WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-piece armored cab

  1. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  2. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (p<0.05). Also, there were fewer unplanned changes (p<0.0005) seen with SenSura than with the reference appliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (p<0.0005), and they had greater resistance to erosion (p<0.05). In conclusion, SenSura performed better than the reference appliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  3. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the cab. Cab floors shall be kept free of tripping or slipping hazards. The cab climate shall be... fastened to the cab. New construction or renewals made of iron or steel pipe greater than 1/8 inch NPS that...

  4. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  5. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  6. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelwahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  7. Biological Width around One- and Two-Piece Implants Retrieved from Human Jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Judgar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several histologic studies regarding peri-implant soft tissues and biological width around dental implants have been done in animals. However, these findings in human peri-implant soft tissues are very scarce. Therefore, the aim of this case series was to compare the biological width around unloaded one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws. Eight partially edentulous patients received 2 test implants in the posterior mandible: one-piece (solid implants that comprise implant and abutment in one piece and two-piece (external hexagon with a healing abutment implants. After 4 months of healing, the implants and surrounding tissue were removed for histologic analysis. The retrieved implants showed healthy peri-implant bone and exhibited early stages of maturation. Marginal bone loss, gaps, and fibrous tissue were not present around retrieved specimens. The biologic width dimension ranged between 2.55 ± 0.16 and 3.26 ± 0.15 to one- and two-piece implants, respectively (P0.05. Within the limits of this study, it could be shown that two-piece implants resulted in the thickening of the connective tissue attachment, resulting in the increase of the biological width, when compared to one-piece implants.

  8. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Lestari Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    prosedur bedah dan prosedur prostetik lebih sederhana. Desain ini juga meniadakan celah mikro pada perbatasan implant dan abutment. Desain implant gigi one-piece memiliki keterbatasan pada pilihan prosedur prostetik apabila dibandingkan dengan desain implant gigi two-pieces.   One-Piece Versus Two-pieces Tooth Implant In Daily Practice. Implant had been a gold standard to replace missing tooth. However, implant marketed today was considered complex, and needs a second surgery. Complications may occur such as screw loosening or fracture and the presence of micro gap at implant-abutment-junction that is found causing fixture failure. The one-piece-implant design may offer some advantages. Purpose: this paper was aimed to discuss the pros and cons of one-piece-implants and two-piece-implants. Case 1 A 43-year-old woman came to place an implant on #16. The available bone height was 5 mm. A trans alveolar sinus lift procedure was performed with 0,5 cc allograft. A 12 mm one-piece-implant was inserted. Case 2 A 24-year-old woman came to place an implant on #46. The available bone height was 12 mm and a 10 mm two-piece-implant was inserted. Discussion: One-piece-implant offers some advantage. It needs no second surgery, easier placement protocol, and more natural prosthetic procedures. The design is preventing the failure in implant-abutment-junction failure. The absence of micro gap in one-piece-implant seems superior in preventing crestal bone resorption. However, the prosthetic option was limited in one-piece-implant. Two-piece-implant offers more choices in prosthetic abutment. Conclusion: One-piece-implant was easier and provide simple protocol with limited choice on prosthetic.

  9. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Lestari Kurnia; Amilia Ramadhani; Rikko Hudyono

    2014-01-01

    Saat ini, implant merupakan pilihan terbaik untuk menggantikan gigi yang tanggal, akan tetapi prosedur pemasangannya terbilang rumit dan memerlukan prosedur bedah kedua untuk pemasangan prostetik. Beberapa komplikasi seperti screw patah atau longgar dan adanya celah mikro pada batas pertemuan implant dan abutment dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implant. Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai keuntungan dan kerugian desain implant gigi one-piece dan two-pieces. Kasus pertama, seorang wa...

  10. Smart Armor Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-30

    related issues and design of controller systems. (d) Actuator design and optimization of location. 6. Evaluation of electrorheological fluid systems...5 III.2 Smart Actuation to Preserve Armor Integrity . . 16 111.3 Microactuators and their Application to Smart Armors ........ ... o...Contour After 100 Cycles With Smart Actuation . .. ............ 30 Figure 111.2.10 Stress Contour After 100 Cycles With Smart Actuation

  11. Simulation of Double-Seaming in a Two-piece Aluminum Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanko, Anne; Berry, Dale; Fox, David

    2004-06-01

    The aluminum can industry in the United States and Canada manufactures over 100 billion cans per year. Two-piece aluminum cans are commonly used to seal and deliver foodstuffs such as soft drinks, beer, pet food, and other perishable items. In order to ensure product safety and performance, the double seam between the can body and lid is a critical component of the package. Double-seaming is a method by which the flange of the can body and the curl of the end are folded over together such that the final joint is composed of five metal thicknesses. There are a number of design challenges involved with the art of double seaming, especially with the push to lightweight. Although the requirements vary by product, the typical beer package must be able to hold pressures in excess of 90psi. In addition, in production, double seaming is a high-speed operation with speeds as high as 3000 cans/minute on an 18-spindle seamer. For this high volume, low cost industry, understanding and optimizing the seaming process can advance the industry as well as help prevent various manufacturing problems that produce a poor seal between the two pieces of the can. To aid in understanding the mechanics of the can parts during double-seaming, a simulation procedure was developed and carried out on a 202 diameter beverage can and lid. Simulations were run with the explicit dynamics solver ABAQUS/Explicit using the continuum shell element technology available in the ABAQUS general purpose FEA program. The continuum shell is a shear-deformable shell element with the topology of an eight node brick. The element's formulation allows continuously varying, solution-dependent shell thickness and through-thickness pinching stress. One important advantage of using the continuum shell as opposed to a traditional shell element is that true contact interactions at the top and bottom surfaces of the can body and lid can be accurately modeled. With a conventional shell element, contact is performed at the

  12. Calculation of theoretical lubrication regimes in two-piece first metatarsophalangeal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T J

    2008-01-01

    The key joint of the forefoot during gait is the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It plays an important role in propelling the human form but can be subject to a number of diseases which can lead to its replacement with an artificial joint. Some of these designs of prosthesis employ a two-piece ball and socket arrangement and are available with a range of biomaterial couples including ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal and metal-on-polymer. Calculation of predicted lubrication regimes applicable to these implant designs was undertaken. Modelling the ball and socket implant as an equivalent ball-on-plane model and employing elastohydrodynamic theory allowed the minimum film thickness to be calculated and in turn the lambda ratio to indicate the lubrication regime. The calculations were undertaken for a 50 to 1500 N range of loading values, a 0 to 30 mm/s range of entraining velocities, and a 3 to 15 mm radius range of sizes. Calculations showed that the ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal implants could operate under fluid film lubrication, whereas the metal-on-polymer combination operated in the boundary lubrication regime. It was also recognized that manufacturing capabilities are critical to the radial clearances and values of surface roughness that can be achieved, and thus the predicted lubrication regime.

  13. Armor in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    AD-A 171 390 Y" I E T NO A Ima ELET SThIB doowievnnt has been approved for publico release and sale , it. diotribution is unlimitod. - 86 7~ 15 069...a 1,000-man advance party, the entire division was transported by sea; therefore, deployment time did not prevent the division from taking armor with...arrange for transportation F to get the items to their unit. Compounding this problem for, the armor units was a lack of proper maintenance support by the

  14. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  15. Embedded-monolith armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  16. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visibility of cab signals. 236.515 Section 236.515..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.515 Visibility of cab signals. The cab signals...

  17. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  18. Survivability Armor Ballistic Laboratory (SABL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SABL provides independent analysis, ballistic testing, data collection, data reduction and qualification of current and advanced armors. Capabilities: The SABL...

  19. Torque Removal Evaluation of Screw in One-Piece and Two-Piece Abutments Tightened with a Handheld screwdriver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some clinicians use a handheld screw driver instead of a torque wrench to definitively tighten abutment screws. The aim of this study was to compare the removal torque of one-piece and two-piece abutments tightened with a handheld driver and a torque control ratchet. Methods: 40 ITI implants were placed in acrylic blocks and divided into 4 groups. In groups one and two, 10 ITI one-piece abutments (Solid® and in groups three and four, 10 ITI two-piece abutments (Synocta® were placed on the implants. In groups one and three abutments were tightened by 5 experienced males and 5 experienced females using a handheld driver. In groups two and four abutments were tightened using a torque wrench with torque values of 10, 20 and 35 N.cm. Insertion torque and removal torque values of the abutments were measured with a digital torque meter. Results: The insertion torque values (ITVs of males in both abutments were significantly higher than those of females. ITVs in both Solid® and Synocta® abutments tightened with a handheld screwdriver were similar to the torque of 20 N.cm in the torque wrench. Removal torque values (RTVs of solid® abutments were higher than those of synocta® abutments. Conclusion: The one- piece abutments (solid® showed higher RTVs than the two-piece abutments (synocta®. Hand driver does not produce sufficient preload force for the final tightening of the abutment

  20. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  1. Armor in Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    the 4th Armored Division in its slow, difficult drive toward the German border which began 10 November fran assembly areas just east of Nancy . From...over. Half his mission accomplished, Blevins still had to find the 2d Squad. By luc ~k he met them near No. 44 and delivered his message to PFC Phillip...some sign of progress, Bohn ordered one of his tank companies to strike ahead without pause, cross the St. Jean - de taye-Pont Hebert highway, and move

  2. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  3. Repair of damaged connectors of tunneled cuffed catheters with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Letachowicz, Waldemar; Weyde, Waclaw; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Wątorek, Ewa; Klinger, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Although catheter use exposes the patient to several complications, tunneled cuffed catheters are widely applied for temporary or long-term vascular access. The aim of the study was to establish the rate of tunneled dialysis catheter damage and report our experience with breakage repair. All 363 cuffed tunneled hemodialysis catheters inserted into 309 patients from May 2000 to December 2008 were followed up. When connector damage was encountered, repair with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis was attempted. Mechanical breakage occurred in 33 (9.1%) of catheters with an incidence of 0.36/1000 catheter-days. The most frequent was connector damage, found in 25 cases (67.6%). Catheter repair using a peritoneal dialysis Luer adaptor was performed with good early and long-term outcome. Tunneled catheter breakage is a relatively rare complication. Catheter repair using the adaptor for peritoneal dialysis is easy to perform, safe, and cost-effective.

  4. Armor and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  5. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC......) Yellow and Green cabs. The problem investigated revolves around where exactly Green cabs are losing market share to Uber outside Manhattan and what, if any, measures can be taken to preserve market share? Two datasets were included in the analysis including all rides of Green cabs and Uber respectively...

  6. Engineering model for body armor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.; Carton, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an engineering model for flexible body armor, as one of their energy based engineering models that describe the physics of projectile to target interactions (weaves, metals, ceramics). These models form the basis for exploring the possibilities for protection improvement. This

  7. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model...

  8. Research and Development on Armor, National Defense and Research Committee, Watertown Arsenal Laboratory - Armor Section, 1942-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Alloy Conservation Program; Brittle Fracture in Ballistic Tests at Low Temperature; Nonballistic Tests; Fibre Fracture Test; Fracture Test for Steel Soundness; Notched Bar Tensile Impact Test; Notched Bar Tensile Test and Static Tensile Test ; Notched Bar Impact Test; Cast Armor Development Program; Temper Brittleness in Armor; Aircraft Armor; Examination of Domestic Armor; Helmet Programs; and Body Armor Programs.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of one-piece and two-piece small-diameter dental implants: In-vitro experimental and three-dimensional finite element analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li

    2016-09-01

    Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  11. Highly Flexible Protein-Peptide Docking Using CABS-Dock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemny, Maciej Paweł; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kozak, Konrad Jakub; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Protein-peptide molecular docking is a difficult modeling problem. It is even more challenging when significant conformational changes that may occur during the binding process need to be predicted. In this chapter, we demonstrate the capabilities and features of the CABS-dock server for flexible protein-peptide docking. CABS-dock allows highly efficient modeling of full peptide flexibility and significant flexibility of a protein receptor. During CABS-dock docking, the peptide folding and binding process is explicitly simulated and no information about the peptide binding site or its structure is used. This chapter presents a successful CABS-dock use for docking a potentially therapeutic peptide to a protein target. Moreover, simulation contact maps, a new CABS-dock feature, are described and applied to the docking test case. Finally, a tutorial for running CABS-dock from the command line or command line scripts is provided. The CABS-dock web server is available from http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock/ .

  12. Autoinflation Leading to Failure of Two-Piece Ambicor Implantable Penile Prosthesis: An Outcome from a Methodical Treatment of Recalcitrant Stuttering Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charles Welliver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present the case of a patient who received a two-piece Ambicor penile prosthesis for idiopathic recurrent “stuttering” priapism refractory to other treatment options. The patient returned unable to deflate the device due to an interesting anatomically induced mechanical failure. Aims. To describe the method and findings of this inflatable prosthesis failure. Results. Prosthesis failure occurred due to restrictive corporal diameter and the unique characteristics of fluid reservoir location in the two-piece inflatable prosthesis. The patient was successfully converted to a semirigid prosthesis with resolution of the pain that was due to his prosthesis autoinflation. Conclusion. Stuttering priapism remains a challenging clinical problem. Penile implantation is a reasonable long-term solution in a patient refractory to less invasive options. In patients with fibrotic corpora, a malleable device should be considered (at least temporarily if unable to dilate comfortably to 13 mm.

  13. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    calculated using the method of Priestley and Taylor (1972) and ERDC TR-15-6 17 solar radiation and air temperature. A wet- dry cycle is counted when the...jetties. Armor rocks are impacted by natural elements such as seasonal weather and repeated cycles of temperature, flowing water, wetting and drying ...14 2.6 Estimation of freeze-thaw cycles by Arnold method .................................................. 16 2.7 Estimation of wet- dry index

  14. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerino Paolantoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  15. Two transcription factors, CabA and CabR, are independently involved in multilevel regulation of the biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the novel aminocoumarin, cacibiocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolański, Marcin; Łebkowski, Tomasz; Kois-Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Zettler, Judith; Apel, Alexander K; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    Aminocoumarins are potent antibiotics belonging to a relatively small group of secondary metabolites produced by actinomycetes. Genome mining of Catenulispora acidiphila has recently led to the discovery of a gene cluster responsible for biosynthesis of novel aminocoumarins, cacibiocins. However, regulation of the expression of this novel gene cluster has not yet been analyzed. In this study, we identify transcriptional regulators of the cacibiocin gene cluster. Using a heterologous expression system, we show that the CabA and CabR proteins encoded by cabA and cabR genes in the cacibiocin gene cluster control the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis, modification, regulation, and potentially, efflux/resistance of cacibiocins. CabA positively regulates the expression of cabH (the first gene in the cabHIYJKL operon) and cabhal genes encoding key enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis and halogenation of the aminocoumarin moiety, respectively. We provide evidence that CabA is a direct inducer of cacibiocin production, whereas the second transcriptional factor, CabR, is involved in the negative regulation of its own gene and cabT-the latter of which encodes a putative cacibiocin transporter. We also demonstrate that CabR activity is negatively regulated in vitro by aminocoumarin compounds, suggesting the existence of analogous regulation in vivo. Finally, we propose a model of multilevel regulation of gene transcription in the cacibiocin gene cluster by CabA and CabR.

  16. Ballistic performance and microstructure of four armor ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Carton, E.P.

    2013-01-01

    The ballistic behavior of four different armor ceramic materials with thicknesses varying from 3 mm to 14 mm has been investigated. These are two types of alumina Al2O3 armor grades and two types of SiC armor grades produced by different armor ceramic producers. The ballistic study has been performe

  17. Ballistic performance and microstructure of four armor ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Carton, E.P.

    2013-01-01

    The ballistic behavior of four different armor ceramic materials with thicknesses varying from 3 mm to 14 mm has been investigated. These are two types of alumina Al2O3 armor grades and two types of SiC armor grades produced by different armor ceramic producers. The ballistic study has been

  18. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jo, Youmi; Jang, Song Yee; Kwon, Haenaem; Irie, Yasuhiko; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2015-01-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose. PMID:26406498

  19. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jo, Youmi; Jang, Song Yee; Kwon, Haenaem; Irie, Yasuhiko; Parsek, Matthew R; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  20. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  1. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis

    OpenAIRE

    Shawki, Hossam H.; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M.; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; KAWASHIMA Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS...

  2. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Hwan Park; Youmi Jo; Song Yee Jang; Haenaem Kwon; Yasuhiko Irie; Matthew R. Parsek; Myung Hee Kim; Sang Ho Choi

    2015-01-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-de...

  3. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Note on Armor Steel Design: A proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Potay

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical approach to the ballistic penetration and armor development has been made and a single phase material with a computer evaluated optimum hardness has been proposed to give a superior performance as an armour.

  5. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  6. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  7. A Two-Piece Derivative of a Group I Intron RNA as a Platform for Designing Self-Assembling RNA Templates to Promote Peptide Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent RNA-peptide complexes are attractive from the viewpoint of artificial design of functional biomacromolecular systems. We have developed self-folding and self-assembling RNAs that serve as templates to assist chemical ligation between two reactive peptides with RNA-binding capabilities. The design principle of previous templates, however, can be applied only to limited classes of RNA-binding peptides. In this study, we employed a two-piece derivative of a group I intron RNA from the Tetrahymena large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA as a platform for new template RNAs. In this group I intron-based self-assembling platform, modules for the recognition of substrate peptides can be installed independently from modules holding the platform structure. The new self-assembling platform allows us to expand the repertoire of substrate peptides in template RNA design.

  8. Signal transduction pathways that regulate CAB gene expression. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, J.

    1993-12-31

    We have completed the initial genetic and phenotypic characterization of several classes of new mutants that affect CAB gene expression. The doc mutants (for dark overexpression of cab) are characterized by elevated levels of CAB gene expression in the dark; however, unlike the previously isolated de-etiolated mutants (also isolated in my lab), the doc mutants still appear etiolated. The doc alleles define 3 loci, each of which maps to a separate chromosome. The details of the mutant isolation scheme and the genetic and phenotypic description of these new mutants are described. The second class of mutants, the gun mutants (for genomes uncoupled) show accumulation of CAB mRNA in the absence of chloroplast gene expression and development. Thus, the normally tightly coordinated expression between the chloroplast and nuclear genes that encode chloroplast-destined proteins has been uncoupled. We have shown that the Arabidopsis HY3 locus encodes the type B phytochrome apoprotein gene and have characterized the phenotypes of null hy3 alleles to ascertain a role for this phytochrome in Arabidopsis development. We have also isolated and characterized a number of alleles of the phytochrome A gene.

  9. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  10. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  11. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  12. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting AGENCY...-day High Strength Fiber and Body Armor Research Needs Meeting. The Meeting will provide a forum to... Body Armor Research Needs Meeting will be held June 15, 2010. The workshop will be held from 9 a.m....

  13. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawki, Hossam H; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Kawashima, Akihiro

    2016-07-29

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS-PAGE gel as two bands at 75 kDa and 70 kDa in adult porcine testis, whereas one band at 70 kDa in epididymal sperm. pCABS1 immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules was detected in the elongated spermatids, and that in the epididymal sperm was found in the acrosome as well as flagellum. The immunoreactivity of pCABS1 in the acrosomai region disappeared during acrosome reaction. We also identified that pCABS1 has a transmembrane domain using computational prediction of the amino acids sequence. The treatment of porcine capacitated sperm with anti-pCABS1 antiserum significantly decreased acrosome reactions. These results suggest that pCABS1 plays an important role in controlling calcium ion signaling during the acrosome reaction.

  14. Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Final Technical Status Report For DOTC 10-01-INIT-017 Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile Reporting Period: 13 May 2015 Ordnance...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report: Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OTA # W15QKN-09-9...1001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Herbst /Diana-Lynn 5d. PROJECT NUMBER DOTC-11-01-INIT017 5e. TASK NUMBER N

  15. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  16. Electrical transport properties of CaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Sesé, Javier; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-10-01

    We report results from a systematic electron-transport study in a broad temperature range on 12 CaB6 single crystals. None of the crystals were intentionally doped. The different carrier densities observed presumably arise from slight variations in the Ca:B stoichiometry. In these crystals, the variation of the electrical resistivity and of the Hall effect with temperature can be consistently accounted for by the model we propose, in which B-antisite defects (B atom replacing Ca atom) are "amphoteric." The magnetotransport measurements reveal that most of the samples we have studied are close to a metal-insulator transition at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance changes smoothly from negative—for weakly metallic samples—to positive values—for samples in a localized regime.

  17. In vitro synchrotron-based radiography of micro-gap formation at the implant–abutment interface of two-piece dental implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, A., E-mail: arack@snafu.de [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Rack, T. [Charité, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Navigation and Robotics, Berlin (Germany); Stiller, M. [Charité, Department of Maxillofacial and Facial-Plastic Surgery, Division of Oral Medicine, Radiology and Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Riesemeier, H. [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Division Structure Analysis, Polymer Analysis, Berlin (Germany); Zabler, S. [Technical University of Berlin, Institute for Materials Engineering (Germany); Nelson, K. [Charité, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Navigation and Robotics, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Micro-radiography using hard X-ray synchrotron radiation is the first potential tool to allow an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the dental implant–abutment complex during force application, thus enabling the enhancement of the design of dental implants which has been based on theoretical analysis to date. Micro-gap formation at the implant–abutment interface of two-piece dental implants was investigated in vitro using high-resolution radiography in combination with hard X-ray synchrotron radiation. Images were taken with the specimen under different mechanical loads of up to 100 N. The aim of this investigation was to prove the existence of micro-gaps for implants with conical connections as well as to study the mechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. Synchrotron-based radiography in comparison with classical laboratory radiography yields high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when exploiting micro-sized features in highly attenuating objects. The first illustration of a micro-gap which was previously indistinguishable by laboratory methods underlines that the complex micro-mechanical behavior of implants requires further in vitro investigations where synchrotron-based micro-imaging is one of the prerequisites.

  18. Analysis of CAB/UTIL & IFE/PASS SEAT Switch%浅谈CAB/UTIL和IFE/PASS SEAT电门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳

    2015-01-01

    B737NG飞机P5-13电源面板存在两种构型,“CAB/UTIL”和“IFE/PASS SEAT”属于新构型中的两个电门,本文在结合手册与实际现象的基础上,分析了这两个电门的功用,避免在将来的排故过程中走弯路。%There are two configurations of B737NG aircraft P5-13 power supply panel, the"CAB/UTIL" and"IFE/PASS SEAT"belong to the two switches in the new configuration, based on the combination of manual and actual phenomena, this paper analyzes the function of these switches, to avoid detours during troubleshooting in the future.

  19. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  20. Assessment of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    To) Jun 2012 – Jun 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In- House 5b...Lite 2: 12CL N/A C 12"x12"x1 1/2" Insulated; 1/2" STARPHIRE; .060 CLEAR PVB; 1/2" STARPHIRE Bubble Pack Sheet Stuck to Surface N/A D 12...determine if this improvement (if any) degrades over time. Participants: In- house Wright-Patterson personnel and/or FAA-provided “guest

  1. Stability for Structures Armored with Core-LocTM

    OpenAIRE

    ÇEVİK, Esin ÖZKAN; CİHAN, Kubilay; YÜKSEL, Yalçın

    2014-01-01

    In conventional two-layer systems various armor units such as tetrapod, dolos, and tribar have been commonly used. Recent developments are accropode and core-locTM, which can be used in a single layer of armoring. The units for one-layer systems have an interlocking response under waves and hence their stability is high. The structure slope, wave conditions and placement methods are other areas of interest related to the stability of breakwater armor units. This study was intended ...

  2. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  3. Taxi cab syndrome: a review of the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers and what we can do to help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Alon Y; Goldfarb, David S; Shah, Ojas

    2014-01-01

    This review consolidates knowledge regarding the extensive genitourinary pathology experienced by taxi cab drivers. Taxi cab, livery, truck, and other drivers all objectively and subjectively may have more voiding dysfunction, infertility, urolithiasis, bladder cancer, and urinary infections as compared with nonprofessional drivers; this is called taxi cab syndrome. Together with governmental and medical assistance, simple interventions-such as education, the addition of taxi relief stations, and possibly the use of sanitary urinary collection devices-to curb the progression of genitourinary disease in taxi drivers should be prospectively studied. It is postulated that many of these interventions may also benefit other groups of occupationally related infrequent voiders.

  4. A Crashworthy Armored Pilot Seat for Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-18

    Configuration 14 III Resoons, of F/A &Mmbars 17 IV Summay of Drop Tests 29 V Summary of Horizontal Sled Test 32 VI AcmY Armored E/A Cram=n Swot , Test Results...and 3. !st Conditions: 3 hours of vibration, resonance search, dwell and cycling in each of three (3) axes, 5 to 500 Hz maxi - mum of +2.5 g. ;sults: No

  5. Embedded Health Monitoring for Glass Like Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    container is then encased in a steel container. The circuit board needs to fit in the space between the glass plates and the plastic box...sides of the cube. Each circuit board is aligned with the glass plates so that it has four LED’s and four phototransistors used for detection per layer...of armor protection for vehicles which consists of several layers of glass plates . The plates are inserted in a plastic box and epoxy material is

  6. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  7. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  8. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  9. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  10. CAB Furnace Atmosphere Visualisation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P F Stratton; A P Richardson

    2004-01-01

    In today's automotive industry almost all car and truck radiators, oil coolers and air conditioning heat exchangers are manufactured using Nocolok Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB). One of the most critical elements of the brazing process is the atmosphere used to protect the flux. Oxygen content is the major variable affecting the performance of the nitrogen atmosphere. Furnace design and flow rate are the major factors affecting oxygen content. Optimisation of these atmosphere parameters has a significant impact on operating cost, and on the quality and consistency of the brazed product.Computational fluid dynamics provides a tool to visualise the atmosphere conditions within the furnace and to explore the effects of changing some of the variables. Modelling the atmosphere in a typical CAB furnace has shown the importance of the integrity of the curtains in maintaining the low oxygen levels required for successful Nocolok brazing. For a given set of curtains it has shown that the only effective way of decreasing oxygen levels is to increase atmosphere gas flow.

  11. CAB Furnace Atmosphere Visualisation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PFStratton; APRichardson

    2004-01-01

    In today's automotive industry almost all car and truck radiators, oil coolers and air conditioning heat exchangers are manufactured using Nocolok Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB). One of the most critical elements of the brazing process is the atmosphere used to protect the flux. Oxygen content is the major variable affecting the performance of the nitrogen atmosphere. Furnace design and flow rate are the major factors affecting oxygen content. Optimisation of these atmosphere parameters has a significant impact on operating cost, and on the quality and consistency of the brazed product. Computational fluid dynamics provides a tool to visualise the atmosphere conditions within the furnace and to explore the effects of changing some of the variables. Modelling the atmosphere in a typical CAB furnace has shown the importance of the integrity of the curtains in maintaining the low oxygen levels required for successful Nocolok brazing. For a given set of curtains it has shown that the only effective way of decreasing oxygen levels is to increase atmosphere gas flow.

  12. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  13. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  14. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Human Reliability of Armored Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-ping; CAO Wei-guo; REN Jing

    2007-01-01

    Human errors of seven types of armored equipment, which occur during the course of field test, are statistically analyzed. The human error-to-armored equipment failure ratio is obtained. The causes of human errors are analyzed. The distribution law of human errors is acquired. The ratio of human errors and human reliability index are also calculated.

  16. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes are controlled, of each train operating in automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal territory shall...

  17. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  18. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  19. Role of extracellular matrix protein CabA in resistance of Vibrio vulnificus biofilms to decontamination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Byungho; Jo, Youmi; Choi, Sang Ho

    2016-11-07

    Biofilms are recalcitrant and raise safety problems in the food industry. In this study, the role of CabA, an extracellular matrix protein, in the resistance of the biofilms of Vibrio vulnificus, a foodborne pathogen, to decontamination strategies was investigated. Biofilms of the cabA mutant revealed reduced resistance to detachment by vibration and disinfection by sodium hypochlorite compared to the biofilms of the parental wild type in vitro. The reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms was complemented by introducing a recombinant cabA, indicating that the reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms is caused by the inactivation of cabA. The expression of cabA was induced in cells bound to oyster, the primary vehicle of the pathogen. The cabA mutant biofilms on oyster are defective in biomass and resistance to detachment and disinfection. The bacterial cells in the wild-type biofilms are clustered by filaments which are not apparent in the cabA mutant biofilms. The combined results indicated that CabA contributes to the structural integrity of V. vulnificus biofilms possibly by forming filaments in the matrix and thus rendering the biofilms robust, suggesting that CabA could be a target to control V. vulnificus biofilms on oyster. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs wearing personal body armor (PBA in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing.

  1. Experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab is presented. This method is specifically intended for measuring the inertia properties of irregular rigid bodies, and it has the potential to be applied to the measurement of the inertia properties of vehicle bodies, such as the cab, engine, and gearbox. This article, based on CATARC moment of inertia measurement system test rig, develops an accurate measuring method to identify inertia parameters of heavy truck cab. First, corresponding tests are carried out, and the lever principle and moments of inertia parallel theorem are employed to calculate and analyse the test results, which leads to the accurate value of inertia parameters. Second, the performance analysis of the proposed method is verified through the measurement error analysis. As a result, the proposed method shows high accuracy, which provides an experimental basis for accurate inertia parameter measurement of heavy truck cab.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The instrumentation... electronic form. (1) Name(s) of persons conducting the test, and the date of the test. (2) Description...

  3. California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with La2CaB10019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegadlo, Krzysztof B.; El Ouazzani, Hasnaa; Cieslik, Iwona; Weglowski, Rafal; Zmija, Jozef; Klosowicz, Stanislaw; Majchrowski, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.

    2012-08-01

    Second order nonlinearity in polymer dispersed liquid crystal structures containing La2CaB10O19 nanocrystals were measured with use of the Maker fringes method. The composites with different concentration of La2CaB10O19 crystallites or without them were compared. It was shown that there is a strong influence of the crystals concentration on the second harmonic generation in such structures which can be additionally modified by external electric field.

  5. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J

    2016-01-01

    ... (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal r...

  6. A contribution to the study of lamellar armors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the finds of lamellar armors from the Early Byzantine site Svetinja at Viminacium. In addition to the analysis of the finds we presented also the analogies from Early Byzantine, Germanic and Avar contexts and we also paid attention to the so far insufficiently known find from Selenča. Along the armors we also analyzed the related lamellar helmets. The work includes discussion of the genesis of lamellar armor types - their Oriental origin and their continuance after the 6th century, i.e. the final years of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th century, when lamellar armors were introduced in the Byzantine army and among Germans and Avars as a result of changes in warfare techniques. Finally, we suggest conclusions resulting from the precisely defined context of the Svetinja find.

  7. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  8. Application of Two-piece Bag in Nursing Care of Patients with Abdominal Leakage Wound%两件式造口袋在腹部渗漏伤口中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate two-piece bags in nursing care of patients with abdominal leakage wound. Method:On 20 cases of abdominal leak with two piece ostomy collection fluid,Observation of wound around irritant dermatitis treatment,And the seepage drainage and fistula healing.Result:The possibility of dermatitis around leakage wound reduced clearly,the intermission of dressing change delayed,the healing of fistula promoted,the patient comfort raised clearly.Conclusion:Application of two piece colostomy bags of liquid collection,Avoid liquid maceration of the skin,Effective prevention of irritant dermatitis,To promote the healing of fistula,At the same time reduces the frequency of dressing change,Save medical resources.%  目的:探讨使用两件式造口袋进行腹部伤口渗液收集的效果。方法:随机选择本科出现腹部伤口渗漏的20例患者,应用两件式造口袋收集渗液,观察伤口周围皮炎的发生率,观察渗液引流和瘘口愈合情况。结果:伤口周围皮炎的发生率明显降低,换药间隔时间延长,窦道愈合时间缩短,患者舒适度明显提高。结论:应用两件式造口袋进行渗液的收集,避免渗液浸渍皮肤,有效地预防刺激性皮炎,促进窦道的愈合,同时减少了换药频次,节约了医疗资源。

  9. The Development of Crew Drills for Armor Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel L. NEALE COSBY EDGAR M. JOHNSON...Program, Army Project 2Q263743A794, Armor Training in Combat Units. EDGAR M. JOHNSON Technical Director b- - THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREW DRILLS FOR ARMOR... Orining Coamands: C Monitor Orining COmeands: C] Monitor Oriing Cnomands: C Follow Oriving Commands: C - .. , . *DRIVER BACK UP . . . STOP.* . Look

  10. The Impact of Armor on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    DEFINITION OF ARMOR The Oxford English Dictionary defines armor as: “The steel or other metallic protective sheathing of a warship, military...Hardness Density (kg/m3) Nickel- Chrome - Molybdenum Steel 965–1103 300 7700–8030 Cast Steel 370 130–235 7700–8030 Aluminum Alloy 5083 317 87...weight increase. To better improve the tradeoff between performance and weight, nickel, chrome and molybdenum are added to steel to increase the

  11. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  12. Parallel Genetic Basis for Repeated Evolution of Armor Loss in Alaskan Threespine Stickleback Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William A. Cresko; Angel Amores; Catherine Wilson; Joy Murphy; Mark Currey; Patrick Phillips; Michael A. Bell; Charles B. Kimmel; John H. Postlethwait; David B. Wake

    2004-01-01

    ... alleles at a small number of loci. To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored...

  13. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  14. Numerical simulation of armor capability of AI2O3 and SiC armor tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, T.; Aleem, M. A.; Akbar, S.; Rauf, A.; Shuaib, M.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina and Silicon Carbide armor plates have been tested numerically against 7.62x51 (mm x mm) armor piercing (AP) projectiles. A 2-D problem with axial symmetry has been designedand the simulations were carried out using commercial software ANSYS AUTODYN. Experiments were modeled for Alumina (99.5%), Alumina (99.7%) and SiC with a range of tile thicknesses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mm). The projectile was chosen as 7.62 x 51AP bullet (initial velocity 810 m/sec)with two different core materials Steel 4340 and WC, however, casing material was copper for both cores. SiC showed better defense against AP bullet as compared to Al2O3. The residual velocity and momentum of the bullet were found to decrease with increasing tile thickness. SiC tiles with thickness 15mm and 20 mm successfully sustained penetration against steel 4340 and WC core bullets, respectively. However none of the Alumina targets succeeded in stopping the bullet.

  15. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  16. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition..., armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition feeding devices? (a)(1) Firearms. You, as a... (bases). (b) Armor piercing ammunition—(1) Marking of ammunition. Each licensed manufacturer or licensed...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and wire... miles (km) of the cable or wire under test. (4)(i) The objective shield or armor ground resistance may... armor to ground resistance due to temperature. The variations can, however, be substantial for...

  18. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  20. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000...-resistant armor. Debra Stoe is the NIJ Program Manager responsible for this work, and Casandra Robinson is...

  1. Estimation of Peak Wave Stresses in Slender Complex Concrete Armor Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, G.L.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rhee, Joon R

    1991-01-01

    Recent methods for the structural design of concrete armor units divide the forces into static loads, impact loads, and wave or pulsating loads. Physical model technology is being developed at several laboratories to measure wave loads on model armor units. While this technology represents...... significant progress, structural designers require a maximum stress value to design armor units....

  2. Prissättning av Nordic Cab AB:s multifunktionella barnvagn

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniel,; Severin, Erica

    2009-01-01

      Nordic Cab AB är ett företag som säljer multifunktionella barnvagnar. Dessa barnvagnar har utbytbara delar vilket gör att man kan omvandla dem till en jogging-, cykel-, skid-, hund- eller vandringsvagn. Syftet med denna uppsats är att prissätta Nordic Cab AB:s multifunktionella barnvagn. För att uppnå detta beskriver vi först hur olika faktorer påverkar Nordic Cab AB:s prissättning. Dessa faktorer är företagets mål, kostnader, efterfrågan och konkurrenter. Utifrån dessa faktorer och intervj...

  3. DNA polymorphism in Cab locus of tomato induced by tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, P; Chopra, V L; Mohapatra, T

    1992-03-01

    Plants were regenerated from callus induced from leaf disc explants of a tomato F1 hybrid heterozygous for three marker loci anthocyaninless (a), without anthocyanin (aw), and hairless (hl). Regenerants were studied for somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level by scoring for variation in the marker loci, and at the DNA level by probing geomic DNA blots with a chlorophyll a/b binding protein (Cab-3C) cDNA sequence. While no variation was observed at the phenotypic level in over 950 somaclones studied, DNA polymorphism for the Cab locus could be detected in two out of 17 somaclones tested. Tissue culture induced variation at the phenotypic level for specific loci is very low (less than 0.001 for a, aw or hl) but DNA sequence changes are induced at much greater frequency (approximately 0.1 for a multicopy gene family such as Cab).

  4. CaB6: A New Semiconducting Material for Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, H. J.; van Gelderen, P.; Kelly, P. J.; Brocks, G.; Bobbert, P. A.

    2001-07-01

    Ferromagnetism was recently observed at unexpectedly high temperatures in La-doped CaB6. The starting point of all theoretical proposals to explain this observation is a semimetallic electronic structure calculated for CaB6 within the local density approximation. Here we report the results of parameter-free quasiparticle calculations of the single-particle excitation spectrum which show that CaB6 is not a semimetal but a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.8+/-0.1 eV. Magnetism in LaxCa1-xB6 occurs just on the metallic side of a Mott transition in the La-induced impurity band.

  5. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    . As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  6. Electromagnetic Armor Based on the Principles of Reconnection Electromagnetic Launcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Haiqing; Li Weitao; Gao Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    Active electromagnetic armor is the latest concept of defense system, and it is highly probable for this technology to be applied to many domains such as future tanks, armored vehicles and the armor of warships. The studies on active electromagnetic defense technology in the world have a history of decades. But, there still exist bottlenecks and the interceptor is one of them. This paper studies the problem of interceptors based on the principles of reconnection electromagnetic launcher and presents a kind of simulation model of it. A small scale laboratory model is made, and related experimental researches and theoretical analyses have been carried out when the projectiles are different kinds of material and shape. Satisfactory results are reached and agree with the theoretical analyses.

  7. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai

    2003-02-01

    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1710-1 Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle...

  9. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  10. The ethanol response gene Cab45 can modulate the impairment elicited by ethanol and ultraviolet in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Zhu; Quanli Wang; Wangru Xu; Sha Li

    2008-01-01

    High consumption of ethanolic beverages facilitates neurodegeneration,but the mechanism of this process still remained elusive.Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a technique for detection of rare transcripts.With SSH approach,we identified one ethanol response gene Cab45,which was down-regulated by ethanol with time-dependent manner in B104 cells.The full-length sequence of Cab45 gene was obtained by 5'-RACE (5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) for the first time in rat.Based on the sequence of deduced amino acid of rat Cab45,the alignment was conducted with its counterparts in different species and displayed a high conservation.Using different tissues in rat and cell lines,Cab45 was characterized by a ubiquitous expression and differentiation dependent down-regulation.Given that ethanol facilitates some cell differentiation,we hypothesize that Cab45 is involved in ethanol-mediated differentiation.With transient transfection,the function of Cab45 was investigated by up-regulation and down-regulation in PC12 cells.Ethanol treatment and UV exposure were conducted subsequently and cell proliferations were detected by MTT (Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium) approach.It revealed that the up-regulation of Cab45 modulated the impairment elicited by ethanol and UV in transfected cells.As a member of new calcium binding protein family,the exact role of Cab45 still remains unclear.

  11. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  12. River-bed armoring as a granular segregation phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Houssais, Morgane; Jerolmack, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Gravel-river beds typically have an "armored" layer of coarse grains on the surface, which acts to protect finer particles underneath from erosion. River bed-load transport is a kind of dense granular flow, and such flows are known to vertically segregate grains. The contribution of granular physics to river-bed armoring, however, has not been investigated. Here we examine these connections in a laboratory river with bimodal sediment size, by tracking the motion of particles from the surface to deep inside the bed, and find that armor develops by two distinct mechanisms. Bed-load transport in the near-surface layer drives rapid segregation, with a vertical advection rate proportional to the granular shear rate. Creeping grains beneath the bed-load layer give rise to slow but persistent segregation, which is diffusion dominated and insensitive to shear rate. We verify these findings with a continuum phenomenological model and discrete element method simulations. Our results suggest that river beds armor by gra...

