, interest rate in Turkey in long term were not determined and at the end of causality tests, causality relationship among the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals were not determined.

  8. Beam-energy-dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions measured in heavy ion collisions at the STAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 , 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass (mT) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.

  9. Femtoscopy of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9 and 7 TeV at the LHC with two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahn, S.U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Ferroli, R.Baldini; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Ban, J.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanc, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Bottger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.P.; Coli, S.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Erasmo, G.D.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H.H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Remigis, R.; de Rooij, R.; Delagrange, H.; Delgado Mercado, Y.; Dellacasa, G.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Denes, E.; Deppman, A.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dominguez, I.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H.A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furano, F.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Gemme, R.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Girard, M.R.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernandez, C.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jancurova, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, M.A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, S.P.; Jena, S.; Jirden, L.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, E.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M.M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, H.N.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S.H.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Koch, K.; Kohler, M.K.; Kolevatov, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskih, A.; Kornas, E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kozlov, K.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krumbhorn, D.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D.T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.C.; Lefevre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, L.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Noriega, M.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M.G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A.J.; Petracek, V.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rademakers, O.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S.S.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saiz, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P.A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Sinha, B.C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sogaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A.J.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urban, J.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.K.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the high statistics two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9 TeV and $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The correlation functions as well as the extracted source radii scale with event multiplicity and pair momentum. When analyzed in the same multiplicity and pair transverse momentum range, the correlation is similar at the two collision energies. A three-dimensional femtoscopic analysis shows an increase of the emission zone with increasing event multiplicity as well as decreasing homogeneity lengths with increasing transverse momentum. The latter trend gets more pronounced as multiplicity increases. This suggests the development of space-momentum correlations, at least for collisions producing a high multiplicity of particles. We consider these trends in the context of previous femtoscopic studies in high-energy hadron and heavy-ion collisions, and discuss possible underlying physics mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the co...

  10. THREATS AND BENEFITS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES FOR UKRAINE IN TERMS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Glushchenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine threats and benefits of exchange rate regimes in terms of the integration of Ukraine into the European community. Emphasizing features of the manifestation of currency exchange rate in Ukrainian practice is a precondition for choosing the optimal exchange rate regime for Ukraine, which, in its turn, will provide an opportunity to reduce inflation and implement effective tools of monetary and fiscal policies to promote further economic growth and competitiveness of the country. The uses of free-floating exchange rate and «currency board» regimes have either positive effects for Ukraine or certain threats. Methodology. This research is based on a synthesis of data on the uses of exchange rate regimes in Ukraine as an independent. It is considered angular regimes, which are by far the most suitable for Ukraine in terms of the European vector of its development. Peculiarities of using these regimes are revealed and their major threats to the domestic economy are pointed out. This article analyzes the dynamics of the trade balance of payments of Ukraine, the dynamics of the commodity structure of Ukraine`s exports and imports and the external debt of Ukraine. Results. Taking into account the experience of countries, which were in crisis situations, they show the necessity of the uses of freefloating exchange rate regime and possibilities of «currency board» regime, despite threats that they may have. World experience testifies the implementation of structural reforms, effective monetary policy, fiscal policy and discipline of the government. Thorough preparation of Ukraine’s transition to the «currency board» regime can justify itself in conditions of crisis and provide impetus to Ukrainian economy benefits. The paper defines conditions under which the success of a new model of exchange rate policy will be achieved. Practical implications. The study accents attention on the specifics of the uses of the

  11. Two pion correlation from SPACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.

    1989-12-01

    The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Contribution of terms containing Z-boson exchange to the luminosity measurements at LEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, W.; Pietrzyk, B.

    1992-12-01

    We have investigated the contribution of terms containing Z-boson exchange to the luminosity measurements at LEP. Comparing the Monte Carlo program BABAMC and the semi-analytical program ALIBABA, we have determined the technical precision of the corresponding O( α) calculation in BABAMC to be 0.03%. Using the ALIBABA program we have assessed the higher-order corrections to these Z-boson exchange contributions to be of the order of 0.1% for the present luminosity measurements. The total theoretical error on the luminosity calculation for LEP experiments is at present not larger than 0.3%.

  13. Two-Pion Correlation Measurements for 14.6 A.GEV/C SILICON-28 + X and 11.6 A.GEV/C GOLD-197 + Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltz, Ron A.

    Two-pion correlation functions have been measured in the central rapidity regions (1.5 < y < 2.0) for 14.6 A cdot GeV/c Si+Au to 2 pi^-+rm X (central and peripheral), Si+Al to 2pi^++ rm X (central and minimum bias), Si+Au to 2pi^++rm X (central), and 11.6 A cdot GeV/c Au+Au to 2pi^ -+rm X (central) systems. Two-dimensional fits in R-tau and R_{T}-R_ {L} were performed for these systems for different cuts in the total charged particle multiplicity and forward energy. The R, R_{T}, and R_{L} radius parameters for systems involving the Si projectile were found to increase with increasing charged particle multiplicity. These parameters were observed to scale linearly with A _sp{pp}{1/3}, where A_{pp} is the number of projectile participants as calculated from the forward energy deposition. The correlation functions were also fit to several three-dimensional functions. In all cases these fits proved to be consistent with the results of the two-dimensional fits. Events generated from the RQMD cascade code indicate that pions within experimental acceptance are produced from a region that is smaller than the entire region of pion production. A direct measure of the RQMD source for pions within the acceptance show qualitative agreement with the observed scaling. A minimization function was developed which is derived from the Poisson fluctuations in both the actual and background distributions. Progress was made in understanding the errors of event-mixed background distributions. An empirical study confirms that fluctuations within a bin are indeed Poisson for typical backgrounds generated during this analysis. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  14. A novel TRNSYS type for short-term borehole heat exchanger simulation: B2G model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rosa, Mattia; Ruiz-Calvo, Félix; Corberán, José M.; Montagud, Carla; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dynamic borehole heat exchanger model is presented. • Theoretical approach for model parameters calculation is described. • The short-term model is validated against experimental data of a real GSHP. • Strong dynamic conditions due to the ON–OFF regulation are investigated. - Abstract: Models of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are used as an aid for the correct design and optimization of the system. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop models which correctly reproduce the dynamic thermal behavior of each component in a short-term basis. Since the borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is one of the main components, special attention should be paid to ensuring a good accuracy on the prediction of the short-term response of the boreholes. The BHE models found in literature which are suitable for short-term simulations usually present high computational costs. In this work, a novel TRNSYS type implementing a borehole-to-ground (B2G) model, developed for modeling the short-term dynamic performance of a BHE with low computational cost, is presented. The model has been validated against experimental data from a GSHP system located at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. Validation results show the ability of the model to reproduce the short-term behavior of the borehole, both for a step-test and under normal operating conditions

  15. On the meson exchange currents contribution in deep inelastic scattering on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptar', L.P.; Titov, A.I.; Umnikov, A.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution of the one- and two-pion exchange currents to the deep inelastic deuteron structure function F 2 D (x) is considered. It is shown that the mesonic corrections do not restore the energy sum rule violated by the off-mass-shell properties of the bound nucleons

  16. Peculiarities of MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled Co(II) dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovsky, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase can take place. The origin of this peculiarity is explained by the strong orbital contribution. Highlights: → MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled cobalt dimer. → Strong orbital contribution to the magneto-optical behavior. → Change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase. - Abstract: The MCD C-term saturation behavior of the exchange coupled octahedrally coordinated cobalt dimers is studied for different types of distortion of the local surrounding of each interacting ion. It was found that in the case of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction the change of sign of the MCD signal with temperature and magnetic field increase can take place. This signal behavior is not the result of overlapping of different electronic transitions and it is characteristic of an individual MCD line. The origin of this magneto-optical behavior is explained by the strong contribution coming from the unquenched orbital angular momenta of interacting cobalt ions. The found peculiarity is inherent to complexes composed of nonequivalent cobalt ions as well as to the dimeric complexes with the equivalent Co ions with nonparallel local axes.

  17. Meson-exchange N-N potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A meson-theoretic model of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon potential is presented with emphasis placed on the two-pion exchange contribution. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is reduced, by the Blankenbecler-Sugar technique, to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, from which an approximate nonlocal, energy-dependent potential is obtained. The nucleon-antinucleon pair contribution, which plagues meson-theoretical two-pion calculations, is suppressed by the complex poles of the one-nucleon Green's function. The importance of the retention of the explicit energy dependence of the potential is demonstrated by calculating the off-shell scattering matrices. The potential is presented in a linearized (in energy) form with the core region adjusted to produce a fit to low energy data

  18. Development to term of sheep embryos reconstructed after inner cell mass/trophoblast exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fulka, Josef; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2018-04-13

    Here we report in vitro and term development of sheep embryos after the inner cell mass (ICM) from one set of sheep blastocysts were injected into the trophoblast vesicles of another set. We also observed successful in vitro development of chimeric blastocysts made from sheep trophoblast vesicles injected with bovine ICM. First, we dissected ICMs from 35 sheep blastocysts using a stainless steel microblade and injected them into 29 re-expanded sheep trophoblastic vesicles. Of the 25 successfully micromanipulated trophoblastic vesicles, 15 (51.7%) re-expanded normally and showed proper ICM integration. The seven most well reconstructed embryos were transferred for development to term. Three ewes receiving manipulated blastocysts were pregnant at day 45 (42.8%), and all delivered normal offspring (singletons, two females and one male, average weight: 3.54 ± 0.358 kg). Next, we monitored in vitro development of sheep trophoblasts injected with bovine ICMs. Of 17 injected trophoblastic vesicles, 10 (58.8%) re-expanded after 4 h in culture, and four (40%) exhibited integrated bovine ICM. Our results indicate that ICM/trophoblast exchange is feasible, allowing full term development with satisfactory lambing rate. Therefore, ICM exchange is a promising approach for endangered species conservation.

  19. Correlation structures in short-term variabilities of stock indices and exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tomomichi; Small, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Financial data usually show irregular fluctuations and some trends. We investigate whether there are correlation structures in short-term variabilities (irregular fluctuations) among financial data from the viewpoint of deterministic dynamical systems. Our method is based on the small-shuffle surrogate method. The data we use are daily closing price of Standard & Poor's 500 and the volume, and daily foreign exchange rates, Euro/US Dollar (USD), British Pound/USD and Japanese Yen/USD. We found that these data are not independent.

  20. Federal funding for syringe exchange in the US: Explaining a long-term policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, David

    2018-05-01

    The United States prohibited federal funding for syringe exchange programs for people who inject drugs nearly continuously from 1988 to 2015, despite growing scientific evidence, diminishing AIDS-related controversy, and tens of thousands of deaths from injection-related AIDS. This study investigates the political and institutional bases of this long-term failure to support lifesaving public policy. This study draws on national, regional, and local media coverage, archival sources, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 6 long-time syringe exchange researchers and activists from California. I use case-oriented process tracing methods to explain the persistence and reform of the federal funding ban. Though previous studies focus on the symbolic clash between conservative morality and empirical science, I find that changing demographic and regional inequalities in the effects of the AIDS epidemic and dynamics produced by the federal structure of US government were more important factors in the creation and persistence of the funding ban. The persistence and eventual repeal of the ban on federal funding for syringe exchange was a product of the changing demographic, geographic, and political effects of the AIDS epidemic within the federal structure of US government, rather than a consequence of intractable morality politics. These contextual dynamics continue to shape AIDS and public health policy at all levels of government. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Long-term effects of ozone on CO2 exchange in peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haapala, JK; Mörsky, SK; Rinnan, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate of the mic......Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone concentration on the CO2 exchange of peatland microcosms and the photosynthetic capacity of the dominating sedge, Eriophorum vaginatum, were studied in a four-year open-field experiment. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange and the dark respiration rate...... exchange of the peatland microcosms....

  2. Models for financial crisis detection in Indonesia based on bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Nur Aini, Anis

    2017-12-01

    Several times Indonesia has experienced to face a financial crisis, but the crisis occurred in 1997 had a tremendous impact on the economy and national stability. The impact of the crisis fall the exchange rate of rupiah against the dollar so it is needed the financial crisis detection system. Some data of bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators are used in this paper. Data taken from January 1990 until December 2016 are used to form the models with three state. Combination of volatility and Markov switching models are used to model the data. The result suggests that the appropriate model for bank deposit and terms of trade is SWARCH (3,1), and for real exchange rates is SWARCH (3,2).

  3. System, centrality, and transverse mass dependence of two-pion correlation radii in heavy ion collisions at 11.6A and 14.6A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, L.; Baker, M.D.; Cianciolo, V.; Costales, J.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Heintzelman, G.; Judd, E.; Kehoe, W.L.; Ledoux, R.J.; Morrison, D.P.; Morse, R.J.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Parsons, C.G.; Rothschild, P.; Soltz, R.A.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Sung, T.W.; Vutsadakis, V.; Woodruff, D.

    2002-01-01

    Two-pion correlation functions are analyzed at midrapidity for three systems (14.6A GeV/c Si+Al, Si+Au, and 11.6A GeV/c Au+Au), seven distinct centrality conditions, and different k T bins in the range 0.1-0.5 GeV/c. Source reference frames are determined from fits to the Yano-Koonin source parametrization. Bertsch-Pratt radius parameters are shown to scale linearly with both number of projectile and total participants as obtained from a Glauber model calculation. A finite lifetime parameter that increases linearly with system/centrality is also reported. The m T dependences of the Bertsch-Pratt radii for the central Si+Au and central Au+Au systems differ only by an overall normalization factor given by the measured system/centrality dependence

  4. Long-term effects of multiple borehole heat exchangers; Langzeiteffekt von Mehrfach-Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D. [Scuola universitaria professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI), Dipartimento delle costruzioni e del territorio (DCT), Laboratorio di energia, ecologia ed economia LEEE, Canobbio (Switzerland); Kohl, T.; Meguel, T. [Geoenergie c/o GeoWatt, Zuerich (Switzerland); Brenni, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the mutual influence of borehole heat exchangers (BHE) used for ground-coupled heat pump systems over longer periods of time (tens to hundreds of years) using simulation programmes. A comparison is made between the two programmes SBM (used in 'g-function' mode) and FRACTure (using finite elements) that were used in the first phase of the project to simulate the mutual effects between three BHEs. The authors consider that the programmes, which use completely different algorithms, both provide reliable results when used to simulate BHE systems. The results of the second phase of the project, where the 'g-function' concept was used to calculate the long-term influence of two and three-borehole configurations, are presented in graphical form. Calculations made for varying thermal conductivity, borehole depth and spacing, time periods and heat extraction rates are presented, whereby local groundwater flows are not taken into account.

  5. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  6. What determines the sensitivity of the real exchange rate in Colombia to a terms of trade shock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Mahadeva, Lavan

    2012-01-01

    We show that the sensitivity of the real exchange rate to terms of trade shocks is greater the lower the elasticity of final and derived demand between domestic and imported items. We develop a novel Kalman filter-based method to estimate these key parameters for Colombia, taking account of prefe...... the sensitivity of the Colombian economy to external shocks....

  7. Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP Enhances Long-Term Memory Formation Independent of Protein Kinase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Abel, Ted; Hernandez, Pepe J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories--signaling thought to proceed through protein kinase A (PKA). However, here we show that exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) is able to enhance the formation of long-term memory in the hippocampus and appears to do so…

  8. The Influence of Organizational Systems on Information Exchange in Long-Term Care Facilities: An Institutional Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Sienna; Ratner, Pamela A; Phinney, Alison; MacKinnon, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered care is heavily dependent on effective information exchange among health care team members. We explored the organizational systems that influence resident care attendants' (RCAs) access to care information in long-term care (LTC) settings. We conducted an institutional ethnography in three LTC facilities. Investigative methods included naturalistic observations, in-depth interviews, and textual analysis. Practical access to texts containing individualized care-related information (e.g., care plans) was dependent on job classification. Regulated health care professionals accessed these texts daily. RCAs lacked practical access to these texts and primarily received and shared information orally. Microsystems of care, based on information exchange formats, emerged. Organizational systems mandated written exchange of information and did not formally support an oral exchange. Thus, oral information exchanges were largely dependent on the quality of workplace relationships. Formal systems are needed to support structured oral information exchange within and between the microsystems of care found in LTC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Derivation of a pion-rho exchange three-body force and application to the trinucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillota, M.R.; Isidro Filho, M.P.

    1982-12-01

    The pion-rho exchange three-body force is derived by means of Lagrangians which are approximately invariant under chiral and gauge transformations. The leading contribution to the potential arises from a seagull diagram, which corresponds to forces that are dominantly repulsive and comparable to those due to the exchange of two pions. The qualitative features of the results are analysed by means of plots of the energy of the trinucleon system. (Author) [pt

  10. Derivation of a pion-RHO exchange three-body force and application to the trinucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, M.R.; Isidro Filho, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The pion-rho exchange three-body force is derived by means of lagrangians which are approximately invariant under chiral and gauge transformations. The leading contribution to the potential arises from a seagull diagram, which corresponds to forces that are dominantly repulsive and comparable to those due to the exchange of two pions. The qualitative features of our results are analysed by means of plots of the energy of the trinucleon system. (orig.)

  11. Short-Term Medical Costs of a VHA Health Information Exchange: A CHEERS-Compliant Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Dustin D.; Dixon, Brian E.; Perkins, Susan M.; Myers, Laura J.; Weiner, Michael; Zillich, Allan J.; Haggstrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health program provides the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) a framework whereby VHA providers can access the veterans’ electronic health record information to coordinate healthcare across multiple sites of care. As an early adopter of VLER, the Indianapolis VHA and Regenstrief Institute implemented a regional demonstration program involving bi-directional health information exchange (HIE) between VHA and non-VHA providers. The aim of the study is to determine whether implementation of VLER HIE reduces 1 year VHA medical costs. A cohort evaluation with a concurrent control group compared VHA healthcare costs using propensity score adjustment. A CHEERs compliant checklist was used to conduct the cost evaluation. Patients were enrolled in the VLER program onsite at the Indianapolis VHA in outpatient clinics or through the release-of-information office. VHA cost data (in 2014 dollars) were obtained for both enrolled and nonenrolled (control) patients for 1 year prior to, and 1 year after, the index date of patient enrollment. There were 6104 patients enrolled in VLER and 45,700 patients in the control group. The annual adjusted total cost difference per patient was associated with a higher cost for VLER enrollees $1152 (95% CI: $807–1433) (P < 0.01) (in 2014 dollars) than VLER nonenrollees. Short-term evaluation of this demonstration project did not show immediate reductions in healthcare cost as might be expected if HIE decreased redundant medical tests and treatments. Cost reductions from shared health information may be realized with longer time horizons. PMID:26765453

  12. Short-term acclimation to warmer temperatures accelerates leaf carbon exchange processes across plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    While temperature responses of photosynthesis and plant respiration are known to acclimate over time in many species, few studies have been designed to directly compare process-level differences in acclimation capacity among plant types. We assessed short-term (7 day) temperature acclimation of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and foliar dark respiration (R d ) in 22 plant species that varied in lifespan (annual and perennial), photosynthetic pathway (C 3 and C 4 ), and climate of origin (tropical and nontropical) grown under fertilized, well-watered conditions. In general, acclimation to warmer temperatures increased the rate of each process. The relative increase in different photosynthetic processes varied by plant type, with C 3 species tending to preferentially accelerate CO 2 -limited photosynthetic processes and respiration and C 4 species tending to preferentially accelerate light-limited photosynthetic processes under warmer conditions. R d acclimation to warmer temperatures caused a reduction in temperature sensitivity that resulted in slower rates at high leaf temperatures. R d acclimation was similar across plant types. These results suggest that temperature acclimation of the biochemical processes that underlie plant carbon exchange is common across different plant types, but that acclimation to warmer temperatures tends to have a relatively greater positive effect on the processes most limiting to carbon assimilation, which differ by plant type. The acclimation responses observed here suggest that warmer conditions should lead to increased rates of carbon assimilation when water and nutrients are not limiting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Role of Private Information in Short-term Fluctuations of Won/Dollar Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesik Park

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have examined the short-run movement of the won/dollar exchange rate using information obtained from the inter-bank market in Korea. First, we constructed the hourly measure of excess demand for dollar and used it as a proxy for the trading pattern of market participants. To construct this time series, we relied on the bid and ask won/dollar exchange rates collected on the two-minute interval. We then estimated the structural VAR model consisting of the actually observed won/dollar exchange rate and the proxied trading pattern of market participants to see if private information, as opposed to public information, is relevant for explaining the hourly movement of the won/dollar exchange rate. Private information is found to account for more 30% of hourly variations of the won/dollar exchange rate. Next, we constructed the trading pattern of market participants on a daily basis using the same data set employed to build the hourly measure. We then examined whether private information is useful for predicting the daily won/dollar exchange rate movement. We found that the forecast model using both private and public information reduces out-of-sample forecast errors of an alternative model relying only on public information by 20~25%. Also, the out-of-sample forecast of the model using both private and public information is found to be more accurate than the random walk model.

  14. Transient Performance of Air-cooled Condensing Heat Exchanger in Long-term Passive Cooling System during Decay Heat Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the event of a 'loss of coolant accident'(LOCA) and a non-LOCA, the secondary passive cooling system would be activated to cool the steam in a condensing heat exchanger that is immersed in an emergency cooldown tank (ECT). Currently, the capacities of these ECTs are designed to be sufficient to remove the sensible and residual heat from the reactor coolant system for 72 hours after the occurrence of an accident. After the operation of a conventional passive cooling system for an extended period, however, the water level falls as a result of the evaporation from the ECT, as steam is emitted from the open top of the tank. Therefore, the tank should be refilled regularly from an auxiliary water supply system when the system is used for more than 72 hours. Otherwise, the system would fail to dissipate heat from the condensing heat exchanger due to the loss of the cooling water. Ultimately, the functionality of the passive cooling system would be seriously compromised. As a passive means of overcoming the water depletion in the tank, Kim et al. applied for a Korean patent covering the concept of a long-term passive cooling system for an ECT even after 72 hours. This study presents transient performance of ECT with installing air-cooled condensing heat exchanger under decay heat load. The cooling capacity of an air-cooled condensing heat exchanger was evaluated to determine its practicality.

  15. Digital citizenship? : narrative exchange and the changing terms of civic culture

    OpenAIRE

    Couldry, Nick; Stephansen, Hilde; Fotopoulou, Aristea; MacDonald, Richard; Clark, Wilma; Dickens, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities for new forms of ‘digital citizenship’ currently emerging through digitally supported processes of narrative exchange. Using Dahlgren's (Dahlgren, P. 2003. “Reconfiguring Civic Culture in the New Media Milieu.” In Media and the Restyling of Politics, edited by J. Corner, and D. Pels, 151–170. London: Sage; Dahlgren, P. 2009. Media and Political Engagement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.) circuit of ‘civic culture’ as a model for exploring the in...

  16. Note on some charge exchange cross sections of inelastic pn and pp reactions in terms of the quark interchange concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Jacobsen, T.

