Search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blumenthal, D.J.; Henning, W.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others
1995-08-01
We performed an experiment to search for the two-phonon octupole vibrational state in {sup 208}Pb. Thick targets of {sup 208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 58,64}Ni, and {sup 160}Gd were bombarded with 1305 MeV beams of were bombard {sup 208}Pb supplied by ATLAS. Gamma rays were detected using the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma-ray facility, consisting of 12 Compton-suppressed germanium detectors surrounding an array of 50 BGO scintillators. We identified some 30 known gamma rays from {sup 208}Pb in the spectra gated by the 5{sup -} {yields} 3{sup -} and 3{sup -} {yields} 0{sup +} transitions in {sup 208}Pb. In addition, after unfolding these spectra for Compton response, we observed broad coincident structures in the energy region expected for the 2-phonon states. Furthermore, we confirmed the placement of a 2485 keV line observed previously in {sup 207}Pb and find no evidence consistent with the placement of this line in {sup 208}Pb. We are currently in the process of investigating the origin of the broadened lines observed in the spectra, extracting the excitation probability of states in {sup 208}Pb, and determining the relative probability of mutual excitation and neutron transfer in this reaction. An additional experiment is also being performed to collect much higher statistics germanium-germanium coincidence data for the thick {sup 208}Pb target.
The 257 MeV 19/2/sup -/ two-phonon octupole state in /sup 147/Gd
Kleinheinz, P; Kortelahti, M; Piiparinen, M; Styczen, J
1981-01-01
The half-life of the (vf/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/*3/sup -/)/sub 19/2-/ two- phonon octupole states at 2.572 MeV in /sup 147/Gd was measured as T /sub 1/2/=0.37(8) ns, which gives a transition strength of 52(15) WU for the 1525 keV E3 transition to the 0.997 MeV (vf/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/) /sub 13/2+/ one transition to the 0.997 MeV ( nu f/sub 7/2/*3/sup -/) /sub 13/2+/ one phonon excitation. The nu i/sub 13/2/ admixture in the 13/2/sup +/ one-phonon state, as well as the dominant pi h/sub 11/2/d /sub 5//sup -1/2/ component of the /sup 146/Gd 3/sup -/ state give rise to large anharmonicities for the two-phonon excitation. An estimate of the energy shifts based on empirical coupling matrix elements gives 2.66 MeV excitation for the 19/2/sup -/ two-phonon state, in good agreement with the observed energy of that state. (9 refs).
Two-phonon E1 excitations in {sup 40}Ca and {sup 140}Ce
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldenhofer, Martin; Derya, Vera; Endres, Janis; Hennig, Andreas; Zilges, Andreas [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Tornow, Werner [Department of Physics, Duke University (United States)
2014-07-01
The coupling of a quadrupole- and an octupole-vibrational excitation results in a quintuplet of J{sup π} = 1{sup -} to 5{sup -} vibrational states with two-phonon structure. Candidates for harmonic two-phonon excitations are found energetically in the vicinity of the sum of the constituent excitation energies. Their structure can be tested by studying their γ-decay behavior in detail. We studied candidates for two-phonon E1 excitations in two nuclei of different mass, namely {sup 40}Ca and {sup 140}Ce, with the high-efficiency γ{sup 3} setup [1] at the High Intensity γ-ray Source facility at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham, USA. The mono-energetic γ-ray beam allows for a selective excitation of the states of interest. In combination with the γ{sup 3} setup, on the one hand, a high efficiency for γ-ray detection is achieved by an array of HPGe and LaBr detectors, and, on the other hand, the analysis of γ-γ coincidences is possible.
Electromagnetic excitation of the two-phonon giant dipole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emling, H.
1994-03-01
It is the aim of this article to summarize our present knowledge on the double isovector giant dipole resonance (DGDR) and our understanding of the electromagnetic excitation mechanism in heavy ion collisions in the relativistic energy regime. In the following chapter, a brief resume on the history of giant resonances is given and, based on their understanding, conclusions on the expected properties of multi-phonon resonances are drawn. In chapter 2, the essential features of electromagnetic heavy ion interactions at (near) relativistic velocities will be illuminated and the theoretical framework is presented, which describes such processes. New experimental methods were required for an appropriate study of Coulomb dissociation processes, which are discussed in chapter 3 together with the experimental results. Chapter 4 is dedicated to summarize the results from electromagnetic excitation studies, to compare with those from alternative methods and, in particular, to contrast experimental findings with theoretical predictions and to address open problems. (orig.)
One- and two-phonon excitations in strongly deformed triaxial nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagemann, G.B.
2003-01-01
The wobbling mode is uniquely related to triaxiality and introduces a series of bands with increasing wobbling phonon number, n ω , and a characteristic large Δ nω =1 E2 strength between the bands. The pattern of γ-transitions between the wobbling excitations will be influenced by the presence of an aligned particle. Evidence for the wobbling mode was obtained recently, and even a two-phonon wobbling excitation has now been identified in 163 Lu. The similarity of the data in 163 Lu to new strongly deformed triaxial bands and connecting transitions in the neighbouring nuclei, 165 Lu and 167 Lu, establishes wobbling as a more general phenomenon in this region. (author)
Enhanced E3 Excitations in 144,146Ba and the Evolution of Octupole Collectivity
Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; ANL, LLNL, LBNL, INL, UAM, Rochester, Maryland Collaboration
2017-09-01
Recent Coulomb excitation studies on 144,146Ba using the GRETINA-CHICO2 detection system with post-accelerated CARIBU beams have confirmed the existence of enhanced E3 transitions in these isotopes which are centered in a region that has long been predicted to exhibit stable octupole-deformed shapes. Furthermore, the widely-varying E1 strength observed between these isotopes is well-accounted for by models having octupole-deformed potentials, and the variation has been linked to increased occupancies of specific single-particle orbitals in the reflection-asymmetric potential. This talk will summarize the most recent experimental and theoretical results. In addition, data on octupole-related properties in the surrounding isotopes will be discussed in an attempt to better understand the origin and evolution of octupole collectivity in this mass region. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL, GRETINA), DOE DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), DE-AC07-05ID14517 (INL), and MINECO (Spain).
Shell evolution of stable N = 50-56 Zr and Mo nuclei with respect to low-lying octupole excitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregor, E.T.; Scheck, M.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L.P.; Keatings, J.; Mashtakov, K.R.; O' Donnell, D.; Smith, J.F.; Spagnoletti, P.; Wiseman, C. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Thuerauf, M.; Werner, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)
2017-03-15
For the N = 50-56 zirconium (Z = 40) and molybdenum (Z = 42) isotopes, the evolution of subshells is evaluated by extracting the effective single-particle energies from available particle-transfer data. The extracted systematic evolution of neutron subshells and the systematics of the excitation energy of the octupole phonons provide evidence for type-II shape coexistence in the Zr isotopes. Employing a simplistic approach, the relative effective single-particle energies are used to estimate whether the formation of low-lying octupole-isovector excitations is possible at the proposed energies. The results raise doubts about this assignment. (orig.)
Electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catara, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Van Giai, N.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay
1991-01-01
The electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states corresponding to the multi-excitation of giant resonances is studied. The calculations are performed within a boson expansion approach and the elementary modes are constructed in random phase approximation (RPA). The rates for direct transition of two-phonon states to the ground state turn out to be not negligibly smaller than those from the (single) giant resonances. The former transitions are accompanied by a γ-ray whose energy is equal to the sum of the two phonon energies. Thus the detection of such high energy γ-rays could provide a signature of the excitation of two-phonon states. (author) 9 refs., 3 tabs
Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation
Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S
2008-01-01
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.
Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation
We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.
Identification of Excited States in 226U: Evidence for Octupole Deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenlees, P.T.; Amzal, N.; Andreyev, A.; Butler, P.A.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Enqvist, T.; Fallon, P.; Gall, B.; Guttormsen, M.; Hawcroft, D.; Helariutta, K.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hoellinger, F.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaa, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Messelt, S.; Muikku, M.; Odegard, S.; Page, R.D.; Savelius, A.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tveter, T.; Uusitalo, J.
1999-01-01
The level scheme of 226 U has been deduced from the results of two experiments carried out at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. Both α- and γ-ray-spectroscopic techniques have been employed. The interleaved states of positive- and negative-parity indicate the octupole nature of this nucleus, and the behavior of the difference in aligned angular momentum between the positive- and negative-parity bands as a function of rotational frequency is consistent with that expected for a rotating reflection-asymmetric shape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, P.E.; Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Olive, D.H.; Varner, R.L.; Sherrill, B.; Thoennessen, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lefevre, F.; Marques, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Mittig, W.; Ostendorf, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Schutz, Y.; Pol, J. van; Wilschut, H.W.; Diaz, J.; Ferrero, J.L.; Marin, A.
1994-01-01
Projectile - phonon coincidences were measured for the scattering of an 80 MeV/nucleon 64 Zn beam from 208 Pb and 209 Bi targets at the GANIL heavy ion accelerator facility. Projectile-like particles between 0.5 and 4.5 relative to the incident beam direction were detected in the SPEG energy loss spectrometer where their momentum, charge, and mass were determined. Photons were detected in the BaF 2 scintillation detector array TAPS. Light charged particles produced in the reaction were detected in the KVI Forward Wall. The analysis of the data acquired in this experiment is focused on three different phenomena: (1) the two phonon giant dipole resonance, (2) time dependence of the decay of the one phonon giant dipole resonance, and (3) giant resonance strength in projectile nuclei. (orig.)
Dou, Yanxin; Jamieson, David N.; Liu, Jianli; Li, Liyi
2018-03-01
This paper describes the design of a new probe forming lens system consisting of a high excitation magnetic quadrupole lens quadruplet that incorporates a single magnetic octupole lens. This system achieves both a high demagnification and a low spherical aberration compared to conventional high excitation systems and is intended for deployment for the Harbin 300 MeV proton microprobe for applications in space science and ion beam therapy. This relative simplicity of the ion optical design to include a single octupole lens minimizes the risks associated with the constructional and operational precision usually needed for the probe forming lens system and this system could also be deployed in microprobe systems that operate with less magnetically rigid ions. The design of the new system is validated with reference to two independent ion optical computer codes.
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{142}$Ba and $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the HIE-ISOLDE facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^-$ state in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^-$ state using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The results will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei.
Two-phonon states in nuclei - from surface vibrations to wobbling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, Ikuko
2003-01-01
Being stimulated by the recent identification of the two-phonon wobbling excitation, first I make a brief survey of various two-phonon states in nuclear physics, in connection with experimental observations. Then, I discuss the wobbling-phonon excitation in the presence of particle alignments, which is nicely pinned down in the recent experiments of the nucleus 71 163 Lu 92 . (author)
We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide intense post-accelerated $^{144}$Ba ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ state in this nucleus. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decay connecting the 3$^{-}$ and 2$^{+}$ states using the MINIBALL array, we can obtain the interesting transition matrix element. The result will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in this nucleus. We require 27 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilhelmy, Julius; Derya, Vera; Endres, Janis; Hennig, Andreas; Zilges, Andreas [Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Tornow, Werner [Department of Physics, Duke University (United States)
2015-07-01
The harmonic coupling of a quadrupole and an octupole vibrational excitation results in a quintuplet of J{sup π}=1{sup -} to 5{sup -} vibrational states at the sum of the constituent excitation energies. Their detailed γ-decay behavior can provide information about their structure. For {sup 40}Ca and {sup 140}Ce, possible two-phonon E1 excitations were studied with the high-efficiency γ{sup 3} setup at the High Intensity γ-ray Source facility at TUNL in Durham, USA. The γ{sup 3} setup consists of an array of HPGe and LaBr{sub 3} detectors with high efficiency and enables the measurement of γ-γ coincidences. The determination of the B(E2; 1{sub 1}{sup -} → 3{sub 1}{sup -}) value was possible showing a dominant two-phonon character of the 1{sup -}{sub 1} state in {sup 40}Ca. For the same decay in {sup 140}Ce, an upper limit for the reduced transition probability can be given and an unexpected E1 decay to the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state was observed. The experimental results are presented and discussed with regard to systematics and theoretical predictions.
Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.
The single-particle neutron states in 112Cd have been probed with the 111Cd(d,p) reaction. Beams of up to 1.2 µA of polarized 22 MeV deuterons bombarded 111Cd targets. The reaction protons were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with spectra were recorded at 10 angles between 10 and 60° with a resolution of 6-7 keV FWHM. In addition to the (d,p) transfer data, (d,d) elastic-scattering data were also obtained and used to ascertain the proper optical model parameters. Cross sections and analyzing powers for all levels observed to be populated were fit to results of DWBA and ADWA calculations, and spectroscopic factors were determined. The 5- level at 2373 keV, previously assigned as a member on the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet set of states because of its enhanced B(E2;5 - to 31 - ) value, was observed to be one of the strongest peaks in the spectrum, and is reassigned as the s1/2 otimes h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration.
Exotic nuclear shapes - Axial and nonaxial octupoles at normal and at super-deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skalski, J [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Heenen, P [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Bonche, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Centre d` Application et de Promotion des Rayonnements Ionisants; Flocard, H [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Meyer, J [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)
1992-08-01
We have studied collective octupole dynamics including nonaxial components of the octupole mean field, mainly at superdeformed shape in the Hg-Pb region. Both the Strutinsky method combined with cranking and the generator coordinate method within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock basis suggest the existence of collective octupole excitations at the superdeformed minima. GCM calculations point out to the E1 transitions as their most prominent experimental manifestation. We also comment on the nonaxial octupole components influence on octupole dynamics in traditional octupole region of Ra-Th nuclei. (author). 38 refs., 6 figs.