  13. Methodology For The System Integration Of Adaptive Resilience In Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    achieved in an externally reconfigurable fashion; however, this would not make sense because this would create a vulnerability in the armor protection that...complex operating environment, systems engineering, system integration, engineering resilience, resilience theory 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 269 16...each step of the methodology. This methodology makes possible many new applications for integrating adaptive resilience technological systems. These

  14. Light Armored Reconnaissance: Misunderstood and Underemployed in Deep Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    attending The Basic School. There ru.·e three main ru.·mor platforms in the United States Mru .·ine Corps inventory. These are the Assault...Amphibious Vehicle (AAV), used pdmru.·ily to transport Mru .·ines from ship to shore; the MlAl Abrams, our main battle tank; and the Light Armored Vehicle

  15. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  16. Testing method for ceramic armor and bare ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Roebroeks, G.H.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    TNO has developed an alternative, more configuration independent ceramic test method than the standard Depth-of-Penetration test method. In this test ceramic tiles and ceramic based armor are evaluated as target without a semi-infinite backing layer. An energy approach is chosen to evaluate and rank

  17. The Light Armored Cavalry Regiment -- Reconnaissance Force of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    appli- que armor made this possible. The Bradely Scout Vehicle, armed with a 25 mm cannon and a wire guided missile system, could now engage and destroy...University Press. 1986 Palmer, David Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. Novato. CA. Presidio Press. 1978. Palmer, Bruce Jr., The 25 Year War. America’s Military

  18. Diode Laser Surface Alloying of Armor Steel with Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicki D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composite (MMC surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  19. Modeling of protein-peptide interactions using the CABS-dock web server for binding site search and flexible docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kouza, Maksim; Wieteska, Lukasz; Debinski, Aleksander; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    Protein-peptide interactions play essential functional roles in living organisms and their structural characterization is a hot subject of current experimental and theoretical research. Computational modeling of the structure of protein-peptide interactions is usually divided into two stages: prediction of the binding site at a protein receptor surface, and then docking (and modeling) the peptide structure into the known binding site. This paper presents a comprehensive CABS-dock method for the simultaneous search of binding sites and flexible protein-peptide docking, available as a user's friendly web server. We present example CABS-dock results obtained in the default CABS-dock mode and using its advanced options that enable the user to increase the range of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments or to exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search. Furthermore, we demonstrate a strategy to improve CABS-dock performance by assessing the quality of models with classical molecular dynamics. Finally, we discuss the promising extensions and applications of the CABS-dock method and provide a tutorial appendix for the convenient analysis and visualization of CABS-dock results. The CABS-dock web server is freely available at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock/. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  1. 坦克装甲车辆装甲防护发展研究%Armor Protection Development of Tank & Armored Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凌晖; 郑翔玉; 马丽; 汪伦根

    2014-01-01

    This article first discusses the advances and the applications of main armor materials,including armour steel,aluminum alloys,titanium alloy,ceramic and composite materials. Then,the basical theory and research status of some typical armor protection technologies are introduced in detail,such as explosive reactive armor,composite armor,grille armor,electromagnetic armor and so on. And on this basis,the future development trend of armor protection technology is also discussed,which is important to improve the protection ability and viability of armored vehicle.%阐述了装甲钢、铝合金、钛合金、陶瓷和复合材料等主流装甲防护材料的研究现状和应用情况,并对爆炸反应装甲、复合装甲、格栅装甲和电磁装甲等几种典型装甲防护技术的基本原理和研究现状进行了介绍;分析了未来装甲防护技术的发展方向和趋势,对提高装甲车辆的防护能力和战场生存能力具有重要意义。

  2. Driving to better health: cancer and cardiovascular risk assessment among taxi cab operators in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apantaku-Onayemi, Funmi; Baldyga, William; Amuwo, Shaffdeen; Adefuye, Adedeji; Mason, Terry; Mitchell, Robin; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-05-01

    While a number of investigations of the health of taxi cab drivers have been conducted in Europe, Asia, and Africa, virtually none have been conducted in the United States. We undertook a survey of taxi cab operators in the Chicago area to understand better their health status and health promotion practices. The survey was completed by a convenience sample of 751 Chicago taxi drivers. Taxi drivers had low rates of insurance coverage, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity compared with the general Chicago population. Participation in cancer screening tests was also lower for this group. A high proportion of taxi drivers are immigrants. They tend to be highly educated and report a readiness to engage in more health-promoting behaviors. Further research is needed to develop a targeted intervention for this population.

  3. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    loudspeakers well positioned at the end of the room a virtual array is formed propagating plane waves along the length of the room in one direction. This will correct the sound field distribution in the room. When plane wave arrives to the end wall two more loudspeakers have to be placed connected......Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency...... with the same signal in counter phase and with a delay corresponding to approximately the length of the room. This is to cancel the reflection and maintain the plane wave propagating along the room. Real life rooms are not necessary rectangular and can be of different shapes. In this paper simulations...

  4. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  5. Electro-deposition painting process improvement of cab truck by Six Sigma concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitu, Kitiya; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    The case study company is a manufacturer of trucks and currently facing a high rework cost due to the thickness of the electro-deposited paint (EDP) of the truck cab is lower than standard. In addition, the process capability is very low. The Six Sigma concept consisting of 5 phases (DMAIC) is applied to determine new parameter settings for each significant controllable factor. After the improvement, EDP thickness of the truck cab increases from 17.88μ to 20μ (i.e. standard = 20 ± 3μ). Moreover, the process capability indexes (Cp and Cpk) are increased from 0.9 to 1.43, and from 0.27 to 1.43, respectively. This improvement could save the rework cost about 1.6M THB per year.

  6. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities. Supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-27

    directed the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to initiate an examination of Zylon ®-based bullet-resistant armor1 (both new and used), to analyze...upgrade kits2 provided by manufacturers to retrofit Zylon ®- based bullet-resistant armors, and to review the existing process by which bullet-resistant...development, standards and testing, and also reviewed information about NIJ’s preliminary evaluation of Zylon ®- based armor. NIJ continues to conduct

  7. CAB-DWTM for 5 μm trace-width deposition of solar cell metallization top-contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Hoey; Drew Thompson; Matt Robinson; Zakaria Mahmud; Orven F. Swenson; Iskander S. Akhatov; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    This paper reviews methods for creating solar cell grid contacts and explores how cell efficiency can be increased using CAB-DW{trademark}. Specifically, the efficiency of p-i-n structure solar cells built in-house with 90 {micro}m sputtered lines and 5 {micro}m CAB-DW lines were compared. Preliminary results of the comparison show a marked improvement in solar cell efficiency using CAB-DW. In addition to this, a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dynamics of particle impaction on a substrate (i.e. whether particle stick or bounce) will be discussed including how this analysis may lead to further improvement of CAB-DW.

  8. Interior High Frequency Noise Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Cab and Multi-Objective Optimization with Statistical Energy Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Lianhui; Song, Jiqang; Wang, Dengfeng; Chen, Jing

    The interior sound pressure levels of a commercial vehicle cab at the driver’s right ear position and head rest position are determined as evaluation indices of vehicle acoustic performances. A statistical energy analysis model of the commercial vehicle cab was created by using statistical energy analysis method. The simulated interior acoustic performance of the cab has a significant coincidence with the experimental results. A response surface model was presented to determine the relationship between sound package parameters and evaluation indices of the interior acoustic performance for the vehicle cab. A multi-objective optimization was performed by using NSGA II algorithm with weighting coefficient method. The presented method provides a new idea for the multi-objective optimization design of the acoustic performances in vehicle noise analysis and control field.

  9. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-01

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  10. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  11. A new world find of european scale armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers, Hugh C.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of armor scales found in New Mexico (USA is critically examined from an archeological and historical point of view. The rarity of the find and its importance are demostrated, both for the history of Spanish exploration in New Mexico and for the development of scale armor in Europe.

    Estudio crítico, desde un punto de vista histórico y arqueológico, de un grupo de placas de armadura hallados en Nuevo Méjico (USA. La rareza del hallazgo es manifiesta para la historia de las expediciones españolas en Nuevo Méjico y para la evolución de las armaduras de placas en Europa.

  12. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  13. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genesca, J. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Dept. Ingenieria Metalurgica; Perez, T. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico; Lara, C. [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato (Mexico)

    1997-12-01

    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  14. Boron Rich Solids Sensors, Ultra High Temperature Ceramics, Thermoelectrics, Armor

    CERN Document Server

    Orlovskaya, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this book is to discuss the current status of research and development of boron-rich solids as sensors, ultra-high temperature ceramics, thermoelectrics, and armor. Novel biological and chemical sensors made of stiff and light-weight boron-rich solids are very exciting and efficient for applications in medical diagnoses, environmental surveillance and the detection of pathogen and biological/chemical terrorism agents. Ultra-high temperature ceramic composites exhibit excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance for hypersonic vehicle applications. Boron-rich solids are also promising candidates for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion. Armor is another very important application of boron-rich solids, since most of them exhibit very high hardness, which makes them perfect candidates with high resistance to ballistic impact. The following topical areas are presented: •boron-rich solids: science and technology; •synthesis and sintering strategies of boron rich solids; •microcantileve...

  15. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  16. 弹性支承下的双半内圈角接触球轴承振动分析%Vibration analysis of two-piece inner ring angular contact ball bearing with elastic support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓四二; 闫亚超; 王燕霜; 杨海生

    2013-01-01

    针对弹性支承下的双半内圈角接触球轴承,考虑弹性支承体与轴承外圈、轴承座之间的刚柔耦合特性,建立了弹性支承下的双半内圈角接触球轴承非线性动力学微分方程.采用精细积分法和预估-校正Adams-Bashforth-Moulton多步法相结合的算法,对非线性动力学微分方程进行求解,并对弹性体支承的双半内圈角接触球轴承振动特性进行了理论分析.分析结果表明:①通过增加支承体过渡沟槽个数可大幅度降低内圈振幅;套筒环厚度对轴承振幅影响相对较小,随着套筒环厚度的增加,内圈振幅先减小后增大;②轴向力较小时,采用过渡沟槽个数多的支承体能够降低振动幅值;轴向力较大时,适当减少过渡沟槽个数,有利于系统稳定;③存在一个最佳的过渡沟槽个数和套筒环厚度,使得轴承径向振动幅值达到最小.%Taking the bearing with elastic support as the object of study, nonlinear dynamics differential equation for the two-piece inner ring of angular contact ball bearing with elastic support, which coupled the outer ring and housing, was established.Fine integral method and predict-correct Adams-Bashforth-Moulton multi-step method were used to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations, and the vibration characteristics of two-piece inner ring of angular contact ball bearing with elastic support were analyzed and discussed.The analysis results show: (1) Magnitude of inner vibration can be significantly decreased from increasing the number of the groove joint.The thickness of the sleeve has small effect on inner vibration, and with the increase of the thickness, the amplitude value of the inner decreases first and then increases.(2) When the axial load has a small value, it is more helpful for decreasing the magnitude of bearing vibration when increasing the number of the groove joint.On the contrary, under the heavy axial load, it is beneficial for the stabilization of bearing

  17. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bruce Davis and Rick DeLorme Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc. A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science Conference...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES *Magnesium Elektron North America, Inc., 1001 College St., Madison, IL 62060 A reprint from the Proceedings of the 2008 Army Science...initial emphasis on the Elektron WE43 alloy system for lightweight armored ground vehicle applications. Engineering design factors are reviewed and

  18. Modeling of Defects in Transparent Ceramics for Improving Military Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    on a transparent magnesium aluminate spinel, MgAl2O4, striking-ply backed by polycarbonate. Finite element modelling is used to predict unsuccessful...edge-form-growth sapphire, magnesium aluminate spinel, aluminium oxynitride — one was selected for the current pursuit, magnesium aluminate spinel...ballistic testing to validate armor designs based on a transparent magnesium aluminate spinel, MgAl2O4, striking-ply backed by polycarbonate

  19. Role of embCAB gene mutations in ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaun, G P S; Das, Ram; Upadhyay, Prashant; Chauhan, D S; Sharma, V D; Katoch, V M

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, ethambutol (EMB) resistance-associated mutations were characterised in the embCAB genes of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) collected in India. Thirty MTB isolates were tested for their susceptibility to first-line antitubercular drugs using the Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method, and EMB minimum inhibitory concentrations of MTB isolates were determined by the resazurin microtitre assay. Sequencing of various regions of the embCAB genes was performed to identify EMB resistance-associated mutations. Mutations of embB306 were detected in 15 of 23 EMB-resistant MTB isolates. Three EMB-resistant isolates had mutations at codon 270 of the embC gene, two of which also harboured embB306 mutations. No mutation was identified in the embA gene. All seven EMB-sensitive MTB isolates had the wild-type embCAB sequence. In summary, embB306 mutations were associated with EMB resistance, and mutation at codon 270 of the embC gene may contribute to high-level EMB resistance in some MTB isolates.

  20. Hypervelocity impact properties of graphene armor via molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypervelocity impact properties of two different graphene armor systems are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. One system is the so-called spaced armor which consists of a number of graphene plates spaced certain distance apart. Its response under normal impact of a spherical projectile is studied, focusing on the effect of the number of graphene monolayers per plate (denoted by n on the penetration resistance of the armor. We find that under normal impact by a spherical projectile the penetration resistance increases with decreasing number of monolayers per plate (n, and the best penetration resistance is achieved in the system with one graphene layer for each plate. Note that the monolayers in all the simulated multilayer graphene plates were AB-stacked. The second system being studied is the laminated copper/graphene composites with the graphene layers inside copper, on impact or back surface, or on both the impact and back surfaces. The simulation results show that under normal impact by a spherical projectile the laminated copper/graphene composite has much higher penetration resistance than the monolithic copper plate. The best efficiency is achieved when the graphene layers are on both the impact and back surfaces.

  1. Development of a New Armor Steel and its Ballistic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hakan Atapek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a boron added armor steel was developed according to standard rolled homogenous armor steel, MIL-A-12560, and metallographic-fractographic examinations were carried out to understand its deformation characteristics and perforation mode after interaction with a 7.62 mm armor piercing projectile. The microstructure of the developed steel was characterized by light and scanning electron microscope to evaluate its matrix after application of several heat treatments consisting of austenization, quenching and tempering. The mechanical properties of the developed steel were determined by tensile test at room temperature and notched impact test at -40 ºC. The ballistic performance of developed steel was determined by its V50 ballistic protection limit according to MIL-STD-662F standard and it was found to be higher than that of MIL-A-12560 steel. After perforation deformation induced adiabatic shear bands, that have an important role on the crack nucleation, were observed close to the penetration in the etched steel and perforation occurred by typical ductile hole enlargement with certain radial flows.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.271-277, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.1341

  2. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  3. The importance of bed sediment sand content for the structure of a static armor layer in a gravel bed river

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curran, Joanna Crowe; Waters, Kevin A

    2014-01-01

    ...% were armored under one of three different flow rates. First‐ and second‐order statistical analyses were applied to digital elevation models of unarmored, armored, and clustered bed surface areas to identify changes in surface structure...

  4. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  5. PRETREATMENT OF COMPLEX POLLUTANTS IN WASTEWATER OF TWO-PIECE CAN-MAKING%两片罐生产排放复合污染物的一体化预处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟荣; 任大庆; 朱瑞芬

    2012-01-01

    针对某企业两片罐生产过程中产生的乳化液废水和酸洗废水具有排放不规律、波动性大以及酸洗废水易对处理工艺造成pH冲击的特点,提出了乳化液废水和酸洗废水的预处理方案.对乳化液废水采用酸化破乳联合高效油水分离器的预处理方法;对酸洗废水和破乳后的乳化液废水采用两级pH调节处理工艺,提高含油废水的抗pH 冲击负荷能力、降低废水中F-、PO43-和SO42-等复合无机污染物的浓度,实现除油中和沉淀一体化.出水水质达到GB 8978-1996中的三级标准,处理费用为2.59元/m3.%The pretreatment process of emulsified wastewater and pickling wastewater which had the characteristics of emission irregular, large fluctuations as well as acid pickling wastewater treatment process resulting in the pH change from two-piece can making was put forward The acidification deemulsification and high efficiency oil water separator were adopted to separate emulsified wastewater and pickling wastewater, respectively. The oil elimination-neutralization- precipitation integrated reactor, containing two-stage pH adjustment system, were adopted to remove complex pollutants (such as F. PO43-, SO42, and Al3+) and improve the oil wastewater to resist pH change, making integration of degreasing, precipitating and neutralization. The effluent reached the Integrated wastewater discharge standard of China (GB 8978 - 1996), and the cost of the pretreatment is 259 yuan/m3.

  6. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  7. A novel biomarker associated with distress in humans: calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Rosenfield, David; St Laurent, Chris D; Trueba, Ana F; Werchan, Chelsey A; Vogel, Pia D; Auchus, Richard J; Reyes-Serratos, Eduardo; Befus, A Dean

    2017-06-01

    Calcium-binding protein spermatid-specific 1 (CABS1) is expressed in the human submandibular gland and has an anti-inflammatory motif similar to that in submandibular rat 1 in rats. Here, we investigate CABS1 in human saliva and its association with psychological and physiological distress and inflammation in humans. Volunteers participated across three studies: 1) weekly baseline measures; 2) a psychosocial speech and mental arithmetic stressor under evaluative threat; and 3) during academic exam stress. Salivary samples were analyzed for CABS1 and cortisol. Additional measures included questionnaires of perceived stress and negative affect; exhaled nitric oxide; respiration and cardiac activity; lung function; and salivary and nasal inflammatory markers. We identified a CABS1 immunoreactive band at 27 kDa in all participants and additional molecular mass forms in some participants. One week temporal stability of the 27-kDa band was satisfactory (test-retest reliability estimate = 0.62-0.86). Acute stress increased intensity of 18, 27, and 55 kDa bands; 27-kDa increases were associated with more negative affect and lower heart rate, sympathetic activity, respiration rate, and minute ventilation. In both acute and academic stress, changes in 27 kDa were positively associated with salivary cortisol. The 27-kDa band was also positively associated with VEGF and salivary leukotriene B4 levels. Participants with low molecular weight CABS1 bands showed reduced habitual stress and negative affect in response to acute stress. CABS1 is readily detected in human saliva and is associated with psychological and physiological indicators of stress. The role of CABS1 in inflammatory processes, stress, and stress resilience requires careful study. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Parallel genetic basis for repeated evolution of armor loss in Alaskan threespine stickleback populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresko, William A; Amores, Angel; Wilson, Catherine; Murphy, Joy; Currey, Mark; Phillips, Patrick; Bell, Michael A; Kimmel, Charles B; Postlethwait, John H

    2004-04-20

    Most adaptation is thought to occur through the fixation of numerous alleles at many different loci. Consequently, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes is predicted to occur through different genetic mechanisms. The genetic basis of adaptation is still largely unknown, however, and it is unclear whether adaptation to new environments utilizes ubiquitous small-effect polygenic variation or large-effect alleles at a small number of loci. To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored anadromous populations in the last 14,000 years. Crosses between complete-armor and low-armor populations revealed that a single Mendelian factor governed the formation of all but the most anterior lateral plates, and another independently segregating factor largely determined pelvic armor. Genetic mapping localized the Mendelian genes to different chromosomal regions, and crosses among these same three widely separated populations showed that both bony plates and pelvic armor failed to fully complement, implicating the same Mendelian armor reduction genes. Thus, rapid and repeated armor loss in Alaskan stickleback populations appears to be occurring through the fixation of large-effect variants in the same genes.

  9. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  10. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  11. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  13. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Protein-peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein-peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein-peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Formation of Temperature Mode in Internal Spaces of Armored Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Dziachek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm and a program  have been developed for calculation of temperature mode in a T-72 tank tower while using numerical methods. The paper reveals a satisfactory convergence of calculated and experimental data. The results pertaining to investigation of influence of various factors on the processes of temperature mode formation in the internal surfaces of the studied object are presented in the paper. The obtained results make it possible to develop technical solutions in respect of protection against condensation of water vapor on the internal surfaces of armored machinery.

  15. The Army Needs a Strategic Armored Gun System--Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-05

    the AGS ROC. IVECO- Fiat, The Italian firm o4 IVECO- Fiat has proposed three variants as candidates for the AGS! - The Centauro 9x8 wheeled light...armored vehicle with OTO Melana, i05mm turret. - The Centauro SxO with the Cadillac-Gage 105mm turret mounting the Royal Ordnance L-7 105mm gun. - The... Centauro 6x6 with the LAV-i10mm turret and EX-35 gun. The three systems cannot meet many of the AGE requirements# primarily weightp since the heaviest

  16. Expression of the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB) from the facultatively anaerobic paenibacillus macerans during aerobic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirawski; Hankeln; Unden

    1998-10-01

    Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) macerans is capable of succinate oxidation under oxic conditions and fumarate reduction under anoxic conditions. The reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and fumarate reductase (Frd). The genes encoding Sdh (sdhCAB) were analyzed. The gene products of sdhA and sdhB were similar to the subunits of known Sdh and Frd enzymes. The hydrophobic subunit SdhC showed close sequence similarity to the class of Sdh/Frd enzymes containing diheme cytochrome b. From the sdhCAB gene cluster two transcripts were produced, one comprising sdhCAB, the other sdhAB. The transcripts were found only during aerobic growth, and the amount was directly proportional to Sdh activity, but inversely proportional to Frd activity.

  17. Evaluation of albumin structural modifications through cobalt-albumin binding (CAB) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Eunnam; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-03-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the human body. HSA injections prepared by fractionating human blood have mainly covered the demand for albumin to treat hypoalbuminemia, the state of low concentration of albumin in blood. HSA in solution may exist in various forms such as monomers, oligomers, polymers, or as mixtures, and its conformational change and/or aggregation may occur easily. Considering these characteristics, there is a great chance of modification and polymer formation during the preparation processes of albumin products, especially injections. The albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test reported by Bar-Or et al. was originally designed to detect ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which contains the modified HSA N-terminal sequence by cleavage of the last two amino acids. In this study, we developed a cobalt albumin binding (CAB) assay to correct the flaws of the ACB test with improving the sensitivity and precision. The newly developed CAB assay easily detects albumin configuration alterations and may be able to be used in developing a quality control method for albumin and its pharmaceutical formulations including albumin injections. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of User Interface for Tractor Cab Real-time Information Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei ZHOU; Yang LU; Chunxia JIANG; Zhixiong LU; Wenxin JIN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the user interface of tractor cab real-time information management system was designed. Based on the principle of "user friendly",it reasonably arranged spatial position of information management system according to spatial distribution of tractor cab. Then,it analyzed operation habits and thinking ways of drivers,and formulated design principle meeting demands of drivers. Besides,it used LabView software to design user interface,including interface layout and interface design. User interface includes basic information interface,job information interface,camera monitoring interface,and fault diagnosis interface. Finally,it made evaluation of the user interface from color,indicator lamp,dial,and pointer. Results indicate that the designed user interface layout conforms to cognition mentality and operation habits and easy to get familiar and grasp; graphical interface is vivid and easy to stimulate pleasure of drivers in operation; interface color matching is coordinated; the layout of controls is hierarchical and logic,and operating mode is consistent with Windows system.

  19. Ab initio structure determination of new compound Li 4CaB 2O 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Wang, C.; Chen, X. L.; Li, X. Z.; Xu, Y. P.; Cao, Y. G.

    2004-06-01

    A new compound, Li 4CaB 2O 6, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure has been determined from powder X-ray diffraction data by direct methods. The refinement was carried out using the Rietveld methods and the final refinement converged with Rp=10.4%, Rwp=14.2%, Rexp=4.97%. This compound belongs to the orthorhombic space group Pnnm, with lattice parameters a=9.24036(9) Å, b=8.09482(7) Å, and c=3.48162(4) Å. Fundamental building units are isolated [BO 3] 3- anionic groups, which are all parallel to the a- b plane stacked along the c-axis. The Ca atoms are six-coordinated by the O atoms to form octahedral coordination polyhedra, which are joined together through edges along the c-axis, forming infinitely long three-dimensional chains. The Li atoms have a four-fold and a five-fold coordination with O atoms that lead to complex Li-O-Li chains that also extend along the c-axis. The infrared spectrum of Li 4CaB 2O 6 was also studied, which is consistent with the crystallographic study.

  20. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  1. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  2. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  3. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... laying in ultra deep waters, a flexible pipe experiences repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression. These loading conditions are known to impose a danger to the structural integrity of the armoring layers, if the compressive load on the pipe exceeds the total maximum compressive load carrying...

  4. Measurement of behavior of secondary sealing areas of rotary engine apex seals. ; Two-piece nonsplit and three-piece slanted horizontal split types. Apex seal no dainiji kimitsumen no kyodo no sokutei. ; Joge ittaigata nihen oyobi joge nanamebunkatsugata 3 hen seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, K.; Terasaki, K.; Yamane, K. (Aoyama University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering)

    1992-12-25

    Behavior of secondary sealing areas has been measured with two displacement sensors and an underseal pressure sensor, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor research engine equipped with a packaged multichannel slip ring. For the experiment, two-piece nonsplit type and three-piece slanted horizontal split type apex seals were used. The two-piece seal was tilted to the leading and trailing sides of a seal slot during its movement along the rotor housing surface and vibrated on the top end of the leading side of the slot as a fulcrum after the shift from the trailing side to the leading side of the slot. On the other hand, for the three-piece seal, its top part was tilted in all operating conditions, but its bottom part maintained effective area contact with the side of the slot under light load conditions up to medium engine speeds. The working chamber pressure was induced in the underseal in the same manner as the case with the two-piece type. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Analysis of embCAB mutations associated with ethambutol resistance in multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Sun, Qing; Liu, Hai-Can; Wu, Xiao-Cui; Xiao, Tong-Yang; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yi; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Ethambutol (EMB) plays a pivotal role in the chemotherapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Resistance to EMB is considered to be caused by mutations in the embCAB operon (embC, embA, and embB). In this study, we analyzed the embCAB mutations among 139 MDR-TB isolates from China and found a possible association between embCAB operon mutation and EMB resistance. Our data indicate that 56.8% of MDR-TB isolates are resistant to EMB, and 82.2% of EMB-resistant isolates belong to the Beijing family. Overall, 110 (79.1%) MDR-TB isolates had at least one mutation in the embCAB operon. The majority of mutations were present in the embB gene and the embA upstream region, which also displayed significant correlations with EMB resistance. The most common mutations occurred at codon 306 in embB (embB306), followed by embB406, embA(-16), and embB497. Mutations at embB306 were associated with EMB resistance. DNA sequencing of embB306-497 was the best strategy for detecting EMB resistance, with 89.9% sensitivity, 58.3% specificity, and 76.3% accuracy. Additionally, embB306 had limited value as a candidate predictor for EMB resistance among MDR-TB infections in China.

  6. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    .... Front End Frame Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives C. Accident History D. FRA and Industry... effects of collisions involving higher impact speeds. Nevertheless, CEM will also require proper end frame... views on the preemptive effect of this part. DATES: Effective Date: This final rule is effective March...

  7. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  8. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes force enhancement and results in much worse crew injury. An isolating layer between the aluminum foam and the vehicle floor is introduced to remediate this drawback. The results show that the blast-resistant capability of the innovative sandwich armor structure with the isolating layer increases remarkably.

  9. Resin/Dye Infusion Technique of Composite Integral Armor Targets for Post-Impact Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moy, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed to study the interior fracture surfaces on alumina oxide ceramic tiles as well as the delamination zones of S-2 Glass laminates within ballistic-impacted composite integral armor (CIA) targets...

  10. A Discrete Element Model of Armor Glass Fragmentation and Comminution Failure Under Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354; Sun, Xin [Advanced Computing, Mathematics, and Data Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354

    2016-02-15

    Because of its exceptional compressive resistance and crystal-clear appearance, lightweight glass has been traditionally used in transparent armor applications. However, due to its brittle nature, glass fails differently from ductile materials in the sense that glass fragmentation occurs instantly ahead of the projectile tip upon penetration. The effective residual strength of the armor glass then inevitably relies on the damaged glass strength within such comminuted zones with confinement from the surrounding intact materials. Physical understanding of damaged glass strength therefore becomes highly critical to the further development of armor designs. In the present study, a discrete element based modeling framework has been developed to understand and predict the evolution of compressive damages and residual strength of armor glasses. With the characteristic fragmentation and comminution failures explicitly resolved, their influences on the mechanical degradation of the loaded glass materials have been evaluated. The effects of essential loading conditions and material properties have also been investigated.

  11. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of swords and armor: regulating the theft of virtual goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arias, Andrea Vanina

    2008-01-01

    ....8 A distinguishing feature of MMORPGs is that players not only interact with one another but also collect items-traditionally swords, armor, potions, food, jewelry, or other accessories-that enhance...

  12. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2015-06-23

    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as “armored droplets” or “liquid marbles.” The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. Armor stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghim, M. N.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with stability of hardly (or partly) reshaping berm breakwaters. A simple physical argument is used to derive a new stability formula based on the assumption that the maximum wave force causing damage of armor layer is proportional to the maximum wave momentum flux near...... the structure toe. The main goal of the present paper is to provide an estimation technique based on this physical principle to predict the deformation of the front slope in terms of the eroded area. The proposed method is verified by comparison with model test data. It is found that by using the maximum wave...... momentum flux approach the damage to the front slope (eroded area) can be very well predicted. Moreover, a simple method to estimate the eroded area based on measured or calculated berm recession (Rec) and depth of intersection of reshaped and initial profile (hf) is presented. The performance...

  14. 独立摇滚乐队Death Cab For Cutie 3人同行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    美国独立摇滚乐队Death Cab For Cutie(简称DCFC)3月份首度访香港,笔者早前就与鼓手Jason McGerr(左)隔空对谈,大谈他对主脑兼吉他手Chris Walla离队的感觉及乐队往后的方向。今年3月,DCFC还发展了睽违4年的新作《Kintsugi(金缮)》,见证了乐队持续累积的成长,歌曲架构更加精练,他们依然是备受期待的独立摇滚乐队之一。

  15. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  16. Physiological and genetic description of dissimilatory perchlorate reduction by the novel marine bacterium Arcobacter sp. strain CAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Charlotte I; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D

    2013-05-21

    A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4(-)) or chlorate (ClO3(-)) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl(-)), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. IMPORTANCE The study of dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB) has largely focused on freshwater, mesophilic, neutral-pH environments. This study identifies a novel marine DPRB in the genus Arcobacter that represents the first description of a DPRB associated with the Campylobacteraceae. Strain CAB is currently the only epsilonproteobacterial DPRB in pure culture. The genome of strain CAB lacks the pcrC gene found in all

  17. CAB Contribution to HARMONI: The first light spectrograph of the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras López, J.; Arribas, S.; Calcines, A.

    2017-03-01

    HARMONI (High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical and Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph) is a visible and near-infrared (0.47 to 2.45 μm) integral field spectrograph selected as a first-light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). With four spatial scales (60, 20, 10 and 4 mas) and a wide range of spectral resolving powers (R=3500, 7500, 20000), HARMONI will allow scientists to address many of the E-ELT science cases. The HARMONI Consortium is led by the University of Oxford, and is also formed by the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC, Edinburgh, UK), Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC, Spain) and the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB INTA-CSIC, Spain). We summarize here the current status of the project, and describe the participation of CAB to design and manufacture two of the instrument sub-systems: the calibration unit and the secondary guiding module. The calibration unit will simulate the optical output of the telescope, and provide the functionality needed to illuminate the focal plane in such a way that the following type of data can be obtained: data aimed at removing the instrumental signature from the raw data and to convert the data into a data product that uses physical units, data required for monitoring the status of the instrument, and data required for calibrating the secondary guiding subsystem. The secondary guiding subsystem basic requirement is to provide knowledge (relative or absolute) of the location of the science focal plane on timescales of a few seconds and longer (up to months), with an accuracy of 2mas or 0.1x the input FWHM (at H/K bands), whichever is greater. The subsystem should achieve this level performance for different observation modes, e.g. no- AO, GLAO and LTAO modes.

  18. Nacre-like ceramic/polymer laminated composite for use in body-armor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mica Grujicic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre is a biological material constituting the innermost layer of the shells of gastropods and bivalves. It consists of polygonal tablets of aragonite, tessellated to form individual layers and having the adjacent layers as well as the tablets within a layer bonded by a biopolymer. Due to its highly complex hierarchical microstructure, nacre possesses an outstanding combination of mechanical properties, the properties which are far superior to the ones that are predicted using the techniques such as the rule of mixture. In the present work, an attempt is made to model a nacre-like composite armor consisting of boron carbide (B4C tablets and polyurea tablet/tablet interfaces. The armor is next investigated with respect to impact by a solid right-circular-cylindrical rigid projectile, using a transient non-linear dynamics finite element analysis. The ballistic-impact response and the penetration resistance of the armor is then compared with that of the B4C monolithic armor having an identical areal density. Furthermore, the effect of various nacre microstructural features (e.g. surface profiling, micron-scale asperities, mineral bridges between the overlapping tablets lying in adjacent layers, and B4C nano-crystallinity on the ballistic-penetration resistance of the composite-armor is investigated in order to identify an optimal nacre-like composite-armor architecture having the largest penetration resistance. The results obtained clearly show that a nacre-like armor possesses a superior penetration resistance relative to its monolithic counterpart, and that the nacre microstructural features considered play a critical role in the armor penetration resistance.

  19. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    for armor and mechanized infantry units. 1 Known as the M-113, it entered production in 1960 and saw extensive wartime service in Vietnam. Considered...Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 4 Table 2. 2013 Projected ABCT AMPV Production , by Variant...September 14, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43240 The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues

  20. Dynamic Behavior and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics: January-December 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics : January–December 2012 Annual Report edited by RA Haber Recipient Program Manager Director, Center...for Ceramic Research Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 and JW McCauley (Emeritus...Excellence Dynamic Behavior and Optimization of Advanced Armor Ceramics : January–December 2012 Annual Report edited by RA Haber Recipient

  1. M1117 "Guardian" Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) Employment in Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    welded steel armor hull that has been fitted with advanced ceramic armor to provide the crew with a higher level of protection against heavy machine guns...PowerPoint Presentation: CGSC_TTP (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Command and General Staff College, 2000), 4. 8 Christopher F. Foss, ed., Jane’s Armour and... steel hull with a spall liner on the interior surfaces.11 The vehicle carries a crew of three with an optional seat for a fourth passenger. Compared

  2. Ballistic Evaluation of rolled Homogeneous Steel Armor with Tungsten Carbide and Titanium Carbide Facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-12-01

    LABORATORIES BALLISTIC EVALUATION OF ROLLED HMtOGE14EOUS STEEL ASWKR f VITH TUNGSTEN CARBIDE AND TITANIUM CARBIDE FACING (U) TECHNICAL REPORT NO. WAL...carbide steel and titanium carbide steel composite armor when attacked by cal. .40 H19B WC cores, cal. .0 AP W2 projectiles, ZOIN fragment simulating...determine the effectiveness of tungsten car- bide (WC) and titanium carbide (TIC) facing on steel armor for the defeat of steel and tungsten carbide

  3. Light intensity regulation of cab gene transcription is signaled by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escoubas, J.M.; Lomas, M.; LaRoche, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-24

    The eukaryotic green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta acclimates to decreased growth irradiance by increasing cellular levels of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex apoproteins associated with photosystem II (LHCIIs), whereas increased growth irradiance elicits the opposite response. Nuclear run-on transcription assays and measurements of cab mRNA stability established that light intensity-dependent changes in LHCII are controlled at the level of transcription. cab gene transcription in high-intensity light was partially enhanced by reducing plastoquinone with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU), whereas it was repressed in low-intensity light by partially inhibiting the oxidation of plastoquinol with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). Uncouplers of photosynthetic electron transport and inhibition of water splitting had no effect on LHCII levels. These results strongly implicate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool in the chloroplast as a photon-sensing system that is coupled to the light-intensity regulation of nuclear-encoded cab gene transcription. The accumulation of cellular chlorophyll at low-intensity light can be blocked by cytoplasmically directed phosphatase inhibitors, such as okadaic acid, microcystin L-R, and tautomycin. Gel mobility-shift assays revealed that cells grown in high-intensity light contained proteins that bind to the promoter region of a cab gene carrying sequences homologous to higher plant light-responsive elements. On the basis of these experimental results, we propose a model for a light intensity signaling system where cab gene expression is reversibly repressed by a phosphorylated factor coupled to the redox status of plastoquinone through a chloroplast protein kinase. 54 refs., 5 figs.

  4. A specific member of the Cab multigene family can be efficiently targeted and disrupted in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A H; Codón, A C; Ivascu, C; Russo, V E; Knight, C; Cove, D; Schaefer, D G; Chakhparonian, M; Zrÿd, J P

    1999-02-01

    The analysis of phenotypic change resulting from gene disruption following homologous recombination provides a powerful technique for the study of gene function. This technique has so far been difficult to apply to plants because the frequency of gene disruption following transformation with constructs containing DNA homologous to genomic sequences is low (0.01 to 0.1%). It has recently been shown that high rates of gene disruption (up to 90%) can be achieved in the moss Physcomitrella patens using genomic sequences of unknown function. We have used this system to examine the specificity of gene disruption in Physcomitrella using a member of the Cab multigene family. We have employed the previously characterised Cab gene ZLAB1 and have isolated segments of 13 other closely related members of the Cab gene family. In the 199-bp stretch sequenced, the 13 new members of the Cab family show an average of 8.5% divergence from the DNA sequence of ZLAB1. We observed 304 silent substitutions and 16 substitutions that lead to a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein. We cloned 1029 bp of the coding region of ZLAB1 (including 177 of the 199 bp with high homology to the 13 new Cab genes) into a vector containing a selectable hygromycin resistance marker, and used this construct to transform P. patens. In three of nine stable transformants tested, the construct had inserted in, and disrupted, the ZLAB1 gene. There was no discernible phenotype associated with the disruption. We have therefore shown that gene disruption is reproducible in P. patens and that the requirement for sequence homology appears to be stringent, therefore allowing the role of individual members of a gene family to be analysed in land plants for the first time.

  5. Dynamics analysis of planar armored cable motion in deep-sea ROV system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全伟才; 张竺英; 张艾群

    2014-01-01

    The armored cable used in a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) may undergo large displacement motion when subjected to dynamic actions of ship heave motion and ocean current. A novel geometrically exact finite element model for two-dimensional dynamic analysis of armored cable is presented. This model accounts for the geometric nonlinearities of large displacement of the armored cable, and effects of axial load and bending stiffness. The governing equations are derived by consistent linearization and finite element discretization of the total weak form of the armored cable system, and solved by the Newmark time integration method. To make the solution procedure avoid falling into the local extreme points, a simple adaptive stepping strategy is proposed. The presented model is validated via actual measured data. Results for dynamic configurations, motion and tension of both ends of the armored cable, and resonance-zone are presented for two numerical cases, including the dynamic analysis under the case of only ship heave motion and the case of joint action of ship heave motion and ocean current. The dynamics analysis can provide important reference for the design or product selection of the armored cable in a deep-sea ROV system so as to improve the safety of its marine operation under the sea state of 4 or above.