    The charge exchange cross sections observed for pN interactions at 19 GeV/c in terms of the quark-quark interchange concept are discussed. If one uu-pair and one dd-pair of sea-quarks are assigned to each initial nucleon in pn and pp inelastic reactions, and if these quarks are assumed to participate on equal footing with the valence quarks in a quark-quark interchange mechanism between the two initial nucleons, the ratios between some observed charge exchange cross sections are well reproduced. This indicates that in this model the sea-quarks contribute significantly to the particle production in low p(subT) hadronic processes. (Auth.)

  17. The exchange of correlated pions and kaons in the baryon-baryon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The exchange of two correlated pions or kaons provides the main part of the intermediate-range attraction between two baryons. In this work, a dynamical model for correlated two-pion and two-kaon exchange in the baryon-baryon interaction is presented, both in the scalar-isoscalar (σ) and the vector-isovector (ρ) channel. The contribution of correlated ππ and K anti K exchange is derived from the amplitudes for the transition of a baryon-antibaryon state (B anti B') to a ππ or K anti K state in the pseudophysical region by applying dispersion theory and unitarity. For the B anti B'→ππ, K anti K amplitudes a microscopic model is constructed, which is based on the hadron-exchange picture. The Born terms include contributions from baryon-exchange as well as ρ-pole diagrams. The correlations between the two pseudoscalar mesons are taken into account exactly by means of ππ-K anti K amplitudes derived likewise from a meson-exchange model, which is in line with the empirical ππ data. The parameters of the B anti B'→ππ, K anti K model, which are related to each other by the assumption of SU(3) symmetry, are determined by the adjustment to the quasiempirical N anti N→ππ amplitudes in the pseudophysical region. It is found that correlated K anti K exchange being negligible in the NN interaction plays an important role in the σ-channel for baryon-baryon states with non-vanishing strangeness. The strength of correlated ππ plus K anti K exchange in the σ-channel decreases with the strangeness of the baryon-baryon system becoming more negative. Due to the admixture of baryon-exchange processes to the SU(3)-symmetric ρ-pole contributions the results for correlated ππ-exchange in the vector-isovector channel deviate from what is expected in the naive SU(3) picture for genuine ρ-exchange. (orig.)

  18. Generalization of a result of Matsuo and Cherednik to the Calogero-Sutherland-Moser integrable models with exchange terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.

    1996-01-01

    Matsuo and Cherednik have proved that wave functions for the Calogero integrable system can be obtained from some solutions of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ) equations, which appeared first in conformal field theory. Now it is shown that some solutions of the generalized KZ equations can be employed to construct wave functions, characterized by any given permutational symmetry, for some Caloger-Sutherland-Moser integrable models with exchange terms. Such models include the spin generalizations of the original Calogero and Sutherland models as well as the model with δ-function interaction. 18 refs

  19. Long-term agricultural fertilization alters arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition and barley (Hordeum vulgare) mycorrhizal carbon and phosphorus exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Olsson, Pål Axel; Hedlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural fertilization significantly affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. However, the functional implications of community shifts are unknown, limiting understanding of the role of AMF in agriculture. We assessed AMF community composition at four sites managed under the same nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer regimes for 55 yr. We also established a glasshouse experiment with the same soils to investigate AMF-barley (Hordeum vulgare) nutrient exchange, using carbon ( 13 C) and 33 P isotopic labelling. N fertilization affected AMF community composition, reducing diversity; P had no effect. In the glasshouse, AMF contribution to plant P declined with P fertilization, but was unaffected by N. Barley C allocation to AMF also declined with P fertilization. As N fertilization increased, C allocation to AMF per unit of P exchanged increased. This occurred with and without P fertilization, and was concomitant with reduced barley biomass. AMF community composition showed no relationship with glasshouse experiment results. The results indicate that plants can reduce C allocation to AMF in response to P fertilization. Under N fertilization, plants allocate an increasing amount of C to AMF and receive relatively less P. This suggests an alteration in the terms of P-C exchange under N fertilization regardless of soil P status. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Short-term Rn-222 concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A.

    2010-05-01

    Authors conducted research on radon concentration in two underground structures located in the vicinity of Kletno (Sudety Mts., SW Poland), which are accessible for visitors. One of these structures is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave, and the second one is the part of former uranium mine - Fluorite Adit. Both selected underground structures are characterized by almost constant temperature, changing within the range from +5 to +7° C and also constant relative humidity, close to 100%. Both these parameters testify that air exchange with the atmosphere is very limited. Air exchange is limited particularly in Niedźwiedzia Cave, which microclimate is protected i.e. by applying of locks at the entrance and exit of tourist route. The measurements were conducted between 16.05.2008. and 15.11.2009., by the use of a new Polish equipment - SRDN-3 devices with semiconductor detector. SRDN-3 device records every hour radon concentration as well as atmospheric parameters - relative humidity and temperature. At the same time authors conducted measurements of basic parameters in the open atmosphere close to Niedźwiedzia Cave. Obtained results of atmospheric parameters measurements may be used for both underground structures; because they are located within the distance of about 1 km. Atmospheric parameters were measured by the use of automatic weather station VantagePro2. On the base of conducted research authors corroborate, that the differences of radon concentration in both underground structures reach three orders of magnitude during a year. In Niedźwiedzia Cave these values are in the range from below 88 Bq/m3 (detection limit of the SRDN-3 device) up to 12 kBq/m3. Related values in Fluorite Adit are between < 88 Bq/m3 and 35 kBq/m3. It was observed also the different course of daily radon concentration changes in both structures. Additionally, authors registered that daily course of radon concentration changes differs due to season of the year. Such changes are observed in

  1. Comparing the short and long term stability of biodegradable, ceramic and cation exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Jonathan; Chambers, Lily D; Rossiter, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-11-01

    The long and short-term stability of two porous dependent ion exchange materials; starch-based compostable bags (BioBag) and ceramic, were compared to commercially available cation exchange membrane (CEM) in microbial fuel cells. Using bi-directional polarisation methods, CEM exhibited power overshoot during the forward sweep followed by significant power decline over the reverse sweep (38%). The porous membranes displayed no power overshoot with comparably smaller drops in power during the reverse sweep (ceramic 8%, BioBag 5.5%). The total internal resistance at maximum power increased by 64% for CEM compared to 4% (ceramic) and 6% (BioBag). Under fixed external resistive loads, CEM exhibited steeper pH reductions than the porous membranes. Despite its limited lifetime, the BioBag proved an efficient material for a stable microbial environment until failing after 8 months, due to natural degradation. These findings highlight porous separators as ideal candidates for advancing MFC technology in terms of cost and operation stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exact and approximate exchange potentials investigated in terms of their matrix elements with the Kohn-Sham orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; Cinal, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three approximate exchange potentials of high accuracy v x Y (r), Y=A,B,C, for the density-functional theory applications are obtained by replacing the matrix elements of the exact potential between the Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals with such elements of the Fock exchange operator (within the virtual-occupied subset only) in three representations found for any local potential. A common identity is the base of these representations. The potential v x C happens to be the same as that derived by Harbola and Sahni, and v x A as that derived by Gritsenko and Baerends, and Della Sala and Goerling. The potentials obtained can be expressed in terms of occupied KS orbitals only. At large r, their asymptotic form -1/r is the same as that of the exact potential. The high quality of these three approximations is demonstrated by direct comparison with the exact potential and using various consistency tests. A common root established for the three approximations could be helpful in finding new and better approximations via modification of identities employed in the present investigation

  3. Investing in Post-Acute Care Transitions: Electronic Information Exchange Between Hospitals and Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dori A; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health information exchange (HIE) is expected to help improve care transitions from hospitals to long-term care (LTC) facilities. We know little about the prevalence of hospital LTC HIE in the United States and what contextual factors may motivate or constrain this activity. Cross-sectional analysis of U.S. acute-care hospitals responding to the 2014 AHA IT Supplement survey and with available readmissions data (n = 1,991). We conducted multivariate logistic regression to explore the relationship between hospital LTC HIE and selected IT and policy characteristics. Over half of the hospitals in our study (57.2%) reported engaging in some form of HIE with LTC providers: 33.9% send-only, 0.5% receive-only, and 22.8% send and receive. Hospitals that engaged in some form of LTC HIE were more likely than those that did not engage to have attested to meaningful use (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; P = .01 for stage 1 and OR, 2.05; P investing in electronic information exchange with LTCs as part of a general strategy to adopt EHRs and engage in HIE, but also potentially to strengthen ties to LTC providers and to reduce readmissions. To achieve widespread connectivity, continued focus on adoption of related health IT infrastructure and greater emphasis on aligning incentives for hospital-LTC care transitions would be valuable. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term evaluation of a hospital-based violence intervention program using a regional health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Teresa M; Gilyan, Dannielle; Moore, Brian A; Martin, Joel; Ogbemudia, Blessing; McLaughlin, Briana E; Moore, Reilin; Simons, Clark J; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2018-01-01

    Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIP) aim to reduce violent-injury recidivism by providing intensive case management services to high-risk patients who were violently injured. Although HVIP have been found effective at reducing recidivism, few studies have sought to identity how long their effects last. Additionally, prior studies have been limited by the fact that HVIP typically rely on self-report or data within their own healthcare system to identify new injuries. Our aim was to quantify the long-term recidivism rate of participants in an HVIP program using more objective and comprehensive data from a regional health information exchange. The study included 328 patients enrolled in Prescription for Hope (RxH), an HVIP, between January 2009 and August 2016. We obtained RxH participants' emergency department (ED) encounter data from a regional health information exchange database from the date of hospital discharge to February 2017. Our primary outcome was violent-injury recidivism rate of the RxH program. We also examined reasons for ED visits that were unrelated to violent injury. We calculated a 4.4% recidivism rate based on 8 years of statewide data, containing 1,575 unique encounters. More than 96% of participants were matched in the state database. Of the 15 patients who recidivated, only five were admitted for their injury. More than half of new violence-related injuries were treated outside of the HVIP-affiliated trauma center. The most common reasons for ED visits were pain (718 encounters), followed by suspected complications or needing additional postoperative care (181 encounters). Substance abuse, unintentional injuries, and suicidal ideation were also frequent reasons for ED visits. The low, long-term recidivism rate for RxH indicates that HVIPs have enduring positive effects on the majority of participants. Our results suggest that HVIP may further benefit patients by partnering with organizations that work to prevent suicide

  5. Characterizing Long-Term Groundwater Conditions and Lithology for the Design of Large-Scale Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Charles

    Construction of large scale ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems that operate with hundreds or even thousands of boreholes for the borehole heat exchangers (BHE) has increased in recent years with many coming on line in the past 10 years. Many large institutions are constructing these systems because of their ability to store energy in the subsurface for indoor cooling during the warm summer months and extract that energy for heating during the cool winter months. Despite the increase in GCHP system systems constructed, there have been few long term studies on how these large systems interact with the subsurface. The thermal response test (TRT) is the industry standard for determining the thermal properties of the rock and soil. The TRT is limited in that it can only be used to determine the effective thermal conductivity over the whole length of a single borehole at the time that it is administered. The TRT cannot account for long-term changes in the aquifer saturation, changes in groundwater flow, or characterize different rock and soil units by effectiveness for heat storage. This study established new methods and also the need for the characterization of the subsurface for the purpose of design and long-term monitoring for GCHP systems. These new methods show that characterizing the long-term changes in aquifer saturation and groundwater flow, and characterizing different rock and soil units are an important part of the design and planning process of these systems. A greater understanding of how large-scale GCHP systems interact with the subsurface will result in designs that perform more efficiently over a longer period of time and expensive modifications due to unforeseen changes in system performance will be reduced.

  6. Sigma exchange in the nuclear force and effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, John F.

    2006-01-01

    In the phenomenological description of the nuclear interaction an important role is traditionally played by the exchange of a scalar I=0 meson, the sigma, of mass 500-600 MeV, which however is not seen clearly in the particle spectrum and which has a very ambiguous status in QCD. I show that a remarkably simple and reasonably controlled combination of ingredients can reproduce the features of this part of the nuclear force. The use of chiral perturbation theory calculations for two pion exchange supplemented by the Omnes function for pion rescattering suffices to reproduce the magnitude and shape of the exchange of a supposed σ particle. I also attempt to relate this description to the contact interaction that enters more modern descriptions of the internucleon interaction

  7. Short-term effects of light quality on leaf gas exchange and hydraulic properties of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglas, Aigar; Papp, Kaisa; Sekiewicz, Maciej; Sellin, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers. Upper-canopy leaves exhibit less water saving behaviour, which may be beneficial for the fast-growing pioneer species on a daily basis. Lower-canopy leaves have lower stomatal conductance resulting in more efficient water use. Spectral gradients existing within natural forest stands represent signals for the fine-tuning of stomatal conductance and tree water relations to afford lavish water use in sun foliage and enhance leaf water-use efficiency in shade foliage sustaining greater hydraulic limitations. Higher sensitivity of hydraulic conductance of shade leaves to blue light probably contributes to the efficient use of short duration sunflecks by lower-canopy leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Long-term influence of tillage and fertilization on net carbon dioxide exchange rate on two soils with different textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiziene, Dalia; Feiza, Virginijus; Slepetiene, Alvyra; Liaudanskiene, Inga; Kadziene, Grazina; Deveikyte, Irena; Vaideliene, Asta

    2011-01-01

    The importance of agricultural practices to greenhouse gas mitigation is examined worldwide. However, there is no consensus on soil organic carbon (SOC) content and CO emissions as affected by soil management practices and their relationships with soil texture. No-till (NT) agriculture often results in soil C gain, though, not always. Soil net CO exchange rate (NCER) and environmental factors (SOC, soil temperature [T], and water content [W]), as affected by soil type (loam and sandy loam), tillage (conventional, reduced, and NT), and fertilization, were quantified in long-term field experiments in Lithuania. Soil tillage and fertilization affected total CO flux (heterotrophic and autotrophic) through effect on soil SOC sequestration, water, and temperature regime. After 11 yr of different tillage and fertilization management, SOC content was 23% more in loam than in sandy loam. Long-term NT contributed to 7 to 27% more SOC sequestration on loam and to 29 to 33% more on sandy loam compared with reduced tillage (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Soil water content in loam was 7% more than in sandy loam. Soil gravimetric water content, averaged across measurement dates and fertilization treatments, was significantly less in NT than CT and RT in both soils. Soil organic carbon content and water storage capacity of the loam and sandy loam soils exerted different influences on NCER. The NCER from the sandy loam soil was 13% greater than that from the loam. In addition, NCER was 4 to 9% less with NT than with CT and RT systems on both loam and sandy loam soils. Application of mineral NPK fertilizers promoted significantly greater NCER from loam but suppressed NCER by 15% from sandy loam. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Short-Term Study Tours as a Driver for Increasing Domestic Student Mobility in Order to Generate Global Work-Ready Students and Cultural Exchange in Asia Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent federal government programmes in Australia have seen a shift in focus from the international student towards increasing the possibilities for domestic mobility through short- and long-term exchange opportunities. The current New Colombo Plan funding scheme encourages Australian students, who have traditionally undertaken semester-long…

  10. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambley, Graham; Hill, Timothy; Saunders, Matthew; Arn Teh, Yit

    2016-04-01

    Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. Despite covering only 12 % of the UK land area, peatlands are estimated to store approximately 20 times more carbon than the UK's forests, which cover 13% of the land area. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of 4000 km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O). However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the 1980s, when over 670 km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late 1990s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning. Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers. Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland (17 years old); and a more recently restored site (12 years old). The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of 858 g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of 501g C m-2 yr-1 and 575g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and

  11. Experimental study of two-phase flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell in short-term microgravity condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hang; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Jian Fu; Ye, Fang; Ma, Chong Fang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-phase flow in PEMFC cathode channels is observed in different gravity environments. • The PEMFC shows different operating behavior in normal and microgravity conditions. • Water tends can be removed in microgravity conditions at high water production regime. • Liquid aggregation occurs in microgravity conditions at low water production regime. • Effect of gravity on performance and two-phase flow at two operating regimes is studied. - Abstract: Water management is important for improving the performance and stability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) for space applications. An in situ visual observation was conducted on the gas–liquid two-phase flow in the cathode channels of a PEMFC in short-term microgravity condition. The microgravity environment was supplied by a drop tower. A single serpentine flow channel with a depth of 2 mm and a width of 2 mm was applied as the cathode flow field. A membrane electrode assembly comprising of a Nafion 112 membrane sandwiched between gas diffusion layers was used. The anode and cathode were loaded with 1 mg cm −2 platinum. The PEMFC shows a distinct operating behavior in microgravity because of the effect of gravity on the two-phase flow. At a high water production regime, cell performance is enhanced by 4.6% and the accumulated liquid water in the flow channel tends can be removed in microgravity conditions to alleviate flooding. At a low water production regime, cell performance deteriorates by 6.6% and liquid aggregation occurs in the flow channel because of the coalescence of dispersed water droplets in microgravity conditions, thus squeezing the flow channel. The operating behavior of PEMFC in microgravity conditions is different from that in normal gravity conditions. Further studies are needed on PEMFC operating characteristics and liquid management for space applications

  12. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  13. Measurements on cation exchange capacity of bentonite in the long-term test of buffer material (LOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite in the LOT experiment was the topic of this study. The measurements were performed using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)] 2+ as the index cation. Testing of the determination method suggested that (i) drying and wetting of the bentonite, and (ii) exchange time affect the obtained result. The real CEC measurements were carried out with the bentonite samples taken from the A2 parcel of the LOT experiment. The CEC values of the LOT samples were compared with those of the reference samples taken from the same bentonite batch before the compaction of the blocks for the experiment. The conclusions drawn have been made on the basis of the results determined with the wet bentonite samples using the direct exchange of two weeks with 0.01 M [Cu(trien)] 2+ solution because this method gave the most complete cation exchange in the CEC measurements. The differences between the samples taken from different places of the A2 parcel were quite small and close to the accuracy of the method. However, it seems that the CEC values of the field experiment are somewhat higher than the CEC of the reference samples and the values of the hot area are higher than those obtained from the low temperature area. It is also obvious that the variation of CEC increases with increasing temperature. (orig.)

  14. Short Term Sediment Exchange Between Marshes and Bays Using Beryllium-7 as a Tracer, Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Modern delta models focus on the availability and exchange of coarse sediment as one of the major factors of deltaic growth or decay. Fine-grained sediment exchange within a river's delta is relatively poorly understood, as is the impact that this exchange has on land building and land loss. To better understand the dynamics of fine grain sediment exchange between river mouth, adjacent bays, and marshland, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, LA, were collected and analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope that serves as a marker for recently deposited sediment. Time-series push cores were collected every two months at ten sites, five located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay and five located along adjacent marshes, from May 2015 to May 2016. All sites fall within 11 to 28 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, along a gradient extending towards the open ocean. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine bimonthly sedimentation rates over the course twelve months. Sediment deposition on the bay floor and marsh surface were then compared to Atchafalaya River discharge, wind speed and direction, and wave action. Preliminary results indicate patterns of initial fluvial sediment transfer from river to bay floor, then bay floor to marsh surface, with decreasing fluvial influence towards the open ocean. Sediment transport from bay to marsh appears to be coupled with meteorological forcing that induces bay-floor sediment resuspension and the flooding of marsh surfaces. This indirect mechanism of fluvial sediment supply to wetland surfaces may extend the region of influence for sediment delivery from man-made river-sediment diversions.

  15. Gaps, disconnections, and discontinuities--the role of information exchange in the delivery of quality long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; Marks, Anne; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna Irene

    2013-10-01

    The smart use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is widely seen as a means of enhancing the quality of aged care services. One of the barriers to ICT diffusion in aged care is the failure to cater for the complex and interdisciplinary requirements of the aged care environment. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify the layers of information exchange and communication and produce a conceptual model that can help to inform decisions related to the design, implementation, and sustainability of ICT. A qualitative study conducted in 2010 within seven Australian residential aged care facilities. It included 11 focus groups involving 47 staff and 54 individual interviews and observation sessions. The analysis of work processes identified key information exchange components related to the type of information (residential, clinical, and administrative) that is collected, stored, and communicated. This information relies on a diverse number of internal and external communication channels that are important for the organization of care. The findings highlight potential areas of communication dysfunction as a consequence of structural holes, fragmentation, or disconnections that can adversely affect the continuity and coordination of care, its safety, and quality.

  16. Report about term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia undergoing exchange transfusion in Southwestern China during an 11-year period, from 2001 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huayun; Chen, Xinhong; Hua, Ziyu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study was intended to explore the etiology and risk factors of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and to analyze the adverse events associated with ECT (Exchange Transfusion), as well as to identify the factors related to the poor prognosis. Methods All of the full-term neonates who had undergone ECT for hyperbilirubinemia at Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. General demographic characteristics, comorbidities, pre- and post-exchange TSB(Total Serum Bilirubin) levels, duration and frequency of ECT, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed anonymously. Results Of 614 total infants, 368 patients (59.9%) with ABO incompatibility were identified, of whom 197 (53.5%) developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) and 16 (4.3%) suffered a poor prognosis. The etiology was unidentified in 103 patients (16.8%), of whom 62 (60.1%) developed ABE and 9 (8.7%) had a poor prognosis. Identified adverse events secondary to ECT included thrombocytopenia (54.6%), hyperglycemia (42.8%), apnea (3.3%) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (1.3%). No ECT-related mortality was documented in this study. Conclusions The etiology, peak TSB level before ECT, and time of ECT had a significant impact on the outcome of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ABO incompatibility was the most common cause of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Pathological weight loss could be involved in the development of extreme hyperbilirubinemia with an unidentified cause. PMID:28662083

  17. Report about term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia undergoing exchange transfusion in Southwestern China during an 11-year period, from 2001 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfeng Yu

    Full Text Available This study was intended to explore the etiology and risk factors of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and to analyze the adverse events associated with ECT (Exchange Transfusion, as well as to identify the factors related to the poor prognosis.All of the full-term neonates who had undergone ECT for hyperbilirubinemia at Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. General demographic characteristics, comorbidities, pre- and post-exchange TSB(Total Serum Bilirubin levels, duration and frequency of ECT, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed anonymously.Of 614 total infants, 368 patients (59.9% with ABO incompatibility were identified, of whom 197 (53.5% developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE and 16 (4.3% suffered a poor prognosis. The etiology was unidentified in 103 patients (16.8%, of whom 62 (60.1% developed ABE and 9 (8.7% had a poor prognosis. Identified adverse events secondary to ECT included thrombocytopenia (54.6%, hyperglycemia (42.8%, apnea (3.3% and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (1.3%. No ECT-related mortality was documented in this study.The etiology, peak TSB level before ECT, and time of ECT had a significant impact on the outcome of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ABO incompatibility was the most common cause of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Pathological weight loss could be involved in the development of extreme hyperbilirubinemia with an unidentified cause.

