WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-pion exchange nucleon-nucleon

  1. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Boson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    A fully momentum-dependent one-boson-exchange potential is derived which takes into account the mesons, π, eta, sigma, rho, ω and phi. Scattering bound states and nuclear matter properties are studied in momentum space. The use of such potential is shown to be as easy as the use of more simple phenomenological interactions. In nuclear matter the formalism of Bethe-Goldstone is chosen to compute the binding energy versus density in the approximation of two-body and three-body correlations. The three-body correlated wave function obtained is then used [fr

  4. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchanges and prediction to colour van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-11-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the colour nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulted nucleon-nucleon potential by using a quark-quark potential well agrees with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, leads to a colour van der Waals potential very strong compared with that predicted by experiments. (author)

  5. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  6. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  7. A microscopic model for correlated 2πexchange model in free nucleon-nucleon scattering and in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul.

    1993-05-01

    A microscopic model for the N anti N→ππ amplitude has been constructed based on nucleon and delta-isobar exchange, which in the pseudophysical region (4 m π 2 ≤t≤50 m π 2 ) roughly agrees with information obtained by analytic continuation of empirical πN and ππ data. Starting from these amplitudes, the correlated 2 π exchange contribution to the NN interaction has been derived using dispersion theoretic methods. It turns out that, in high partial waves, this contribution is considerably larger (by about 20%) compared to the effective σ'- and ρ-exchange used in the full Bonn potential. As a consequence, it turned out that a quantitative description of high NN partial wave phase shifts definitely favors a somewhat smaller πNN coupling constant, in agreement with recent findings in an empirical analysis by the Nijmegen group. The prediction of low NN partial wave phase shifts has been presented, being compared with empirical NN data. In addition to free NN scattering, medium modifications of the σ channel in the NN potential have been studied. These modifications arise from a change in the ππ rescattering through the in-matter pion dispersion relation. We also have considered the possibility of dropping meson masses as suggested by QCD sum rules. (orig.)

  8. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-03-01

    This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers

  9. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in the presence of the electromagnetic field: Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, NNγ, is a fundamental process, which involves the strong and electromagnetic fields acting simultaneously. Since the electromagnetic interaction is well known, NNγ provides a calculable tool for comparing off-energy-shell effects from different two-nucleon potentials compared to experiment and also provides a simple testing ground, which is sensitive to meson-exchange-current contributions that are so important in electronuclear physics. Historically, experimental studies have focused on ppγ, with only a few measurements of npγ. The present workshop was organized primarily to investigate the interest in, the value of, and the feasibility of doing an npγ experiment using the neutron white source at LANL. An increasing amount of US nuclear physics dollars are being spent on electronuclear physics. npγ is a fundamental process with large meson-exchange currents. In the npγ calculations of Brown and Franklin, the meson-exchange contributions increase the cross section by a factor of roughly two and later the angular distribution of the emitted photon dramatically. The details of these calculated effects have never been verified experimentally, but the proper quantum-mechanical inclusion of meson-exchange contributions, using the methods of brown and Franklin, has proved to be essential in understanding the heavy-ion results. The understanding of the importance of such terms is extremely important inelectronuclear processes, such as are presently under investigation or being planned at Bates, SLAC, and CEBAF. Just one example is in the electrodisintegration of the deuteron, where meson-exchange contributions must be included properly before any conclusions about nuclear models, such as QCD versus meson-exchange potentials can be made

  10. A new form for the nucleon-nucleon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the internucleon force is considered. It is assumed that the nucleon-nucleon potential depends, in general, both on the distance ν and the angle theta. It is also assumed that the potential V(ν,ω) admits an analytic continuation into the complex ω-plane so that when ω=costheta is real it denotes the direction in which the potential is being determined. The analysis leads to a new parametryzation of the nucleon-nucleon potential

  11. Coupled channels Marchenko inversion for nucleon-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhoff, H.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1994-01-01

    Marchenko inversion is used to determine local energy independent but channel dependent potential matrices from optimum sets of experimental phase shifts. 3 SD 1 and 3 PF 2 channels of nucleon-nucleon systems contain in their off-diagonal potential matrices explicitly the tensor force for T = 0 and 1 isospin. We obtain, together with single channels, complete sets of quantitative nucleon-nucleon potential results which are ready for application in nuclear structure and reaction analyses. The historic coupled channels inversion result of Newton and Fulton is revisited. (orig.)

  12. Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the present status of our understanding of parity nonconservation (PNC) in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and some of the difficulties inherent in nuclear tests of PNC. I also discuss the nucleon/nuclear anapole moment, the parity violating coupling of the photon, and its relation to the PNC NN interaction. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  14. NN → NN π: the new frontier in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The torch in nucleon-nucleon scattering has been passed to experimental and theoretical studies of pion production. Comparing two unitary models shows that most of the structures predicted for spin observables in NN → NNπ are model independent and roughly in agreement with the data. The contribution of rho- exchange is small, indicating the reaction is largely ''peripheral''. The energy dependence of these isobar models is smooth. The largely unstudied reactions producing neutral and negatively-charged pions show richer structure than positively-charged pion production. 6 refs

  15. Jets in high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    From the experimental studies of high-energy hardon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions, by means of nuclear targets applied as detectors, it follows that particles are produced via intermediate objects created first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction. These objects, called generons, decay in flight into finally observed particles and resonances after their lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s. The jet structure of the outcome in nucleon-nucleon collisions is a simple and indispensable consequence of this particle production mechanism. The picture of the jet structure in the collision outcome observed in the CMS of the colliding nucleons depends on the energy of these nUcleons. New particle production scheme is proposed, which can be tested experimentally; corresponding simple relations between characteristics of colliding nucleons and of produced jets are proposed for a testing

  16. Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials and Computation of Scattering Phase Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhasaketan Bhoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By judicious exploitation of supersymmetry formalism of quantum mechanics higher partial wave nucleon-nucleon potentials are generated from its ground state interactions. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding ground state wave function with the parameters of Arnold and MacKellar are used as the starting point of our calculation. We compute the scattering phase shifts for our constructed potentials through Phase Function Method to examine the merit of our approach to the problem.

  17. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Annual progress report, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988 under a grant from the US Department of Energy. The nucleon-nucleon research has involved studies of interactions between polarized neutrons and polarized protons. Its purpose is to help complete the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as part of a program currently in progress at LAMPF, as well as to investigate the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The pion-nucleus research involves studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been adequately explored. These include experiments on elastic and double charge exchange scattering at energies above the /Delta/(1232) resonance, interactions with polarized nuclear targets, and investigations of pion absorption using a detector covering nearly the full solid angle region. 21 refs., 4 figs

  18. The nucleon-nucleon interaction and violation of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanOers, W.T.H.

    1993-11-01

    The interplay of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and its observables with the fundamental symmetries of isospin conservation, parity conservation, time-reversal invariance or CP conservation was realized early on. Many tests of these symmetries through measurements of particular observables of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been made over a time frame spanning some five decades. It is only in the last decade or so that levels of experimental accuracy have been reached that allow for the deduction of quantitative results of significance. Precision measurements have been made of charge symmetry breaking in n-p elastic scattering (which is the result of isospin non-conservation) and of parity violation in pp scattering (which is a manifestation of the flavour conserving hadronic weak interaction). Time reversal invariance is much more difficult to study since in this case a null measurement, excluding transmission measurements, does not exist. In the nucleon-antinucleon system the potential exists of studying CP non-conservation in a system other than the kaon system. Unfortunately antiproton beams are at present of insufficient intensity. (author). 52 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  20. One-Boson Approach to Dilepton Production in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglin, Kevin Lee

    1990-01-01

    We calculate energy dependent nucleon-nucleon total elastic cross sections and invariant mass dependent electron-positron pair production differential cross sections for the processes pp to pp, np to np and pp to ppe ^+e^-, pn to pne^+e ^- at laboratory kinetic energies in the 1-5 GeV range. These calculations will be based on relativistic quantum field theory in the one-boson-exchange (pi,rho,omega,sigma,delta, eta) approximation to the nucleon-nucleon scattering problem. There are several independent Feynman diagrams for each process--twenty-five for the case np to npe^+e^ - and forty-eight for the case pp to ppe^+e^- --which, for evaluation, require taking the trace of as many as ten gamma matrices and evaluating an angular integral of a quotient of polynomial functions of initial and final energies, particle masses, coupling constants and so on. These mathematical operations are carried out with the aid of the following algebraic manipulators: for the trace operations we use REDUCE 3.3 on the VAX at the ACS facility and for testing the angular integration algorithms we use MAPLE on the Cray-2 at the Minnesota Supercomputer Institute. Finally, we use Cray-2 Fortran for the resulting numerical substitutions. Gauge invariance is strictly observed while including strong and electromagnetic form factors. The numerical results for these calculations are compared with existing data from the Particle Data Group Booklet and compared with recently released data from the Dilepton Spectrometer (DLS) at the Bevalac of proton on Beryllium. For the latter comparison, the spectrometer's finite acceptance function is introduced before a rapidity and transverse momentum integration.

  1. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    We are applying for a three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to New Mexico State University to continue its support of our work on experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies, which has been carried out in collaboration with groups from various laboratories and universities. The nucleon-nucleon work is aimed at making measurements that will contribute to a determination of the isospin-zero amplitudes, as well as continuing our investigations of evidence for dibaryon resonances. It is based at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Current and planned experiments include measurements of total cross-section differences in pure spin states and of spin parameters in neutron-proton scattering. The pion-nucleus work is aimed at improving our understanding both of the nature of the pion-nucleus interaction and of nuclear structure. It consists of two programs, one based at LAMPF and one based principally at the SIN laboratory in Switzerland. The LAMPF-based work involves studies of large-angle scattering, double-charge-exchange scattering, including measurements at a new energy range above 300 MeV, and a new program of experiments with polarized nuclear targets. The SIN-based work involves studies of quasielastic scattering and absorption, including experiments with a new large-acceptance detector system planned for construction there. We are requesting support to continue the LAMPF-based work at its current level and to expand the SIN-based work to allow for increased involvement in experiments with the new detector system. 57 refs

  2. Database of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Cross Sections by Stochastic Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A database of nucleon-nucleon elastic differential and total cross sections will be generated by stochastic simulation of the quantum Liouville equation in the...

  3. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology. Progress report and renewal proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is outlined on five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction with the new dramatically altered ππ s-wave interaction and using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly, and determining which phases are given by theory at which energies; (4) the introduction of our K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated and verified permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0 to 1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon researchers (or anyone else) via Telenet dial-in and by means of a published compendium

  4. Linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

    1997-07-01

    We use a Glauber-like approach to describe very energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions as a sequence of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. No free parameters are needed: All the information comes from simple parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon collision data. Produced mesons are assumed not to interact with each other or with the original baryons. Comparisons are made to published experimental measurements of baryon rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, negative hadron rapidity and transverse momentum distributions, average multiplicities of pions, kaons, hyperons, and antihyperons, and zero degree energy distributions for sulfur-sulfur collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon and for lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon. Good agreement is found except that the number of strange particles produced, especially antihyperons, is too small compared with experiment. We call this model LEXUS: It is a base-line linear extrapolation of ultrarelativistic nucleon-nucleon scattering to heavy ion collisions.

  5. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei.

  6. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei

  7. The nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear many-body problem selected papers of Gerald E. Brown and T.T.S. Kuo

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Thomas T. S; Holt, Jeremy W; Lee, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of some key developments in the understanding of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear many-body theory. The main problems at the level of meson exchange physics have been solved, and we have an effective field theory using a phenomenological interaction pioneered by Achim Schwenk and Scott Bogner, which is nearly universally accepted as a unique low-momentum interaction that includes all experimental data to date. This understanding is based on a multi-step development in which different scientific insights and a wide range of physical and mat

  8. Comparative study of various methods of primary energy estimation in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.P.; Yugindro Singh, K.; Singh, S.

    1986-01-01

    The various available methods for the estimation of primary energy in nucleon-nucleon interactions have been examined by using the experimental data on angular distributions of shower particles from p-N interactions at two accelerator energies, 67 and 400 GeV. Three different groups of shower particle multiplicities have been considered for interactions at both energies. It is found that the different methods give quite different estimates of primary energy. Moreover, each method is found to give different values of energy according to the choice of multiplicity groups. It is concluded that the E ch method is relatively the better method among all the methods available, and that within this method, the consideration of the group of small multiplicities gives a much better result. The method also yields plausible estimates of inelasticity in high energy nucleon-nucleon interactions. (orig.)

  9. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  10. Polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering at intermediate and high energies including the present status of dibaryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1985-01-01

    We review experimental results concerning polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon scattering in which both the elastic scattering and hadron-production reaction are included. We also present summary of S = 0 dibaryon resonances and candidates by reviewing experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system, ..gamma..d channel, ..pi..d elastic scattering, pp ..-->.. ..pi..d channel, deuteron break-up reactions, and narrow structures in missing-mass spectra. 93 refs., 26 figs.

  11. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the nonlinear spinor field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, G.

    1979-01-01

    The author calculates the S matrix for the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering in the lowest approximation using the quantum theory of nonlinear spinor fields with special emphasis to the ghost configuration of this theory. Introducing a general scalar product a new functional channel calculus is considered. From the results the R and T matrix elements and the differential and integral cross sections are derived. (HSI)

  12. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  13. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  14. Search for basic properties of the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.

    1981-01-01

    Extraction of N-N amplitudes directly from phase-shift analysis is described and the results are compared to those obtained via potential or pseudopotential models at low and intermediate energies and through Regge trajectory exchanges and diffraction models at high energies. While potential models fit the experimental data up to about 400 MeV lab energy, the information obtained directly by phase-shift analysis of N-N amplitudes is obtained from experiments in the 400-800 MeV range. At higher energies the real part of the amplitudes becomes better approximated by the first Born term. In this way one can get an insight into the meson exchange structure of the N-N amplitudes. (O.T.)

  15. Theoretical aspects of the nucleon-nucleon workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report concentrates on the inelastic NN system from 300 to 1500 MeV. Topics covered include the visibility of quark signals, dibaryons, the model dependence of predicted NN inelasticities, and a review of how well present conventional models compare with a rapidly expanding database. The general conclusion is that there is so far no clear evidence in the NN system at intermediate energies for unconventional dibaryon resonances. Short remarks are also made concerning one theoretical contribution on elastic scattering and on new experimental results for deuteron photo-disintegration and pion-nucleon charge exchange. 11 references

  16. Nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts. [Resonance, 0 to 800 MeV, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Here are presented 0 to 800 MeV nucleon-nucleon elastic and inelastic phase parameters derived by several groups: Arndt and Roper; Hoshizaki; Bugg; Bystricky, Lechanoine, and Lehar; and Bryan, Clark, and VerWest. Resonant-like behavior appears in the /sup 1/D/sub 2/ and /sup 3/F/sub 3/ states above the inelastic threshold in Hoshizaki's analysis but not in Arndt and Roper's. The np data are inadequate to permit determination of the I = O phase parameters above 600 MeV. 27 references.

  17. Effective nucleon-nucleon t matrix in the (p,2p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Y.; Kanayama, N.; Wakasugi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The cross sections and the analyzing powers for the /sup 40/Ca(p-arrow-right,2p) reactions at E/sub p/ = 76.1, 101.3, and 200 MeV are calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is shown that the calculated individual contributions of the central, spin-orbit, and tensor parts in the Love-Franey interaction to the cross sections and the analyzing powers strongly depend on the incident proton energies. The spectroscopic factors extracted are consistent with the other reaction studies

  18. Investigation of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force in three-nucleon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Gruebler, W.; Hautle, P. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Slaus, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Vuaridel, B. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Sperisen, F. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Cyclotron Facility); Kretschmer, W.; Rauscher, A.; Schuster, W.; Weidmann, R.; Haller, M. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.)); Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D' Agostino, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Witala, H.; Cornelius, T.; Gloeckle, W. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1990-08-16

    Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been investigated at E{sub p}=22.7 MeV by comparison of rigorous Faddeev calculations with experimental results. The observable most sensitive to the tensor force is the nucleon-nucleon polarization transfer coefficient K{sub y}sup(y'). The new angular distribution of K{sub y}sup(y') clearly favours the tensor force of the Bonn A potential, which is weaker than the one of the Paris potential. (orig.).

  19. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave in the modified Weinberg approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparyan A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave is considered in chiral effective field theory within the recently suggested renormalizable formulation based on the Kadyshevsky equation. Contact interactions are taken into account beyond the leading-order approximation. The subleading contact terms are included non-perturbatively by means of subtractive renormalization. The dependence of the phase shifts on the choice of the renormalization condition is discussed. Perturbative inclusion of the subleading contact interaction is found to be justified only very close to threshold. The low-energy theorems are reproduced significantly better compared with the leading order results.

  20. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  1. Asymmetry measurements in nucleon--nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS to Fermilab energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakosawa, A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of various asymmetry measurements in nucleon-nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS energies are presented. A possible direct-channel resonance in the pp system is discussed. Most of the discussion above ZGS energies are aimed at future measurements

  2. Two pion mediated scalar isoscalar NN interaction in the nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaskulov, Murat M.; Oset, E.; Vacas, M.J. Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We study the modification of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nuclear medium in the scalar isoscalar channel, mediated by the exchange of two correlated (σ channel) or uncorrelated pions. For this purpose we use a standard approach for the renormalization of pions in nuclei. The corrections obtained for the NN interaction in the medium in this channel are of the order of 20% of the free one in average, and the consideration of short-range correlations plays an important role in providing these moderate changes. Yet, the corrections are sizable enough to suggest further studies of the stability and properties of nuclear matter

  3. Experimental determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for p-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Aas, B.; Azizi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A complete measurement of the polarization transfer observables has been made for the first time in the (p,p') reaction at intermediate energies. Measurements are reported for the 12 C(p,p') 12 C reaction to the 1 + , T = 0(12.71 MeV) and 1 + , T = 1(15.11 MeV) states at 500 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of 3.5 0 , 5.5 0 , 7.5 0 , and 12.0 0 . Linear combinations of these observables are shown to exhibit a very selective dependence on the isoscalar and isovector spin-dependent components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. To the extent of the validity of the single collision approximation, these amplitudes are compared directly to the free nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at small momentum transfers

  4. Regularization and the potential of effective field theory in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This paper examines the role that regularization plays in the definition of the potential used in effective field theory (EFT) treatments of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The author considers N N scattering in S-wave channels at momenta well below the pion mass. In these channels (quasi-)bound states are present at energies well below the scale m π 2 /M expected from naturalness arguments. He asks whether, in the presence of such a shallow bound state, there is a regularization scheme which leads to an EFT potential that is both useful and systematic. In general, if a low-lying bound state is present then cutoff regularization leads to an EFT potential which is useful but not systematic, and dimensional regularization with minimal subtraction leads to one which is systematic but not useful. The recently-proposed technique of dimensional regularization with power-law divergence subtraction allows the definition of an EFT potential which is both useful and systematic

  5. Nucleon-nucleon scattering studies at small angles at COSY-ANKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The most accepted approach to describe nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is the partial wave analysis (PWA). The SAID database and analysis program comprise various experimental observables at different energies over the full angular range and express them in the partial waves. The goal of the experiments held at COSY-Juelich is to provide SAID with new valuable measurements. Scattering data was taken at small angles for six beam energies between 0.8 and 2.4 GeV with polarized proton beam incident on both proton and deuteron unpolarized targets using the ANKE spectrometer. First, the results of the proton-proton (pp) scattering analyzing power and cross section are presented. While pp data closes a very important gap at small angles in the database, proton-neutron (pn) data is a crucial contribution to the almost non-explored pn database above 800 MeV. Therefore, the talk will mainly concentrate on the proton-deuteron (pd) scattering studies, which includes the overview of the older COSY experiments with polarized deuteron beam, and the abovementioned new experiment with polarized proton beam and unpolarized deuteron target. The presentation will show the most recent results of the analyzing powers of pd elastic and pn scattering.

  6. Nucleon-nucleon optical model for energies to 3 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, A.; Von Geramb, H.V.; University of Melbourne, VIC; Amos, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several nucleon-nucleon potentials, Paris, Nijmegen, Argonne, and those derived by quantum inversion, which describe the NN interaction for T Lab ≤ 300 MeV are extended in their range of application as NN optical models. Extensions are made in r-space using complex separable potentials definable with a wide range of form factor options including those of boundary condition models. We use the latest phase shift analyses SP00 (FA00, WI00) of Arndt et al. from 300 MeV to 3 GeV to determine these extensions. The imaginary parts of the optical model interactions account for loss of flux into direct or resonant production processes. The optical potential approach is of particular value as it permits one to visualize fusion, and subsequent fission, of nucleons when T Lab > 2 GeV. We do so by calculating the scattering wave functions to specify the energy and radial dependences of flux losses and of probability distributions. Furthermore, half-off the energy shell t-matrices are presented as they are readily deduced with this approach. Such t-matrices are required for studies of few- and many-body nuclear reactions

  7. Comparison between phase shift derived and exactly calculated nucleon--nucleon interaction matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison is made between matrix elements calculated using the uncoupled channel Sussex approach to second order in DWBA and matrix elements calculated using a square well potential. The square well potential illustrated the problem of the determining parameter independence balanced with the concept of phase shift difference. The super-soft core potential was used to discuss the systematics of the Sussex approach as a function of angular momentum as well as the relation between Sussex generated and effective interaction matrix elements. In the uncoupled channels the original Sussex method of extracting effective interaction matrix elements was found to be satisfactory. In the coupled channels emphasis was placed upon the 3 S 1 -- 3 D 1 coupled channel matrix elements. Comparison is made between exactly calculated matrix elements, and matrix elements derived using an extended formulation of the coupled channel Sussex method. For simplicity the potential used is a nonseparable cut-off oscillator. The eigenphases of this potential can be made to approximate the realistic nucleon--nucleon phase shifts at low energies. By using the cut-off oscillator test potential, the original coupled channel Sussex method of determining parameter independence was shown to be incapable of accurately reproducing the exact cut-off oscillator matrix elements. The extended Sussex method was found to be accurate to within 10 percent. The extended method is based upon more general coupled channel DWBA and a noninfinite oscillator wave function solution to the cut-off oscillator auxiliary potential. A comparison is made in the coupled channels between matrix elements generated using the original Sussex method and the extended method. Tables of matrix elements generated using the original uncoupled channel Sussex method and the extended coupled channel Sussex method are presented for all necessary angular momentum channels

  8. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.