  6. Research on Protection Capability of Flying-Whip Multifunctional Explosive Reactive Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虎生; 张宝(金平); 张庆明; 刘长林

    2004-01-01

    The experimental research on protection capability of the flying-whip multifunctional explosive reactive armor (ERA) was performed, in which the comparison experiment was made on the damage effect of the flying-whip's geometrical figuration, material property and driven velocity on the long-rod armor-piercing-projectile. The moving velocity of the flying-whip driven by different explosives and the pressure attenuation law of shock wave travelling in the back plate were measured respectively with the electric probe method and the manganin piezoresistive gauge technique. The following conclusions based on a great quantity of experimental data were drawn: compared with the sandwich ERA the flying-whip multifunctional ERA has very good protection function against the long-rod armor-piercing-projectile, the shaped charge warhead and the anti-armor tandem warhead. In addition, the composite plate made of the armor-steel and rubber plate can lessen the vibration and shock of the main armor caused by the explosion of the charge.

  7. Challenges of establishing a Community Advisory Board (CAB in a low-income, low-resource setting: experiences from Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubis Kafuruki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Community Advisory Boards are now seen as standard practice for clinical vaccine and drug trials worldwide. In the past, most Community Advisory Boards (CABs were established by activists and lobbyists to monitor HIV/AIDS vaccine and drug trials in developed countries. In Africa the first CAB was established in Uganda in 1990 in conjunction with an HIV vaccine project and has since been followed by others in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. In 2007, the Bagamoyo branch of the Ifakara Health Institute initiated the formation of a CAB. The aim was to properly educate and empower elected CAB members to become full partners in all research activities concerning the public within the Bagamoyo area. Methods and Results Beginning in 2007, staff visited each of the 24 villages within the study area to inform the communities about the proposed CAB and asked them to elect two individuals to represent their village on the CAB. The first attempt was hampered by community leaders selecting themselves, which led to inconsistent attendance, gender imbalance, and political infighting. New criteria for the selection of representatives were implemented to exclude governmental leaders, illiterate representatives and to promote a one-to-one gender balance. The newly appointed representatives underwent training and have participated in CAB meetings largely devoid of the negative issues previously encountered. Conclusion The successfully established CAB has led to improved relations with the community and facilitated the recruitment of study subjects. Our experiences show that, it is possible to establish a non-specific CAB in a low-income setting.

  8. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Adamiv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It is concluded that calculated from normalized transmission spectra and absorption spectra the non-linear refractive index n2 increases due to the plasmon resonance in Ag NPs.

  9. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  10. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  11. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  13. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  14. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  15. A protocol for CABS-dock protein-peptide docking driven by side-chain contact information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Ciemny, Maciej Pawel; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2017-08-18

    The characterization of protein-peptide interactions is a challenge for computational molecular docking. Protein-peptide docking tools face at least two major difficulties: (1) efficient sampling of large-scale conformational changes induced by binding and (2) selection of the best models from a large set of predicted structures. In this paper, we merge an efficient sampling technique with external information about side-chain contacts to sample and select the best possible models. In this paper we test a new protocol that uses information about side-chain contacts in CABS-dock protein-peptide docking. As shown in our recent studies, CABS-dock enables efficient modeling of large-scale conformational changes without knowledge about the binding site. However, the resulting set of binding sites and poses is in many cases highly diverse and difficult to score. As we demonstrate here, information about a single side-chain contact can significantly improve the prediction accuracy. Importantly, the imposed constraints for side-chain contacts are quite soft. Therefore, the developed protocol does not require precise contact information and ensures large-scale peptide flexibility in the broad contact area. The demonstrated protocol provides the extension of the CABS-dock method that can be practically used in the structure prediction of protein-peptide complexes guided by the knowledge of the binding interface.

  16. Research on CAB Grafted Hydroxyl Acrylic Resin Synthesis Plated Silver Paint%CAB 接枝改性羟基丙烯酸树脂合成电镀银涂料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康思琦; 方岸; 余爱民; 袁荣华; 杨俊峰

    2015-01-01

    用不同类型的醋酸丁酸纤维素(CAB)接枝改性羟基丙烯酸树脂,制备了银粉定向排列、附着力好的电镀银涂料用羟基丙烯酸树脂.讨论了 CAB 的接入方式、类型与用量对树脂性能的影响,研究了反应温度、引发剂品种与用量对接枝率的影响,以及单体选择对漆膜性能的影响.结果表明:选择 CAB381-0.5,自由基接枝改性的方法,引发剂 BPO 用量2.5%(单体总量),羟值2.0%,用长链并且不易结晶的丙烯酸酯类单体 LMA,加入量6%~8%,反应温度120~130℃能合成出接枝率高、电镀银定向排列,且其他物理机械性能优异的羟基丙烯酸树脂型电镀银涂料.%In this paper, highly adhesive plated silver coating silver hydroxyl acrylic resin was prepared by grafting different types of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). The CAB's access method and effect of the type and amount on resin properties were discussed, the effect of reaction temperature and the amount of initiator on the grafting yield varieties, and the impact of the choice of monomer film properties were studied. The results show that: by using CAB381-0.5 and adopting the radical graft modification method, with BPO initiator (total amount of monomers) dosage at 2.5%, hydroxyl value at 2.0%, and by adding 6%~8% long chain and not easily crystallized acrylate monomer LMA, with reaction temperature at 120~130 ℃, superior hydroxyl acrylic resin based paint silver plating can be derived with high synthesized graft rate, silver plating arrangement and other physical and mechanical properties.

  17. Effect of Multi-Shot X-Ray Exposures in IFE Armor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Schmitt, R C; Bell, B K

    2004-12-10

    As part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program the performance of tungsten as an armor material is being studied. While the armor would be exposed to neutrons, x-rays and ions within an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, the thermomechanical effects are believed to dominate. Using a pulsed x-ray source, long-term exposures of tungsten have been completed at fluences that are of interest for the IFE application. Modeling is used in conjunction with experiments on the XAPPER x-ray damage facility in an effort to recreate the effects that would be expected in an operating IFE power plant. X-ray exposures have been completed for a variety of x-ray fluences and number of shots. Analysis of the samples suggests that surface roughening has a threshold that is very close to the fluences that reproduce the peak temperatures expected in an IFE armor material.

  18. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  19. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance.The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance.Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo and vapor permeability indexes (im were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert, hot/humid (jungle, and temperate environmental conditions.In nearly still air (0.4 m/s, IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA.Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance.

  20. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  1. Fuzzy Control Based on Neural Networks for Armored Vehicle Electric Drive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-jun; LI Hua; ZHANG Jian; ZHANG Yu-nan

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet rigorous demands of control of electric motors in armored vehicle electric drive system and make the system of strong robustness and antijamming capability, a fuzzy control method based on neural networks is put forward. The simulation model of the armored vehicle electric drive system is built up to test the validity of the control. Simulation experiments show that when load is increased or decreased suddenly, the system adopting fuzzy control based on neural networks is insensitive to parameter change and has little overshooting and oscillation compared with PID control.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Tungsten Alloy Rods Penetration into Alumina Ceramic/Armor Steel Composite Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-zhu; HUANG Feng-lei; ZHANG Lian-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson-Holmquist constitutive ceramic model is re-implemented into the LS-DYNA3D program to simulate the penetration of long rod projectile into ceramic/armor steel composite targets.The damage evolution,fracture propagation,and spall damage in the ceramic/armor targets is represented during the simulation procedure and the accuracy of the penetration depth comparing between the simulating and experimental results is reliable with an error less than 8%.The relationship between the mass efficiency factor.differential factor and ceramic tiles thickness is given out for the penetration results with/without a cover plate.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas protegens Cab57 discovered in Japan reveals strain-specific diversity of this species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasumi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. Cab57 was isolated from the rhizosphere of shepherd's purse growing in a field in Hokkaido by screening the antibiotic producers. The whole genome sequence of this strain was obtained by paired-end and whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and the gaps between the contigs were closed using gap-spanning PCR products. The P. sp. Cab57 genome is organized into a single circular chromosome with 6,827,892 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,186 predicted protein-coding sequences. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome analysis, strain Cab57 was identified as P. protegens. As reported in P. protegens CHA0 and Pf-5, four gene clusters (phl, prn, plt, and hcn encoding the typical antibiotic metabolites and the reported genes associated with Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway of these strains are fully conserved in the Cab57 genome. Actually strain Cab57 exhibited typical Gac/Rsm activities and antibiotic production, and these activities were enhanced by knocking out the retS gene (for a sensor kinase acting as an antagonist of GacS. Two large segments (79 and 115 kb lacking in the Cab57 genome, as compared with the Pf-5 genome, accounted for the majority of the difference (247 kb between these genomes. One of these segments was the complete rhizoxin analog biosynthesis gene cluster (ca. 79 kb and another one was the 115-kb mobile genomic island. A whole genome comparison of those relative strains revealed that each strain has unique gene clusters involved in metabolism such as nitrite/nitrate assimilation, which was identified in the Cab57 genome. These findings suggest that P. protegens is a ubiquitous bacterium that controls its biocontrol traits while building up strain-specific genomic repertoires for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and niche adaptation.

  4. Comparison of Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Thermophysiological Responses of Three Prototype Body Armor Systems Versus Baseline U.S. Army Body Armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    thermo-physiology; heat stress; protective clothing Modern day dismounted military are commonly required to perform high physical work at high...functional characteristics of equipment and clothing carried and worn by the individual Soldiers. The work outlined in this report provides: 1) a...armor systems, and 3) mathematical predictions of maximal work times in three different environmental conditions. This work provides a cost

  5. A Computational Investigation of the Multi-Hit Ballistic-Protection Performance of Laminated Transparent-armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, Mica; Pandurangan, B.; Coutris, N.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of a prototypical laminated glass/polycarbonate transparent armor is investigated using a series of transient nonlinear dynamics analyses of armor impact with a sequence of four M2AP full metal jacket (FMJ) armor-piercing bullets. All calculations were carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial finite element program (ABAQUS Version 6.7, User Documentation, Dessault Systems, 2007), and the computational results obtained were compared to their experimental counterparts obtained by Dolan (Ballistic Transparent-armor Testing Using a Multi-hit Rifle Pattern, Bachelors, Thesis, Kettering University, December 2007). The comparison revealed that (a) The proposed computational procedure can reasonably well account for the observed multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of the laminated transparent armor; (b) The role of prior bullet hits in reducing armor's ballistic-protection performance is clearly revealed; (c) The role of polycarbonate lamina in preventing glass fragments from entering the vehicle interior is clearly demonstrated; and (d) Experimentally observed inability of the transparent armor to defeat 0.50-caliber Fragment Simulating Projectiles (FSPs) is confirmed.

  6. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  7. Mitigation Systems for Confined Blast Loading - Crew Protection in Armored Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    reactants; this volume contains about 80 percent of the original reactants by weight. Sintered bronze barriers were found to be effective in...Effects of Tungsten Alloy Property Variations on Penetrator Performance for Spaced Armors.” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials

  8. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  9. MEMS, Nanotechnology and Spintronics for Sensor Enhanced Armor, NDE and Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    Crew Interface and Automation • Robotic Follower ATD • ARV Robotic Technologies Program SMART ARMOR Battery Pack w/ Integrated Heat Exchanger CONDITION...of MI, Prof. Wise ACTIVE STENTS : Wireless Readout of Intra-Arterial Pressure and Flow Suitable for the carotid arteries; not yet small enough for the

  10. Suction removal of sediment from between armor blocks. III: Breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    When a sediment beach covered by stones or an armor layer is exposed to breaking waves, the turbulence generated by the breaking waves can cause mobilization and removal of the sediment underneath the stones. In two earlier studies by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU)-group, the suction...

  11. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured From Detailed Military Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    published an investigation into ‘Bullet Resisting Alloys’ where, utilizing a Japanese Army service rifle and a ballistic pendulum , he examined numerous...materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc. 15...selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved

  12. Trade Space Study for the Performance of Hard Armor Versus Threat Striking Velocity at Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/025 TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR...official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of trade names in this report does not...September 2013 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF HARD ARMOR VERSUS THREAT STRIKING VELOCITY AT RANGE 5a

  13. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS......), is introduced. The system utilizes front loudspeakers and extra loudspeakers on the opposite wall of the room processed to cancel out the rear-wall reflections, which effectively conveys a more uniform sound field. The system works in the time domain and presents good performance over the loudspeaker low...

  14. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Cabécar and Guaymí Indians in Southeastern Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonte, Bruno; Bonilla, César; Gené, José A.; Mata, Eugenia; Alvarado, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    En un grupo de treinta y cuatro indígenas de varias localidades de los grupos Cabécar y Guaymí, en el sureste de Costa Rica, se determinó los niveles de IgG, IgA e IgM en suero, mediante inmunodifusión radial. Se comparó los resultados con los descritos en un grupo de adultos sanos costarricenses de zonas urbanas. Los niveles de inmunoglobulinas en el grupo de indígenas fueron mayores que los del grupo control.

  15. First investigation on the applicability of an active noise control system on a tracked tractor without cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In last years, several research teams pointed their attention on the application of active noise control systems (ANC inside the cabs of agricultural tractor, with the purpose of reducing the driver exposition to noise, that is only partially controlled by the frame of the cab. This paper reports the results of a first experience that aimed at verifying the applicability of an ANC on a medium-high power, tracked tractor without cab. The tested tractor was a Fiat Allis 150 A, equipped with rear power take off, used in the execution of deep primary tillage in compact soils. It is a tracked tractor without cab, with maximum power of 108.8 kW at 1840 min–1 of the engine. The ANC consists of a control unit box based on a digital signal processor (DPS, two microphones, two speakers and a power amplifier. The instrumentation used in noise data collecting and processing consisted of a multichannel signal analyzer (Sinus - Soundbook, a ½” microphone capsule and an acoustic calibrator, both Bruel & Kjaer. The study aimed at evaluating the behaviour of the ANC by means of tests carried out under repeatable conditions, characterized by pre-defined engine speed values. Three replications have been made for each engine speed. The sampling time was 30 s. Two series of tests were performed in order to compare the results observed with the ANC on and off. The engine speed adopted in the study ranged from 600 min– 1, up to 2000 min–1 (maximum speed with steps of 100 min–1. The ANC proved to be effective in the interval of speed between 1400 and 1700 min–1, where the samplings have been intensified, adopting steps of 50 min–1. In such an interval, the attenuation observed with the ANC system on appeared evident both as weighed A sound pressure level (from 1.29 up to 2.46 dB(A and linear (from 4.54 up to 8.53 dB. The best performance has been observed at the engine speed of 1550 min–1, with attenuations, respectively of 2.46 dB(A and 7.67 d

  16. 高毒力苏云金杆菌CAB109菌株的蛋白质特性及其田间防效%Protein characteristics and field control effect of Bacillus thuringiensis CAB109 with high insecticidal activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金大勇; 柳镛万

    2011-01-01

    对甜菜夜蛾等害虫具有高毒力的苏云金杆菌CAB109菌株进行生物学特性调查结果表明,CAB109菌株的伴孢晶体具有典型的菱形结构;其原毒素蛋白的分子量为133kDa,经胰蛋白酶处理后水解为66kDa的活性毒素蛋白.DNA凝胶电泳显示:CAB19菌株的质粒DNA与同样H,血清型的已知HD-133菌株不同.CAB109菌株对葱田甜菜夜蛾的平均防效达75.3%,高于常用化学农药和微生物农药的防效;平均挽回损失率也达26.0%表现出优良的开发潜力.%Bacillus thuringiensis isolate CAB109 was bipyramidal shape by microscopic examination which had high insecticidal activity to Spodoptera exigua. The molecular weight of this isolate was 133 kDa, and the molecular weight of active protein toxin was 66 kDa after treated with trypsin. DNA analysis showed that plasmid DNA of CAB109 was different from B. thuringiensis subsp, aizawai HD--133 which has same H7 serotype. Mortality and damaged reduce of S. exigua treated by CAB109 could reached 75.3% and 26.0%,respectively. The effect were better than ordinary chemical and microbe pesticides treatments. This study showed excellent development potential of B. thuringiensis isolate CAB109.

  17. ESTRUCTURACIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA EN LA BASE CAB DE AUTORES VINCULADOS A INSTITUCIONES COLOMBIANAS, 1997 A 2002 Structuring Bibliographic Information of Authors Linked with Colombian Institutions Indexed in CAB Database, 1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA USGAME

    Full Text Available La utilización de la bibliometría para construir representaciones de las dinámicas de la producción científica y tecnológica se apoya en el tratamiento de las diferentes informaciones contenidas en las publicaciones científicas, sobre todo en los artículos, las patentes y los informes de investigación. La información recogida en la base bibliográfica CAB de los documentos integrados de 1997 a 2002, con autores vinculados a instituciones u organizaciones colombianas, ha sido estructurada para hacer emerger los temas de investigación presentes y para establecer los contextos en que se ubican los temas identificados, así como sus evoluciones. Se señalan diversas utilizaciones de la información estructurada.The utilization of bibliometry in order to build representations of the scientific and technological production dynamics is supported on the treatment of the different information contained in scientific publications, above all in the articles, patents and investigation reports. The information gathered in the bibliographic base CAB of the documents integrated from 1997 to 2002, having authors linked with Colombian institutions or organizations, has been structured to make the present investigation themes emerge and in order to establish the contexts in which the themes identified as well as its evolutions are placed. Diverse utilizations of the structured information are noted.

  18. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...... and the understanding of why and how it works will also be discussed. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system....

  19. Molecular Phylogenetic Placement of the Recently Described Armored Scale Insect Abgrallaspis aguacatae and Several Congeners (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Jeremy C. Andersen; Joseph G. Morse; Benjamin B. Normark; Richard Stouthamer

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Hass’ avocado, Persea americana Miller, fruit being imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of a previously unknown species of armored scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae...

  20. Natural insertion of the bro-1 β-lactamase gene into the gatCAB operon affects Moraxella catarrhalis aspartyl-tRNA(Asn) amidotransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akochy, Pierre-Marie; Lapointe, Jacques; Roy, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    Only about half of bacterial species use an asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) to attach Asn to its cognate tRNA(Asn). Other bacteria, including the human pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, a causative agent of otitis media, lack a gene encoding AsnRS, and form Asn-tRNA(Asn) by an indirect pathway catalysed by two enzymes: first, a non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (ND-AspRS) catalyses the formation of aspartyl-tRNA(Asn) (Asp-tRNA(Asn)); then, a tRNA-dependent amidotransferase (GatCAB) transamidates this 'incorrect' product into Asn-tRNA(Asn). As M. catarrhalis has a Gln-tRNA synthetase, its GatCAB functions as an Asp-tRNA(Asn) amidotransferase. This pathogen rapidly evolved to about 90 % ampicillin resistance worldwide by insertion of a bro-1 β-lactamase gene within the gatCAB operon. Comparison of the GatCAB subunits from bro-1 β-lactamase-positive and bro-negative strains showed that the laterally transferred bro-1 gene, inserted into the gatCAB operon, affected the C-terminal sequence of GatA. The identity between the C-terminal sequences of GatA(wt) (residues 479-491) and of GatA(BRO-1) (residues 479-492) was about 36 %, whereas the rest of the GatA sequence was relatively conserved. The characterization of these two distinct GatCABs as well as the hybrid GatCAB containing GatA(1-478)(wt)(479-492)(BRO-1) and truncated GatCAB enzymes of M. catarrhalis showed that the substitution in GatA(wt) of residues 479-492 of GatA(BRO-1) causes increased specificity for glutamine, and decreased specificity for Asp-tRNA(Asn) in the transamidation reaction. We conclude that the bro gene insertion has altered the kinetic parameters of Asp-tRNA(Asn) amidotransferase, and we propose a model for gatA evolution after the insertion of bro-1 at the carboxyl end of gatA.

  1. Intelligent Layout Method of the Powerhouse for Tank & Armored Vehicles Based on 3-Dimensional Rectangular Packing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-long; MAO Ming; LU Yi-ping; BIE Jie-min

    2005-01-01

    Probes into a new and effective method in arranging the powerhouses of tank & armored vehicles. Theory and method of 3-dimensional rectangular packing are adapted to arrange effectively almost all the systems and components in the powerhouse of the vehicle, thus the study can be regarded as an attempt for the theory's engineering applications in the field of tank & armored vehicle design. It is proved that most parts of the solutions attained are reasonable, and some of the solutions are innovative.

  2. Mechanical Property Comparison of the Soviet BS-41 and the US M993 Armor-Penetrating Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-23

    ARL-TN-0802 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Mechanical Property Comparison of the Soviet BS-41 and the US M993 Armor...US Army Research Laboratory Mechanical Property Comparison of the Soviet BS-41 and the US M993 Armor-Penetrating Cores by Stephen Bady...Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 March–30 September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mechanical Property Comparison of the Soviet BS-41 and the

  3. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, G.V. [United States Geological Survey , Anchorage, AK (United States); Mann, D.H. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Institute of Arctic Biology; Short, J.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Fisheries Laboratory

    2006-09-15

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by 'oil mousse', which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulder. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. (author)

  4. Building Nanoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks "Armor" on Fibers for High-Performance Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Jiang, Xu; Huang, Yudong; Guo, Zhanhu; Shao, Lu

    2017-02-15

    The nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) "armor" is in situ intergrown onto the surfaces of carbon fibers (CFs) by nitric acid oxidization to supply nucleation sites and serves as a novel interfacial linker between the fiber and polymer matrix and a smart cushion to release interior and exterior applied forces. Simultaneous enhancements of the interfacial and interlaminar shear strength as well as the tensile strength of CFs were achieved. With the aid of an ultrasonic "cleaning" process, the optimized surface energy and tensile strength of CFs with a MOF "armor" are 83.79 mN m(-1) and 5.09 GPa, for an increase of 102% and 11.6%, respectively. Our work finds that the template-induced nucleation of 3D MOF onto 1D fibers is a general and promising approach toward advanced composite materials for diverse applications to meet scientific and technical demands.

  5. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-19

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications.

  6. Flow and Turbulence at Rubble-Mound Breakwater Armor Layers under Solitary Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the flow and turbulence at the armor layer of rubble-mound breakwaters during wave action. The study focused on the details of the flow and turbulence in the armor layer and on the effect of the porous core on flow and stability....... To isolate the processes involved with the flow in the porous core, experiments were conducted with increasing complexity. Specifically, three parallel experiments were performed including (1) an impermeable smooth breakwater slope, (2) an impermeable breakwater slope with large roughness elements added...... to the breakwater, and (3) a porous breakwater where the porous core was added below the breakwater front. One breakwater slope of 1:1.5 was applied. In this paper the focus is on the details of a single sequence of wave approach, run-up, and rundown. To isolate this sequence the experiments were performed applying...

  7. Transient pressure wave in the behind armor blunt trauma: experimental and computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaomin; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Wen, Yaoke

    2017-02-01

    In the last few decades, various researches focus on the transient pressure in the behind armor blunt trauma. This paper presented a investigation on the transient pressure in the ballistic gelatin behind a soft body armor subjected to the impacting from three ammunitions. Experimental results show that three peaks appear on the pressure-time curves without taking into account the ammunition type and the impact velocity. Furthermore, numerical models of the test were created to compare modelling results to the pressure from the pressure gauges buried in the gelatin block. The main features on the pressure-time cure were discussed to analyze the wave formation and propagation. With the verified model, the effect of the boundary was also investigated to explain the wave reflection which appeared after two peaks.

  8. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application; Producao e caracterizacao de ceramicas para blindagem balistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Mecanica-Aeronautica; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L., E-mail: cmoniz@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  9. Investigating the temperature field on doors, frames and armor plate of large capacity coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashov, D.V.; Shustorovich, V.M.; Komolov, V.G.; Zhazhin, S.N.

    1985-06-01

    Experimental studies were carried out at the Altaiskii and Avdeevskii coking plants to determine the temperature field on the frames, doors and armor plating of coking batteries with a capacity of 41.6 m/sup 3/. It was established that for normal operation the temperature on metal parts of the combustion chambers remained stable. However, when gas is burned, the metal is subjected to rapid heating to temperatures exceeding those under normal operation. After the flame is extinguished, cooling is characterized by an accelerated temperature drop along the ribs and the temperature on the door and frame at the upper cross beam is higher than at other levels of the combustion chamber. Several recommendations on eliminating these temperature effects are made, e.g. using material with stable mechanical properties for doors, frames and armor plate. 4 references.

  10. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  11. Histopathological evaluation of seven Amazon species of freshwater ornamental armored catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish commonly known as acaris or plecos are freshwater armored catfish economically important as a food resource and as ornamental fish. Most of these species are captured in the Amazon region. However, despite its economic importance, there is a lack of knowledge about their biological aspects. Thus, this study aimed to characterize and evaluate the histopathological aspects of important organs as gills, liver, integument and kidney of seven species of armored freshwater ornamental catfish fromGuamáRiver,Pará State,Brazil. All organs showed typical characteristics of organs of other teleosts. In some species, gills and liver showed slight histopathological changes: telangiectasis, edema and morphological changes related to the presence of parasites (Monogenea and Digenea in the gills, and changes in the arrangement of hepatocytes rows, and vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver. Thus, the knowledge of the normal structure of organs and changes found can be used as tools for environmental and health monitoring of animals.

  12. An Advanced Probabilistic Neural Network for the Design of Breakwater Armor Blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an advanced probabilistic neural network (APNN) method is proposed to reflect the global probability density function (PDF) by summing up the heterogeneous local PDF which is automatically determined in the individual standard deviation of variables. The APNN is applied to predict the stability number of armor blocks of breakwaters using the experimental data of van der Meer, and the estimated results of the APNN are compared with those of an empirical formula and a previous artificial neural network (ANN) model. The APNN shows better results in predicting the stability number of armor blocks of breakwater and it provided the promising probabilistic viewpoints by using the individual standard deviation in a variable.

  13. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF CERAMIC/METAL ARMOR IMPACTED BY DEFORMABLE PROJECTILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical model was established to describe the complex behavior of ceramic/metal armor under impact of deformable projectile by assuming some hypotheses.Three aspects were taken into account: the mushrooming deformation of the projectile,the fragment of ceramic tile and the formation and change of ceramic conoid and the deformation of the metal backup plate. Solving the set of equations, all the variables were obtained for the different impact velocities: the extent and particle velocity in rigid zone; the extent, cross-section area and particle velocity in plastic zone; the velocity and depth of penetration of projectile to the target; the reduction in volume and compressive strength of the fractured ceramic conoid; the displacement and movement velocity of the effective zone of backup plate. Agreement observed among analytical result, numerical simulation and experimental result confirms the validity of the model, suggesting the model developed can be a useful tool for ceramic/metal armor design.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Material to Reduce Crazing in Transparent Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 681 Technical Report ARMET-TR-14042 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL TO REDUCE...prevent disclosure of its contents or reconstruction of the document. Do not return to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...September 2012 to April 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL TO REDUCE CRAZING IN TRANSPARENT ARMOR

  15. Relationship between Ballistic Coefficient and Static Mechanical Properties for Armor Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between the ballistic coefficient and the static mechanical properties of armor materials was studied. The results show that the ballistic coefficient is determined by the strength, hardness and the toughness of materials. According to the Martel rule, the equation of the relationship between ballistic coefficient and static mechanical properties satisfies the following formula: . From the mixture law of composite, the prerequisite, for which ballistic coefficient has maximum to reinforcement volume fraction, is obtained by the following equation: .

  16. The Capabilities That Medium-Armored Forces Bring to the Full Spectrum of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    fi repower required to extricate soldiers trapped in Mogadishu during a raid to capture a clan warlord. During Operation Just Cause in Panama (1989... repower , and a rapid-reaction capability that foot soldiers or truck-borne infantry do not possess. Medium-Armored Forces Have Performed Well over...ferring their greater deployability compared with heavy forces and their greater mobility and fi repower compared with light forces. In Panama, air

  17. Defeat at Kasserine: American Armor Doctrine, Training, and Battle Command in Northwest Africa, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    the modern Army avoid comparable mistakes in the future. 1Orr Kelly, Meeting the Fox (New York, NY: John ...was joined. The battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel John K. Waters, ordered a tank destroyer section forward to attack the 11 approaching column...is the enemy of change.1 Edward L. Katzenbach Jr. The 1st Armored Division was activated on 15 July 1940 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky. It was the first of

  18. Evaluation of the Combat Vehicle Command and Control System. Operational Effectiveness of an Armor Battalion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-31

    MAJ James Whitehead, the Field Unit’s Research and Development Coordinator. Mr. Ronald Kraemer, of the ARI-Fort Knox Field Unit, and Ms. Margaret ...staff included Dr. Nancy Atwood , Dr. Beverly Winsch, Dr. Laura Ford, Ms. Alicia Sawyer, Mr. Paul Smith, Ms. Frances Ainslie, MG (Ret.) Charles Heiden, Mr...combat performance in the context of armor doctrine and tactics, including unit standing operating procedures (SOPs). A third report ( Atwood , Winsch

  19. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to testing, the subject test sample will be visually inspected. The hard armor plate is then inserted into the carrier (vest or shoot pack), the...rebutting claims of unfair treatment by Mr. Neal. Michael Turner, Ohio, stated, “Mr. Neil , I have got to tell you, I have been on this committee five...to do a thorough mission analysis and develop sound courses of action. From a mission analysis perspective, the following areas immediately stand

  20. An Overview of CNT-Kevlar Nanocomposites in the Application of Body Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉路

    2014-01-01

    The superlative mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. Carbon nanotubes have been considered to be one of the most researched materials of the 21st century. In this paper, carbon nanotubes reinforced Kevlar composite and its application in personal armor has been analyzed as well as the processing cost being evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanocomposite for the application were shortlisted. Current and future developmental trends for this application were discussed.

  1. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Sheet) Continuation for Block 13 ARO Report Number Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Alumin Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2013 . Published in...nose, steel jacketed, hard tungsten core (1400 Hv), armor piercing (AP) projectile (Ref 1). As mentioned above, this failure mechanism is often...zones being impacted with blunt, lower hardness projectiles [e.g., 20-mm caliber, 53 g, blunt, chamfered right circular cylindrical steel fragment

  2. Research of the Effects of Integration into Armor on the Performanec of Spintronic Microwave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    PERFORMANCE OF SPINTRONIC MICROWAVE DETECTORS Elena Bankowski, PhD E-mail: elena.n.bankowski.civ@mail.mil Thomas Meitzler, PhD Tomas Pesys TARDEC...prototypes of novel nano-sized spintronic sensors of microwave radiation for battlefield anti-radar and wireless communications applications are...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Research of the Effects of Integration into Armor on the Performanec of Spintronic Microwave Detectors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  3. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  4. 不同粘接剂对后牙分裂桩冠修复应力分布影响的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of the stress distribution of two-piece post crown with different adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立辉; 刘立杰; 高贝; 高尚; 陈一夫; 刘志辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立下颌第一磨牙残根分裂桩冠修复的三维有限元模型,分析不同粘接剂粘接时残根应力分布特点,从而得到在不同情况下与分裂桩冠修复相匹配的最佳粘接剂.方法 选取健康的下颌第一磨牙离体牙,沿釉牙骨质界将冠部去除,对处理后的残根进行CT扫描.将CT影像导入逆向工程软件,重建下颌后牙残根的三维有限元模型;制作与残根相匹配的纯钛分裂桩冠修复体,同样进行CT扫描,在MIMICS中重建出修复体的模型,并进行装配,对比分析不同粘接系统在垂直载荷及侧向载荷下对根管内部及残根断面应力的分布特点.结果 建立了下颌第一磨牙残根的三维有限元模型及分裂桩冠有限元模型,并进行匹配安装.随着粘接剂弹性模量的增加,根管内的最大应力也在增加,磷酸锌的弹性模量最大,根管内承受的应力最大;Superbond C&B的弹性模量最小,根管内承受的应力最小,且侧向载荷的应力要远大于垂直载荷.在垂直载荷下,对于不同粘接剂,施加在残根断面的载荷比较平均.在侧向载荷下最大应力要远大于垂直工况.使用磷酸锌粘接剂时残根断面的应力最小,使用SuperbondC&B时残根断面应力最大.结论 在分裂桩冠修复后牙残根时,不同的粘接剂对牙体组织的应力保护作用有很大区别.当根管口处牙体组织较为薄弱时,为避免其发生劈裂,建议采用弹性模量较大的粘接剂,如磷酸锌;当根管口处牙体组织抗力形较好而牙根较细或根管壁薄弱时,建议采用弹性模量较小的粘接剂,如Superbond C&B.%[Abstract] Objective To establish three-dimensional finite element model of two-piece post crown to the mandibular first molar residual roots,and analyze the stress distribution characteristic to the residual roots with different adhesives,so as to get the best combination under different conditions.Methods The complete mandibular first

  5. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  6. Cratering experiments on the self armoring of coarse-grained granular targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, C.; Hirata, N.; Nakamura, A. M.

    2012-08-01

    Recently published crater statistics on the small Asteroids 25143 Itokawa and 433 Eros show a significant depletion of craters below approx. 100 m in diameter. Possible mechanisms that were brought up to explain this lack of craters were seismic crater erasure and self armoring of a coarse, boulder covered asteroid surface. While seismic shaking has been studied in this context, the concept of armoring lacks a deeper inspection and an experimental ground truth. We therefore present cratering experiments of glass bead projectiles impacting into granular glass bead targets, where the grain sizes of projectile and target are in a similar range. The impact velocities are in the range of 200-300 m s-1. We find that craters become fainter and irregular shaped as soon as the target grains are larger than the projectile sizes and that granular craters rarely form when the size ratio between projectile and target grain is around 1:10 or smaller. In that case, we observe a formation of a strength determined crater in the first struck target grain instead. We present a simple model based on the transfer of momentum from the projectile to this first target grain, which is capable to explain our results with only a single free parameter, which is moreover well determined by previous experiments. Based on estimates of typical projectile size and boulder size on Itokawa and Eros, given that our results are representative also for km s-1 impact velocities, armoring should play an important role for their evolution.

  7. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  8. Ballistic Studies on TiB2-Ti Functionally Graded Armor Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the results of the ballistic testing of the spark plasma sintered TiB2-Ti based functionally graded materials (FGMs with an aim to assess their performance in defeating small-calibre armor piercing projectiles. We studied the efficacy of FGM design and compared its ballistic properties with those of TiB2-based composites as well as other competing ceramic armors. The ballistic properties are critically analyzed in terms of depth of penetration, ballistic efficiency, fractographs of fractured surfaces as well as quantification of the shattered ceramic fragments. It was found that all the investigated ceramic compositions exhibit ballistic efficiency (η of 5.1 -5.9. We also found that by increasing the thickness of FGM from 5mm to 7.8 mm, the ballistic property of the composite degraded. On comparing the results with available armor systems, it has been concluded that TiB2 based composites show better ballistic properties except B4C. SEM analysis of the fragments showed that the FGM fractured by mixed mode of failure.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(6, pp.382-389, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.2666

  9. A cluster of primary pneumonic plague transmitted in a truck cab in a new enzootic focus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huiming; Dong, Xingqi; Li, Furong; Xie, Xu; Song, Zhizhong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Zhongjie; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Hongtao; Yang, Tielong; He, Gao; He, Zeyuan; Fontaine, Robert E; Zeng, Guang

    2013-05-01

    We investigated a cluster of five cases of severe pneumonia from one village in Yunnan Province, China. We searched for severe pneumonia in the village and hospitals. We interviewed patients and family members about exposures. We tested acute and convalescent sera for antigen and antibody of severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and plague. The only common exposure of the five patients was riding together in the enclosed cab of a truck for 1.5 hours while taking the first patient to the hospital. Seroconversion to plague F1 antigen confirmed plague in three survivors. Unfamiliarity of clinicians with plague and lack of sputum examination, blood culture, or postmortem examination delayed the diagnosis. No plague cases occurred among family and village contacts and health care workers. High infectivity in this cluster was limited to a crowded, poorly ventilated truck.

  10. Armor: An {alpha}{beta}{gamma} assembly for irradiated fuel analysis; Armor: Chaine {alpha}{beta}{gamma} pour l'analyse des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beraud, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    The assembly ARMOR which was built with a view to carrying out research on irradiated fuels consists of an {alpha}{beta}{gamma} enclosure made up of 11 cells in line. After a general description of the assembly in its present form, the various functions are reviewed: introduction of the samples, chemical de-canning, dissolution of the irradiated uranium pellets, preparation of solutions for mass spectrometric analyses, disposal of the effluents and of the solid waste. The assembly-has been working since 1961. During the 5 to 6 years operation, various improvements have been made and a certain number of observations have been collected concerning the work. (author) [French] Construite en vue de repondre a un programme d'etudes de combustibles Irradies, la chaine Armor est une enceinte {alpha}{beta}{gamma} composee de 11 cellules en ligne. Apres une description generale de la chaine dans son etat actuel, les differentes fonctions sont passees en revue: entree des echantillons, degainage chimique, dissolution des pastilles d'uranium irradie, preparation des solutions pour les analyses par spectrometrie de masse, rejet des effluents et des dechets solides. La chaine est en service depuis 1961. Au cours des cinq a six annees d'exploitation, differentes ameliorations ont ete apportees et un ensemble d'observations sur le travail a ete recueilli. (auteur)

  11. The turbulent structures around clusters formed under a range of armoring shear stresses and grain size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. C.; Tan, L.

    2011-12-01

    In gravel bed rivers, low flows generate shear stresses less than what is needed to entrain the largest particles but large enough to transport the fines. During sustained low flows, fine sediment winnows from the bed surface and an armored surface layer forms. As the surface armor forms, a surface structure develops that increases bed roughness and flow resistance and can be characterized by the presence of clusters. Individual clusters are known to exert a significant influence over the spatial and temporal flow processes acting in the vicinity of the bed. A series of flume experiments investigated the turbulent structures formed around clusters naturally developed during bed armoring. The series of experiments created armored beds using four different flow rates and four different bulk grain size distributions which progressively increased in the percent sand in the bed sediment. Following an initial run segment that established equilibrium sediment transport and full bed mobility, the flow rate in the flume was reduced and the bed surface fully armored. Once armored, clusters were identified using a combination of bed DEM, vertical profile, and visual analysis. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were measured around the clusters using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, and these values were used to calculate Reynolds shear stresses, turbulence intensities, and turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. Results show a significant change in the flow profiles over a cluster when compared to an open area of the armored bed. Reynolds shear stresses doubled over the cluster and turbulence intensity reached a peak value right above the single cluster. The results also suggest the effects of the single cluster on the surrounding flow dynamics are quite localized and limited to 30cm in lateral orientation. Quadrant analysis showing large ejection and sweep events around clusters indicates vortex formation at the cluster crest. The magnitude of the coherent

  12. Measuring the Performance of Attention Networks with the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB): Methodology and Reliability in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie A H; Butler, Beverly C; Kintzel, Franziska; Johnson, Anne; Klein, Raymond M; Eskes, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    Attention is an important, multifaceted cognitive domain that has been linked to three distinct, yet interacting, networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. The measurement of attention and deficits of attention within these networks is critical to the assessment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions in both research and clinical settings. The Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB) was created to assess attentional functions related to the three attention networks using a range of tasks including: simple reaction time, go/no-go, choice reaction time, dual task, flanker, item and location working memory, and visual search. The current study provides preliminary normative data, test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations) and practice effects in DalCAB performance 24-h after baseline for healthy young adults (n = 96, 18-31 years). Performance on the DalCAB tasks demonstrated Good to Very Good test-retest reliability for mean reaction time, while accuracy and difference measures (e.g., switch costs, interference effects, and working memory load effects) were most reliable for tasks that require more extensive cognitive processing (e.g., choice reaction time, flanker, dual task, and conjunction search). Practice effects were common and pronounced at the 24-h interval. In addition, performance related to specific within-task parameters of the DalCAB sub-tests provides preliminary support for future formal assessment of the convergent validity of our interpretation of the DalCAB as a potential clinical and research assessment tool for measuring aspects of attention related to the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks.