  18. The Effects of Capital Outflows from Neighboring Countries on a Home Country’s Terms of Trade and Real Exchange Rate: The Case of East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammo Kang

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available While there is an extensive body of empirical analyses showing that currency crises tend to be regionally concentrated to specific areas and contagious to countries with high levels of trade, there has been insufficient research on the mechanisms underlying such tendencies. Using a two¡ⓒcountry model, we investigate the possibility of deterioration in the terms of trade and a rise in the real exchange rate of a home country in the case of capital outflows from its trade partner. In addition, an empirical analysis of East Asian countries conclusively shows that some countries conform to the model. Generally, neighboring countries trade extensively with one another for reasons like low logistics costs. This paper finds that such patterns of trade can be one reason for a currency crisis being regional.

  19. Chiral 2π exchange at fourth order and peripheral NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entem, D.R.; Machleidt, R.

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the impact of the complete set of two-pion exchange contributions at chiral fourth order (also known as next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order) on peripheral partial waves of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Our calculations are based upon the analytical studies by Kaiser. It turns out that the contribution of fourth order is substantially smaller than the one of third order, indicating convergence of the chiral expansion. We compare the prediction from chiral pion exchange with the corresponding one from conventional meson theory as represented by the Bonn full model and find, in general, good agreement. Our calculations provide a sound basis for investigating the issue whether the low-energy constants determined from πN lead to reasonable predictions for NN

  20. Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Adriana P A; Wagner, Cordula; Spreeuwenberg, Peter P M; Frijters, Dinnus H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2011-06-01

    The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care. We examine the structure of the networks, how they are related to the size of units and characteristics of nursing staff, and their relationship with job satisfaction. We collected social network data of 380 nursing staff of 35 units in group projects and psychogeriatric units in nursing homes and residential homes in the Netherlands. Communication and advice networks were analyzed in a social network application (UCINET), focusing on the number of contacts (density) between nursing staff on the units. We then studied the correlation between the density of networks, size of the units and characteristics of nursing staff. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationship between social networks and job satisfaction of nursing staff, taking characteristics of units and nursing staff into account. Both communication and advice networks were negatively related to the number of residents and the number of nursing staff of the units. Communication and advice networks were more dense when more staff worked part-time. Furthermore, density of communication networks was positively related to the age of nursing staff of the units. Multilevel analyses showed that job satisfaction differed significantly between individual staff members and units and was influenced by the number of nursing staff of the units. However, this relationship disappeared when density of communication networks was added to the model. Overall, communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care are relatively dense. This fits with the high level of cooperation

  1. Response of NDVI, biomass, and ecosystem gas exchange to long-term warming and fertilization in wet sedge tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Stieglitz, Marc; Rueth, Heather M; Sommerkorn, Martin; Griffin, Kevin L; Shaver, Gaius R; Gamon, John A

    2003-05-01

    This study explores the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), aboveground plant biomass, and ecosystem C fluxes including gross ecosystem production (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production. We measured NDVI across long-term experimental treatments in wet sedge tundra at the Toolik Lake LTER site, in northern Alaska. Over 13 years, N and P were applied in factorial experiments (N, P and N + P), air temperature was increased using greenhouses with and without N + P fertilizer, and light intensity (photosynthetically active photon flux density) was reduced by 50% using shade cloth. Within each treatment plot, NDVI, aboveground biomass and whole-system CO(2) flux measurements were made at the same sampling points during the peak-growing season of 2001. We found that across all treatments, NDVI is correlated with aboveground biomass ( r(2)=0.84), GEP ( r(2)=0.75) and ER ( r(2)=0.71), providing a basis for linking remotely sensed NDVI to aboveground biomass and ecosystem carbon flux.

  2. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  3. Rapid and long-term effects of water deficit on gas exchange and hydraulic conductance of silver birch trees grown under varying atmospheric humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Niglas, Aigar; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2014-03-24

    Effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance were investigated in Betula pendula under artificially manipulated air humidity in Eastern Estonia. The study was aimed to broaden an understanding of the ability of trees to acclimate with the increasing atmospheric humidity predicted for northern Europe. Rapidly-induced water deficit was imposed by dehydrating cut branches in open-air conditions; long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The rapid water deficit quantified by leaf (ΨL) and branch water potentials (ΨB) had a significant (P gas exchange parameters, while inclusion of ΨB in models resulted in a considerably better fit than those including ΨL, which supports the idea that stomatal openness is regulated to prevent stem rather than leaf xylem dysfunction. Under moderate water deficit (ΨL≥-1.55 MPa), leaf conductance to water vapour (gL), transpiration rate and leaf hydraulic conductance (KL) were higher (P water deficit (ΨLwater availability, i.e. due to higher soil water potential in H treatment. Two functional characteristics (gL, KL) exhibited higher (P water deficit in trees grown under increased air humidity. The experiment supported the hypothesis that physiological traits in trees acclimated to higher air humidity exhibit higher sensitivity to rapid water deficit with respect to two characteristics - leaf conductance to water vapour and leaf hydraulic conductance. Disproportionate changes in sensitivity of stomatal versus leaf hydraulic conductance to water deficit will impose greater risk of desiccation-induced hydraulic dysfunction on the plants, grown under high atmospheric humidity, in case of sudden weather fluctuations, and might represent a potential threat in hemiboreal forest ecosystems. There is no trade-off between plant hydraulic capacity and photosynthetic water-use efficiency on short time scale.

  4. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photoproduction from nuclei is also used to investigate the in-medium modification of meson–meson interactions. ... the observation of an in-medium modification of the vector meson masses can pro- vide a unique .... similar behavior is found in (γ,π+π0) reactions, shown in the right panel of figure 3. Additionally, the peak in ...

  5. Two-pion correlations in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1982-08-01

    An application of intensity interferometry to relativistic heavy ion collisions is reported. Specifically, the correlation between two like-charged pions is used to study the reactions Ar+KCl→2π/sup +-/+X and Ne+NaF→2π - +X. Source sizes are obtained that are consistent with a simple geometric interpretation. Lifetimes are less well determined but are indicative of a faster pion production process than predicted by Monte Carlo cascade calculations. There appears to be a substantial coherent component of the pion source, although measurement is complicated by the presence of final state interactions. Additionally, the generation of spectra of uncorrelated events is discussed. In particular, the influence of the correlation function on the background spectrum is analyzed, and a prescription for removal of this influence is given. A formulation to describe the statistical errors in the background is also presented. Finally, drawing from the available literature, a self-contained introduction to Bose-Einstein correlations and the Hanbury-Brown - Twiss effect is provided, with an emphasis on points of contact between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions

  6. Beam Spin Asymmetry Measurements for Two Pion Photoproduction at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark D. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    The overarching goal of this analysis, and many like it, is to develop our understanding of the strong force interactions within the nucleon by examining the nature of their excitation spectra. As the resonances of these spectra have very short lifetimes (tau = 1x10-23 s) and often have very similar masses, it is often impossible to directly observe resonances in the excitation spectra of nucleons. Polarization observables allow us to study the resonances by looking at how they affect the spin state of final state particles. The beam asymmetry is a polarization observable that allows us to detect the sensitivity of these resonances, and other transition mechanisms, to the electric vector orientation of incident photons. Presented in this thesis are first measurements of the beam asymmetries in the resonant region for the reaction channel pgamma p --> p π+ π-focusing on the intermediate mesonic states rho^0 and f^0, and the final state pions. The analysis used data from the g8b experiment undertaken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), the first experiment at JLab to use a linearly polarized photon beam. Using the coherent Bremsstrahlung facility and the CLAS detector of Hall B at JLab allowed for many multi-channel reactions to be detected and the first measurements of many polarization observables including those presented here. A brief overview of the theoretical framework used to undertake this analysis is given, followed by a description of the experimental details of the facilities used, then a description of the calibration of the Bremsstrahlung tagging facility which the author undertook, and finally the analysis is presented and the resulting measurements.

  7. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A deeper understanding of the situation is anticipated from a detailed experimental study of meson photoproduction from nuclei in exclusive reactions. In the energy regime above the (1232) resonance, the dominant double pion production channels are of particular interest. Double pion photoproduction from nuclei is ...

  8. Puzzles in quarkonium hadronic transitions with two pion emission

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, F.; Ortega, P.G.; Entem, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    The anomalously large rates of some hadronic transitions from quarkonium are studied using QCD multipole expansion (QCDME) in the framework of a constituent quark model which has been successful in describing hadronic phenomenology. The hybrid intermediate states needed in the QCDME method are calculated in a natural extension of our constituent quark model based on the Quark Confining String (QCS) scheme. Some of the anomalies are explained due to the presence of an hybrid state with a mass near the mass of the decaying resonance whereas other are justified by the presence of molecular components in the wave function. Some unexpected results are pointed out.

  9. Invariant mass dependence of two-pion inclusive correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Singer, R.; Thomas, G.H.; Kafka, T.

    1976-06-01

    High energy two-particle inclusive correlations are studied as a function of the invariant mass M of the pair. Using data from 205 GeV/c pp interactions, one compares the correlation functions C(M) for (+-) and (--) pairs of produced pions. Strong positive correlations are observed in both distributions in the form of a broad threshold enhancement at small M. The decrease of C(M) as M increases is interpreted in the Mueller-Regge framework. From the M dependence of C +- one extracts an effective trajectory intercept of roughly α(0) approximately equal to 0.5 +- 0.1, consistent with the (rho,f) pair. For the exotic (--) system, one finds a low intercept, α(0) approximately equal to -0.5. A rho resonance signal is observed above background in C +- (M). Near threshold, effects suggestive of Bose symmetry are seen but are not conclusive. In an exclusive picture, one relates most of the correlation in the threshold region to resonances involving three or more pions. One also examines the joint correlations in M and the azimuthal angle phi

  10. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  11. The effect of meson exchange on the forward cross section for d(γ,p)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaus, W.; Woolcock, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of meson exchange on the theoretical calculation of the cross section for the photodisintegration of the deuteron in the forward direction, in the hope of reducing the present large discrepancy between theory and experiment. Two recent papers reporting a significant reduction in the discrepancy were found to have a sign error; when pseudoscalar πNN coupling is used the effect of one-pion exchange is to increase the discrepancy. We have calculated the one-pion and two-pion exchange effects on the E1 transitions using pseudovector πNN coupling and the resulting correction is small and in the right direction. Thus, assuming the reliability of both theory and experiment, our calculation provides a strong argument in favour of using PV rather than PS πNN coupling in calculating meson exchange effects in nuclear processes. We have found that the effect of the exchange of rho- and ω-mesons is very small. Meson exchange effects change the normalization of the deuteron wave function and cause a further small reduction in the calculated cross section. Since the corrections to the M1 transitions are expected to be very small, it seems unlikely that meson exchange effects can account for the discrepancy between theory and experiment. (orig.)

  12. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  13. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  14. Insights from a network of long-term measurements of biosphere-atmospheric exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Biederman, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Around one-third of Earth's land surface is classified as semiarid, and carbon dioxide exchange in these regions has been shown to be an important regulator of both the trend and interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon sink. Fifteen years ago, when we began making measurements of biosphere-atmospheric exchanges of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide using eddy covariance in southern Arizona USA, there was paucity of semiarid observations in flux networks like Ameriflux. We started by establishing riparian sites across a woody plant encroachment gradient to quantify the productivity and consumptive plant water use along a iconic and ecologically important desert river. Soon thereafter, we added semiarid grassland, shrubland, and savanna sites that do not have access to groundwater in order to better understand how water limitation and changes in vegetation structure affect ecosystem productivity. Here, we highlight the value of multiyear, multisite flux data for addressing regional to global scale problems associated with groundwater pumping, land cover change, drought, and climate change. For the riparian sites, we find that ecosystem water availability is altered by vegetation structure such that ecosystems with more deeply rooted trees have higher productivity but at a cost of greater groundwater use. For the non-riparian sites, precipitation strongly controls ecosystem water availability and the resultant productivity, but differences in ecosystem structure impact water use efficiency due to the partitioning of evapotranspiration into its component sources. Also, the productivity at sites with more grass, and less woody, plants responds more quickly to precipitation fluctuations including long-term drought conditions. In semiarid regions, variability in water and carbon fluxes is much larger than in more mesic climes. Across our riparian and non-riparian sites, access to more stable groundwater reserves reduces variability in water and carbon

  15. Insights from a network of long-term measurements of biosphere-atmospheric exchanges of water vapor and carbon dioxide in a water-limited semiarid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russell; Biederman, Joel

    2017-04-01

    Around one-third of Earth's land surface is classified as semiarid, and carbon dioxide exchange in these regions has been shown to be an important regulator of both the trend and interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon sink. Fifteen years ago, when we began making measurements of biosphere-atmospheric exchanges of energy, water vapor, and carbon dioxide using eddy covariance in southern Arizona USA, there was paucity of semiarid observations in flux networks like AmeriFlux and EuroFlux. We started by establishing riparian sites across a woody plant encroachment gradient to quantify the productivity and consumptive plant water use along a iconic and ecologically important desert river. Soon thereafter, we added semiarid grassland, shrubland, and savanna sites that do not have access to groundwater in order to better understand how water limitation and changes in vegetation structure affect ecosystem productivity. Here, we highlight the value of multiyear, multisite flux data for addressing regional to global scale problems associated with groundwater pumping, land cover change, drought, and climate change. For the riparian sites, we find that ecosystem water availability is altered by vegetation structure such that ecosystems with more deeply rooted trees have higher productivity but at a cost of greater groundwater use. For the non-riparian sites, precipitation strongly controls ecosystem water availability and the resultant productivity, but differences in ecosystem structure impact water use efficiency due to the partitioning of evapotranspiration into its component sources. Also, the productivity at sites with more grass, and less woody, plants responds more quickly to precipitation fluctuations including long-term drought conditions. In semiarid regions, variability in water and carbon fluxes is much larger than in more mesic climes. Across our riparian and non-riparian sites, access to more stable groundwater reserves reduces variability in water and

  16. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  17. Coupled transport/reaction modelling with ion-exchange: Study of the long-term properties of bentonite buffer in a final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinsong; Neretnieks, I.

    1997-05-01

    Possible transformation of Na-montmorillonite to Ca-montmorillonite, by ion exchange, in the bentonite buffer in a final repository for spent nuclear fuel can lead to a drastic decrease in the swelling capacity and a significant increase in the permeability of the bentonite. The ion exchange mechanism has been studied, by using the coupled transport/reaction model. In most typical sites of the granite bedrock where there are no large fractures, groundwater flow is limited. The results of this study show that the ion-exchange process will be very slow in this case. Only a few percent of the total Na-montmorillonite is exchanged within 1 to 10 thousand years. When the groundwater flow in the bedrock is assumed to be unlimited, an upper bound of the conditions of the water flow, a sharp ion-exchange front can be formed and propagate within the bentonite buffer. When the groundwater is assumed to be the Aespoe water, with a high Ca concentration, the break-through time of the ion-exchange front can be a few thousand years. When the water is assumed to be Allard water with low Ca concentration, the break-through time can be as long as 10 5 to 10 6 years. When a canister has manufacturing defects, both the pyrite oxidation and the ion-exchange processes can occur simultaneously. A redox front and an ion-exchange front develop from both sides of the bentonite buffer. before the two fronts meet, they travel relatively independently in the bentonite. After they have met, they interact only marginally. Even if a large scale ion-exchange happens, the release of the dissolved uranium species from the bentonite to the rock can still be extremely small. The release is mainly controlled by the redox potential of pyrite oxidation

  18. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  19. Shifting the Arctic Carbon Balance: Effects of a Long-Term Fertilization Experiment and Anomalously Warm Temperatures on Net Ecosystem Exchange in the Alaskan Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Natali, S.; Rastetter, E. B.; Shaver, G. R.; Graham, L. M.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    The arctic is warming at an accelerated rate relative to the globe. Among the predicted consequences of warming temperatures in the arctic are increased gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and nutrient availability. The net effect of these changes on the carbon (C) cycle and resulting C balance and feedback to climate change remain unclear. Historically the Arctic has been a C sink, but evidence from recent years suggests some regions in the Arctic are becoming C sources. To predict the role of the Arctic in global C cycling, the mechanisms affecting arctic C balances need to be better resolved. We measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a long-term, multi-level, fertilization experiment at Toolik Lake, AK during an anomalously warm summer. We modeled NEE, ER, and GPP using a Bayesian network model. The best-fit model included Q10 temperature functions and linear fertilization functions for both ER and GPP. ER was more strongly affected by temperature and GPP was driven more by fertilization level. As a result, fertilization increased the C sink capacity, but only at moderate and low temperatures. At high temperatures (>28 °C) the NEE modeled for the highest level of fertilization was not significantly different from zero. In contrast, at ambient nutrient levels modeled NEE was significantly below zero (net uptake) until 35 °C, when it becomes neutral. Regardless of the level of fertilization, NEE never decreased with warming. Temperature in low ranges (5-15°C) had no net effect on NEE, whereas NEE began to increase exponentially with temperature after a threshold of 15°C until becoming a net source to the atmosphere at 37°C. Our results indicate that the C sink strength of tundra ecosystems can be increased with small increases in nutrient availability, but that large increase in nutrient availability can switch tundra ecosystems into C sources under warm conditions. Warming temperatures in tundra ecosystems will only decrease C

  20. 31 CFR 500.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 500.325... Definitions § 500.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  1. 31 CFR 515.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 515.325... Definitions § 515.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  2. Condensation heat transfer coefficient of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger of emergency cooldown tank in long-term passive cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seon Jeong; Lee, Hee Joon; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In

    2017-01-01

    For the design purpose of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger of emergency cooldown tank, average condensation heat transfer coefficient inside a circular tube was reduced by a thermal sizing program using the experimental data of Kim et al. It was compared to the existing condensation heat transfer correlations. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of both inside condensation and outside air natural convection correlations was performed. Although condensation heat transfer did not play a great role to design over 10 3 W/m 2 /K, the improved Shah's correlation gives the best prediction for the design. Consequently, air natural convection coefficient significantly affects the design of air-cooled condensing heat exchanger. (author)

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  4. Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory

  5. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  6. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  7. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  8. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Vitrectomy and gas-fluid exchange for the treatment of serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit: long-term evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Neto, Carlos Augusto; Moreira Junior, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate 5 patients with serous macular detachment due to optic disc pit that were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy and were followed for at least 7 years. Patients were submitted to pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, autologous serum injection and gas-fluid exchange, without laser photocoagulation, and were evaluated pre and post-operatively with visual acuity and Amsler grid testing, retinography, and recently, with autofluorescence imaging and high resolution OCT. All 5 eyes improved visual acuity significantly following the surgical procedure maintaining good vision throughout the follow-up period. Mean pre-operative visual acuity was 20/400 and final visual acuity was 20/27 with a mean follow-up time of 13.6 years. No recurrences of serous detachments were observed. OCT examinations demonstrated an attached retina up to the margin of the pit. Serous macular detachments due to optic disc pits were adequately treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas fluid exchange, without the need for laser photocoagulation, maintaining excellent visual results for a long period of time.

  10. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  11. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  12. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  13. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  14. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  15. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  16. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  17. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  18. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  19. Stability of Zircon and Its Isotopic Ratios in High-Temperature Fluids: Long-Term (4 months Isotope Exchange Experiment at 850°C and 50 MPa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya N. Bindeman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stability of zircon in hydrothermal fluids and vanishingly slow rates of diffusion identify zircon as a reliable recorder of its formation conditions in recent and ancient rocks. Debate, however, persists on how rapidly oxygen and key trace elements (e.g., Li, B, Pb diffuse when zircon is exposed to silicate melt or hot aqueous fluids. Here, we report results of a nano- to micrometer-scale investigation of isotopic exchange using natural zircon from Mesa Falls Tuff (Yellowstone treated with quartz-saturated, isotopically (18O, D, 7Li, and 11B labeled water with a nominal δ18O value of +450%0 over 4 months at 850°C and 50 MPa. Frontside (crystal rim inwards δ18O depth profiling of zircon by magnetic sector SIMS shows initially high but decreasing 18O/16O over a ~130 nm non-Fickian profile, with a decay length comparable to the signal from surficial Au coating deposited onto zircon. In contrast, backside (crystal interior outwards depth profiling on a 2-3 μm thick wafer cut and thinned from treated zircon by focused ion beam (FIB milling lacks any significant increase in 18O/16O during penetration of the original surface layer. Near-surface time-of-flight (TOF-SIMS frontside profiles of uncoated zircon from 4-month and 1-day-long experiments as well as untreated zircons display similar enrichments of 18O over a distance of ~20 nm. All frontside 18O profiles are here interpreted as transient surface signals from nm-thick surface enrichment or contamination unrelated to diffusion. Likewise, frontside depth profiling of H, Li, and B isotopes are similar for long- and short-duration experiments. Additionally, surface U-Pb dating of zircon from the 4-month experiment returned U-Pb ages by depth profiling with ~1 μm penetration that were identical to untreated samples. Frontside and backside depth-profiling thus demonstrate that diffusive 18O enrichment in the presence of H2O is much slower than predicted from experiments in Watson and Cherniak

  20. Numerical Study on the Design Concept of an Air-Cooled Condensation Heat Exchanger in a Long-term Passive Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    SMART is the only licensed SMR in the world since the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) issued officially the Standard Design Approval (SDA) on 4 July 2012. Recently, the pre-project engineering (PPE) was officially launched for the construction of SMART and developing human resources capability. Both KAERI and King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A. CARE) will conduct a three-year preliminary study to review the feasibility of building SMART and to prepare for its commercialization. SMART is equipped with passive cooling systems in order to enhance the safety of the reactor. The PRHRS (Passive Residual Heat Removal System) is the major passive safety system, which is actuated after an accident to remove the residual heat and the sensible heat from the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) through the steam generators (SGs) until the safe shutdown condition is reached. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlations in TSCON were validated using experimental data. It was shown that most of the condensation correlation gave satisfactory predictions of the cooling capacity of an-air cooled condensation heat exchanger.

  1. Numerical Study on the Design Concept of an Air-Cooled Condensation Heat Exchanger in a Long-term Passive Cooling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Park, Hyun Sik; Lee, Hee Joon

    2016-01-01

    SMART is the only licensed SMR in the world since the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) issued officially the Standard Design Approval (SDA) on 4 July 2012. Recently, the pre-project engineering (PPE) was officially launched for the construction of SMART and developing human resources capability. Both KAERI and King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (K.A. CARE) will conduct a three-year preliminary study to review the feasibility of building SMART and to prepare for its commercialization. SMART is equipped with passive cooling systems in order to enhance the safety of the reactor. The PRHRS (Passive Residual Heat Removal System) is the major passive safety system, which is actuated after an accident to remove the residual heat and the sensible heat from the RCS (Reactor Coolant System) through the steam generators (SGs) until the safe shutdown condition is reached. In this study, condensing heat transfer correlations in TSCON were validated using experimental data. It was shown that most of the condensation correlation gave satisfactory predictions of the cooling capacity of an-air cooled condensation heat exchanger

  2. Changes in the level of cardiac troponine and disorders in pulmonary gas exchange as predictors of short- and long-term outcomes of patients with aneurysm subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burzyńska, Małgorzata; Uryga, Agnieszka; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Kędziora, Jarosław; Szewczyk, Ewa; Woźniak, Jowita; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz; Kübler, Andrzej

    2017-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary abnormalities are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). However, the relationship between short- and long-term outcome is poorly understood. In this paper, we present how cardiac troponine elevations (cTnI) and pulmonary disorders are associated with short- and long-term outcomes assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE). A total of 104 patients diagnosed with aSAH were analysed in the study. The non-parametric U Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the difference between good (GOS IV-V, GOSE V-VIII) and poor (GOS I-III, GOSE I-IV) outcomes in relation to cTnI elevation and pulmonary disorders. Outcome was assessed at discharge from the hospital, and then followed up 6 and 12 months later. Pulmonary disorders were determined by the PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio and radiography. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were used to determine the predictive power of these factors. In the group with good short-term outcomes cTnI elevation on the second day after aSAH was significantly lower (p = .00007) than in patients with poor short-term outcomes. The same trend was observed after 6 months, although there were different results 12 months from the onset (p = .024 and n.s., respectively). A higher peak of cTnI was observed in the group with a pathological X-ray (p = .008) and pathological PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (p ≪ .001). cTnI was an accurate predictor of short-term outcomes (AUC = 0.741, p ≪ .001) and the outcome after 6 months (AUC = 0.688, p = .015). The results showed that cardiopulmonary abnormalities perform well as predictive factors for short- and long-term outcomes after aSAH.