Decay of quadrupole-octupole 1- states in 40Ca and 140Ce
Derya, V.; Tsoneva, N.; Aumann, T.; Bhike, M.; Endres, J.; Gooden, M.; Hennig, A.; Isaak, J.; Lenske, H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Tornow, W.; Werner, V.; Zilges, A.
2016-03-01
Background: Two-phonon excitations originating from the coupling of two collective one-phonon states are of great interest in nuclear structure physics. One possibility to generate low-lying E 1 excitations is the coupling of quadrupole and octupole phonons. Purpose: In this work, the γ -decay behavior of candidates for the (21+⊗31-)1- state in the doubly magic nucleus 40Ca and in the heavier and semimagic nucleus 140Ce is investigated. Methods: (γ ⃗,γ') experiments have been carried out at the High Intensity γ -ray Source (HI γ S ) facility in combination with the high-efficiency γ -ray spectroscopy setup γ3 consisting of HPGe and LaBr3 detectors. The setup enables the acquisition of γ -γ coincidence data and, hence, the detection of direct decay paths. Results: In addition to the known ground-state decays, for 40Ca the decay into the 31- state was observed, while for 140Ce the direct decays into the 21+ and the 02+ state were detected. The experimentally deduced transition strengths and excitation energies are compared to theoretical calculations in the framework of EDF theory plus QPM approach and systematically analyzed for N =82 isotones. In addition, negative parities for two J =1 states in 44Ca were deduced simultaneously. Conclusions: The experimental findings together with the theoretical calculations support the two-phonon character of the 11- excitation in the light-to-medium-mass nucleus 40Ca as well as in the stable even-even N =82 nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bizzeti, P.G.; Bizzetti-Sona, A.M.
1998-01-01
The mean lives of the lowest 9 - and 12 + states of 146 Sm have been measured by means of the RDM. Their (preliminary) values are r m (9 - )=0.97±0.05 ns and r m (12 + )=15±2 ps, respectively. The strengths of the collective E3 transitions of the 12 + →9 - →6 6 cascade are compared with the corresponding ones in 148 Gd
Studies of Stable Octupole Deformations in the Radium Region
2002-01-01
The purpose of the present project is to locate and identify states in the atomic nuclei possessing stable pearshaped octupole deformation. Such states, formally related to the structures known in molecular physics, manifest themselves as families of parity doublets in odd nuclei.\\\\ \\\\ The best possibilities for observing stable octupole deformations are offered in the Ra-region. Both theoretical calculations and experimental indications support such expectations. Such indications are the non-observation of two-phonon octupole vibrational states in the ISOLDE studies of the even-even radium nuclei, and the reversed sign of the decoupling factor of the ground state band in |2|2|5Ra observed in the single-neutron transfer reactions. In order to establish the predicted strong E1 and E3-transitions between the parity doublets in odd nuclei with stable octupole deformations it is proposed to study conversion electrons in odd-mass francium radium and radon isotopes following the @b-decay of francium and astatine. \\...
Two-phonon giant resonances in 136Xe, 208Pb, and 238U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boretzky, K.; Gruenschloss, A.; Ilievski, S.; Adrich, P.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Cub, J.; Dostal, W.; Eberlein, B.; Elze, T.W.; Emling, H.; Fallot, M.; Holeczek, J.; Holzmann, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Leistenschneider, A.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Mordechai, S.; Ohtsuki, T.; Reiter, P.; Simon, H.; Stelzer, K.; Stroth, J.; Suemmerer, K.; Surowiec, A.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.
2003-07-01
The excitation of the double-phonon giant dipole resonance was observed in heavy projectile nuclei impinging on targets of high nuclear charge with energies of 500-700 MeV/nucleon. New experimental data are presented for 136 Xe and 238 U together with further analysis of earlier data on 208 Pb. Differential cross sections dσ/dE * and dσ/dθ for electromagnetic excitations were deduced. Depending on the isotope, cross sections appear to be enhanced in comparison to those expected from a purely harmonic nuclear dipole response. The cumulative effect of excitations of two-phonon states composed of one dipole and one quadrupole phonon, of predicted anharmoniticies in the double-phonon dipole response, and of damping of the dipole resonance during the collision may account for the discrepancy. In addition, decay properties of two-phonon resonances were studied and compared to that of a statistical decay. (orig.)
Two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behera, S.N.; Samsur, Sk.
1980-01-01
The question of the occurrence of two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals is investigated. It is shown that the anharmonicity mediated two-phonon bound state which is present in perfect crystals gets modified due to the presence of impurities. Moreover, the possibility of the occurrence of a purely impurity mediated two-phonon bound state is demonstrated. The bound state frequencies are calculated using the simple Einstein oscillator model for the host phonons. The two-phonon density of states for the imperfect crystal thus obtained has peaks at the combination and difference frequencies of two host phonons besides the peaks at the bound state frequencies. For a perfect crystal the theory predicts a single peak at the two-phonon bound state frequency in conformity with experimental observations and other theoretical calculations. Experimental data on the two-phonon infrared absorption and Raman scattering from mixed crystals of Gasub(1-c)Alsub(c)P and Gesub(1-c)Sisub(c) are analysed to provide evidence in support of impurity-mediated two-phonon bound states. The relevance of the zero frequency (difference spectrum) peak to the central peak, observed in structural phase transitions, is conjectured. (author)
Octupole shapes in heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.
1994-01-01
Theoretical calculations and measurements show the presence of strong octupole correlations in thecyround states and low-lying states of odd-mass and odd-odd nuclei in the RaPa region. Evidence for octupole correlations is provided by the observation of parity doublets and reductions in M1 matrix elements, decoupling parameters, and Coriolis matrix elements Involving high-j states. Enhancement of E1 transition rates has also been observed for some of the octupole deformed nuclei. The most convincing argument for octupole deformation is provided by the similarities of the reduced alpha decay rates to the two members of parity doublets
Collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Y.
1982-01-01
The Pauli principle in the two-phonon components of the wave functions is taken into account within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of the nucleus with phonon operators depending on the sign of the projection of the angular momentum. The centroid energies of collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated and it is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle shifts them by 1--3 MeV to higher energies. The shifts of the three-phonon poles due to the inclusion of the Pauli principle in the three-phonon components of the wave functions are calculated. Strong fragmentation of collective two-phonon states whose energy centroids are 3--5 MeV should be expected. It is concluded that collective two-phonon states need not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation with the 168 Er nucleus and the Th and U isotopes is analyzed
Situation with collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.