  13. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  14. 现代性·少数民族教育·民族志书写——基于两部裕固族教育人类学作品的评论与反思%Modernity, Minority Education, and the Writing of Ethnography: a Critique and Reflection on Two Pieces of Educational AnthropologicalWork Related to the Yughur Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学金

    2012-01-01

    少数民族的学校教育既是现代性过程的产物,又要面临如何"超越现代性"的难题。本文基于两部裕固族的教育人类学作品,以"现代性"为主题探讨少数民族学校教育的问题和出路,意在阐明少数民族学校教育"重构"的路径选择与研究者对"现代性"的理解有关,还与民族志的书写策略和质量有关。教育民族志的书写方式需要重估并加以改进。%Besides being the product of modernization, ethnic minority schools face the challenge of "transcending modernity". This article is written in response to two pieces of educational anthropological work concerning the Yugur nationality in China. Using the conceptual framework of "modernity", this paper aims to discuss the questions and future of minority education in the country. The author argues that researchers" understanding of modernity, their ways of writing ethnography, and the quality of their ethnogra- phies have all influenced the various options for the reconstruction of minority education in China. The writing strategy of ethnogra- phies in the field of education needs to be re - evaluated and improved.

  15. Study on the Joseph Needham Problem Based on Two Pieces of Image Information of American and China Cotton Bags%基于中、美两幅棉包图像信息的李约瑟问题解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岱祺; 李建强; 李强

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Needham problem has been debated for a long time. Based on two pieces of image information of American and China cotton bags,this paper compared with the different understanding between technology and science from China and America at first, then it expound Joseph Needham problem reflected on cotton bags. It concluded that two reasons can expound why Chinese behind in the West,one reason is the development direction of the capitalism in China went wrong,it took a luxury goods Road,on the other hand, knowledge and technology were separated in China,Chinese technique went by empiricism.%李约瑟问题争论已久,本文基于中、美两幅棉包图像信息,从两国对技术与科学认识关系的态度以及对工业的态度阐述李约瑟问题在棉包技术上的反映。本文认为近代中国之所以落后于西方,一方面在于中国资本主义萌芽的发展方向走错了,它走了一条奢侈化商品道路;另一方面中国的技术与科学认识分离,中国在技术上走的是经验主义道路。

  16. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.

    2005-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  17. Origin of the 44-mm Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    relate it to tissue damage. Gelatin blocks, 20 % ballistic gelatin , were used in the study to determine the loading rate (impulse) of deformation using...Deformation of the gelatin was mea- sured frame-by-frame with a focus on the depth and diameter of deformation. It was determined by Metker et al that BFS...appli- cation , the model also provided the ability to compare previous blunt-trauma data to the body-armor work that was going on at the time. 14•15•23

  18. The Armored Vehicle Fire Control System Reliability Modeling%装甲火控可靠性建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉生; 梁宝生; 武云鹏; 张永昌

    2016-01-01

    装甲武器是陆军及其两栖机械化部队实施地面突击的主要兵器,也是海军陆战部队实施抢滩登陆、岛屿攻防的主要兵器。装甲火控是装甲武器的重要组成部分,其可靠性直接影响装甲武器的打击效能。两栖装甲武器肩负海上、陆上的作战使命,使用环境更加恶劣,可靠性问题更加突出。描述了装甲火控的一般组成、功能及工作方式,基于两栖装甲武器的使用特点,分析了装甲火控基本任务、工作方式和作战环境的关系,建立了不同任务剖面的可靠性模型,为装甲火控可靠性设计、分析提供了一种参考。%Mechannized armored vehicles army weapon system and its amphibious force key groud assault weapons,and Marine forces key onboard,islands of offensive and defensive weapon.Fire control system is an important part of armored vehicle weapons system,its reliabilitiy directly affect armored vehicle combat efficiency of weapon system.Amphibious armored vehicle combat mission of weapon system on sea and land,using the environment worse,reliability problems become more prominent. Describes the armored vehicle fire control system,the general composition,function and working mode, based on the operating characteristics of amphibious armored vehicles,the basic task of the armored vehicle fire control system are analyzed,the relationship between work and operational environment,set up different task profile,the reliability of the model for the reliabilitiy design of the armored vehicle fire control system,analysis provides a reference.

  19. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wal...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....... is possible at modal frequencies. For that reason the modal frequencies in the source room will also have big impact on the transmission to neighbour rooms. These low frequency resonance frequencies are very audible in the source room but also in neighbour rooms as a booming bass. CABS (Controlled Acoustic...

  20. 基于能量的商用车驾驶室隔声试验技术%Power based noise reduction technology for commercial vehicle cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 龙伟; 夏铁权

    2015-01-01

    商用车驾驶室的隔声性能对其乘坐舒适性具有重要影响。介绍了基于能量的隔声测试原理,基于该理论对某商用车驾驶室进行了声传递函数测试并计算了隔声量。通过对试验结果的分析提出了影响驾驶室隔声性能的原因,并通过气密性试验验证了分析的准确性,同时提出了改进该驾驶室隔声性能的措施。实践证明,基于能量的隔声测试方法具有较高的测量精度,对整车及子系统的舒适性(Noise,Vibration,Harshness,NVH)正向开发具有重要的应用价值。%Sound insulation performance of the commercial vehicle cab is expressed in the context of vehicle riding comfort .Intro-duced the principle of Power Based Noise Reduction ( PBNR) technology ,the acoustic transfer function of a commercial vehicle cab is tested and the sound insulation is calculated based on the PBNR theory ,the results showed the reasons affecting the sound insulation performance of the cab and an air leakage test is performed to verified the accuracy of the results analysis ,some propos-als to improve the sound insulation performance of the cab are proposed .Practice is proved that PBNR technology has a high pre-cision and plays an important role in guiding the process of vehicle and subsystem NVH positive development .

  1. Ash Scraping Improvement Analysis of Construction Machinery Cab%工程机械驾驶室的刮灰改善分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡博

    2012-01-01

    工程机械驾驶室刮灰的区域主要为:焊缝、焊点、表面缺陷、面差。国外标杆驾驶室在满足精细化的前提下,尽可能减少刮灰量。通过PVC焊缝胶替代刮腻子、更改焊接方式、提高表面的平整度等方式,减少驾驶室的刮灰,提升驾驶室的品质,提高生产节拍。%Construction machinery cab scraping region mainly include weld, solder joints, surface defect and surface difference. At the premise of meet the fine requirement of overseas sightcing cab, as far as possible to reduce the amount of ash scraping. Cab quality and the production rhythm were improved by substitute putty with the PVC weld line adhesives, change of welding manner, improve the surface smoothness and reduce the ash scraping.

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OVERTOPPING AGAINST SEAWALLS ARMORED WITH ARTIFICIAL UNITS IN REGULAR WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-jin; LIU Hua; WU Wei; ZHANG Jiu-shan

    2007-01-01

    A new mathematical model for the overtopping against seawalls armored with artificial units in regular waves was established. The 2-D numerical wave flume, based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard k-ε turbulence model, was developed to simulate the turbulent flows with the free surface, in which the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used to handle the large deformation of the free surface and the relaxation approach of combined wave generation and absorbing was implemented. In order to consider the effects of energy dissipation due to the armors on a slope seawall, a porous media model was proposed and implemented in the numerical wave flume. A series of physical model experiments were carried out in the same condition of the numerical simulation to determine the drag coefficient in the porous media model in terms of the overtopping discharge. Compared the computational value of overtopping over the seawall with the experimental data, the values of the effective drag coefficient was calibrated for the layers of blocks at different locations along the seawalls.

  3. Enhancement in ballistic performance of composite hard armor through carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes in composite hard armor is discussed in this study. The processing techniques to make various armor composite panels consisting of Kevlar®29 woven fabric in an epoxy matrix and the subsequent V50 test results for both 44 caliber soft-point rounds and 30 caliber FSP (fragment simulated projectile threats are presented. A 6.5% improvement in the V50 test results was found for a combination of 1.65 wt% loading of carbon nanotubes and 1.65 wt% loading of milled fibers. The failure mechanism of carbon nanotubes during the ballistic event is discussed through scanning electron microscope images of the panels after the failure. Raman Spectroscopy was also utilized to evaluate the residual strain in the Kevlar®29 fibers post shoot. The Raman Spectroscopy shows a Raman shift of 25 cm−1 for the Kevlar®29 fiber utilized in the composite panel that had an enhancement in the V50 performance by using milled fiber and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Evaluating both scenarios where an improvement was made and other panels without any improvement allows for understanding of how loading levels and synergistic effects between carbon nanotubes and milled fibers can further enhance ballistic performance.

  4. Cratering Experiments on the Self Armoring of Coarse-Grained Granular Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Güttler, Carsten; Nakamura, Akiko M

    2012-01-01

    Recently published crater statistics on the small asteroids 25143 Itokawa and 433 Eros show a significant depletion of craters below approx. 100 m in diameter. Possible mechanisms that were brought up to explain this lack of craters were seismic crater erasure and self armoring of a coarse, boulder covered asteroid surface. While seismic shaking has been studied in this context, the concept of armoring lacks a deeper inspection and an experimental ground truth. We therefore present cratering experiments of glass bead projectiles impacting into granular glass bead targets, where the grain sizes of projectile and target are in a similar range. The impact velocities are in the range of 200 to 300 m/s. We find that craters become fainter and irregular shaped as soon as the target grains are larger than the projectile sizes and that granular craters rarely form when the size ratio between projectile and target grain is around 1:10 or smaller. In that case, we observe a formation of a strength determined crater in ...

  5. 3D CFD Modeling of Local Scouring, Bed Armoring and Sediment Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely T. Török

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D numerical models are increasingly used to simulate flow, sediment transport and morphological changes of rivers. For the simulation of bedload transport, the numerical flow model is generally coupled with an empirical sediment transport model. The application range of the most widely used empirical models is, however, often limited in terms of hydraulic and sedimentological features and therefore the numerical model can hardly be applied to complex situations where different kinds of morphological processes take place at the same time, such as local scouring, bed armoring and aggradation of finer particles. As a possible solution method for this issue, we present the combined application of two bedload transport formulas that widens the application range and thus gives more appropriate simulation results. An example of this technique is presented in the paper by combining two bedload transport formulas. For model validation, the results of a laboratory experiment, where bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition processes occurred, were used. The results showed that the combined application method can improve the reliability of the numerical simulations.

  6. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  7. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Public Safety AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... for Law Enforcement, Corrections, and Public Safety.'' The opportunity to provide comments on this...

  8. Research on Welding Processes of Armor Steels%装甲钢焊接技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭俊; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    装甲钢是一种用于作战装备的保护性合金材料,装甲钢的焊接是装甲钢结构的主要连接方式.从装甲钢的裂纹类别、特点以及其形成原因出发,介绍了装甲钢焊接材料、焊接工艺和提高焊接接头性能的措施.主要包括奥氏体焊条、铁素体焊条及奥氏体/铁素体双向焊条;电弧焊、CO2气体保护焊、熔化极气体保护焊、修复装甲钢裂纹的铝热焊、机器人焊,激光焊等焊接工艺;焊后热处理、超声波冲击法、焊趾砂轮打磨法与钨极电弧焊法.并在装甲钢焊接技术研究现状分析的基础上,提出装甲钢焊接技术今后的改进措施与发展方向.%The armor steel is a kind of protective alloy material which is used in a variety of combat equipment. The welding is a main joining method of armor steel structure. On the base of crack category, characteristics and formation causes of armor steel, the welding materials and welding processes of armor steel, and the measures taken to improve the properties of welded joint were introduced. Those include austenite welding electrode, ferrite and austenite/ferrite dual phase welding electrodes, the processes of arc welding, CO2 gas protection welding and thermit welding of armor steel crack repairing, and the measures taken to improve the properties of the welded joint of heat treatment after welding, ultrasonic impact, toe grinding and tungsten arc welding. The improving measures and development direction of armor steel welding were put forward by analyzing the armor steel welding processes.

  9. Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

    1996-06-01

    The paper provides a review of two projects supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident probability in existing free steered vehicle (FSV) and locomotive operations. The paper opens by identifying a range of ergonomic limitations associated with the design of the two classes of equipment, many of which can be implicated in serious accidents and incidents. The development of a retrofit index is described. The index was central to both projects in that it provided a working framework within which both ergonomic and engineering considerations were combined into a rational cost sensitive approach to the selection and assessment of retrofit changes. A representative sample of machines was examined from which three FSVs and two locomotives were selected as test beds on which to evaluate and demonstrate the practicality of a wide range of retrofit ideas. The ideas ranged from very simple, relatively inexpensive solutions to more fundamental changes. The paper describes and illustrates a number of the more significant improvements. The two projects described clearly demonstrated that significant improvements to the safety and performance standards of existing FSV and locomotive cab design can be achieved by low cost and easily implemented retrofit changes. The paper concludes with a summary of the various uses and fields of application of the index. In particular, it is considered in the context of its wider potential in design and purchasing decisions and for dealing with safety risks associated with operations involving other types of equipment. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mismatch Compensation and Application in CAB of Micro Current Switched Current Mirror%微电流条件下的开关电流镜失配补偿及其在 CAB 中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杰荣; 何怡刚; 刘长青

    2016-01-01

    A high precision switched current mirror circuit working in very weak current was presented.A meth-od,which can automatically adjust the gate source voltage for mismatch compensation of the image MOSFET’was a-dopted,and the compensation for the output error caused by the physical parameter mismatch could be realized.Ac-cording to the design of the reconfigurable analog unit,the dual phase multiple output current mirror and mismatch compensation circuit were put forward,and an integrated design of timing and the programmable switch was also dis-cussed.The produced error of the proposed design is less than 1% for the 20% mismatch,and the current range is 1 nA~1 μA.This circuit can be used in CMOS single poly process.Simulation results were presented to verify the the-oretical design.%提出了一个高精确、可工作在非常微弱电流的开关电流镜电路,采用一种可以自动调整镜像 MOS 管栅源电压的方法进行失配补偿,可实现因物理参数失配造成输出误差的补偿.根据可重构模拟单元 CAB 的设计需要,提出了双相位多输出电流镜及其失配补偿电路,讨论了工作时序与可编程开关的一体化设计.所提出的设计对于20%的失配只产生小于1%的误差,电流范围1 nA~1μA.该电路可以使用 CMOS 单晶工艺实现.给出的仿真结果验证了理论设计.

  11. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of ‘postcranial fibro‐cartilaginous bone’ and its developmental implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-01-01

    .... Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas , whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell...

  12. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes.

  14. Numerical simulation of high-speed penetration-perforation dynamics in layered armor shields

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzenberg-Stepanenko, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Penetration models and calculating algorithms are presented, describing the dynamics and fracture of composite armor shields penetrated by high-speed small arms. A shield considered consists of hard (metal or ceramic) facing and multilayered fabric backing. A simple formula is proved for the projectile residual velocity after perforation of a thin facing. A new plastic-flow jet model is proposed for calculating penetration dynamics in the case of a thick facing of ceramic or metal-ceramic FGM materials. By bringing together the developed models into a calculating algorithm, a computer tool is designed enabling simulations of penetration processes in the above-mentioned shields and analysis of optimization problems. Some results of computer simulation are presented. It is revealed in particular that strength proof of pliable backing can be better as compared with more rigid backing. Comparison of calculations and test data shows sufficient applicability of the models and the tool.

  15. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J

    2011-08-01

    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  16. Armored brain in patients with hydrocephalus after shunt surgery: review of the literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud M

    2012-01-01

    Armored brain or chronic calcified subdural hematoma is a rare complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion with few cases reported in the literature. Seventeen patients with this pathology have been published. A complete review of the literatures regarding this topic has been collected and discussed. The author also presents a 12- year old boy with triventricular hydrocephalus who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal medium pressure shunt system since birth. The patient presented to our clinic with a 2-year history of seizures. The patient was conscious and without neurological deficits on examination. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral high density mass with surface calcification. X ray skull and MRI confirmed the calcified subdural hematoma bilaterally. We preferred conservative treatment and the patient continued his antiepileptic treatment. At one year follow up, the patient had the same neurological state. The case highlights the importance of frequent follow up CT brain after shunt surgery.

  17. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  18. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  19. Modeling and simulation of vehicle active cab air suspension%汽车驾驶室主动空气悬置的建模仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘公宇; 张树

    2014-01-01

    为改善车辆平顺性,在考虑汽车驾驶室的实际位置、半浮式和全浮式驾驶室悬置的特点后,选取了全浮式空气悬置作为研究对象,并通过弹簧特性试验研究了空气弹簧静、动特性曲线;运用Matlab/Simulink建立了八自由度驾驶室空气悬置模型,以滤波白噪声生成路面输入,仿真分析了汽车在B级路面下车速20 m/s、25 m/s及路面有凸块的三种行驶状况的振动;进而设计了模糊控制器,对驾驶室前后空气悬置采取主动控制后的状况进行了仿真分析;以驾驶员、驾驶室的振动响应及悬置动挠度为指标,评价车辆平顺性的变化程度,以此来研究主动空气悬置在改善车辆平顺性方面的效果。三种行驶状况的仿真结果表明,对驾驶室前后空气悬置采取主动控制后,驾驶员加速度均方根值分别减小了8.39%、9.32%、8.55%,驾驶室质心加速度均方根值分别减小了9.64%、11.85%、9.78%,驾驶室俯仰角加速度均方根值分别减小了20.15%、10.14%、20.11%,提高了乘坐的舒适性。%In order to improve the ride comfort of a vehicle, the full floating air suspension was a-dopted by considering the actual location of cab in commercial vehicle and the characteristics of semi and full floating suspension.The stiffness characteristic test was done to study the static and dynamic characteristic curve of air spring.A cab air suspension with 8 freedoms is established in Matlab/Simulink.And filter white noise is taken as road excitation to simulate the vibration of commercial vehicle driving in B grade road.Two fuzzy controllers to control the front and rear cab suspension was designed to simulate passive and active suspension.The vibration response of driver and cab and the suspension dynamic deflection were chosen as targets to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle in active system has been improved or not when compared to passive system

  20. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  1. Desorption Kinetics of H2O from Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 Silica Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L.; Balooch, M.; LeMay, J.D.

    2000-01-26

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was performed at temperatures up to 850K on Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 silica particles. Physisorbed water molecules on both types of silica had activation energies in the range of 9-14.5 kcal/mol. However, the activation energies of desorption for chemisorbed water varied from {approx} 19 kcal/mol to > 59 kcal/mol for Cab-O-Sil-M-7D, and {approx} 23-37 kcal/mol for Hi-Sil-233. Our results suggest that physisorbed water can be effectively pumped away at room temperature (or preferably at 320 K) in a matter of hours. Chemisorbed water with high activation energies of desorption (>30 kcal/mol) will not escape the silica surfaces in 100 years even at 320 K, while a significant amount of the chemisorbed water with medium activation energies (19-26 kcal/mol) will leave the silica surfaces in that time span. Most of the chemisorbed water with activation energies < 30 kcal/mol can be pumped away in a matter of days in a good vacuum environment at 500 K. We had previously measured about 0.1-0.4 wt. % of water in M9787 polysiloxane formulations containing {approx} 21% Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and {approx} 4% Hi-Sil-233. Comparing present results with these formulations, we conclude that absorbed H{sub 2}O and Si-OH bonds on the silica surfaces are the major contributors to water outgassing from M97 series silicones.

  2. Molecular Analysis of the embCAB Locus and embR Gene Involved in Ethambutol Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Florence; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Bernard, Christine; Petrou, Matthieu; Adeyema, Karine; Pham, Anne; Amy de la Breteque, Diane; Vallet, Marine; Jarlier, Vincent; Sola, Christophe; Veziris, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Modification of codon 306 in embB is regarded as the main mechanism leading to ethambutol (ETB) resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, numerous mutations elsewhere in the embCAB locus and in embR, a putative transcriptional activator of this locus, have been reported to be involved in ETB resistance. Here, we investigated the diversity of nucleotide variations observed in embCAB and embR in M. tuberculosis complex isolates from France. These regions were sequenced in 71 ETB-resistant (ETB-R) and 60 ETB-susceptible (ETB-S) clinical isolates of known phylogenetic lineages. The 131 isolates had 12 mutations corresponding to phylogenetic markers. Among the 60 ETB-S isolates, only 3 (5%) had nonsynonymous mutations that were not phylogenetic markers. Among the 71 ETB-R isolates, 98% had mutations in embCAB that likely contribute to ETB resistance: 70% had mutations located in embB codon 306, 406, or 497; 13% had mutations located outside these three positions between codons 296 and 426; and 15% had mutations corresponding to mutations in the embC-embA intergenic region. We found a strong association between resistance to ETB and the presence of mutations in embB and the embC-embA intergenic region (P embA were not involved in ETB resistance, and no mutation was detected in embR. These results strongly suggest that the sensitivity of diagnostic assays for detecting ETB resistance based on testing of embB codon 306 can be increased by testing of the embB region between codons 296 and 497 and by including the embC-embA intergenic region between positions -8 and -21.

  3. In-vivo identification of direct electron transfer from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to electrodes via outer-membrane OmcA-MtrCAB protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Akihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakamura, Ryuhei, E-mail: nakamura@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kazuhito, E-mail: hashimoto@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); ERATO/JST, HASHIMOTO Light Energy Conversion Project (Japan)

    2011-06-30

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: > Monolayer biofilm of Shewanella cells was prepared on an ITO electrode. > Extracellular electron transfer (EET) process was examined with series of mutants. > Direct ET was confirmed with outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB complex. > The EET process was not prominently influenced by capsular polysaccharide. - Abstract: The direct electron-transfer (DET) property of Shewanella bacteria has not been resolved in detail due to the complexity of in vivo electrochemistry in whole-cell systems. Here, we report the in vivo assignment of the redox signal indicative of the DET property in biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a series of mutants and a chemical marking technique. The CV measurements of monolayer biofilms formed by deletion mutants of c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrA, {Delta}mtrB, {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA, and {Delta}cymA), and pilin ({Delta}pilD), capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) and menaquinone ({Delta}menD) biosynthetic proteins demonstrated that the electrochemical redox signal with a midpoint potential at 50 mV (vs. SHE) was due to an outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB protein complex of decaheme cytochromes, and did not involve either inner-membrane-bound CymA protein or secreted menaquinone. Using the specific binding affinity of nitric monoxide for the heme groups of c-type cytochromes, we further confirmed this conclusion. The heterogeneous standard rate constant for the DET process was estimated to be 300 {+-} 10 s{sup -1}, which was two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for the electron shuttling process via riboflavin. Experiments using a mutant unable to produce capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) revealed that the DET property of the OmcA-MtrCAB complex was not influenced by insulating and hydrophilic extracellular polysaccharide. Accordingly, under physiological conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 utilizes a high density of outer

  4. The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Liu, Sara; Stephens, Amanda N; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-05-29

    Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a

  5. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  6. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  7. The Examination of the Aluminum Alloy 7017 as a Replacement for the Aluminum Alloy 7039 in Lightweight Armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyrone L Jones and Brian E Placzankis 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT The aluminum alloy (AA) 7039 has been recognized as a serviceable armor plate alloy for years. However, the inherent stress corrosion

  8. Three-axial Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration in Agricultural Telehandlers: The Effects of an Active Cab-suspension System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Preti, Christian; Cremasco, Margherita Micheletti; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2017-06-21

    Agricultural and earth-moving machinery operators are particularly exposed to whole body vibration (WBV), which has severe effects on health and affects comfort and performance. Few studies have investigated vibrational safety and comfort issues in telescopic handlers. These vehicles are widespread in many off-road applications-such as construction, agriculture and mining-used to handle loads and to lift persons and equipment. This study investigated the effects of an active hydro-pneumatic cab-suspension system fitted to a telehandler on a driver's vibration exposure along the x-, y- and z-axes, through both objective and subjective assessments. Sixteen healthy professional telehandler drivers took part in the study. Objective measurements were acquired at the operator's seat, and subjective ratings were taken while participants drove the telehandler with either a deactivated or activated suspension system at 12 kph on an ISO 5008 smooth track. The results showed that the activation of the cab-suspension system reduced the root-mean-square acceleration along the x- and z-axes (p = .038 and p = .000, respectively). Moreover, the frequency analysis showed a reduction in the acceleration along the z-axis in the range of 2-25 Hz (pvibration intensity was perceived by the participants along the y- and z-axes (p = .009 and p = .003, respectively). Implications for the future development of suspension systems are discussed.

  9. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle......Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...

  10. Acercamiento al proceso de socialización de la población infantil cabécar de chirripó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Soto, Hannia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de la investigación “Acercamiento al proceso de socialización de la población infantil cabécar de Chirripó”, que se desarrolló desde el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE. La Universidad de Costa Rica como institución pública de educación superior, ha venido asumiendo la responsabilidad de contribuir a través de sus diferentes ámbitos de trabajo, en la resolución de necesidades de la comunidad nacional para la búsqueda de mejores condiciones de vida de todas las personas que la habitan, es así como en los últimos años ha generado reflexiones sobre la urgencia de generar procesos educativos con pertinencia cultural en las comunidades cabécares de Chirripó, este trabajo pretende aportar en este sentido. Para ello se recurre al estudio de los procesos de socialización de este grupo étnico para identificar las prácticas de crianza propias que les permiten construir y resignificar su identidad cultural, las cuales se concluye deben ser consideradas en la educación inicial formal para generar procesos educativos pertinentes y significativos.

  11. Bone histology sheds light on the nature of the "dermal armor" of the enigmatic sauropod dinosaur Agustinia ligabuei Bonaparte, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellardini, Flavio; Cerda, Ignacio A.

    2017-02-01

    Agustinia ligabuei is an Early Cretaceous sauropod dinosaur from the northwest of Patagonia that is currently the topic of debate with respect to its phylogenetic position and atypical dermal armor. The presence of four morphotypes of laminar and transversely elongated putative osteoderms was used to consider Agustinia as an armored sauropod. Regarding the different hypotheses about the identity of the bony structures of Agustinia (e.g., osteoderms, cervical or dorsal ribs, hypertrophied elements), a comparative histological analysis has been carried out. Histological evidence is presented herein and reveals that none of the morphotypes of Agustinia shows a primary bone tissue formed by structural fiber bundles as in other sauropod dinosaur osteoderms. Furthermore, on the basis of their gross morphology and microstructure, the bony structures originally classified as types 1 + 4 and 3 are more comparable respectively with dorsal and cervical ribs than any other kind of dermal or bony element. Due to poor preservation, the nature of the type 2 cannot be assessed but is here tentatively assigned to a pelvic girdle element. Although a phylogenetic reassessment of Agustinia is not the purpose of this paper, our paleohistological analyses have broader implications: by not supporting the dermal armor hypothesis for Agustinia, its inclusion in Lithostrotia is not justified in the absence of other diagnostic features.

  12. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-08-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  13. Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Courtney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ∼1 MPa to ∼5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform. The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.

  14. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer.

  15. Shock tube design for high intensity blast waves for laboratory testing of armor and combat materiel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elijah COURTNEY; Amy COURTNEY; Michael COURTNEY

    2014-01-01

    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from w1 MPa to w5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods are experimentally investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral prim-ing section which supports a deflagration to detonation transition. This approach increases the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (near Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increases the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. A 103 mm driving section is used to increase peak pressure to 2.64 MPa. The third method, adding solid fuel to the driving section with the oxy-acetylene, results in a peak pressure increasing to 1.70 MPa.

  16. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  17. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  18. Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor for Personal Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fábio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Lima, Édio Pereira; da Luz, Fernanda Santos

    2017-10-01

    Lighter and less expensive polymer composites reinforced with natural fibers have been investigated as possible components of a multilayered armor system (MAS) for personal protection against high-velocity ammunition. Their ballistic performance was consistently found comparable with that of conventional Kevlar® synthetic aramid fiber. Among the numerous existing natural fibers with the potential for reinforcing polymer composites to replace Kevlar® in MAS, mallow fiber has not been fully investigated. Thus, the objective of this work is to evaluate the ballistic performance of epoxy composites reinforced with 30 vol.% of aligned mallow fibers as a second MAS layer backing a front ceramic plate. The results using high-velocity 7.62 ammunition show a similar indentation to a Kevlar® layer with the same thickness. An impedance matching calculation supports the similar ballistic performance of mallow fiber composite and Kevlar®. Reduced MAS costs associated with the mallow fiber composite are practical advantages over Kevlar®.

  19. Combat body armor and injuries to the head, face, and neck region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Darryl; Beirne, Ross

    2013-04-01

    There has been a reported increase in combat-related head, face, and neck (HFN) injuries among service personnel wearing combat body armor (CBA) that have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Modern ceramic plate CBA has decreased the incidence of fatal-penetrating injuries to the torso but offers no protection to the limbs and face which remain exposed to gunshot wounds and fragments from explosive devices. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature reporting on HFN injuries sustained by combat personnel wearing CBA and to highlight recommendations for increased protection to the facial region. Three major contributing factors were identified with this proportional increase in HFN injuries, namely the increased survivability of soldiers because of CBA, fragments injuries from explosive devices, and the lack of protection to the face and limbs. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that by virtue of wearing CBA the likelihood of sustaining an HFN injury increases as such, but a higher incidence of fragment injuries to the HFN region may be due to the more common use of improvised explosive devicess and other explosive devices. Further development of lightweight protection for the face is needed.

  20. Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

  1. 商用车驾驶室碰撞安全性的研究与改进%A Study on the Impact Safety of Commercial Vehicle Cab and Its Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登峰; 刘丽亚; 董学锋; 唐洪斌; 张新; 李红建

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problems surfacing in roof strength test and front impact test as per ECE R29 - 02 in export certification of commercial vehicle cab, CAE analysis and structural improvement of cab rear-wall and floor side rail are carried out. Simulation and real vehicle test for roof strength and front impact safety performed on improved cab verify the feasibihty of improvement scheme for cab structure. This provides references for passive safety design and relevant regulation formulation for commercial vehicles with autonomous brand in China.%针对某商用车驾驶室在出口认证中按ECE R29-02顶盖准静压试验和正面摆锤动态撞击试验中暴露出的问题,对驾驶室后围和地板纵梁结构进行了CAE分析和结构改进.通过对改进驾驶室的顶盖准静压和正面摆锤动态撞击仿真分析和实车试验,验证了驾驶室结构改进方案的可行性,为我国自主品牌商用车的被动安全性设计和标准制定提供参考.

  2. Preparation, characterization and luminescence properties of a new hydrous red phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H S; Tang, A J; Yang, C; Jin, H F

    2017-03-01

    A new borate phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies was synthesized using a hydrothermal method and its luminescence properties were studied. The effects of surfactants on the crystal structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the samples were studied. The results showed that the surfactants play an important role in controlling the morphology and improving the luminescence properties of phosphors. The luminescence intensity and R/O(I615/I592) value were enhanced for the prepared sample by adding PEG4000. The prepared sample exhibited a higher R/O than some anhydrous calcium borate phosphors, indicating that this product could serve as a new potential red phosphor.

  3. A 7.81 W 355 nm ultraviolet picosecond laser using La2CaB10O19 as a nonlinear optical crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Kai; Xu, Degang; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Guochun; Wang, Yuye; Wang, Lirong; Shan, Faxian; Yan, Chao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Nan; Lin, Xuechun; Wu, Yicheng; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate high-power 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) picosecond (ps) laser using a type I phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of La(2)CaB(10)O(19) (LCB), which possesses the characteristic of non-hygroscopicity. The high-power third harmonic generation was successfully achieved from two types of 1064 nm ps fundamental lasers. The maximum output power of 7.81 W of 355 nm UV laser was obtained with a pump of 35.2 W 1064 nm ps laser (80 MHz repetition rate, 10 ps pulse width) with optical conversion efficiency of 22.2%. The experimental results show that the LCB crystal is a promising candidate for generating high-power UV laser.

  4. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide.

  5. ESTRUCTURACIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA EN LA BASE CAB DE AUTORES VINCULADOS A INSTITUCIONES COLOMBIANAS, 1997 A 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CHARUM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de la bibliometría para construir representaciones de las dinámicas de la producción científica y tecnológica se apoya en el tratamiento de las diferentes informaciones contenidas en las publicaciones científicas, sobre todo en los artículos, las patentes y los informes de investigación. La información recogida en la base biblio- gráfica CAB de los documentos integrados de 1997 a 2002, con autores vinculados a instituciones u organizaciones colombianas, ha sido estructurada para hacer emer- ger los temas de investigación presentes y para establecer los contextos en que se ubi- can los temas identificados, así como sus evoluciones. Se señalan diversas utilizacio- nes de la información estructurada.

  6. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N; Saltikov, Chad W

    2010-07-01

    Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.

  7. 重型商用车驾驶室悬置试验与优化%Test and Optimization of Cab Suspension of Heavy Commercial Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文令强; 杨辉

    2015-01-01

    针对某公司研制的重型商用车驾驶室振动舒适性不理想的状况, 进行试验样车与对标车主观舒适度评价与减振器温度变化对比试验, 并对相关参数进行理论分析, 诊断得出试验样车驾驶室前悬置存在隔振效果不明显的问题, 在分析对比试验样车与对标车悬置参数选取及考虑改进成本的基础上, 提出优化试验样车驾驶室前悬置参数的建议, 并对优化后的样车进行主观舒适度评价与实车道路试验验证, 得出参数优化后的样车舒适度改善明显.%According to company developed a heavy commercial vehicle cab vibration comfort is not an ideal situation, test-ing and benchmarking sample car subjective comfort evaluation and shock absorber temperature change contrast test, then an-alyzes the relevant parameters, it is find that the test vehicle cab suspension of vibration isolation effect is not obvious prob-lems, based on the analysis of contrast test vehicle and benchmarking vehicle suspension parameter selection and considera-tion of cost improvement, the author suggest optimist suspension parameters, and then evaluate the comfort prototype and the real vehicle road test, after parameter optimization of vehicle comfort is improved obviously.

  8. Test and Optimization of Dump Truck Cab Suspension System%自卸车驾驶室悬置系统试验与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 张瑞亮; 王铁; 陈峙; 陈澔利; 刘宝乾

    2015-01-01

    In this research, road test is conducted for a dump truck and the vibration signals under different speed and road conditions are acquired and analyzed, and a multi-body dynamics simulation model is established for the cab suspension in ADAMS. For the three typical conditions, ADAMS optimization module is applied for parameters optimization of the cab suspension system with stiffness of the front and rear suspension spring and the damping as test factors, to obtain three groups of parameter matching values suitable for this model. And on this basis, orthogonal test technology is used for re-optimization of these three groups of values. Finally the paper determines a group of optimal matching values suitable for three different conditions of the truck.%对某自卸车进行道路试验,采集不同速度及路况下的振动信号并进行分析,建立了驾驶室悬置系统多体动力学仿真模型。针对3种典型工况,以前、后悬置弹簧刚度与减振器阻尼为因子,运用ADAMS优化模块对驾驶室悬置参数进行优化,得出3组适合该车型的参数匹配值,并在此基础上应用正交试验技术对这3组值进行再优化,最终确定1组适合3种典型工况的驾驶室悬置最佳匹配值。

  9. The pmrCAB operon mediates polymyxin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 and clinical isolates through phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Luis A; Herrera, Carmen M; Fernandez, Lucia; Hankins, Jessica V; Trent, M Stephen; Hancock, Robert E W

    2011-08-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii is leading to an increasing dependence on the use of polymyxins as last-hope antibiotics. Here, we utilized genetic and biochemical methods to define the involvement of the pmrCAB operon in polymyxin resistance in this organism. Sequence analysis of 16 polymyxin B-resistant strains, including 6 spontaneous mutants derived from strain ATCC 17978 and 10 clinical isolates from diverse sources, revealed that they had independent mutations in the pmrB gene, encoding a sensor kinase, or in the response regulator PmrA. Knockout of the pmrB gene in two mutants and two clinical isolates led to a decrease in the polymyxin B susceptibility of these strains, which could be restored with the cloned pmrAB genes from the mutants but not from the wild type. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis also showed a correlation between the expression of pmrC and polymyxin B resistance. Characterization of lipid A species from the mutant strains, by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, indicated that the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A correlated with resistance. This addition is performed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the product of the pmrC gene, which is a homolog of the pmrC gene from Acinetobacter. Knockout of this gene in the mutant R2 [pmrB(T235I)] reversed resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A. These results demonstrate that specific alterations in the sequence of the pmrCAB operon are responsible for resistance to polymyxins in A. baumannii.

  10. The pmrCAB Operon Mediates Polymyxin Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 and Clinical Isolates through Phosphoethanolamine Modification of Lipid A▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Luis A.; Herrera, Carmen M.; Fernandez, Lucia; Hankins, Jessica V.; Trent, M. Stephen; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii is leading to an increasing dependence on the use of polymyxins as last-hope antibiotics. Here, we utilized genetic and biochemical methods to define the involvement of the pmrCAB operon in polymyxin resistance in this organism. Sequence analysis of 16 polymyxin B-resistant strains, including 6 spontaneous mutants derived from strain ATCC 17978 and 10 clinical isolates from diverse sources, revealed that they had independent mutations in the pmrB gene, encoding a sensor kinase, or in the response regulator PmrA. Knockout of the pmrB gene in two mutants and two clinical isolates led to a decrease in the polymyxin B susceptibility of these strains, which could be restored with the cloned pmrAB genes from the mutants but not from the wild type. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis also showed a correlation between the expression of pmrC and polymyxin B resistance. Characterization of lipid A species from the mutant strains, by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry, indicated that the addition of phosphoethanolamine to lipid A correlated with resistance. This addition is performed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the product of the pmrC gene, which is a homolog of the pmrC gene from Acinetobacter. Knockout of this gene in the mutant R2 [pmrB(T235I)] reversed resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine modification of lipid A. These results demonstrate that specific alterations in the sequence of the pmrCAB operon are responsible for resistance to polymyxins in A. baumannii. PMID:21646482

  11. 贵金属铠装热电偶的发展及应用%The Development and Application of Armored Thermocouple of Precious Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健康; 刘毅; 李伟; 虞坤; 许昆; 罗锡明

    2016-01-01

    贵金属铠装热电偶具有特殊的结构和特性,对套管、偶丝、绝缘材料进行了介绍,列出了贵金属铠装热电偶相关标准,并介绍了其应用领域。对贵金属铠装热电偶的发展方向进行了展望。%The armored thermocouple of precious metals have special structures and properties. The thermowell, thermocouple wires, insulation material were introduced, the standards were listed and the applications of armored thermocouple of precious metals were described. Lastly, the development trends of armored thermocouple of precious metals were proposed.

  12. Neural network modeling to evaluate the dynamic flow stress of high strength armor steels under high strain rate compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravindranadh BOBBILI; V. MADHU; A.K. GOGIA

    2014-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) constitutive model is developed for high strength armor steel tempered at 500 ?C, 600 ?C and 650 ?C based on high strain rate data generated from split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. A new neural network configuration consisting of both training and validation is effectively employed to predict flow stress. Tempering temperature, strain rate and strain are considered as inputs, whereas flow stress is taken as output of the neural network. A comparative study on JohnsoneCook (JeC) model and neural network model is performed. It was observed that the developed neural network model could predict flow stress under various strain rates and tempering temperatures. The experimental stressestrain data obtained from high strain rate compression tests using SHPB, over a range of tempering temperatures (500e650 ?C), strains (0.05e0.2) and strain rates (1000e5500/s) are employed to formulate JeC model to predict the high strain rate deformation behavior of high strength armor steels. The J-C model and the back-propagation ANN model were developed to predict the high strain rate deformation behavior of high strength armor steel and their predictability is evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). R and AARE for the JeC model are found to be 0.7461 and 27.624%, respectively, while R and AARE for the ANN model are 0.9995 and 2.58%, respectively. It was observed that the predictions by ANN model are in consistence with the experimental data for all tempering temperatures.