    2012-01-25

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 < M{\\pi}{\\pi} < 2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb-1. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 < Q2 < 80 GeV2, 32 < W < 180 GeV and |t| < 0.6 GeV2, where Q2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, |F(M{\\pi}{\\pi})|, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {\\rho}, {\\rho}' and {\\rho}" vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q2 dependence of the cross-section ratios {\\sigma}({\\rho}' \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) and {\\sigma}({\\rho}" \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained...

  9. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ashery, D.; Gueta, O.; Gurvich, E.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv Univ., Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W.B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Gach, G.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Aggarwal, R.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab Univ., Dept. of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [Univ. Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna (Italy); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna (Italy); Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M. [Univ. del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Aushev, V.; Dolinska, G.; Gogota, O.; Korol, I.; Viazlo, O. [National Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv, Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Aushev, Y.; Bartosik, N.; Bondarenko, K.; Kadenko, I.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Salii, A.; Tomalak, O.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M. [National Taras Shevchenko Univ. of Kyiv, Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-01-15

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho}' and {rho}'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q {sup 2} dependence of the cross-section ratios {sigma}({rho}'{yields}{pi}{pi})/ {sigma}({rho}) and {sigma}({rho}''{yields}{pi}{pi})/ {sigma}({rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. (orig.)

  10. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ashery, D.; Gueta, O.; Gurvich, E.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.

    2012-01-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 ππ -1 . The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 2 2 , 32 2 , where Q 2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M ππ ) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ' and ρ'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q 2 dependence of the cross-section ratios σ(ρ'→ππ)/ σ(ρ) and σ(ρ''→ππ)/ σ(ρ) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e + e - →π + π - . (orig.)

  11. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4< M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}} <2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2< Q{sup 2}<80 GeV{sup 2}, 32two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}}) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho}{sup '} and {rho}'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q{sup 2} dependence of the cross-section ratios {sigma}({rho}{sup '} {yields} {pi}{pi})/{sigma}({rho}) and {sigma}({rho}'' {yields} {pi}{pi})/{sigma}({rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical predictions for α -decay chains of 118 290 -298Og isotopes using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.

    2018-04-01

    The α -decay half-lives of the recently synthesized superheavy nuclei (SHN) are investigated by employing the density dependent cluster model. A realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The calculated values of α -decay half-lives of the recently synthesized Og isotopes and its decay products are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the calculated values of α -decay half-lives have been compared with those values evaluated using other theoretical models, and it was found that our theoretical values match well with their counterparts. The competition between α decay and spontaneous fission is investigated and predictions for possible decay modes for the unknown nuclei 118 290 -298Og are presented. We studied the behavior of the α -decay half-lives of Og isotopes and their decay products as a function of the mass number of the parent nuclei. We found that the behavior of the curves is governed by proton and neutron magic numbers found from previous studies. The proton numbers Z =114 , 116, 108, 106 and the neutron numbers N =172 , 164, 162, 158 show some magic character. We hope that the theoretical prediction of α -decay chains provides a new perspective to experimentalists.

  13. Study of Z boson production in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Aremenia); et al.,

    2011-05-01

    A search for Z bosons in the mu^+mu^- decay channel has been performed in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy = 2.76 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, in a 7.2 inverse microbarn data sample. The number of opposite-sign muon pairs observed in the 60--120 GeV/c^2 invariant mass range is 39, corresponding to a yield per unit of rapidity (y) and per minimum bias event of (33.8 +/- 5.5 (stat) +/- 4.4 (syst)) 10^{-8}, in the |y|<2.0 range. Rapidity, transverse momentum, and centrality dependencies are also measured. The results agree with next-to-leading order QCD calculations, scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  14. Disappearance of flow and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section for {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-Yong He [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Academia Sinica, Lanzhou, GS (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Peter, J.; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Brou, R.; Cussol, D. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Auger, A.; Cabot, C.; Crema, E. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Buta, A. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire]|[Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Experimental measurement and theoretical comparison of collective flow can give important information about the nuclear equation of state (EOS) and the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section. Experimental measurements of {sup 64}Zn+{sup 27}Al collision from 35 to 79 MeV/u with the 4{pi} array MUR=TONNEAU are presented. The results are compared to BUU calculations. (K.A.).

  15. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Progress report, January 1, 1985-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1985-87. These studies have involved investigations of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions. They have been carried out at the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, at the SIN laboratory near Zurich, Switzerland, and at the TRIUMF accelerator in Vancouver, Canada. 86 refs., 5 figs

  16. Building the nucleus from quarks: The cloudy bag model and the quark description of the nucleon-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cloudy Bag Model hadrons are treated as quarks confined in an M.I.T. bag that is surrounded by a cloud of pions. Computations of the charge and magnetism distributions of nucleons and baryons, pion-nucleon scattering, and the strong and electromagnetic decays of mesons are discussed. Agreement with experimental results is excellent if the nucleon bag radius is in the range between 0.8 and 1.1 fm. Underlying qualitative reasons which cause the pionic corrections to be of the obtained sizes are analyzed. If bags are of such reasonably large sizes, nucleon bags in nuclei will often come into contact. As a result one needs to consider whether explicit quark degrees of freedom are relevant for Nuclear Physics. To study such possibilities a model which treats a nucleus as a collection of baryons, pions and six-quark bags is discussed. In particular, the short distance part of a nucleon-nucleon wave function is treated as six quarks confined in a bag. This approach is used to study the proton-proton weak interaction, the asymptotic D to S state ratio of the deuteron, the pp → dπ reaction, the charge density of /sup 3/He, magnetic moments of /sup 3/He and /sup 3/H and, the /sup 3/He-/sup 3/H binding energy difference. It is found that quark effects are very relevant for understanding nuclear properties

  17. Real and imaginary part of the potential between two nuclei and the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Starting from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction (Reid soft-core) in the model of two infinitely extended confusing nuclear matter complex energy densities are calculated by means of a G matrix. By means of a generalized local-density approximation the results are transferred to finite nuclei. In the framework of the frozen-density approximation in the energy-density formalism a complex potential between two nuclei is calculated. The potential calculated so contains not the contribution of 1-particle-1-hole states to the optical potential. The contribution of these states is therefore calculated in the Feshbach formalism, respectively these states are explicitely regarded in coupled-channel calculations. The model is applied to light (for instance 12 C+ 12 C), medium heavy (for instance 48 Ca+ 48 Ca), and heavy (for instance 40 Ar+ 208 Pb) systems. Potentials for incident energies of 5-84 MeV per projectile nucleon are calculated. By means of these potentials differential cross sections and reaction cross sections are determined and compared with the experimental data. The energy dependence of the reaction cross section is discussed. It is shown that at higher energies (40 MeV/N) the differential cross sections can be quantitatively reproduced. For the reaction cross section in the whole energy range good agreement with the experiment is obtained. Contrarily to current theoretical models it is proved that at low energies the excitation of collective states yields a large contribution to the reaction cross section and therefore must not be neglected. (orig.) [de

  18. Charge independence, charge symmetry breaking in the S-wave nucleon-nucleon interaction, and renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    2012-02-01

    We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.

  19. J/Ψ production in proton-proton and deuteron-gold collisions at 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobigo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy-ion collisions, we have to understand the cold nuclear matter behavior. In this aim we studied deuteron-gold collisions at 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center of mass at the collider RHIC. The J/Ψ was suggested to probe the plasma. We studied its production via its muon decay measured in the muon spectrometers of the PHENIX experiment. We developed a Kalman fit method for tracks and vertex, for the muon spectrometers data analysis. The J/Ψ production was analyzed in function of kinematic and geometric variables. Comparison between proton-proton and deuterium-gold data allowed a better understanding of shadowing and absorption phenomena present in collisions without any dense matter. (author) [fr

  20. Study of the universal function of nuclear proximity potential between α and nuclei from density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.L.; Zheng, H.B.; Qu, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    The universal function of proximity potential between α and nuclei is systematically studied from the double-folding model with the density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction (CDM3Y6) by analyzing different target nuclei with Z=48-92. The analytical formula of universal function is obtained at s 0 >-1 by fitting all of the calculated values. Using this formula we calculate the half-lives of α decay for heavy nuclei in comparison with the values of the experimental data. It is shown that the half-lives of the α decay calculated from the presently obtained universal function in proximity potential can keep within a factor of 3 with the experimental data. (orig.)

  1. Study of the Two-pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Lewis P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong interaction physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the yN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Delta resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large

  2. Study of the Two Pion Photoproduction on Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Lewis P. Graham, Jr.

    Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong inter-action physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the γN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Δ resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large Acceptance

  3. Distortion of two-pion interferometry by multipion correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.N.; Liu, Y.M.; Wang, S.; Liu, Q.J.; Jiang, J.; Keane, D.; Shao, Y.; Chu, S.Y.; Fung, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Multipion correlations arising from the symmetrization of the n-pion wave function affect the extracted information from two-pion correlation measurements. The influence of multipion correlations on a sample of like-pion pairs can be expressed as a multipion correlation factor, the distribution of which offers good sensitivity to the multipion correlation effect. Analyses of the multipion correlation factor for two Bevalac streamer chamber data samples of 2.1A GeV Ne+Pb and 1.8A GeV Ar+Pb collisions show that the multipion correlation effect in the former sample is greater than in the latter. This result mainly arises from the fact that the pion source for Ne projectiles is smaller than for Ar projectiles. The residual correlations in the reference sample are related to the multipion correlation factor in multipion events, which can be expressed as a residual correlation factor. The influence of multipion correlations on two-pion interferometry analyses arises from the ratio of the residual correlation factor to the multipion correlation factor

  4. Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy = 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    Jet production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV was studied with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 inverse microbarns. Jets are reconstructed using the energy deposited in the CMS calorimeters and studied as a function of collision centrality. With increasing collision centrality, a striking imbalance in dijet transverse momentum is observed, consistent with jet quenching. The observed effect extends from the lower cut-off used in this study (jet transverse momentum = 120 GeV/c) up to the statistical limit of the available data sample (jet transverse momentum approximately 210 GeV/c). Correlations of charged particle tracks with jets indicate that the momentum imbalance is accompanied by a softening of the fragmentation pattern of the second most energetic, away-side jet. The dijet momentum balance is recovered when integrating low transverse momentum particles distributed over a wide angular range relative to the direction of the away-side jet.

  5. The multiple-scattering series in pion-deuteron scattering and the nucleon-nucleon potential: perspectives from effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, V. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Hanhart, C. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Juelich (Germany); Hoferichter, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Ohio University, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, OH (United States); Kudryavtsev, A.E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Phillips, D.R. [Ohio University, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Athens, OH (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Important contributions to meson-nucleus scattering are produced by terms in the multiple-scattering series, which is defined as the sum of all diagrams where the meson scatters back and forth between a pair of static nucleons before leaving the nucleus. In particular, the sum of this series is needed for an accurate description of kaon-deuteron scattering, and appears as part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. In this article we present some effective-field-theory (EFT)-based insights into this series in the case of two-nucleon systems. In particular, we discuss the fact that, if meson-nucleon scattering is approximated by the scattering-length term, individual terms of the series are divergent, and enhanced with respect to the straightforward expectation from chiral perturbation theory ({chi} PT). This apparently indicates the presence of similarly enhanced counterterms. However, we show that when the series is resummed the divergences cancel, such that no additional information on short-range interactions is needed to obtain predictions for observables after resummation. We discuss the conditions under which this resummation is justified. We show that the same issues arise in the NN potential, where the resummed series produces poles whose appearance indicates the breakdown scale of the {chi} PT expansion for that quantity. This demonstrates unequivocally that {chi} PT cannot be applied to compute V(r) for distances smaller than r{proportional_to} 1 fm -at least in the theory without explicit Delta(1232) degrees of freedom. We briefly discuss whether this bound can be lowered if the Delta resonance is included in the EFT as an explicit degree of freedom. (orig.)

  6. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  7. Giant and pigmy dipole resonances in 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacca, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Barnea, Nir [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel); Hagen, Gaute [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miorelli, Mirko [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Orlandini, Giuseppina [Univ. of Trento (Italy); Papenbrock, Thomas F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-24

    We combine the coupled-cluster method and the Lorentz integral transform for the computation of inelastic reactions into the continuum. We show that the bound-state-like equation characterizing the Lorentz integral transform method can be reformulated based on extensions of the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method, and we discuss strategies for viable numerical solutions. Starting from a chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order, we compute the giant dipole resonances of 4He, 16,22O, and 40Ca, truncating the coupled-cluster equation-of-motion method at the two-particle–two-hole excitation level. Within this scheme, we find a low-lying E1 strength in the neutron-rich 22O nucleus, which compares fairly well with data from Leistenschneider et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5442 (2001)]. We also compute the electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca. Deficiencies of the employed Hamiltonian lead to overbinding, too-small charge radii, and a too-small electric dipole polarizability in 40Ca.

  8. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Dagmar; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, Vojtěch; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slívová, J.; Specht, H. J.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, Michal; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V. V.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 714, 1/2 (2003), s. 124-144 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0879; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : two-pion correlation function * heavy-ion collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.761, year: 2003

  9. Fock exchange in meson theories of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Fock exchange term in meson field theories of nuclear systems is shown to arise from a two-loop ground-state self-energy diagram. Evaluation of this diagram gives the relativistic or semirelativistic analog of the Fock exchange energy; it differs from the nucleon-nucleon Fock energy in including retardation effects. In finite meson-field theories of nuclear systems, the variational nature of the meson-field analog of the Hartree-Fock energy functional can be further elucidated. 4 refs

  10. Beam energy and centrality dependence of two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations at SPS energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Appelshaeuser, H. E-mail: appels@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Campagnolo, R.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glaessel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marin, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Musa, L.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Richter, M.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Seipp, W.; Sharma, A.; Shimansky, S.; Slivova, J.; Specht, H.J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.V

    2003-02-10

    Results are presented of a two-pion interferometry (HBT) analysis in Pb+Au collisions at 40, 80, and 158 A GeV. A detailed study of the Bertsch-Pratt HBT radius parameters has been performed as function of the mean pair transverse momentum k{sub t} and in bins of the centrality of the collision. From these results we extract model-dependent information about the space-time evolution of the reaction. An investigation of the effective volume of the pion emitting system provides an important tool to study the properties of thermal pion freeze-out.

  11. Microscopic nuclear structure calculations with modern meson-exchange potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Muether, H.; Schmid, K.W.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1990-07-01

    The report presents the results of microscopic nuclear shell-model calculations using three different nucleon-nucleon potentials. These are the phenomenological Reid-Soft-Core potential and the meson-exchange potentials of the Paris and the Bonn groups. It is found that the Bonn potential yields sd-shell matrix elements which are more attractive than those obtained with the Reid or the Paris potentials. The harmonic-oscillator matrix elements of the Bonn potential are also in better agreement with the empirically derived matrix elements of Wildenthal. The implications are discussed. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Obe approximation of NN scattering in bag-model QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one-boson and two-pion exchange amplitude from bag-model quantum chromodynamics. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with data up to laboratory energies of approx. equal to 350 MeV. (orig.)

  13. Effect of the ηη channel and interference phenomena in the two-pion transitions of charmonia and bottomonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovtsev Yu.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic shape of di-pion mass spectra in the two-pion transitions of both charmonia and bottomonia states is explained by a unified mechanism based on contributions of the ππ, KK̅, and ηη coupled channels including their interference. The role of the individual f0 resonances in shaping the di-pion mass distributions in the charmonia and bottomonia decays is considered.

  14. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=900 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Abramyan, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Antolfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Barile, F; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borisov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo, E; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Corrales Morales, Y; Cormier, T M; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Delgado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jiménez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Hu, S; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lenhardt, M; Leistam, L; Lehnert, J; Lenti, V; Leon, H; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lopez, X; Lopez Noriega, M; Lopez-Ramírez, R; Lopez Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; 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    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at sqrt(s)=900 GeV performed by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Our analysis shows an increase of the HBT radius with increasing event multiplicity, in line with other measurements done in particle- and nuclear collisions. Conversely, the strong decrease of the radius with increasing transverse momentum, as observed at RHIC and at Tevatron, is not manifest in our data.

  15. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahn, S.U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Ferroli, R.Baldini; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Ban, J.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; 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Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D.T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.C.; Lefevre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, L.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Noriega, M.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M.G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A.J.; Petracek, V.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rademakers, O.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S.S.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saiz, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P.A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Sinha, B.C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sogaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A.J.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urban, J.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.K.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.

    2013-07-16

    The first measurement of two-pion Bose--Einstein correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider is presented. We observe a growing trend with energy now not only for the longitudinal and the outward but also for the sideward pion source radius. The pion homogeneity volume and the decoupling time are significantly larger than those measured at RHIC.

  16. Pion production in proton-proton collisions in a covariant one boson exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyam, R.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the pion production in proton-proton collisions over an energy range of 300 MeV to 2 GeV. Starting from a realistic one-boson exchange model with parameters fitted to the amplitudes of the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering, we perform fully covariant calculations for the total, double and triple differential cross sections of the p(p,nπ + )p and p(p,pπ 0 )p reactions. The calculations incorporate the exchange of π, ρ, ω and σ mesons and treat nucleon and delta isobar as intermediate states. We obtain a reasonably good agreement with the experimental data in the entire range of beam energies. The form of the covariant delta propagator, the cut-off parameter for the πN N and πN Δ vertex form factors and the energy dependence of the delta isobar decay width is investigated. (author)

  17. Quark compound bag (QCB) model and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1983-01-01

    Quark degrees of freedom are treated in the NN system in the framework of the QCB model. The resulting QCB potential is in agreement with experimental data. P-matrix analysis inherent to the QCB model is discussed in detail. Applications of the QCB model are given including the weak NN interaction

  18. Pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baru, Vadim [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Epelbaum, Evgeny [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Filin, Arseniy [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Haidenbauer, Johann; Hanhart, Christoph [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kudryavtsev, Alexander [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lensky, Vadim [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation); European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, Villazzano (Trento) (Italy); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie), Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With the advent of chiral perturbation theory, the low-energy effective field theory of QCD, high accuracy calculations for hadronic reactions with a controlled error estimation have become possible. We survey the recent developments in the reaction NN{yields}NN{pi} in chiral EFT. We argue that the counting scheme that acknowledges the large momentum transfer between the initial and the final nucleons allows for a consistent description of s- and p-wave pion production. The status of the theory for pion production in the isospin conserving case allows us to challenge charge symmetry breaking effects recently observed experimentally in pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}.

  19. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  20. Nucleon-nucleon scattering length from three-body reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments aimed at the measurement of the singlet scattering lengths 1 a np and 1 a nn of the NN-interaction in the presence of a heavy spectator are described. The values obtained are compared with the results of measurements of other reactions. The very good agreement of the experimental values of 1 a np from all breakup reactions and elastic scattering as well as agreement of the values of 1 a nn from breakup reactions and disagreement with the value from the π - d → nnγ reaction cast doubts on the hypothesis ascribing this discrepancy to a 3N-force. This result also suggests a stronger effect of a violation of the charge independence principle than previously accepted. 101 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  1. Measurements of dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.K.; Beedoe, S.; Bougteb, M.; Cailiu, J.; Carroll, J.; Gong, W.G.; Hallman, T.; Heilbronn, L.; Huang, H.Z.; Igo, G.; Kirk, P.; Krebs, G.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Madansky, L.; Manso, F.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, D.; Miller, J.; Naudet, C.; Porter, R.J.; Roche, G.; Sche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Toy, M.; Wang, Z.F.; Welsh, R.; Yegneswaran, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63 - Aubiere (France)]|[Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-01-03

    The authors present experimental results on the pd/pp ratio for e{sup +}e{sup -} production and the invariant e{sup +}e{sup -} mass distribution measured in the process p+p{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}+X at energies between 1.03 and 4.9 GeV. From the mass spectra production cross sections for {eta}, {rho}, {omega}, and {Delta}are derived. (HSI)

  2. Medium-energy theory group. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Research carried out during the contract period by R. A. Bryan, principal investigator, and associates R. B. Clark and B. J. VerWest is reported. Most of the work has centered on the nucleon-nucleon interaction at low to intermediate energies and has ranged from purely theoretical studies, such as the behavior of two-pion-exchange Feynman amplitudes at far off-shell initial and final nucleon momenta, to the more practical work of phase-shift analyzing nucleon-nucleon data. One has also investigated the possibility that the NN interaction is not invariant under time-reversal and have provided predictions for some relevant experimental observables for the case where such time-irreversibility is due to short-range processes. Finally, research on topics which fall in the domain of elementary-particle physics but which are felt can lend guidance in trying to determine the NN force at very short distances is completed; this is the current frontier in nucleon-nucleon research. A list of publications is included

  3. Decoupled dirac equation in one-boson-Exchange potential model and Hartree-fock calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, K.M.; Swelam, Sh.M.; Nafea, H.O.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a semi-relativistic decoupled Dirac equation and self consistent Hartree-Fock formulation, it is used the One-Boson-Exchange Potential (OBEP) model where each nucleon, as a Dirac particle, is considered to be a source of a scalar (a) and vector (co) fields, and is also acted upon by these fields, to get the ground state of some spherical nuclei. An important mathematical advantage gained by the assumption that each nucleon in the nucleus is moving under the influence of a common harmonic oscillator is that (as shown by Talmi) the wave function of the two nucleons is separable in their relative and center of mass (C.M) coordinates and the known Talmi-Moshinsky brackets. Three different static nucleon-nucleon interaction forms are used to predict the ground state energy for 4 He nucleus

  4. Centrality Dependent Lévy-Stable Two-Pion Bose-Einstein Correlations in s NN = 200 GeV Au+Au Collisions at the PHENIX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lökös, Sándor

    2018-02-01

    Investigation of femtoscopic correlation functions in relativistic heavy ion reactions is an important tool to access the space-time structure of particle production in the sQGP. The shape of the correlation functions is often assumed to be Gaussian, but a detailed analysis reveals that the statistically correct assumption could be the so-called L\\'evy distribution. The detailed analysis of correlation functions in various systems may shed light on the location of the critical endpoint on the QCD phase diagram. It could also reveal if there is partially coherent pion production or could indicate the possible in-medium mass modification of the $\\eta'$ meson due to the (partial) restoration of the $U_A(1)$ axial symmetry. In this paper we present the status of the centrality dependent measurements of two-pion L\\'evy Bose-Einstein correlation functions in Au+Au collisions at PHENIX.