  3. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  5. Mortality and causes of death among people who inject amphetamine: A long-term follow-up cohort study from a needle exchange program in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhman, Ada; Jerkeman, Anna; Blomé, Marianne Alanko; Björkman, Per; Håkansson, Anders

    2018-07-01

    Abuse of amphetamines is a worldwide problem with around 34 million users, and amphetamine is commonly used by people who inject drugs (PWID). Despite this, there is relatively little research on mortality and cause of death among people who use amphetamines primarily. The present study aimed to examine mortality and causes of death among people who inject amphetamine, and compare these results to the general population. This retrospective cohort study was based on data from The Malmö Needle Exchange Program in Sweden (MNEP) and on data from The Swedish National Cause of Death Register. Participants in the MNEP, between 1987 and 2011, with registered national identity number and amphetamine as their primary drug of injection use, were included in the study. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) was calculated for overall mortality and categories of causes of death. 2019 individuals were included (mean follow-up-time 13.7 years [range 0.02-24.2 years], a total of 27,698 person-years). Of the 448 deceased, 428 had a registered cause of death. The most common causes of death were external causes (n = 162, 38%), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (n = 67, 16%). SMR were significantly elevated (8.3, 95% CI [7.5-9.1]) for the entire study population, and for every category of causes of death respectively. People injecting amphetamine as a primary drug were found to have significantly elevated mortality compared with the general population, with high rates of both external and somatic causes of death. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Histological examination of spruce needles from a long-term gas exchange experiment in pure and polluted air in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Maercker, U.; Koch, W.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of a 4-year period of gas exchange measurements in a natural stand in the Lower Bavarian Forest, needles of an adult spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] were harvested from two chambers, one with pure air and the other with ambient air. The needles were examined as to their histological properties in the stomatal apparatus and in the bundle sheath. In needles from the polluted air UV absorbance at 280 nm was decreased in the walls of the stomatal apparatus. Simultaneously, the deposition of compounds with an absorption maximum at 310 nm increased within the encrusted plate-like thickenings of the subsidiary cells. The contents of the lumina of hypodermal cells and of the bundle sheath exhibited a greater degree of autofluorescence in ambient-air material than in pure-air leaf organs. Differences between needles exposed to pure and polluted air are gradual. The “damaged” condition is rare in pure air, common in polluted air. The needles from outside the chambers occupied an intermediate position between pure-air and ambient-air needles. This fact is traced to an unnaturally high pollutant load in the liquid phase of the needle surfaces within the ambient-air chamber because in order to compensate pollutant losses within the system, SO 2 and O 3 were added even during periods of irrigation. The reduction of absorption capacity at 280 nm in the walls of the stomatal apparatus is attributed to destruction of lignin due to the high reactivity of the pollutants in the liquid phase on the damp needle surface. The importance of delignification with regard to hydroregulation is discussed

  7. The influence of social skills on getting social support for adolescents during study abroad: A case study of Japanese short-term exchange students

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHAMA, Ai; NISHIMURA, Yoshie; TANAKA, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how short-term international students get social support and achieve cross-cultural adjustment during study abroad using interviews based on a recall method. The participants of the study are 8 Japanese students who studied in the U.S for about 6 months to one year. They were asked about their study abroad experiences in relation to their cross-cultural adaptation and about their social support networks. Two findings were obtained. First, the participants of the study ...

  8. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  9. HFC404A vaporisation inside a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger (BPHE): Comparison with the possible long-term low GWP substitutes HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Giovanni A.; Mancin, Simone; Righetti, Giulia; Zilio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper investigates HFC404A vaporisation inside a BPHE. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit heat transfer coefficients similar to HFC404A. • HC290 and HC1270 exhibit frictional pressure drops higher than HFC404A. • The experimental measurements are complemented with an IR thermography analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents the heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drops measured during HFC404A vaporisation inside a commercial BPHE and the comparison of this data with previous measurements carried out during HC290 (Propane) and HC1270 (Propylene) vaporisation inside the same BPHE and similar operating condition in order to assess the capability of HydroCarbon refrigerants as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A in commercial and industrial refrigeration. Propane and Propylene exhibit boiling heat transfer coefficient very similar and frictional pressure drops higher than to those of HFC404A, therefore, taking into account also their good thermodynamic properties, they seems to be very promising as long-term low GWP substitutes for HFC404A. The HFC404A boiling heat transfer coefficients were also compared with a new model for refrigerant boiling inside BPHE (Longo et al., 2015): the mean absolute percentage deviation between calculated and experimental data is 6.0%. The heat transfer measurements were also complemented with an IR thermography analysis for a better understanding of refrigerant vaporisation heat transfer regime inside a BPHE.

  10. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  11. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  12. Modelling of the long-term fate of pesticide residues in agricultural soils and their surface exchange with the atmosphere: Part II. Projected long-term fate of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, M T; Bidleman, T F

    2007-05-01

    In the first part of this paper, a simple coupled dynamic soil-atmosphere model for studying the gaseous exchange of pesticide soil residues with the atmosphere is described and evaluated by comparing model results with published measurements of pesticide concentrations in air and soil. In Part II, the model is used to study the concentration profiles of pesticide residues in both undisturbed and annually tilled agricultural soils. Future trends are estimated for the measured air and soil concentrations of lindane and six highly persistent pesticides (toxaphene, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, cis- and trans-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) over a twenty-year period due to volatilization and leaching into the deeper soil. Wet deposition and particle associated pesticide deposition (that increase soil residue concentrations) and soil erosion, degradation in the soil (other than for lindane) and run-off in precipitation are not considered in this study. Estimates of the rain deposition fluxes are reported that show that, other than for lindane, net volatilization fluxes greatly exceed rain deposition fluxes. The model shows that the persistent pesticides studied are highly immobile in soil and that loss of these highly persistent residues from the soil is by volatilization rather than leaching into the deeper soil. The soil residue levels of these six pesticides are currently sources of net volatilization to the atmosphere and will remain so for many years. The maximum rate of volatilization from the soil was simulated by setting the atmospheric background concentration to zero; these simulations show that the rates of volatilization will not be significantly increased since soil resistance rather than the atmospheric concentration controls the volatilization rates. Annual tilling of the soils increases the volatilization loss to the atmosphere. Nonetheless, the model predicts that, if only air-soil exchange is considered, more than 76% of current persistent pesticide residues

  13. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  14. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  15. In Terms of Data Exchange Among Train Detection System Research%列检场列车检测系统数据交换研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许亚军; 胡秉谊

    2015-01-01

    列检场的列检系统通信部分采用ISM频段的无线通信。在现场网络资源紧张的情况下,现有系统通信存在数据丢失率高、效率低和可靠性差的不足之处。文章提出了一种优化改进原有系统的新方法,并通过试验验证了该方法的可行性。新通信系统具有数据传输错误率低,通信效率高的特点。%Check out the list of wireless communication system in terms of the communication part of the ISM band. In the ifeld of cyber source tense situation, the existing system of communication data loss rate is high, low efifciency and poor reliability of the shortcomings. This paper suggests a new method for optimization and improvement of the original system, and the feasibility of the method is validated by the experiment. The new communication system with data transmission error rate is low, the characteristics of high efficiency of communication.

  16. 32 CFR 644.418 - Procedure for exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedure for exchange. 644.418 Section 644.418... for exchange. (a) Each agreement for the exchange of real property should be formalized by written contract specifying the terms and conditions of the exchange, including, by reference to exhibits...

  17. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  18. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib......We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  19. An Econometric Approach to Exchange Control Liberalization and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the private sector which lead to improved efficiency and economic growth. ... account exchange controls (Bank of Botswana, 2000). .... Ai is a (6*6) matrix of parameters ..... employment, terms of trade and exchange control liberalisation.

  20. Exchange rate policy and devaluation in Malawi:

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Karl; Dorosh, Paul A.; Mazunda, John

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates why devaluation was ultimately necessary in Malawi and also what its eventual impact might be in terms of prices, income distribution, and domestic production. Our approach is to use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to evaluate the economywide impacts of foreign exchange shortages in Malawi under two alternative exchange rate regimes. The foreign exchange shortages are modeled by simulating the effect of actual shocks, including tobacco price declines and r...

  1. Commodity exchanges - Function and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the potential impacts that a futures market may have on the international trade of uranium. The discussion first centers around the New York Mercantile Exchange. The following market aspects are discussed: long-term contracting; spot market; commoditization and pricing; and advantages, disadvantages, risks, and provisions of futures market contracts

  2. Verification on reliability of heat exchanger for primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Sumio; Gorai, Shigeru; Onoue, Ryuji; Ohtsuka, Kaoru

    2010-07-01

    Prior to the JMTR refurbishment, verification on reliability of the heat exchangers for primary cooling system was carried out to investigate an integrity of continuously use component. From a result of the significant corrosion, decrease of tube thickness, crack were not observed on the heat exchangers, and integrity of heat exchangers were confirmed. In the long terms usage of the heat exchangers, the maintenance based on periodical inspection and a long-term maintenance plan is scheduled. (author)

  3. THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON WHEAT TRADE WORLDWIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Changyou; Kim, Mina; Koo, Won W.; Cho, Guedae; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2002-01-01

    A modified gravity-type model was employed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate volatility on wheat exports worldwide. Special attention was given to the econometric properties of the gravity model within panel framework. Short and long-term measures of exchange rate volatility were constructed and compared. Both measures of exchange rate volatility have exhibited a negative effect on world wheat trade and the long-term effect was even larger. This result implies that exchange rate volatil...

  4. Model Adoption Exchange Payment System: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Robert J.

    This executive summary provides a brief description of the Model Adoption Exchange Payment System (MAEPS), a unique payment system aimed at improving the delivery of adoption exchange services throughout the United States. Following a brief introductory overview, MAEPS is described in terms of (1) its six components (registration, listing,…

  5. International trade and exchange rate volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFor currencies with well developed forward markets several papers have investigated the conjectured negative relationship between trade and short term exchange rate volatility, without being very successful. A theoretical explanation for the empirical anomalies is provided by solving

  6. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  7. Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange

  8. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-12-01

    Using infra-red spectroscopy, the equilibrium exchange times have been determined for a series of ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and {beta}-ketoesters reacting with oxygen 18 enriched water. These exchange times have been evaluated in terms of steric and electronic considerations, and applied to a discussion of the exchange times of chlorophylls a and b and chlorophyll derivatives.

  9. Properties of Foreign Exchange Risk Premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, Lucio; Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure of ...... and are closely related to global risk aversion, the business cycle, and traditional exchange rate fundamentals.......We study the properties of foreign exchange risk premiums that can explain the forward bias puzzle, defined as the tendency of high-interest rate currencies to appreciate rather than depreciate. These risk premiums arise endogenously from the no-arbitrage condition relating the term structure...... of interest rates and exchange rates. Estimating affine (multi-currency) term structure models reveals a noticeable tradeoff between matching depreciation rates and accuracy in pricing bonds. Risk premiums implied by our global affine model generate unbiased predictions for currency excess returns...

  10. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  12. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  13. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  14. Exchange rate predictability and state-of-the-art models

    OpenAIRE

    Yeșin, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    This paper empirically evaluates the predictive performance of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) exchange rate assessments with respect to future exchange rate movements. The assessments of real trade-weighted exchange rates were conducted from 2006 to 2011, and were based on three state-of-the-art exchange rate models with a medium-term focus which were developed by the IMF. The empirical analysis using 26 advanced and emerging market economy currencies reveals that the "diagnosis" of ...

  15. Modelling Exchange Rate Volatility by Macroeconomic Fundamentals in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Munazza Jabeen; Saud Ahmad Khan

    2014-01-01

    What drives volatility in foreign exchange market in Pakistan? This paper undertakes an analysis of modelling exchange rate volatility in Pakistan by potential macroeconomic fundamentals well-known in the economic literature. For this, monthly data on Pak Rupee exchange rates in the terms of major currencies (US Dollar, British Pound, Canadian Dollar and Japanese Yen) and macroeconomics fundamentals is taken from April, 1982 to November, 2011. The results show thatthe PKR-USD exchange rate vo...

  16. Charge-odd and single-spin effects in two pion production in ep bar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galynskij, M.V.; Kuraev, E.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.; Ratcliffe, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We consider two-photon and Bremsstrahlung mechanisms for the production of two charged pions in high-energy electron (proton) scattering off a transversely polarised proton. Interference between the relevant amplitudes generates a charge-odd contribution to the cross section for the process. In a kinematics with a jet moving along electron spin-independent part may be used for determination of phase differences for pion-pion scattering in the states with orbital momentum 0 or 2 and 1 whereas in a kinematics with a jet moving along proton spin-dependent part may be used to explain the experimental data for single-spin correlations in the production of negatively charged pions. We also discuss the backgrounds and estimate the accuracy of the results at less than 10% level. In addition simplified formulae derived for specific kinematics, with small total transverse pion momentum, are given

  17. A new measurement of direct CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon

    CERN Document Server

    Fanti, V.; Marras, D.; Musa, L.; Bevan, A.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Hay, B.; Moore, R.W.; Moore, K.N.; Munday, D.J.; Needham, M.D.; Parker, Michael Andrew; Takach, S.F.; White, T.O.; Wotton, S.A.; Barr, G.; Blumer, H.; Bocquet, G.; Bremer, J.; Ceccucci, A.; Cogan, J.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Funk, W.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Gonidec, A.; Govi, G.; Grafstrom, P.; Kesseler, G.; Kubischta, W.; Lacourt, A.; Luitz, S.; Matheys, J.P.; Norton, A.; Palestini, S.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Peyaud, B.; Schinzel, D.; Taureg, H.; Velasco, M.; Vossnack, O.; Wahl, Heinrich; Wirrer, G.; Gaponenko, A.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Tatishvili, G.; Tkatchev, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Bertolotto, L.; Boyle, O.; Knowles, I.G.; Martin, V.J.; Parsons, H.L.C.; Peach, K.J.; Talamonti, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Duclos, J.; Formica, A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Graziani, G.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Michetti, A.; Becker, H.G.; Buchholz, P.; Coward, D.H.; Ebersberger, C.; Fox, H.; Kalter, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Kopke, L.; Renk, B.; Scheidt, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schonharting, V.; Schue, Y.; Wilhelm, R.; Wittgen, M.; Chollet, J.C.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Fayard, L.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ocariz, J.; Unal, G.; Vattolo, D.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Anzivino, G.; Bordacchini, F.; Cenci, P.; Lubrano, P.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Punturo, M.; Bertanza, L.; Bigi, A.; Calafiura, P.; Carosi, R.; Casali, R.; Cerri, C.; Cirilli, M.; Costantini, F.; Fantechi, R.; Giudici, S.; Gorini, B.; Mannelli, I.; Marzulli, V.; Pierazzini, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Sozzi, M.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hristov, P.; Mazzucato, E.; Schanne, S.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Augustin, I.; Bender, M.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Cester, R.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Pastrone, N.; Nassalski, J.; Rondio, E.; Szleper, M.; Wislicki, W.; Wronka, S.; Dibon, H.; Fischer, G.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Pernicka, M.; Taurok, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at CERN has performed a new measurement of direct CP violation, based on data taken in 1997 by simultaneously collecting $kl$ and $ks$ decays into $pipin$ and $pipic$. The result for the CP violating parameter $ epr$ is $(18.5 pm 4.5 mathrm{(stat)} pm 5.8 mathrm{(syst)}) imes10^{-4}$.

  18. Gas exchange between the forest and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Forest gas exchange is discussed in terms of the processes that control the rate of exchange with the atmosphere. Examples are presented to show how vegetative uptake control is varied for gases with different characteristics. The prediction of uptake for large areas and over long periods of time is discussed in terms of quantitative models of the gas exchange processes. Finally, remote sensing is suggested as a means of obtaining the parameters needed to make the model predictions. 46 refs., 6 figs

  19. The Balescu kinetic equation with exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V V; Kukharenko, Yu A

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the distribution functions, we have obtained the quantum kinetic equation including the dynamical screening of the interaction potential, which exactly takes into account the exchange scattering in the plasma. The collision integral is expressed in terms of the Green function of the linearized Hartree–Fock equation. The potential energy takes into account the polarization and exchange interaction too

  20. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  1. Exchange rate variability, market activity and heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Rime, Dagfinn; Sucarrat, Genaro

    2007-01-01

    We study the role played by geographic and bank-size heterogeneity in the relation between exchange rate variability and market activity. We find some support for the hypothesis that increases in short-term global interbank market activity, which can be interpreted as due to variation in information arrival, increase variability. However, our results do not suggest that local short-term activity increases variability. With respect to long-term market activity, which can be interpreted as a me...

  2. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  3. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  4. Does Exchange Rate Volatility Affect Korea's Seaborne Import Volume?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Beom Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used monthly data from 2000 to 2015 to analyze the effects of USD/KRW exchange rate volatility on seaborne import volume in Korea. The results of an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL analysis indicate that USD/KRW exchange rate volatility has a statistically significant negative influence on Korea's seaborne import volume. Moreover, the results of a vector error correction model (VECM analysis found that the USD/KRW exchange rate volatility exhibited short-term unidirectional causality on import volume and real income, and confirmed bidirectional causality between the real effective exchange rate and exchange rate volatility.

  5. An empirical study into the effect of long term storage (−36±2 °C) of electron-beamed ETFE on the properties of radiation-grafted alkaline anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizewski, Jamie Peter; Mudri, Nurul H.; Varcoe, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The application of alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEM) in solid alkaline fuel cells is growing in prominence mainly due to enhanced tolerance to carbon dioxide, compared to alkaline fuel cells containing aqueous electrolytes, and the potential for using non precious metal catalysts. Radiation grafting is a common methodology for the production of functional polymers and membranes. This statistical study examines the synthesis of radiation grafted AAEMs that are formed from electron beam irradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene), EB-ETFE. It is shown that EB-ETFE can be cold stored for at least 16 months and still be used to produce ionically conductive AAEMs. The limitations of routine measurements of properties, such as dimensional increases, ion-exchange capacity, water uptakes and ionic conductivities, are also highlighted. - Highlights: • EB-ETFE films can be used to synthesise viable AAEMs even after storage at −36±2 °C for 16 months. • The AAEMs exhibited ion-exchange capacities in the range 1.0–1.8 mmol g −1 and ionic conductivities (through plane, fully hydrated) in the range 20–40 mS cm −1 at room temperature. • The ionic conductivities of the AAEMs are insensitive to the EB-ETFE storage time (up to the 16 months of this study). • The previously reported bubble formation phenomenon (within the AAEMs) is a major interference in the determination of swelling and water uptake properties. This interference appears more prominent at longer EB-ETFE cold storage times. • Water uptakes are too high for optimal utilisation in fuel cells and AAEMs with both improved ionic conductivities and lower swelling are required

  6. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  7. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  8. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  9. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  10. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  11. Corrosion, inspection and other problems associated with Heat exchangers in the heavy water industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion, fabrication and inspection problems encountered in the heavy water industry Heat exchangers are discussed. Among the problems examined are erosion/corrosion of two pass exchangers, rolling of tubes, pitting, fretting and protection for long term storage. (auth)

  12. Major heat exchanger performance in Ontario Hydro-operated CANDU nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of heat exchangers is described in terms of their impact on the unit in the form of forced outages and deratings as well as incapability due to scheduled outages. Some major problems with heat exchangers are highlighted. (auth)

  13. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  14. Taxa de câmbio, poupança e produtividade: impactos de curto e longo prazo Exchange rates, savings and productivity: short and long-term impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem por objetivo analisar, sob o ponto de vista teórico, a relação entre nível da taxa de câmbio e desenvolvimento econômico. A hipótese principal segue a literatura de "doença holandesa" e baseia-se na ideia de que câmbios competitivos contribuem para a formação e manutenção do setor manufatureiro da economia. A existência de retornos crescentes nesse setor influencia fortemente o aumento da produtividade no longo prazo. Discute-se, também, como a manutenção de uma taxa de câmbio competitiva poderá estimular a formação de poupança doméstica ao evitar aumentos artificiais do salário real pela via da sobrevalorização cambial.The objective of this paper is to analyze, from a theoretical point of view, the relation between real exchange rates and economic development. The main hypothesis is very much in line with the Dutch disease literature and states that competitive currencies contribute to the existence and maintenance of the manufacturing sector in the economy. This, in turn, brings about higher growth rates in the long run, given the existence of increasing returns in the industrial sector and its importance in generating technological change and increasing productivity in the overall economy. We also show from a theoretical perspective how a competitive exchange rate can stimulate domestic savings by avoiding consumption booms based on currency overvaluation.

  15. Effects of short-term pressure-controlled ventilation on gas exchange, airway pressures, and gas distribution in patients with acute lung injury/ARDS: comparison with volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prella, Maura; Feihl, François; Domenighetti, Guido

    2002-10-01

    The potential clinical benefits of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) over volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or ARDS still remain debated. We compared PCV with VCV in patients with ALI/ARDS with respect to the following physiologic end points: (1) gas exchange and airway pressures, and (2) CT scan intrapulmonary gas distribution at end-expiration. Prospective, observational study. A multidisciplinary ICU in a nonuniversity, acute-care hospital. Ten patients with ALI or ARDS (9 men and 1 woman; age range, 17 to 80 years). Sequential ventilation in PCV and VCV with a constant inspiratory/expiratory ratio, tidal volume, respiratory rate, and total positive end-expiratory pressure; measurement of gas exchange and airway pressures; and achievement of CT sections at lung base, hilum, and apex for the quantitative analysis of lung densities and of aerated vs nonaerated zones. PaO(2), PaCO(2), and PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio levels did not differ between PCV and VCV. Peak airway pressure (Ppeak) was significantly lower in PCV compared with VCV (26 +/- 2 cm H(2)O vs 31 +/- 2 cm H(2)O; p mean +/- SEM). The surface areas of the nonaerated zones as well as the total areas at each section level were unchanged in PCV compared with VCV, except at the apex level, where there was a significantly greater nonaerated area in VCV (11 +/- 2 cm(2) vs 9 +/- 2 cm(2); p mean CT number of each lung (20 lungs from 10 patients) was similar in the two modes, as were the density values at the basal and apical levels; the hilum mean CT number was - 442 +/- 28 Hounsfield units (HU) in VCV and - 430 +/- 26 HU in PCV (p lower Ppeaks through the precise titration of the lung distending pressure, and might be applied to avoid regional overdistension by means of a more homogeneous gas distribution.