  13. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    these analyses are those carried out by Kawabata et al. (Ref 15-17) who introduced simple analytical models to capture the uniaxial, biaxial, and shear...Performance of Soft Body Armor, Composites B, 2008, 39, p 476–489 15. S. Kawabata , M. Niwa, and H. Kawai, The Finite-deformation Theory of Plain-weave...Fabrics Part I: The Biaxial-deformation Theory, J. Text. Inst., 1973, 64, p 21–46 16. S. Kawabata , M. Niwa, and H. Kawai, The Finite-deformation Theory of

  14. Dose rate effect on internal friction and structural transformations in electron-irradiated carbon-armored composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaikin, Yu.A. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)]. E-mail: DrZaykin@mail.ru; Aimuratov, D.B. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi, 480012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Al-Sheikhly, M. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Temperature dependence of internal friction and specific electric resistance of multi-layer carbon-armored epoxy-based composites is experimentally studied in the temperature range of 20-300 deg. C before and after irradiation with 2 MeV electrons. It is shown that carbon penetration into the polymer matrix causes intense polymer cross-linking in the basic layers of the composite even at low irradiation doses. The strong effect of dose rate on radiation-induced structural transformations was observed.

  15. Comfort Design and Simulation Study of Driving Cab Based on Ergonomics%基于人机工程的驾驶室舒适性设计与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一甲; 王余锐; 金立生

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the security and comfort of driving cab , a kind of domestic combine harvester control cab was selected as research carrier , the ergonomics theory was studied , and the comfort of cab was analyzed based on Chi-nese human dimensions system .The comfortable driving across point , deriving seat and driving control device was de-signed , and the space-matching relationship of several devices was optimized .And then the driver posture , control panel ability analysis and vision of driver were simulated based on the man machine engineering design module of CATIA soft -ware and the rationality of cab designing was tested .The subjective comparative experiment was carried out .Test results showed that with the increase of continuous driving time , the subjective comfort of before and after improvement cabs all had decreasing trends;In the first 20 min driving time , the comfort evaluations for these cabs were consistent .In the ( 20~60 ) min driving time , the comfort evaluation for before improvement cab had an apparent decline .This paper could prove that using human-machine simulation system to analyze the comfort level of cab was feasible .It also provided the guidance and direction for the research of driving cab .%为提高驾驶室舒适性及安全性,以国产某种收获机械驾驶室为研究载体,对人机工程学理论进行研究,结合中国人体尺寸数据,对驾驶室进行舒适性分析,改进其驾驶舒适跨点、驾驶座椅及驾驶操纵装置,优化各器件间布局配置关系。基于CATIA软件人机工程设计模块,对驾驶员驾驶姿态、操作可达性和视野范围进行模拟仿真,检验驾驶室设计合理性。对改进前后驾驶室舒适性进行主观对比试验,结果表明:随驾驶时间增加,驾驶员对两种驾驶室主观舒适性皆呈下降趋势;在0~20 min 驾驶时间内,对于两种驾驶室平均舒适性评价一致,在20~60 min驾驶时间内,改

  16. Design of Vibration Absorber using Spring and Rubber for Armored Vehicle 5.56 mm Caliber Rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of vibration absorber using spring and rubber for 5.56 mm caliber rifle armored vehicle. Such a rifle is used in a Remote-Controlled Weapon System (RCWS or a turret where it is fixed using a two degree of freedom pan-tilt mechanism. A half car lumped mass dynamic model of armored vehicles was derived. Numerical simulation was conducted using fourth order Runge Kutta method. Various types of vibration absorbers using spring and rubber with different configurations are installed in the elevation element. Vibration effects on horizontal direction, vertical direction and angular deviation of the elevation element was investigated. Three modes of fire were applied i.e. single fire, semi-automatic fire and automatic fire. From simulation results, it was concluded that the parallel configuration of damping rubber type 3, which has stiffness of 980,356.04 (N/m2 and damping coefficient of 107.37 (N.s/m, and Carbon steel spring whose stiffness coefficient is 5.547 x 106 (N/m2 provides the best vibration absorption. 

  17. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.

    2017-07-01

    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6, the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  18. Blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped armored plates: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, J.; Kunc, R.; Prebil, I.

    2016-12-01

    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) can be exposed to blast loading by landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) during their lifetime. The bottom hull of these vehicles is usually made of a few millimeters of thin armored plate that is the vehicle's weak point in a blast-loading scenario. Therefore, blast resistance and blast load redirection are very important characteristics in providing adequate vehicle as well as occupant protection. Furthermore, the eccentric nature of loading caused by landmines was found to be omitted in the studies of simplified structures like beams and plates. For this purpose, blast wave dispersion and blast response of centrally and eccentrically loaded flat-, U-, and V-shaped plates are examined using a combined finite-element-smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (FE-SPH) model. The results showed that V-shaped plates better disperse blast waves for any type of loading and, therefore, can be successfully applied in LAVs. Based on the results of the study and the geometry of a typical LAV 6× 6 , the minimum angle of V-shaped plates is also determined.

  19. 基于灰色神经网络的装甲器材需求量预测%Armored Equipment Requirement Forecasting Based on Grey Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢庆龄; 白盟亮; 彭艳丽; 张文俊

    2011-01-01

    分析了装甲器材需求量影响因素,将灰色预测与神经网络预测方法相结合,建立了装甲器材需求量预测的灰色神经网络计算模型。该模型具有灰色系统的少数据建模及神经网络的精度可控性等优点,能较好地解决目前装甲器材需求预测精度不高的问题,可为装甲器材管理部门制定订购、调拨计划提供决策依据。%A grey neural network computation model of armored equipment requirement forecasting is set up on the basis of analyzing armored equipment requirement influence factors and combining grey forecasting and neural network forecasting method.This model boasts of an advantage of precision controllable and few data characteristics,can solve low precision of armored equipment requirement forecasting and provide decision evidence for armored equipment management department to make order plan.

  20. Overcoming the Battlefield Stalemate: The Introduction of Armored Fighting Vehicles and Tactics in the British Army During the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    depressions (such as artillery shell craters.)25 In addition, the vehicles were to be armored I 24Swinton, "The Necessity For Machine Gun Destroyers," June 1...traditional operation and innovative Ithinking . The general plan of attack was to dispense with the traditional long duration artillery bombardment

  1. Clothing adjustments for concealed soft body armor during moderate physical exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has studied the impact of Level II concealed soft body armor (SBA) on the augmentation of heat storage in a hot environment simulating a typical summer day in the southeastern United States (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 30°C) and noted a significant difference between macro- and micro-WBGTs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microclimate (micro-WBGT) under a concealed Level II SBA during 60 min of moderately intense work at two separate macro-WBGTs (26°C and 30°C), and to establish WBGT corrections to allow prediction of heat strain in an individual wearing a concealed Level II SBA. A single trial was performed with nine volunteers (27 ± 4 years) outfitted with a simulated standard law enforcement uniform and a traditional concealed Level II SBA, in a moderately warm environment (WBGT = 26°C). Each participant performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 L · min(-1)) and 3 min of arm curls (14.3 kg, 0.6 L · min(-1)) with a 5 min rest after every other cycle, for a total of 60 minutes. This trial was compared to an identical previously completed 60-min work bout at 30°C. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Post hoc Bonferroni and paired samples t-test analysis was conducted. A greater difference between macro- micro-WBGTs existed at 26°C compared to the 30°C macro-WBGT. Under these conditions, a moderate work in Level II SBA requires a WBGT correction of 8.9°C and 6.2°C at macro-WBGTs of 26°C and 30°C, respectively. A modified simple linear regression prediction model was established for mean Micro-WBGT for each macro-WBGTs after the plateau point at the 30 min mark. The derivation regressions at 26°C (R(2) = 0.99), and 30°C (R(2) = 0.99) indicate that micro-WBGT could be predicted for each 15 minutes time at both macro-WBGTs tested for individuals doing moderate intensity (300 Kcals · hr(-1)) work wearing concealed Level II SBA.

  2. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  3. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  4. 商用车驾驶室内饰色彩搭配浅析%Analysis of commercial vehicle cab interior color matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏攀; 张江辉; 樊敏锋

    2014-01-01

    Cab interior design the most important thing is comfort, comfort is determined by the use of functional and aesthetic features, functionality for interior design reflects the principles and ergonomic engineering machinery, can bring comfort operational occupants, while aesthetic function focuses on appearance and color, can bring visual comfort of occupants, so as to achieve a sense of spiritual pleasure, shows the importance of color matching. The most important commercial transport function, the driver drove trek process prone to fatigue, and good interior design by shape and color with a direct impact on the driver to relieve visual fatigue. And this paper introduces the basic knowledge on colors and color matching, and to describe how to design a good cab interior color matching by Mercedes-Benz Actors as a classic case.%驾驶室内饰设计最重要的是舒适性,舒适性由使用功能与审美功能决定,使用功能为内饰设计体现工程机械原理及人机学,能带给驾乘人员操作上的舒适感,而审美功能则着重于外观造型与色彩搭配,能带给驾乘人员视觉上的舒适感,从而达到精神上的愉悦感,由此可见色彩搭配的重要性。商用车最重要的是运输功能,司机长途跋涉的开车过程易产生疲劳感,而良好的内饰设计可通过造型和色彩搭配直接冲击司机视觉从而缓解疲劳。而此论文就主要介绍色彩及色彩搭配的基本知识,并通过奔驰Actors作为经典案例来介绍如何设计好驾驶室内饰色彩搭配。

  5. Armored scale insect endosymbiont diversity at the species level: genealogical patterns of Uzinura diasipipdicola in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J C; Gwiazdowski, R A; Gdanetz, K; Gruwell, M E

    2015-02-01

    Armored scale insects and their primary bacterial endosymbionts show nearly identical patterns of co-diversification when viewed at the family level, though the persistence of these patterns at the species level has not been explored in this group. Therefore we investigated genealogical patterns of co-diversification near the species level between the primary endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola and its hosts in the Chionaspis pinifoliae-Chionaspis heterophyllae species complex. To do this we generated DNA sequence data from three endosymbiont loci (rspB, GroEL, and 16S) and analyzed each locus independently using statistical parsimony network analyses and as a concatenated dataset using Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions. We found that for two endosymbiont loci, 16S and GroEL, sequences from U. diaspidicola were broadly associated with host species designations, while for rspB this pattern was less clear as C. heterophyllae (species S1) shared haplotypes with several other Chionaspis species. We then compared the topological congruence of the phylogenetic reconstructions generated from a concatenated dataset of endosymbiont loci (including all three loci, above) to that from a concatenated dataset of armored scale hosts, using published data from two nuclear loci (28S and EF1α) and one mitochondrial locus (COI-COII) from the armored scale hosts. We calculated whether the two topologies were congruent using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test. We found no significant differences (P = 0.4892) between the topologies suggesting that, at least at this level of resolution, co-diversification of U. diaspidicola with its armored scale hosts also occurs near the species level. This is the first such study of co-speciation at the species level between U. diaspidicola and a group of armored scale insects.

  6. 添加硼化钙对镁钙碳耐火材料抗氧化性能的影响%Oxidation Protection from MgO-CaO-C Refractories by Addition of CaB6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉龙; 陈敏

    2011-01-01

    以CaB6作为抗氧化添加剂,采用TGA、XRD、显气孔率测定等方法,研究了CaB6对MgO-CaO-C耐火材料抗氧化性能和其他性能的影响规律,研究结果表明:添加CaB 6能显著提高MgO-CaO-C耐火材料的抗氧化性能和结构致密性;CaB6与O2开始反应温度约为700℃;并确定CaB6的合理添加量为4%左右;1 500 ℃烧后试样的氧化区域和未氧化区域之间有一个致密氧化层存在,阻止了耐火材料中碳的氧化,其成分主要是含钙硼酸盐.%Calcium hexaboride (CaB6) was added to MgO-CaO-C refractories as anti-oxidant and its behaviors on improving the oxidation resistance and other properties was investigated with thermal gravimetric (TG) furnace, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and apparent porosity as well as other properties. The results showed that the oxidation resistance of MgO-CaO-C refractories was effectively improved by addition of CaB6 and the compactness of the refractories was improved. The added CaB6 began to react with oxygen at ~ 700 "C. The suitable adding amount of CaB6 was about 4%. In addition, after heating at 1500℃, an obvious oxide layer consisted of vitreous calcium bearing borates were formed between the unoxidized zone and the oxidized zone.

  7. Study on Spectra of La2CaB10O19∶Eu3+ in VUV-VIS Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫泓; 于英宁; 梁宏斌; 王淑彬; 苏锵; 陶冶

    2004-01-01

    Excitation and emission spectra of new borate La2CaB10O19 doped Eu3+ in VUV-VIS range, high resolution emission spectra at room temperature and lifetime of Eu3+ were investigated. The emission line at about 616 nm attributed to the 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+ is the most intense emission of Eu3+. The broad band at about 244 nm is originated from charge transition band (CTB) of O2-→Eu3+. According to the numbers of spectral lines 5D0-7F0 and 5D0-7F1 in high-resolution spectrum, Eu3+ ions occupy two crystallographic sites. The lifetimes of 5D0-7F0 transition of Eu3+ of two kinds of lattice sites are individually 2.1 and 2.6 ms, and both are exponential decay. In the VUV excitation spectrum, complicated band between 130 and 170 nm consists of host absorption and f-d transition of Eu3+.

  8. A Novel Two Domain-Fusion Protein in Cyanobacteria with Similarity to the CAB/ELIP/HLIP Superfamily: Evolutionary Implications and Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Kilian; Anne Soisig Steunou; Arthur R.Grossman; Devaki Bhaya

    2008-01-01

    Vascular plants contain abundant, light-harvesting complexes in the thylakoid membrane that are non-covalently associated with chlorophylls and carotenoids. These light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding (LHC) proteins are members of an extended CAB/ELIP/HLIP superfamily of distantly related polypeptides, which have between one and four transmembrane helices (TMH). This superfamily includes the single TMH, high-light-inducible proteins (Hlips), found in cyanobacteria that are induced by various stress conditions, including high light, and are considered ancestral to the LHC proteins. The roles of, and evolutionary relationships between, these superfamily members are of particular interest,since they function in both light harvesting and photoprotection and may have evolved through tandem gene duplication and fusion events. We have investigated the Hlips (hli gene family) in the thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B'. The five hli genes present on the genome of Synechococcus OS-B' are relatively similar, but transcript analyses indicate that there are different patterns of transcript accumulation when the cells are exposed to various growth conditions, suggesting that different Hlips may have specific functions. Hlip5 has an additional TMH at the N-terminus as a result of a novel fusion event. This additional TMH is very similar to a conserved hypothetical, single membrane-spanning polypeptide present in most cyanobacteria. The evolutionary significance of these results is discussed.

  9. THE RESEARCH ABOUT PRAIRIE ROAD CAB NOISE ENVIRONMENT AND SENSITIVITY OF DRIVER HEART RATE VARIABILITY%草原公路驾驶室噪声与驾驶员心率变异指标敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 朱守林; 戚春华; 秦艳

    2011-01-01

    草原公路驾驶室噪声是1个受发动机噪声、排气和进气噪声、传动系噪声、轮胎噪声以及气流噪声等影响的复杂的系统环境,驾驶室噪声易使驾驶员产生焦虑,烦躁及驾驶疲劳.本文运用单因素评价方法分析了驾驶员生理指标SDNN和RMSDD对驾驶室噪声的敏感性,结果表明驾驶员的SDNN对驾驶室噪声的敏感性高于RMSDD.%Prairie Road cab noise is a complex system environment which is affected by engine noise, exhaust and intake noise, train noise, tire noise and air noise. It can make the driver to feel anxious, irritable and tired. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of driver physiological Indicators SDNN and RMSDD to cab noise, using single factor evaluation analysis methods. The results show that the SDNN is more sensitive than RMSDD of drivers to cab noise.

  10. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

    2013-09-01

    A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  11. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  12. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  13. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  14. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shockloads II: A revised prediction for crack appearance map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyuan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface cracking features of tungsten armor under thermal shock loads by edge-localized mode (ELM were investigated by means of computational fracture mechanics analysis. For the simulation it was assumed that a small crack was initiated at low temperature after the shut-off of thermal load in contrast to the previous studies where the presence of a crack before thermal loading was assumed. The threshold power density for surface cracking was predicted to range between 0.3 and 0.6GW/m2 while the threshold of base temperature lay between 200 and 400°C. The theoretically predicted damage map agreed well with the experimental data from electron beam irradiation tests. The current simulation model turned out to match better to the real experimental observation than the previous predictions where the threshold base temperature lies roughly between 400 and 600°C.

  15. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  16. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Galgalikar, R.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2014-09-01

    In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process was introduced. The model is of a modular type and comprises five modules, each designed to handle a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e.: (i) electro-dynamics of the welding-gun; (ii) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric-arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler-metal consumable electrode to the weld; (iii) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (iv) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; and (v) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties. In the present work, the GMAW process model has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the spatial distribution of the mechanical properties controlling the ballistic-limit (i.e., penetration-resistance) of the weld. The model is upgraded through the introduction of the sixth module in the present work in recognition of the fact that in thick steel GMAW weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the armor may become controlled by the (often inferior) ballistic limits of its weld (fusion and heat-affected) zones. To demonstrate the utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel, MIL A46100. The model predictions concerning the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic-limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt-weld are found to be consistent with prior observations and general expectations.

  17. 经闭治验两则%Two Pieces of Amenorrhea Prescription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何运林

    2013-01-01

      根据祖国医学对闭经的治疗,结合笔者的临床经验,对两例闭经患者进行中医药治疗,疗效确切,以期丰富闭经的治疗经验。%According to the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine for amenorrhea, combined with the author's clinical experi-ence, two cases of patients with amenorrhea treating with traditional Chinese medicine was definite effective, which enriched clini-cal experience of amenorrhea.

  18. Laser Ignition Testing of Two-Piece Tank Ammunition for Advanced Tank Cannon System (ATACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    rnm"Q I Purd.. University 1 Temison Defense, Symeni Deuemautofcedsr ATfTN A. Patrick ATIN: L. Grant 2385 Revere Bemch Pakway Won Lafayete IN 47906...F. Fell 0. E. Garcia S. H•p Mi P. x mnas S. IH Modiano J. B. Simeonsson M. Unekjs A. Whren J. M. Widder 29 INTENTIONALLY 11FT BLANK 30 Thi Labuumsy

  19. Inflammation and Cancer: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation, in Crohn’s disease for example, is a known risk factor for malignant transformation, however the role inflammation plays in cancer initiation is poorly understood. STAT2, an important protein that regulates gene activation, is known to be stimulated by immune factors that inhibit cell growth. STAT2 also has reduced expression in the immune cells of patients with Crohn’s disease, which suggested to Ana Gamero, Ph.D., a former NCI Scholar of the Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, CCR, and now Assistant Professor at Temple University in collaboration with Nancy Colburn, Ph.D. of the Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and her colleagues, that STAT2 may be a key protein in regulating inflammation-induced cancer progression. The results of their studies were recently published in a Cancer Prevention Research article.

  20. Development of a Two-Piece Mask and Lens and Mold for Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Delamination Kraton 1101 Crosshatch test A6616 Permeability test Antioxidant 330 Chemical resistance Tensile properties Irganox 1010 SR-350 irganox MD 1024...Parts by Weight CBD in styrene (as supplied by 160.0 Exxon) t- Butyl perbenzoate 1.6 Irganox 1010 (phenolic antioxidant) 0.2 DSTDP 0.5 36 Six batches were...well with the Nordel 1320/Vulcup R system. The two best samples were: 0.5 parts Antioxidant 330 0.25 parts Irganox 1010 0.25 parts Irganox MD 1024 The

  1. In situ microradioscopy and microtomography of fatigue-loaded dental two-piece implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiest, Wolfram; Zabler, Simon, E-mail: simon.zabler@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de [University of Würzburg (Germany); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas [University of Würzburg (Germany); Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer [Medical Centre – University of Freiburg (Germany); Hanke, Randolf [University of Würzburg (Germany); Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth (Germany)

    2015-10-09

    Results of a novel in situ microradiography and microtomography setup for the study of fatigue processes are presented. This setup is optimized for the requirements of dental implants and use at synchrotron imaging beamlines. Synchrotron real-time radioscopy and in situ microtomography are the only techniques providing direct visible information on a micrometre scale of local deformation in the implant–abutment connection (IAC) during and after cyclic loading. The microgap formation at the IAC has been subject to a number of studies as it has been proposed to be associated with long-term implant success. The next step in this scientific development is to focus on the in situ fatigue procedure of two-component dental implants. Therefore, an apparatus has been developed which is optimized for the in situ fatigue analysis of dental implants. This report demonstrates both the capability of in situ radioscopy and microtomography at the ID19 beamline for the study of cyclic deformation in dental implants. The first results show that it is possible to visualize fatigue loading of dental implants in real-time radioscopy in addition to the in situ fatigue tomography. For the latter, in situ microtomography is applied during the cyclic loading cycles in order to visualize the opening of the IAC microgap. These results concur with previous ex situ studies on similar systems. The setup allows for easily increasing the bending force, to simulate different chewing situations, and is, therefore, a versatile tool for examining the fatigue processes of dental implants and possibly other specimens.

  2. In situ microradioscopy and microtomography of fatigue-loaded dental two-piece implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Wolfram; Zabler, Simon; Rack, Alexander; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron real-time radioscopy and in situ microtomography are the only techniques providing direct visible information on a micrometre scale of local deformation in the implant-abutment connection (IAC) during and after cyclic loading. The microgap formation at the IAC has been subject to a number of studies as it has been proposed to be associated with long-term implant success. The next step in this scientific development is to focus on the in situ fatigue procedure of two-component dental implants. Therefore, an apparatus has been developed which is optimized for the in situ fatigue analysis of dental implants. This report demonstrates both the capability of in situ radioscopy and microtomography at the ID19 beamline for the study of cyclic deformation in dental implants. The first results show that it is possible to visualize fatigue loading of dental implants in real-time radioscopy in addition to the in situ fatigue tomography. For the latter, in situ microtomography is applied during the cyclic loading cycles in order to visualize the opening of the IAC microgap. These results concur with previous ex situ studies on similar systems. The setup allows for easily increasing the bending force, to simulate different chewing situations, and is, therefore, a versatile tool for examining the fatigue processes of dental implants and possibly other specimens.

  3. On two pieces of folklore in the AdS/CFT duality

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    In the AdS/CFT duality, it is often said that a local symmetry in a bulk theory corresponds to a global symmetry in the corresponding boundary theory, but the global symmetry can become local when one couples with an external source. As a result, the GKP-Witten relation gives a response function instead of a Green function. We explore this point in details using the example of holographic superconductors. We point out that these points play a crucial role to interpret the holographic London equation properly.

  4. Two pieces of folklore in the AdS/CFT duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Natsuume, Makoto; Okamura, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    In the AdS/CFT duality, it is often said that a local symmetry in a bulk theory corresponds to a global symmetry in the corresponding boundary theory, but the global symmetry can become local when one couples with an external source. As a result, the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten relation gives a response function instead of a Green function. We explore this point in detail using the example of holographic superconductors. We point out that these points play a crucial role in interpreting the holographic London equation properly.

  5. Air Spring Simulation of Commercial Truck Cab Suspension System%商用车驾驶室悬置系统空气弹簧仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鑫; 姜迪; 王忠校

    2014-01-01

    采用试验数据与仿真分析相结合的方法,通过试验曲线反求空气弹簧的内部特性,同时结合高度调节阀的流量压力控制,可形成系统的实时闭环反馈;将空气弹簧平面模型与某商用车驾驶室悬置系统的3D多体模型进行联合仿真,结果表明,随机路面载荷下的试验与仿真曲线在时域及频域内吻合度较高,可以实时模拟空气弹簧的外输出特性。%By the combination of test data and simulation analysis, the internal characteristic of air spring can be reversed by test curve. And by adapting height control valve to regulate the flow pressure, the real-time closed-loop feedback system is formed. Air spring planar model and 3D cab suspension system MBS model of a commercial vehicle are used for the co-simulation, the results show that comparison curves between test and simulation under random road load in the time and frequency domain achieve a high fitting degree. And real-time simulation on the output characteristics of the air spring can be made.

  6. Photosystem II component lifetimes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803: small Cab-like proteins stabilize biosynthesis intermediates and affect early steps in chlorophyll synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Danny C I; Brune, Daniel C; Vavilin, Dmitri; Vermaas, Wim F J

    2012-01-02

    To gain insight in the lifetimes of photosystem II (PSII) chlorophyll and proteins, a combined stable isotope labeling (15N)/mass spectrometry method was used to follow both old and new pigments and proteins. Photosystem I-less Synechocystis cells were grown to exponential or post-exponential phase and then diluted in BG-11 medium with [15N]ammonium and [15N]nitrate. PSII was isolated, and the masses of PSII protein fragments and chlorophyll were determined. Lifetimes of PSII components ranged from 1.5 to 40 h, implying that at least some of the proteins and chlorophyll turned over independently from each other. Also, a significant amount of nascent PSII components accumulated in thylakoids when cells were in post-exponential growth phase. In a mutant lacking small Cab-like proteins (SCPs), most PSII protein lifetimes were unaffected, but the lifetime of chlorophyll and the amount of nascent PSII components that accumulated were decreased. In the absence of SCPs, one of the PSII biosynthesis intermediates, the monomeric PSII complex without CP43, was missing. Therefore, SCPs may stabilize nascent PSII protein complexes. Moreover, upon SCP deletion, the rate of chlorophyll synthesis and the accumulation of early tetrapyrrole precursors were drastically reduced. When [14N]aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was supplemented to 15N-BG-11 cultures, the mutant lacking SCPs incorporated much more exogenous ALA into chlorophyll than the control demonstrating that ALA biosynthesis was impaired in the absence of SCPs. This illustrates the major effects that nonstoichiometric PSII components such as SCPs have on intermediates and assembly but not on the lifetime of PSII proteins.

  7. 装甲装备器村保障应急物流初探%Primary Research on the Emergency Logistics of Armored Equipment Material Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆全; 杨宏伟; 卢庆龄; 黄定政

    2012-01-01

    对装甲装备器材保障应急物流概念内涵、基本特征、保障环节、主要职能、建设内容等理论问题进行了初步研究探讨,旨在为我军掏建科学、合理的装甲装备器材保障应急物流体系提供理论参考。%This article preliminarily studies some theoretical issues about armored equipment support emergency logistics, such as conception, main characteristic, support Chain, functions, construction contents of emergency logistics. It aims at providing theoreti- cal references for our military to establish a scientific and reaso~iable armored equipment support emergency logistics system.

  8. Meralgia paresthetica due to body armor wear in U.S. soldiers serving in Iraq: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargo, Matthew V; Konitzer, Lisa N

    2007-06-01

    Meralgia paresthetica is a disorder of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve that results in symptoms of anterolateral thigh paresthesias and dysesthesias without associated loss of reflexes or motor weakness. Chronic meralgia paresthetica, not related to traumatic or lesion-producing compression of the nerve, is associated with obesity, pregnancy, tight-fitting garments, as well as specific duty uniform belts used by police officers and carpenters. Cases are presented in which two U.S. soldiers in Iraq experienced symptoms of meralgia paresthetica, most likely due to repetitive wear of protective body armor. Although use of protective body armor is proven to be lifesaving, modifications to improve current equipment may help to decrease morbidities such as meralgia paresthetica.

  9. Responses to Three USARIEM Job Analysis Questionnaires (JAQs) Conducted with Cavalry Scouts and Armor Crewmen (MOSs 19D and 19K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Among the respondents to the 19K job-specific survey there may be some who also responded to the common task survey ; the researchers had no way of... researchers had no way of knowing how many armor crewmen responded to both these surveys . By applying an inclusion criterion that 50% or more of the...information collection. The entire process of survey research design, survey preparation, distribution, completion, data analysis, report preparation, and

  10. Armored CAR T-cells: utilizing cytokines and pro-inflammatory ligands to enhance CAR T-cell anti-tumour efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeku, Oladapo O; Brentjens, Renier J

    2016-04-15

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells that have been genetically modified to express an artificial construct consisting of a synthetic T-cell receptor (TCR) targeted to a predetermined antigen expressed on a tumour. Coupling the T-cell receptor to a CD3ζ signalling domain paved the way for first generation CAR T-cells that were efficacious against cluster of differentiation (CD)19-expressing B-cell malignancies. Optimization with additional signalling domains such as CD28 or 4-1BB in addition to CD3ζ provided T-cell activation signal 2 and further improved the efficacy and persistence of these second generation CAR T-cells. Third generation CAR T-cells which utilize two tandem costimulatory domains have also been reported. In this review, we discuss a different approach to optimization of CAR T-cells. Through additional genetic modifications, these resultant armored CAR T-cells are typically modified second generation CAR T-cells that have been further optimized to inducibly or constitutively secrete active cytokines or express ligands that further armor CAR T-cells to improve efficacy and persistence. The choice of the 'armor' agent is based on knowledge of the tumour microenvironment and the roles of other elements of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although there are several variants of armored CAR T-cells under investigation, here we focus on three unique approaches using interleukin-12 (IL-12), CD40L and 4-1BBL. These agents have been shown to further enhance CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in the face of a hostile tumour microenvironment via different mechanisms.

  11. A one step real time PCR method for the quantification of hepatitis delta virus RNA using an external armored RNA standard and intrinsic internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataylı, Ersin; Altunoğlu, Yasemin Çelik; Karataylı, Senem Ceren; Alagöz, S Gökçe K; Cınar, Kubilay; Yalçın, Kendal; Idilman, Ramazan; Yurdaydın, Cihan; Bozdayı, A Mithat

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA viral load measurement is critical in diagnosis and monitoring the response to antiviral treatment. Our aim is to design a real time PCR method for accurate quantitation of HDV RNA in clinical specimens using an armored RNA as external standard, and an intrinsic internal control. A plasmid bearing delta antigen region of genotype I HDV genome was used to develop an armored RNA. Serial dilutions of the armored HDV RNA standard with 10(12)copy/mL were used as standards for quantitation. A primer-probe set derived from HDAg region was used in one step EZ RT PCR kit chemistry which uses rTth enzyme allowing reverse transcription and polymerization in the same tube. The kit also uses the advantage of uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) enzyme treatment to prevent PCR contamination. The established assay has a dynamic range of 10(2)-10(11)copy/mL with a PCR efficiency of 96.9%. Detection limit was 858±32copy/mL with 95% confidence interval. Intra- and inter-assay variabilities were low for high, medium and low levels of viremia. Incorporation of freely circulating GAPDH in serum into the assay as an intrinsic internal control prevented false negative results and failures in PCR amplifications due to inhibitors, inefficient extraction procedures or enzymatic reactions. In conclusion, this study defines a novel assay for sensitive and reliable quantification of HDV RNA using an armored HDV RNA as a standard and GAPDH in plasma or serum as an intrinsic internal control in a single tube. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障HTPN过程建模%Modeling of Armored Equipment Autonomic Logistics HTPN Process Facing Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会奇; 陈春良; 毕占东; 刘峻岩; 张咏清

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize armored equipment autonomic logistics and advance the transformation of the armored equipment support mode, the models of the armored equipment autonomic logistic system mission faced are established. The conception model of the armored equipment autonomic logistics system is constructed applying the UML using case chart, and the process of the armored equipment autonomic logistics is analyzed, got the main activities as well as the sequence relation of the armored equipment autonomic logistics mission faced. Applying the HTPN modeling method, the logic and sequence model of the armored equipment autonomic logistics process mission faced is established. By means of calculating the input data of the model, the time indexes of the armored equipment autonomic logistics process mission faced are gained, and the analysis of the instance is given. The analysis result proves that the model could be used for the calculation of the armored vehicle driving training mission autonomic logistics process time indexes, which provides an available method for researching the armored equipment autonomic logistics process.%为实现装甲装备主动式保障、促进装甲装备保障模式转变,对面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障系统进行建模。应用UML用例图构建装甲装备主动式保障系统概念模型,分析面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障过程,得到面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障的主要活动及其时序关系;应用 HTPN 建模方法,构建面向任务的主动式保障过程逻辑时序模型,通过对模型输入数据测算,得到面向任务的装甲装备主动式保障过程时效性指标,并进行实例分析。分析结果证明:该模型能得到某型装甲车辆驾驶训练任务主动式保障过程时效性指标,为定量研究装备主动式保障提供了有效方法。

  13. 新型工程机械驾驶室悬置系统建模与参数优化%Modeling and parameters optimization of a new type cab suspension system for construction machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 孙晓强

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve vibration isolation performance of cab suspension system and ride comfort of construction machinery, a new type cab suspension system with inerter is presented, which mainly consists of main spring, auxiliary spring, damper and a new vibration isolation compo-nent named as inerter. In order to determine the optimal parameters of the new type suspension sys-tem, a three-DOF full floating cab dynamics mathematical model is established based on Newton's laws of motion and the suspension parameters optimal objective and constraints are defined. The par-ticle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm is applied for optimization of the cab suspension parame-ters and the simulation comparison results indicate that the weighted root mean square value of the cab floor vertical acceleration is reduced from 0. 42 to 0. 33 , which has a decline by 21%, thus the vehicle ride comfort of construction machinery is effectively improved. The research of this paper can provide theoretical foundation and technical support for analyzing and improving performance of new type cab suspension system for construction machinery based on inerter.%为进一步提高工程机械驾驶室悬置系统的隔振性能,改善工程机械的乘坐舒适性,提出一种包含惯容器的新型工程机械驾驶室悬置系统,该系统由主弹簧、副弹簧、减振器以及新型隔振元件———惯容器等四个基本元件构成。为确定该新型悬置的最优结构参数,基于牛顿运动定律建立了工程机械全浮式驾驶室悬置三自由度动力学数学模型,确定了驾驶室悬置参数的优化目标及约束条件,并采用粒子群优化算法对工程机械驾驶室悬置参数进行了优化。仿真对比结果表明,基于最优参数的新型悬置系统可使驾驶室地板垂向振动加权加速度均方根值由0.42降低到0.33,降幅达21%,工程机械的乘坐舒适性得到了明显提高,研究将为基于惯容器的新型工程机械驾

  14. Space and Identity:On A Cab Called Reliable by Korean-American%空间与身份--论美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的《“可靠的”的士》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪雪花

    2015-01-01

    In Korean -American writer Patti Kim’s novel A Cab Called Reliable,the heroine,who is from a Korean immigrant family,narrates a tongue -tied story of identity dilemma confronted by new -generation Korean immigrants.The novel highlights the heroine’s perception of space and paradox in identity.After wit-nessing her mother leaving home,the heroine begins to pursue her self -identity through the seeking of the re-liable cab.This paper analyses Patti Kim’s A Cab Called Reliable by integrating space theory with identity theory and then probes into the connection between space and identity.%美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的小说《“可靠的”的士》中以移民美国的一个韩国家庭的故事展现了新一代美籍韩裔所面临的身份的尴尬处境。这部作品的主要特征在于主人公对空间的感知与矛盾的身份。作品讲述的是主人公在亲眼目睹了母亲出走后,借由对“可靠的”的士的寻找而开始的对自我身份的探求的心路历程。将空间理论和身份认同理论结合起来解读美籍韩裔作品《“可靠的”的士》,可以较好地探讨空间与身份的关系。

  15. 高速列车驾驶台多功能显示器虚拟仿真%Simulation of multi-function displays in high-speed train cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晴; 何润; 江永全; 李柯

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied on the virtual simulation technology of high-speed train cab based on XNA platform,especially the implementation of the multi-function displays (MFD) of the virtual cab in the virtual three-dimensional scene.It was mainly involved the creation,driving and interaction of the virtual monitor.The off-screen rendering technology was used which was based on XNA platform,dynamic parameter-driven MFD and model picking up algorithm.These methods could vividly implement the real-time display of the highspeed train cab operation information and the man-machine interactive control,make the virtual scene much more lifelike and immersive.%本文研究了基于XNA平台的高速列车驾驶台虚拟仿真技术,着重介绍了虚拟驾驶台中多功能显示器在虚拟三维场景中的实现方法.主要涉及虚拟显示器的创建、驱动及交互等功能的实现方法,采用基于XNA平台的离屏渲染技术、动态参数驱动MFD显示和模型拾取算法,逼真地实现了实时显示高速列车驾驶台运行信息和人机交互,提高了虚拟场景的真实感、沉浸感.

  16. 依据历史轨迹构建城市出租车移动概率模型%The moving probability model of urban cabs based on history trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武彬; 刘明星; 黄宏斌; 邓苏

    2014-01-01

    The model of urban cabs moving is one of the key issues for model building.The model needs reflecting moving state information of cabs.More importantly,users can quickly query the moving cabs.Under the condition of real time information of cabs which is hard to obtain,we should model the moving points and forecast the state information according to the moving history.A method which applies Hidden Markov theory to model of the moving trajectory is proposed.Through an analysis of real trajectory data of San Francisco,the caps moving model which is used to query the caps by users was constructed.Experiment with real datasets shows that the method proposed can simulate the moving state of caps.Users can also quickly obtain the useful location information from the model.%针对无法在线实时获取移动出租车实时状态信息的条件下,根据对历史轨迹信息的处理分析,提出将隐马尔科夫理论应用到城市出租车移动轨迹模型中,通过实际数据的分析建立出租车运动模型,通过对模型的计算来预测节点的位置分布概率,并在此模型上针对不同的用户需求进行查询处理,为用户提供搭车路线决策支持。通过利用真实数据集的实验证明,模型能够较好的模拟出出租车节点的运动状态,用户也能够从模型中获取较高精度的位置状态信息。

  17. Analysis of recurring sinking events of armored tracked vehicles along dirt roads in the agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel

    2013-04-01

    The second (Al-Aqsa) intifada (Arab violent uprising) which erupted across Israel in 2000 eventually led the Israel Defense Forces to deploy armored tracked vehicles (ATVs) (tanks, armored personal carriers, and D-9 bulldozers) within Israel's agricultural periphery of the Gaza Strip, following daily attempts by Arab terrorists and guerillas to penetrate Israel. Combat movement of the ATVs was mainly concentrated to dirt roads, between agricultural fields, wherever possible. As a result of semi-arid Mediterranean (climate) winter rains, annually averaging 250 - 350 mm, it was reported that ATVs often sank in muddy terrain. This study investigated what caused ATVs to sink. The main data collected concerning the types of vehicles that sank related to: land-use characteristics, soil type, and daily rainfall. Interviews with commanders were also conducted for additional details. Between the fall and spring, surveys and weekly / bi-weekly field soil cone penetrometer tests were conducted at ten sites with different pedological and land-use characteristics. The loess soils, especially in agricultural fields, were generally found to be conducive to ATV traffic, even shortly after rainstorms of 10-30 mm. However, following several rainfall events exceeding 10 mm, ATVs and tanks regularly sank into local topographic depressions in the undulating landscape. These consisted of short segments of dirt roads where runoff and suspended sediment collected. After the early rains in late fall, tank ruts fossilize and become conduits of concentrated runoff and fine particles eroded by ATV activity during the summer months. Tank track ruts that formed in mud, compacted the soil, drastically altered drainage patterns by directing significant surface flow, and suspended sediment into these depressions, creating "tank-traps" whose trafficability ranged from "untrafficable" to "trafficable with constraints." This study shows that intense, routine, defensive military activity operated

  18. Appropriate Coupling Solvers for the Numerical Simulation of Rolled Homogeneous Armor Plate Response Subjected to Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rolled homogeneous armor (RHA plate subjected to blast loading is a complex problem involving the nonlinear fluid-structure interaction. The numerical techniques using the spatial discretization scheme that has been provided as a solver in the AUTODYN computer code will be used in this study in order to predict the RHA response subjected to explosive (TNT blast loading. The final deflection will be used as a reference in order to identify the suitable solver for both materials RHA and TNT; then the plastic deformation will be chosen in the simulation process. Instead of using the same solver for RHA and TNT domains, the optimization of solver can be achieved if it is only used in an appropriate domain, or in other words, a different domain will be using different solver. The solvers, which were available in AUTODYN, were used in the analysis of impact and explosion or fluid-structure interaction. Therefore, in this paper, we will determine the suitable solver for both materials (TNT and RHA plate, and the appropriate interaction coupling solver will be obtained. Defining TNT and RHA plates using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian solver has found the best coupling solver for this case study when compared with existing experimental data. This coupling solver will be used for future analysis in simulating blast-loading phenomena.