  5. Semihard scattering unraveled from collective dynamics by two-pion azimuthal correlations in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Baur, R; Bielcikova, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Fuchs, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Huovinen, P; Lenkeit, B C; Marin, A; Messer, F; Messer, M; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Nix, O; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Razin, S; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Saveljic, N; Schmitz, W; Shimansky, S S; Socol, E; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Voigt, C A; Voloshin, S A; Weber, C; Wessels, J P; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V

    2004-01-01

    Elliptic flow and two-particle azimuthal correlations of charged hadrons and high-$p_{T}$ pions ($p_{T}>$1 GeV/c) have been measured close to midrapidity in 158A GeV/c Pb + Au collisions by the CERES experiment. Elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) rises linearly with $p_{T}$ to a value of about 10% at 2 GeV/c. Beyond $p_{T} \\approx $1.5 Ge V/c, the slope decreases considerably, possibly indicating a saturation of $v_{2}$ at high $p_{T}$. Two-pion azimuthal anisotropies for $p_{T} >$1.2 GeV/c exceed the elliptic flow values by about 60% in midcentral collisions. These nonflow contributions are attributed to nearside and back-to-back jetlike correlations, the latter exhibiting centrality dependent broadening.

  6. Beam-energy-dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions measured in heavy ion collisions at the STAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anson, C. D.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Brovko, S. G.; Bültmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chwastowski, J.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Contin, G.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cui, X.; Das, S.; Davila Leyva, A.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Dhamija, S.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Ding, F.; Djawotho, P.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Engle, K. S.; Eppley, G.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Fedorisin, J.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Gliske, S.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kesich, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; LeVine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Madagodagettige Don, D. M. M. D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olvitt, D. L.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Riley, C. K.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ross, J. F.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Turnau, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Vanfossen, J. A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Vossen, A.; Wada, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, H.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, W.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zawisza, Y.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present results of analyses of two-pion interferometry in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 , 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV measured in the STAR detector as part of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Beam Energy Scan program. The extracted correlation lengths (Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii) are studied as a function of beam energy, azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, centrality, and transverse mass (mT) of the particles. The azimuthal analysis allows extraction of the eccentricity of the entire fireball at kinetic freeze-out. The energy dependence of this observable is expected to be sensitive to changes in the equation of state. A new global fit method is studied as an alternate method to directly measure the parameters in the azimuthal analysis. The eccentricity shows a monotonic decrease with beam energy that is qualitatively consistent with the trend from all model predictions and quantitatively consistent with a hadronic transport model.

  7. Femtoscopy of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9 and 7 TeV at the LHC with two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A.G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahn, S.U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Molina, R.Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz Avina, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Ferroli, R.Baldini; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Ban, J.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanc, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Bottger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.P.; Coli, S.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Erasmo, G.D.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H.H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Remigis, R.; de Rooij, R.; Delagrange, H.; Delgado Mercado, Y.; Dellacasa, G.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Denes, E.; Deppman, A.; Di Bari, D.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dominguez, I.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H.A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furano, F.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Gemme, R.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Girard, M.R.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Gomez, R.; Gonzalez-Trueba, L.H.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J.W.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernandez, C.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G.M.; Innocenti, P.G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jancurova, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, M.A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, S.P.; Jena, S.; Jirden, L.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jovanovic, P.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, E.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M.M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, H.N.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S.H.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Koch, K.; Kohler, M.K.; Kolevatov, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskih, A.; Kornas, E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kozlov, K.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krumbhorn, D.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lara, C.; Larsen, D.T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.C.; Lefevre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon Monzon, I.; Leon Vargas, H.; Levai, P.; Li, X.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, L.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Noriega, M.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Davalos, A.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z.L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Mercado Perez, J.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muller, H.; Muhuri, S.; Munhoz, M.G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Ovrebekk, G.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A.J.; Petracek, V.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Platt, R.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putis, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rademakers, O.; Radomski, S.; Raiha, T.S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S.S.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinsky, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Rusanov, I.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saiz, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P.A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Sinha, B.C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sogaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A.J.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urban, J.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vacchi, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Yang, H.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.K.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the high statistics two-pion correlation functions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=0.9 TeV and $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV, measured by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The correlation functions as well as the extracted source radii scale with event multiplicity and pair momentum. When analyzed in the same multiplicity and pair transverse momentum range, the correlation is similar at the two collision energies. A three-dimensional femtoscopic analysis shows an increase of the emission zone with increasing event multiplicity as well as decreasing homogeneity lengths with increasing transverse momentum. The latter trend gets more pronounced as multiplicity increases. This suggests the development of space-momentum correlations, at least for collisions producing a high multiplicity of particles. We consider these trends in the context of previous femtoscopic studies in high-energy hadron and heavy-ion collisions, and discuss possible underlying physics mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the co...

  8. Two pion correlation from SPACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.

    1989-12-01

    The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs

  9. Two-Pion Correlation Measurements for 14.6 A.GEV/C SILICON-28 + X and 11.6 A.GEV/C GOLD-197 + Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltz, Ron A.

    Two-pion correlation functions have been measured in the central rapidity regions (1.5 < y < 2.0) for 14.6 A cdot GeV/c Si+Au to 2 pi^-+rm X (central and peripheral), Si+Al to 2pi^++ rm X (central and minimum bias), Si+Au to 2pi^++rm X (central), and 11.6 A cdot GeV/c Au+Au to 2pi^ -+rm X (central) systems. Two-dimensional fits in R-tau and R_{T}-R_ {L} were performed for these systems for different cuts in the total charged particle multiplicity and forward energy. The R, R_{T}, and R_{L} radius parameters for systems involving the Si projectile were found to increase with increasing charged particle multiplicity. These parameters were observed to scale linearly with A _sp{pp}{1/3}, where A_{pp} is the number of projectile participants as calculated from the forward energy deposition. The correlation functions were also fit to several three-dimensional functions. In all cases these fits proved to be consistent with the results of the two-dimensional fits. Events generated from the RQMD cascade code indicate that pions within experimental acceptance are produced from a region that is smaller than the entire region of pion production. A direct measure of the RQMD source for pions within the acceptance show qualitative agreement with the observed scaling. A minimization function was developed which is derived from the Poisson fluctuations in both the actual and background distributions. Progress was made in understanding the errors of event-mixed background distributions. An empirical study confirms that fluctuations within a bin are indeed Poisson for typical backgrounds generated during this analysis. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  10. Nuclear Parity-Violation in Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi-Lin Zhu; C.M. Maekawa; B.R. Holstein; M.J. Ramsey-Musolf; U van Kolck

    2005-02-21

    We reformulate the analysis of nuclear parity-violation (PV) within the framework of effective field theory (EFT). To order Q, the PV nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction depends on five a priori unknown constants that parameterize the leading-order, short-range four-nucleon operators. When pions are included as explicit degrees of freedom, the potential contains additional medium- and long-range components parameterized by PV piNN couplings. We derive the form of the corresponding one- and two-pion-exchange potentials. We apply these considerations to a set of existing and prospective PV few-body measurements that may be used to determine the five independent low-energy constants relevant to the pionless EFT and the additional constants associated with dynamical pions. We also discuss the relationship between the conventional meson-exchange framework and the EFT formulation, and argue that the latter provides a more general and systematic basis for analyzing nuclear PV.

  11. Reaction mechanism and nuclear correlations study by low energy pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinfeld, Z.

    1993-06-01

    In pion double-charge-exchange (DCX) reactions, a positive (negative) pion is incident on a nucleus and a negative (positive) pion emerges. These reactions are of fundamental interest since the process must involve at least two nucleons in order to conserve charge. Although two nucleon processes are present in many reactions they are usually masked by the dominant single nucleon processes. DCX is unique in that respect since it is a two nucleon process in lowest order and thus may be sensitive to two-nucleon correlations. Measurements of low energy pion double-charge-exchange reactions to the double-isobaric-analog-state (DIAS) and ground-state (GS) of the residual nucleus provide new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At low energies (T π 7/2 shell at energies ranging from 25 to 65 MeV. Cross sections were measured on 42,44,48 Ca, 46,50 Ti and 54 Fe. The calcium isotopes make a good set of nuclei on which to study the effects of correlations in DCX reactions

  12. Effect of exact Coulomb-exchange calculations on band-head spectra of odd-proton nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Meng-Hock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous calculations of band-head energy spectra of odd-mass heavy nuclei in the Hartree-Fock-plus-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (HF-BCS framework showed that the agreement with data is better for odd-neutron as compared to odd-proton nuclei. The reason for a poorer agreement with data for the latter have been ascribed to the possible usage of the Slater approximation in calculating the Coulomb-exchange term. In this work, we report the effect of exact Coulomb-exchange calculations on band-head energy spectra of two odd-proton nuclei (namely 237Np and 241Am as compared to the results obtained using the Slater approximation. We performed self-consistent blocking calculations while taking the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the mean-field level into account due to the unpaired nucleon. The SkM* and SIII parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction have been employed to approximate the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction while a seniority force is used for the pairing channel. Contrary to what was expected, our preliminary results show no improvement on the band-head spectra as compared to data when the Coulomb-exchange term is calculated exactly.

  13. System, centrality, and transverse mass dependence of two-pion correlation radii in heavy ion collisions at 11.6A and 14.6A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, L.; Baker, M.D.; Cianciolo, V.; Costales, J.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Heintzelman, G.; Judd, E.; Kehoe, W.L.; Ledoux, R.J.; Morrison, D.P.; Morse, R.J.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Parsons, C.G.; Rothschild, P.; Soltz, R.A.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Sung, T.W.; Vutsadakis, V.; Woodruff, D.

    2002-01-01

    Two-pion correlation functions are analyzed at midrapidity for three systems (14.6A GeV/c Si+Al, Si+Au, and 11.6A GeV/c Au+Au), seven distinct centrality conditions, and different k T bins in the range 0.1-0.5 GeV/c. Source reference frames are determined from fits to the Yano-Koonin source parametrization. Bertsch-Pratt radius parameters are shown to scale linearly with both number of projectile and total participants as obtained from a Glauber model calculation. A finite lifetime parameter that increases linearly with system/centrality is also reported. The m T dependences of the Bertsch-Pratt radii for the central Si+Au and central Au+Au systems differ only by an overall normalization factor given by the measured system/centrality dependence

  14. Data management design: nucleon-nucleon data bank (0 to 1200 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.; Freiheit, F.

    1981-01-01

    This is a guide to the design of the on-line data records in this bank, covering all energies and particle combinations up to about 1200 MeV. The design of the bank's management system satisfies almost all of the conditions set forth in the proposed Design Principles for Physics Data Banks

  15. The off-shell nucleon-nucleon interaction in the singlet s-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, H. de

    1975-01-01

    This thesis studies the off-shell behaviour of the neutron-proton interaction in the singlet state. To generate phase-shift-equivalent potentials a particular type of inversion problem is solved. It requires the potential to contain a non-local, separable part which is supposed to describe part of the short-range interaction. A special solution of the general inversion problem that produces potentials consisting of two separable terms is studied. Criteria to accept or reject particular inversion solutions are discussed. Neutron-proton potentials in the 1 S 0 partial wave which form part of the input for the general inversion procedure are defined. Different local potential tails are chosen, as well as varying short-range interactions, both local and non-local. The input phase shifts are discussed including three extrapolations of the phase shifts at high energy. The half-shell transition matrix for the potentials defined is studied. Some problems introduced by the additional electromagnetic interaction in the proton-proton system is investigated. (Auth.)

  16. Solutions of the Schrodinger Equation Using Approximate Nucleon-Nucleon and Lambda-Nucleon Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. N.; Chakraborty, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the outline of an approach related to the teaching of the chapter on bound and scattering states in a short-range potential, which forms a standard part of an undergraduate quantum mechanics course or nuclear physics course. (HM)

  17. Optical potentials derived from nucleon-nucleon chiral potentials at N4LO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorabbi, Matteo; Finelli, Paolo; Giusti, Carlotta

    2017-10-01

    Background: Elastic scattering is probably the main event in the interactions of nucleons with nuclei. Even if this process has been extensively studied in the past years, a consistent description, i.e., starting from microscopic two- and many-body forces connected by the same symmetries and principles, is still under development. Purpose: In a previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619] we derived a theoretical optical potential from N N chiral potentials at fourth order (N3LO ). In the present work we use N N chiral potentials at fifth order (N4LO ), with the purpose to check the convergence and to assess the theoretical errors associated with the truncation of the chiral expansion in the construction of an optical potential. Methods: Within the same framework and with the same approximations as the previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619], the optical potential is derived as the first-order term within the spectator expansion of the nonrelativistic multiple scattering theory and adopting the impulse approximation and the optimum factorization approximation. Results: The p p and n p Wolfenstein amplitudes and the cross section, analyzing power, and spin rotation of elastic proton scattering from 16O, 12C, and 40Ca nuclei are presented at an incident proton energy of 200 MeV. The results obtained with different versions of chiral potentials at N4LO are compared. Conclusions: Our results indicate that convergence has been reached at N4LO . The agreement with the experimental data is comparable with the agreement obtained in the previous paper [M. Vorabbi, P. Finelli, and C. Giusti, Phys. Rev. C 93, 034619 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.034619]. We confirm that building an optical potential within chiral perturbation theory is a promising approach for describing elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  18. Many-particle nucleon-nucleon forces from nuclear single-particle states

    OpenAIRE

    Birbrair, B. L.; Ryazanov, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    As follows from the energies of single-particle states in ^{40}Ca, ^{90}Zr and ^{208}Pb nuclei the contribution of many-particle NN forces to the nuclear single-particle potential is at least the sum of repulsive and attractive parts resulting from three-particle and four-particle forces respectively. In addition the specified nucleon density distributions in the above nuclei are determined from both the 1 GeV proton-nucleus elastic scattering and the single-particle energies.

  19. Hadronic parity violation in n->p->d{gamma} with effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, C.H. [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hch@meson.skku.ac.kr; Ando, S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sando@meson.skku.ac.kr; Desplanques, B. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: desplanq@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2007-07-26

    The parity-violating nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential is considered up to next-to-next-to leading order in heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We include one-pion exchange at leading order and the two-pion exchange and two-nucleon contact terms at next-to-next-to-leading order. The effects of intermediate (two-pion exchange) and short-range (two-nucleon contact) terms are probed by calculating the photon asymmetry A{sub {gamma}} in n->p->d{gamma} employing Siegert's theorem and an accurate phenomenological potential for the parity-conserving NN interaction. We explore in detail the uncertainties due to the parameters that control the contribution of the short-range interaction. We obtain about 20% uncertainty in the value of A{sub {gamma}} up to the next-to-next-to leading order. We discuss the implication of this uncertainty for the determination of the weak pion-nucleon coupling constant and how the uncertainty can be reduced.

  20. Study of the neutron-proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1975--76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    Research is summarized on n-p differential cross sections for charge-exchange interactions, meson production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, the spectra of charged particles produced in the bombardment of various targets by monoenergetic neutrons

  1. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, Bui Minh [VINATOM, Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); University of Pedagogy, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2014-02-15

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or {sup 3}He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or {sup 3}He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ({sup 3}He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  2. Folding model study of the charge-exchange scattering to the isobaric analog state and implication for the nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoa, Dao T.; Thang, Dang Ngoc; Loc, Bui Minh

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi transition (ΔL = ΔS = 0 and ΔT = 1) between the nuclear isobaric analog states (IAS), induced by the charge-exchange (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) reaction, can be considered as ''elastic'' scattering of proton or 3 He by the isovector term of the optical potential (OP) that flips the projectile isospin. The accurately measured (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) scattering cross section to the IAS can be used, therefore, to probe the isospin dependence of the proton or 3 He optical potential. Within the folding model, the isovector part of the OP is determined exclusively by the neutron-proton difference in the nuclear densities and the isospin dependence of the effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Because the isovector coupling explicitly links the isovector part of the proton or 3 He optical potential to the cross section of the charge-exchange (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) scattering to the IAS, the isospin dependence of the effective (in-medium) NN interaction can be well tested in the folding model analysis of these charge-exchange reactions. On the other hand, the same isospin- and density-dependent NN interaction can also be used in a Hartree-Fock calculation of asymmetric nuclear matter, to estimate the nuclear matter energy and its asymmetry part (the nuclear symmetry energy). As a result, the fine-tuning of the isospin dependence of the effective NN interaction against the measured (p, n) or ( 3 He, t) cross sections should allow us to make some realistic prediction of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence. (orig.)

  3. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simula, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  4. Test of nucleon-nucleon interaction by p vector-d vector polarization transfer in the three-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperisen, F.; Gruebler, W.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Elsener, K.; Jenny, B.; Schweizer, C.; Ulbricht, J.; Doleschall, P.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of three vector-to-vector and seven vector-to-tensor polarization transfer coefficients of the 2 H(p vector, d vector) 1 H elastic scattering at Esub(p) = 10 MeV are reported in the angular range between THETAsub(cm) = 92 0 and 180 0 . These second-order observables are compared with Faddeev calculations. It is shown that the vector-to-tensor components depend largely on the details of the N-N P-wave interaction. (orig.)

  5. Chiral effective field theory analysis of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, M. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Baroni, A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Girlanda, L. [Univ. of Salento and INFN-Lecce, Lecce (Italy). Dept. of Mathematical and Physics; Kievsky, A. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Marcucci, L. E. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pisa (Italy); Schiavilla, R. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-06-18

    Weak interactions between quarks induce a parity-violating (PV) component in the nucleon-nucleon potential, whose effects are currently being studied in a number of experiments involving few-nucleon systems. In the present work, we reconsider the derivation of this PV component within a chiral effective field theory (${\\chi }$EFT) framework. Purpose: The objectives of the present work are twofold. The first is to perform a detailed analysis of the PV nucleon-nucleon potential up to next-to-next-to-leading (N2LO) order in the chiral expansion, in particular, by determining the number of independent low-energy constants (LECs) at N2LO. The second objective is to investigate PV effects in a number of few-nucleon observables, including the $\\vec{p}$-p longitudinal asymmetry, the neutron spin rotation in n-p and n-d scattering, and the longitudinal asymmetry in the 3He( $\\vec{n}$,p)3H charge-exchange reaction. Methods: The ${\\chi }$EFT PV potential includes one-pion-exchange, two-pion-exchange, and contact terms as well as 1/M (M being the nucleon mass) nonstatic corrections. Dimensional regularization is used to renormalize pion loops. The wave functions for the A=2-4 nuclei are obtained by using strong two- and three-body potentials also derived, for consistency, from ${\\chi }$EFT. In the case of the A=3-4 systems, systems, the wave functions are computed by expanding on a hyperspherical harmonics functions basis. Results: We find that the PV potential at N2LO depends on six LECs: the pion-nucleon PV coupling constant h$1\\atop{π}$ and five parameters multiplying contact interactions. An estimate for the range of values of the various LECs is provided by using available experimental data, and these values are used to obtain predictions for the other PV observables. Conclusions: The ${\\chi }$EFT approach provides a very satisfactory framework to analyze PV effects in few-nucleon systems.

  6. Two-pion correlations in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1982-08-01

    An application of intensity interferometry to relativistic heavy ion collisions is reported. Specifically, the correlation between two like-charged pions is used to study the reactions Ar+KCl→2π/sup +-/+X and Ne+NaF→2π - +X. Source sizes are obtained that are consistent with a simple geometric interpretation. Lifetimes are less well determined but are indicative of a faster pion production process than predicted by Monte Carlo cascade calculations. There appears to be a substantial coherent component of the pion source, although measurement is complicated by the presence of final state interactions. Additionally, the generation of spectra of uncorrelated events is discussed. In particular, the influence of the correlation function on the background spectrum is analyzed, and a prescription for removal of this influence is given. A formulation to describe the statistical errors in the background is also presented. Finally, drawing from the available literature, a self-contained introduction to Bose-Einstein correlations and the Hanbury-Brown - Twiss effect is provided, with an emphasis on points of contact between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions

  7. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This prospect has caused great interest in the properties of light mesons in a dense and hot environment [2–5]. Various theoretical predictions indicate that the observation of an in-medium modification of the vector meson masses can pro- vide a unique measure for the degree of chiral symmetry breaking in the strongly.

  8. Two-pion correlations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajc, W.A.

    1982-08-01

    An application of intensity interferometry to relativistic heavy ion collisions is reported. Specifically, the correlation between two like-charged pions is used to study the reactions Ar+KCl..-->..2..pi../sup +-/+X and Ne+NaF..-->..2..pi../sup -/+X. Source sizes are obtained that are consistent with a simple geometric interpretation. Lifetimes are less well determined but are indicative of a faster pion production process than predicted by Monte Carlo cascade calculations. There appears to be a substantial coherent component of the pion source, although measurement is complicated by the presence of final state interactions. Additionally, the generation of spectra of uncorrelated events is discussed. In particular, the influence of the correlation function on the background spectrum is analyzed, and a prescription for removal of this influence is given. A formulation to describe the statistical errors in the background is also presented. Finally, drawing from the available literature, a self-contained introduction to Bose-Einstein correlations and the Hanbury-Brown - Twiss effect is provided, with an emphasis on points of contact between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions.