  16. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Kočenda, E.; Zemčík, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  17. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kočenda, Evžen; Zemčík, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 41-61 ISSN 1540-496X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk premium * Armenia * affine term structure models Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  18. Integrated Monetary and Exchange Rate Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Vinhas de Souza

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHere the author empirically estimates if the different monetary and exchange rate frameworks observed in the Accession Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics do yield different outcomes in terms of level and variance of a set of nominal and real variables. The author

  19. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  20. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  1. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  2. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  3. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  4. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  5. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  6. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  7. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  8. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  9. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  10. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  11. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  12. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  13. Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG) : Pilot Phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG) were designed to rectify this situation by supporting a series of short-term research or training exchanges between Canadian and African ... IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  14. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  15. 77 FR 3590 - Covered Securities of Bats Exchange, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... firms' incentives to list with one exchange versus another). \\78\\ It has been noted that NYSE and the...: A Theory of Cross-Listing and Endogenous Listing Standards, 82 J. Fin. Econ. 455, 456 (2006). See... exchanges (in terms of listings) will tend to be favored over smaller ones. In theory, this preference may...

  16. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  17. Long-term performance of borehole heat exchangers. A project conducted at the Burgdorf engineering school, Switzerland; Langzeitverhalten von Erdwaermesonden am Beispiel des Projektes an der Ingenieurschule Burgdorf (CH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdat, F. [Wasser- und Energiewirtschaftsamt, Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    In 1981, the canton of Bern passed modern energy legislation. It promotes, for instance, the harnessing of thermal energy in the environment. The canton has made great efforts to strengthen knowledge of the use of water and the ground as sources of thermal energy. From 1985 to 1995, six so-called `Thermo Programmes` with a total cost of around 9.5 million Swiss Francs were carried out. They made essential contributions to the understanding of thermal energy flow, the making-up of thermal energy budgets and, thereby, to the assessment of the useful thermal energy potentials of water and the ground. The last and, at the same time, most comprehensive project was the `thermo programme borehole heat exchangers` conducted at the canton`s engineering school (technical school) at Burgdurf. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahr 1981 wurde im Kanton Bern ein modernes Energiegesetz eingefuehrt. Unter anderem foerdert es die Nutzung der Umgebungswaerme. Deshalb hat der Kanton Bern grosse Anstrengungen unternommen, das Wissen um die Nutzung von Wasser und Boden als Waermequelle zu festigen. In den Jahren 1985-1995 wurden sechs sogenannte `Thermoprogramme` durchgefuehrt, die zusammen rund 9.5 Mio. Franken gekostet und wesentlich zum Verstaendnis der Waermestroeme, zur Erstellung von Waermebilanzen und damit zur Ermittlung der nutzbaren Waermepotentiale von Wasser und Boden beigetragen haben. Das letzte und gleichzeitig umfangreichste Projekt war das `Thermoprogramm Erdwaermesonden` an der kantonalen Ingenieurschule Burgdorf (FH). (orig.)

  18. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  19. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  20. Stimulated-healing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.; Negro, E.; Koper, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles, which are used as catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), tend to degrade after long-term operation. We discriminate the following mechanisms of the degradation: poisoning, migration and coalescence, dissolution, and electrochemical Ostwald ripening. There

  1. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  2. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  3. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  4. Fock exchange in meson theories of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Fock exchange term in meson field theories of nuclear systems is shown to arise from a two-loop ground-state self-energy diagram. Evaluation of this diagram gives the relativistic or semirelativistic analog of the Fock exchange energy; it differs from the nucleon-nucleon Fock energy in including retardation effects. In finite meson-field theories of nuclear systems, the variational nature of the meson-field analog of the Hartree-Fock energy functional can be further elucidated. 4 refs

  5. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  6. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  7. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  8. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  9. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  10. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  11. Tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  12. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  13. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  14. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  15. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  16. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  17. Exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.; Bentz, W.; Ichii, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this work the authors have investigated two recent suggestions which indicated appreciable exchange current contributions to isoscalar magnetic moments. On account of gauge invariance the authors found that in both treatments certain important terms seem to be omitted. The authors then performed explicit calculations using a one-boson exchange model for the exchange current operator. The authors found that the results are sensitive to the ratio of coupling constants g/sub σNN///g/sub ωNN/. Due to this fact it is difficult to draw quantitative conclusions. In the present model calculation the authors found that both g/sub s/(0) and g/sub 1//sup 0/ are enhanced by about 3% to 4%, resulting in non-negligible corrections to isoscalar magnetic moments

  18. Modem: data exchange among decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Zaehringer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the European Research and Development project MODEM (Monitoring Data and Information Exchange Among Decision Support Systems) is to achieve practical improvements for data exchange among decision support systems (DSS). Hence, the results of model calculations become comparable. This is a precondition for harmonised decision making. Based on the analysis of existing procedures, it was decided to use the PUSH-PULL concept. Notifications are actively and automatically sent by the DSS (PUSH). The data can then be downloaded form an in-formation server (PULL). The format of the data is defined in XML (extended markup language). Participants of the project are the DSS: RODOS, ARGOS and RECASS. First, the data is comprised of the source term and meteorological information. Results of the prognoses and measurement data are also to be exchanged. Exercises testing and improving the pro-cedures form an integral part of the project. (orig.)

  19. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  20. Innovative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Scholl, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  1. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  2. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  3. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  4. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  5. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  6. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  7. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  8. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  9. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  10. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  11. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  13. 78 FR 4502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... certainty with respect to execution fees at groups of away options exchanges. Under its flat fee structure...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange...

  14. Mediated cross-cultural learning through exchange in higher agricultural education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, A.E.J.; Sriskandarajah, N.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the long-term impact of an intensive European Union-Australia student exchange programme that took place in 2004 and 2005. The programme, Learning through Exchange about Agriculture, Food Systems and Environment (LEAFSE), was designed to facilitate exchange of post-graduate

  15. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  16. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  17. EFECT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS ON NIGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Olisaemeka UFOEZE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on Nigerian economy. The fixed and floating exchange eras were compared to know the exchange rate system in which the economy has fairly better. The time period covered was 1970 to 2012. The study employed the ordinary least square (OLS multiple regression technique for the analysis. The coefficient of determination (R2, F-test, t-test, beta and Durbin-Watson were used in the interpretation of the results. The resulted revealed that about 85% of the changes in macroeconomic indicators are explained in the fixed exchange era. In the floating exchange era, 99% was explained while the whole periods has 73% explanatory power, hence the floating exchange era (1986 to date is more effective in explaining economic trend in Nigeria. Also, exchange rate has significant positive effect on GDP during the fixed exchange rate era and negative effect the eras floating and all-time; inflation has insignificant negative effect on GDP during the fixed exchange era; significant effect in floating era and significant negative effect in the all-time period; money supply has insignificant negative effect GDP in fixed exchange era; and significant positive effect during the floating and all-time period; and oil revenue has significant positive effect on the GDP in all the exchange rate regimes (floating, fixed and all-time in Nigeria.  The study thus conclude that exchange rate movement is a good indicator for monitoring Nigerian economic growth. So far exchange rate has always been a key economic indicator for Nigeria. The floating exchange period has outperformed the fixed exchange rate in terms of contribution inflation, money supply and oil revenue to economic growth. This indicate that the floating exchange rate has been a better economic regime for sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. From the findings, it is evident that oil revenue has positive effect in Nigeria and has remained the mainstay

  18. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  19. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  20. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  1. Word Exchange at the Gates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Adam

    to Medieval times. The Indo-European tribes, shortly after their migrations into Europe, came to form part of new cultural communities, influenced by Uralic populations from the North. This had a significant impact on specific parts of the vocabulary, notably terms for religion and warfare. Many terms...... that took place. By the time of arrival in Europe, the Indo-European and Uralic populations had already broken up and constituted a patchwork of languages and cultures that continued to converge and exchange. Whether contacts were connected to war or trade or exchange of inventions is revealed...... by the character of the loanwords in each individual case – and the shape of the loanwords reveal the time depth and the direction of borrowing. Traditionally, scholars have thought that basically all loanwords between Indo-European and Uralic languages went in one direction – from the former to the latter...

  2. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  3. Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in a Small, Primary-Exporting Country

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin S. Khan; Peter J. Montiel

    1987-01-01

    Although the nominal exchange rate is often used as a policy instrument in small, primary-commodity-exporting countries, the real exchange rate is an endogenous variable that responds to both exogenous and policyinduced shocks. This paper examines the dynamic effects on the real exchange rate of various shocks, such as devaluation, fiscal and trade policies, and changes in the terms of trade and foreign real interest rates. Because the path of the real exchange rate differs for different type...

  4. Long-run and Short-run Determinants of the Real Exchange Rate in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyses the main determinants of the real exchange rate in Zambia. It first gives a brief review of the Zambian economy and a review on real exchange rate studies. Then an illustrative model is presented. The study employs cointegration analysis in estimating the long-run determinants of the real exchange rates for imports and exports, and of the internal real exchange rate. The finding is that terms of trade, government consumption, and investment share all influence the real exch...

  5. Main results of assessing integrity of RNPP-3 steam generator heat exchange tubes in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugajlo, Al-j P.; Mustafin, M.A.; Shugajlo, Al-r P.; Ryzhov, D.I.; Zhabin, O.I.

    2017-01-01

    Tubes integrity evaluation under accident conditions considering drain of SG and current technical state of steam exchange tubes is an important question regarding SG long-term operation and improvement of accident management strategy.The main investigation results prepared for heat exchange surface of RNPP-3 steam generator are presented in this research aimed at assessing integrity of heat exchange tubes under accident conditions, which lead to full or partial drain of heat exchange surface, in particular during station blackout.

  6. Measuring real exchange rate misalignment in Croatia: cointegration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Palić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze misalignment of the real exchange rate in Croatia. The misalignment analysis is conducted using the permanent equilibrium exchange rate approach. The equilibrium real exchange rate is computed using the cointegration approach whereby the real exchange rate and its fundamentals, namely terms of trade, net foreign assets and the ratio of prices of tradables to non-tradables are included in cointegration analysis. The Hodrick and Prescott filter is used to obtain permanent values of the equilibrium real exchange rate. The real exchange rate misalignment is computed as the deviation of the RER from its permanent equilibrium level. Four overvaluation periods and three undervaluation periods are recorded in Croatia in the observed period. Overvaluation periods are more often and of longer duration than undervaluation periods. However, the real exchange rate does not deviate largely from its estimated equilibrium value in the observed period, and it is neither overvalued nor undervalued constantly, but the periods alternate. Considering the results of the analysis, together with the empirical characteristics of Croatian economy, namely the high foreign currency indebtedness, highly euroized economy and underdeveloped export oriented sector, the depreciation of the real exchange rate is not recommended to economic policy makers and the current Croatian exchange rate policy is appropriate.

  7. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  9. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  10. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  11. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  12. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  13. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  14. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  15. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  16. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  17. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  18. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  20. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  1. Lambda/kaon relative production in anti p + nucleus reactions in terms of a quark recombination diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Breivik, F.O.

    1989-03-01

    The ratio R=N(Λ o )/N(K o S) between the number N(Λ o ) of Λ o 's and the number N(K o s) of the short-lived neutral kaons produced in the reaction anti p + nucleus reactions at low energy has in previous papers been discussed in terms of the fireball model of Cugnon and Vandermeulen and in terms of the reaction anti KN → Λ o π, where the anti K has been produced in the primary reaction anti pp → anti KK + X. In this note the ratio R is discussed in terms of the quark model. The results indicate that quark effects may be important for the reaction studied, even if the energy is low. The discussion is based on the assumption that diagrams with connected quark-lines from initial to final state are suppressed, and that valence quarks survive to the final state. This assumption is supported by the results of exclusive anti pp-reactions at low energy, which shows that final states with more than two pions or kaons are more likely than final states with two mesons only, even if low multiplicity is favoured by phase space

  2. Real Exchange Rate Variability: An Empirical Analysis of the Developing Countries Case

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Edwards

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential role of monetary and real factors in explaining real exchange rate variability in developing countries. For this purpose two indexes of real effective exchange rate variability that measure short-term and long-term variability were constructed for 30 countries. The results obtained, using a generalized least squares procedures on cross section data, indicate that real exchange rate variability has been affected both by real and monetar...

  3. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  4. The foreign exchange market interventions of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frenkel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effectiveness of the foreign exchange market interventionsconducted by the European Central Bank (ECB in the fall of 2000 to support the external stability of the euro. To this end, we discuss different channels through whichinterventions may influence exchange rate dynamics. We use the insights provided by the theoretical and empirical literature to evaluate the effectiveness of theintervention policy of the ECB. In addition, we present an empirical analysis in which we use intra-daily exchange rate data to examine in detail the effects of theinterventions. We find that the interventions only had a rather short-term impact on the exchange rate path and had no effects beyond the short term. Therefore, our results suggest that the intervention policy of the ECB was not effective.

  5. Application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the ion exchange technologies currently used and under development in nuclear industry, in particular for waste management practices, along with the experience gained in their application and with the subsequent handling, treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange media for long term storage and/or disposal. The increased role of inorganic ion exchangers for treatment of radioactive liquid waste, both in nuclear power plant operations and in the fuel reprocessing sector, is recognised in this report. The intention of this report is to consolidate the previous publications, document recent developments and describe the state of the art in the application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste and the management of spent ion exchange materials

  6. Thermodynamic criterions for heat exchanger networks design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiglion, C.; Farhat, S.; Pibouleau, L.; Domenech, S. (Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Genie Chimique, 31 - Toulouse (France))

    1994-03-01

    This problem under consideration consists in selecting a heat exchanger network able to carry out a given request in heatings and coolings, in steady-state behaviour with constant pressure, by using if necessary cold and hot utilities, and under the constraint [Delta] T [>=] e in order to restrict investment costs. The exchanged energy and the produced entropy are compared in terms of operating costs. According to the request to be satisfied and the constraints of utility consumption, it is shown that the goal to minimize the produced entropy more or less agrees with the goal to minimize the exchanged energy. In the last part, the case where the cost of utility use is assumed to be proportional to the flow rate, with a proportionality constant only depending on the input thermodynamic state, is studied thoroughly. Under this assumption, the minimization of operating costs is compatible with the minimization of exchanged energy, and can be obtained via the maximization of the difficulty of the request part, made without using utilities. This point is based on the notion of a request easier than another, which explicits the quite vague idea that a request is all the more easier because it involves less heatings at high temperatures and less coolings at low temperatures. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. 77 FR 2583 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ..., B and C securities throughout our Fee Schedule. \\5\\ ``Derivative Securities Product'' is defined... through an Exchange-registered Institutional Broker. These changes in essence substitute the term... is a more accurate and well-defined term.\\10\\ The Exchange proposes to remove all other references in...

  8. 78 FR 76664 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Exchange plans to introduce CBOE Short-Term Volatility Index (``VXST'') options (to be traded on CBOE) and... value is calculated for options or futures on such volatility indexes. For short-term volatility indexes... different implied volatility measurement periods.\\17\\ \\17\\ The Exchange notes that it will submit a separate...

  9. Trade Openness And Real Exchange Rate Volatility: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    César Calderón

    2004-01-01

    A recent strand of the literature, the so-called “New Open Economy Macroeconomics”, argues that nonmonetary factors have gained importance in explaining exchange rate volatility. In this context, it has been suggested the inclusion of shocks to productivity, terms of trade, and government spending, among others. The goal of the present paper is to explain the real exchange rate volatility by positing a structural relationship between volatility and its determinants. To perform our task we col...

  10. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  11. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  12. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  13. Exchange Rate Changes and Inflation in Post-Crisis Asian Economies: VAR Analysis of the Exchange Rate Pass-Through

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito; Kiyotaka Sato

    2006-01-01

    Macroeconomic consequences of a large currency depreciation among the crisis-hit Asian economies had varied from one country to another. Inflation did not soar in most Asian countries, including Thailand and Korea, after the exchange rate depreciated during the crisis. Indonesia, however, suffered very high inflation following a very large nominal depreciation of the rupiah. As a result, price competitive advantage by the rupiah depreciation was lost in the real exchange rate terms. The objec...

  14. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  15. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF DATA EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Kamenický

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of train running and IT support of conflict resolution decision for an efficient use of the existing railway infrastructure is needed. To meet these requirements standardized interfaces between infrastructure managers and railway undertakings and infrastructure description are indispensable.

  16. Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burnett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available While there is wide agreement that virtual communities - and other phenomena utilizing CMC technologies - have the capability to provide both interpersonal and informational interactions, the degree to which they can be seen as specifically information-oriented social spaces has been open to some question. Drawing upon theoretical and empirical work that emphasizes an environmental model of human information behaviour, a foundation is developed for a model of information exchange in virtual communities, and a typology of the varieties of information behaviour to be found in virtual communities is proposed. This typology will provide a mechanism for assessing the characteristics of virtual communities in terms of their support for information exchange, and has the potential to enhance our understanding of virtual communities as information environments.

  17. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  18. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  19. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  20. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  1. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  2. The Determinants of won/dollar Exchange Rate Volatility and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzed the feature and different points of the changing of the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar, then discussed the direction of the completion of Korea exchange rate system. The prediction result of the model GARCH which vividly shows the phenomenon of the auto-regression of the exchange rate has indicated the level of the exchange rate yesterday could explain the circumstance of the change of exchange rate today. Meanwhile, the policy of the US exchange rate will affect the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar and the volatility of foreign exchange rate. In the present situation of Korean economy in which the liberalization of capital and the independence of the central bank has been established, the choosing range of the exchange system could only be completely changeable exchange rate system or exchange rate system of multilateral arrangement like Europe. However, in terms of the condition of the world economy, the introduction of the latter system is too early. There is an idea that under the changeable exchange rate system which is the only choice, it is the right time to activate the main body of private economy, the financial derivatives market in which the exchange risk could be trade-off. Government should work on and create a policy that would be able to satisfy the expectations of the market participants.

  3. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  4. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  5. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  6. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  7. Direct determination of two-pion correlations for $\\overline{p}p \\to 2\\pi^{+}2\\pi^{-}$ annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Locher, M P; Markushin, V E

    1998-01-01

    We study $\\pi\\pi$ correlations in the exclusive reaction $\\ppb \\to 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ at rest measured by the CPLEAR experiment. Avoiding the introduction of an arbitrary reference sample, we analyse differential distributions for equal charge pion pairs removing the phase-space factor event by event. A peak at small relative momenta is most pronounced for large total momentum of the pair. The physical implications of bosonic symmetrization for the properties of the pion source, in particular its radius, are briefly discussed. The two extremes considered are the chaotic Hanbury-Brown--Twiss mechanism and the coherent Skyrmion model.

  8. The Warsaw Stock Exchange: A Test of Market Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Gordon; Libby Rittenberg

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of the Warsaw Stock Exchange in light of the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) and alternative models of market inefficiency. Following a brief history of the Warsaw Stock Exchange and a discussion of EMH and the Shiller (1991) critique, the Polish stock market is examined in terms of the extent to which the assumptions of EMH are met and in terms of the actual behavior of stock prices for the period of 1 June 1993 to 27 July 1994. The analysis suggests that E...

  9. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  10. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  11. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  12. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  13. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  14. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  15. Kerr microscopy study of exchange-coupled FePt/Fe exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zaineb; Kumar, Dileep [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Reddy, V. Raghavendra, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Noida 201303 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Magnetization reversal and magnetic microstructure of top soft magnetic layer (Fe) in exchange spring coupled L1{sub 0} FePt/Fe is studied using high resolution Kerr microscopy. With remnant state of the hard magnetic layer (L1{sub 0} FePt) as initial condition, magnetization loops along with magnetic domains are recorded for the top soft magnetic layer (Fe) using Kerr microscopy. Considerable shifting of Fe layer hysteresis loop from center which is similar to exchange bias phenomena is observed. It is also observed that one can tune the magnitude of hysteresis shift by reaching the remanent state from different saturating fields (H{sub SAT}) and also by varying the angle between measuring field and H{sub SAT}. The hysteresis loops and magnetic domains of top soft Fe layer demonstrate unambiguously that soft magnetic layer at remanent state in such exchange coupled system is having unidirectional anisotropy. An analogy is drawn and the observations are explained in terms of established model of exchange bias phenomena framed for field-cooled ferromagnetic - antiferromagnetic bilayer systems. - Highlights: • Kerr microscopy of top soft magnetic Fe layer in exchange spring coupled L1{sub 0} FePt (30 nm)/Fe (22 nm) is reported. • Considerable shifting of Fe layer hysteresis loop from center which is similar to exchange bias phenomena is observed. • Tuneable nature of magnitude of hysteresis shift is shown. • It is unambiguously shown that the top soft Fe magnetic layer at remanent state is having unidirectional anisotropy.

  16. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  17. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  18. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  19. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  20. Single- and double-charge exchange at low pion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of pion single- and double-charge exchange reactions at incident energies of 25 to 65 MeV leading to isobaric analog states, and in the case of double-charge exchange leading to the ground state of the residual nucleus. The crucial role of the higher nuclear transparency at low pion energies for the analysis of the data in terms of single and double scattering is demonstrated. The large effects on double-charge exchange produced by the spatial correlations in nuclear wave functions are evident. The data on 1f 7/2 nuclei at 35 MeV are used to establish the general validity of a shell-model-based two-amplitude model for these transitions. Recent measurements of the energy dependence between 25 and 65 MeV of double-charge exchange cross sections at forward angles are presented and discussed. 33 refs., 19 figs

  1. Modeling the Volatility of Exchange Rates: GARCH Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahima Charef

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of the dynamics of the exchange rate at a long time remains a financial and economic research center. In our research we tried to study the relationship between the evolution of exchange rates and macroeconomic fundamentals. Our empirical study is based on a series of exchange rates for the Tunisian dinar against three currencies of major trading partners (dollar, euro, yen and fundamentals (the terms of trade, the inflation rate, the interest rate differential, of monthly data, from jan 2000 to dec-2014, for the case of the Tunisia. We have adopted models of conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH, TGARCH. The results indicate that there is a partial relationship between the evolution of the Tunisian dinar exchange rates and macroeconomic variables.

  2. 78 FR 63265 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... strike prices expressed in percentage terms. Values for such options are expressed in percentage terms... from one day to the next when values are expressed in percentage terms. The fees that MDX charges for...'s Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change Chicago Board Options Exchange...