  19. Obtaining Spheroplasts of Armored Dinoflagellates and First Single-Channel Recordings of Their Ion Channels Using Patch-Clamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Pozdnyakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels are tightly involved in various aspects of cell physiology, including cell signaling, proliferation, motility, endo- and exo-cytosis. They may be involved in toxin production and release by marine dinoflagellates, as well as harmful algal bloom proliferation. So far, the patch-clamp technique, which is the most powerful method to study the activity of ion channels, has not been applied to dinoflagellate cells, due to their complex cellulose-containing cell coverings. In this paper, we describe a new approach to overcome this problem, based on the preparation of spheroplasts from armored bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. We treated the cells of P. minimum with a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB, and found out that it could also induce ecdysis and arrest cell shape maintenance in these microalgae. Treatment with 100–250 µM DCB led to an acceptable 10% yield of P. minimum spheroplasts and was independent of the incubation time in the range of 1–5 days. We show that such spheroplasts are suitable for patch-clamping in the cell-attached mode and can form 1–10 GOhm patch contact with a glass micropipette, allowing recording of ion channel activity. The first single-channel recordings of dinoflagellate ion channels are presented.

  20. Biochemical responses in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi) after short-term exposure to diesel oil, pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lílian; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Oliveira, Thiago Yukio Kikuchi; da Rosa, Joel Maurício Correa; Felício, Andréia Arantes; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2013-09-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gradually replacing petroleum-based diesel oil use. Despite the biodiesel being considered friendlier to the environment, little is known about its effects in aquatic organisms. In this work we evaluated whether biodiesel exposure can affect oxidative stress parameters and biotransformation enzymes in armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi, Loricariidae), a South American endemic species. Thus, fish were exposed for 2 and 7d to 0.01mLL(-1) and 0.1mLL(-1) of pure diesel, pure biodiesel (B100) and blends of diesel with 5% (B5) and 20% (B20) biodiesel. Lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) levels and the activities of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in liver and gills. Also, DNA damage (8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine) levels in gills and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver were assessed. Pure diesel, B5 and B20 blends changed most of the enzymes tested and in some cases, B5 and B20 induced a higher enzyme activity than pure diesel. Antioxidant system activation in P. anisitsi was effective to counteract reactive oxygen species effects, since DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were maintained at basal levels after all treatments. However, fish gills exposed to B20 and B100 presented increased lipid peroxidation. Despite biodiesel being more biodegradable fuel that emits less greenhouse gases, the increased lipid peroxidation showed that biofuel and its blends also represent hazards to aquatic biota.

  1. Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Arakere, A.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.; Montgomery, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    A conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) butt-joining process has been modeled using a two-way fully coupled, transient, thermal-mechanical finite-element procedure. To achieve two-way thermal-mechanical coupling, the work of plastic deformation resulting from potentially high thermal stresses is allowed to be dissipated in the form of heat, and the mechanical material model of the workpiece and the weld is made temperature dependent. Heat losses from the deposited filler-metal are accounted for by considering conduction to the adjoining workpieces as well as natural convection and radiation to the surroundings. The newly constructed GMAW process model is then applied, in conjunction with the basic material physical-metallurgy, to a prototypical high-hardness armor martensitic steel (MIL A46100). The main outcome of this procedure is the prediction of the spatial distribution of various crystalline phases within the weld and the heat-affected zone regions, as a function of the GMAW process parameters. The newly developed GMAW process model is validated by comparing its predictions with available open-literature experimental and computational data.

  2. Extensive jaw mobility in suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae): a morphological and kinematic analysis of substrate scraping mode of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Dominique; Geerinckx, Tom; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Loricariidae, or suckermouth armored catfishes, possess upper and lower jaws that are ventrally oriented and that bear teeth that touch the substrate from which algae and other food items are scraped. The ventral orientation and the highly specialized morphology of the jaws, characterized by protrusible upper jaws and left-right decoupled lower jaws, are observed in Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the species investigated here. Kinematic data of the scraping feeding movements, obtained by external high-speed and x-ray recordings, are used to quantify jaw movement, especially to test for upper jaw mobility and versatility during substrate scraping. Our results show that the mobility of the jaws is indeed high compared with what is standard for catfishes. The upper jaw's ability to perform a substantial degree of rostrocaudal movement is quite unique for catfishes. The ventromedially oriented lower jaws, with the teeth and the coronoid process at opposite sides, display an extensive mobility: they rotate around the suspensorial articulation and around their longitudinal axis, resulting in an extended scraping movement and thereby covering a large surface area. The lower jaws also show a left-right asymmetry in their movements during scraping. Thus, our results suggest that the extreme morphological specializations of the jaws in loricariid catfishes are linked to an increased mobility and functional versatility, allowing these animals to efficiently scrape algae from substrates with irregular surfaces.

  3. Titanosaur osteoderms from the Upper Cretaceous of Lo Hueco (Spain and their implications on the armor of Laurasian titanosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vidal

    Full Text Available Titanosaurs are the only sauropod dinosaurs known to bear a dermal armor. Their osteoderms are relatively rare finds, with few more than a hundred specimens recovered worldwide. Also, little is known about their intra-individual, intra-specific or inter-specific variability. The macrovertebrate site of Lo Hueco (Upper Cretaceous; Cuenca, Spain has yielded several complete specimens of osteoderms, some associated with fairly articulated specimens. They are all variations of the morphotype known as bulb and root. The presence of only this morphotype in Europe, which is considered as the primitive condition among titanosaurs, seems to indicate that the known Upper Cretaceous Laurasian titanosaurs only bore these referred bulb and root osteoderms. An eliptic Fourier analysis on the outline of complete specimens from this morphotype reveals: i that they truly are part of a morphological cline; and ii the existence of a consistent correlation between the outline and the morphology of the bulb. Such variation along a cline is more consistent with intra-individual rather than inter-specific variation. The osteoderms associated with a single titanosaur individual from Lo Hueco reinforce this hypothesis.

  4. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  5. Obtaining spheroplasts of armored dinoflagellates and first single-channel recordings of their ion channels using patch-clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakov, Ilya; Matantseva, Olga; Negulyaev, Yuri; Skarlato, Sergei

    2014-09-05

    Ion channels are tightly involved in various aspects of cell physiology, including cell signaling, proliferation, motility, endo- and exo-cytosis. They may be involved in toxin production and release by marine dinoflagellates, as well as harmful algal bloom proliferation. So far, the patch-clamp technique, which is the most powerful method to study the activity of ion channels, has not been applied to dinoflagellate cells, due to their complex cellulose-containing cell coverings. In this paper, we describe a new approach to overcome this problem, based on the preparation of spheroplasts from armored bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum. We treated the cells of P. minimum with a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), and found out that it could also induce ecdysis and arrest cell shape maintenance in these microalgae. Treatment with 100-250 µM DCB led to an acceptable 10% yield of P. minimum spheroplasts and was independent of the incubation time in the range of 1-5 days. We show that such spheroplasts are suitable for patch-clamping in the cell-attached mode and can form 1-10 GOhm patch contact with a glass micropipette, allowing recording of ion channel activity. The first single-channel recordings of dinoflagellate ion channels are presented.

  6. Applications of wavelet packet theory on cab FSK signals%小波包方法在车载FSK信号中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳朋; 贾利民; 范明

    2001-01-01

    FSK信号作为保障铁路安全运行的主要信号制式,在国内铁路上现在有两种,是法国引进的UT信号和国内自主开发的YP信号。小波变换是继傅里叶变换之后的重大突破,而小波包则是小波变换的进一步发展,克服了小波变换的一些不足。本文首先研究了车载FSK信号的特征,再利用小波包对车载FSK信号进行滤波处理。文中,给出了如何确定给定频率的信号在小波包分解树各个分解层中对应节点的算法,在滤波处理过程中,为了处理带内的噪声,也给出了采用阈值的方法来减少带内白噪声,阈值的选取充分应用到FSK信号的小波包分解的特点。最后,我们给出了计算机产生的仿真FSK信号和现场采集的FSK信号的两种仿真,仿真结果表明,根据车载FSK信号的特性,小波包方法是处理车载FSK信号的有效方法。%As the key signal system guaranteeing the safety for the railway, there are two types of FSK system used now by China railway: UT signal imported from France and the homemade YP signal. Wavelet transform is a big breakthrough after Fourier transforms, and the wavelet packet theory is the further development for wavelet transform, for it overcomes some shortcomings of wavelet transform. In this article, we study first the main characters of cab FSK signal, then the wavelet packets method is applied to the FSK signal filtering. We give an algorithm that determines the corresponding decomposition node for a signal with a pre-specified frequency in the decomposition tree. In order to reduce the in-band white noise in the denoising process, we give an algorithm based on threshold technology, and we also give a method to calculate the threshold that takes full advantage of the character of the wavelet packet decomposition of the FSK signal. In the last part of the article,a simulations on both computer simulation data and field data are given, and the simulation

  7. 基于 ANP 的新型装甲装备保障能力综合评估方法研究%Evaluation of New Armored Equipment’s Support Capability Based on ANP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 穆歌

    2016-01-01

    针对层次分析法(the analytic hierarchy process,AHP)进行装备保障能力评估的缺陷,在充分考虑新型装甲装备保障能力评估特殊性的基础上,研究了基于网络分析法(the analytic network process,ANP)的新型装甲装备保障能力评估框架,给出了影响装备保障能力的主要指标集,分析了各指标间的影响关系,建立了装备保障能力评估的 ANP模型,提出了基于 ANP 法的新型装甲装备保障能力评估思路,并通过实例进行了模型验证,为基于使命的新型装甲装备保障能力评估提供了参考。%In illusion to the limitation from equipment’s support capability evaluation with (the analytic hierarchy process)AHP,with considering the characters of the evaluation of new armored equipment support capability,this paper researched on the evaluation frame of new armored equipment’s support capability based on ANP,and put forward the main index dictionary of new armored equipment’s support capability,with analysis of indexes relationship,and set up the evaluation model with ANP for new armored equipment’s support capability,and formed a way to evaluation of new armored equipment’s support capability based on ANP and validated the model with an example,which provides theory-reference for the next evaluating new armored equipment’s support capability based on mission.

  8. The Research on the Method of Heneral Quality Charactistic Evaluation for New Armored Equipment%新型装甲装备通用质量特性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇恒; 刘福胜; 刘永权

    2016-01-01

    As an important guarantee of armored mechanized troops fighting capacity factors, armored equipment general quality gets more and more attention by the people. So, it becomes an important link in the armored equipment quality work to take the effective technical measures and means to scientifically evaluate the general quality of armored equipment. Based on the analysis of the research status in China, this paper summarizes the domestic current situation of the armored equipment quality problem. Based on the AHP-FCE model, the general quality characteristics of the armor and equipment can be effectively evaluated. Combined with the latest type of main battle tanks, the model has been verified.%装甲机械化部队战斗力的重要指标之一就是装甲装备通用质量,它越来越受到人们的重视。所以,采取有效的技术措施和手段对装甲装备通用质量进行科学的评价,已成为装甲装备质量工作中最重要的一环。本文在对国内研究现状分析的基础上,归纳了国内装甲装备质量问题现状;基于AHP-FCE模型可以有效的评价装甲装备通用质量特性,并结合最新型的主战坦克对该模型进行了验证。

  9. Preliminary Study on Emergency Logistics of Armored Equipment%装甲装备器材保障应急物流初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞纲夺; 代哲

    2015-01-01

    装甲装备器材保障应急物流关系着军队物流保障,关系着国家安全,对我国装甲装备器材保障应急物流进行研究,将对我国国防事业的完善和健全具有重要意义。文中对装甲装备器材保障应急物流的概念进行简述,对其特征、职能及保障环节进行研究,并结合当前我国装甲装备器材应急物流存在的问题,提出几点关于装甲装备器材保障应急物流的建设方面的建议,希望会对我国国防事业的顺利发展提供些许帮助和支持,为我国建立科学完备的装甲装备器材应急物流体系贡献一份力量。%Armored Equipment and equipment to protect the emergency logistics relationship with the military logistics support,the relationship between the national security,China's armored equipment and equipment to protect the emergency logistics research,will be of great significance to the improvement and perfection of China's defense industry.In the following,the author describes the concept of armored equipment support emergency logistics,the characteristics,functions,and the protection of the research,and combined with the existing problems of the emergency logistics in China,and put forward some suggestions on the construction of the emergency logistics.

  10. Chromosomal characterization of armored catfish Harttia longipinna (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): first report of B chromosomes in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Traldi, Josiane Baccarin; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2012-09-01

    The B chromosomes are accessory elements that are widely distributed among eukaryotic genomes and often show non-Mendelian inheritance. They are considered dispensable for the growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. Some studies have suggested that these elements may affect sex determination. Harttia is a small armored catfish genus that shows sexual dimorphism, including hypertrophied odontodes on the pectoral fin spines and along the margins of the snout in mature males. They exhibit considerable karyotypic diversity with diploid number (2n) variation and heteromorphic sex system in H. carvalhoi. To date, no occurrences of B chromosomes in the Harttia genus were detected and no relation to sexual differentiation in Neotropical fish has been determined. To determine the validity of this claim, the present paper characterized specimens of Harttia longipinna by classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. The 2n found was 58 (16m + 12sm + 16st + 14a), but of the 50 specimens analyzed (30 male and 20 female), 23 specimens (16 males and seven females) show an intra-individual from 0 to 2 micro B chromosomes. The B chromosomes were completely heterochromatic. The single NORs were shown in the first acrocentric pair with silver staining and 18S rDNA probing. FISH performed with 5S rDNA probe showed a single cistron in the proximal region of the short arm of a small metacentric pair. Thus, the cytogenetic data obtained in this study of H. longipinna highlight the karyotypic diversity found within the genus Harttia, and represent the first description of B chromosomes for this genus.

  11. Noise Sources Identification and Noise Control of the Cab of an Off-highway Machine%某工程机械驾驶室噪声源识别与噪声控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵威; 臧献国

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic performance has become a key competitive factor for off-highway machinery due to the increasing focus on operator’s comfort and noise pollution as well as continuing regulatory pressure. In order to improve the operator’s comfort of an off-highway machine, a number of methods including transfer path analysis, spectrum analysis and separate-step running, are used to analyze the measurement data of the near-field noise of the machine and interior/exterior noise of its cab. The main noise sources and noise transfer paths are identified. Based on the analysis results, some noise reduction measures are provided and implemented. The results show that the interior noise of the cab is greatly reduced and the operator’s comfort is improved.%随着对驾驶员舒适度的日益关注,以及噪声辐射法规持续趋于严格,工程机械的噪声控制水平已经成为其产品核心竞争力之一。为了提高某工程机械驾驶室的舒适性,针对驾驶室内部噪声、外部近场噪声和噪声源近场噪声,运用数种方法对测试数据进行分析,包括传递路径法、频谱分析法和分别运转法;识别出驾驶室内部噪声的主要噪声源和传播途径。根据测量数据和分析结果针对性提出降噪措施,降低了此型机械驾驶室的内部噪声,提升了舒适性。

  12. 基于技术检测的装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力评估%Ability to Implement the Mandate Assessment of Armored Equipment Weapons System Based on Technical Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辽宁; 屈洋; 张政; 邢旺

    2016-01-01

    Technology state affects the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment weapons system greatly, yet there are few studies on its evaluation. Aimed at the problem, the paper put forward a method of evaluating the ability to implement the mandate of armored equipment based on the technical detection of equipment, and a case evaluation and analysis of a certain armored equipment weapon system is carried out. The method is operable and can provide data reference for the development of technical detection equipment and technology of armored equipment weapons system.%技术状态对装甲装备武器系统的执行任务能力有着重要影响,目前对其评估的研究还很少。针对这一问题,提出一种利用技术检测对装甲装备武器系统执行任务能力进行评估的方法,并结合某装甲装备武器系统进行了实例分析。分析结果表明:该方法具有可操作性,能够为装甲装备武器系统检测设备和技术的发展提供数据参考。

  13. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  14. Discovery of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae, Pterygoplichthys spp.) in the Santa Fe River drainage, Suwannee River basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Butt, Peter L.; Johnston, Gerald R.; Jelks, Howard L.; Kail, Matthew; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the occurrence of South American suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) in the Suwannee River basin, southeastern USA. Over the past few years (2009-2012), loricariid catfishes have been observed at various sites in the Santa Fe River drainage, a major tributary of the Suwannee in the state of Florida. Similar to other introduced populations of Pterygoplichthys, there is high likelihood of hybridization. To date, we have captured nine specimens (270-585 mm, standard length) in the Santa Fe River drainage. One specimen taken from Poe Spring best agrees with Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner, 1854) or may be a hybrid with either P. pardalis or P. disjunctivus. The other specimens were taken from several sites in the drainage and include seven that best agree with Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991); and one a possible P. disjunctivus x P. pardalis hybrid. We observed additional individuals, either these or similar appearing loricariids, in Hornsby and Poe springs and at various sites upstream and downstream of the long (> 4 km) subterranean portion of the Santa Fe River. These specimens represent the first confirmed records of Pterygoplichthys in the Suwannee River basin. The P. gibbiceps specimen represents the first documented record of an adult or near adult of this species in open waters of North America. Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus or its hybrids (perhaps hybrid swarms) are already abundant and widespread in other parts of peninsular Florida, but the Santa Fe River represents a northern extension of the catfish in the state. Pterygoplichthys are still relatively uncommon in the Santa Fe drainage and successful reproduction not yet documented. However, in May 2012 we captured five adult catfish (two mature or maturing males and three gravid females) from a single riverine swallet pool. One male was stationed at a nest burrow (no eggs present). To survive the occasional harsh Florida winters, these South American catfish apparently use

  15. Study on the Probability of Perforation for Soft Body Armor%软体防弹衣穿透概率的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李常胜; 黄献聪; 李焱; 王雷; 李茂辉; 周宏

    2013-01-01

    穿透概率曲线(POP曲线)的建立为防护材料的评估提供更合理的方法,它能评估低速度的穿透概率,具有非常重要的实际意义.文中以超高分子量聚乙烯防弹衣(PE防弹衣)为研究对象,采用51式7.62 mm手枪弹进行弹击测试,通过逻辑回归和线性回归两种方法建立了POP曲线,获得了PE防弹衣的v50(穿透概率为50%的速度)和v05(穿透概率为5%的速度).两种方法得到的v50均为592 m/s,非常接近;逻辑回归法得到v05为538 m/s,而线性回归法则为514 m/s.结果表明逻辑回归法更适合推算低穿透概率的速度.%Probability of perforation ( POP) curve is a constructive method to estimate the ballistic performance. It can be used to estimate the low velocity at smaller penetration probability. POP curves have potential and promising application in body armor design. For this purpose, the performance of UH-MWPE unidirectional layers (PE armor) against 7.62 mm type 51 pistol bullet was investigated. POP curves was established by logistic function and binary logistic regression. v50 (velocity with 50% penetration probability) and v05 ( velocity with 5% penetration probability) of PE armor were derived from POP curves. v50 was 592 m/s determined by both methods, while v05 was 538 m/s and 514 m/s,respectively. The results indicate that the regression method is more suitable for the estimation of velocity at low penetration probability. The difference between the two POP curves was discussed.

  16. De la motte au château d’artillerie, la fouille du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beuchet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’opération d’archéologie préventive du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor a été réalisée dans le cadre d'un projet de création d'une salle culturelle sur le site du château. La fouille a été menée sur une superficie de 2000 m², sur une durée effective de cinq mois entre octobre 2004 et mars 2005, avec un effectif moyen de sept personnes.À l’issue de la fouille, trois phases principales d’occupation peuvent être identifiées :la motte des Comtes de Guingamp (XIe-XIIe s. ;une enceinte polygon...

  17. Transparent Polyolefin Film Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Routing is then accomplished with an 18,000 RPM hand held router using a 0.500 inch diameter, two flute carbide inlaid router bit. As long as the... router bit was kept sharp, there was no delarnination. 1" " I ROUTER COLLAR M" ,OLDED POLYOLEFIN _ 0,25 ACRYLIC 0,500 DIAM ETERROUTER BIT PRESSURE AREA...F-) LL- 0) 00 0-(N ) C0 co C cnc ) *(NJ 0) Cl C) 00. m) m -c 0) CC r~ )- 0~0 4-- C:. :3 (v 40 U) a) CL Lu CL E t,4- ’.) -x E E a) N~E -C0 0) 4- 0 C

  18. 装甲车辆动力性能联合仿真技术研究%Dynamical Performance Co-Simulation Technology of the Armored Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆清国; 王旭东; 张更云; 龚正波; 司东亚

    2013-01-01

    The Armored vehicle is taken as the subject,based on the working process simulation theory of turbo-charged diesel,multibody system dynamic theory and co-simulation technology,the power performance simulation model was built including the power unit,driven unit,running unit and random road model.Interact with the storage of the data between different software is implemented based on Simulink platform, and dynamic performance co-simulation of the armored vehicle is realized.The model simulated the influence of the operation of the drive and the transient operation condition of the engine, and the model is validated by the experiment.%以某型装甲车辆为研究对象,基于涡轮增压柴油机工作过程数值模拟理论、多体动力学理论和联合仿真技术,建立了包括动力装置、传动装置、行动装置以及随机路面模型的整车动力性能仿真模型.采用Simulink平台实现了不同软件之间的数据交互与存储,实现了装甲车辆整车动力性能联合仿真.该模型模拟了车辆在实际行驶过程中驾驶员操作和发动机动态工况对整车动力性能的影响,并通过实车实验进行了验证,为装甲车辆动力性能研究提供了一种新方法.

  19. Research on Usability Evaluation Index of Armored Vehicle Computer System%车载计算机系统可用性评价指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 王洪艳; 金传洋

    2013-01-01

    针对目前车载计算机系统可用性研究中缺少可用性评估指标体系的问题,进行了深入地分析与研究,首先研究了构建车载计算机系统可用性评估体系的基本原则,分析了可用性评估的主要内容,最后提出了可用性评估的指标体系。研究结果表明:可用性评价一方面能从用户角度反映车载计算机系统存在的问题,为设计者决策提供依据,另一方面也能为供应商改进系统性能提供参考。%This paper conducted in-depth analysis and research of the problem of the lack of armored vehicle computer system usability evaluation index system.This paper firstly studied the basic principles of building the usability evaluation index system of armored vehicle computer system, then analyzed the main contents of usability evaluation, finally it brought forwards the usability evaluation index system of armored vehicle computer system from the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction aspects. The research shows that usability evaluation can not only find usability problems of armored vehicle computer system to provide basis for designer, but also improve system to give reference for the seller..

  20. 能量平衡法在防弹性能估算中的应用研究%Application of energy balance in estimating armor's ballistic resistance performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱锡; 梅志远; 王晓强

    2009-01-01

    In order to set rationalized armor-plates and effectively estimate armor's ballistic performance, the principle of energy balance was studied diagrammatically, and used in estimating armor-plates' ballistic performance. The results were validated by ballistic experiments of steel and basalt fiber composites reinforced by unsaturated polyester. Studies show that: in the method, it is not necessary to account for the armor's damage mechanism, and the influencial parameters are simplified, however, high precision of estimation is achieved. The V_(50) or V_t which is estimated by energy balance method has a deviation of lower than 50m/s, and a relative deviation of lower than 10%. These can meet engineering demands.%为了合理设置装甲板,并进行有效的性能评估,使用图解方法研究了能量平衡原理在装甲板弹道性能估算中的应用,并以不饱和聚酯树脂基玄武岩纤维增强复合材料和钢为例进行了实验验证,研究表明:估算过程中虽然没有从装甲板的毁伤机理方面研究,并简化了抗弹性能的影响参数,但保证了较高的估算精度,预测速度偏差在50m/s以下,预测相对偏差在10%以下,能够满足工程需要.

  1. Research on Armored Target Radiation Characteristics with Passive Millimeter Wave Detection Based on Multiple Reflection%基于多次反射的毫米波被动探测装甲目标辐射特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建利; 张效民

    2015-01-01

    In the past, the multiple reflection between armored target panels was ignored in the research of armored target radiation characteristics detection with passive millimeter wave.Therefore, we established the armored target radiation characteristics model with multiple reflection.Using ray tracing method, we deduced the calculation meth-od of multiple reflection and gave its calculation steps.The simulation results and their analysis verified preliminarily the correctness of multiple reflection and the necessity of its analysis.The results, we believe, provide a new analytical idea and theoretical basis for the study of millimeter wave radiation characteristics of armored tar-get.%针对以往毫米波被动探测装甲目标辐射特性研究中忽略了装甲目标面元之间辐射能量的多次反射问题,建立了装甲目标能量多次反射的辐射特性模型。采用射线跟踪方法从理论上推导了多次反射的计算方法并给出了计算步骤,仿真验证了多次反射的正确性及分析多次反射的必要性。为装甲目标的毫米波辐射特性研究提供了新的分析思路及理论依据。

  2. Simulating thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor for the LIFE reactor design using the BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heltemes, T A; Prochaska, A E; Moses, G A, E-mail: taheltemes@wisc.ed [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The BUCKY 1-D radiation hydrodynamics code has been used to simulate the dynamic thermo-mechanical interaction between a xenon gas-filled chamber and tungsten first-wall armor with an indirect-drive laser fusion target for the LIFE reactor design. Two classes of simulations were performed: (1) short-time (0-2 ms) simulations to fully capture the hydrodynamic effects of the introduction of the LIFE indirect-drive target x-ray and ion threat spectra and (2) long-time (2-70 ms) simulations starting with quiescent chamber conditions characteristic of those at 2 ms to estimate xenon plasma cooling between target implosions at 13 Hz. The short-time simulation results reported are: (1) the plasma hydrodynamics of the xenon in the chamber, (2) dynamic overpressure on the tungsten armor, and (3) time-dependent temperatures in the tungsten armor. The ramifications of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) vs. non-LTE opacity models are also addressed.

  3. Review of Anti-Ballistic Confinement Effects of Ceramic-Metal Composite Armor%陶瓷/金属复合装甲抗弹约束效应述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂武; 倪长也; 金峰; 乔冠军; 卢天健

    2011-01-01

    The ceramic-metal composite armor and its confinement of ceramic are introduced. The characterization of ballistic performance and the effects of three confinements (axial, lateral and three-dimensional) on ballistic performance and anti-ballistic mechanisms are reviewed. The metal-encased ceramic composite armors fabricated by metal casting are proposed owing to their potential applications. It is pointed out that the studies on characterization of overall ballistic performances, dynamic characteristics and structural design optimization of new ceramic composite armors should be enhanced.%通过对陶瓷/金属复合装甲及其陶瓷约束的介绍,综述了陶瓷复合装甲的抗弹性能表征和3种陶瓷约束(轴向、侧向和三维约束)对抗弹性能及机理的影响.作者认为,采用金属铸造工艺制备金属封装陶瓷复合装甲具有潜在的应用前景,同时应加强对新型陶瓷复合装甲的综合抗弹性能表征、动力学特性、结构优化设计等方面的研究.

  4. 间隙对穿孔装甲抗弹性能影响的数值分析%Numerical Analysis about the Influence of Intervals on the Ballistic Performance of Perforated Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王郑

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of high-speed projectile vertically penetrating the hole edge of perforated armor plate is carried out by the method of ANSYS/LS-DYNA simulation in order to research the influence of intervals on the ballistic per-formance of perforated armor. The study of vertical penetration depth, residual velocity of projectile shows that the increase of space value can improve the ballistic performance of perforated target within a certain range, which provides significant basis for the design of armor protection.%为研究间隙对穿孔装甲抗弹性能的影响,应用ANSYS/LS-DYNA仿真计算方法对高速弹丸垂直侵彻穿孔装甲钢板孔边缘进行数值模拟,从弹丸对不同间隙后效靶垂直深度、弹体剩余速度等方面进行分析研究,结果表明在一定范围内,间隙的增大可提高多孔钢板的抗弹性能,为装甲防护设计提供重要依据。

  5. Simulation of Armor-piercing Explosive Projectile on Penetration Target Plate with Different Material%穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖振东

    2016-01-01

    In order to research the simulation of armor-piercing explosive projectile on penetration target plate with different material,based on ANSYS/ls-dyna finite element analysis software,to the thickness of the target board variable parameters for simulation,armor blasting and target plate model, numerical simulation, the penetration process. The target state stress nephogram, explosive projectile wearing by stress conditions and residual velocity of projectile wearing a target such as conclusion, provide the basis for armor-piercing explosive projectile design of the penetration.%为获得穿甲爆破弹对不同材料靶板的侵彻情况,基于ANSYS/LS-DYNA有限元分析软件,以靶板的厚度参数为仿真变量,建立穿甲爆破弹及靶板模型,进行数值模拟,再现了侵彻过程。得到了弹丸穿靶状态受力云图、炸药所受应力情况和弹丸穿靶的剩余速度等结论,为半穿甲弹结构的设计提供了依据。

  6. The Application in Body Armor Based on Shear Thickening Fluid%基于剪切增稠液体防护装甲的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇; 陈宏书; 王结良; 张五龙

    2012-01-01

    This paper has introduced the composition, basic properties and rheological mechanism of the shear thickening fluid (STF), factors affecting STF's theological mechanism and research methods studying STF's theological mechanism are discussed too. Besides, it has explained the preparation of silica and the polyethylene glycol (PEG) / nano-silica particles system in STF, PEG/SiO2 system's thickening mechanism has also been commented. Based on the research on STF, this paper has studied the liquid body armor composed of STF-fabric, excellent protective properties, mechanism of bulletproof and stab-resistant (anti-spike, anti-knife) of STF-fabric have been described, besides, the mechanism of stab-resistant of STF-Kevlar has also been introduced. Next, the paper has introduced drop tower testing and quasi-static testing. And the last part of the paper presents a vision on the future research on the liquid body armor.%综述了剪切增稠液体(ShearThickeningFluid,即STF)的基本性质、组成成分、流变机理,影响STF流变性能的诸多因素以及对STF流变性能的研究方法,介绍了STF中聚乙二醇(PEG)/纳米SiO:颗粒体系和Si02的制备方法,对PEG/SiO。的增稠机理进行了讲解。在对STF研究的基础上,阐述了STF-织物组成的液体防护装甲的优异防护性能、防弹和防刺(防锥、防刀)机理,讲述了STF—Kevlar构成的液体防护装甲及防刺机理,介绍了动态防刺测试和准静态防刺测试,最后对液体防护装甲未来研究方面进行了展望。

  7. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA.

  8. Evaluation of an in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) to reduce risky driving behaviors in commercial drivers: Comparison of in-cab warning lights and supervisory coaching with videos of driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Taylor, Matthew A; Chen, Guang-Xiang; Kirk, Rachel D; Leatherman, Erin R

    2017-02-01

    Roadway incidents are the leading cause of work-related death in the United States. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether two types of feedback from a commercially available in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) would reduce the incidence of risky driving behaviors in drivers from two companies. IVMS were installed in 315 vehicles representing the industries of local truck transportation and oil and gas support operations, and data were collected over an approximate two-year period in intervention and control groups. In one period, intervention group drivers were given feedback from in-cab warning lights from an IVMS that indicated occurrence of harsh vehicle maneuvers. In another period, intervention group drivers viewed video recordings of their risky driving behaviors with supervisors, and were coached by supervisors on safe driving practices. Risky driving behaviors declined significantly more during the period with coaching plus instant feedback with lights in comparison to the period with lights-only feedback (ORadj=0.61 95% CI 0.43-0.86; Holm-adjusted p=0.035) and the control group (ORadj=0.52 95% CI 0.33-0.82; Holm-adjusted p=0.032). Lights-only feedback was not found to be significantly different than the control group's decline from baseline (ORadj=0.86 95% CI 0.51-1.43; Holm-adjusted p>0.05). The largest decline in the rate of risky driving behaviors occurred when feedback included both supervisory coaching and lights. Supervisory coaching is an effective form of feedback to improve driving habits in the workplace. The potential advantages and limitations of this IVMS-based intervention program are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A Kind of Hybrid Scheduling Algorithm for Armored Vehicles’CAN Bus%一种装甲车辆CAN总线混合调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小庆; 陈永星; 赵梓旭; 张健; 朱昀癤

    2014-01-01

    For the shortage of information transmission for integrated electronic system of current armored vehicles,such as a node message transmission is not fair and an urgent message transmission is not time-ly,a kind of hybrid scheduling algorithm of“hierarchical decision and dynamic equilibrium”is proposed in accordance with message emergency degree and deadline of a certain type of vehicle,and the bus proto-col is improved based on the principle of hierarchical processing.The algorithm is verified by experiments to be practicable and effective.%针对当前装甲车辆综合电子系统节点消息传输不公平、紧急消息传输不及时等缺点,结合某型车辆消息紧急度和截止期,按照分层处理原则对总线协议进行了改进,提出了“分级决策动态均衡”的混合调度算法,并通过试验验证了算法的可行性和有效性。

  10. 装甲车辆乘员心理健康状况调查%A survey of mental health status in armored vehicle crew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨巧丽; 考希宾; 兀光波; 郭书文; 柴渭莉; 陈亚妮; 姬丽静; 王延琦

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查装甲车辆乘员(车长、炮长、驾驶员)心理健康状况,掌握其心理健康水平并进行教育干预.方法 于2009年4月,选取120名车龄大于2年的男性装甲车辆乘员作为作战组,70名相同年龄段的男性非装甲车辆操作人员作为对照组.采用症状自评(SCL-90)量表对190名测试对象进行心理测评.结果 作战组装甲士兵强迫症状(t=2.323)、人际关系敏感(t=3.250)、忧郁(t=3.158)、焦虑(t=2.712)、恐怖(t=2.391)、偏执(t=2.137)5个因子以及总分(t=4.128)、阳性项目数(t=4.357)、阳性症状均分(t=4.632)得分均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).作战组装甲士兵各因子得分均低于军人参考值,差异均有统计学意义(躯体化:t=4.364;强迫症状:t=5.127;人际关系敏感:t=5.280;忧郁:t=3.783;焦虑:t=7.127;敌对:t=5.361;恐怖:t=4.369;偏执:t=6.167;精神病性:t=6.476;其他:t=3.558;总分:t=6.357;阳性项目数:t=4.379;阳性症状均分:t=6.763;均P<0.05).结论 应开展装甲车辆乘员强迫症状、人际关系敏感、忧郁和焦虑等心理健康状况调查,加强乘员心理卫生服务工作,提高乘员的心理素质.%Objective To investigate the mental health status in armored vehicle crew (commanders,gunners,and drivers),to know the level of mental health in them,and to provide educational intervention.Methods In April 2009,120 male armored vehicle crew with >2 driving years were enrolled as battle group,and 70 male persons within the same age group who were not engaged in armored vehicle operation were enrolled as control group.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to evaluate the mental status of the 180 subjects.Results Compared with the control group,the battle group showed significantly higher scores on the subscales of obsessive-compulsive symptom,interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,phobic anxiety,and paranoid ideation (t=2.323,3.250,3.158,2.712,2.391,and 2.137,all P<0.05),as well as

  11. 装甲车辆热管理试验台的建模与试验%Modeling and Test of Thermal Management Test Bench of Armored Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为研究装甲车辆的热管理系统,搭建了具有高、低温双循环的装甲车辆热管理试验台,在 Matlab 中建立了热管理试验台各部件的流动和传热模型,并针对模型的稳态特性和动态特性分别进行了仿真计算和试验验证。结果表明:所建立的流动和传热模型能够准确反映试验台特性,为进一步利用热管理试验台进行热管理技术研究奠定了基础。%To study the thermal management system of armored vehicles,a thermal management test bench with high and low dual cycle is fabricated.The models of flow and heat transfer are built in Mat-lab.A series of laboratory tests and simulation are conducted aiming at the steady state characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the thermal test bench.The results show that the mathematical models are ac-curate and reliable,and could reflect real features of the test bench which provide a basis for further re-search.

  12. Analysis on Oil Seal Leakage for Sprocket Assembly of Armored Face Conveyors%刮板输送机链轮轴组油封漏油分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀梅

    2014-01-01

    Armored face conveyor works in bad environment.Its floating oil seal installed in sprocket assembly is always failed and causes oil leakage,which may cause the lubricating oil waste and pollute the work environment,and even cause the damage of the bearing inside sprocket assembly.Various factors caused seal failure were analyzed from the quality of sprocket assembly floating oil seal,component installation,the habits of users and other aspects.It has a certain reference role to improve the seal reliability in sprocket assembly.%刮板输送机工作环境恶劣,其链轮轴组的浮动油封经常失效导致漏油,轻则造成润滑油浪费、工作环境被污染,重则导致链轮轴组内轴承损坏。从链轮轴组浮动油封自身质量、组件安装、用户使用等各环节对造成密封失效的各种因素进行分析,对提高链轮轴组密封可靠性有一定参考作用。

  13. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy friction stir weld nugget zone – Effect of post weld heat treatment and addition of boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW of high strength aluminum alloys has been emerged as an alternative joining technique to avoid the problems during fusion welding. In recent times FSW is being used for armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy in defense, aerospace and marine applications where it has to serve in non uniform loading and corrosive environments. Even though friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy possess better mechanical properties but suffer from poor corrosion resistance. The present work involves use of retrogression and reaging (RRA post weld heat treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of welded joints of aluminum alloys. An attempt also has been made to change the chemical composition of the weld nugget by adding B4C nano particles with the aid of the FSW on a specially prepared base metal plate in butt position. The effects of peak aged condition (T6, RRA and addition of B4C nano particles on microstructure, hardness and pitting corrosion of nugget zone of the friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy have been studied. Even though RRA improved the pitting corrosion resistance, its hardness was slightly lost. Significant improvement in pitting corrosion resistance was achieved with addition of boron carbide powder and post weld heat treatment of RRA.

  14. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot. Ammunition Logistics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dubey, R.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  15. Development of the Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory modeling package for the kinematic design and optimization of the Future Armor Rearm System robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, S.; Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dubey, R.V. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    A new program package, Symbolic Manipulator Laboratory (SML), for the automatic generation of both kinematic and static manipulator models in symbolic form is presented. Critical design parameters may be identified and optimized using symbolic models as shown in the sample application presented for the Future Armor Rearm System (FARS) arm. The computer-aided development of the symbolic models yields equations with reduced numerical complexity. Important considerations have been placed on the closed form solutions simplification and on the user friendly operation. The main emphasis of this research is the development of a methodology which is implemented in a computer program capable of generating symbolic kinematic and static forces models of manipulators. The fact that the models are obtained trigonometrically reduced is among the most significant results of this work and the most difficult to implement. Mathematica, a commercial program that allows symbolic manipulation, is used to implement the program package. SML is written such that the user can change any of the subroutines or create new ones easily. To assist the user, an on-line help has been written to make of SML a user friendly package. Some sample applications are presented. The design and optimization of the 5-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) FARS manipulator using SML is discussed. Finally, the kinematic and static models of two different 7-DOF manipulators are calculated symbolically.

  16. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM, at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP/COBAS TaqMan (CTM assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection.

  17. Análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica de México en ciencias agricolas a través de las bases de datos internacionales, "Agricola", "Agris", "Cab Abstracts", "Science Citation Index", "Social Science Citation Index" y "Tropag & Rural", en el periodo 1983-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo de investigación se caracteriza la producción científica mexicana en el área de las Ciencias Agrícolas, utilizando para ello indicadores bibliométricos unidimensionales y multidimensionales de actividad científica, mediante los cuales se analiza por un lado la producción obtenida en las bases de datos: Agricola, Agris, Cab Abstracts, Tropag & Rural, Science Citation Index (SCI) y Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), y por el otro, la producción indexada solamente en las bases...