  9. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A deeper understanding of the situation is anticipated from a detailed experimental study of meson photoproduction from nuclei in exclusive reactions. In the energy regime above the (1232) resonance, the dominant double pion production channels are of particular interest. Double pion photoproduction from nuclei is ...

  10. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photoproduction from nuclei is also used to investigate the in-medium modification of meson–meson interactions. ... the observation of an in-medium modification of the vector meson masses can pro- vide a unique .... similar behavior is found in (γ,π+π0) reactions, shown in the right panel of figure 3. Additionally, the peak in ...

  11. Beam Spin Asymmetry Measurements for Two Pion Photoproduction at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark D. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    The overarching goal of this analysis, and many like it, is to develop our understanding of the strong force interactions within the nucleon by examining the nature of their excitation spectra. As the resonances of these spectra have very short lifetimes (tau = 1x10-23 s) and often have very similar masses, it is often impossible to directly observe resonances in the excitation spectra of nucleons. Polarization observables allow us to study the resonances by looking at how they affect the spin state of final state particles. The beam asymmetry is a polarization observable that allows us to detect the sensitivity of these resonances, and other transition mechanisms, to the electric vector orientation of incident photons. Presented in this thesis are first measurements of the beam asymmetries in the resonant region for the reaction channel pgamma p --> p π+ π-focusing on the intermediate mesonic states rho^0 and f^0, and the final state pions. The analysis used data from the g8b experiment undertaken at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), the first experiment at JLab to use a linearly polarized photon beam. Using the coherent Bremsstrahlung facility and the CLAS detector of Hall B at JLab allowed for many multi-channel reactions to be detected and the first measurements of many polarization observables including those presented here. A brief overview of the theoretical framework used to undertake this analysis is given, followed by a description of the experimental details of the facilities used, then a description of the calibration of the Bremsstrahlung tagging facility which the author undertook, and finally the analysis is presented and the resulting measurements.

  12. Puzzles in quarkonium hadronic transitions with two pion emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, F.; Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R. [Grupo de Física Nuclear and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ortega, P. G. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-01-22

    The anomalously large rates of some hadronic transitions from quarkonium are studied using QCD multipole expansion (QCDME) in the framework of a constituent quark model which has been successful in describing hadronic phenomenology. The hybrid intermediate states needed in the QCDME method are calculated in a natural extension of our constituent quark model based on the Quark Confining String (QCS) scheme. Some of the anomalies are explained due to the presence of an hybrid state with a mass near the mass of the decaying resonance whereas other are justified by the presence of molecular components in the wave function. Some unexpected results are pointed out.

  13. Exchange transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... count in a newborn (neonatal polycythemia) Rh-induced hemolytic disease of the newborn Severe disturbances in body chemistry Severe newborn jaundice ... exchange transfusion was performed to treat. Alternative Names Hemolytic disease - exchange transfusion Patient ... Exchange transfusion - series References Costa ...

  14. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  15. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  16. Short-range three-nucleon forces and low-energy constants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jiří; Pena, MT.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2004), 034004 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102; GA ČR GA202/03/0210 Keywords : meson-exchange currents * nucleon-nucleon-interation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2004

  17. Nuclear matter under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1986-01-01

    The microscopic investigations of the equation of state for nuclear matter at high densities are reviewed. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. Meson-exchange models for nucleon-nucleon interactions, conventional many-body theory of nuclear matter, and subnucleonic degrees of freedom, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Equation of state for neutron matter in the Quark Compound Bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The equation of state for neutron matter is derived in the framework of the Quark Compound Bag model, in which the nucleon-nucleon interaction is generated by the s-channel exchange of six-quark Jaffe-Low primitives.

  19. Meson-Baryon coupling constants in QCD sum rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkol, Güray

    2006-01-01

    There is a long history of describing the baryon-baryon interactions in terms of One Boson Exchange (OBE) models. These phenomenological models give an effective first-order approximation of the complete interaction and provide a very accurate description of the rich nucleon-nucleon (N!N) and the

  20. Study of the neutron--proton interaction in the 300--700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of the differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering, meson production in nucleon--nucleon collisions, and the momentum spectra and angular distributions of charged particles produced in bombardment of various targets by neutrons are summarized. A list of publications is given

  1. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  2. Realistic non-local potentials from inverse scattering theory for the3S1−3D1nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H.L. Groenenboom

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Rank-three and -four separable3S1−3D1potentials have been constructed which reproduce the experimental phase shifts and a realistic deuteron wave function. The off-shell behaviour has been investigated and triton binding energies were calculated.

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  4. On some aspects of the relativistic description of the two-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuilhof, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been shown that the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) with a one-boson exchange (OBE) as the driving force is capable of giving a reasonable description of the two-nucleon system. They find it necessary to use a pseudo-vector (PV) pion-nucleon coupling, instead of the usual pseudo-scalar (PS) coupling, due to the very strong effects induced by the coupling of positive and negative-energy states in the latter case. Within such a field-theoretic model it is possible to study the electro-magnetic effects in a consistent way and the results, which are described in this thesis, do not deviate markedly from those calculated within a nonrelativistic model without corrections. A detailed analysis of the perturbative approach, is given and reveals both for PV and for PS coupling that there are effects which compensate the accepted contributions substantially. In particular, it is important to include the corrections due to special relativity in a consistent way. In addition the convergence of the quasipotential approach to the BSE has also been studied by adding higher order one-loop corrections. In general the author finds that the inclusion of corrections from the two-pion direct-box diagram to the driving force does not yield phase shifts close to the ones obtained from the BSE. The crossed-box effects are also of interest because one expects that there are cancellations with the direct-box diagram. This turns out not to be the case. Although there are essentially no problems in including these contributions in the description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction within the Blankenbeckler and Sugar framework, difficulties arise in the evaluation of the electromagnetic deuteron vertex function. (Auth.)

  5. Zero-point motion in the bag description of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.; Durso, J.W.; Johnson, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    In the bag model, confinement of quarks is accomplished by introduction of a boundary condition at some definite radius R, where the energy of the total system is a minimum. This minimum is, however, relatively shallow and energies for substantially different bag radii are not much larger than this minimum value. This indicates that the zero-point motion of the bag surface may be important. In this paper, quantization of the bag surface motion is carried out in a somewhat ad hoc fashion, modelled after the generator coordinate theory in nuclear physics. This procedure unifies a number of ideas previously in the literature; it stresses the anharmonicity of the collective motion. As in earlier treatments, the Roper resonance emerges as a breathing-mode type of excitation of the nucleon. The one- and two-pion decays of the Roper resonance are calculated and the widths are found to fall short of the empirical ones. It is pointed out, however, that decays involving intermediate states containing virtual rho-mesons will enhance the widths. Pion-nucleon scattering in the P 11 channel is constructed in our model and found to agree roughly with experiment. A crucial term in the driving force involves the pion coupling to the nucleon through a virtual rho-meson. With introduction of zero-point motion of the bag surface, the motion of 'bag radius' becomes dependent on precisely which moment of the radius is measured. Our development gives a model for cutting off smoothly the pion-exchange term in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  6. HEAT EXCHANGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.

    1962-10-23

    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  7. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Ichiro.

    1996-01-01

    An inner cylinder is disposed coaxially in a vertical vessel, and a plurality of heat transfer pipes are wound spirally on the outer circumference of the inner cylinder. High temperature sodium descends on the outer side of the inner cylinder while exchanging heat with water in the heat transfer pipes and becomes low temperature sodium. The low temperature sodium turns at the lower portion of the vessel, rises in a sodium exit pipe inserted to the inner cylinder and is discharged from the top of the vessel to the outside of the vessel. A portion of a cover gas (an inert gas such as argon) filled to the upper portion of the vessel intrudes into the space between the outer circumference of the sodium exit pipe and the inner circumference of the inner cylinder to form a heat insulation layer of the inert gas. This prevents heat exchange between the high temperature sodium before heat exchange and low temperature sodium after heat exchange. The heat exchanger is used as a secondary heat exchanger for coolants (sodium) of an FBR type reactor. (I.N.)

  8. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  9. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  10. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  11. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  13. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  14. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  15. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  16. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  17. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  18. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV

  19. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  20. Deuterium exchange in sesamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.K.; Vaidya, N.A.; Morton, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed exchange of sesamol in 2 H 2 O results in rapid exchange of H-6 and slower exchange of H-2. The deuterium atoms introduced are retained during conversion to the methyl and allyl ethers. (author)

  1. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  2. Multichannel approach to the Glauber model for heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, S.M.; Zardi, F.; Vitturi, A.

    1990-01-01

    A formalism is developed in order to describe, within the Glauber model, the scattering processes between heavy ions in situations involving several coupled channels. The approach is based on a suitable truncation of the number of nuclear states which can be excited at each microscopic nucleon-nucleon collision. The set of coupled equations for the S-matrix elements of the conventional reaction theory is replaced by simple matrix relations, only involving the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and the nuclear densities and transition densities. This method avoids the difficulties arising from the combinatorial aspects of the multiple scattering theories, the slow convergence of the series, and the problems of center-of-mass correlations. We discuss some specific examples of multichannel collisions where the multiple-scattering series can be summed to give analytic expressions for the scattering amplitude. We finally explicate the formalism for the perturbative treatment of mutual excitation and charge-exchange processes

  3. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  4. Charge-odd and single-spin effects in two pion production in ep bar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galynskij, M.V.; Kuraev, E.A.; Shajkhatdenov, B.G.; Ratcliffe, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We consider two-photon and Bremsstrahlung mechanisms for the production of two charged pions in high-energy electron (proton) scattering off a transversely polarised proton. Interference between the relevant amplitudes generates a charge-odd contribution to the cross section for the process. In a kinematics with a jet moving along electron spin-independent part may be used for determination of phase differences for pion-pion scattering in the states with orbital momentum 0 or 2 and 1 whereas in a kinematics with a jet moving along proton spin-dependent part may be used to explain the experimental data for single-spin correlations in the production of negatively charged pions. We also discuss the backgrounds and estimate the accuracy of the results at less than 10% level. In addition simplified formulae derived for specific kinematics, with small total transverse pion momentum, are given

  5. A new measurement of direct CP violation in two pion decays of the neutral kaon

    CERN Document Server

    Fanti, V.; Marras, D.; Musa, L.; Bevan, A.J.; Gershon, T.J.; Hay, B.; Moore, R.W.; Moore, K.N.; Munday, D.J.; Needham, M.D.; Parker, Michael Andrew; Takach, S.F.; White, T.O.; Wotton, S.A.; Barr, G.; Blumer, H.; Bocquet, G.; Bremer, J.; Ceccucci, A.; Cogan, J.; Cundy, D.; Doble, N.; Funk, W.; Gatignon, L.; Gianoli, A.; Gonidec, A.; Govi, G.; Grafstrom, P.; Kesseler, G.; Kubischta, W.; Lacourt, A.; Luitz, S.; Matheys, J.P.; Norton, A.; Palestini, S.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Peyaud, B.; Schinzel, D.; Taureg, H.; Velasco, M.; Vossnack, O.; Wahl, Heinrich; Wirrer, G.; Gaponenko, A.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Tatishvili, G.; Tkatchev, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Bertolotto, L.; Boyle, O.; Knowles, I.G.; Martin, V.J.; Parsons, H.L.C.; Peach, K.J.; Talamonti, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P.; Duclos, J.; Formica, A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Collazuol, G.; Graziani, G.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Michetti, A.; Becker, H.G.; Buchholz, P.; Coward, D.H.; Ebersberger, C.; Fox, H.; Kalter, A.; Kleinknecht, K.; Koch, U.; Kopke, L.; Renk, B.; Scheidt, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schonharting, V.; Schue, Y.; Wilhelm, R.; Wittgen, M.; Chollet, J.C.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Fayard, L.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ocariz, J.; Unal, G.; Vattolo, D.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Anzivino, G.; Bordacchini, F.; Cenci, P.; Lubrano, P.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Punturo, M.; Bertanza, L.; Bigi, A.; Calafiura, P.; Carosi, R.; Casali, R.; Cerri, C.; Cirilli, M.; Costantini, F.; Fantechi, R.; Giudici, S.; Gorini, B.; Mannelli, I.; Marzulli, V.; Pierazzini, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Sozzi, M.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Debu, P.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Hristov, P.; Mazzucato, E.; Schanne, S.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Augustin, I.; Bender, M.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Arcidiacono, R.; Biino, C.; Cester, R.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, Ezio A.; Pastrone, N.; Nassalski, J.; Rondio, E.; Szleper, M.; Wislicki, W.; Wronka, S.; Dibon, H.; Fischer, G.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Pernicka, M.; Taurok, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at CERN has performed a new measurement of direct CP violation, based on data taken in 1997 by simultaneously collecting $kl$ and $ks$ decays into $pipin$ and $pipic$. The result for the CP violating parameter $ epr$ is $(18.5 pm 4.5 mathrm{(stat)} pm 5.8 mathrm{(syst)}) imes10^{-4}$.

  6. Polarization Observables from two-pion and ρ meson photoproduction on polarized HD target at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonta, Irene [Univ. of Rome, Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    The preliminary results discussed in this theses have been carried out with the Nuclear Physics group of the Department of Physics at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, under the supervision of Prof. A. D’Angelo.On March 2012 I joined the CLAS collaboration at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, in Virginia, USA, and became a term member after a probation period of 9 months. As a member I could participate to the g14 data taking, started on November 18th 2011 and finished on May 18th 2012. In that period I was in charge of the timing calibration of the CLAS forward electromagnetic spectrometer. For the duration of the experiment, I was also responsible of the Raman laboratory located at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, where the Raman measurements were performed. The Raman measurements were crucial for determining the relative concentrations of H2 and D2 in the Hydrogen-Deuteride gas which was used for the target of the g14 experiment.

  7. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The considerable mass of Heat Exchangers (HXs) and coldplates on spacecraft as well as the problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) are among the...

  8. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Developing an exchange mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary

    2010-09-01

    Exchange is a fundamental concept that underlies all social marketing efforts. In a successful exchange, both parties receive something of value and the benefits that they desire in return for a price. The purpose of this article is to describe how practitioners can develop an "exchange mindset." A practitioner's answer to five basic questions will enable him or her to see the exchange through the eyes of the customer and increase the likelihood of creating a successful exchange that will benefit both parties involved and result in positive behavior change.

  10. Communication network exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seung Sul

    1988-05-01

    This book has two parts. The first parts is comprised of five chapters, which deals with communication network constitution with design of network and types, telephone network about outline and management of network, telephone network · data network · private network, international data telephone network about service and international data network and technical standards of quality of service, communication and data. The second parts handles exchange, which is about institution of switching, a manual exchange and step-by step exchange, a crossbar exchange, electronic exchange, international switching system, design of equipment of test and measurement.

  11. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  12. Dependence on pseudorapidity and centrality of charged hadron production in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    A measurement is presented of the charged hadron multiplicity in hadronic PbPb collisions, as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality, at a collision energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. The data sample is collected using the CMS detector and a minimum-bias trigger, with the CMS solenoid off. The number of charged hadrons is measured both by counting the number of reconstructed particle hits and by forming hit doublets of pairs of layers in the pixel detector. The two methods give consistent results. The charged hadron multiplicity density dN(ch)/d eta, evaluated at eta=0 for head-on collisions, is found to be 1612 +/- 55, where the uncertainty is dominated by systematic effects. Comparisons of these results to previous measurements and to various models are also presented.

  13. All the states of the nucleon. Nucleon spectroscopy through the production of mesons; Le nucleon dans tous ses etats. Etude de la spectroscopie du nucleon via la photoproduction de mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebreyend, D

    2006-10-15

    The photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon gives a direct access to its spectroscopy and is a promising way for the study of the structure of the nucleon. The GRAAL experiment uses a tagged and polarized photon beam produced through the Compton diffusion of laser photons on the electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. The combination of this photon beam and an efficient detection system has allowed a series of measurements concerning the photoproduction of light mesons on the proton and on the neutron. The first 4 chapters are dedicated to the nucleon spectroscopy: the nucleon models and their consequences on the excited levels are recalled, the experimental technique used is described and the difficulties due to the extraction of relevant data are presented. Highly accurate measurements of cross-sections, {sigma} asymmetry beams and resonance parameters have been performed. The last part is dedicated to the principle of the measurement of the electric dipole momentum of the neutron. (A.C.)

  14. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  15. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  16. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  18. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  19. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  20. French chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Lerat, J.-M.; Plurien, P.

    1979-01-01

    A new chemical exchange reaction between two forms of uranium compounds with a high elementary separation coefficient and good kinetics has been discovered at the French Energy Commission ten years ago and developed to the industrial stage. We give here some general characteristics of the process and discuss some parameters of the kinetics exchange

  1. Direct fired heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  3. Motivation for International Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Elizabeth

    An objective analysis of students' initial motivation for studying overseas was attempted by surveying students before they embarked on their exchange programs. Eighty-eight students who were planning to study in France, Great Britain, Germany, and the People's Republic of China were surveyed. The exchange program was sponsored by the University…

  4. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  5. Wound tube heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  6. Heat and mass exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc J.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Tonon, Thomas

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  7. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  8. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  9. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  10. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  11. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  12. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  13. Exchange transfusion - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100018.htm Exchange transfusion - series—Procedure To use the sharing features on ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Common Infant and Newborn Problems Jaundice ...

  14. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  15. Contact Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. L.; Stalmach, D. D.; Cox, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluid pressure controls contact between heat pipe and heat exchanger. Heat exchanger system in cross section provides contact interface between fluid system and heat pipe with easy assembly/disassembly of heat-pipe/ pumped-liquid system. Originally developed for use in space, new device applicable on Earth where fluid system is linked with heat pipe, where rapid assembly/disassembly required, or where high pressures or corrosive fluids used.

  16. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  17. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  18. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  19. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  20. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  1. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  2. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  3. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  4. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  5. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  6. Multicomponent ion exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of ion-exchange column design becomes increasingly important in applications where high efficiency is required to remove trace components in wastewater to very low discharge requirements and for treating hazardous wastewaters where the disposal costs for secondary waste is extremely high. A predictive mathematical model is being developed for improved design of ion-exchange columns for treatment of wastewaters which are contaminated with trace quantities of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Equilibria isotherms and mass transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange of Ca, Mg, Na, Ca, and Sr with Ionsive IE-95 chabazite zeolite. These equations are being included in a mathematical model to determine the cation breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions

  7. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  8. Modular heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Donald W.

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger for use in nuclear reactors includes a heat exchange tube bundle formed from similar modules each having a hexagonal shroud containing a large number of thermally conductive tubes which are connected with inlet and outlet headers at opposite ends of each module, the respective headers being adapted for interconnection with suitable inlet and outlet manifold means. In order to adapt the heat exchanger for operation in a high temperature and high pressure environment and to provide access to all tube ports at opposite ends of the tube bundle, a spherical tube sheet is arranged in sealed relation across the chamber with an elongated duct extending outwardly therefrom to provide manifold means for interconnection with the opposite end of the tube bundle.

  9. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  10. Heat exchanger panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  11. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  12. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  13. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  14. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  15. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  16. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  17. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  19. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  20. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  1. A corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlen, S.L.

    1987-08-10

    A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  3. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  4. Parity violation in elastic N-N scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, P.; Soffer, J.; Wu, Tai Tsun; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1981-09-01

    We calculate the asymmetry in nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering at high energies arising from heavy boson exchange in the standard Weinberg-Salam model. By neglecting the strong interaction enhancement effects, our result for p-n scattering is one order of magnitude higher than for p-p scattering. Enhancement effects increase the p-p asymmetry which may become comparable to the p-n asymmetry. They are however too small if compared with the total cross section asymmetry measured at Argonne at 6 GeV/c on a water target

  5. Microscopic description of isobaric-analog-state transitions induced by 25-, 35-, and 45-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, R.R.; Patterson, D.M.; Galonsky, A.

    1975-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for (p, n) reactions to the isobaric analogs of the targets 48 Ca, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, and 208 Pb at proton bombarding energies of 25, 35, and 45 MeV. The isospin-flip strength of a phenomenological nucleon-nucleon force has been determined with microscopic distorted-wave calculations including the ''knockon'' exchange amplitude. A realistic G-matrix effective interaction also provides a reasonable account of the observed cross sections, particularly at the higher proton energies

  6. Study of the neutron--proton interaction in the 300 to 700 MeV energy region. Annual progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcliffe, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    During the past year the LAMPF user group from Texas A and M University worked with scientists from LASL, the University of Texas, and the University of New Mexico to study neutron producing reactions, the n--p differential cross section for charge-exchange scattering, meson production in nucleon--nucleon collisions, and spectra of charged particles produced in the bombardment of various targets by monoenergetic neutrons. This report encompasses personnel, experimental method and apparatus, and results. The research is discussed briefly, and reference is made to appropriate places in the literature where more details can be found. (U.S.)

  7. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  8. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  9. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  10. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  11. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  12. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  13. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  14. Hydrogen isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The two most widely used methods for following hydrogen isotope exchange reactions, namely dedeuteriation and detritiation, involve in the first place the synthesis of an appropriately labelled compound. Rates of dedeuteriation are usually followed by measuring changes in the 1 H n.m.r. spectrum of the substrate (examples are given); the method not only gives the rate but also the site(s) of exchange. It is limited to rather slow reactions and is not as accurate as some of the other methods. The development of deuterium n.m.r. spectroscopy means that changes in the 2 H n.m.r. spectrum can also be used to measure rates of dedeuteriation. The development of liquid scintillation counting greatly eased the problem of how to detect weak β emitters; the attractions of tritium as a tracer were thereby much enhanced. Nowadays the study of rates of detritiation constitutes one of the most versatile and accurate methods of following hydrogen isotope exchange. Examples of the technique are given. (U.K.)