1982-01-01
Within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the operators of phonons depending on the sign of the angular momentum projection, the Pauli principle is taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. The centroid energies of the collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle leads to their shift by 1-3 MeV towards high energies. The shifts of three-phonon poles due to the Pauli principle are calculated in the three-phonon components of the wave functions. The collective two-phonon states, the centroid energies of which are 3-5 MeV, are expected to be strongly fragmented. The conclusion is confirmed that the collective two-phonon states should not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation in 168 Er and in the 228 Th isotopes is analysed
Octupole Deformed Nuclei in the Actinide Region
Thorsteinsen, T; Rubio barroso, B; Simpson, J; Gulda, K; Sanchez-vega, M; Cocks, J; Nybo, K; Garcia borge, M; Aas, A; Fogelberg, B; Honsi, J; Smith, G; Naumann, R; Grant, I
2002-01-01
The aim of the present study is to investigate the limits of the "island" of octupole deformation in the mass region A=225. It is of particular importance to demonstrate experimentally the sudden disappearance of the stable octupole deformation in the presence of a well developed quadrupole field. \\\\ \\\\In order to establish the upper border line the $\\beta$ -decay chains of $^{227}$Rn $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{227}$Ra and $^{231}$Fr $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ra $\\rightarrow ^{231}$Ac were studied at PSB-ISOLDE using advanced fast timing and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy techniques. The lifetimes of the excited states have been measured in the picosecond range using the time-delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method.
Octupole correlation effects in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1992-01-01
Octupole correlation effects in nuclei are discussed from the point of view of many-body wavefunctions as well as mean-field methods. The light actinides, where octupole effects are largest, are considered in detail. Comparisons of theory and experiment are made for energy splittings of parity doublets; E1 transition matrix elements and one-nucleon transfer reactions
Fragmentation of two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational strength in deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
1996-12-31
Rotational and vibrational modes of collective motion. are very useful in classifying the low-lying excited states in deformed nuclei. The rotational mode of collective motion is characterized by rotational bands having correlated level energies and strongly-enhanced E2 matrix elements. The lowest intrinsic excitation with I,K{sup {pi}} = 2,2{sup +} in even-even deformed nuclei, typically occurring at {approx}1 MeV, is classified as a one-phonon {gamma}-vibration state. In a pure harmonic vibration limit, the expected two-phonon {gamma}-vibration states with I,K{sup {pi}} = 0,0{sup +} and 4,4{sup +} should have excitation energies at twice that of the I,K{sup {pi}} = 2,2{sup +} excitation, i.e. {approx}2 MeV, which usually is above the pairing gap leading to possible mixing with two-quasiparticle configurations. Therefore, the question of the localization of two-phonon {gamma}-vibration strength has been raised because mixing may lead to fragmentation of the two-phonon strength over a range of excitation energy. For several well-deformed nuclei, an assignment of I,K{sup {pi}}=4,4{sup +} states as being two-phonon vibrational excitations has been suggested based on the excitation energies and the predominant {gamma}-ray decay to the I,K{sup {pi}}=2,2{sup +} state. However, absolute B(E2) values connecting the presumed two- and one-phonon states are the only unambiguous measure of double phonon excitation. Such B(E2) data are available for {sup 156}Gd, {sup 160}Dy, {sup 168}Er, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 186,188,190,192}Os. Except for {sup 160}Dy, the measured B(E2) values range from 2-3 Weisskopf units in {sup 156}Gd to 10-20 Weisskopf units in osmium nuclei; enhancement that is consistent with collective modes of motion.
Manipulation of Squeezed Two-Phonon Bound States using Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakamura Kazutaka G.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-phonon bound states have been excited exclusively in ZnTe(110 via impulsive stimulated second-order Raman scattering, essentially being squeezed states due to phase coherent excitation of two identical components anticorrelated in the wave vector. By using coherent control technique with a pair of femtosecond laser pulses, the manipulation of squeezed states has been demonstrated in which both the amplitude and lifetime of coherent oscillations of squeezed states are modulated, indicating the feasibility to control the quantum noise and the quantum nature of phonon squeezed states, respectively.
Octupole correlations in 225Th
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, J.R.
1989-12-01
The nuclear structure of 225 Th has been studied using the reaction 226 Ra(α, 5n) 225 Th at a beam energy of 50 MeV. In-beam γ-γ, e - -n, e - e - and e - γ coincidences have been measured, using the TESSA3 array at the Daresbury NSF and the Double Orange spectrometer at the University of Bonn Cyclotron. γ-ray and electron energies and intensities, γ-ray angular distribution ratios and electron subshell ratios and conversion coefficients have been used to establish a decay scheme up to spin (39/2) ℎ and excitation energy E x ≅ 2.5 MeV. The decay scheme is found to be characterised by two ΔJ = 1 rotational bands, and these are classified in terms of the simplex quantum number, s, which is expected to be conserved for an octupole nucleus. No band crossings are observed up to a rotational frequency of ℎw ≅ 0.21 and 0.18 MeV in the s = -i and +i bands, respectively. Parity doublets have been observed, with enhanced E1 transitions linking states of opposite parity. γ-branching ratios have been measured and an average value of | Q 1 | Q 2 | (0.51±0.06) x 10 -3 ; fm -1 has been deduced. The results are compared with various calculations incorporating odd multipole degrees of freedom in the description of the nuclear shape. (author)
Octupole correlations in superdeformed states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakatsukasa, T; Arita, K; Matsuyanagi, K [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizutori, S [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study; Shimizu, Y R [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1992-08-01
We suggest that properties of single-particle motions in superdeformed nuclei may be significantly affected by coupling effects with low-frequency octupole vibrational modes with K = 0, 1, 2 and 3. We also indicate a possible relationship between octupole instability of superdeformed shape and supershell effects. In this connection, stability of classical periodic orbits and of KAM tori for single-particle motions in a reflection-asymmetric superdeformed potential are investigated. (author). 12 refs., 9 figs.
The octupoles take pole position
2002-01-01
The first preseries octupole magnet was delivered to CERN in December 2001. Hooked up to a main quadrupole magnet, its function will be to correct imperfections in the beams. The LHC will be fitted with about 5000 corrector magnets, whose task it will be to provide maximum precision in beam collisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R.
1991-01-01
Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for 146,148 Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; France, G. de; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)
1991-01-24
Two discrete superdeformed (SD) bands have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd and the twin-band mechanism studied by comparison with SD results for {sup 146,148}Gd. Theoretical interprettion in terms of nucleonic orbitals with the Woods-Saxon potential is consistent with the pseudo-spin symmetry picture and the octupole susceptibility mechanism predicted by theory. (orig.).
A review of experimental evidence for octupole deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zylicz, J.