  18. Análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica de México en ciencias agricolas a través de las bases de datos internacionales, "Agricola", "Agris", "Cab Abstracts", "Science Citation Index", "Social Science Citation Index" y "Tropag & Rural", en el periodo 1983-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel BRAVO VINAJA

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo de investigación se caracteriza la producción científica mexicana en el área de las Ciencias Agrícolas, utilizando para ello indicadores bibliométricos unidimensionales y multidimensionales de actividad científica, mediante los cuales se analiza por un lado la producción obtenida en las bases de datos: Agricola, Agris, Cab Abstracts, Tropag & Rural, Science Citation Index (SCI) y Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), y por el otro, la producción indexada solamente en las bases...

  19. Three-dimensional SPH analysis of impact responses of ceramic/metal composite armors%陶瓷/金属复合装甲冲击响应的三维SPH法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 胡德安; 韩旭; 谭柱华

    2011-01-01

    采用自编三维SPH程序对弹体侵彻陶瓷/金属复合装甲问题进行了数值模拟.为了描述金属和陶瓷材料非线性变形及损伤特性,在程序中嵌入Johnson-Cook和Johnson-Holmquist Ⅱ本构模型及Mie-Gruneisen状态方程.SPH计算得到的典型位移随时间变化曲线与实验结果吻合较好.通过数值模拟合理再现了弹体侵蚀、陶瓷锥形成、飞溅和背板隆起撕裂等物理过程.研究了倾角对复合装甲抗侵彻性能的影响,结果表明,存在一个最优的靶板倾角,使得陶瓷/金属复合装甲的抗侵彻性能最佳.%A three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code was developed to simulate the penetration of ceramic/metal composite armors by projectiles. The Johnson-Cook and John-son-Holmquist Ⅱ constitutive models and the Mie-Griineisen equation of state were incorporated into the developed code to describe the nonlinear deformation and damage features of metal and ceramic materials. The typical displacement-time curves computed by the developed SPH code are in good a-greement with the experimental results. The numerical simulations can represent the major features of the composite armor system such as, projectile erosion, ceramic conoid formation and splash, backing plate failure and so on. And the obliquity effects on the penetration-resistance ability of the composite armor were investigated. The results indicate that there exists an optimal obliquity for the penetration-resistance ability.

  20. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  1. 基于“蝇眼”网络模糊控制的装甲车避障系统研究%Armored Vehicle Obstacle Avoidance System Research Based on“Fly's Sye”Network Fuzzy Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 张科

    2014-01-01

    Armored car body weight,body length there such as congenital disadvantage,in the process of vehicle walking vision less than 180degrees,the body and the distance between the obstacles only by the human eye estimating,appear visual blind area,in turn and reverse often appear collision.This paper puts forward a based on the“fly's eye”network fuzzy control technology of armored vehicle obstacle avoid-ance system research,the armored car around the obstacles 360degree detection,real-time display bearing and distance,vehicle body of da-ta transmission using high stability of CAN bus technology,to realize the sensor information fusion based on neural network with fuzzy con-trol obstacle avoidance technology on armored vehicles to walk for intelligent obstacle avoidance control.In different environment of system test the obstacle avoidance method can make the obstacles bearing and distance measurement accuracy assurance in 95% and 98% above, have very strong practicability.%装甲车车身重,存在车体长宽等先天劣势,在车辆行走的过程中视野不到180度,车身与障碍物之间的距离只能通过人眼进行估测,驾驶员出现视觉盲区,在转弯与倒车时经常出现碰撞;提出一种基于“蝇眼”网络模糊控制技术的装甲车避障系统研究,对装甲车周围的障碍物进行360°的探测,实时显示方位与距离,车辆本体中的数据传输使用稳定性较高的 CAN 总线技术实现,对传感器的信息融合后使用基于神经网络模糊控制的避障技术对装甲车行走进行智能避障控制;在不同环境下的系统测试中本文的避障方法能够将障碍物的方位与距离测量准确率保证在95%与98%以上,具有很强的实用性。

  2. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process for Maximum Ballistic Limit in MIL A46100 Steel Welded All-Metal Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Ramaswami, S.; Snipes, J. S.; Yavari, R.; Yen, C.-F.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Our recently developed multi-physics computational model for the conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW) joining process has been upgraded with respect to its predictive capabilities regarding the process optimization for the attainment of maximum ballistic limit within the weld. The original model consists of six modules, each dedicated to handling a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) electro-dynamics of the welding gun; (b) radiation-/convection-controlled heat transfer from the electric arc to the workpiece and mass transfer from the filler metal consumable electrode to the weld; (c) prediction of the temporal evolution and the spatial distribution of thermal and mechanical fields within the weld region during the GMAW joining process; (d) the resulting temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the material microstructure throughout the weld region; (e) spatial distribution of the as-welded material mechanical properties; and (f) spatial distribution of the material ballistic limit. In the present work, the model is upgraded through the introduction of the seventh module in recognition of the fact that identification of the optimum GMAW process parameters relative to the attainment of the maximum ballistic limit within the weld region entails the use of advanced optimization and statistical sensitivity analysis methods and tools. The upgraded GMAW process model is next applied to the case of butt welding of MIL A46100 (a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel) workpieces using filler metal electrodes made of the same material. The predictions of the upgraded GMAW process model pertaining to the spatial distribution of the material microstructure and ballistic limit-controlling mechanical properties within the MIL A46100 butt weld are found to be consistent with general expectations and prior observations.

  3. Research on Armored Vehicle Fire Control System Performance Test Method%装甲车辆火控系统性能测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 魏洁英

    2016-01-01

    为了解决装甲车辆火控系统性能测试精度低、测试方法复杂、耗时长的问题,本文提出了一种装甲火控系统性能测试的自动化测试系统。该测试系统是一种针对新型总线化火控系统定量性能指标的测试系统,实现了从激励信号的注入、信号的采集到信号处理整个过程的自动化。通过使用该系统可以提高火控系统性能测试的精度,同时缩短测试时间,节约人力和物力资源,给系统测试提供了很大的方便,具有一定的实用性价值。%In order to make up the disadvantage of armored vehicle fire control system performance test as being of low precision, being complicate test system focuses on new bus fire control system quantitative performance index, and realizes the automation covering from excitation signal input, signal collection to signal processing. It promotes the precision of fire control system performance test, saves the testing time, and also saves both human and material resources, bringing huge convenience to the system performance test.

  4. 股骨髁上骨折应用L形加压钢板内固定后的早期康复治疗%The early rehabilitation intervention after internal fixation English Column with L-shaped compression armor plate for supracondylar fracture of femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳红卫; 李国顺

    2002-01-01

    Background: The thickness and width of L shaped armor plate can antagonize muscle traction with the ability of anti inflecting, anti torsion and anti shearing force, which overcomes the weakness of common armor plate and osseous pin that have weaker fixation force and need external fixation. The fixation can satisfy the request of early functional training. And the functional training can be performed on the continuous passive movement (CPM) instrument 1 week after operation to prevent adhesion of knee joint, elasticity losing in soft tissue around joint, ankylosis, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

  5. 装甲装备高新技术系统维修方案决策经济性分析%Economic Analysis of Maintenance Plan Decision Making for High Tech System of Armored Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰

    2015-01-01

    针对装甲装备高新技术系统维修过程中维修方案决策的经济性分析仍缺乏有效方法的现状,本文以实际维修的三级结构出发进行了经济性分析。首先分析了可行决策的描述方式和决策事件,然后建立了费用估算模型,并结合装甲装备火控系统的维修进行了实例分析,结果表明,本文提出的维修方案决策的经济性分析方法合理有效。%In view of the economic analysis of maintenance plan decision making in the maintenance process of the high tech system of armored equipment, this paper carries out the economic analysis on the three level structure of the actual maintenance. Firstly, the description method and decision event of feasible decision are analyzed, then the cost estimation model is established. An example analysis of the maintenance of the fire control system of armored equipment is carried out, and the results show that the method of economic analysis of maintenance plan decision is reasonable and effective.

  6. Standard NIJ 0115.00 za testiranje otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka na ubode nožem i predmetima sa oštrim vrhom / NIJ 0115.00 standard for testing stab resistance of body armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Jovanić

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard NIJ 0115.00 (prema Nacionalnom institutu pravde SAD, namenjen je za utvrđivanje minimuma tehničkih zahteva i metoda ispitivanja otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka, koji treba da zaštite gornji deo tela od uboda nožem i predmetima sa oštrim vrhom. Područje primene ovog standarda ograničeno je samo na pretnje ubodima, a ne na balističke pretnje, poput onih koje su obuhvaćene standardom NIJ 0101.04 za testiranje balističke otpornosti zaštitnih prsluka. / In this work made presentation of NIJ 0115.04. (National Institute of Justice standard, witch purpose is to establish minimum performance requirements and methods of testing for the stab resistance of body armor intended to protect the torso against slash and stab threats. The scope of the standard is limited to stab resistance only; the standard does not address ballistic threats, as those are covered by NIJ Standard 0101.04. Ballistic Resistance of Personal Body Armor.

  7. The armored vehicles optoelectronic devices battlefield laser threat and protection%装甲车辆光电设备的战场激光威胁与防护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彪; 胡明侠; 张辽宁

    2013-01-01

    随着激光在战场上的使用,就出现了战场激光威胁与战场激光防护的问题;本文分析了战场激光对装甲车辆光电设备存在的威胁;利用激光与材料相互作用物理学,分析了激光对装甲车辆光电设备的损伤机理,在此基础上给出了激光对光电设备损伤程度的估算公式,说明了装甲车辆光电设备的战场激光防护方法。%Appeared with the use of laser battlefield a battlefield laser threat and battlefield laser protection problems ;This paper analyzes the existence of the threat of the battlefield laser of armored vehicles photoelectric devices ;using laser material interaction physics ,laser armoredthe vehicle damage mechanism of optoelectronic devices , the laser photoelectric equipment damage extent estimation formula given on this basis , battlefield laser protection armored vehicles optoelectronic devices .

  8. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2011. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. This report is a revision of "Assessment of soil-gas, surface-water, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010," Open-File Report 2011-1200, and supersedes that report to include results of additional samples collected in July 2011. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene and octane were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF on June 3, 2010, and then later retrieved on June 9, 2010. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene (BTEX) was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds

  9. Study on Armor-piercing Power of Steel Target under the Impact of Cube-shaped Fragment%立方形破片对钢靶的穿甲威力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 袁宝慧; 程淑杰; 陈皓

    2011-01-01

    Through six shot ballistics limit law with 14. S mm ballistic gun and LS-DYNA, the ballistic limit speed of 8 g cube-shaped steel fragments and 3 g, 8 g cube-shaped tungsten-alloy fragments, vertically penetrating the Q235 steel target, is studied, and the piercing mechanism and armor-piercing power of three the types of fragmentation near the ballistic limit speed are also analyzed. The results show that the mechanism of three types of fragments is same. In the case of similar impact specific kinetic energy, the fragment density is the main factor affecting armor-piercing power, when the fragment penetrates 5 mm steel target; but the density and quality of fragments decide the fragment armor-piercing power together when penetrating 10 mm steel target.%利用14.5 mm弹道枪通过六射弹弹道极限法,结合LS-DYNA数值计算法研究了8 g立方形钢破片和3 g、8 g立方形钨合金破片垂直侵彻Q235钢靶板的v50弹道极限速度,并分析了三种类型破片在v50弹道极限速度附近的穿甲机理、穿甲威力等.结果表明,三种破片在侵彻靶板时具有相同的穿甲机理,两种类型的钨合金破片具有良好的穿甲效果.在冲击比动能相差不大的情况下,贯穿5mm靶时,破片材料的密度是影响穿甲威力的主要因素;而贯穿10 mm靶时,破片的密度和质量共同决定着破片的穿甲威力.

  10. Evaluación de la calidad del recurso hídrico del río Cabí a través de la formulación de un índice de contaminación asociado a la actividad minera aurífera

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Valencia, Iván Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Tesis de grado (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 El presente trabajo guiará al lector en el análisis de la contaminación realizada por la actividad minera aluvial de oro y platino en el río Cabí, esto se realiza a través de la formulación de un índice de contaminación que permita evidenciar la afectación de esta actividad sobre la calidad del recurso hídrico; para la formulación...

  11. 装甲车辆与地面背景的热交互作用及红外仿真%Thermal interactions and infrared simulation of armored vehicles and ground background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉阁; 成志铎; 任登凤; 宣益民

    2013-01-01

    为了全面揭示装甲车辆与地面背景之间热交互作用对地面背景温度以及红外辐射特性的影响,建立了装甲车辆和地面背景的温度和红外辐射特性的模型,重点考虑了装甲车辆与地面之间的传热.通过对地面和履带相关力学关系的引入,建立运动车辆和地面之间热学以及力学的模型,采用了动网格方法对车辆目标在运动后对地面所产生的沉陷现象及在地面上留下的热痕迹进行模拟仿真.基于红外辐射理论,综合考虑自身辐射、反射辐射以及大气传输特性,计算了车辆在3种不同状态下与地面背景之间的热交互作用及红外辐射特征分布,并比较了模拟温度与实验测量温度的误差,验证了模型的精度.仿真结果表明:该方法对地面目标的隐身设计和隐身技术评估具有十分重要的意义.%In order to fully reveal the influence of thermal interactions between the armored vehicles and ground background on ground background temperature and infrared radiation characteristics, the temperature and infrared signature model of armored vehicles and ground background were established, with focus on heat transfer between armored vehicles and ground.By introducing mechanical relationship between the road and the track, thermal and mechanical models between the moving vehicle and the road were established.Using method of the moving mesh, the subsidence phenomenon and thermal trace on the road after target vehicle moving were simulated.Based on the infrared radiation theory, considering the radiation, reflective radiation and atmospheric transmission characteristic, the thermal interactions and infrared radiation characteristics distribution of armored vehicles and terrain background under three different conditions were calculated.The simulated temperature and measured temperature in the experiment were compared.The model's precision was validated.The simulation results show that this method is

  12. 基于贝叶斯网络的装甲目标战术企图推理模型构建%Construction of Models of Armored Targets Tactical Intention Reasoning Based on Bayesian Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹光辉; 朱英贵; 汪洋

    2015-01-01

    以贝叶斯网络理论为基础,分析基于贝叶斯网络的目标企图推理框架,从目标状态、目标性质、战场环境和战术特性4个方面提取节点,在分析这4个节点拓扑结构的基础上,构建了装甲目标战术企图推理的贝叶斯网络拓扑结构。%The intention of targets and reasoning frame are analyzed based on Bayesian network. Nodes are extracted from target state,target nature,battlefield environment and tactics features. Based on the analysis of the topological structure of the four nodes,the topological structure of Bayesian network of models of armored targets tactical intention reasoning is constructed.

  13. 防弹材料及装备V50测试方法研究%Review of VS0 ballistic test method for bullet resistant materials and armor component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂辉; 黄献聪; 王雷; 周宏

    2011-01-01

    The V50 ballistic test method is the common way for testing and evaluating the ballistic performance of bullet resistant materials and armor component. This paper reviews the basic concept, developing course, main characteristics and application status of V50 ballistic test method. The future research direction and development trends are prospected.%V50测试方法是各种防弹材料及装备防弹性能评价测试的常用方法.在国内外相关参考文献研究的基础上,对V50指标及其测试方法的基本概念、发展沿革、主要特点和应用现状4个方面进行综述,对今后研究发展进行展望.

  14. Apport de la géomorphologie à une problématique environnementale : comment faciliter le ramassage des algues vertes (Ulva armoricana) en baie de Saint-Michel-en-Grève (Côtes-d'Armor)

    OpenAIRE

    Gad, Laurent; Suanez, Serge; Hénaff, Alain; Lidou, Françoise; Morel, Valérie

    2003-01-01

    National audience; À partir des années 1980, une vaste zone déprimée appelée la poche du Yar se creuse en haut d'estran directement à l'arrière de la confluence entre le Yar et le Roscoat en baie de Saint-Michel-en-Grève. Sa présence engendrait deux problèmes que le Conseil général des Côtes-d'Armor avait à résoudre : d'une part, le piégeage d'algues vertes (Ulva armoricana) qui, après pourrissement, créaient des désagréments olfactif et paysager durant la période estivale ; d'autre part, la ...

  15. Assessment of groundwater, soil-gas, and soil contamination at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the groundwater, soil gas, and soil for contaminants at the Vietnam Armor Training Facility (VATF) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic compounds in the groundwater and soil gas, and inorganic compounds in the soil. In addition, organic contaminant assessment included organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Four passive samplers were deployed in groundwater wells at the VATF in Fort Gordon. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level at all four wells. The only other volatile organic compounds detected above their method detection level were undecane and pentadecane, which were detected in two of the four wells sampled. Soil-gas samplers were deployed at 72 locations in a grid pattern across the VATF. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected in 71 of the 72 samplers (one sampler was destroyed in the field and not analyzed) at levels above the method detection level, and the combined mass of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene was detected above the detection level in 31 of the 71 samplers that were analyzed. Other volatile organic compounds detected above their respective method detection levels were naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, tridecane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and perchloroethene. Subsequent to the soil-gas survey, four areas determined to have elevated contaminant mass were selected and sampled for explosives and chemical agents. No detections of explosives or chemical agents above their

  16. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    the courtesies extended to the staff. Questions should be directed to Ms. Deborah L. Carros at (703) 604-9217 (DSN 664-9217) or Ms. Beth K. Schaefer...Inspector General who contributed to the report are listed below. Richard B. Jolliffe Bruce A. Burton Deborah L. Carros Beth K. Schaefer Linh

  17. The Development of Laminated Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-09-27

    band saw, By using a piece of soft wood under the laminate while it was being cut, fraying of the edge was reduced to a minimum, especially in paneJs of...c. ’ LEGEND L LUMITE (SARAN) * ALL LAMINATE Rf RAYON (FQRTISAN) 20-30 OZ/FT 0-- Rc RAYON (CELANESE) ... 20-30...... X× GwLOss GLASS FLOSS Ir

  18. Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combat Team (ABCT). It will mitigate current and future capability gaps in force protection, mobility, reliability , and interoperability across the...stakeholders from OSD, Maneuver Center of Excellence, Armaments Research, Development and Engineering Center , and Army Test and Evaluation Command. The...all electronic equipment with a 50% spare electrical capacity for all variants. The AMPV will consume fuel at, or better than, the level

  19. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David

    2013-03-01

    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  20. Penetration Physics of Armor Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Penetration Response of Borosilicate Glass during Short Rod Impact”, Proc. 23rd Int. Symp. Ballistics, 2, 1251-1258, Graficas Couche, Madrid, Spain (2007...glass”, Proc. 23rd Int. Symp. Ballistics, 2, 1049-1056, Graficas Couche, Madrid, Spain (2007). 8D. R. Curran, “Comparison of Mesomechanical and

  1. Physical Training for Armor Crewmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    mitochondria and cytosol may impair muscle 21 performance (Baldwin et al. 2000, 817-818). Conversely, the depletion of metabolites such as creatine phosphate...endurance training session in a week (Foran 2001, 276). During the same period a 1,500-meter swimmer or distance runner may focus entirely on

  2. Analysis of factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the final result of the injury in tank crew of the armored forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-bin ZHOU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the result of the injury in the soldiers.Methods All data were statistically classified with cluster sampling according to the diagnosis standard of Chinese PLA for analysis.Investigation was conducted in 1028 soldiers of the armored forces with questionnaire,and non-condition logistic regression analysis was applied.Results The total incidence of military training injury was 40.2%.Of all the injured soldiers,36.80% of them served for one year only,and the incidence of injury was obviously higher than those who had served in armed forces for 2 or 3 years.Unconditioned regression analysis revealed that the main causes related to military training injury in the soldiers were as follows: the items of training,the terrain feature,motion sickness,self-rescue and buddy rescue training,and whether the action consistent with the standards.The rehabilitation rate within one month was significantly higher in those who underwent self-rescue or buddy rescue(93.8% and 94.2%,respectively than those who did not undergo self-rescue or buddy rescue(76.3%,76.7%,respectively,P < 0.001.Conclusions The incidence of military training injury in the armored forces is high.It should be emphysized that soldiers with one year of military service should be partioularly taken care to prevent from injuries.Many factors may influence the military training injury,and protective measures should be taken.Those who have the knowledge of self-rescue or undergo buddy rescue will have higher rehabilitation rate within one month.

  3. Research of Maintainability and Validation Methods in Armored Equipment Based on Virtual Maintenance%基于虚拟维修的装甲装备维修性分析与验证方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓风; 冯武斌; 项昌乐; 王战军; 郝会兵

    2009-01-01

    Based on the VR technology and maintenance engineering theory,the simulation platform of armored equipments'virtual maintenance was established in order to realize process simulation of nonimmerse virtual maintenance.Visual reachability of every maintenance unit during maintaining was evaluated quantitatively by constructing visual inner-cone of the virtual human model,and visual reachability of a certain maintenance was evaluated quantitatively by the fuzzy mathematical theory.The feasible method can be provided for analyzing and validating quantitatively qualitative index of visual reachability in the early period of scheme demonstration,research and development of new armored equipments.%基于虚拟现实技术和维修工程理论,搭建了装甲装备虚拟维修仿真平台,实现了非沉浸式虚拟维修过程仿真.通过给虚拟人模型构造视觉内切锥,对维修作业过程中每项维修作业单元的视觉可达性给出了定量评价,结合模糊数学理论,对某一维修作业的视觉可达性给出了定量评估方法.本文为军方在新型装甲装备的方案论证和研制初期提供了维修性中的可达性等定性指标的定量化分析和验证的可行方法.

  4. Design and Test of Pneumatic AMT Control Device for Tracked Armored Vehicle%履带式装甲车气动 AMT 机构设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 王兴野; 张进秋; 张磊

    2014-01-01

    针对某型履带式装甲车换挡操纵费力、驾驶员劳动强度大等问题,分析了该型装甲车变速操纵装置的结构和原理,根据该型车辆的结构特点和换挡过程中对换挡机构的要求,设计了气动 AMT 操纵机构,给出了关键元件的确定原则。对该型装甲车进行了实车改装与试验,试验结果表明:该气动 AMT 操纵机构工作稳定可靠,能够快速实现平稳、准确换挡,满足了车辆自动变速系统的要求。%In allusion to that it is strenuous to shift gears for a certain type of tracked armored vehicle, and the labor intensity is high for the drivers,the structure and work principle of the vehicle’s gearshift control device is analyzed.According to its structure characteristics and the request in the process of gearshift,a pneumatic AMT control device is designed and the designating principle of the key component is presented.After having a modification on the tracked armored vehicle and conducting a test,it is veri-fied that the new designed device works stably and reliably,achieves the target to shift gears stably and precisely,satisfies the request of the vehicle’s automatic transmission system.

  5. Warfighter Information Network-Tactical Increment 2 (WIN-T Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    seconds (92% of completed messages). Force Protection Armor required for protection of passengers inside the vehicle cab from small arms fire, mines ...small arms fire, mines , and other anti-vehicle/ personnel kits for protection of passengers inside the vehicle cab from small arms fire, mines ...BY 2010 $M): Total costs for disposal of all Node are 32.7 Disposal costs increased by $13.9M from $18.8M to $32.7M due to revised lithium ion

  6. TARDEC 30-Year Strategy Value Stream Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Ballistic Protection (Armor) - B-Kit and C Kit systems to defeat kinetic and chemical energy threats. ii. Hull, Frame, Body, Cab (Blast) - Advanced active...Services $625k Opportunities (FY16-19 New/Competitive, and DME OTA Contracts) o Armor Material Purchases - $9.6M o Electronic Component...tactical and combat vehicles. - $1.48M OPPORTUNITIES (FY16-19 NEW COMPETITIVE and DME OTA CONTRACTS) o MCM Team will continue to leverage core

  7. Influence of structural configuration on perforation-resistance of a warship topside composite armor system%结构形式对舰船舷侧复合装甲结构抗穿甲性能的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈长海; 朱锡; 侯海量; 沈晓乐; 唐廷

    2013-01-01

    To explore the influence of structural configuration on perforation-resistance of a composite armor system of warship topside,low velocity ballistic impact experiments were performed.The outer and inner composite armor systems of warship topside were simulated using homogeneous steel plates prefaced and backed with composite laminates,respectively.Failure modes and energy absorptions for the two types of combined targets were analyzed and compared with each other.Based on the experimental results,an equation was obtained to predict the residual velocities for the combined target consisting of front steel plates and composite backed armors.Results showed that the difference of the failure modes for the composite armors in the two types of combined targets mainly is the amount of sheared fibres; while the failure modes of the steel plates in the two types of combined targets are distinct due to the influences of composite armors; the combined target consisting of front steel plates and composite backed armors absorbs much more energy than the combined target consisting of front composite armors and steel backed plates does.It was shown that the theoretical predictions of the residual velocities agree well with the experimental results for the combined targets consisting of front steel plates and composite backed armors.%为探讨结构形式对舰船舷侧复合装甲结构抗穿甲性能的影响,采用均质钢板前置和后置复合材料板分别模拟舰船舷侧外设和内设复合装甲结构,结合低速弹道冲击实验,分析和比较了两种结构形式组合靶板的穿甲破坏模式和抗弹吸能能力.在此基础上,得到了球头弹穿透后置组合靶板的剩余速度理论预测公式,并与试验结果进行了比较.结果表明,两种组合靶板中复合装甲板破坏模式的差异主要体现在迎弹面纤维剪切断裂的程度,而均质钢板则由于复合装甲板的影响,呈现出完全不同的破坏模式;后置组合靶

  8. Investigation & analysis on the armored infantry with nonspecific low back pain induced by resonance%谐振致装甲步兵肌源性下腰痛的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亮; 黄昌林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of myogenic low back pain in the armored infantry, investigate the impact of resonance,as well as the effectiveness of back muscle strength training. Methods With the self-designed questionnaire and the diagnosis standard of myogenic low back pain,the findings of 402 cases of armored infantry undergoing resonance was investigated. The degree of the pain and incidence were compared in armored infantry with different specialty and enlist time. By performing back muscle strength training,the symptomatic relief was observed. Results The prevalence of low back pain in this population was 12.93%;20.36% in occupant,7.66% in manning occurrence,so their the incidence had statistically difference (P<0.001);Also 8.21% with Ⅰ degree of pain,3.98% with Ⅱ degree,0.75% with Ⅲ degree,so the incidence of the three degrees had statistical difference (P<0.05);Performing back muscle strength training,1 case was of low back pain in group A (i.e health control non-intervention group);Group B (i.e health control + intervention group) had no low back pain patients,19 cases of group C (i.e case-group without intervention) had symptomatic relief,24 cases of Group D (i.e case-group with intervention) had symptomatic relief. Conclusion Armored infantry is a high-risk population of myogenic low back pain;Resonance vibration is an important risk factor for myogenic low back pain in the armored infantry;Most of them with Ⅰ or Ⅱ degree of pain; myogenic low back pain can be effectively lightened by back muscle strength training.%目的 对装甲步兵肌源性下腰痛的发生率进行分析,了解谐振对肌源性下腰痛的影响,以及腰背肌相对肌力训练对改善肌源性下腰痛的效果. 方法 采用自制调查表及拟定的肌源性下腰痛诊断标准, 对某部402名装甲步兵肌源性下腰痛发生情况进行调查, 比较不同专业和军龄战士肌源性下腰痛的发生率及疼痛程度;对肌源性下腰痛患者

  9. Projeto de cabine de unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (unimac cana com base na ergonomia Cab design for a sugar cane harvesting machine based on ergonomics principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Antonio Barreto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização da colheita da cana-de-açúcar parece ser o caminho para solução dos problemas decorrentes dos impactos ambientais das queimadas e do trabalho extremamente fatigante na colheita manual. Por outro lado, a mecanização total da colheita levaria milhares de trabalhadores ao desemprego. Para minimizar os impactos ambientais e manter parte desses empregos, a Agricef e a Unicamp estão desenvolvendo o projeto da unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (UNIMAC CANA, baseado em um conceito alternativo representado pela mecanização parcial da colheita, que está em fase de prototipagem. Particularmente, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo o dimensionamento da cabine desse dispositivo e o posicionamento de seus comandos e painéis, com base nas características antropométricas do operador brasileiro. Utilizou-se a metodologia projetual orientada pela preocupação com aspectos ergonômicos. As alternativas de projeto geradas através de quadros morfológicos culminaram no dimensionamento da cabine da máquina com sua disposição de comandos, painel e assento, de modo a acomodar o operador de forma segura e confortável. Através de simulação do campo visual do operador, concluiu-se que a cabine, adotando posição móvel em relação à maquina, seria uma opção viável de projeto nos atributos conforto e dirigibilidade.Sugar cane harvesting mechanization seems to be the solution for the problems related to the environment impact of sugar cane burning and to facilitate manual harvesting, which also is a extremely hard task. By the other way, full harvest mechanization would lead to a massive unemployment. To minimize environment impact and keep some of the harvesting jobs, Unicamp and Agricef are designing and building a harvesting machine that represents an alternative concept due to it partial harvesting mechanization. The main objective of this research is the design of the cab for this machine and the

  10. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) response to two pieces of music ("Eine Kleine Nachtmusik" and "Romanza") combined with light intensity, using recirculating water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Vasilikos, Georgios

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the effects of music on fish physiology, bearing in mind available information regarding the involvement of endogenous and exogenous factors in fish farming. Therefore, Cyprinus carpio (50.5 +/- 0.36 g) were reared in a recirculating water system under 80 and 200 lux and subjected to no music at all (control, ambient noise only), 4 h of Mozart's "Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", or 4 h of anonymous "Romanza-Jeux Interdits" for 106 days. Both music treatments resulted in increased growth performance at both light intensities, with Romanza treatment at 200 lux resulting in better growth performance than Mozart treatment. Furthermore, feed efficiency for the Romanza groups was significantly better than for the control. Although no significant music effect was apparent for brain neurotransmitters, lower anterior intestine alkaline protease levels were detected for both music treatments. Taking into consideration the numerous advantages of recirculating water systems, it should be emphasised that fish response to music expresses the results of various physiological and biochemical processes, especially when fish notably respond differently when subjected to two different pieces of music.

  11. 两个柠檬品种果实同异比较%Comparison of the Differences between the Two Pieces of Lemon Assortment Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓华; 董维多

    2004-01-01

    柠檬[Citrus limon(L.)Bunn.f(1768)]原产亚洲,最初在马来西亚发现,现我国南部各省多有栽培。柠檬是柑橘中的重要种类,主要栽培品种有尤力克、费米耐劳和里斯本等等,其品系和类型有200多个。我国柠檬的生产在解放后经历了一个马鞍型的发展过程,20世纪50年代,柠檬发展较快,60年代末至70年代初,出现衰退现象,80年代初开始发展,2000年全国种植面积达到1万公顷,总产量5万t左右。柠檬果

  12. 《光绪朝朱批奏折》二奏片误编校雠%Proofreading of two pieces of palace memorial in Guanxu reign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢经

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1999年第4期刊载陈维新先生"关于二奏片的疑问"一文,作者因对中俄关系史实比较熟悉,敏锐地发现了第111辑第437、477号二奏片的具奏人和奏报时间的错误,他利用已出版的档案文献、相对照,推测出二奏片的具奏人和奏片朱批日期.作为一个档案编纂的工作者,笔者有责任和义务,利用现有条件,对上述问题作一个清楚的交待.

  13. Real-time Simulation Method for Movements of Amphibious Armored Vehicles on the Ocean%两栖装甲车辆海上运动实时仿真方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 贾永前; 周子锐; 乔小蒙; 张聪

    2016-01-01

    为了在两栖装甲车辆驾驶训练模拟器中复现车辆在海浪中的运动,提出了一种海浪及车体运动实时协同仿真方法。首先,根据海浪浪高和风速设定的参数构造海浪时域波面方程;其次,按照车辆结构外型参数将车体表面分割为尺寸相同的网格,并通过当前时刻车辆的运动参数和海浪状态,在虚拟场景中利用碰撞检测算法获得车辆表面网格处海浪波面的位置,这一相对位置将用于计算此处海浪对车体的作用力;最后,解算车辆动力学方程,获得下一时刻车辆的运动参数。通过仿真结果与试验结果的对比验证了该方法的有效性,为实现模拟器对车辆海上运动的实时仿真提供了一种途径。%A new method for real-time coordination simulation of vehicle movements and ocean wave is put forward for recurrence of vehicle movement in driver training simulator of amphibious armored vehicle on the ocean wave.Firstly, the ocean wave time domain equation is set up according to wave height and wind velocity .Secondly , the body of the simulated vehicle is divided to meshes with same size according to the structure parameters of the vehicle , and according to the current movement parameters of the vehi-cle and wave state , the relative position between water and tiny meshes of the vehicle changes can be a-chieved by collision detection algorithms in virtual scene .The relative positions are used to compute ap-plied force of waves to the vehicle .Finally, the movement parameters of the vehicle at next step can be worked out by solving dynamic equations .The effectiveness of the method is validated by comparing sim-ulation results with experiment data , which provides a mean for real-time simulation of amphibious ar-mored vehicle dynamic movements on the ocean wave with training simulator .

  14. 轻型陶瓷/金属复合装甲抗弹机理研究%Investigation on Bullet Proof Mechanism of Light Ceramic/Steel Composite Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海量; 朱锡; 李伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the bullet proof mechanism of ceramic/steel composite armor, the ballistic impact experiment was carried out to study the dynamic response of ceramic/steel composite armor subjected to the impact of high speed fragments. The damages of projectile, ceramic and steel back plate were described physically and analyzed phenomenologically. The damage modes of ceramic and steel back plate were determined. The energy transformation during the ballistic penetration and the bullet proof performance of the ceramic/ship steel composite armor were analyzed. The results show that the conical crash is a main damage mode of ceramic under the impact of high speed fragments. And the main macro cracks are radial, ring and conical cracks which extend outward at about 65 ° angle included between the conical crack and the initial surface normal. Besides there are the inverse conical cracks extended outward at angle of 65° to the back surface normal. The deformation range, destructiveness and damage mode of the back plate have great different from those of ship steel target. The deformation mode of the backing plate is bulging-dishing when the impact velocity is below the ballistic limit. When the impact velocity exceeds the ballistic limit, the back plate has 3 damage modes, i. e. shearing damage, dishing- shearing-petaloid damage and dishing-petaloid damage, as the relative thickness of ceramic increases. In the penetration process of light ceramic/metal composite armor, the kinetic energy of projectile is mainly dissipated in the deformation and damage of projectile and back plate. When the velocity of the penetrator is about ballistic limit, the energy dissipated in projectile and back plate damages varies with the relative thickness of ceramic. But the total energy dissipated in these facets occupies more than 90% of initial ki-netic energy of the projectile, and the energy dissipated in the fragmentation of ceramic and the ejecting kinetic energy of ceramic

  15. 装甲车用新型高性能防弹复合材料技术研究%STUDY ON HIGH PERFORMANCE BALLISTIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR ARMORED VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛书凯; 陈建梅; 成敏苏

    2012-01-01

    The composite of fiber-reinforced resin matrix is comprehensively used in armor protection scopes for its great defence performance, lower density and easy craft. The effect of three-dimensional fabrics of different fiber and ceramics thickness on the performance of ballistic composite materials was studied. The result revealed that when designing and developing ballistic composite materials, the relationship between ballistic performance, mass and cost should be taken into account. Only all of these factors keep balance, a ballistic composite material which meet practical demands was designed.%树脂基复合材料以其防护性能好、密度低及制备工艺简单等优点广泛应用于装甲防护领域.本文研究了不同纤维三维织物与陶瓷片厚度等因素对防弹复合材料性能的影响.最后指出,在进行防弹复合材料设计与开发时,应考虑防弹性能、重量与成本之间的关系,只有三者达到平衡,才能设计出满足实际使用要求的防弹复合材料.

  16. The epidemiological investigation and analysis of bone-derived low back pain in armored infantry%装甲步兵骨关节源性下腰痛调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宪卫; 黄昌林

    2015-01-01

    目的 抽样调查某部装甲步兵职业性骨关节源性下腰痛的发生原因及分布情况,探讨其流行特征及预防措施.方法 以问卷结合体格检查的方式,依照《军事训练伤诊断标准及防治原则》(WSB38-2001)中所规定军事训练所致下腰痛的诊断标准,对某部参训装甲步兵进行骨关节源性下腰痛流行病学调查,采集数据资料,并进行相关分析. 结果 被筛选调查的402名参训装甲步兵罹患下腰痛113例,发生率28.11%. 其中骨关节源性下腰痛24例,发生率为5.97%,占下腰痛人员比例21.24%.≥2年军龄骨关节源型下腰痛发病率为10.93%,明显高于≤1年军龄组的5.19%和1~2年军龄组的4.76%(P<0.05).在骨关节源性下腰痛24名战士中,乘员17名,所占比例高达70.83%,载员7名,占29.17%.装甲乘员比例明显高于装甲载员(P<0.05).24例装甲步兵组骨关节源性下腰痛伤员中,Ⅰ度疼痛患者发生率较高(3.98%),明显高于Ⅱ度疼痛伤员(1.49%)(P<0.05),Ⅲ度以上的患者发生率极低,仅为0.50%,三组发病率比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).此外,腰背肌相对肌力素质锻炼的方法进行干预治疗,结果没有新增骨关节源性下腰痛伤员,且有7名骨关节源性下腰痛伤员症状减轻. 结论 通过调查发现,装甲步兵下腰痛发病率较高,骨关节源性下腰痛所占比例不可忽视,主要集中在≥2年军龄,其中装甲乘员明显高于装甲载员,腰背肌相对肌力素质锻炼对于骨关节源性下腰痛的预防和治疗均具有明显的效果. 因此,在平常的军事训练及作业中,应该加强腰背肌锻炼及健康宣教工作,减少骨关节源性下腰痛的发生.%Objective To investigate the cause and the distribution of bone-derived low back pain of armored infantry and to discuss the epidemiological features and preventions. Methods Combined with the questionnaire and physical examination,authors conducted the epidemiological investigation and the

  17. Numerical Simulation of the Response of Vehicle Cab Bottom Shell Structure under Explosive Blast Wave Based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics%基于SPH算法的驾驶室底部结构对爆炸冲击波响应数值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秉良; 周孔亢; 张云; 祁涛

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the response of vehicle cab bottom under the non-contact blast wave of improvised explosive device, mine, etc. smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm is employed. The energy, stress contours and destruction form of a square plate restricted by four sides under blast wave with SPH algorithm are analyzed, and the results is highly comparable with empirical formula and the classical method arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), the SPH algorithm is available for the transient dynamic response analysis of structure under blast wave. The SPH algorithm is employed to analyze the response of vehicle bottom under explosive blast wave, and the response of fuel tank, battery support, cabin floor and chassis, etc. are validated with physical test. A conclusion can be made that SPH needs simpler model and lower cost, and the result is more accurate. So SPH can be used to predict the vehicle cab bottom shell structure’s response under the blast wave, and provide a reference to the anti-explosion design of vehicle bottom structure.%针对地雷等简易爆炸装置在车辆驾驶室底部非接触爆炸问题,引入无网格光滑粒子流体动力学(Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, SPH)算法模拟爆炸冲击波作用下车辆底部结构的响应。以四边约束靶板为研究对象,分析靶板在爆炸冲击下的能量、应力变化和破坏形态,通过与传统的任意拉格朗日欧拉(Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, ALE)固流耦合分析法和经验公式计算结果对比,验证SPH算法应用于处理此类问题的可行性;利用SPH算法对爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部结构进行数值仿真,分析车辆底部的油箱、电瓶支架、驾驶室地板、车架等关键结构的冲击响应,并与试验做出对比验证。仿真结果表明,基于 SPH 算法的爆炸仿真分析具有精度较高、建模简单、耗费计算资源少等优势,能够应用于爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部板

  18. Research on Gear's Contacting Fatigue Life Prediction of Side Reducer in Armored Vehicle%装甲车辆侧减速器齿轮接触疲劳寿命预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐东红; 崔玉莲; 张炳喜; 赵永东

    2011-01-01

    通过对根据典型路面实车试验获得的载荷数据进行雨流计数处理,编制了装甲车辆侧减速器齿轮所承受的扭矩谱和应力谱;充分考虑残余应力对齿轮接触疲劳极限的影响,通过强度和硬度之间的转换关系以及疲劳强度与残余应力的作用关系,得到了齿面沿深度方向的静强度以及接触疲劳强度分布;结合疲劳寿命分析技术,进行了齿轮疲劳寿命预测,其预测结果与实际规律相符合。%By dealing with the load data from vehicle test on typical terrain, this paper obtains the torque and stress spectrum bearing by the side reducer gear in armored vehicle. Considering the influence of the residual stress on the contacting fatigue limit, the distribution of strength and contacting fatigue limits in different depths were obtained by means of the distribution of residual stress and hardness as well as the relationship between strength and hardness. The gear's fatigue life was predicted by combining the fatigue life prediction technique. The prediction result is accorded with the actual rule.