  15. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-07-30

    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  16. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  17. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...... of import in medium-sized, manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and foreign exchange derivatives usage on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure...

  18. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import...... in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created...

  19. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  20. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  1. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  2. Direct determination of two-pion correlations for $\\overline{p}p \\to 2\\pi^{+}2\\pi^{-}$ annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardin, G; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Liolios, A; Machado, E; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Soares, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Locher, M P; Markushin, V E

    1998-01-01

    We study $\\pi\\pi$ correlations in the exclusive reaction $\\ppb \\to 2\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ at rest measured by the CPLEAR experiment. Avoiding the introduction of an arbitrary reference sample, we analyse differential distributions for equal charge pion pairs removing the phase-space factor event by event. A peak at small relative momenta is most pronounced for large total momentum of the pair. The physical implications of bosonic symmetrization for the properties of the pion source, in particular its radius, are briefly discussed. The two extremes considered are the chaotic Hanbury-Brown--Twiss mechanism and the coherent Skyrmion model.

  3. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in pp collisions at root s=900 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aamodt, K.; Abel, N.; Abeysekara, U.; Quintana, A.A.; Abramyan, A.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Kapitán, Jan; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kushpil, Svetlana; Pachr, M.; Petráček, Vojtěch; Rak, Jan; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David; Wagner, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 5 (2010), 052001/1-052001/14 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : HEAVY-ION COLLISIONS * INTERFEROMETRY * FEMTOSCOPY Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.964, year: 2010

  4. Viscosity of the matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS measured via two-pion interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Two-particle correlation measurements in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions are analyzed to determine the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density of the matter formed. This is obtained from the transverse momentum dependence of the longitudinal pion source radius $R_{\\rm long}$ in central Pb+Au collisions at 158AGeV/c. The measured value is eta/s = 0.021 +- 0.068, establishing that the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density of the fireball produced at the top SPS energy is similarly low as the one determined at RHIC.

  5. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  6. Intergenerational Exchanges in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses exchanges of support between the elderly and adult generations and by gender, based on data from the United Nations household survey in Mexico City (SABE, 2000), and the National Study of Ageing and Health (ENASEM, 2001). Results indicate that in Mexico both generations – elderly parents and adult children – provide support, such as money, services, care or gifts for grandchildren, according to gender roles and the generation’s resources. Men provide monetary support and reproduce their role as family providers, but this role depends on having an income from work and, in later years, a pension, a more common situation among men than among women. Women develop their female domestic role as caregivers. They do not have a formal income, but receive informal economic support and offer services and care to their relatives, reproducing their invisible and unpaid work during their life course. Both types of support are widely exchanged between elderly parents and adult children and children-in-law. PMID:29375143

  7. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  8. Finnish exchange students' culture shock

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkala, Karoliina

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is written about culture shock experienced by the exchange students from Finland. It is commissioned by an international students exchange organisation located in Finland. The aim of the research was to find out how much the host country affects the culture shock and to identify aspects that affect the adaptation of the students. The goal is to provide the future exchange students with advise on coping with culture shock. Theoretical framework consists of defining w...

  9. Deuterium-hydrogen monothermal exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    A monothermal exchange process of extracting deuterium from ammonia synthesis gas is described. This process comprises passing the gas through an exchage liquid stream consisting of a liquid amine having up to five carbon atoms per molecule to cause deuterium to be transferred from the synthesis gas to the exchange liquid, and removing a stream of exchange liquid enriched in deuterium therefrom. (Patent Office Record)

  10. Deuterium exchange in carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaty, G.

    1976-01-01

    After giving a brief outline of the theoretical study of H/D exchange the reaction mechanisms of enolization of ketones and of ketonization of enols are discussed. The orientation of the exchange in aliphatic ketones and the stereochemistry of the exchange in rigid cyclic ketones are dealt with. Some other ketonic systems and carboxylic acids and their derivatives are also considered. (B.R.H.)

  11. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  12. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  13. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  14. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  15. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation, and the com......Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  16. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  17. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  18. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  19. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  20. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  1. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  2. Energy-Exchange Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  3. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  4. Tensor force effect on the evolution of single-particle energies in some isotopic chains in the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Quelle, M.; Marcos, S.; Niembro, R.; Savushkin, L. N.

    2018-03-01

    Within a nonlinear relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation combined with the BCS method, we study the effect of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force of the π-exchange potential on the spin- and pseudospin-orbit doublets along the Ca and Sn isotopic chains. We show how the self-consistent tensor force effect modifies the splitting of both kinds of doublets in an interdependent form, leading, quite generally, to opposite effects in the accomplishment of the spin and pseudospin symmetries (the one is restored, the other one deteriorates and vice versa). The ordering of the single-particle energy levels is crucial to this respect. Also, we observe a mutual dependence on the evolution of the shell closure gap Z = 50 and the energy band outside the core, along the Sn chain, as due to the tensor force. In fact, when the shell gap is quenched the outside energy band is enlarged, and vice versa. A reduction of the strength of the pion tensor force with respect to its experimental value from the nucleon-nucleon scattering is needed to get results closer to the experiment. Pairing correlations act to some extent in the opposite direction of the tensor term of the one-pion-exchange force.

  5. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  6. New perspectives on exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riska, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed method of constructing the nuclear exchange current operators within the framework of the topological soliton (Skyrme) model is described. This approach is theoretically compact, allows treating nucleon and nuclear structure on the same footing and finally can be viewed as an effective low-energy representation of QCD. The approach also leads to some very natural connections between pionic and nuclear transition rates because the effective pion-nucleon interaction involves the isovector (exchange) current operator. Finally, a discussion of the relation between exchange currents and relativistic corrections is given. (author). 76 refs, 6 figs

  7. Heat exchanger with ceramic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1986-01-01

    An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

  8. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  9. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  10. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B.; Hodkinson, Trevor R.

    2011-01-01

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables—cultural, social, and economic—that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology—kinship, bridewealth, and filiation—we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels. PMID:22042843

  11. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  12. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  13. Ion exchange in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieman, William; Walton, Harold F

    1970-01-01

    .... In order that the users of the book may understand properly the recommended analytical methods, considerable space is devoted to the preparation, structure and properties of ion-exchange materials...

  14. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  15. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  16. Microplate Heat Exchanger, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  17. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  18. Heraclitus, Seaford and Reversible Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Kassam, C; Duschinsky, Robert Nathan

    2017-01-01

    In this essay we identify a characteristic pattern of Heraclitus’ thought and language, the “figure of reversible exchange”. We suggest that this figure allows Heraclitus to propose an ontological structure consisting of two intersecting circuits of relations: a pre-temporal reversible exchange between Being and Becoming and between One and Many, and a temporal reversible exchange within the Many as the very process of Becoming. Against Richard Seaford’s interpretation of Heraclitus’ thought ...

  19. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. Progress is reported on the development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed

  20. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  2. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... International Securities Exchange LLC, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc., NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC... Exchange, Inc., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., International Securities Exchange, LLC, Miami International Securities Exchange LLC, NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc., NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC, The NASDAQ Stock...

  3. Review of N-N scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    Structures appearing in various experimental data (particularly those with polarized beams) in nucleon-nucleon systems are reviewed. A number of candidates are presented for dibaryon resonances which can couple to nucleon-nucleon systems. The present status of experimental data in the nucleon-nucleon system is discussed. Details of N-N scattering are written elsewhere, and here relatively new aspects are presented

  4. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  5. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  6. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  7. Effective Exchange Rate Classifications and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Justin M. Dubas; Byung-Joo Lee; Nelson C. Mark

    2005-01-01

    We propose an econometric procedure for obtaining de facto exchange rate regime classifications which we apply to study the relationship between exchange rate regimes and economic growth. Our classification method models the de jure regimes as outcomes of a multinomial logit choice problem conditional on the volatility of a country's effective exchange rate, a bilateral exchange rate and international reserves. An `effective' de facto exchange rate regime classification is then obtained by as...

  8. Diffusion-Exchange Weighted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadallah Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed whereby diffusion and exchange in micro cellular structures in the human brain are correlated to produce a new type of image contrast leading to determination of water exchange rates in vivo. The diffusion method relies on differential apparent diffusion coefficients as detectable nuclei exchange between adjacent compartments marked with different apparent diffusion coefficient values (e.g. intra- and extra-cellular compartments. A new pulse sequence was developed, and used to calculate water intra/extra mean residence times in brain, and the signal dependence on various experimental parameters was analysed. The method was tested in vivo at 3T field strength and produced 160 ms and 550 ms for extra-cellular and intra-cellular mean residence times, respectively.

  9. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... diverse understandings of the value appropriation process and emphasize different mechanisms and outcomes of value appropriation. Research limitations/implications – Based on the literature comparison and discussion, in combination with inspiration from alternative business exchange literature......, the authors propose four areas with high potential for future research into value appropriation: network position effects, appropriation acts and behaviors, buyer-seller relationship effects, and appropriation over time. Practical implications – Boundary spanning managers acting in industrial markets must...

  10. Pulmonary gas exchange during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Guillaume, C; Percival, C; Bertrand, O; Motin, J

    1986-12-01

    Pulmonary gas exchange was continuously measured in 13 mechanically ventilated patients during 24 hemodialyses for acute renal failure. Minute-ventilation was maintained constant by controlled ventilation and gas exchange was continuously measured by a mass-spectrometer system. Three groups were compared: a cuprophan membrane with an acetate dialysate; a polyacrilonitrile membrane (PAN) with an acetate dialysate; and PAN with a bicarbonate dialysate. Arterial PO2 and the O2 alveolar-arterial gradient were the same regardless of the membrane used. [H+] mildly decreased with all dialysates used. Arterial PCO2 decreased only with the acetate dialysate. O2 consumption increased, up to 20 +/- 5% of the initial values during hemodialysis, and remained increased during the two hours following the hemodialysis. Respiratory exchange ratio was lower after than before the hemodialysis. the maintenance of a constant minute ventilation prevented hemodialysis induced hypoxemia. VO2 increased during hemodialysis.

  11. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  13. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib...... where the momentum of the graviton which is exchanged becomes much smaller than the external momenta. We conclude that the total non-linearity parameter generated by single-field models of slow-roll inflation is at maximum tauNL ~ r....

  14. Resonance production and decay in pion induced collisions with HADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scozzi Federico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the High Acceptance Di-Electron experiment (HADES at GSI is the study of hadronic matter in the 1-3.5 GeV/nucleon incident energy range. HADES results on e+ e− production in proton-nucleus reactions and in nucleus-nucleus collisions demonstrate a strong enhancement of the dilepton yield relative to a reference spectrum obtained from elementary nucleon-nucleon reactions. These observations point to a strong modification of the in-medium ρ spectral function driven by the coupling of the ρ to baryon-resonance hole states. However, to scrutinize this conjecture, a precise study of the role of the ρ meson in electromagnetic baryon-resonance transitions in the time-like region is mandatory. In order to perform this study, HADES has started a dedicated pion-nucleon programme. For the first time a combined measurement of hadronic and dielectron final states have been performed in π−-N reactions at four different pion beam momenta (0.656, 0.69, 0.748 and 0.8 GeV/c. First results on exclusive channels with one pion π−-p and two pions (nπ+π−, pπ−π0 in the final state, which are currently analysed within the partial wave analysis (PWA framework of the Bonn-Gatchina group, are discussed. Finally first results for the dielectron analysis will be shown.

  15. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-01-01

    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  16. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  17. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  18. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  19. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrite s * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  20. Heat exchanger staybolt acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    The structural integrity demonstration of the primary coolant piping system includes evaluating the structural capacity of each component against a large break or equivalent Double-Ended Guillotine Break. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The Savannah River Site heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. Access to the staybolts is limited due to a welded seal cap over the staybolts. An ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection technique to provide an in-situ examination of the staybolts has recently been developed at SRS. Examination of the staybolts will be performed to ensure their service condition and configuration is within acceptance limits. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. The heat exchanger head is analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts. Evaluation of specific, inactive staybolt configurations based on the UT results can be performed with the finite element model and fracture methodology in this report

  1. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  2. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  3. Ion exchange in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rieman, William; Walton, Harold F

    1970-01-01

    ... to the analyst who wishes to calculate from the data of a few elutions the concentration and pH of eluent that will give the most efficient separation of a given mixture. This book will prove to be of value to analytical chemists, especially those intersted in separations, and physical chemists interested in ion exchange.

  4. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  5. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  6. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines fishing quota as a commodity in both a conceptual perspective and through ethnographic examples. Inspired by Marx’s ideas of the commodity, use-value, exchange-value, and ground rent, the chapter combines a theoretical approach with ethnographic material. The different aspects...

  7. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  8. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  10. Written feedback as interaction: Knowledge exchange or activity exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Wharton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines in-text, handwritten feedback comments on first year undergraduate writing in the discipline of Statistics. Using a small corpus of annotated assignments, I examine the grammar choices and content choices made by tutors as they comment on students’ work.  To better understand the purposes of the comments, I draw on an interview with a tutor. I make use of Halliday’s concepts of knowledge exchange and activity exchange to interpret the choices observed in the data, and the motivations discussed by the tutor, from the perspective of interaction. Finally, I discuss the implications of the analysis in terms of the formative potential of the feedback. 

  11. Learn about the Environmental Information Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, territories, and tribes can partner with EPA to exchange standardized data to improve its quality, increase its availability, and integrate it better across different sources using connecting nodes, xml schema, and a data exchange template.

  12. Fiscal deficits, exchange rate crises and inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1991-01-01

    This article extends earlier work on unsustainable monetary policies by endogenizing the regime switch that ultimately restores sustainability. Within this framework we analyze exchange rate based stabilization programs and shows how constraints on Central Bank borrowing during an exchange crisis

  13. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  14. Heat exchanger and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  15. Heat exchanger with steam overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manek, O.; Motejl, V.; Quitta, R.; Schlinger, S.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger incorporating steam superheating is proposed suitable for nuclear power plants having heat transfer surfaces housed in the pressure vessel. The heat exchanger is characterized by the fact that on the primary side the steam overheating surface is parallel to the afterheating and evaporating surfaces. The parallel heat transfer surfaces, afterheating and evaporating surfaces are connected to a common tube plate. The superheated steam outlet is formed by the central tube, the saturated steam by-pass channel is formed by a concentric tube. The steam superheating surface is formed by a cluster of U-tubes. Spatial U-tubes form the afterheating and the evaporating surfaces outside of the superheating surface. (Oy)

  16. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  17. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  18. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  19. Introduction to the World of Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Vargas-Silva

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the functioning of the foreign exchange rate system. We start by giving a historical account of the different exchange rate systems around the world. Next, we discuss the determinants of a currency’s value according to the main theories of exchange rate determination. Subsequently, we discuss the difference between the nominal and real exchange rate. Finally, the paper ends with summary and conclusions and with a list of additional readings on the topic.

  20. Foreign Exchange Market Microstructure: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ashween Kaur Anand; Dr Sukhvir Singh

    2017-01-01

    When we travel abroad to a foreign country, we have to exchange our domestic currency for that of the country we are visiting. For this purpose, we make use of exchange rates. However, exchanging currencies isn’t just for travelers. The price difference is something you can trade. Frequent changes in the value of currencies on account of economic conditions, political news and interest rate changes drive foreign exchange trading and a trader’s profit potential in the currency markets. Jus...

  1. Measuring the costs of exchange rate volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Bergin

    2004-01-01

    Many countries go to great lengths to manage their exchange rates. Probably the most prominent recent example is the European Monetary Union, where all the members abandoned their national currencies and adopted the euro. A number of developing countries maintain other kinds of regimes of managed exchange rates, even though they face potent market pressures to let their exchange rates float. One of the main motives for these arrangements stems from the extreme volatility of exchange rates. Th...

  2. SODIUM-WATER HEAT EXCHANGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, W.R.; Koch, L.J.

    1962-04-17

    A heat exchanger comprising a tank for hot liquid and a plurality of concentric, double tubes for cool liquid extending vertically through the tank is described. These tubes are bonded throughout most of their length but have an unbonded portion at both ends. The inner tubes extend between headers located above and below the tanmk and the outer tubes are welded into tube sheets forming the top and bottom of the tank at locations in the unbonded portions of the tubes. (AEC)

  3. Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guiso; Paola Sapienza; Luigi Zingales

    2004-01-01

    How much do cultural biases affect economic exchange? We try to answer this question by using the relative trust European citizens have for citizens of other countries. First, we document that this trust is affected not only by objective characteristics of the country being trusted, but also by cultural aspects of the match between trusting country and trusted country, such as religion, history of conflicts, and genetic and somatic similarities. We then find that lower relative...

  4. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  5. DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, A.L.; Klein, G.; Radke, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    Exchange of hardness ions is important in enhanced oil recovery with chemical additives. In both micellar-polymer and caustic flooding processes, multivalent ions released from rock surfaces can interact with anionic surfactants, rendering them preferentially oil soluble and/or insoluble in water. Because hardness cations are sparingly soluble and precipitate in alkaline solutions, such solutions may be more efficient as surfactant flood preflushes than are softened brines. Multivalent ion precipitation may also occur in alkaline waterflooding. To permit design of such processes, this paper presents a chromatographic theory for simultaneous ion exchange with precipitation of divalent ions. Theoretical effluent histories and concentration profiles are presented for the cases of finite pulses and continuous injection of hydroxide ions into linear cores. Complete capture of the insoluble salt particles is assumed. Results are given for the case of instantaneous equilibration of the solution with the precipitate, as well for the case of complete nonequilibrium, in which the solid precipitate does not redissolve. The efficiency of alklaine preflushing is shown to depend on the exchange isotherm, initial divalent loading of the rock, injected pH and salinity, the solubility product of the precipitated salt, and pulse size. The effect of slug size on complete equilibrium removal of hardness ions is reduced efficiency with increasing size until a critical volume approximating continuous injection is reached. Increasing injected pH and salinity provides a more favorable response. Experimental data for Berea sandstone and an argillaceous sand compare favorably with the proposed theory.

  6. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  7. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  8. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  9. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  10. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  11. HYDRATION STRUCTURE AND WATER EXCHANGE DYNAMICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Free energy profile along the chosen reaction coordinate was determined and used to obtain the exchange mechanism and reaction rate of the water exchange process. In order to do sampling along a reaction coordinate umbrella-sampling technique was applied. The water exchange reaction is determined from the ...

  12. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Caprirolo; Vladimir Lavrac

    2003-01-01

    The paper is divided in three sections presenting some stylized facts concerning monetary and exchange rate policy framework in Slovenia. Three periods are covered: Money-based Stabilization Policy (1991-1995), Price and Real Exchange Rate Stability Dual Targeting Policy (1996-2001), and Exchange Rate Based Stabilization Policy and Accession to ERM2 (2001-).

  13. 78 FR 42439 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 [Release No. 34-69964; File No. S7-30-11] RIN... currency exchange (``forex'') market is a large and liquid market used by banks, insurance companies, large... currency rates. In recent years, a secondary off-exchange market for forex has developed for retail...

  14. Solid state exchange reactions and thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Archundia, C.; Maddock, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A further study of exchange of the cobalt atoms in solid Co(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/(Co EDTA)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O has been made. The exchange is more easily measured when the compound has been ..gamma.. irradiated before heating. Without irradiation the exchange is complicated by substantial concurrent thermal decomposition. Vacuum dehydration to the tetrahydrate can be effected at 366 K without appreciable exchange. A relation between exchange, annealing of radiolytic decomposition and thermal decomposition in such compounds is suggested.

  15. The effects of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange volatility on exports

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Ibrahima Amadou

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses panel data cointegration techniques to study the impacts of real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to 2004. The results show that both real exchange rate misalignment and real exchange rate volatility affect negatively exports. The results also illustrate that real exchange rate volatility is more harmful to exports than misalignment. These outcomes are corroborated by estimations on s...

  16. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  17. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  18. A Review of Industrial Heat Exchange Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Heat exchanger is an energy exchange equipment, it transfers the heat from a working medium to another working medium, which has been wildly used in petrochemical industry, HVAC refrigeration, aerospace and so many other fields. The optimal design and efficient operation of the heat exchanger and heat transfer network are of great significance to the process industry to realize energy conservation, production cost reduction and energy consumption reduction. In this paper, the optimization of heat exchanger, optimal algorithm and heat exchanger optimization with different objective functions are discussed. Then, optimization of the heat exchanger and the heat exchanger network considering different conditions are compared and analysed. Finally, all the problems discussed are summarized and foresights are proposed.

  19. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  20. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  1. Hadron-hadron potentials from lattice quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitsch, K.

    1997-10-01

    attractive regime and a slightly repulsive behavior at short distances. A refined analysis with Wilson fermions in momentum space, utilizing improved actions, operator smearing and link variable fuzzing is performed. The resulting s-wave projected local interaction potential between two pion-like mesons is attractive. (author)

  2. Cooling device for a heat exchange fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The invention refers to a system for cooling process or operation fluids, in which the local or general superheating of the coolant must be avoided. It particularly applies to the bleed fluid of a nuclear power station steam generator. This invention aims to create a heat exchange system that uses static components only and that is therefore completely reliable whilst remaining simple and relatively economical. This system includes a regeneration heat exchanger (with a primary and secondary system) and a triple flow heat exchanger with three circuits. The first and second circuits are in fluid communication with the primary and secondary circuits of the regeneration heat exchanger. The fluid communication between the regeneration heat exchanger and the triple circuit heat exchanger is such that the process fluid first goes through one of the circuits of the regeneration heat exchanger where it is cooled, then through one of the first two circuits of the triple circuit heat exchanger where it is cooled still more, then through the other of the circuits of the regeneration exchanger where it is heated and finally through the second of the first two circuits of the triple circuit heat exchanger where it is cooled again. A coolant flows through the third circuit in order to cool the process fluid concerned [fr

  3. The Determinants of Real Exchange Rate Volatility in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Definition and Construction. Source. Nominal Exchange. Rate. Bilateral Exchange rate of Nigeria Naira to US. Dollar. Central Bank of. Nigeria (CBN). Real Exchange Rate. Nominal Exchange Rate/Consumer Price. Index. CBN. Volatility of Nominal. Exchange Rate. Standard Deviation of the log differences of real exchange ...