  3. A spin exchange model for singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.

  4. Studies of the hydrous titanium oxide ion exchanger. 4. Rate of the isotopic exchange of sodium ions between the exchanger in the Na+ form and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Kasuga, Fuminori

    1995-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of Na + between hydrous titanium(IV) oxides, precipitated at pH 6 and 13, in the Na + form and aqueous solution of sodium salt was determined radiochemically. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 6 is controlled by the diffusion of Na + in the exchanger particles (particle diffusion). The diffusion coefficient and its activation energy are 1.9 x 10 -11 m 2 s -1 (pH 12, 5.0degC) and 29 kJ mol -1 (pH 12), respectively. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 13 is also controlled by the particle diffusion. The rate is much slower than that in the other; this can be explained by assuming the existence of two kinds of independently diffusing ions (fast and slow species) in the exchanger. The diffusion coefficients are of the order of 10 -12 and 10 -13 m 2 s -1 for the fast and the slow species, respectively. Their activation energies are 48-60 kJ mol -1 at pH 12. The marked difference in kinetics between two exchanges was interpreted in terms of the difference in the acid-base property and in the microstructure of the matrix. (author)

  5. Integration Versus Segmentation: The Istanbul Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Gokçen; Ahu Ozturkmen

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the integration versus segmentation issue for the Istanbul Stock Exchange vis-a-vis global developed markets. Two different classes of information variables are used. These are global and local variables. Global variables are the return of the world market portfolio, dividend yield of S&P 500 stock index, U.S. term structure premia and U.S. default risk yield spread. Local variables are the returns, price earning ratios and dividend yields of the Istanb...

  6. Charge-exchange reactions on 36 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Catford, W.N.; Orr, N.A.; Ophel, T.R.; Etchegoyen, A.; Etchegoyen, M.C.

    1992-11-01

    A series of charge-exchange reactions on 36 S targets have been investigated at beam energies ∼7 MeV/A. Pronounced selectivities to different final states in 36 P are observed which depend on the projectile employed. An interpretation of the data in terms of one- and two-step pictures of the reaction mechanism is presented. At least two, and probably all, of the reactions have a significant 1-step contribution to the reaction mechanism at these energies. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  8. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  9. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  10. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  11. Consumer perceptions of electronic health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S; Edwards, Alison M; Miller, Melissa C; Kaushal, Rainu

    2012-07-01

    Public support will be critical to the success and long-term sustainability of electronic health information exchange (HIE) initiatives currently promoted by federal policy. The goal of this study was to assess consumer perceptions of HIE in a state (New York) with a 6-year history of successful HIE organizations. The Empire State Poll is a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adult New York State residents conducted annually by the Survey Research Institute at Cornell University. In 2011, it contained 77 items. The survey was conducted and data were analyzed in 2011. Eight hundred respondents participated (71% response rate). Large majorities supported HIE among healthcare providers (69%); thought it would improve quality of care (68%); and supported "break the glass" access to HIE data without need for consent in emergencies (90%). Support was lower among people who rated large corporations as less trustworthy. Privacy and security concerns were expressed by 68%. Respondents were supportive whether the architecture involved a physician sending data to another physician, a physician sending data to a patient who could send it to other physicians, or a physician accessing data from other institutions. In New York, public support for HIE is strong. Policy and outreach pertaining to this type of exchange may be most effective if it clarifies the roles and responsibilities of large businesses involved in different aspects of the exchange, and privacy and security controls. Differing architectures received similar levels of support. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transition density of charge-exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The transition density between parent and analogue states is studied with special reference to its role in charge-exchange nuclear reactions. The structure of the target nucleus is described in a perturbative approach, in which the Coulomb and asymmetry potentials mix the eigenstates of a charge-independent single-particle Hamiltonian. In this model formulae are derived for the transition density, the Coulomb displacement energy and the neutron-proton density difference, and their relationship is used to estimate the transition density. This estimate shows that: the largest contribution comes from the density of the excess neutrons; the weight of the Coulomb-mixing effect is small up to excess neutron number 10, and grows rapidly beyond; the weight of the core polarization term induced by the excess neutrons is modest and is the same for all nuclei. It is indicated that the Coulomb effect may explain the departure from the Lane model of nucleon charge-exchange scattering found for heavy nuclei, whereas the core polarization may account for the observed anomalous dependence of the deg 0 pion charge-exchange cross section on the number of excess neutrons. (author)

  13. Modeling of the Bosphorus exchange flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2017-04-01

    The fundamental hydrodynamic behavior of the Bosphorus Strait is investigated through a numerical modeling study using alternative configurations of idealized or realistic geometry. Strait geometry and basin stratification conditions allow for hydraulic controls and are ideally suited to support the maximal-exchange regime, which determines the rate of exchange of waters originating from the adjacent Black and Mediterranean Seas for a given net transport. Steady-state hydraulic controls are demonstrated by densimetric Froude number calculations under layered flow approximations when corrections are applied to account for high velocity shears typically observed in the Bosphorus. Analyses of the model results reveal many observed features of the strait, including critical transitions at hydraulic controls and dissipation by turbulence and hydraulic jumps. It is found that the solution depends on initialization, especially with respect to the basin initial conditions. Significant differences between the controlled maximal-exchange and drowned solutions suggest that a detailed modeling implementation involving coupling with adjacent basins needs to take full account of the Bosphorus Strait in terms of the physical processes to be resolved.

  14. The Role of Exchange Traded Funds in the Price Discovery Process of Stocks Listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Kambeu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the role of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs in the price discovery process of stocks listed at the Botswana Stock Exchange.Using daily returns data covering the period 3 January 2013 to 31 December 2015   for Beta Betta ETF and Domestic Company Indices, we utilize a VECM model to find out whether the Betta Beta ETF is playing a significant role in the price discovery process of stocks listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange. We found the error correction term to be statistically significant thereby confirming that the Beta Betta ETF is playing a significant role in the price discovery of stocks listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange.

  15. Some stylised facts about the exchange rate behaviour of Central European currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vejmělek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates developments of exchange rate time series of Central European currencies and tries to find evidence of some stylised facts. Statistical methods and an econometric approach to the univariate time series modelling of high-frequency data, i.e., daily, are used. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 All the CE nominal exchange time series are not stationary: nevertheless, stationarity of all the return time series was confirmed. (2 Volatility clustering was proven and the GARCH modelling approach was successfully applied, including asymmetric modelling of volatility. (3 The more flexible an exchange rate regime is, the more volatile the respective currency. This is true for both nominal and real exchange rates. While nominal volatility is lower than real volatility in a system of fixed or less flexible exchange rates, the opposite is true for flexible systems: exchange rate volatility is higher in nominal terms than in real terms.

  16. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelity, L.A.

    1967-01-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  17. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelity, L A [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1967-12-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs.

  18. Ecological Controls on Land-Atmosphere Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M. L.; Litvak, M. E.; Winston, G.; Miller, S. D.; Read, E.; Elliot, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have been using long-term eddy covariance to investigate the patterns of energy and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and a freshwater marsh in California, and also between the atmosphere and a series of boreal forest stands in Manitoba, Canada. Most researchers believe that ecological phenomenon, such as plant herbivore interactions and interspecific differences in plant life-history strategy, are relatively unimportant in determining the interannual and landscape patterns of Land-Atmosphere exchange. However, we have found that interactions between plants and herbivores exert a large control on the interannual patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the freshwater marsh, and that interspecific differences in plant strategy are critical for understanding the landscape scale patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the boreal forest. Despite a relatively constant climate and flooding regime at the California marsh, annual Carbon balance varied by 6 tC ha-1 or more from year to year. These deviations were caused in part by variation in herbivory by rodents and insects. Likewise, peak CO2 uptake by boreal forest stands recovering from fire differed less than expected, with a 4-year-old stand assimilating CO2 at rates comparable to that by middle aged stands, and faster than that by old stands. These patterns reflect differences in the life history strategies of the dominant plants, with the youngest stands dominated by fast growing ruderals, the middle aged stands dominated by fast growing competitive species, and the old stands dominated by slow growing stress tolerant species.

  19. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  20. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  1. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  2. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  3. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  4. The case for foreign exchange intervention: the government as an active reserve manager

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Neely

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that major governments should actively manage their foreign exchange portfolios to maximize the risk-adjusted return to the taxpayer by exploiting long-term, fundamental based predictability in floating exchange rates. Such transactions—equivalent to foreign exchange intervention—would improve welfare by transferring risk from private agents to the risk-tolerant government. Interventions explicitly designed to profit the reserve management authority would be more likely to b...

  5. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  6. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  7. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V

    2016-04-27

    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  8. Exchange of Information in Tax Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present issues related to exchange of tax information. The author focuses on models of exchange of information and boundaries of obligations in reference to above-mentioned problems. Automatic exchange of information, spontaneous exchange of information and exchange of information on request are analysed in this work on the base of OECD Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Council Directive 2011/16 and OECD Model Agreement on Exchange...

  9. RIBBED DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSSAIN H. AL-KAYIEM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings obtained by modeling a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE equipped with repeated ribs from the inside for artificial roughing. An analytical procedure was developed to analyze the thermal and hydraulic performance of the DPHE with and without ribbing. The procedure was verified by comparing with experimental reported results and they are in good agreement. Several parameters were investigated in this study including the effect of ribs pitch to height ratios, P/e= 5, 10, 15, and 20, and ribs to hydraulic diameter ratios, e/Dh= 0.0595, 0.0765, and 0.107. These parameters were studied at various operating Reynolds number ranging from 2500 to 150000. Different installation configurations were investigated, too. An enhan-cement of 4 times in the heat transfer in terms of Stanton number was achieved at the expense of 38 times increase of pressure drop across the flow in terms of friction facto values.

  10. Double logarithmic asymptotics of quark scattering amplitudes with flavour exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner , R.; Lipatov, L.N.

    1982-02-01

    We propose simple equations in terms of the definite signature partial waves of the quark scattering and annihilation amplitudes with quark-quark and quark-antiquark states in the exchange channel. We discuss the singularities in the complex angular momentum plane generated by the double logarithmic contributions and point out their relation to the particle Regge trajectories. (author)

  11. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  12. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  13. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  14. Mechanical calculation of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osweiller, Francis.

    1977-01-01

    Many heat exchangers are still being dimensioned at the present time by means of the American TEMA code (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association). The basic formula of this code often gives rise to significant tubular plate thicknesses which, apart from the cost of materials, involve significant machining. Some constructors have brought into use calculation methods that are more analytic so as to take into better consideration the mechanical phenomena which come into play in a heat exchanger. After a brief analysis of these methods it is shown, how the original TEMA formulations have changed to reach the present version and how this code has incorporated Gardner's results for treating exchangers with two fixed heads. A formal and numerical comparison is then made of the analytical and TEMA methods by attempting to highlight a code based on these methods or a computer calculation programme in relation to the TEMA code [fr

  15. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  16. Study of the Bonham series representation of the Born--Oppenheimer exchange amplitude and the derivation of a local exchange potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    The convergence and range of applicability of the Bonham series representation of the Born--Oppenheimer exchange amplitude is investigated. Numerical calculations on 1 1 S→2 3 S and 1 1 S→2 3 P of He by electron impact demonstrate that the first three terms of the Bonham series can provide an adequate representation of the Born--Oppenheimer amplitude from high energies down to near threshold. The three-term Bonham series is then used to represent the Hartree--Fock exchange kernel in momentum space, which has been shown by Lassettre to be proportional to the Born--Oppenheimer amplitude. Inverse Fourier transform, plus an additional approximation of replacing the momentum which appears as an expansion parameter in the Bonham series by its averge value, gives us a local exchange potential. If the averge momentum in the Thomas--Fermi model is used, the first term of the local exchange potential is just the electron gas exchange potential. A second term corresponding to a correction for the inhomogeneity in the electron gas density, is also obtained. No adjustable parameter is involved. Exchange energies of He, Be, and Ne calculated using the local exchange potential agree much better with the Hartree--Fock results than the electron gas model

  17. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  18. Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Eatzaz Ahmad; Saima Ahmed Ali

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies simultaneous determination of nominal exchange rate and domestic price level in Pakistan. The estimated model contains sufficient built-in dynamics to trace the pattern and speed of adjustment in the two variables in response to temporary or permanent shocks. The two domestic shocks considered in the paper are monetary and real shocks, while the three external shocks considered are import price, export price and foreign exchange reserves shocks. The study finds that the imp...

  19. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  1. 77 FR 59030 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... (collectively, ``Derivative Securities Products'') \\5\\ when applying the quantitative generic listing criteria... or other Derivative Securities Products. \\4\\ The Exchange notes that NYSE Arca uses the term...\\ Rule 14.11 includes criteria for derivative securities that may be listed or traded on the Exchange...

  2. 78 FR 62842 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Rule 5270 defines the term ``related financial instrument'' as ``any option, derivative, security-based... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70625; File No. SR-EDGA-2013-29] Self...) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is...

  3. 78 FR 73577 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Risk Monitoring Functionality Offered by the Exchange December 2, 2013....19b-4(f)(6)(iii). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the...

  4. On the proton exchange contribution to electron-hydrogen atom elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Tort, A.C.

    1979-05-01

    It is shown that the exchange contribution to the electron-proton potential Born term in elastic electron-hydrogen atom scattering arises as the non relativistic limit from the exchange of a proton between the two participant electrons - calculated from quantum electrodynamics including properly bound states (as solution of Bethe - Salpeter equation). (Author) [pt

  5. 78 FR 67424 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to adopt a CBOE Stock Exchange, LLC... Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose CBSX is a stock execution facility of CBOE. Therefore...-fraud and anti- manipulation. The proposed requirement that all CBSX Trading Permit Holders be members...

  6. 78 FR 8211 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating To Delay the Operative Date of a Rule Change To Exchange Rule 6... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to delay... the 30-day operative delay, the Commission has considered the proposed rule's impact on efficiency...

  7. The Advantage of Hiding Both Hands : Foreign Exchange Intervention, Ambiguity and Private Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Verhagen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes a dynamic exchange rate policy game in which the central bank has private information about its short-term exchange rate target, on the one hand, and in which the market is faced with a certain degree of ambiguity concerning the actual intervention volume, on the other.

  8. Extensions to the Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Geoffrey J.; Jackson, E. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic Aerospace Vehicle Exchange Markup Language (DAVE-ML) is a syntactical language for exchanging flight vehicle dynamic model data. It provides a framework for encoding entire flight vehicle dynamic model data packages for exchange and/or long-term archiving. Version 2.0.1 of DAVE-ML provides much of the functionality envisioned for exchanging aerospace vehicle data; however, it is limited in only supporting scalar time-independent data. Additional functionality is required to support vector and matrix data, abstracting sub-system models, detailing dynamics system models (both discrete and continuous), and defining a dynamic data format (such as time sequenced data) for validation of dynamics system models and vehicle simulation packages. Extensions to DAVE-ML have been proposed to manage data as vectors and n-dimensional matrices, and record dynamic data in a compatible form. These capabilities will improve the clarity of data being exchanged, simplify the naming of parameters, and permit static and dynamic data to be stored using a common syntax within a single file; thereby enhancing the framework provided by DAVE-ML for exchanging entire flight vehicle dynamic simulation models.

  9. Exchanging and Storing Energy. Reducing Energy Demand through Heat Exchange between Functions and Temporary Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillem, E.

    2011-06-15

    As typical office buildings from the nineties have large heating and cooling installations to provide heat or cold wherever and whenever needed, more recent office buildings have almost no demand for heating due to high internal heat loads caused by people, lighting and office appliances and because of the great thermal qualities of the contemporary building envelope. However, these buildings still have vast cooling units to cool down servers and other energy consuming installations. At the same time other functions such as dwellings, swimming pools, sporting facilities, archives and museums still need to be heated most of the year. In the current building market there is an increasing demand for mixed-use buildings or so called hybrid buildings. The Science Business Centre is no different and houses a conference centre, offices, a museum, archives, an exhibition space and a restaurant. From the initial program brief it seemed that the building will simultaneously house functions that need cooling most of the year and functions that will need to be heated the majority of the year. Can this building be equipped with a 'micro heating and cooling network' and where necessary temporarily store energy? With this idea a research proposal was formulated. How can the demand for heating and cooling of the Science Business Centre be reduced by using energy exchange between different kinds of functions and by temporarily storing energy? In conclusion the research led to: four optimized installation concepts; short term energy storage in pavilion concept and museum; energy exchange between the restaurant and archives; energy exchange between the server space and the offices; the majority of heat and cold will be extracted from the soil (long term energy storage); the access heat will be generated by the energy roof; PV cells from the energy roof power all climate installations; a total energy plan for the Science Business Centre; a systematic approach for exchanging

  10. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  11. Optimal design of tests for heat exchanger fouling identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Kyle A.; Hale, William T.; Such, Kyle D.; Shea, Brian R.; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Built-in test design that optimizes the information extractable from the said test. • Method minimizes the covariance of a fault with system uncertainty. • Method applied for the identification and quantification of heat exchanger fouling. • Heat exchanger fouling is identifiable despite the uncertainty in inputs and states. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: Particulate fouling in plate fin heat exchangers of aircraft environmental control systems is a recurring issue in environments rich in foreign object debris. Heat exchanger fouling detection, in terms of quantification of its severity, is critical for aircraft maintenance scheduling and safe operation. In this work, we focus on methods for offline fouling detection during aircraft ground handling, where the allowable variability range of admissible inputs is wider. We explore methods of optimal experimental design to estimate heat exchanger inputs and input trajectories that maximize the identifiability of fouling. In particular, we present a methodology in which D-optimality is used as a criterion for statistically significant inference of heat exchanger fouling in uncertain environments. The optimal tests are designed on the basis of a heat exchanger model of the inherent mass, energy and momentum balances, validated against literature data. The model is then used to infer sensitivities of the heat exchanger outputs with respect to fouling metrics and maximize them by manipulating input trajectories; thus enhancing the accuracy in quantifying the fouling extent. The proposed methodology is evaluated with statistical indices of the confidence in estimating thermal fouling resistance at uncertain operating conditions, explored in a series of case studies.

  12. The determinants of exchange rates and the movements of EUR/RON exchange rate via non-linear stochastic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică Andreea-Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling exchange rate volatility became an important topic for research debate starting with 1973, when many countries switched to floating exchange rate system. In this paper, we focus on the EUR/RON exchange rate both as an economic measure and present the implied economic links, and also as a financial investment and analyze its movements and fluctuations through two volatility stochastic processes: the Standard Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic Model (GARCH and the Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic Model (EGARCH. The objective of the conditional variance processes is to capture dependency in the return series of the EUR/RON exchange rate. On this account, analyzing exchange rates could be seen as the input for economic decisions regarding Romanian macroeconomics - the exchange rates being influenced by many factors such as: interest rates, inflation, trading relationships with other countries (imports and exports, or investments - portfolio optimization, risk management, asset pricing. Therefore, we talk about political stability and economic performance of a country that represents a link between the two types of inputs mentioned above and influences both the macroeconomics and the investments. Based on time-varying volatility, we examine implied volatility of daily returns of EUR/RON exchange rate using the standard GARCH model and the asymmetric EGARCH model, whose parameters are estimated through the maximum likelihood method and the error terms follow two distributions (Normal and Student’s t. The empirical results show EGARCH(2,1 with Asymmetric order 2 and Student’s t error terms distribution performs better than all the estimated standard GARCH models (GARCH(1,1, GARCH(1,2, GARCH(2,1 and GARCH(2,2. This conclusion is supported by the major advantage of the EGARCH model compared to the GARCH model which consists in allowing good and bad news having different impact on the

  13. On one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in the resonating group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Fernandez, F.; Shimizu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of quark exchange between different nucleons on the one pion exchange potential is studied in the framework of the resonating group method. The calculated phase shifts including the one pion exchange potential with quark exchange in addition to the one gluon plus sigma meson exchange are shown to be consistent with experiments. Especially the p-wave phase shifts are improved by taking into account the quark exchange on the one pion exchange potential. (orig.)

  14. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  15. Experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffeit, K.C.

    1978-10-01

    Two pairs of line-reversed reactions π + P → K + Σ + , K - p → π - Σ + and π + p → K + Y* + (1385), K - p → π - Y* + (1385) provide an experimental test of exchange degeneracy in hypercharge exchange reactions. From their study it is concluded that in contrast to the lower energy data, the 11.5 results for the two pairs of reactions are consistent with exchange degeneracy predictions for both helicity-flip and nonflip amplitudes. The Y(1385) decay angular distributions indicate that the quark model and Stodolsky--Sakurai predictions are in agreement with the main features of the data. However, small violations are observed at small momentum transfer. While the Y(1385) vertex is helicity-flip dominated, the nonvanishing of T/sub 3/2 - 1/2/ and T/sub -3/2 1/2/ suggests some finite helicity nonflip contribution in the forward direction. 23 references

  16. Estimating Exchange Market Pressure and the Degree of Exchange Market Intervention for Finland during the Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pösö, Mika; Spolander, Mikko

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we use a fairly simple monetary macro model to calculate the quarterly measures of exchange market pressure and the degree of the Bank of Finland's intervention during the time the markka was floated. Exchange market pressure measures the size of the exchange rate change that would have occurred if the central bank had unexpectedly refrained from intervening in the foreign exchange market. Intervention activity of the central bank is measured as the proportion of exchange marke...

  17. A Linear Programming Approach to Complex Games: An Application to Nuclear Exchange Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oelrich, I

    2002-01-01

    .... Like the MESA model, the exchange is cast in terms of game theory, using linear approximations and an optimal allocation defined by a user-specified objective function Solutions are better using...

  18. Conflict and Fairness in Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Collett, Jessica L.; Schaefer, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent to all social exchange relations are elements of both cooperation and competition. We develop and test a theoretical model which proposes that the relative salience of the competitive, conflictual elements of exchange mediate and explain the negative effects of negotiated exchange, as compared with reciprocal exchange, on actors'…

  19. Diffusion equations and the time evolution of foreign exchange rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; Castro, Marcio T. de [Institute of Physics, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Fonseca, Regina C.B. da [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Federal de Goiás, Goiânia GO 74055-110 (Brazil); Gleria, Iram, E-mail: iram@fis.ufal.br [Institute of Physics, Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil, Maceió AL 57072-900 (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    We investigate which type of diffusion equation is most appropriate to describe the time evolution of foreign exchange rates. We modify the geometric diffusion model assuming a non-exponential time evolution and the stochastic term is the sum of a Wiener noise and a jump process. We find the resulting diffusion equation to obey the Kramers–Moyal equation. Analytical solutions are obtained using the characteristic function formalism and compared with empirical data. The analysis focus on the first four central moments considering the returns of foreign exchange rate. It is shown that the proposed model offers a good improvement over the classical geometric diffusion model.

  20. Diffusion equations and the time evolution of foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; de Castro, Marcio T.; da Fonseca, Regina C. B.; Gleria, Iram

    2013-10-01

    We investigate which type of diffusion equation is most appropriate to describe the time evolution of foreign exchange rates. We modify the geometric diffusion model assuming a non-exponential time evolution and the stochastic term is the sum of a Wiener noise and a jump process. We find the resulting diffusion equation to obey the Kramers-Moyal equation. Analytical solutions are obtained using the characteristic function formalism and compared with empirical data. The analysis focus on the first four central moments considering the returns of foreign exchange rate. It is shown that the proposed model offers a good improvement over the classical geometric diffusion model.