  19. Evaluation of Operational Effectiveness of Amphibious Armored Equipment Based on Simulation Technology%基于仿真技术的两栖装甲装备作战效能评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王宁; 朱江

    2013-01-01

    Amphibious operation is a system to system confrontation based on information system. Amphibious operation confrontation system is a typical complex adaptive system. The evaluation method of operational effectiveness based on complex adaptive system theory and multi-agent modeling approach are used to simulale combat based on the equipment performance parameters and the background of specific operational environment and troops code. The simulation can reflect weapon systems performance in the whole process of combat and the difference of operational effectiveness under different external conditions. It can provide reference to amphibious armored equipment for development, operational use, tactical training and tactical research.%两栖作战是基于信息系统的体系与体系的对抗.两栖作战对抗系统是典型的复杂适应系统.基于复杂适应系统理论和多Agent建模方法的作战效能评估方法,在掌握装备性能参数基础上,以具体作战环境和一定兵力编成为背景进行作战模拟,能够反映武器系统的诸属性在作战全过程的体现和在不同外界条件下作战效能的差别,可为两栖装甲装备研制、作战使用及战术训练、战法研究提供参考.

  20. 基于WSR和LSS的装甲装备维修质量管理模式%Quality Management Mode of Armored Equipment Maintenance Based on WSR and LSS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红兵; 陈春良; 吕会强; 汤珏

    2011-01-01

    Closely focusing on the requirement of equipment support transformation,the paper introduces WuLi-ShiLi-RenLi(WSR) system methodology and Lean Six Sigma(LSS) management theory and puts forward a total system and integrated management mode for armored equipment maintenance quality.And on the view of WSR and LSS management,it expatiates the basic thought of the management mode,and analyzes its basic characteristics in detail.And in terms of LSS management mode,the paper particularly discourses its management tasks as a whole,and the basic management modes in cooperation with the logic process of WSR and LSS.%紧贴装备保障转型的需求,引进物理-事理-人理(WuLi-ShiLi-RenLi,WSR)系统方法论与精益六西格玛(Lean Six Sigma,LSS)管理理论,提出一种装甲装备维修质量全系统综合管理模式。从WSR与LSS管理的角度,阐述了这种管理模式的基本思想,详细分析了其基本特点;依据LSS管理模式,从整体上详细论述了装甲装备维修质量管理包含的内容;结合WSR与LSS的逻辑过程,论述了其基本管理方式。

  1. Co-simulation Research of Dual-steering Control for Multi-in-wheel Motors Drive Armored Vehicle%电驱动装甲车辆双重转向控制联合仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建强; 马晓军; 项宇; 阳贵兵

    2014-01-01

    To improve the steering agility and off-road mobility of multi-in-wheel motors drive armored wheeled vehicle,the dual-steering control is adopted corresponding to the tracked vehicle steering way. The target of control system is the vehicle yaw rate,and active disturbance rejection controller is designed. Yaw moment torque is produced by adjusting the both sides of the in-wheel motor torque output to achieve the target of reference yaw rate. The vehicle kinetics model is built in the Adams,and the co-simulation model is designed base on the Adams and Matlab. At last co-simulation is carried out. The results of simulation demonstrate that the dual-steering control increased the vehicle outboard power output and decreased the steering radius. The method could improve the steering performance.%为了提高轮毂电机驱动装甲车辆转向的灵活性及越野机动性能,借鉴履带车辆滑移转向思想,采用双重转向控制策略。以车辆的横摆角速度为控制目标,设计了自抗扰控制器,通过调整两侧轮毂电机转矩输出产生直接横摆力矩,进而调节车辆横摆角速度,实现装甲车辆双重转向。在Adams中建立车辆动力学模型的基础上,构建Adams与Matlab环境中的联合仿真模型,并进行了联合仿真,结果表明,基于直接横摆力矩控制的双重转向增大了外侧动力输出,减小了车辆在中低速转向时转向半径,提高了车辆的转向性能。

  2. Slow Thinking and Deep Learning: Tversky and Kahneman's Taxi Cabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on classroom application of a problem story constructed by Amos Tversky in the 1970s. His intention was to evaluate human beings' intuitions about statistical inference. The problem was revisited by his colleague, the Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman. The aim of this article is to show how popular science textbooks can…

  3. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  4. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  5. Stress of dynamic loaded protection cab ROPS of truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčík Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design geometry, calculate deformation, deformation energy and stress safety of extended hydraulically lifted ROPS frame lorry TATRA by FEM according to Australian Standard AS 2294.2-1997 Earth-moving machinery-Protective Structures, Part 2: Laboratory tests and performance requirements for roll-over protective structures and by international Standard ISO 3471: 2008 (E for the proposed design solution.

  6. Evaluation of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 88 ABW Cleared 01/17/2014; 88ABW-2014-0142. Report contains color . 14. ABSTRACT AFRL assessed the...wear vision correction? None Contacts Glasses Both If required, which correction do you use: Monofocal Bifocal Trifocal Color perception results...Date: __________________ Local Time: ___________AM/PM Sunrise local: _______________ Sunset local

  7. Slow Thinking and Deep Learning: Tversky and Kahneman's Taxi Cabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on classroom application of a problem story constructed by Amos Tversky in the 1970s. His intention was to evaluate human beings' intuitions about statistical inference. The problem was revisited by his colleague, the Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman. The aim of this article is to show how popular science textbooks can…

  8. 谐振致装甲步兵椎间盘源性下腰痛的调查与分析%The epidemiological investigation and analysis of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain caused by syntony in armored infantry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维高; 黄昌林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain caused by long-last syntony situation among armored infantry and the improvement of low back muscle after relative strength exercise. Methods With the forms and the diagnostic standard of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain , authors conducted a investigation of 402 armored infantry in long-last syntony situation and compared the incidence of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain and the degree of pain. By teaching relative strength exercise of low back muscle,authors expected to improve the severity of their low back pain. Results There were 37 cases of intervertebral disk-derived low back pain patients among the 402 armored infantry accounted for 9.2%. Among them,27 were the staff working on vehicles with accounted for 73.0% and 10 were the carried passengers with accounted for 27.0%. And there was significant difference between both (P0.05).Ⅰ度疼痛共发生25例,Ⅱ度疼痛发生12例,Ⅰ度疼痛明显高于Ⅱ度疼痛(P<0.05).通过8周的腰背肌锻炼后,载员的有效率明显高于乘员(P<0.05);锻炼前与锻炼后比较,有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 某部装甲步兵椎间盘源性下腰痛发生率较高,乘员发生率高于载员,≥2年军龄发生率最高,疼痛程度多为Ⅰ、Ⅱ度,通过适当的腰背肌相对肌力训练,对Ⅰ、Ⅱ度疼痛的缓解有效,可作为治疗并预防Ⅰ、Ⅱ度椎间盘源性下腰痛患者的常规措施.

  9. 纤维增强复合材料三明治板破片穿甲数值仿真%Numerical simulation on fragment armor-piercing against sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐豫新; 戴文喜; 王树山; 赵晓旭

    2014-01-01

    The energy transform in the process of fragment armor-piercing against a sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores (made up of superimposed steel plate,composite material plate and steel plate laminated)was considered .The fragment simulation projectile (FSP)penetrating into different kinds of sandwich plates with high velocity were numerically simulated and the ballistic limits of fragment piercing 16 kinds of sandwich plates were obtained.The credibility of the numerical simulation method was verified by comparing its results with the experimental ones.Under critical fragment perforation,the correlation between the energy absorption ratio of the each part of the sandwich plate and the structural size was studied by analyzing the numerical simulation results.The results show that the energy absorption ratio is constant for different thickness core plate(for aramid fiber core,10.41%,for glass fiber core,2.68%),the internal energy in core plate is quadratically increased with the increase of its thickness.On this basis,the calculation method for ballistic limit velocity of fragment penetrating into sandwich plate with fiber reinforced composite cores was obtained.%研究破片对(由钢板、纤维增强复合材料板及钢板叠合而成)纤维增强复合材料三明治板穿甲过程中能量转化规律。进行破片模拟弹丸(FSP)对不同结构三明治板高速穿甲数值仿真,获得FSP弹丸对16种三明治板的弹道极限,并与实验结果对比验证数值仿真的可信度。通过分析数值仿真结果,进一步研究破片临界贯穿条件下纤维增强复合材料三明治板各组成部分吸能比率与结构尺寸相关性。结果表明,不同厚度夹层板的吸能比率恒定(芳纶纤维10.41%,玻璃纤维2.68%),夹层板内能随厚度的增加呈二次函数增加。由此获得破片对纤维增强复合材料三明治板弹道极限速度计算方法。

  10. The facial skeleton: Armor to the brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Satishkumar G.; Patil, Bindu S.; Joshi, Udupikrishna; Allurkar, Soumya; Japatti, Sharanabasappa; Munnangi, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other au...

  11. Outstanding Lobelia dortmanna in iron armor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Møller, Claus Lindskov; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl

    2008-01-01

    .4%) of degradable organic matter. Coatings of oxidized iron on roots in organically enriched sediments reduce radial oxygen loss and, thereby, increase internal concentrations and supply of oxygen to root tips. Oxidized iron is also a redox buffers which may prevent the ingress of sulfides and other reduced toxic...... solutes during nights. Controlled experiments are under way to test if iron enrichment can help survival of rosette species threatened by lake pollution or whether removal of organic surface sediments is required....

  12. Expeditionary Light Armor Seeding Development. (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT -Half-symmetric model is used in AutoDyn to simulate Depth of Penetration ( DOP ) experiments on SIC tile with...strike model validation runs with SiC tiles are conducted based on the DOP experiments described in reference - ARL-TR-2219, 2000 -Tile gap is found...to increase the DOP as compared to baseline center impact -Simulations were run on gap sizes 0.508 (20 mil) and 1.061 mm (40 mil) at the standard

  13. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A. R.; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the ‘elemental defense’ hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose–response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead–zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants. PMID:20838462

  14. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ceramic compositions . Each particle composition will have different resistance properties to the incursion of a projectile. Ceramics provide a...quality of abrasive, high resistance to projectiles at a relatively light weight; thus, they represent a preferred particle composition for a filler...material being a flowable material that conforms to the shape of the laminated shell, the filler material further including solid particles shaped as

  15. Medium Tactical Vehicle Underbody Armor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    death through means of mechanical trauma resulting from blast, fragmentation, and secondary projectiles. IEDs can also be implemented to incapacitate...tests. Wood cribbing was used to level the vehicle, creating a standoff distance from the ground to the crew compartment equal to that of an actual

  16. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT ON ARMORED SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katinka KOLL; Andreas DITTRICH

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been carried out to study the characteristics of sediment transport in steep streams. The question is discussed wether an armoured surfaces is destroyed due to the transport of material, because additional impulses are acting on it, or the layer is sheltered by the transported material, because a part of the stream power is used to move the material. According to the results of the presented experiments, in which the influence of the feeding rate and the feeding duration have been investigated, transported material reaching an armoured river section from upstream always remobilzes bed material, which is immobile under clear water flow conditions. To decide if a static armour layer is either destroyed or not, two simple criteria were chosen: oneconsidering the grain-size distribution of the eroded bed material, and another, which referes to the amount of eroded bed material.

  17. Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Fones; Calum A. R. Davis; Arantza Rico; Fang Fang; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Preston, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulation plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a...

  18. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fones

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm. Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  19. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-01-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate...

  20. Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen; Davis, Calum A R; Rico, Arantza; Fang, Fang; Smith, J Andrew C; Preston, Gail M

    2010-09-09

    Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.

  1. Industry analysis for body armor procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Foust, Coleen; Jenson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    MBA Professional Report In order to leverage buying power, reduce costs and improve supplier management, the United States Air Force (USAF) needs to take a strategic approach to acquiring goods and services. Both academic and business literature promotes strategic sourcing as a viable method of minimizing cost and guarding against materials disruptions. In addition, the Office of Management and Budget has required that each agency create strategic sourcing initiatives, monitor the cost ...

  2. Study and Development of Light Armor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-09-01

    VELOCITY RESULT RD WO. ^TftlKINÖ m,CCXTY fiESVLT 5989 1039 T) T5 6009 1188 PP 5990 1188 c» 6010 Dud CP...M.P. 108^300 FIRING DATA V50 - 1085 6049 6050 6051 6052 6053 6054 6055 6056 6057 6058 6059 6060 6061 6062 6063 6064 6065 6066

  3. Tarnished Armor Erosion of Military Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-23

    expectations is a reasonable goal - considering the skewed intellectual and performance population fro- which senior leaders are drawn. These...improperly championed for a special interest group. His counterpart in the House, Joe Biden, withdrew from the 1988 presidential race for plagiarism

  4. An Exploration of Integrated Ground Weapons Concepts for Armor/Anti- Armor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    possible configurations. A DC circuit could be powered by a DC homopolar generator, or AC power could be rectified to power DC motors . An ED could also be...the bare round designs, concepts from FMC, Western Designs, and General Motors were considered. Of these concepts, the Ares design for containerized...funds were no longer available. Two industrial teams, one led by Royal Ordnance and the other by General Motors , recently completed an integration study

  5. Computational Modeling of Dynamic Failure Mechanisms in Armor/Anti-Armor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Costa, C.R.C., "A Study of the Mechanical Behavior in Ballistic Impact of Alumina Plates," Ceramica , Vol 30, No. 175, July 1984. 5 Table 2 USEFUL...Behavior in Ballistic Impact of Alumina Plates). Ceramica , v175 n30, July 1984. Information Services 56 Yaziv, D.; Bless, S.J.; Rosenberg, Z. Study of

  6. Avaliação da susceptibilidade à fragilização induzida por hidrogênio na soldagem de um aço microligado para blindagens por meio de um ensaio de implante com geometria modificada Evaluation of susceptibility of hydrogen induced cracking in microalloyed armor steel welds using a geometry modified implant test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimy Unfried Silgado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade à fragilização induzida pelo Hidrogênio (FIH foi avaliada em soldas de aço para blindagem temperado e revenido (T&R de 4,5mm de espessura. As soldas foram desenvolvidas utilizando o processo SMAW com um baixo aporte de calor e consumível AWS E11018M de 2,4 mm. A susceptibilidade a FIH foi avaliada por médio de um ensaio de implante com geometria modificada em juntas soldadas com e sem aplicação de preaquecimento, utilizando consumíveis em condições de estocagem ideais e expostos à atmosfera. Encontrou-se que a condição de estocagem do consumível foi mais relevante que o preaquecimento na susceptibilidade ao FIH.The Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC susceptibility of 4,5mm thickness quenched and tempered (Q&T armor plate steel welding joints was evaluated. The joints were obtained using low heat input and SMAW process with 2,4 mm AWS E11018M electrode. The HIC susceptibility was evaluated using a geometry modified implant test for thin plates. The joints studied were produced with and without preheating and using welding electrodes with and without exposure to atmospheric conditions. The HIC resistance was severely impaired by improperly storage while preheating conditions did not preclude HIC.

  7. 新型反应装甲结构对长杆弹小法线角侵彻的干扰分析和防护效能%Protection effectiveness of a new explosive reactive armor against penetration of long-rod projectiles with small yaw angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良平; 黄道业; 王凤英

    2013-01-01

    A new explosive reactive armor (ERA) structure was designed. A series of dynamic analyses were carried out on the interferences of the new ERA structure with the motion velocity and attitudes of the long-rod projectiles, the corresponding dynamic equations were obtained for the long-rod projectiles in the mass conservation condition, and the protection effectiveness of the new ERA structure was experimentally validated. Investigated results show that the new ERA can disturb effectively the motion attitudes of the long-rod projectiles with small yaw angles and induce their kinetic energy decrease markedly.%针对防御小法线角入射的长杆弹的需要而设计出了一种新型反应装甲结构.通过分析新型反应装甲结构对长杆弹运动速度和姿态的干扰,得出在长杆弹质量守恒的情况下的动力学方程,并进行反应装甲抗长杆弹侵彻实验.结果表明,新型反应装甲能够有效的干扰小角度长杆弹的飞行姿态并造成动能损失,可提高对长杆弹的防护效果.

  8. 基于KYN28-12型中置式铠装配电柜提高散热能力的研究*%Improve the Cooling Capacity in the Home-based KYN28-12 Type Assembly Cabinet Armor Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞冬平; 盛锋

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the increasing business electricity load, medium voltage transmission and distribution equipment in the direction of large-capacity, high current development situation distribution cabinet because of overheating and failure become increasingly prominent. Rated current of 4 000 A KYN28-12 type of armor in the home-assembled cabinet structure, for example, by increasing the distribution cabinet cooling area, improve its thermal efficiency, radiation coefficient, easy implementation of targeted heat-generating components cooling and other measures to improve heat dissipation distribution cabinet.%近年来,随着企业用电负荷的不断增加,中压输配电设备朝着大容量、大电流的方向发展,配电柜因为过热而发生故障的情况日益凸显。以额定电流为4000 A的KYN28-12型中置式铠装配电柜的结构为例,通过增加配电柜的散热面积,提高其散热效率、辐射系数,对易发热部件施行有针对性的散热等措施,从而改善配电柜的散热条件。

  9. Immediate and delayed loading of two-piece reduced-diameter implants with locator-analog attachments in edentulous mandibles: One-year results from a randomized clinical trial examining clinical outcome and patient expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Ariaans, Kirsten; Eberhard, Lydia; Klotz, Anna-Luisa; Oh, Keunyoung; Kappel, Stefanie

    2017-08-01

    Prosthetic management of thin alveolar ridges in the edentulous mandibles of elderly patients, especially the time of loading, the number of implants needed, and patient expectations and perception, is a challenge in implant dentistry. Survival of conventionally and immediately loaded 2-piece reduced-diameter implants in the interforaminal region of the edentulous mandible supporting locator-analog attachments was evaluated. Prosthetic complications and peri-implant hygiene were also studied, and patient expectation and subjective evaluation of the treatment were documented. Twenty-five patients with adapted complete dentures received 4 reduced-diameter implants. All anterior implants were immediately loaded. Three months later, patients were allocated by randomization to 1 of 2 treatment groups: 2 locator-analog attachments on the anterior implants (Group A); or 4 locator-analog attachments (Group B). After another 3 months patient allocation was changed (crossover design) for the next 3 months. Questionnaires with Likert scales and numeric rating scales were used to assess patients' expectations and subjective overdenture-related variables, respectively. One implant was lost in the immediate-loading group. Survival was 98% and 100% for immediate and delayed loading, respectively. During 12-month observation, 8 complications required aftercare. At the beginning of treatment, patients' expectations were highly positive. Subjective assessment of overdenture-related variables 3 months after immediate loading of 2 implants revealed a statistically significant improvement for most of the variables studied; this was maintained 1 year later. In the subjective assessments, there were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B. Immediate loading of reduced-diameter implants supporting locator-analog attachments resulted in high implant survival, few prosthetic complications, good oral hygiene, and improvement of subjective denture perception in the short-term. It might be a promising treatment option, especially for elderly patients with a narrow mandibular ridge. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 《中国人类学逸史。的由来及其书评%The making of The Saga of Anthropology in China: From Malinowski to Mao and two pieces of reviews on the book

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民; 李小敏; 侯庸

    2001-01-01

    美国学者顾定国(Gregory Eliyu Guldin)教授的(The Saga of Anthropology in China:From Malinowski to Moscow to Mao)一书,本来是专门为西方人撰写的,因其有助于我们了解中国人类学的形成与发展,最近已由中国社会科学文献出版社出版了中译本.本文较详细地介绍了顾定国与中国学术界的交往及该书的成书经过,探讨了学科普遍性与本土化这对矛盾;所附的两篇西方学者对该书原著的评论,其视角与我们的有显著差异,或可起到"兼听则明"的作用吧.

  11. WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX5 Gene Expression and Interaction of CLE Peptides with Components of the Systemic Control Add Two Pieces to the Puzzle of Autoregulation of Nodulation1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, Maria A.; Mortier, Virginie; Demchenko, Kirill N.; Tsyganov, Victor E.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.; Lutova, Ludmila A.; Dolgikh, Elena A.; Goormachtig, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In legumes, the symbiotic nodules are formed as a result of dedifferentiation and reactivation of cortical root cells. A shoot-acting receptor complex, similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CLAVATA1 (CLV1)/CLV2 receptor, regulating development of the shoot apical meristem, is involved in autoregulation of nodulation (AON), a mechanism that systemically controls nodule number. The targets of CLV1/CLV2 in the shoot apical meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS)-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) family transcription factors, have been proposed to be important regulators of apical meristem maintenance and to be expressed in apical meristem “organizers.” Here, we focus on the role of the WOX5 transcription factor upon nodulation in Medicago truncatula and pea (Pisum sativum) that form indeterminate nodules. Analysis of temporal WOX5 expression during nodulation with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and promoter-reporter fusion revealed that the WOX5 gene was expressed during nodule organogenesis, suggesting that WOX genes are common regulators of cell proliferation in different systems. Furthermore, in nodules of supernodulating mutants, defective in AON, WOX5 expression was higher than that in wild-type nodules. Hence, a conserved WUS/WOX-CLV regulatory system might control cell proliferation and differentiation not only in the root and shoot apical meristems but also in nodule meristems. In addition, the link between nodule-derived CLE peptides activating AON in different legumes and components of the AON system was investigated. We demonstrate that the identified AON component, NODULATION3 of pea, might act downstream from or beside the CLE peptides during AON. PMID:22232385

  12. The biological and reproductive parameters of the invasive armored catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus from Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán-Guerrero, Mexico Parámetros biológicos y reproductivos del bagre armado invasivo Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus del embalse Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán-Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Aneli Rueda-Jasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 (synonymy: Liposarcus multiradiatus armored catfish were first reported in Mexico in 1995 and have spread successfully in several aquatic ecosystems. In Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo Reservoir, Michoacán - Guerrero, the population of this armored catfish is growing substantially because natural predators are not present and exploitation by humans does not occur. Over a complete annual cycle, we studied the following population parameters: weight, total and standard length, the relationship of weight to total length, the hepatosomatic (HSI and gonadosomatic (GSI indices, total fecundity (TF and relative fecundity (RF. The average total (TL and standard lengths (SL were 248 ± 37.5 and 188 ± 30.7 mm, respectively, and the average weight (W was 135.3± 66.8 g. The largest fish reported was 520 mm in TL and weighed 1 280 g. The species showed an extended reproductive season from May to November, as indicated by the GSI, TF and RF. The strongest reproductive peak occurred from July through October. During the annual cycle, the highest monthly average fecundity was 2 447 eggs, and the average relative fecundity was 12.6 eggs per g of fish (August and September. This information will be crucial for calculating the current biomass and future growth of the population. The calculation of these results could provide a basis for the exploitation of this resource for human consumption and animal feeds.La especie invasiva "bagre armado" P. disjunctivus (Weber 1991 (sinonimia de Liposarcus multuradiatus fue registrada por primera vez en México en 1995; en diversos sistemas acuáticos se ha distribuido exitosamente. En la presa Adolfo López Mateos El Infiernillo, Michoacán - Guerrero, la población de peces armados se ha incrementado considerablemente debido a la ausencia de depredadores y la falta de aprovechamiento. Por ello, a lo largo de un ciclo anual evaluamos los siguientes par

  13. Maturidade do ovário no cascudo Hypostomus strigaticeps (Siluriformes, Loriicaridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1474 Ovarian organization and maturity stages of armored catfish Hypostomus strigaticeps (Siluriformes, Loriicaridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1474

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi estudado o desenvolvimento ovariano do cascudo Hypostomus strigaticeps. Foram coletadas 332 fêmeas, em coletas mensais, de julho de 2002 até junho de 2004, no rio Corumbataí, Estado de São Paulo, bacia do Paraná. Os ovários foram processados com técnicas histológicas de rotina, com inclusão em parafina, corte com 5 μm de espessura e coloração em hematoxilina-eosina. Foram observados seis tipos de ovócitos: Cromatina-nucléolo, Perinucleolar, Alvéolo-cortical, Vitelogênico, Maduro e Atrésico. Foi construída uma escala de maturidade, a partir de observações microscópicas, macroscópicas e do índice gonadossomático com quatro fases: Repouso, Maturação, Maduro e DesovadoThis work studied the ovarian development of the armored catfish Hypostomus strigaticeps. Between July 2002 and June 2005, 332 females were collected monthly from the Corumbataí River, São Paulo State – Brazil. The ovaries were processed using routine histological techniques – paraffin inclusion and 5 μm thick sections stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Six types of oocytes were observed: Chromatin-nucleolus, Perinucleolar, Cortical-alveolus, Vitellogenic, Ripe and Atresic. Four maturity stages were created based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological observations, as well as on analysis of the gonadossomatic index (GSI: Rest, Maturation, Ripe and Spawned

  14. Mechatronic development of an active spring-/tilt engineering for the railcar RailCab; Mechatronische Entwicklung der aktiven Feder-/Neigetechnik fuer das Schienenfahrzeug RailCab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu-Henke, X.

    2005-07-01

    A mechatronic development process with computer-supported design up to real time implementation of a prototype was applied throughout, with particular emphasis on mechatronic composition. After establishing a nonlinear mechatronic model and model identification, nonlinear compensation was designed and implemented in a HiL test stand. Simulations and test stand measurements verified high driving comfort and high safety as a result of the implemented active spring/tilt technology.

  15. Advanced Metals and Ceramics for Armor and Anti-Armor Applications. High-Fidelity Design and Processing of Advanced Armor Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    of TiO2 ceramics. ..................48 Figure 22. Effect of thickness of grain boundary on compressive yield stress of TiO2 ceramics...technology enables dense, nanograin-size materials to be fabricated without the difficulty of producing and processing nanoparticle -size powders. 2.5...were 300–500 μm in diameter. Pellets 3.8 cm in diameter and containing 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 volume-percent WC-Co inclusions were pressed. The

  16. Subtidal Bathymetric Changes by Shoreline Armoring Removal and Restoration Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Salish Sea, a region with a diverse coastline, is altered by anthropogenic shoreline modifications such as seawalls. In recent years, local organizations have moved to restore these shorelines. Current research monitors the changes restoration projects have on the upper beach, lower beach, and intertidal, however little research exists to record possible negative effects on the subtidal. The purpose of this research is to utilize multibeam sonar bathymetric data to analyze possible changes to the seafloor structure of the subtidal in response to shoreline modification and to investigate potential ecosystem consequences of shoreline alteration. The subtidal is home to several species including eelgrass (Zostera marina). Eelgrass is an important species in Puget Sound as it provides many key ecosystem functions including providing habitat for a wide variety of organisms, affecting the physics of waves, and sediment transport in the subtidal. Thus bathymetric changes could impact eelgrass growth and reduce its ability to provide crucial ecosystem services. Three Washington state study sites of completed shoreline restoration projects were used to generate data from areas of varied topographic classification, Seahurst Park in Burien, the Snohomish County Nearshore Restoration Project in Everett, and Cornet Bay State Park on Whidbey Island. Multibeam sonar data was acquired using a Konsberg EM 2040 system and post-processed in Caris HIPS to generate a base surface of one-meter resolution. It was then imported into the ArcGIS software suite for the generation of spatial metrics. Measurements of change were calculated through a comparison of historical and generated data. Descriptive metrics generated included, total elevation change, percent area changed, and a transition matrix of positive and negative change. Additionally, pattern metrics such as, surface roughness, and Bathymetric Position Index (BPI), were calculated. The comparison of historical data to new data at each site allows for a calculation of change and therefore helps to identify any positive or negative consequences of shoreline alteration work. A better understanding of the impacts of shoreline restoration will help to review the current procedures and identify any that need improvement as to reduce impacts to the subtidal ecosystem.

  17. A Cognitive Analysis of Armor Procedural Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    chunking and organization in the process of recall. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and memory (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press. Mandler...G, (1967). Organization and memory. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and memory (Vol. 1). New York: Aca- demic Press

  18. Molding of Polypropylene Film Armor for Radar Antenna Hardening Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    AODRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBER$ Swedlow, Inc. AICS oe 12122 Western Avenue A290282ode: Garden Grove, Ca. 92645...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of t..Is Repern) Approved for public release; distribucion unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the albstgact entered in Black 20...Desired wt of XP mat’l. (gms) N ftf= Area of panel (ft’) x56- m N fg 15S,100 1 124.5 X 34. x = 4.54 pads use 5 pads 144 STEP 2 MATERIAL PREPARATION Put on

  19. Anchoring FRP Composite Armor in Flexible Offshore Riser Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei

    things, they serve for the transportation of hydrocarbons from the subsea facilities to the production and drilling equipment at the sea surface. Flexible risers are the prime choice for connecting floating production, storage and offloading facilities, because they are specially designed for dynamic...... of composite materials. One of the problems related to the substitution of tensile steel members is that anchoring in the metallic end fittings of the pipe is very challenging.The purpose of this thesis is to ensure the transfer of tensile loads between a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer and a metallic...... in the grip, and to measure the contact stresses distribution and evolution during pullout.The results of the experimental and numerical analysis show that it is possible to reliably anchor composite materials using a metallic grip. The models developed during the project show how to improve the efficiency...

  20. Self-Cooling Gradient Shell for Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    top and bottom); • The assembly was cured at 80 °C for 1 h. Assembly modification: • the assembly was treated with plasma to activate the surface...performed on a Dimension 3100 (Digital Instruments, Inc.) microscope. Tapping mode was used to study surface morphology of membranes in ambient air. Silicon ...unlimited. 88ABW-2012-5358, 10 Oct 2012 LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND ACRONYMS CA contact angle cm centimeter(s) DSC differential scanning

  1. San Francisco Littoral Cell CRSMP Coastal Armoring Lines 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is an updated version of the shapefile created by Jennifer Dare at the California Coastal Commission in 2005. The version created by Elena Vandebroek...

  2. A Method for Determining Backface Signatures of Soft Body Armors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    individuals: Mr. John J. Holter, who aided in developing the photographic techniques used; Messrs. Robert E. Carpenter, Lyle C. Snyder, and George J...NUMBELR’,2X, l0A6) 47* 9 F.RNAT(2,’ RAlW VALUEýS FOYR TEST’ MATRIX’,/(2X,F1O.5),22,<,IO1.5)) 48* 11 FOR4AT(2F10.2) 49* WRITE(7,7) JTYPE,(TITnZ(I),I=1,10) ý

  3. Human Factors Assessment: M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    65 29. A mechanic assisting the operator in inserting the apron safety pin ...... .66 30. Damage to the floodlight guard...dozer blade lock pin next to the point of the ball point pin. " 65 S.% - % " Figure 29 shows a mechanic inserting the apron safety pin while the operator...to perform all tasks alone. Figure 29. A mechanic assisting the operator in inserting the apron safety pin . 0%’ 66 e% % ---------- Implications for

  4. Ballistic Testing of Australian Bisalloy Steel for Armor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    as per MIL-A-12560H. TEST DATA Tables 4-7 show the nominal thickness; Brinell hardness (HB); angle of obliquity with zero being normal to...1 DEFENCE RSCH FORT HALSTEAD KENT TN14 7BP UNITED KINGDOM 1 CARLOS III U C NAVARRO ESCUELA PO C/. BUTARQUE 28911 LEGANES MADR

  5. Sensitization of Naturally Aged Aluminum 5083 Armor Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    darker areas indicate lighter elements and vice-versa. - 4 - Figure 4. Z -contrast image (a) and corresponding fine-probe EDS line scan (b...probably β) on the grain boundaries, but was generally not continuous. Figure 6(a) and 6(b) shows the Z -contrast image and FPEDS line scan indicating...rich phase precipitation in the specimen in the bottom half of the plate. (a) Z - contrast image and corresponding fine-probe EDS line scan (b). Images

  6. Personnel and Training Subsystem Integration in an Armor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-12

    materiel design. The first element of the requirements is a Task and Skill Analysis ( TASA ), based on the concept of the materiel. The TASA should...document which supports the Demonstration and Validation (OVAL) phase. Concurrent with the preparation of the LOA, the rough TASA is analyzed and...furnish as early us possible data for a TASA for each proposed operator and mainta3iner. Their analysis will be used for planning training

  7. Effects of Extremity Armor on Metabolic Cost and Gait Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    marksmanship, jumping, crawling , grenade throwing, or vaulting a wall. To the contrary, effects on these tasks should also be investigated in order to...and energy expenditure in infants . JPEN: J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Vol. 12(3):256-9. Department of the Army. (1990) Foot Marches (Field Manual 21...plastic M4 carbine to assist you 15 in getting up and down. You will do this task on a padded gym mat. 16 ○ Executing a high crawl . You will move

  8. Vehicle Armor Structure and Testing for Future Combat System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    oth 31 for Out-of- ns of the Section 2.8 l the nomina ns (shown a ely bonded er similar c Plane Poiss out-of-plane . The mate l thickness s 1 in...thickn research te , the nomina Individual the blocks t d to have 9 ing inserts w ne Specimen .6, and 2.7, tabs made ecimens, thr ens. The cen ecame

  9. Analysis of Light Armored Vehicle Depot Level Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    5-S/Visual, TPM, VSM, flow, Kaizen, Kanban (pull), were the primary focus for thinking lean, and are all addressed here. The process of creating...The natural system shift that went along foundationally with the above tenets was the shift to more of a pull system using Kanban . The disassembly...constraints imposed by the Marine Corps supply system. Ultimately, although this pull, or Kanban , system has reduced inventory 10 in the workbays and

  10. Knightmare in Armor: reflections on Wilhelm Reich's contributions to psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, W I

    1976-11-01

    One of the more curious by-products of the political and social unrest of the late 1960s, has been the emergence of and survival of interest in the writings of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957). In the last few years, new translations of his books have appeared and some of his early work has been translated for the first time. A biography, magazine articles, and various surveys of his work convey the impression that his ideas are timely, or at least that they are historically important. However, I believe that the current enthusiasm for Reich owes more to the problems that interested him than to the light he shed on them. His great appeal for radical youth is based on his advocacy of social and sexual reform, for which he provided ideological support through a Marxist-psychoanalytic synthesis. By the technique of anthropological, economic, and psychological analysis, Reich tried to provide a scientific justification for revolutionary hopes.

  11. Delamanid: A new armor in combating drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphienes Stanley Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense search has been made in the discovery of newer anti-TB drugs to tackle the issues such as drug resistance, HIV co-infection and risk of drug-drug interactions in the management of TB. Delamanid, a newer mycobacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitor, received a conditional approval from European medicines agency (EMA for the treatment of MDR-TB. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that delamanid has high potency, least risk for drug-drug interactions and better tolerability.

  12. 76 FR 69764 - Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    .... The workshop will be held on Wednesday, November 30, 2011 at NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD... p.m. for those interested in the following: (1) One-on-one conversation with NIJ leadership. (2) One-on-one discussion with Compliance Testing Program personnel. (3) One-on-one discussion with...

  13. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... workshop will be held on Tuesday, November 29, 2011 at NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg MD, Building.... for those interested in the following: (1) One-on-one conversation with NIJ leadership. (2) One-on-one discussion with Compliance Testing Program personnel. (3) One-on-one discussion with personnel...

  14. The Development of an Automated Armor Data Base - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    success of this program task. ARL/XD Michael Castro Shun-Chin Chou Dennis Gosselin Robert Muldoon Joseph Prifti Karl Salomon Anthone Zarkades CSTA William ...ATTN: DTIC-FDAC 1 MIA/ CINDAS , Purdue University, 2595 Yeager Road, West Lafayette, IN 47905 Commander, Army Research Office, P.O. Box ’ 2211, Research

  15. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1995 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, W.R.; Das, S.K.

    1996-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of stabilization of liquid films between bubbles were undertaken as part of an effort to model gas release in waste tanks at the Hanford nuclear reservation. Synthetic Hanford waste created here showed solids accumulation at bubble surfaces and some stabilization of bubbles in a froth upon sparging with nitrogen. Dilational interfacial rheological measurements indicate increasing hydrophobicity with increasing EDTA concentration in the wastes. There is greater dilational elasticity of the interface with solid particles present on the interface. Theoretical modeling of a 2D liquid film between bubbles containing one row of solid particles suggests that in 3D such a film would be unstable unless the solids all touch. This hints at a possible mechanism for bubble stabilization, if it can be argued that slowly evolving interfaces, as bubbles grow toward each other in the sludge, have solids closely packed, but that rapid expansion of gas during a rollover event forces the films to expand without additional solids.

  16. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... 1Centro Universitário Metodista - Porto Alegre - RS –Brazil. 2Department of ... 2,000 red blood cells of animals subjected to treatment, it was possible to observe 8.25 ± 0.02% cells .... The social impact of this contamination of.

  17. Outstanding Lobelia dortmanna in iron armor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Møller, Claus Lindskov; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl

    2008-01-01

    to the distal root meristems as sediments accumulate organic matter from lake pollution. So the plant with the greatest oxygen release from roots is also the most sensitive to oxygen depletion in sediments and it dies or losses anchorage by shortening the roots from 10 to 2 cm at even modest contents (2...

  18. Penetration Resistance of Armor Ceramics: Dimensional Analysis and Property Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    rocksalt [34]). Amorphization in B4C is a stress-induced change from trigonal (i.e., rhombohedral) crystal structure to a non - crystalline solid ...Correlations by JD Clayton A reprint from the International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2015;85:124–131 Approved for...by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL A reprint from the International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2015;85:124

  19. Procurement and Delivery of Joint Service Armor Protected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-29

    vehicles should not ha ve bcen compared to each othcr 0 1’ to a singlc IG E. F8Jl 8FFISMb l!IS6 8PlbY 29 An M S orti eial stated that thc IGCE was based...in thi s casc. Adcquate competition can be cxpccted to result in fail’ and rcasonable contract prices. However, an M S orti cial statcd that they...it comments concerning the fa ir and reasonable con tract price determination from the Ortiee of Defense Procurement Acq ui sit ion Po li cy (D PAP

  20. Measurement of Damage Velocities in Bullet Impacts of Transparent Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles; Bigger, Rory; Weiss, Carl

    2013-06-01

    A series of impact experiments have been conducted to examine the response of transparent material to ballistic impact. The experiments consisted of impacting 15 mm of borosilicate glass back by 9.5 mm of Lexan. The projectile was a 0.30-cal hard steel bullet designed specifically for the experiments. Residual velocities and the residual length of the bullets (which were soft-recovered in a catch box) were measured as a function of impact velocity. High-speed imaging of the impact event and post-test analysis has permitted quantification of damage propagation and the rate of propagation. The results of several experiments are presented and compared to edge-on impact experiments that have been conducted by Strassburger et al..