  4. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  5. Isotope exchange process and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvalle, Pierre.

    1974-01-01

    A process for enriching uranium in one of its isotopes is described. To do so, cascade isotopic exchanges are made by contact between U(III) and U(IV) in conditions avoiding the oxidation of U(III) in U(IV). A liquid phase containing an uranium compound and free of other group III to VIII metals of the periodic classification, in which uranium is present at a first valence is placed in contact with a second valence uranium compound, protected from any contact with a conducting solid and with an agent bringing free or release oxygen. The second phase is organic. The process includes a counter current isotopic exchange between an aqueous phase containing a U +4 salting-out agent and the uranium as U +3 ions and an organic phase containing the uranium at valence IV. This is followed by the extraction of U(IV) from the organic phase into the previously spent aqueous phase and the reduction of uranium from valence IV to valence III; finally by oxidation of U(III) of the aqueous phase into U(IV) and the transfer of U(IV) into the previously exhausted organic phase [fr

  6. Geographic exchange standard and primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The ANSI Draft Proposal Specifications for an Information Interchange Data Descriptive File, X3L5.SEP, contains some Guidelines for Implementation (Appendix D). However, some additional guidelines should be provided specifically for the more commonly used systems of coding locational data, and referring thematic data to those codes. While there is no consensus that a single, preferred representation of geographical files can be specified as a standard for exchange, there is agreement on the generic form of record structures for commonly used, two-dimensional files. This report surveys by example common practice and illustrates the use of geocodes as thematic data pointers. It defines the elements of the structures as a subsystem within the interchange standard. An implementation within the Levels of Implementation of the basic IWGDE Standard is proposed and examples for some of the defined file types are presented in numerical form to aid in understanding. The problem of referring thematic data to a geographic file when these data reside in a physically distinct exchange file is discussed. 14 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  7. Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Meir, Avishai; Ramon, Guy Z.; WET Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines are reliable machines holding great promise in converting heat from low grade heat sources to mechanical or electrical power. In these engines the working fluid is a gas mixture containing one condensable component, decreasing the temperature difference required for ignition and steady state operation. Our experimental setup consists of a vertical acoustic resonator containing a mixture of air-water vapor. Water evaporates near the heat source, condenses at the heat sink and is drawn back down by gravity and capillary forces where it re-evaporates, sustaining a steady state closed thermodynamic cycle. We investigated the stability limit, namely the critical point at which temperature difference in the engine enables onset of self-excited oscillations, and the steady state of the engine. A simple theoretical model was derived, describing mechanisms of irreversible entropy generation and production of acoustic power in such engines. This model captures the essence in the differences between regular and phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines, and shows good agreement with experimental results of stability limit. Steady state results reveal not only a dramatic decrease in temperature difference, but also an increase in engine performances. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  8. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  9. Development of nursing students during international exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Varusk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the experiences which nursing exchange students have had when they have been abroad. This aim of this literature review was to evaluates and presents the most current and relevant information of the topic as possible. The findings were divided into two themes – how nursing exchange students had evolved on a personal and on a professional level. Most of the findings were about how the nursing exchange students had evolved on a person...

  10. Price of Fairness in Kidney Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    immensely, and provide valuable experi- ence in fielding real-world artificial intelligence technology . 2. FAIRNESS IN KIDNEY EXCHANGE In this section, we...exchange, a necessary consideration when fielding new technology in medicine (as noted by those who designed the recent deceased donor allocation scheme...Dynamic matching via weighted myopia with application to kidney exchange. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI

  11. The exponential-S-method in the momentum representation; Die Exponential-S-Methode in der Impulsdarstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauf, M.

    2007-07-13

    The aim of this work was, to describe the global characteristics like binding energy and radius of atomic nuclei on basis of realistic nucleon nucleon interactions. Because of the strong short-range components of the nucleon nucleon interaction, methods of many-body-theory have to be used, that go beyond mean field method or Hartree Fock method. (orig.)

  12. Energy and Environment. Electric power stock exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazioli, R.; Antonioli, B.; Beccarello, M.; Da Rin, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are reported the structural characteristics of electric power stock exchange in the processes liberalization of european electric markets. International experience are also considered [it

  13. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  14. Cleaning Schedule Operations in Heat Exchanger Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hairul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat exchanger networks have been known to be the essential parts in the chemical industries. Unfortunately, since the performance of heat exchanger can be decreasing in transferring the heat from hot stream into cold stream due to fouling, then cleaning the heat exchanger is needed to restore its initial performance periodically. A process of heating crude oil in a refinery plant was used as a case study. As many as eleven heat exchangers were used to heat crude oil before it was heated by a furnace to the temperature required to the crude unit distillation column. The purpose of this study is to determine the cleaning schedule of heat exchanger on the heat exchanger networks due to the decrease of the overall heat transfer coefficient by various percentage of the design value. A close study on the process of heat exchanger cleaning schedule in heat exchanger networks using the method of decreasing overall heat transfer coefficient as target. The result showed that the higher the fouling value the more often the heat exchanger is cleaned because the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases quickly.

  15. Adaptive Strategies in the Iterated Exchange Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraov, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    We argue for clear separation of the exchange problem from the exchange paradox to avoid confusion about the subject matter of these two distinct problems. The exchange problem in its current format belongs to the domain of optimal decision making—it doesn't make any sense as a game of competition. But it takes just a tiny modification in the statement of the problem to breathe new life into it and make it a practicable and meaningful game of competition. In this paper, we offer an explanation for paradoxical priors and discuss adaptive strategies for both the house and the player in the restated exchange problem.

  16. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  17. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  18. Study of the electro-disintegration of deuterium 2H(e,e'p)n in a large domain of inelasticity and for recoil neutron momenta from 0 to 500 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis, we present three exclusive electron scattering experiments on deuterium. Recoil neutron momenta from |n| = 0 to 500 MeV/c have been extracted from these measurements. In the first experiment, we studied the low recoil neutron momenta from |n| = 0 to 175 MeV/c in the quasi-elastic region. The second one is sensitive to the intermediate region from |n| = 155 to 335 MeV/c. The high momenta |n| =300 to 500 MeV/c were covered in the third kinematic condition range, in a more inelastic region influenced by pion exchange currents and isobar configuration. The S-wave component of the deuterium wave function has a minimum near 450 MeV/c, so the third measurement is mainly sensitive to the deuterium D-state and can provide a test of the nucleon-nucleon potential. The difficulty of these experiments comes from the small cross sections (≥ 15 pb/sr 2 /MeV) and the use of cryogenic liquid target whose density and dimension must be known accurately. The determination of the absolute values of the cross section is discussed in detail. The accuracy obtained was about 6 or 7 pc. The data from these experiments are compared to non-relativistic calculations of H. Arenhoevel and J.M. Laget which include electron interaction with the two nucleons, excitation states of the nucleon, proton neutron final state interaction and pionic exchange currents. These calculations are in good agreement with the first experiments for RSC potential. The agreement with Arenhoevel calculation is also good in the third one, but for this last experiment, a gauge invariance problem, coming certainly from the final state treatment, still remains in Laget's calculation. Data seem to favor the RSC or Paris nucleon nucleon potentials; 30 pc differences could be observed between their predictions and those given by the Bonn potentials. Nevertheless the study of the influence of the nucleon-nucleon potential can only be done in a complete relativistic calculation. (author) [fr

  19. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  20. Educational Exchanges Across the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. J.; Walker, C. E.; Smith, M.; Pompea, S. M.; Orellana, D.

    2003-12-01

    What is color? What is light? How can we use a spectrometer to help students understand the answers to these questions? Even half a world apart and between people of different languages and cultures, how to teach these ideas to students can be a lively subject for discussion. And it is! Aided by Internet 2-based videoconferencing, NOAO North and South have sponsored three teacher professional development videoconference workshops, dubbed ASTRO-Chile, linking teachers in Tucson, AZ, and La Serena, Chile. The teachers exchange methods and ideas about how to explain and demonstrate physical concepts, important to the study of astronomy, to students of various ages. The workshops are conducted in Spanish with four bilingual science teachers from the Tucson area discussing pedagogical approaches with their teaching counterparts in Chile. Demonstrations and project presentations, from both sites, are included as part of each workshop. This work is supported, in part, through funding from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  1. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  2. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....

  3. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... relatered to rainfall-runo events. By combining geochemical, geophysical and hydrogeological models with numerical modeling, groundwater flow paths to a stream were investigated in a wetland. By combining the dierent tracers, condence in the paramters of the numerical model could be established...

  4. Parallel markets, the foreign exchange auction, and exchange rate unification in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Janine; Elbadawi, Ibrahim A.

    1992-01-01

    A large thriving parallel market for foreign exchange has coexisted with a rich menu of official exchange rate policies aimed at achieving a more flexible exchange rate and price system as well as financial and trade liberalization. Despite aggresive policies in these areas, particularly for the exchange rate, the black market premium (defined as the ratio of the black market rate to the official rate) remains high. The authors examine the origins of the parallel market, the statistical prope...

  5. Choice of exchange rate regimes for African countries: Fixed or Flexible Exchange rate regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simwaka, Kisu

    2010-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate exchange rate regime has been a subject of ongoing debate in international economics. The majority of African countries are small open economies and thus where the choice of the exchange rate regime is an important policy issue. Aside from factors such as interest rates and inflation, the exchange rate is one of the most important determinants of a country’s relative level of economic health. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched analyzed and ...

  6. Noninvasive mapping of water diffusional exchange in the human brain using filter-exchange imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; van Westen, Danielle; Brockstedt, Sara; Lasič, Samo; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Topgaard, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We present the first in vivo application of the filter-exchange imaging protocol for diffusion MRI. The protocol allows noninvasive mapping of the rate of water exchange between microenvironments with different self-diffusivities, such as the intracellular and extracellular spaces in tissue. Since diffusional water exchange across the cell membrane is a fundamental process in human physiology and pathophysiology, clinically feasible and noninvasive imaging of the water exchange rate would offer new means to diagnose disease and monitor treatment response in conditions such as cancer and edema. The in vivo use of filter-exchange imaging was demonstrated by studying the brain of five healthy volunteers and one intracranial tumor (meningioma). Apparent exchange rates in white matter range from 0.8±0.08 s(-1) in the internal capsule, to 1.6±0.11 s(-1) for frontal white matter, indicating that low values are associated with high myelination. Solid tumor displayed values of up to 2.9±0.8 s(-1). In white matter, the apparent exchange rate values suggest intra-axonal exchange times in the order of seconds, confirming the slow exchange assumption in the analysis of diffusion MRI data. We propose that filter-exchange imaging could be used clinically to map the water exchange rate in pathologies. Filter-exchange imaging may also be valuable for evaluating novel therapies targeting the function of aquaporins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Patient summary record—(1) Standard. Health Level Seven Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) Release 2... specifications for exchanging electronic health information. 170.205 Section 170.205 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF... exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health information. The...

  8. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  9. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  10. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that a long-run relationship exists between the industrial productivity growth rate, ration of industrial production to gross domestic product, exchange rate, interest rate and terms of trade, and that exchange rate deregulation has significant impact on industrial performance. In order to determine the short term ...

  11. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate. It adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange interventions, where the weights are their effectiveness. The

  12. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  13. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  14. First successful automated red cell exchange (erythrocytapheresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent blood transfusion carries significant complications especially iron overload. Red cell exchange offers a better control both as prophylaxis and therapy for some complications. METHOD: A 32years old male SCD patient had priapism as an indication for Red Cell exchange. A total of 1850ml of his red cells was ...

  15. STATISTICS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    currency. But since transactions are made in national (domestic) currencies, the former is generally applied for exchange (Mordi, 2006). The main objectives of ... different regimes. In this paper, attempt is made to use Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average. (ARIMA) model to study exchange rate data according to ...

  16. Individual Differences in Reactions to Inequitable Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Barbara B.; Penner, Louis A.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the role of sociopathic tendencies in reactions to inequitable exchanges in 273 males and females classified as high or low in sociopathy. Subjects read narratives of inequitable exchanges and assumed the role of the exploiter and the role of the victim in each. (Author/RH)

  17. Development of heat exchangers for nuclear service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, R.I.; Dalrymple, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Unusual design constraints, due to tube vibration, are called for when tube-in-shell heat exchangers are incorporated into CANDU type reactor power plants. CRNL has programs studying tube excitation and response, flow conditions, and the fretting process in such exchangers, tube plugging techniques, and eddy current scanning systems for inside bores of full-length tubes. (E.C.B.)

  18. Minneapolis and Brittany: A Cultural Exchange Revisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Janine

    2005-01-01

    In 1996, Learning Languages published an article describing a cultural exchange that occurred from 1991 to 1993 between Breck School, a private school in Minneapolis, and Paul Dukas School, a high-needs school in Brest, France. Much of that exchange was carried out through online telecommunications using the Minitel. The result of a two-year…

  19. Experimental evaluation of vibrations in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Ghiselli, A.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations may produce damage of heat exchangers, condensers and steam generators tubes. To evaluate this problem a set of tests were developed to know the real support state of the tubes, which have great influence on the vibration response. This paper include a description of the tests and the results obtained applying them on a heat exchanger equipment. (author) [es

  20. Information Exchange Procedures: Overview and General Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Leonard C.

    The Information Exchange Procedures (IEP) project creates the capability for exchange and reporting of that information, both financial and otherwise, necessary to calculate and evaluate costs (1) by discipline and course level, (2) by student major and student level, and (3) per unit of output. Most uses of comparable information and analysis can…

  1. Deuterium exchange between fluoroform and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The selective multiphoton dissociation of fluoroform by IR laser results in the dissociation of deuterium-bearing molecules, thereby leading to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. The deuterium exchange between depleted fluroform and natural water has been investigated and the separation factors for this exchange have been calculated over a wide range of temperature. (author)

  2. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange of macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, C.J.

    1982-06-01

    An infra red spectroscopic technique has been developed which allows the hydrogen-deuterium exchange between a polymer and absorbed heavy water to be monitored with the polymer in contact with liquid heavy water. This method extends the existing methods to the highest possible internal water concentration. The results of Moore on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of poly(N-t-butylacrylamide) have been extended to the lower homologues of the series. The rate and extent of the exchange of these polymers is dependent upon the pH of the conditioning solution in which the polymer is exposed prior to the exchange study. The exchange is acid and base catalysed with the latter only apparent in the lower homologues. The features of the acid catalysed exchange have been tentatively explained in terms of the mobility of the hydrogen ion in the polymer matrix, whilst the restricted base exchange is attributed to the lack of hydration stabilisation of the intermediate ion complex of the base catalysed mechanism. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange properties of nylon, silk and cellulose have also been studied and these polymers show far less sensitivity to the pH of the conditioning treatment. The results are discussed. (author)

  3. Heat exchanger with a removable tube section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.

    1975-07-29

    A heat exchanger is described in which the tube sheet is secured against primary liquid pressure, but which allows for easy removal of the tube section. The tube section is supported by a flange which is secured by a number of shear blocks, each of which extends into a slot which is immovable with respect to the outer shell of the heat exchanger. (auth)

  4. Intervention Analysis of Nigeria's Foreign Exchange Rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical. Bulletin for empirical verification. The data considered for the analysis is the monthly average official exchange rate of the naira vis-à-vis the. United State dollar for the period 1980 to 2014. Research Problems: In September 1986, the Second-. Tier Foreign Exchange ...

  5. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...

  6. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING AIR EXCHANGE IN TWO HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air exchange rate is critical to determining the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of hazardous pollutants. Approximately 150 air exchange experiments were completed in two residences: a two-story detached house located in Redwood City, CA and a three-story...

  8. STATISTICS OF EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-02-11

    Feb 11, 2009 ... KEY WORDS: Exchange Rate Regime; ARIMA Model, Stationarity, Random Walk Model. INTRODUCTION. Exchange rate has been defined as the price of one currency in terms of another. It can be expressed in one of two ways: as units of domestic currency per unit of foreign currency; or units of foreign ...

  9. Exchange Rate and the PRC Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The stages of exchange rate regulation and foreign trade systems reforming in PRC during the period 1978-2008 are examined. A quantitative assessment of PRC foreign trade parameters reactions to the currency rate dynamics on the national and regional levels is made. Also the import and export impact of potential exchange rate changes is estimated

  10. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  11. The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984), we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  12. Characterisation and applications of synthesised cation exchanger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemically modified guar gum sulphonic acid (GSA) resin was used for removal and pre-concentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions and steel industry effluent from Jodhpur, India. This type of ion exchange resin represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with higher stability, ...

  13. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  14. Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    SRA would very much like to support the exchange of best practice between members throughout the year and the Membership Committee is presently looking into the opportunities for a Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Program. However the International Section has already had the chance to provide...

  15. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, R.; Markiewicz, A.; Verhoeks, R.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Exchange rate models with uncertain and incomplete information predict that investors focus on a small set of fundamentals that changes frequently over time. We design a model selection rule that captures the current set of fundamentals that best predicts the exchange rate. Out-of-sample tests show

  16. Health information exchange among US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Jha, Ashish K

    2011-11-01

    To determine the proportion of US hospitals engaged in health information exchange (HIE) with unaffiliated providers and to identify key hospital-level and market-level factors associated with participating in exchange. Using the 2009 American Hospital Association Information Technology survey, supplemented by Dartmouth Atlas, Area Resource File, and other national data, we examined which hospitals participated in regional efforts to electronically exchange clinical data. We used logistic regression models to determine hospital-level characteristics and market-level characteristics associated with hospitals' likelihood of participating in HIE. We found that 10.7% of US hospitals engaged in HIE with unaffiliated providers. In communities where exchange occurred, for-profit hospitals and those with a small market share were far less likely to engage in HIE than nonprofit hospitals or those with a larger market share. Hospitals in more concentrated markets were more likely to exchange and hospitals in markets with higher Medicare spending were less likely to exchange. At the start of implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, only a small minority of US hospitals electronically exchange clinical data with unaffiliated providers. Health information exchange is a key part of reforming the healthcare system, and factors related to competitiveness may be holding some providers back.

  17. Composite inorganic ion exchangers and their uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  18. Ion-exchange properties of natural mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelishchev, N.F.; Volodin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    Ion exchange properties are studied of natural mordenite Si(Al=4.75) exhibiting adequate mechanical characteristics and sufficient resistance to high temperature acids. Consideration is given to the pattern of exchange ions distribution among mordenite and chloride solutions of K, Cs, Rb, Sr. Mordenite shows sharp selectivity towards large alkali metal cations, particularly Cs + . In these processes the exchange isotherms are characterized by the constant selectivity towards a counterion. For the Sr 2+ -2Na + exchange the isotherm shows a change of selectivity after a definite counterion concentration has been reached in the solution. Correlation between the exchange thermodynamic constants makes it possible to propose the following range of mordenite selectivity towards the cations under study: Cs>Rb>K>Na>Sr

  19. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  1. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  2. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  3. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  4. 40 CFR 63.654 - Heat exchange systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any one of the criteria in paragraphs (b)(1) through (2) of this section. (1) All heat exchangers that... any heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service as defined in this subpart). (c) The owner or... each heat exchanger exit line for each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers in organic HAP...

  5. 17 CFR 229.802 - Exchange Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Act industry guides. 229.802 Section 229.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.802 Exchange Act industry...

  6. Two-pion femtoscopy in p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=5.02 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoeldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Boettger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortes; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Denes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Doenigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Tellez, A. Fernandez; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glaessel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. -Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Corral, G. Herrera; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Bustamante, R. T. Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Koehler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Fernandes, C. Lagana; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzon, I. Leon; Leoncino, M.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lokesh, K.; Lopez, X.; Torres, E. Lopez; Lowe, A.; Lu, X. -G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Cervantes, I. Maldonado; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Perez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Zetina, L. Montano; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; De Godoy, D. A. Moreira; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muehlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mueller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A. C. Oliveira; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Velasquez, A. Ortiz; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; De Oliveira Filho, E. Pereira; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petracek, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raesaenen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. -P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Cahuantzi, M. Rodriguez; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Roehrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Montero, A. J. Rubio; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stille, J. H.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; de Toledo, A. Szanto; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Peloni, A. Tarantola; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Munoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thaeder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Van der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Limon, S. Vergara; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voelkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of the femtoscopic analysis of pairs of identical pions measured in p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 5.02 TeV. Femtoscopic radii are determined as a function of event multiplicity and pair momentum in three spatial dimensions. As in the pp collision system, the analysis is

  7. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gramling, Johanna Lena

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of pion source radii in Pb-Pb collisions with the ALICE experiment at LHC is presented. By the analysis of Bose-Einstein enhancement in the correlation function of identical pions information on the size and evolution of the source region in space-time can be obtained. The source radii observed at LHC are larger than at RHIC, approximately scaling with the cube root of the particle multiplicity. A decrease of source radii with increasing pair momentum, indicating a collective expansion of the medium, was observed at RHIC and SPS and is also expected at LHC energies. The ALICE data confirm this and provide strict constraints on dynamical models describing the medium expansion. The results suggest that the created fireball has a higher temperature and a longer lifetime as compared to lower energies.

  8. A Measurement of the Bose-Einstein Correlation for the Two Pions in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at Center-of-Mass Energy 1.8-TEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulos, Theodoros [Wisconsin U., Madison

    1991-01-01

    The intensity interferometry or the Bose-Einstein correlation between two like charged pions produced in high energy $p\\overline{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV was measured using data collected with the E735 detector at the TEV collider complex at Fermilab. The method used for this measurement was that of the HanburyBrown and Twiss ( HBT) phenomenon. Spatial and lifetime sizes of pion source are measured as a function of the charged particle multiplicity, neh, and as a function of the total momentum of pion pair. The results from this thesis are compared with the results from the CDF and UAl experiments. In addition, a new method for identifying particle resonances is presented using a Neural Network (N N) pattern recognition technique. This method uses a feed-forward N N in order to construct an efficient mapping between certain observed kinematical variables of a resonance and a background event. This N N method was applied to a series of different types of resonances, like $K^0 , p^0 , K^{\\ast0}$, and $A^0$ .