1986-08-01
Experimental evidence for octupole correlations, which lead to octupole instability and octupole deformation of some nuclei, is illustrated through typical examples. Data are considered for both the 220< A<230 region and for a few medium mass nuclei. (orig.)
Octupole correlations in the heavy elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1986-01-01
The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2 6 -pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab
Octupole correlations in positive-parity states of rare-earth and actinide nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Spieker M.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution, further evidence of the importance of multiphonon-octupole excitations to describe experimental data in the rare earths and actinides will be presented. First, new results of a (p, t experiment at the Q3D magnetic spectrograph in Munich will be discussed, which was performed to selectively excite Jπ = 0+ states in 240Pu. spdf interacting boson model (IBM calculations suggest that the previously proposed double-octupole phonon nature of the Jπ = 0+2 state is not in conflict with its strong (p, t population. Second, the framework of the IBM has been adopted for the description of experimental observables related to octupole excitations in the rare earths. Here, the IBM is able to describe the signature splitting for positiveand negative-parity states when multi-dipole and multi-octupole bosons are included. The present study might support the idea of octupole-phonon condensation at intermediate spin (Jπ = 10+ leading to the change in yrast structure observed in 146Nd.
'Static' octupole deformation at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazarewicz, W.
1985-01-01
Rotational bands characterized by spin states of alternating parity p=(-1) I connected by enhanced E1 transitions have recently been observed in several nuclei from the Ra-Th region. They can be interpreted by means of a reflection asymmetric mean field theory. The interplay between octupole deformation and rotation is briefly discussed. For nuclei with ground state octupole deformation a transition to a reflection symmetric shape is expected around I=22. (orig.)
Effect of Pauli principle accounting an the two-phonon states of spherical nuclej
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, Ch.; Nikolaeva, R.
1983-01-01
The effect of account for the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of the wave functions on low-lying collective states of even-even spherical nuclei is investigated. The calculations are performed for sup(114, 116)Sn and sup(142, 144, 146, 148)Sm. The account of the Pauli principle is shown to exert a weak effect on the states with large one-phonon or two-phonon components. It is concluded that in some spherical nuclei sufficiently pure two-phonon states may exist
Comparative study of the two-phonon Raman bands of silicene and graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, Valentin N; Lambin, Philippe
2016-01-01
We present a computational study of the two-phonon Raman spectra of silicene and graphene within a density-functional non-orthogonal tight-binding model. Due to the presence of linear bands close to the Fermi energy in the electronic structure of both structures, the Raman scattering by phonons is resonant. We find that the Raman spectra exhibit a crossover behavior for laser excitation close to the π-plasmon energy. This phenomenon is explained by the disappearance of certain paths for resonant Raman scattering and the appearance of other paths beyond this energy. Besides that, the electronic joint density of states (DOS) is divergent at this energy, which is reflected on the behavior of the Raman bands of the two structures in a qualitatively different way. Additionally, a number of Raman bands, originating from divergent phonon DOS at the M point and at points, inside the Brillouin zone, is also predicted. The calculated spectra for graphene are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. The obtained Raman bands can be used for structural characterization of silicene and graphene samples by Raman spectroscopy. (paper)
Wang, Zi-Wu; Li, Shu-Shen
2012-07-01
We investigate the spin-flip relaxation in quantum dots using a non-radiation transition approach based on the descriptions for the electron-phonon deformation potential and Fröhlich interaction in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We give the comparisons of the electron relaxations with and without spin-flip assisted by one and two-phonon processes. Calculations are performed for the dependence of the relaxation time on the external magnetic field, the temperature and the energy separation between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground and first-excited state. We find that the electron relaxation time of the spin-flip process is more longer by three orders of magnitudes than that of no spin-flip process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.
1974-01-01
The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)
Influence of the Pauli principle on the two-phonon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djolos, R.V.; Molina, J.L.; Soloviev, V.G.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the commutation relations between quasiparticles forming phonons can correctly be taken into account within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The case of the even-even deformed nuclei is studied. Exact and approximate secular equations are obtained. The corrections arising due to the Pauli principle are shown to be large for the two-phonon components of the wave functions, when the phonons are identical. The influence of the Pauli principle on the energies of the two-phonon states and radiative strength functions requires further investigation [ru
Odd-even parity splittings and octupole correlations in neutron-rich Ba isotopes
Fu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.-J.; Yao, J. M.
2018-02-01
The odd-even parity splittings in low-lying parity-doublet states of atomic nuclei with octupole correlations have usually been interpreted as rotational excitations on top of octupole vibration in the language of collective models. In this paper, we report a deep analysis of the odd-even parity splittings in the parity-doublet states of neutron-rich Ba isotopes around neutron number N =88 within a full microscopic framework of beyond-mean-field multireference covariant energy density functional theory. The dynamical correlations related to symmetry restoration and quadrupole-octupole shape fluctuation are taken into account with a generator coordinate method combined with parity, particle-number, and angular-momentum projections. We show that the behavior of odd-even parity splittings is governed by the interplay of rotation, quantum tunneling, and shape evolution. Similar to 224Ra, a picture of rotation-induced octupole shape stabilization in the positive-parity states is exhibited in the neutron-rich Ba isotopes.
Perturbation analysis of octupoles in circular accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moohyun Yoon
1998-01-01
The octupole effects in a circular accelerator are analyzed using a first-order canonical perturbation theory. It is shown that, to the first order, the nonlinear amplitude-dependent tune shifts due to an octupole are composed of two types: terms of second order and terms of fourth order in betatron-oscillation amplitudes. The fourth-order part of tune shifts is expressed in terms of distortion functions. Distortion functions are also expanded in harmonics to express the higher-order tune shifts in harmonically expanded form. Finally, the results are applied to an accelerator and compared with the results of numerical tracking of particles. Laskar's algorithm for numerical analysis of the fundamental frequency is used to determine tunes from the tracking data, in which the error becomes inversely proportional to the cube of the number of data points. (author)
ICRH experiments in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1974-01-01
A 100 kW, 144 μsec pulse of 1.4 MHz rf is used to heat plasmas with densities less than or equal to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 at the ion cyclotron frequency in a toroidal octupole. The rf is coupled to the plasma by a single turn, electrostatically shielded hoop coaxial to the four main hoops and located near the wall. Absorbed power is inferred from plasma loading of the hoop and measured directly with an electrostatic ion energy analyzer and compared to single particle resonance heating theory
Two-phonon absorption spectra and lattice vibration anisotropy in HfS2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riede, V.; Neumann, H.; Sobotta, H.