  1. Diffusion equations and the time evolution of foreign exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; Castro, Marcio T. de; Fonseca, Regina C.B. da; Gleria, Iram

    2013-01-01

    We investigate which type of diffusion equation is most appropriate to describe the time evolution of foreign exchange rates. We modify the geometric diffusion model assuming a non-exponential time evolution and the stochastic term is the sum of a Wiener noise and a jump process. We find the resulting diffusion equation to obey the Kramers–Moyal equation. Analytical solutions are obtained using the characteristic function formalism and compared with empirical data. The analysis focus on the first four central moments considering the returns of foreign exchange rate. It is shown that the proposed model offers a good improvement over the classical geometric diffusion model.

  2. Carbon dioxide exchange in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand

    in further warming. This PhD thesis addresses different aspects of climate change effects on C dynamics in the Arctic. The focus has been on i) changes in ER, age of the C sources, GEP and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in response to long- and short-term climate manipulations and ii) comparisons of CO2...... warming indications of emission of old C were observed, though most pronounced in the spring. I found no short-term response of summer warming on GEP at the low arctic heath and the measurements of NEE showed an increased emission of CO2 to the atmosphere during two snow free seasons. Increased winter......-term warming can cause GEP to increase and leave NEE unaltered. Hence, the risk of warming induced long-term positive feedback on climate change might be reduced. The new balance in the C cycling might though be sensitive to limitations of GEP due to for instance late snowmelt or herbivory....

  3. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  4. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  5. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  6. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  7. Heat exchanger. [Nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C; Brisseaux, A

    1976-01-19

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger between a fluid flowing through a tube and a gas. Such an exchanger can be used, inter alia, for removing calories that cannot be used for generating electricity in a thermal or nuclear power station. This exchanger can withstand any pressure surges in the system and even the use of a high vapour pressure coolant such as ammonia, since the fluid flows in a round tube with low pressure drops (both with respect to the fluid to be cooled and the cooling air). It is rigid enough to stand up to being moved and handled as well as to gusts of wind. It is formed of units that can be handled without difficulty and that are easily dismantable and interchangeable, even in service, and it is easily maintained. The exchange area is high for a minimum frontal area and this enables the size of the supporting frame to be reduced and makes it easy to hide it behind a screen of trees should this prove necessary. Finally, it is composed of a small number of standard units thus reducing the industrial production cost. These units are rectangular plates, each one being a flat tubular coil fitted between two flat parallel sheet metal plates having on their outer sides flat top raised bosses. These units are assembled together by the tops of the bosses so as to form an exchanger bank, each bank comprising two collectors to which the bank coils are tightly connected.

  8. Uranium isotope separation using styrene cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahovec, J.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of 235 U and 238 U isotopes is carried out either by simple isotope exchange in the system uranium-cation exchanger (sulphonated styrene divinylbenzene resin), or by combination of isotope exchange in a uranium-cation exchanger (Dowex 50, Amberlite IR-120) system and a chemical reaction. A review is presented of elution agents used, the degree of cation exchanger cross-linking, columns length, and 235 U enrichment. The results are described of the isotope effect study in a U(IV)-U(VI)-cation exchanger system conducted by Japanese and Romanian authors (isotope exchange kinetics, frontal analysis, reverse (indirect) frontal analysis). (H.S.)

  9. Estimating Exchange Rate Exposure over Various Return Horizons: Focusing on Major Countries in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wook Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the exchange rate exposure, indicating the effect of exchange rate movements on firm values, for a sample of 1,400 firms in seven East Asian countries. The exposure estimates based on various exchange rate variables, return horizons and a control variable are compared. A key result from our analysis is that the long term effect of exchange rate movements on firm values is greater than the short term effect. And we find very similar results from using other exchange rate variables such as the U.S. dollar exchange rate, etc. Second, we add exchange rate volatility as a control variable and find that the extent of exposure is not much changed. Third, we examine the changes in exposure to exchange rate volatility with an increase in return horizon. Consequently the ratio of firms with significant exposures increases with the return horizons. Interestingly, the increase of exposure with the return horizons is faster for exposure to volatility than for exposure to exchange rate itself. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the so-called "exposure puzzle" may be a matter of the methodology used to measure exposure.

  10. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  11. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  12. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    value creation. Originality/value – To the authors’ knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt at reviewing the management literature on value appropriation in business exchange. The authors provide overview, details, comparisons, and frame a research agenda as a first step towards establishing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  13. Knowledge Exchange and Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2018-01-01

    for ‘interesting’ discoveries has a potential to lift off papers with a high level of scientific rigor as well as a high level of relevance for practice. Originality: An outcome focus on the relationship between knowledge exchange activities and management research is to our knowledge new in the debate about......Purpose: The growing involvement of management researchers in knowledge exchange activities and collaborative research does not seem to be reflected in a growing academic output. The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers for academic output from these activities as well as the potential...... derived from knowledge exchange activities and Mode 2 research into academic papers such as low priority of case study research in leading management journals, a growing practice orientation in the research funding systems, methodological challenges due to limited researcher control, and disincentives...

  14. Determination of the Optimal Exchange Rate Via Control of the Domestic Interest Rate in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtue U. Ekhosuehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic scenario has been considered where the government seeks to achieve a favourable balance-of-payments over a fixed planning horizon through exchange rate policy and control of the domestic interest rate. The dynamics of such an economy was considered in terms of a bounded optimal control problem where the exchange rate is the state variable and the domestic interest rate is the control variable. The idea of balance-of-payments was used as a theoretical underpinning to specify the objective function. By assuming that, changes in exchange rates were induced by two effects: the impact of the domestic interest rate on the exchange rate and the exchange rate system adopted by the government. Instances for both fixed and flexible optimal exchange rate regimes have been determined. The use of the approach has been illustrated employing data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN statistical bulletin. (original abstract

  15. EXTERNALITIES IN EXCHANGE NETWORKS AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING THEORIES OF EXCHANGE NETWORKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The present paper extends the focus of network exchange research to externalities in exchange networks. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct effects on an actor's utility, of an exchange in which this actor is not involved. Existing theories in the field of network exchange do not inform

  16. Treating Coulomb exchange contributions in relativistic mean field calculations: why and how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giai, Nguyen Van; Liang, Haozhao; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Long, Wenhui; Meng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The energy density functional (EDF) method is very widely used in nuclear physics, and among the various existing functionals those based on the relativistic Hartree (RH) approximation are very popular because the exchange contributions (Fock terms) are numerically rather onerous to calculate. Although it is possible to somehow ‘mock up’ the effects of meson-induced exchange terms by adjusting the meson–nucleon couplings, the lack of Coulomb exchange contributions hampers the accuracy of predictions. In this work, we show that the Coulomb exchange effects can be easily included with good accuracy in a perturbative approach. Therefore, it would be desirable for future relativistic EDF models to incorporate Coulomb exchange effects, at least to some order of perturbation

  17. Study of the isotopic exchange associated with ionic exchange for the radiochemical separation of 233-Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic ion exchange procedure is applied in order to establish an analytical method for the determination of thorium by means of the 233 Th activity, when the presence of interfering elements does not allow a direct non-destructive activation analysis. The separation is based on the retention of 233 Th by a thorium saturated resin, due to the isotopic exchange effect, and subsequent elution of the interfering radioisotopes with a solution of thorium in diluted hydrochloric acid. The interfering elements were those which either present a great affinity for the resin or emit gamma rays with energies close to that of 233 Th (86.6 KeV), when a NaI(Tl) detector is used to obtain the gama-ray spectra of the irradiated samples. The equilibrium time for the thorium isotopic ion exchange and the distribution coefficients for the interfering elements were determined by using Bio-Rad AG 50W resins (100-200 mesh), with 4% to 8% of divinylbenzene. The best separation conditions were established in terms of the thorium and hydrochloric acid concentrations in the solution, the resin cross-linking degree, and the solution flow through the resin. The analytical method was applied to the determination of thorium in samples of ammonium diuranate as well in standard rock samples from the United States Geological Survey. The sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the method are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. The performance of one belt and one road exchange rate: Based on improved singular spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Guo, Kun

    2017-10-01

    ;One Belt and One Road; strategy in China is on push of foreign trade openness at northwest, southwest and northeast, absorption of the excess capacity and new support for economic increase. However, the fluctuation in RMB exchange rate with the countries along the road is unstable so related Chinese enterprises will face high risk of exchange rate. Precise explanation or prediction for exchange rate has been the challengeable hop point in the international finance. This paper decomposed the One Belt One Road Exchange Rate Index (OBORR) and the RMB Effective Exchange Rate Index (CNYX) into trend term, market fluctuation term and noise term using improved singular spectrum analysis (SSA). It turns out that the increasing velocity of OBORR is greater than that of CNYX in the long term, and there is dynamic lead-lag structure in the medium term. In the short term, the fluctuation range and frequency of OBORR are greater than those of CNYX, which means there will be more exchange rate risks in One Belt and One Road countries.

  19. Statistical thermodynamics and energy exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudet, X.

    1987-01-01

    The probability of finding the energy of a particle in the vicinity of a given energy is determined, taking into account of the conservation of energy during the exchanges of energy. As a result the exchanges which determine the different probabilities also introduce a dependence between them, allowing a full calculation. The solution has the main properties of the distribution of Fermi-Dirac, with the mean energy per particle as variable in place of temperature. It allows to propose a localized model for the conduction electrons [fr

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  1. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  2. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  3. Multiphysics Numerical Modeling of a Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In the present research work, a modeling effort to predict the performance of a liquid-gas type fin and tube heat exchanger design is made. Three dimensional (3D) steady state numerical model is developed using commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics based on finite element method (FEM......). For the purposes here, only gas flowing over the fin side is simulated assuming constant inner tube wall temperature. The study couples conjugate heat transfer mechanism with turbulent flow in order to describe the temperature and velocity profile. In addition, performance characteristics of the heat exchanger...... design in terms of heat transfer and pressure loss are determined by parameters such as overall heat transfer coefficient, Colburn j-factor, flow resistance factor, and efficiency index. The model provides useful insights necessary for optimization of heat exchanger design....

  4. Nucleon-nucleon scattering and different meson exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-10-01

    The iterative and noniterative diagrams with different meson exchange are investigated. The α, πβ and πγ meson exchange, (where α=π, rho, σ, ω, eta and delta; β=π, rho, σ and ω; γ=π and rho), are considered. These diagrams are taken to involve the nucleon-nucleon, the nucleon-isobar and the isobar-isobar intermediate states. The diagrams are calculated in momentum space following the noncovariant perturbation theory. The role of each of these diagrams is examined by calculating its contribution to the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The potential model is taken to include one-boson-exchange terms in addition to these diagrams. The nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts are described successfully showing the importance of tensor force. The contributions of the different parts are studied in the nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author)

  5. Standardized structure of electronic records for information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabova, Sevdalina; Trencheva, Tereza; Trenchev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In the paper is presented the structure of the electronic record whose form is standardized in ISO 2709:2008. This International Standard describes a generalized structure, a framework designed specially for communications between data processing systems and not for use as a processing format within systems.Basic terms are defined as follows: character, data field, directory, directory map, field, field separator etc. It’s presented the general structure of a record. The application analysis of this structure shows the effective information exchange in the widest range.The purpose of this research is to find out advantages and structure of the information exchange format standardized in ISO 2709:2008. Key words: Standardized structure, electronic records, exchange formats, data field, directory, directory map, indicators, identifiers

  6. Modeling and predicting historical volatility in exchange rate markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-04-01

    Volatility modeling and forecasting of currency exchange rate is an important task in several business risk management tasks; including treasury risk management, derivatives pricing, and portfolio risk evaluation. The purpose of this study is to present a simple and effective approach for predicting historical volatility of currency exchange rate. The approach is based on a limited set of technical indicators as inputs to the artificial neural networks (ANN). To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, it was applied to forecast US/Canada and US/Euro exchange rates volatilities. The forecasting results show that our simple approach outperformed the conventional GARCH and EGARCH with different distribution assumptions, and also the hybrid GARCH and EGARCH with ANN in terms of mean absolute error, mean of squared errors, and Theil's inequality coefficient. Because of the simplicity and effectiveness of the approach, it is promising for US currency volatility prediction tasks.

  7. Rethinking ASGISA and the rand exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H Boshoff

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The ASGISA policy document identifies the exchange rate as one of the factors constraining accelerated growth in South Africa. This note argues that currency developments do not translate into business cycle movements in the aggregate economy, and that a weaker exchange rate is less likely to boost either foreign investment or export performance in the face of regulatory uncertainty. The South African government has recently launched the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative (ASGISA aimed at raising the long-term growth path of the economy. The plan identifies several so-called “binding constraints” that are considered to be inhibiting the economy from rising to more elevated levels of economic growth. One such “constraint”, according to the ASGISA policy document, is the “volatility and level of the currency” (Republic of South Africa, 2006. By including this issue, policymakers have signalled that fluctuations in the Rand are considered significant to broader economic fluctuations in South Africa. This research note questions such a conviction by offering evidence that currency fluctuations are not mirrored in the South African business cycle. Nonetheless, proponents may argue that a weaker Rand will stimulate particular sectors, mostly those that are export-oriented, while it will boost Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. However, this note argues further that a weaker Rand is less likely to generate sustainable improvement in either export-oriented industries or FDI in the absence of other reforms. The following sections consider these two issues in sequence.

  8. Analysis of the Chinese Exchange Rate Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngrok Cheng

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Asian Financial Crisis now is moving to a relatively stable phase, and at this time, whether Chinese RMB will depreciate is raising the concern of the outside world. If we simply consider economic factors, we will find REER (Real Effective Exchange Rate increased around 10%, where depreciation factors are lurking. However, after Vice Premier Zhu Rongji took the responsibility of economic operation and fixed the fundamental key of developing stably, many foreign departments present good impetus of development. After that, Foreign Exchange Rate Reservation increases and major focus is put on long-term operation for debt structure. On the contrary, If Chinese RMB depreciates dramatically, there will be some uneasiness towards domestic economy and also the burden of paying debt should be increased, people may suffer the loss quite a lot. Especially even we consider the responsibility as the central country in this region and the political & economical factors causing the harmonious atmosphere of Sino-American relationship, it can be predicted that Chinese RMB cannot depreciate dramatically within 1-2 years.

  9. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  10. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  11. The Impact of Real Exchange Rate on Employment in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmira Cakrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is a big economical and social issue for each country, in particular for Albania, which is a country that comes from a centralized system where the state ensured full employment. In the struggle of applying the transition to market economy, each government had to face the two-digit levels of unemployment. Because of this, the application of the right policies in order to decrease the level of unemployment has been in the centre of the program of each government in Albania. The objective of this paper is to show if the undervaluation or overvaluation of the real exchange rate can affect in a significant way the level of employment in Albania and that to answer the question, if the real exchange rate can be used as a political instrument for the reduction of the level of unemployment. There are relatively few works that study the impact of real exchange rate on the Albanian economy and in my knowledge there is not a previous work on employment and real exchange rate relationship in Albania, so this can be considered as the first study that attempt to assess this relationship. To evaluate the link between the real exchange rate and the level of employment the Johansen procedure and Vector Error Correction Term method is used. The result of the study demonstrates not statistically significant impact of real exchange rate on level of employment, suggesting that the increase of competition of the country through the real exchange rate doesn’t improve the condition of the employment in Albania, so the Albanian government should implement other strategies to increase the level of employment in the country.

  12. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific... programs, confer on common problems and projects, and promote professional relationships and communications...

  13. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  14. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Waite, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), a significant health problem affecting about 19.4% of postpartum women worldwide, may result in long-term cognitive and behavior problems in children, spousal depression, widespread family dysfunction, and chronic and increasingly severe maternal depression. Although current theoretical frameworks provide a rich context for studying PPD,none provides a framework that specifically addresses the dynamic relationship of the inner personal experience with the social and cultural context of PPD. The authors propose the social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression to understand how PPD impedes this dynamic relationship and suggest it as a theoretical framework for the study of interventions that would target intra- and interpersonal disturbance within the social and cultural context.

  16. Exchangeability of bentonite buffer and backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth (United Kingdom); Arthur, R. [Intera Inc, Ottawa, ON, (Canada); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    Clay-based buffer and tunnel backfill materials are important barriers in the KBS-3 repository concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. One issue that is relevant to material properties is the degree to which different bentonite compositions can be regarded as interchangeable. In Posiva's current repository design, the reference bentonite composition is MX-80, a sodium montmorillonite dominated clay. Posiva would like to be able to use bentonite with Ca-montmorillonite as the dominant clay mineral. However, at this stage, it is not clear what supporting data need to be acquired/defined to be able to place the state of knowledge of Ca-bentonite at the same level as that of Na-bentonite. In this report, the concept of bentonite exchangeability has been evaluated through consideration of how bentonite behaviour may be affected in six key performance-relevant properties, namely (1) mineralogical composition and availability of materials, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) mechanical and rheological properties, (4) long-term alteration, (5) colloidal properties, and (6) swelling pressure. The report evaluates implications for both buffer and backfill. Summary conclusions are drawn from these sections to suggest how bentonite exchangeability may be addressed in regulatory assessments of engineered barrier design for a future geological repository for spent fuel in Finland. Some important conclusions are: (a) There are some fundamental differences between Ca- and Na-bentonites such as colloidal behaviour, pore structure and long-term alteration that could affect the exchangeability of these materials as buffer or backfill materials and which should be further evaluated; (b) Additional experimental data are desirable for some issues such as long-term alteration, hydraulic properties and swelling behaviour, (c) The minor mineral content of bentonites is very variable, both between different bentonites and within the same bentonite type, it is not clear

  17. Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed

  18. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  19. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  20. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  1. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  2. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  3. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  4. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  5. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  6. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  7. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...

  8. Primer on nuclear exchange models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

  9. Fragmentary model of exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, V M

    2000-01-01

    This article makes attempt to refusal from using neutrino for explanation continuous distribution of beta particle energy by conversion to characteristic exchange interaction particles in nucleolus. It is taking formulation for nuclear position with many different fragments. It is computing half-value period of spontaneous fission of heavy nucleolus. (author)

  10. Common Knowledge in Email Exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  11. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  12. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  13. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrites * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  14. Optimization of Heat Exchangers for Intercooled Recuperated Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Misirlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the European research project LEMCOTEC, a section was devoted to the further optimization of the recuperation system of the Intercooled Recuperated Aero engine (IRA engine concept, of MTU Aero Engines AG. This concept is based on an advanced thermodynamic cycle combining both intercooling and recuperation. The present work is focused only on the recuperation process. This is carried out through a system of heat exchangers mounted inside the hot-gas exhaust nozzle, providing fuel economy and reduced pollutant emissions. The optimization of the recuperation system was performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations, experimental measurements and thermodynamic cycle analysis for a wide range of engine operating conditions. A customized numerical tool was developed based on an advanced porosity model approach. The heat exchangers were modeled as porous media of predefined heat transfer and pressure loss behaviour and could also incorporate major and critical heat exchanger design decisions in the CFD computations. The optimization resulted in two completely new innovative heat exchanger concepts, named as CORN (COnical Recuperative Nozzle and STARTREC (STraight AnnulaR Thermal RECuperator, which provided significant benefits in terms of fuel consumption, pollutants emission and weight reduction compared to more conventional heat exchanger designs, thus proving that further optimization potential for this technology exists.

  15. Determination of transfer parameters in corrugated plates exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lima Filho, S. da.

    1984-01-01

    In this work is presented a experimental study about the forced convenction problem in vee-corrugated exchangers, with flow in the transversal sense, and parallel plates exchangers in which the isotermal plate is equivalent to the absobing one and the other plate is adiabatic. Global values of the transfer coefficients were experimentally obtained by application of the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique in accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The results were expressed in terms of Sh sup(-) /Sc sup(0,4) that according to the analogy is equal the Nu sup(-) / Pr sup(0,4) in function of the Reynolds number. The ratio between the lenght of the channel and the average spacing between plates L/2a was ranged in all the exchangers. Parameters of transfer to angles of 45 0 and 31 0 were determined in the corrugated plates exchangers. The experimental results obtained were analyzed and compared among them. Finally practical applications of these results are presented to heat exchangers with similars geometric characteristics. (Author) [pt

  16. Forecasting exchange rates; Kawase yosoku no riron to jissai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, T. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    This paper explains the theory and practice of foreign exchange rate fluctuation. It also explains various factors that constitute the reasons for the difficulty of forecasting the fluctuation in a short to medium period of time as a practical problem, even though forecasting it over a long period of time may be possible theoretically. Export, of which payment received in dollars cannot be used unless exchanged to yen, forms the yen buying demand. Increase in export and trade surplus turns into pressure for the yen appreciation after all. The amounts of exports and imports depend on such fundamentals as productivity and inflation in the country, as well as the cycle of strong business conditions and recession. Staggering of business conditions in Japan and the U.S. causes trade imbalance and fluctuation in foreign exchange rates. Attempts of grabbing the basic tone of the foreign exchange rates upon equalizing the business conditions in both countries is the purchasing power parity theory, which in fact can explain the long-term fluctuations in the past data. However, in the actual scenes where forecasting over a short to medium period is demanded, the forecasting actions are disturbed by such factors lying complexly as exports and imports of capitals, that is the capital circulation in long and short periods, foreign exchange tradings, and difference in interests inside and outside the country. 3 figs.

  17. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  18. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  19. Hydraulic and thermal design of a gas microchannel heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yahui; Brandner, Juergen J; Morini, Gian Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper investigations on the design of a gas flow microchannel heat exchanger are described in terms of hydrodynamic and thermal aspects. The optimal choice for thermal conductivity of the solid material is discussed by analysis of its influences on the thermal performance of a micro heat exchanger. Two numerical models are built by means of a commercial CFD code (Fluent). The simulation results provide the distribution of mass flow rate, inlet pressure and pressure loss, outlet pressure and pressure loss, subjected to various feeding pressure values. Based on the thermal and hydrodynamic analysis, a micro heat exchanger made of polymer (PEEK) is designed and manufactured for flow and heat transfer measurements in air flows. Sensors are integrated into the micro heat exchanger in order to measure the local pressure and temperature in an accurate way. Finally, combined with numerical simulation, an operating range is suggested for the present micro heat exchanger in order to guarantee uniform flow distribution and best thermal and hydraulic performances.

  20. Turbulent cascades in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashghaie, S.; Breymann, W.; Peinke, J.; Talkner, P.; Dodge, Y.