  9. Beam-energy-dependent two-pion interferometry and the freeze-out eccentricity of pions measured in heavy ion collisions at the STAR detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Pachr, M.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David; Trzeciak, B. A.; Vértési, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2015), 014904 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20841S; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * quark-gluon plasma * relativistic nuclear collisions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2015

  10. Underlying event background in two-pion correlations in p + p collisions at √ s = 0.9 and 7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    When analyzing two-particle correlations for identical pions in p + p collisions at √ s = 0.9 and 7 TeV, significant background correlation structures are observed. The structures are also observed for pairs of nonidentical pions and are reproduced by Monte-Carlo simulations. We analyze these structures quantitatively and propose methods to account for their impact on the system sizes extracted from the fits to the identical pion correlation functions

  11. Two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in central Pb-Pb collisions at root(S)NN=2.76 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aamodt, K.; Quintana, A.A.; Adamová, Dagmar; Adare, A.; Basile, M.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Šumbera, Michal; Tlustý, David; Wagner, Vladimír; Mareš, Jiří J.; Polák, Karel; Závada, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 696, č. 4 (2011), s. 328-337 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : LHC * Heavy-ion collisions * HBT Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2011

  12. Femtoscopy of pp collisions at root s=0.9 and 7 TeV at the LHC with two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aamodt, K.; Quintana, A.A.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mareš, Jiří A.; Polák, Karel; Šumbera, Michal; Závada, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2011), 112004/1-112004/22 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : heavy-ion collisions * PION INTERFEROMETRY * ENERGIES Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.558, year: 2011

  13. Two-pion femtoscopy in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J.; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lokesh, Kumar; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokohama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-03-24

    We report the results of the femtoscopic analysis of pairs of identical pions measured in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV. Femtoscopic radii are determined as a function of event multiplicity and pair momentum in three spatial dimensions. As in the pp collision system, the analysis is complicated by the presence of sizable background correlation structures in addition to the femtoscopic signal. The radii increase with event multiplicity and decrease with pair transverse momentum. When taken at comparable multiplicity, the radii measured in p-Pb collisions, at high multiplicity and low pair transverse momentum, are 10-20% higher than those observed in pp collisions but below those observed in A-A collisions. The results are compared to hydrodynamic predictions at large event multiplicity as well as discussed in the context of calculations based on gluon saturation.

  14. Two-pion femtoscopy in p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=5.02 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Čepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Eyyubova, G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Křelina, M.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, Jan; Schulc, M.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vajzer, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), s. 034906 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * charged particle production * transverse momentum Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2015

  15. Longitudinal exchange: an alternative strategy towards quantification of dynamics parameters in ZZ exchange spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloiber, Karin; Spitzer, Romana; Grutsch, Sarina; Kreutz, Christoph; Tollinger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal exchange experiments facilitate the quantification of the rates of interconversion between the exchanging species, along with their longitudinal relaxation rates, by analyzing the time-dependence of direct correlation and exchange cross peaks. Here we present a simple and robust alternative to this strategy, which is based on the combination of two complementary experiments, one with and one without resolving exchange cross peaks. We show that by combining the two data sets systematic errors that are caused by differential line-broadening of the exchanging species are avoided and reliable quantification of kinetic and relaxation parameters in the presence of additional conformational exchange on the ms–μs time scale is possible. The strategy is applied to a bistable DNA oligomer that displays different line-broadening in the two exchanging species.

  16. Report on the Oak Ridge workshop on Monte Carlo codes for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nine different Monte Carlo codes for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions were represented at the workshop. These include ATTILA and FRITIOF based on the LUND string picture of hadron-hadron interactions. Three other models based on a string picture of hadron-hadron interactions were also presented at the workshop. These were IRIS, MCFM, and VENUS, all of which are 'color exchange models' based on the Dual Parton Model (DPM) of Capella et al. Other models represented at the workshop included HIJET, which is an extension of the ISAJET model of hadron interactions, and MACRO, which is based upon a phenomenological parametrization of nucleon-nucleon collisions and which emphasizes the problem of nuclear stopping. Two other models represented at the workshop with quite different approaches were the HICOL and RQMD models. (orig./HSI)

  17. The deuteron-radius puzzle is alive: A new analysis of nuclear structure uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, O. J.; Ekström, A.; Nevo Dinur, N.; Ji, C.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.

    2018-03-01

    To shed light on the deuteron radius puzzle we analyze the theoretical uncertainties of the nuclear structure corrections to the Lamb shift in muonic deuterium. We find that the discrepancy between the calculated two-photon exchange correction and the corresponding experimentally inferred value by Pohl et al. [1] remain. The present result is consistent with our previous estimate, although the discrepancy is reduced from 2.6 σ to about 2 σ. The error analysis includes statistic as well as systematic uncertainties stemming from the use of nucleon-nucleon interactions derived from chiral effective field theory at various orders. We therefore conclude that nuclear theory uncertainty is more likely not the source of the discrepancy.

  18. Realistic effective interactions for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1994-09-01

    A review of perturbative many-body descriptions of several nuclear systems is presented. Symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei with few valence particles are examples of systems considered. The many-body description starts with the most recent meson-exchange potential models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, an interaction which in turn is used in perturbative schemes to evaluate the effective interaction for finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter. A unified perturbative approach based on time-dependent perturbation theory is elaborated. For finite nuclei new results are presented for the effective interaction and the energy spectra in the mass areas of oxygen, calcium and tin. 166 refs., 83 refs., 21 tabs

  19. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.; Knudson, J.N.; Penttilae, S.I.; Seestrom, S.J.; Yen, Y.; Yuan, V.W.; Crawford, B.E.; Roberson, N.R.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Lowie, L.Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Stevenson, S.I.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Sharapov, E.I.; Postma, H.; Masuda, Y.; Shimizu, H.M.; Iinuma, M.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Fukuda, K.

    1995-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Mean field instabilities in dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Catania Univ.; Di Torro, M.; Catania Univ.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss new reaction mechanisms that may occur in semi-peripheral heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. In particular we focus on the dynamics of the overlapping zone, showing the development of neck instabilities, coupled with the possibility of an increasing amount amount of dynamical fluctuations. In a very selected beam energy range between 40 and 70 MeV/u we observe an important interplay between stochastic nucleon exchange and the random nature of nucleon-nucleon collisions. Expected consequences are intermediate mass fragment emissions from the neck region and large variances in the projectile-like and target-like observables. The crucial importance of a time matching between the growth of mean field instabilities and the separation of the interacting system is stressed. Some hints towards the observation of relatively large instability effects in deep inelastic collisions at lower energy are finally suggested. (authors). 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Spin observables in nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The curse of inelastic nucleon scattering and charge exchange has always been the enormous complexity of the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction. This complexity, however, can also be viewed as the ultimate promise of nucleons as probes of nuclear structure. Given an adequate theoretical basis, inelastic nucleon scattering is capable of providing information not obtainable with other probes. Recently a revolution of experimental technique has taken place that makes it desirable to re-examine the question of what physics is ultimately obtainable from inelastic nucleon scattering. It is now feasible to perform complete polarization transfer (PT) experiments for inelastic proton scattering with high efficiency and excellent energy resolution. Programs to measure PT obsevables are underway at several laboratories, and results are beginning to appear. Objectives of this presentation are to examine how such experiments are done, and what physics is presently obtained and may ultimately be learned from them

  2. Study of proton-induced reactions and correlation with fast-neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The generation of cross sections for fast neutron-nucleon interactions obtained from elastic and charge-exchange proton data is discussed in terms of the Lane model formalism. A general description of the interaction of nucleons with nuclei is presented in terms of the optical model and the extended (or coupled-channel) optical model, together with the relation of these models to microscopic calculations of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Comparisons between neutron elastic data and calculations carried out with optical model potentials obtained from (p,p) and (p,n) data are presented for a large number of nuclei. The validity of the Lane model and the importance of coupled effects in the actinide region are shown in a detailed comparison of calculations for elastic and inelastic neutron differential cross sections and measurements for 232 Th and 238 U

  3. Medium effects on spin observables of proton knockout reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krein, G. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maris, T.A.J.; Rodrigues, B.B.; Veit, E.A. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1994-07-01

    Medium modifications of the properties of bound nucleons and mesons are investigated by means of medium energy quasi free proton knockout reactions with polarized incident protons. The sensitivity of the spin observables of these reactions to modifications of the nucleon and meson properties is studied using the Bonn one-boson exchange model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A method proposed to extract the pp analysing power in medium from the (p, 2 p) asymmetries indicates a reduction of this quantity compared to its free space value. This reduction is linked to modifications of masses and coupling constants of the nucleons and mesons in the nucleus. The implications of these modifications for another spin observable to be measured in the future are discussed. (author). 39 refs, 9 figs.

  4. Precision measurement of charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 347 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abegg, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Charge symmetry breaking in np elastic scattering at 347 MeV has been measured with high precision. From fits of the measured asymmetry curves over the angular range 53.4{degree} {le} {theta}{sub cm} {le} 86.9{degree}, the difference in the center-of-mass zero-crossing angles of the analyzing powers was determined to be 0.438{degree} {+-} 0.054{degree} (stat.) {+-} 0.051{degree} (syst.). Using the experimentally determined slope of the analyzing power, dA/d{theta} = ({minus}1.35 {+-} 0.05) {times} 10{sup {minus}2} deg{sup {minus}1}, this is equivalent to {Delta}A = [59 {+-} 7(stat.) {+-} 7(syst.) {+-} 2(syst.)] {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Predictions of nucleon-nucleon interaction models based on meson exchange agree well with this result.

  5. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-08-01

    Ion-exchange media, both bead resins and powdered filter media, are used in nuclear power plants to remove radioactivity from process water prior to reuse or environmental discharge. Since the ion- exchange media are made from synthetic hydrocarbon-based polymers, they may be susceptible to damage from biological activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the more basic aspects of biodegradation of ion-exchange media, specifically to evaluate the ability of microorganisms to utilize the ion-exchange media or materials sorbed on them as a food source. The ASTM-G22 test, alone and combined with the Bartha Pramer respirometric method, failed to indicate the biodegradability of the ion-exchange media. The limitation of these methods was that they used a single test organism. In later phases of this study, a mixed microbial culture was grown from resin waste samples obtained from the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor. These microorganisms were used to evaluate the susceptibility of different types of ion-exchange media to biological attack. Qualitative assessments of biodegradability were based on visual observations of culture growths. Greater susceptibility was associated with increased turbidity in solution indicative of bacterial growth, and more luxuriant fungal mycelial growth in solution or directly on the ion-exchange resin beads. 21 refs., 9 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Radiation grafting is gaining attention as a method for producing high performance materials. This method can be applied to add functions to existing polymer plastics. The author participated in the research program on the production of ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting and its applicability at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Consequently, it was clarified that it was possible to introduce the cation exchange group, represented by sulfonic and carboxyl groups, and the anion exchange group, represented by the quarternary ammonium group, to polypropylene fiber available on the market. The ion exchange capacity was able to be controlled by the degree of grafting, i.e. approximately up to 3 meq/g in both strong acid and strong base and approximately up to 5 meq/g in weak acid were obtained. The adsorption performance of ammonia, a representative malodorous substance, was also studied using test cation exchange fiber. The adsorption rate of H type strong acid cation exchange fiber was great, due to the H type having neutral reaction, and the adsorption capacity matched the ion exchange capacity. Although the Cu and Ni types features coordinated adsorption and their adsorption rates were from 1/2 to 1/3 of that of the H type, their adsorption capacities showed increase along with the metal adsorbed. (author)

  7. Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MELEKHIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have developed a mathematical model of process of heat exchange in heat exchange surfaces of apparatuses with the solution of multicriteria optimization problem and check its adequacy to the experimental stand in the visualization of thermal fields, an optimal range of managed parameters influencing the process of heat exchange with minimal metal consumption and the maximum heat output fin heat exchanger, the regularities of heat exchange process with getting generalizing dependencies distribution of temperature on the heat-release surface of the heat exchanger vehicles, defined convergence of the results of research in the calculation on the basis of theoretical dependencies and solving mathematical model.

  8. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  9. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  10. High temperature alloys and ceramic heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masaharu

    1984-04-01

    From the standpoint of energy saving, the future operating temperatures of process heat and gas turbine plants will become higher. For this purpose, ceramics is the most promissing candidate material in strength for application to high-temperature heat exchangers. This report deals with a servey of characteristics of several high-temperature metallic materials and ceramics as temperature-resistant materials; including a servey of the state-of-the-art of ceramic heat exchanger technologies developed outside of Japan, and a study of their application to the intermediate heat exchanger of VHTR (a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor). (author)

  11. Exchange students' motivations and language learning success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    One point investigated in our research project on the linguistic experiences of exchange students in Denmark and Sweden is the reasons students have for coming on exchange. Traditionally, an important goal of student exchange was to acquire improved language skills usually in the language spoken...... in the host country. To what extent is this true when students plan to study in English in a non-English speaking country? Do they hope and expect to improve their English skills, their knowledge of the local language, both, or neither? to what extent are these expectations fulfilled? Results form the project...

  12. Design of heat exchangers by numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Differential equations describing the heat tranfer in shell - and tube heat exchangers are derived and solved numerically. The method of ΔT sub(lm) is compared with the proposed method in cases where the specific heat at constant pressure, Cp and the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, vary with temperature. The error of the method of ΔT sub (lm) for the computation of the exchanger lenght is less than + 10%. However, the numerical method, being more accurate and at the same time easy to use and economical, is recommended for the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. (Author) [pt

  13. Concept development of exchange liquid regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    Concepts are described for regeneration of the intermediate liquid used for isotope exchange in indirect laser isotope separation processes where the laser operates on a process gas distinct from the feed stream. The specific case of regeneration of an exchange liquid consisting of water, sodium hydroxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide for a process to separate deuterium from hydrogen using laser irradiation of trifluoromethane gas is developed. A water feed stream is converted to steam which rises in a chemical process column where it redeuterates a descending flow of exchange liquid without causing significant changes in its chemical composition

  14. Skew chicane based betatron eigenmode exchange module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David

    2010-12-28

    A skewed chicane eigenmode exchange module (SCEEM) that combines in a single beamline segment the separate functionalities of a skew quad eigenmode exchange module and a magnetic chicane. This module allows the exchange of independent betatron eigenmodes, alters electron beam orbit geometry, and provides longitudinal parameter control with dispersion management in a single beamline segment with stable betatron behavior. It thus reduces the spatial requirements for multiple beam dynamic functions, reduces required component counts and thus reduces costs, and allows the use of more compact accelerator configurations than prior art design methods.

  15. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Shailesh M.; G, Agathian; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  16. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 high availability

    CERN Document Server

    Mota, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    This book is a hands-on practical guide that provides the reader with a number of clear scenarios and examples, making it easier to understand and apply the new concepts. Each chapter can be used as a reference, or it can be read from beginning to end, allowing consultants/administrators to build a solid and highly available Exchange 2013 environment. If you are a messaging professional who wants to learn to design a highly available Exchange 2013 environment, this book is for you. Although not a definite requirement, practical experience with Exchange 2010 is expected, without being a subject

  17. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  18. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice......-financial firms and find limited consistency in the detected exchange rate exposures when altering methodology in terms of observation frequency and choice of market index. The results put a question mark to the validity of the stock market approach for exchange rate exposure identification at the firm...

  19. Efficiency Tests in Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hsien Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is applying filter rules to examine the efficiency of foreign exchange. This paper uses three strategies of filter rules (buy long, sell short, buy long and sell short strategies to test the performance of the transaction for EUR, JPY, GBP. The findings show that people will obtain more return by taking buy long/ sell short strategies of filter rules without considering transaction cost. However, the transaction of these three foreign exchange rate (EUR, JPY, GBP will be more efficient by considering transaction cost. The results imply the foreign exchange market is efficient for the EUR, JPY and GBP.

  20. Europlanet-2020 NA1 Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, M.; Szego, K.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2017-09-01

    The task of Exchange Program of NA1 is to support the activities of EPN2020 with experts and scientific exchange whenever it is needed. Short visits (up to 1 week) with the goal of improving infrastructure facilities and services offered to the scientific community are supported from this task. Since the start of the EPN2020 in September 2015 we have received and approved 14 applications for exchange program travel. More general and specifically targeted calls are planned for the future. The calls are announced on Europlanet-2020 NA1 web site.

  1. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  2. Making a Voluntary Greek Debt Exchange Work

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Mitu; Zettelmeyer, Jeromin

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few months, the Greek government, is supposed to persuade private creditors holding about EUR 200bn in its bonds to voluntarily exchange their existing bonds for new bonds that pay roughly 50 percent less. This may work with large creditors whose failure to participate in a debt exchange could trigger a Greek default, but may not persuade smaller creditors, who will be told that their claims will continue to be fully serviced if they do not participate in the exchange. This pa...

  3. Employment and Social Exchange in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González de la Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on enigh 2008, 2010, and 2012 data, this article examines the relation between employment and people’s trust in their ability to access support networks in times of need. The results reveal that stable and protected employment is linked to higher levels of trust while precarious work is associated with a lower degree of belief in one’s ability to access social support and exchange networks. Money and time, according to this analysis, are key resources to participate in two distinct exchange circuits: monetary favour exchange and that involving care giving. 

  4. Foreign Exchange Markets in Russia: Understanding the Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes and interprets the changes that took place in Russia's exchange rate system during 1992. The multiple exchange rate regime that existed in Russia prior to July 3, 1992, created strong incentives for exporters to refrain from repatriating foreign exchange earnings, induced both importers and exporters to participate in unofficial markets for foreign exchange, and encouraged international barter transactions. Efforts to manage the exchange rate through heavy foreign exchange...

  5. Scaling in the Bombay stock exchange index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we study Bombay stock exchange (BSE) index financial time series for fractal and multifractal behaviour. We show that BSE index time series is monofractal and can be represented by a fractional Brownian motion.

  6. NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the...

  7. Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Agency Contact: Ira Brandriss, Division of Trading and Markets, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F... require the establishment of book- entry accounts in connection with reorganization events and would give...

  8. Program Integration for International Technology Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, New Mexico, supports the International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) through the integration of all international activities conducted within the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  9. Data Exchanges and Verifications Online (DEVO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEVO is the back-end application for processing SSN verifications and data exchanges. DEVO uses modern technology for parameter driven processing of both batch and...

  10. Heat exchangers: an energy viewpoint approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper, at first, presents a brief discussion of the concept of exergy. The second part studies the exchange of heat by conduction, convection and radiation as well as the irreversibilities due to the required temperature gradient. It shows the importance of the temperature level on the heat flux and the exergy lost. This analysis results also in conclusions on the fins and the thermal insulation. The third part studies the heat exchangers, in general. The loss of exergy due to the thermal exchange permits a comparison of the thermal value of these apparatus and, as well, shows the influence of the isothermal change of state of a fluid, i.e. in vaporization. Finally, based on the conclusions reached above, different types of heat exchangers used in industrial applications are analysed [fr

  11. Lightweight Thermal Storage Heat Exchangers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal aims to develop thermal energy storage heat exchangers that are significantly lighter and higher conductance than the present art which involves...

  12. Multiprocessor shared-memory information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoline, L.L.; Bowers, M.D.; Crew, A.W.; Roslund, C.J.; Ghrist, W.D. III

    1989-01-01

    In distributed microprocessor-based instrumentation and control systems, the inter-and intra-subsystem communication requirements ultimately form the basis for the overall system architecture. This paper describes a software protocol which addresses the intra-subsystem communications problem. Specifically the protocol allows for multiple processors to exchange information via a shared-memory interface. The authors primary goal is to provide a reliable means for information to be exchanged between central application processor boards (masters) and dedicated function processor boards (slaves) in a single computer chassis. The resultant Multiprocessor Shared-Memory Information Exchange (MSMIE) protocol, a standard master-slave shared-memory interface suitable for use in nuclear safety systems, is designed to pass unidirectional buffers of information between the processors while providing a minimum, deterministic cycle time for this data exchange

  13. Tri-state research peer exchange 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The research offices of the Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire departments of transportation : hosted a peer exchange on October 26-28, 2010 in Berlin, Vermont. Representatives from three : other state DOTs, the Transportation Research Board (TRB), an...

  14. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  15. CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

  16. Iowa DOT project management peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This project supported the planning and conduct of a two-day Iowa Department of Transportationhosted peer exchange for state : agencies that have implemented some or all of the suggested strategies outlined in the Second Strategic Highway Research...

  17. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  18. Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-12

    A report detailing the presentations and topics discussed at the Offshore Energy Knowledge Exchange Workshop, an event designed to bring together offshore energy industry representatives to share information, best practices, and lessons learned.

  19. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) international research exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ITS applications address surface transportation challenges in safety, mobility, and : sustainability that are similar in cause and impact worldwide. International ITS : exchange allows cooperating nations to benefit from each others pre-competitiv...

  20. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  1. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –1 dry exchanger, respectively. The material ... been found to have better properties than the simple salts of metals. The selectivity may be enhanced ... capacity and higher stability at elevated temperature. This paper deals with the synthesis, ...

  2. Development of the stock exchange information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Radojko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stock exchange represents the key institution for the development of capital market of any country. Thus the information system of every stock exchange must satisfy very strict international standards. The development of these systems is particularly difficult in countries in transition, due to intense economic and legal changes, lack of technical and financial resources, lack of experience and knowledge in the area of the capital market business, etc. Therefore the special software project management methodology for their realization must be clearly defined. In the development process of the Belgrade Stock Exchange (BSE information system a new software project management methodology for its realization has been defined, the application of which is illustrated through a series of different development stages of the Belgrade Stock Exchange information system. In order to make all the problems more comprehensive, only the continuous trading method is described, being the most frequently used trading method in the world.