1983-01-01
The infrared absorption spectra for E-vector perpendicular to c-vector in the two-phonon combination mode range is measured and analysed in order to get additional information about the A/sub 2u/ mode frequencies in HfS 2 . The lattice vibrational properties have been analysed in terms of the polarizable ion model. This model accounts for the long-range Coulomb terms of the charge and the static dipole induced by the structural anisotropy at each anion site
One- and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, H.; Botha, N.T.; Burda, O.; Carter, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fransen, C.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Scholten, O.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.; Wambach, J.
2007-01-01
High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states of the nucleus 94 Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2 + states is extracted
Electron scattering from the octupole band in 238U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, A.; Creswell, C.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Hynes, M.V.; Kowalski, S.; Miska, H.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sargent, C.P.; Sasanuma, T.; Turchinetz, W.
1978-01-01
A simple model for nuclear surface vibrations in permanently deformed nuclei does well in reproducing electron scattering cross sections of rotational levels built on a K/sup π/= 0 - intrinsic octupole vibration in 238 U
On the octupole deformation in Ra-Th region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.; Boening, K.; Sobiczewski, A.
1986-03-01
The problem of the existence of a stable octupole deformation in Ra-Th region has been reinvestigated using a Nilsson single-particle potential with a newly fitted set of parameters, which reproduce the spins of the ground states of odd-A nuclei. In the energy surfaces, calculated for 222 Ra and 222 Th, the octupole deformed minima, separated by the barriers of 150 KeV and 210 keV, respectively, have been obtained. (orig.)
Landau damping dynamic aperture and octupole in LHC
Gareyte, Jacques; Ruggiero, F
1997-01-01
Maximization of the dynamic aperture and Landau damping of the collective instabilities are partly conflicting requirements. On the one hand, the non-linearities of the lattice must be minimized at large oscillation amplitude to guarantee the stability of the single particle motion. On the other hand, a spread of the betatron frequencies is necessary to guarantee the stability of the collective motion of bunches of particles; this requires the introduction of non-linearities effective at small amplitudes. We show in this note that the `natural' spread of betatron tunes due to the field imperfections is inadequate or Landau damping. An octupole scheme is required to provide collective stability at high energy. At low energy it may be used to find the optimum between the correction of the octupolar field imperfections and Landau damping. The solution of the stability problem taking into account the two degrees of freedom of the transverse motion allows a significant saving in octupole strength: 144 octupoles wi...
Excitation energy of the lowest 2+ and 3- levels in 32Mg and 146Gd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barranco, M.; Lombard, R.J.
1978-06-01
The excitation energy of the lowest 2 + and 3 - levels are calculated for neutron rich Mg-isotopes as well as for N=82 isotones. The calculations are made by assuming quadrupole-quadrupole and octupole-octupole forces. The quasi-particles energies and occupation numbers are taken from the energy density method
About octupole states in the 158Dy and the 168Er nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvasil, Ya.; Chariev, M.M.; Choriev, B.
1984-01-01
The properties of negative parity low-lying states in 158 Dy and 168 Er in the random phase approximation based on the cranking model are investigated. Octupole-octupole forces have been used as a residual interaction. Calculated energy levels are compared with the experimental ones, and also with the energy values obtained with making allowance for dipole-dipole, octupole-octupole and dipole-octupole type forces. The resuits of calculation by the used model permit to understand the nature of negative parity low-lying states
Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, K.M.
1990-01-01
Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Isomer shifts of the octupole doublet in muonic 207Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budick, B.; Anigstein, R.; Kast, J.W.
1980-01-01
Isomer shifts in the doublet 5/2 + , 7/2 + levels in muonic 207 Pb have been measured. The shifts are essentially the same as in the core 3 - collective state. They support the hypothesis that the octupole vibration does not conserve volume. (orig.)
Lausch, Tobias; Widera, Artur; Fleischhauer, Michael
2018-03-01
We numerically study the relaxation dynamics of a single, heavy impurity atom interacting with a finite one- or two-dimensional, ultracold Bose gas. While there is a clear separation of time scales between processes resulting from single- and two-phonon scattering in three spatial dimensions, the thermalization in lower dimensions is dominated by two-phonon processes. This is due to infrared divergences in the corresponding scattering rates in the thermodynamic limit, which are a manifestation of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem. This makes it necessary to include second-order phonon scattering above a crossover temperature T2ph . T2ph scales inversely with the system size and is much smaller than currently experimentally accessible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.
1990-01-01
Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the γ-ray energies of the yrast SD band in 146 Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in 148 Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.)
Correction of chromatic and geometric aberrations using sextupoles and octupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colton, E.
1978-01-01
The procedure for applying some chromatic corrections to a final transport line, neglecting space charge, utilizing the method suggested by Brown is described. The possibility of including octupoles into a point-to-point triplet system, as outlined by Fenster is studied. Positive results were obtained in both cases: (i) using 2 + I correcting sections with two pairs of non-interlaced sextupoles increased the fraction of beam with ΔP/P = 1% onto a 0.1 cm radius target by more than a factor of 1.75; (ii) six octupoles placed into a point-to-point triplet system increased the fraction of a full emittance ΔP/P = 0% beam striking a 0.1 cm radius target by a factor of 2.5
Ion cyclotron-resonance heating in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1975-01-01
rf power near the ion cyclotron-resonance frequency has been used to produce a hundredfold increase (from approximately-less-than1 to approx.100 eV) in the ion temperature in a toroidal octupole device. The heating produces no noticeable instabilities or other deleterious effects except for a high reflux of neutrals from the walls. The heating rate is consistent with theory and the limiting ion temperature is determined by charge-exchange losses
Influence of an octupole arrangement of electrodes on drift waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, D.; Piel, A.; Schroeder, Ch.; Klinger, T.
2001-01-01
In order to influence drift waves an octupole arrangement of electrodes is placed in direct vicinity of the plasma. By applying sinusoidal signals with proper phase shift to the electrodes synchronisation of drift waves is observed. The width of the synchronisation area is taken to quantify the interaction of the electrodes with the plasma. It turns out that the synchronisability strongly depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase shift and has to be interpreted as spatiotemporal effect. (orig.)
Octupole deformation in {sup 148}Nd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibbotson, R; Kotlinski, B; Cline, DD; Devlin, M; Helmer, K G; Kavka, A E; Vogt, E G; Wu, C Y [Rochester Univ., NY (United States); White, C A; Butler, P A; Clarkson, N; Hoare, T H; Jones, G D [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Czosnyka, T [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Cunningham, R A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Hughes, J R; Poyntern, R J; Regan, P; Wadsworth, R; Watson, D L [York Univ. (United Kingdom)
1992-08-01
E1, E2 and E3 matrix elements have been determined for transitions between states up to spin 13 in {sup 148}Nd. These values were obtained from Coulomb excitation data using {sup 58}Ni and {sup 92}Mo ions, projectile excitation using a {sup 208}Pb target, and from recoil distance lifetime measurements. The results are consistent with a description of {sup 148}Nb having fairly constant intrinsic-frame moments of Q{sub 20} = +400 efm{sup 2} ({beta}{sub 2}{sup rms} {approx}+0.22), Q{sub 30}{sup sum} {approx}1600 efm{sup 3} ({beta}{sub 3}{sup rms} {approx}0.16) for the positive parity states and Q{sub 20} =+330 efm{sup 2} ({beta}{sub 2}{sup rms} {approx}+0.18), Q{sub 30}{sup sum} {approx}2000 efm{sup 3} ({beta}{sub 3}{sup rms} {approx}0.21) for the negative parity states. (author). 23 refs., 3 figs.