    1996-06-01

    THE availability of high-frequency data for financial markets has made it possible to study market dynamics on timescales of less than a day1. For foreign exchange (FX) rates Müller et al.2 have shown that there is a net flow of information from long to short timescales: the behaviour of long-term traders (who watch the markets only from time to time) influences the behaviour of short-term traders (who watch the markets continuously). Motivated by this hierarchical feature, we have studied FX market dynamics in more detail, and report here an analogy between these dynamics and hydrodynamic turbulence3-8. Specifically, the relationship between the probability density of FX price changes (δx) and the time delay (δt) (Fig. la) is much the same as the relationship between the probability density of the velocity differences (δv) of two points in a turbulent flow and their spatial separation δr (Fig. 1b). Guided by this similarity we claim that there is an information cascade in FX market dynamics that corresponds to the energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence. On the basis of this analogy we can now rationalize the statistics of FX price differences at different time delays, which is important for, for example, option pricing. The analogy also provides a conceptual framework for understanding the short-term dynamics of speculative markets.

  1. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  2. 17 CFR 232.11 - Definition of terms used in part 232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effect by a person executing or issuing it. If data are stored in a computer or similar device, any... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of terms used in part 232. 232.11 Section 232.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION...

  3. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  4. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  5. Econometric analysis of exchange rate in Serbia and its influence on agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažun Brankica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to empirically estimate equilibrium exchange rate level of Serbian dinar. In that purpose reduced form equilibrium real exchange rate approach (ERER is used, developed by IMF's Consultative Group on Exchange Rate Issues (CGER. The research was made by using ARDL approach in the single-country analysis. It has been started from dynamic model which has described relation between real effective exchange rate and a set of fundamental variables. Bound test has been provided due to determination of the long-term relationship existence between variables. F-statistics has been used for long-term relationship testing between dependent variable and set of indicators. Since assumptions were met, least squares method was used for coefficient estimation. The results have shown constant dinar's overvaluation over medium term.

  6. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  7. Couverture dynamique optimale du risque de change de long terme pour une entreprise

    OpenAIRE

    Wojakowski, Rafal

    1997-01-01

    Chapter 1 : Optimal dynamic level risk hedging for a corporation. An optimal hedging of the exchange rate risk for a firm is considered. The concept of the long term exchange rate risk is defined by opposition to the classic exchange rate risk. The optimal hedge of the intertemporal long term exchange rate risk is derived by the method of stochastic optimal control, in a model where the exchange rate follows a Gaussian process with return to the level of parity. It is demonstrated that such a...

  8. Exchange Reactions. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exchange Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of chemical reactions are of great interest to chemists. The study of exchange reactions in particular helps to shed light on the dynamics of chemical change, providing an insight into the structures and the reactivities of the chemical species involved. The main theme of this meeting was the subject of oxidation-reduction reactions in which the net result is the transfer of one or more electrons between the different oxidation states of the same element. Other studies reported included the transfer of protons, atoms, complex ligands or organic radicals between molecules. Heterogeneous exchange, which is of importance in many cases of catalytic action, was also considered. For a long time isotopic tracers have formed the most convenient means of studying exchange reactions and today a considerable amount of work continues to be done with their aid. Consequently, several papers presented at this Symposium reported on work carried out by purely radiochemical tracer methods. In recognition, however, of the important role which nuclear magnetic resonance and electron spin resonance play in this field, in particular in the study of fast reactions, a number of reports on investigations in which these techniques had been used was included in the programme. By kind invitation of the United States Government the Symposium on Exchange Reactions was held from 31 May to 4 June at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, N.Y., USA. It was attended by 46 participants from nine countries and one inter-governmental organization. The publication of these Proceedings makes the contents of the papers and the discussion available to a wider audience

  9. Exchange Rate Regimes – A periodical overview and a critical analysis of exchange rate regimes in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamur Bunjaku

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate regimes and the monetary policy are the key instruments governments use to achieve their economic and financial objectives. Moreover, due to global financial crisis the latter instruments get more importance. Empirical evidences show that exchange rate regimes in Kosovo and its monetary policy throughout their development were mainly influenced by different political and historical developments. In regard of Euroisation of monetary system in Kosovo it was found that this action generated macro - financial stability in terms of inflation and price fluctuation. However, in terms of microeconomic aspects, the unilateral adaptation of Euro as the official currency of Kosovo failed to provide microeconomic advantages such as to export stimulation, and so forth. The main exchange rate regime systems were discussed focusing in their advantages and disadvantages, and it was concluded that there is no commonly accepted theory regarding the optimality of exchange rate regimes. In addition, the global financial crisis impact in the financial system of Kosovo is also discussed and it was found that negative impacts of global financial crisis were moderate and indirect.

  10. Founder Family Influence and Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Kuhn, Jochen; Zanotti, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Purpose    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of founder families in medium-sized, manufacturing firms and to investigate the impact of such influence on risk management - more specifically foreign exchange hedging and speculation. Design/methodology/approach This empirical study...... in the management team, are members of the board of directors, and/or are shareholders of the firm. We find no difference between such founder family firms and other firms in terms of the use / non-use decision related to foreign exchange derivatives but a marked difference in terms of the extent decision. Thus...... in medium-sized firms (as opposed to large, listed firms in most other studies) and adds to the sparse literature on the impact of founder family influence on risk management.  ...

  11. Emotional Intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Deidre L; Brackett, Marc A; Shamosh, Noah A; Kiehl, Kent A; Salovey, Peter; Gray, Jeremy R

    2007-04-15

    When assessed with performance measures, Emotional Intelligence (EI) correlates positively with the quality of social relationships. However, the bases of such correlations are not understood in terms of cognitive and neural information processing mechanisms. We investigated whether a performance measure of EI is related to reasoning about social situations (specifically social exchange reasoning) using versions of the Wason Card Selection Task. In an fMRI study (N=16), higher EI predicted hemodynamic responses during social reasoning in the left frontal polar and left anterior temporal brain regions, even when controlling for responses on a very closely matched task (precautionary reasoning). In a larger behavioral study (N=48), higher EI predicted faster social exchange reasoning, after controlling for precautionary reasoning. The results are the first to directly suggest that EI is mediated in part by mechanisms supporting social reasoning and validate a new approach to investigating EI in terms of more basic information processing mechanisms.

  12. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  13. Effects of interest rate, exchange rate and their volatilities on stock prices: evidence from banking industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tehseen JAWAID

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of exchange rate, interest rates, and their volatilities on stock prices of banking industry of Pakistan. Cointegration results suggests the existance of significant negative long run relationship between exchange rate and short term interest rate with stock prices. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship exists between volatilities of exchange rate and interest rate with stock prices. Causality analysis confirms bidirectional causality between exchange rate and stock prices. Whereas, unidirectional causality runs from short term interest rate to stock prices. Sensitivity analysis confirms that the results are robust. It is suggested that investors should invest in banking sector stocks when exchange rate and interest rates are highly volatile. The result also supports the view that exchange rate and interest rate can be used as an indicator for investment decision making in banking sector stocks.

  14. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  15. The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... We also find that keiretsu multinationals are more exposed to exchange rate risk that non-keiretsu firms.

  16. Fiscal deficits, exchange rate crises and inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article extends earlier work on unsustainable monetary policies by endogenizing the regime switch that ultimately restores sustainability. Within this framework we analyze exchange rate based stabilization programs and shows how constraints on Central Bank borrowing during an exchange crisis

  17. Derivation of the tunnelling exchange time for the model of trap-assisted tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racko, J.; Ballo, P.; Benko, P.; Harmatha, L.; Grmanova, A.; Breza, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present derivation of the tunnelling exchange times that play the key role in the model of trap assisted tunnelling (TAT) considering the electron and hole exchange processes between the trapping centre lying in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and the conduction band, valence band or a metal. All exchange processes are quantitatively described by respective exchange times. The reciprocal values of these exchange times represent the frequency with which the exchange processes contribute to the probability of occupation of the trap by free charge carriers. The crucial problem in any model of TAT is the calculation of the occupation probability. In our approach this probability is expressed in terms of only thermal and tunnelling exchange times. The concept of tunnelling exchange times presents a dominant contribution to our model of TAT. The new approach allows to simply calculate the probability of occupation of the trapping centre by a free charge carrier and subsequently to get the thermal and tunnelling generation-recombination rates occurring in the continuity equations. This is why the TAT model based on thermal and tunnelling exchange times is suitable for simulating the electrical properties of semiconductor nanostructures in which quantum mechanical phenomena play a key role. (authors)

  18. Low-field susceptibility of classical Heisenberg chains with arbitrary and different nearest-neighbour exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P J; Murphy, K; Garcia-Palacios, J L; Svedlindh, P

    2008-01-01

    Interest in molecular magnets continues to grow, offering a link between the atomic and nanoscale properties. The classical Heisenberg model has been effective in modelling exchange interactions in such systems. In this, the magnetization and susceptibility are calculated through the partition function, where the Hamiltonian contains both Zeeman and exchange energy. For an ensemble of N spins, this requires integrals in 2N dimensions. For two, three and four spin nearest-neighbour chains these integrals reduce to sums of known functions. For the case of the three and four spin chains, the sums are equivalent to results of Joyce. Expanding these sums, the effect of the exchange on the linear susceptibility appears as Langevin functions with exchange term arguments. These expressions are generalized here to describe an N spin nearest-neighbour chain, where the exchange between each pair of nearest neighbours is different and arbitrary. For a common exchange constant, this reduces to the result of Fisher. The high-temperature expansion of the Langevin functions for the different exchange constants leads to agreement with the appropriate high-temperature quantum formula of Schmidt et al, when the spin number is large. Simulations are presented for open linear chains of three, four and five spins with up to four different exchange constants, illustrating how the exchange constants can be retrieved successfully

  19. Guanidinium chloride induction of partial unfolding in amide proton exchange in RNase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S L; Baldwin, R L

    1993-11-05

    Amide (NH) proton exchange rates were measured in 0.0 to 0.7 M guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) for 23 slowly exchanging peptide NH protons of ribonuclease A (RNase A) at pH* 5.5 (uncorrected pH measured in D2O), 34 degrees C. The purpose was to find out whether GdmCl induces exchange through binding to exchange intermediates that are partly or wholly unfolded. It was predicted that, when the logarithm of the exchange rate is plotted as a function of the molarity of GdmCl, the slope should be a measure of the amount of buried surface area exposed to GdmCl in the exchange intermediate. The results indicate that these concentrations of GdmCl do induce exchange by means of a partial unfolding mechanism for all 23 protons; this implies that exchange reactions can be used to study the unfolding and stability of local regions. Of the 23 protons, nine also show a second mechanism of exchange at lower concentrations of GdmCl, a mechanism that is nearly independent of GdmCl concentration and is termed "limited structural fluctuation."

  20. Information exchange - DOE oversight programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbs, D.C.; Field, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Oversight programs are conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to review activities carried out by field and contractor organizations. Two of these oversight programs focus on safeguards and security and on safety and health activities. These two programs are independent, but share many common objectives and review techniques. The mutual potential benefit was recognized from an exchange of information on review techniques. The first step in this exchange was the participation by an Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) staff member with the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) during their planning, conduct and reporting of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA). This paper briefly describes the OSE and ONS programs. It also identifies and analyzes the similarities and differences of the two programs. The purpose of this paper is to provide perspectives on the approach taken, the techniques used and the differences between two oversight programs conducted by the Department of Energy

  1. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  2. Communication as Sociocultural Meaning Exchange:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication is expected to result in meaning exchange. However, when definite meanings could not be established in a communication exchange, an odd situation usually results. Such situations are observed to actually go beyond syntactic and logical misnomer in the communication process. This paper thus examines the semantic oddities in Richard Wright’s Black Boy. It made use of the linkage points of such linguistic approaches like pragmatics, semiotics, presupposition and truth-condition semantics to do a semantic analysis of the novel. It found that sociological factors have a great deal of influence on the odd way of interpreting utterances/communication signals in the text. The paper therefore advocates that there is the need to incorporate co-text sociological elements as being of relevance to meaning analysis.

  3. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  4. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  5. What are sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of new staining techniques to visualise sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cells exposed to mutagens has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of such exchanges. SCE are induced by a wide variety of different physical and chemical agents and their incidence provides a sensitive indicator of DNA damage in proliferating mammalian cells. It is shown that lesions which affect one or both strands of the DNA can result in the development of SCE, but only when damaged DNA undergoes replication. The nature of the lesions, the frequency and distribution of SEC in mammalian cells; the sensitivity of the cells to their induction by X-radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemical mutagens, are discussed and possible mechanisms involved in the formation of SCE during replication considered. (Auth.)

  6. The exchange algebra for Liouville theory on punctured Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianmin; Sheng Zhengmao

    1991-11-01

    We consider in this paper the classical Liouville field theory on the Riemann sphere with n punctures. In terms of the uniformization theorem of Riemann surface, we show explicitly the classical exchange algebra (CEA) for the chiral components of the Liouville fields. We find that the matrice which dominate the CEA is related to the symmetry of the Lie group SL(n) in a nontrivial manner with n>3. (author). 10 refs

  7. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  8. Charge exchange reactions and solar neutrino detection in 81Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.; Gabbard, F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of 81 Br as the detector of the solar neutrino flux hinges upon the knowledge of the Gamow-Teller matrix element from the ground state of 81 Br to the (5/2) - state at 0.457 MeV in 81 Kr. The possibility of obtaining this matrix element is discussed in terms of the (p,n) and ( 3 He, t) charge exchange reactions. .ID CR2009 .PG 98 112

  9. IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    During the 8th session of the IODE Group of Experts on Technical Aspects of Data Exchange reviewed the achievements made during the previous inter-sessional period. The Group also adopted a comprehensive workplan and medium-term objectives for GETADE that include: (i) develop End-To-End Data Management framework strategy and appropriate projects, products and services, based on user requirements; (ii) develop IODE Global metadata management system; (iii) develop marine XML as a mechanism to f...

  10. Persistent profitability of technical analysis on foreign exchange markets?

    OpenAIRE

    L. MENKHOFF; M. SCHLUMBERGER

    1995-01-01

    The effect of technical analyses on the performance of subsequent policies and actions in the foreign exchange markets is analysed using three cases. Results show that use of technical analyses is persistently profitable. Participants, however, tend to view short-term market risk as important and thus decide to forego some of the rules derived from technical analysis. This observation does not negate the theory on efficient learning.

  11. Exchange rate system and policy in the present world

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić Zoran

    2005-01-01

    The choice of exchange rate regime is important, not only in terms of its effect on trade flows, but also with respect to inflation expectations. Countries facing disinflation may find that pegs regimes are more appropriate solution. But where the trade balance account is significantly deteriorated and growth has been sluggish, a more flexible regime might be called for. The natural classification in eighties and early nineties suggests that intermediate regimes may provide important advantag...

  12. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  13. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  14. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  15. Essays on Stock Exchange Competition and Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Atso

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the industrial structure, the nature of competition and the pricing of stock exchange trading services in Europe. Specific for the study is that exchanges are considered to be profit-maximizing institutions that face competition. A conventional analysis of concentration ratios shows that the concentration of European stock exchanges is low. When the nature of competition is measured in more detail, regression results indicate that exchanges operate in monopolistic o...

  16. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  17. Bargaining over Tax Information Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    May Elsayyad

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically studies recent treaty signings between tax havens and OECD countries as the outcome of a bargaining process over treaty form. Havens can decide not to sign an agreement, to sign a tax information exchange agreement or to sign a double taxation convention. We use a highly stylized bargaining model to develop testable hypotheses with regards to the type of agreement signed. We show that the main determinants of treaty signing are a haven's bargaining power and good govern...

  18. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  19. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  20. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  1. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  2. 47 CFR 90.675 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.675 Section 90.675... exchange. (a) Prior coordination. Public safety/CII licensees may notify an ESMR or part 22 Cellular... cell is activated. (c) Public safety information exchange. (1) Upon request by an ESMR or part 22...

  3. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  4. 47 CFR 90.555 - Information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information exchange. 90.555 Section 90.555...-805 MHz Bands § 90.555 Information exchange. (a) Prior notification. Public safety licensees... Safety Information Exchange. (1) Upon request by a 746-757, 758-763, 776-787, or 788-793 MHz band...

  5. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  6. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  7. The Deceptive Resilience of Fixed Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mushin, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an examination of the experience of exchange-rate systems since 1978. Despite the accelerating trend in favour of floating exchange rates, a substantial minority of IMF members have continued to fix the value of their currencies. The recent incidence of each of the principal types of exchange-rate peg is described.

  8. Neighbourhood Book Exchanges: Localising Information Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Tenny; Gollner, Kathleen; Nathan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Through this paper we report on an exploratory study into the design and use of neighbourhood book exchanges in North America. We identify dominant media framings of these book exchanges in North America, along with claims made concerning the influence of the exchanges. We compare the media claims with insights from interviews with…

  9. Modeling and Predicting the EUR/USD Exchange Rate: The Role of Nonlinear Adjustments to Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Crespo Cuaresma; Anna Orthofer

    2010-01-01

    Reliable medium-term forecasts are essential for forward-looking monetary policy decisionmaking. Traditionally, predictions of the exchange rate tend to be linked to the equilibrium concept implied by the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory. In particular, the traditional benchmark for exchange rate models is based on a linear adjustment of the exchange rate to the level implied by PPP. In the presence of aggregation effects, transaction costs or uncertainty, however, economic theory predict...

  10. Gamma irradiation effects of 51Cr(III) isotope exchange in doped magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfouz, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma irradiation effects of 51 Cr(III) isotope exchange in magnesium chromate - zinc chromate mixtures doped with 51 Cr(III) were investigated. It was found that γ irradiation has an oxidation effect and the percentage of exchanged 51 Cr(VI) increases with the increasing γ-ray dose. The data are explained in terms of mechanistic model involving metal and ligand vacancies exchange and substitution reactions. (author)

  11. Financial Security and Optimal Scale of Foreign Exchange Reserve in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of how foreign exchange reserves maintain financial security is of vital significance. This paper provides simulations and estimations of the optimal scale of foreign exchange reserves under the background of possible shocks to China’s economy due to the further opening of China’s financial market and the sudden stop of capital inflows. Focused on the perspective of financial security, this article tentatively constructs an optimal scale analysis framework that is based on a utility maximization of the foreign exchange reserve, and selects relevant data to simulate the optimal scale of China’s foreign exchange reserves. The results show that: (1 the main reason for the fast growth of the Chinese foreign exchange reserve scale is the structural trouble of its double international payment surplus, which creates long-term appreciation expectations for the exchange rate that make it difficult for international capital inflows and excess foreign exchange reserves to enter the real economic growth mechanism under the model of China’s export-driven economy growth; (2 the average optimal scale of the foreign exchange reserve in case of the sudden stop of capital inflows was calculated through parameter estimation and numerical simulation to be 13.53% of China’s gross domestic product (GDP between 1994 and 2017; (3 with the function of the foreign exchange reserves changing from meeting basic transaction demands to meeting financial security demands, the effect of the foreign exchange reserve maintaining the state’s financial security is becoming more and more obvious. Therefore, the structure of foreign exchange reserve assets should be optimized in China, and we will give full play to the special role of foreign exchange reserve in safeguarding a country’s financial security.

  12. Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.

  13. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin H; Bassett, Erik K; Penson, Elliot J N; Hoganson, David M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m(2) of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m(2) of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions.

  14. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  15. Tracers of air-sea gas exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The flux of gas across the air-sea interface is determined by the product of the interfacial concentration difference driving the exchange and a rate constant, often termed the transfer velocity. The concentration-difference term is generally obtained by direct measurement, whereas more indirect approaches are required to estimate the transfer velocity and its variation as a function of controlling parameters such as wind and sea state. Radioactive tracers have proved particularly useful in the estimation of air-sea transfer velocities and, recently, stable purposeful tracers have also started to be used. In this paper the use of the following tracers to determine transfer velocities at the sea surface is discussed: natural and bomb-produced 14 C, dissolved oxygen, 222 Rn and sulphur hexafluoride. Other topics covered include the relation between transfer velocity and wind speed as deduced from tracer and wind-tunnel studies, and the discrepancy between transfer velocities determined by using tracers and from eddy correlation measurements in the atmosphere. (author)

  16. Remembering past exchanges: Apes fail to use social cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates can remember events from their distant past. Furthermore, they can distinguish between very similar events by the process of binding. So far, research into long-term memory and binding has focused on the binding of contextual information, such as spatial surroundings. As such, we aimed to investigate if apes can bind and retrieve other types of information, specifically, social information. We presented great apes with three different object types; they learnt to exchange (via reinforcement one of the object types with one experimenter and another type with a second, different, experimenter. The remaining object type was not reinforced by either of the experimenters. After a delay of two or ten weeks, we assessed the apes’ memory of which object type was exchanged with which experimenter. Additionally, we introduced a new experimenter to see if the apes could infer by exclusion that the remaining object type should be exchanged with the new experimenter. The apes successfully remembered which object types were exchanged, but failed to distinguish which object type was exchanged with whom. This failure to bind an object type to a specific person may have resulted from the apes learning to use a rule based on recency, as opposed to learning a conditional rule involving social information. However, results from a second experiment suggested they fail to incorporate social information even when no other information could guide successful performance. Our findings are consistent with research showing long-term memory in primates, but suggest that social information may not be bound in memory as readily as spatial or contextual information.

  17. Switching field of partially exchange-coupled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, M.I.; Bertorello, H.R.; Bercoff, P.G.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetization reversal of partially exchange-coupled particles is studied in detail. The starting point is the observation of a complicated phenomenology in the irreversible susceptibility and FORC distribution functions of Ba hexaferrite samples obtained by means of different sintering conditions. Several peaks in the first-order reversal curve (FORC) distribution functions were identified and associated with clusters with different number of particles. The switching fields of these clusters were related to an effective anisotropy constant Keff that depends on the number of particles in the cluster. Keff is linked to the exchange-coupled volume between two neighboring particles and as a weighted mean between the anisotropy constants of the coupled and uncoupled volumes. By using the modified Brown's equation αex=0.322 is obtained.In order to interpret these results, the switching field of a two-particle system with partial exchange coupling is studied. It is assumed that the spins reorientation across the contact plane between the particles is like a Bloch wall. The energy of the system is written in terms of the fraction of volume affected by exchange coupling and the switching fields for both particles are calculated. At small interaction volume fraction each particle inverts its magnetization independently from the other. As the fraction of exchange-coupled volume increases, cooperative effects appear and the two particles invert their magnetization in a cooperative way.The proposed model allows to interpret for the first time the empirical factor αex in terms of physical arguments and also explain the details observed in the FORC distribution function

  18. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings, Opinion, and Order of the... Registration as a National Securities Exchange (``Form 1 Application'') \\1\\ under Section 6 of the Securities... substantive, are consistent with the existing rules of other registered national securities exchanges, or are...

  19. Unit of Account, Medium of Exchange, and Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Young Sik Kim; Manjong Lee

    2011-01-01

    The separation of a unit of account (UoA) from a medium of exchange (MoE) in the commodity-money system is investigated by considering explicitly a seller¡¯s choice with regard to posting price in terms of either an MoE or a UoA. If the likelihood of debasement of MoE or its rate is high enough and agents are sufficiently risk averse, there exists a monetary equilibrium in which price is quoted in terms of a UoA. Further, a UoA-posting equilibrium yields the flexible nominal price, whereas ...

  20. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.