  3. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  4. Modelling of isotope exchange experiments in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    Isotope exchange experiments from hydrogen to deuterium in JET are theoretically described by employing a simple global isotope exchange model. Experimental results for discharges with limiter temperature around 250 0 C can be approximated by this model if an additional slow diffusion process of hydrogen in the limiter bulk is assumed. In discharges where thermal desorption occurs due to higher limiter temperatures (> or approx. 1000 0 C) (post carbonisation discharges) the change over process seems to be predominantly governed by thermal processes. (orig.)

  5. A Model of B2B Exchanges

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Fath; Miklos Sarvary

    2001-01-01

    B2B exchanges are revolutionizing the way businesses will buy and sell a variety of intermediary products and services. It is estimated that most of the roughly $7 trillion worth of business transactions are likely to go through these new institutions within the next decade. This paper tries to understand the economics governing the transactions within B2B exchanges and analyze their likely evolution over time. In doing so, we start by providing the rigorous definitions to a number of critica...

  6. Modelling and simulation of a heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Deabreu-Garcia, J. Alex; Hartley, Tom T.

    1991-01-01

    Two models for two different control systems are developed for a parallel heat exchanger. First by spatially lumping a heat exchanger model, a good approximate model which has a high system order is produced. Model reduction techniques are applied to these to obtain low order models that are suitable for dynamic analysis and control design. The simulation method is discussed to ensure a valid simulation result.

  7. The Balescu kinetic equation with exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V V; Kukharenko, Yu A

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the distribution functions, we have obtained the quantum kinetic equation including the dynamical screening of the interaction potential, which exactly takes into account the exchange scattering in the plasma. The collision integral is expressed in terms of the Green function of the linearized Hartree–Fock equation. The potential energy takes into account the polarization and exchange interaction too

  8. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  9. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  10. Heat exchanger for power generation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalan, Nirm Velumylm; Bowman, Michael John

    2005-06-14

    A heat exchanger for a turbine is provided wherein the heat exchanger comprises a heat transfer cell comprising a sheet of material having two opposed ends and two opposed sides. In addition, a plurality of concavities are disposed on a surface portion of the sheet of material so as to cause hydrodynamic interactions and affect a heat transfer rate of the turbine between a fluid and the concavities when the fluid is disposed over the concavities.

  11. Design concept for vessels and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfmann, W.; Ferrari, L.D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A design concept for vessels and heat exchangers against internal and external loads resulting from normal operation and accident is shown. A definition and explanation of the operating conditions and stress levels are given. A description of the type of analysis (stress, fatigue, deformation, stability, earthquake and vibration) is presented in detail, also including technical guidelines which are used for the vessels and heat exchangers and their individual structure parts. (Author) [pt

  12. Labour Demand and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Broll; Sabine Hansen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess under what conditions exchange rate volatility exerts a positive effect on a firm's labour demand. As the exchange rate volatility increases, so does the value of the export option provided the firm under study is flexible. Flexibility is important because it gives the firm option value. Higher volatility increases the potential gains from trade and may increase the demand for labour. This may explain part of the mixed empirical findings regarding the ef...

  13. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  14. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1999-01-01

    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....

  15. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  16. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  17. When Ligand Exchange Leads to Ion Exchange: Nanocrystal Facets Dictate the Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewavitharana, Indika K; Brock, Stephanie L

    2017-11-28

    This study demonstrates that ligand exchange of nanocrystals (NCs) is not always an innocuous process, but can lead to facile (room temperature) ion exchange, depending on the surface crystal faceting. Rock salt PbTe NCs prepared as cubes with neutral facets undergo room-temperature ligand exchange with sulfide ions, whereas cuboctahedron-shaped particles with neutral {100} and polar {111} facets are transformed to PbS, driven by ion exchange along the ⟨111⟩ direction. Likewise, cation exchange (with Ag + ) occurs rapidly for cuboctahedra, whereas cubes remain inert. This dramatic difference is attributed to the relative surface area of {111} facets that promote rapid ion exchange and shows how facet engineering is a powerful knob for the control of reaction pathways in nanoparticles.

  18. SU3 comparison of line reversed charge exchange and hypercharge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, C.J.S.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Wickens, F.; Buran, T.; Homer, R.J.; Wilson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent data at 10.1 GeV/c on the hypercharge exchange reactions π + p→K + Σ + and π + p→K + Σ + (1385) and the line reversed processes are compared with the SU 3 related charge exchange processes K + n→K 0 p and K + p→K 0 Δ ++ and their line reversed partners in order to study the systematics of line reversal breaking. Allowing for a t-independent SU 3 breaking between charge and hypercharge exchange the data follow the SU 3 relations. It is concluded that the line reversal breaking in the hypercharge exchange reactions is in agreement with the breaking in exchange degeneracy (in both flip and non-flip amplitudes) which is observed for the charge exchange processes. (Auth.)

  19. Design study of plastic film heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop and design a unique thermoplastic film heat exchanger for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator system and other energy recovery applications. The concept for the exchanger is that of individual heat exchange elements formed by two adjoining and freely hanging plastic films. Liquid flows downward in a regulated fashion between the films due to the balance of hydrostatic and frictional forces. The fluid stream on the outside of film may be a free-falling liquid film, a condensing gas, or a noncondensing gas. The flow and structural principles are similar to those embodied in an earlier heat exchange system developed for use in waste water treatment systems (Sanderson). The design allows for high heat transfer rates while working within the thermal and structural limitations of thermoplastic materials. The potential of this new heat exchanger design lies in the relatively low cost of plastic film and the high inherent corrosion and fouling resistance. This report addresses the selection of materials, the potential heat transf er performance, the mechanical design and operation of a unit applied in a low pressure steam recovery system, and the expected selling price in comparison to conventional metallic shell and tube heat exchangers.

  20. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  1. Real Exchange Rates in Advanced Transition Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Grubacic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent evidence from Eastern Europe suggests that one of the major obstacles towards the adoption of euro may lie in the impact that the recession of 2008 exerted on the trajectory of real exchange rates in new member countries (European Commission, 2015.  This paper aims to establish and explain the relationship between the external shocks derived from the global financial crisis and recession of 2008 and equilibrium real exchange rate in advanced transition economies of Eastern Europe. The interplay between the external and internal balances is explained by developing an inter-temporal optimizing model of the real exchange rate determination in a small open economy with structural distortions. The results of our model suggest that, in the aftermath of recession, if the Eastern European economies attempt to restore and maintain the balance between the consumption, saving, and investment, the equilibrium real exchange rate will tend to reverse its trajectory from appreciation to depreciation over time in order to encourage a greater production in the future. The equilibrium real exchange rate depreciation in the future may obtain either as a result of an increase in the direct subsidies on investment or as a result of reduced subsidies on the "net-of-investment" income.  The deprecation of countries’ real exchange rate, however, may continue to act as an effective constraint against the adoption of euro.

  2. 3.5 Radiation stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.

    1976-01-01

    The main knowledge is summed up of the radiation stability of ion exchangers. No basic changes occur in inorganic ion exchangers with the exception of the exchange capacity at doses of up to 10 9 rad. This also applies to coal-based ion exchangers. Tables are given showing the changes in specific volume, exchange capacity and weight of different types of organic ion exchangers in dependence on the radiation dose. The effects are discussed of the structure of organic cation and anion exchangers, polymeric strong basic anion exchangers, polycondensate anion exchangers and ion exchange membranes on their radiation stability. General experimental procedures are given for laboratory tests of the radiation stability of exchangers. (L.K.)

  3. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Real exchange rate misalignment and economic performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the behavior of equilibrium exchange rate and real exchange rate misalignment in Sudan over the period 1979– 2009. In addition, the impact of real exchange rate misalignment on economic performance is examined. The empirical results show that the equilibrium exchange rate is significantly ...

  6. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  7. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood or...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered rotorcraft the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff may have stagnant...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 25.1125 Section 25... exchangers. For reciprocating engine powered airplanes, the following apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger... provisions wherever it is subject to contact with exhaust gases; and (4) No exhaust heat exchanger or muff...

  10. 40 CFR 63.104 - Heat exchange system requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat exchange system or at locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers. (i) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of recirculating... manufacturing process units. (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or any...

  11. A re-examination of the exchange rate overshooting hypothesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... This finding is inconsistent with the monetary model of exchange rate determination, which asserts that there is a long-run relationship between the exchange rate ... Key words: Exchange rates, monetary model, autoregressive distributed lag, cointegration, exchange rate overshooting ...

  12. [Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation.

  13. 22 CFR 23.4 - Representative value in exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representative value in exchange. 23.4 Section... Representative value in exchange. Representative value in exchange for the collection of a fee means foreign currency equivalent to the prescribed United States dollar fee at the current rate of exchange at the time...

  14. The nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange risk management research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    To manage and control foreign exchange rate risk under the floating exchange rate system, historical simulation method of VaR model has been utilized to evaluate the nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange risk and the risk causation has been analyzed. Finally, the measure of enhancing the nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange rate risk management level has been exposed for sharing. (author)

  15. Health Information Exchange: What do patients want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Chang, Lawrence; Rhodes, Karin V

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether emergency department patients want to share their medical records across health systems through Health Information Exchange and if so, whether they prefer to sign consent or share their records automatically, 982 adult patients presenting to an emergency department participated in a questionnaire-based interview. The majority (N = 906; 92.3%) were willing to share their data in a Health Information Exchange. Half (N = 490; 49.9%) reported routinely getting healthcare outside the system and 78.6 percent reported having records in other systems. Of those who were willing to share their data in a Health Information Exchange, 54.3 percent wanted to sign consent but 90 percent of those would waive consent in the case of an emergency. Privacy and security were primary concerns of patients not willing to participate in Health Information Exchange and preferring to sign consent. Improved privacy and security protections could increase participation, and findings support consideration of "break-the-glass" provider access to Health Information Exchange records in an emergent situation.

  16. Isotopic exchange of deuterium in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

    1981-01-01

    The information obtainable from the study of deuterium isotope exchange in zeolites by i.r. and m.s. methods is discussed. The conditions necessary for high sensitivity determination of OH groups by gas-phase analysis are mentioned together with a determination of the hydroxyl number in the 3 types of OH groups found in HNaY zeolite by solid-phase analysis. The advantage of the i.r. method in the study of hydroxyl heterogeneity in isotopic exchange is compared with the limited success of the m.s. method. The evaluation of the rates of homo- and hetero-exchange and their dependences on cationic exchange, stabilization and the pretreatment of Msup(n+)HY zeolites are shown. The activation of hydrogen molecules seems to be the slowest step in the exchange which proceeds by a single-step mechanism. The OH groups alone do not activate hydrogen molecules as opposed to Lewis sites formed by dehydroxylation and cations and/or metal particles in suitable concentrations at suitable locations. (author)

  17. International exchange of safety and licensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, J.D. Jr.; Hauber, R.D.; Chenier, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A network of formal and informal bilateral arrangements for the exchange of nuclear safety information is being established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. For developing countries such arrangements can provide ready access to the extensive, fully documented safety analyses and safety research results that USNRC has accumulated. USNRC has been receiving foreign visitors at a rate of about 500 per year, largely for discussions of safety and licensing questions related to light water reactors. Exchanges also are taking place on the safety of advanced reactors. A special interest of the USNRC is in providing for reciprocal communication, at the earliest possible time, of important problems, decisions and other actions on nuclear safety matters. For example, it is essential that a newly discovered problem in a nuclear reactor be brought immediately to the attention of other governments that are responsible for the safety of similar reactors. Definite progress has been made in the USA in defining categories of information that USNRC can receive in confidence from foreign countries, and can protect from disclosure under the US Freedom of Information Act. Certain exchanges have taken place on this basis. Experience in the establishment and operation of USNRC's bilateral exchange arrangements is summarized. A typical exchange with the regulatory authority of a country building its first power reactor is described. (author)

  18. International exchange of safety and licensing information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, J.D. Jr.; Hauber, R.D.; Chenier, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A network of formal and informal bilateral arrangements for the exchange of nuclear safety information is being established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. For developing countries, such arrangements can provide ready access to the extensive, fully documented safety analyses and safety research results that NRC has accumulated. NRC has been receiving foreign visitors at a rate of about 500 per year, largely for discussions of safety and licensing questions related to light water reactors. Exchanges also are taking place on the safety of advanced reactors. A special interest of the NRC is in providing for reciprocal communicaion, at the earliest possible time, of important problems, decisions and other actions on nuclear safety matters. For example, it is essential that a newly-discovered problem in a nuclear reactor be brought immediately to the attention of other governments which are responsible for the safety of similar reactors. Definite progress has been made in the U.S. Freedom of Information Act. Certain exchanges have taken place on this basis. Experience in the establishment and operation of NRC's bilateral exchange arrangements is summarized. A typical exchange with the regulatory authority of country building its first power reactor is described

  19. Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Sean; Stephan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) poses unique thermal challenges for the orbiting space craft, particularly regarding the performance of the radiators. The IR environment of the space craft varies drastically from the light side to the dark side of the moon. The result is a situation where a radiator sized for the maximal heat load in the most adverse situation is subject to freezing on the dark side of the orbit. One solution to this problem is to implement Phase Change Material (PCM) Heat Exchangers. PCM Heat Exchangers act as a "thermal capacitor," storing thermal energy when there is too much being produced by the space craft to reject to space, and then feeding that energy back into the thermal loop when conditions are more favorable. Because they do not use an expendable resource, such as the feed water used by sublimators and evaporators, PCM Heat Exchangers are ideal for long duration LLO missions. In order to validate the performance of PCM Heat Exchangers, a life test is being conducted on four n-Pentadecane, carbon filament heat exchangers. Fluid loop performance, repeatability, and measurement of performance degradation over 2500 melt-freeze cycles will be performed.

  20. 78 FR 46622 - Application of Topaz Exchange, LLC for Registration as a National Securities Exchange; Findings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ..., Opinion, and Order of the Commission July 26, 2013. I. Introduction On July 3, 2012, Topaz Exchange, LLC... Exchange is structured as a Delaware limited liability company ] (``LLC''), and is a wholly-owned... directors, including three Non-Industry Directors),\\45\\ a Finance and Audit Committee (consisting of between...

  1. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 62 - Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Visitor Program Services, Exchange-Visitor Program Application B Appendix B to Part 62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY... Media and Communications; 03—Education; 04—Business and Commercial; 05—Banking and Financial; 06...

  2. Where Would the EUR/CHF Exchange Rate be Without the SNB's Minimum Exchange Rate Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanke, Michael; Poulsen, Rolf; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Since its announcement made on September 6, 2011, the Swiss National Bank (SNB) has been pursuing the goal of a minimum EUR/CHF exchange rate of 1.20, promising to intervene on currency markets to prevent the exchange rate from falling below this level.We use a compound option pricing approach...

  3. Exchange-rate forecasts and asymmetric loss: empirical evidence for the yen/dollar exchange rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    We used the yen/dollar exchange-rate forecasts of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) poll to analyse whether exchange-rate forecasters have an asymmetric loss function. To this end, we applied an approach recently developed by Elliott et al. (2005). We found that only few forecasters seem to form...

  4. 76 FR 25774 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... to greater counterparty credit risk. Settlement of most types of swaps and derivatives involves only... counterparty credit risks. Foreign exchange swaps and forwards generally are subject to the requirements of the..., rather than counterparty credit risk. Settlement risk in foreign exchange swaps and forwards already has...

  5. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  6. QCD Structure of Nuclear Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-05-25

    This dissertation investigated selected processes involving baryons and nuclei in hard scattering reactions. Through these processes, this work explored the constituent structure of baryons and the mechanisms through which the interactions between these constituents ultimately control the selected reactions. First, hard nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering was studied considering the quark exchange (QE) between the nucleons to be the dominant mechanism of interaction in the constituent picture. It was found that an angular asymmetry exhibited by proton-neutron (pn) elastic scattering data is explained within this framework if a quark-diquark picture dominates the nucleon's structure instead of a more traditional SU(6) model. The latter yields an asymmetry around 90 deg center of mass scattering with a sign opposite to what is experimentally observed. The second process is the hard breakup by a photon of a nucleon-nucleon system in light nuclei. Proton-proton (pp) and pn breakup in 3He, and double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup were analyzed in the hard rescattering model (HRM), which in conjunction with the QE mechanism provides a QCD description of the reaction. Cross sections for both channels in 3He photodisintegration were computed without the need of a fitting parameter. The results presented here for pp breakup show excellent agreement with recent experimental data. In double Δ-isobars production in deuteron breakup, HRM angular distributions for the two double Δ channels were compared to the pn channel and to each other. An important prediction from this study is that the Δ++ Δ- channel consistently dominates Δ+Δ0, which is in contrast with models that unlike the HRM consider a double Δ system in the initial state of the interaction. For such models both channels should have the same strength.

  7. Argentina's experience with parallel exchange markets: 1981-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Steven B. Kamin

    1991-01-01

    This paper surveys the development and operation of the parallel exchange market in Argentina during the 1980s, and evaluates its impact upon macroeconomic performance and policy. The historical evolution of Argentina's exchange market policies is reviewed in order to understand the government's motives for imposing exchange controls. The parallel exchange market engendered by these controls is then analyzed, and econometric methods are used to evaluate the behavior of the parallel exchange r...

  8. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The dual temperature exchange apparatus, with a dual temperature stage having a hot processing tower and a cold processing tower, is provided with means for transferring heat from the hot processed gas to both liquid and gas being delivered to the hot processing tower. The heat exchange system provides means for effecting direct contact between the hot processed gas and the cold processed liquid being delivered to the hot tower, means for establishing a circulation of the resulting heated processed liquid, and means including an indirect contact exchanger for transferring heat from said circulation to condition the gas being supplied to the hot processing tower. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  9. Exchange of experience with like-minded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    As an industry-oriented research center MAPP wishes to contribute to dialogue and exchange of experience in the food industry. The product development forum, a network consisting of product developers from a number of food companies is an important initiative in that direction. Demanding consumers......, and an obvious way to improve product development skills is through dialogue with like-minded in a network like the product development forum. Here you can exchange experience, talk about current problems and get inspiration and advice. An important criterion for success in the product development forum...... is the necessity for intimacy and openness when exchanging experience. The product development forum consists of non-competing food companies producing bread, sweets, chewing gum, spirits, beer, coffee, fish, cheese, meat etc. but also ingredients producers and machine suppliers are represented. MAPP coordinates...

  10. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  11. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  12. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  13. Antiferromagnetic exchange mechanism of superconductivity in cuprates

    CERN Document Server

    Plakida, N M

    2001-01-01

    One examines theory of superconducting coupling resulted from antiferromagnetic exchange in terms of which one explains strong dependence of T sub c superconducting transition temperature on alpha lattice constant. Calculations are based on the Hubbard p-d two-region model within strong correlation limit. DELTA pd excitation high energy at antiferromagnetic exchange of two particles from different Hubbard subregions results in suppression o delay effects and in coupling of all particles in conductivity subregion with Fermi energy E sub F >= DELTA pd : T sub c approx = E sub F exp(-1/lambda), where lambda propor to J. T sub c (alpha) and isotopic effect are explained by J exchange interaction dependence on alpha and on zero oscillations of oxygen ions

  14. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A ampersand 038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports

  15. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Every international business is affected by the ever-changing value of the currencies implied in contracts. While many of us consider this unpredictability a nuisance, the volatility of currencies around the world can mean the difference between success and failure for many exporters/importers. Exchange rates between one currency and another can change dramatically in a short period of time, leaving the unprepared business exposed to potentially crippling losses. The efficient management of this risk is essential for the survival of a company and any business that is exposed to such a risk should ensure that it is fully prepared to manage it. Old standbys and recent breakthroughs in the area of financial risk management can remove much of the risk from currency rate movements. The range of such products is huge, with increasingly sophisticated techniques constantly being added. Among the most modern methods for managing exchange risk there are four major classes of derivative products like: forwards, futures, options, and swaps. Beyond the four main types of risk management instruments, there are a number of other products including "swaptions" (options on swaps; avenging options; yield curve swaps; futures on spreads; and options on portfolios. Sophisticated mathematical tools and high-speed computers are needed to calculate the price of these instruments and to determine their overall effect on the company. In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they're traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to

  16. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Hadron spectroscopy in double pomeron exchange experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrow, Michael G.

    2017-03-01

    Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p → p + X + p, where the + represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.

  18. Have Betting Exchanges Corrupted Horse Racing?

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Brown; Fuyu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Betting exchanges allow punters to bet on a horse to lose a race. This, many argue, has opened up the sport to a new form of corruption, where races will be deliberately lost in order to profit from betting. We examine whether anecdotal evidence of the fixing of horses to lose—of which there are many examples—is indicative of wider corruption. Following a “forensic economics” approach, we build an asymmetric information model of exchange betting and take it to betting data on 9,560 races run ...

  19. Magnetic Exchange Couplings from Local Spin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajendra; Abate, Bayileyegn Akanie; Peralta, Juan

    We propose a method to calculate the magnetic exchange coupling parameters in transition metal complexes from a single spin-configuration. Our method uses constraint density functional theory and a local spin population analysis in combination to a non spin formalism to effectively extract the magnetic exchange parameter from the derivative of the electronic energy and spin pair correlation values. We show proof-of-concept calculations on the H-He-H systems and small transition metal complexes. DOE DE-SC0005027.

  20. Observer-based monitoring of heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga-Zaragoza, Carlos-Manuel; Alvarado-Martínez, Víctor-Manuel; Zavala-Río, Arturo; Méndez-Ocaña, Rafael-Maxim; Guerrero-Ramírez, Gerardo-Vicente

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a method for monitoring performance degradation in counter-flow double-pipe heat exchangers. The overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated by an adaptive observer and monitored in order to infer when the heat exchanger needs preventive or corrective maintenance. A simplified mathematical model is used to synthesize the adaptive observer and a more complex model is used for simulation. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated via numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with a bench-scale pilot plant.