Report from LHC MD 2171: Amplitude dependent closest tune approach from normal and skew octupoles
Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Carlier, Felix Simon; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2018-01-01
Simulation-based studies predict signiﬁcant amplitude-dependent closest tune approach can be generated by skew octupole sources in conjunction with their normal octupolar counterparts. This has the potential to signiﬁcantly inﬂuence Landau damping at small β∗, where skew octupole errors in the experimental IRs, together with b4 introduced by the Landau octupoles, is predicted to cause large distortion of the tune footprint. This MD aimed to perform a ﬁrst exploration of these predictions with beam, by enhancing skew octupole sources in the IRs at injection and measuring amplitude detuning with free kicks in the plane approaching the coupling resonance.
We propose to study excited states in isotopes north-east of the doubly-magic $^{132}$Sn by $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy following "safe" Coulomb excitation. The experiment aims to the determine B(E2) and B(E3) values to follow the evolution of quadrupole and octupole collectivity when going away from the shell closures at Z = 50 and N = 82. The B(E2; 0$^+_{gs}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$^+_{1}$) values in the even isotopes $^{138-144}$Xe have been measured at REX-ISOLDE and the systematic trend towards neutron-rich nuclei is well described even by an empirical Grodzins-type formula. An increasing dipole moment observed for $^{140,142}$Xe is interpreted as indirect signature of increasing octupole correlations peaking at N = 88. So far, no B(E3) values are known. In contrast to the Xe isotopes, the Te ones, in particular $^{136}$Te, are known for their notoriously irregular behaviour. In order to understand the nuclear structure also on a microscopic basis, the isotope $^{136}$Te with just one pair of protons and neutrons...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P.; Smirnova, N.A; Pietralla, N.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; Mizusaki, T.
2000-01-01
The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2 + 1 state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the γ-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei 142 Ce and 94 Mo. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnova, N.A.; Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Smirnova, N.A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse]|[Institute for Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N. [Institut fur Kernphysik, Universitat zu Koln (Germany)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab; Mizusaki, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2000-07-01
The interrelation between the octupole phonon and the low-lying proton-neutron mixed-symmetry quadrupole in near-spherical nuclei is investigated. The one-phonon states decay by collective E3 and E2 transitions to the ground state and by relatively strong E1 and M1 transitions to the isoscalar 2{sup +}{sub 1} state. We apply the proton-neutron version of the Interacting Boson Model including quadrupole and octupole bosons (sdf-IBM-2). Two F-spin symmetric dynamical symmetry limits of the model, namely the vibrational and the {gamma}-unstable ones, are considered. We derived analytical formulae for excitation energies as well as B(E1), B(M1), B(E2), and B(E3) values for a number of transitions between low-lying states. The model well reproduces many known transition strengths in the near spherical nuclei {sup 142}Ce and {sup 94}Mo. (authors)
The broad Brillouin doublet and CP of KTaO3, second sound vs. Two-phonon difference scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhi, E.; Tagantsev, A.K.; Hehlen, B.; Courtens, E.; Boatner, L.A.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Low-T Brillouin spectra of the incipient ferroelectric KTaO 3 exhibit a broad central peak (CP) (1), and some additional broad Brillouin doublet (BD) (2), that can both relate to phonon-density fluctuations (3). Starting from extensive new high resolution neutron scattering measurements in pure crystals, low lying phonon sheets were modelled in the central part of Brillouin zone. Such a parameterisation was then used in order to analyse those up-mentioned unusual features in teens of two-phonon mechanisms (4). Numerical evaluations show that transverse acoustic (TA) phonons whose normal damping is faster than the BD frequency (Γ DB > ω DB ) may produce hydrodynamic second sound (propagation of heat). Moreover, two-phonon difference scattering from low damping thermal TA phonons ((Γ DB DB ) can contribute to the spectra with either a sharp or a broader BD, depending on the phonon group velocity and phonon-sheet anisotropy. The position of the doublet is consistent with both mechanisms, but comparing the computed anisotropies with experimental Brillouin and neutron scattering data, one favours the second process. (author)
Evidence for octupole vibration in the superdeformed well of {sup 190}Hg from eurogam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crowell, B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others
1995-08-01
Gammasphere experiments in 1993-94 brought to light the existence of an excited superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 190}Hg with the unusual property of decaying entirely to the lowest (yrast) SD band over 3-4 transitions, rather than to the normally deformed states as is usually the case in the A {approximately} 150 and A {approximately} 190 regions of superdeformation. Although M1 transitions between signature-partner SD bands were previously observed in {sup 193}Hg, no such mechanism was available to explain the situation in the even-even nucleus {sup 190}Hg, whose yrast SD band has no signature partner. The best explanation appears to lie in long-standing theoretical predictions that the SD minimum in the potential energy surface would be quite soft with respect to octupole vibrations. This would lead to enhanced E1 transitions connecting the one-phonon and zero-phonon states. The data and this interpretation were published. A shortcoming of the Gammasphere experiments was that they did not allow the definitive measurement of the energies of the gamma-ray transitions connecting the two bands, due to the very weak population of the excited band ({approximately}0.05% of the {sup 190}Hg channel) and also partly, we believed, to the angular distributions of the transitions, which were peaked near 90 degrees, where Gammasphere had few detectors.
The multiphonon method as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piepenbring, R.
1986-09-01
The octupole correlations in nuclei are studied within the framework of the multiphonon method which is mainly the exact diagonalization of the total Hamiltonian in the space spanned by collective phonons. This treatment takes properly into account the Pauli principle. It is a microscopic approach based on a reflection symmetry of the potential. The spectroscopic properties of double even and odd-mass nuclei are nicely reproduced. The multiphonon method appears as a dynamical approach to octupole correlations in nuclei which can be compared to other models based on stable octupole deformation. 66 refs
Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouchous, D.A.
1980-11-01
Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nhan Hao, T.V.; Phu Dat, D.H.; Hoang Tung, N.; Tran, H.N.
2015-01-01
The left–right asymmetric deformation of normal deformed (ND) and superdeformed (SD) states of 194 Pb has been investigated in the framework of the parity-symmetry projection of the highly truncated diagonalization approach (HTDA), which is suited to treat the correlations in an explicitly particle-number conserving microscopic approach. A Skyrme energy density functional using the SIII and SkM* interactions has been considered to treat the particle–hole channel, whereas a density-independent δ force has been adopted for the residual interaction. The obtained results are compared with previous approaches. The calculated octupole phonon excitation energy is found to be in good qualitative agreement with available data in the ND state. (author)
Microscopic and semi-classical treatments of octupole deformation in the light actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chasman, R.R.
1984-01-01
Microscopic and semi-classical descriptions of octupole deformation are compared. New semi-classical results, obtained with the use of a Woods-Saxon potential are presented. Comparisons with experiment are made. 21 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)
1990-12-24
Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the {gamma}-ray energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 146}Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 148}Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.).
Kosevich, Yu. A.; Strelnikov, I. A.
2018-02-01
Destructive quantum interference between the waves propagating through laterally inhomogeneous layer can result in their total reflection, which in turn reduces energy flux carried by these waves. We consider the systems of Ge atoms, which fully or partly, in the chequer-wise order, fill a crystal plane in diamond-like Si lattice. We have revealed that a single type of the atomic defects, which are placed in identical positions in different unit cells in the defect crystal plane, can result in double transmission antiresonances of phonon wave packets. This new effect we relate with the complex structure of the diamond-like unit cell, which comprises two atoms in different positions and results in two distinct vibration resonances in two interfering phonon paths. We also consider the propagation of phonon wave packets in the superlatticies made of the defect planes, half-filled in the chequer-wise order with Ge atoms. We have revealed relatively broad phonon stop bands with center frequencies at the transmission antiresonances. We elaborate the equivalent analytical quasi-1D lattice model of the two phonon paths through the complex planar defect in the diamond-like lattice and describe the reduction of phonon heat transfer through the atomic-scale planar defects.
Quadrupole deformed and octupole collective bands in 228Ra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.
1998-01-01
Spins and parities for collective states in 228 Ra have been determined from conversion electron measurements with a mini-orange β spectrometer. The fast-timing βγγ(t) method has been used to measure lifetimes of T 1/2 =550(20) ps and 181(3) ps for the 2 + 1 and 4 + 1 members of the K=0 + band, and T 1/2 ≤7 ps and ≤6 ps for the 1 - 1 and 3 - 1 members of the K=0 - band, respectively. The quadrupole moments, Q 0 , deduced from the B(E2; 2 + 1 →0 + 1 ) and B(E2; 4 + 1 →2 + 1 ) rates are in good agreement with the previously measured value and the systematics of the region. However, the B(E1) rates of ≥4 x 10 -4 e 2 fm 2 , which represent the first B(E1) measurements for this nucleus, are at least 25 times larger than the value previously suggested for 228 Ra. The new results are consistent with the B(E1) rates recently measured for the neighbouring 227 Ra and reveal octupole correlations in 228 Ra. (orig.)
High power ICRH experiments on the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strait, E.J.; Fortgang, C.M.; Twichell, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.; Barter, J.D.
1980-12-01
Preliminary ICRH experiments have begun on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. In order to study heating, energy confinement, and high β plasmas, a 1.8 to 3 MHz oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator is capable of delivering 2 MW of RF power for 10 msec, and to date up to 0.5 MW has been coupled into the plasma. At a density of approx. 6 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ reaches a maximum of 30 eV as measured by Langmuir probes and VUV spectroscopy. Charge exchange measurements of T/sub i/ show Maxwellian components at 95 and 190 eV, with an energy confinement time of approx. 1 msec. Electron energy confinement is limited by impurity radiation, and several methods of impurity control are being tested. Current experiments also include direct measurement of the RF electric field, antenna loading measurements, variation of the oscillator frequency, and ohmic heating of the electrons
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.
1983-06-01
Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement
Energies and transition probabilities from the full solution of nuclear quadrupole-octupole model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strecker, M.; Lenske, H.; Minkov, N.
2013-01-01
A collective model of nuclear quadrupole-octupole vibrations and rotations, originally restricted to a coherent interplay between quadrupole and octupole modes, is now developed for application beyond this restriction. The eigenvalue problem is solved by diagonalizing the unrestricted Hamiltonian in the basis of the analytic solution obtained in the case of the coherent-mode assumption. Within this scheme the yrast alternating-parity band is constructed by the lowest eigenvalues having the appropriate parity at given angular momentum. Additionally we include the calculation of transition probabilities which are fitted with the energies simultaneously. As a result we obtain a unique set of parameters. The obtained model parameters unambiguously determine the shape of the quadrupole-octupole potential. From the resulting wave functions quadrupole deformation expectation values are calculated which are found to be in agreement with experimental values. (author)
High-power ion-cyclotron heating on the levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dexter, R.N.; Fortgang, C.M.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.; Twichell, J.C.
1982-03-01
Experiments are underway in the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole to create hot, dense plasmas to facilitate the study of β limits and related phenomena such as Pfirsch-Schlueter and bootstrap currents. The question of ballooning mode instability limits on β = 8 πnk(T/sub i/+T/sub e/)/B 2 is of general importance for all toroidal systems, and ICRF heating should permit study of high β plasmas with lower collisionality and smaller gyroradii than those of the high β gun-injected plasmas currently under study in the Octupole. To these ends we are developing sources capable of delivering 4 MW to the plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanida, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Satoh, Isamu; Komatsubara, Takemi
2006-01-01
Microscopic properties have been investigated on a cubic nonmagnetic non-Kramers Γ 3 doublet ground-state (GS) system PrAg 2 In by complementarily utilizing 115 In (I=9/2) and 109 Ag (I=1/2) NMR with particular emphasis on the low-frequency (low-ω) dipole and multipole (octupole and/or quadrupole) fluctuations of f-electrons as probed by the nuclear spin relaxation rates 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 . We show that 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 are anomalously enhanced respectively below≅50 K and ≅100K over those expected for the low-ω dipole fluctuations of the excited magnetic Γ 4 and Γ 5 states in a simple crystalline-electric-field model for a Γ 3 GS system. By comparing 1/( 115 T 1 T) and 1/( 109 T 1 T) and also by considering an invariant form of the hyperfine and/or quadrupole couplings of Γ 3 octupole and/or quadrupole moments with Ag/In nuclear dipole and/or quadrupole moments, we show that Γ 3 octupole fluctuations dominate 1/ 109 T 1 and quadrupole ones can possibly contribute to 1/ 115 T 1 at low T. (author)
Examination of different strengths of octupole correlations in neutron-rich Pr and Pm isotopes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Thiamova, G.; Alexa, P.; Hons, Zdeněk; Simpson, G.S.
2012-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 4 (2012), 044334/1-044334/5 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron rich nuclei * octupole correlations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.715, year: 2012
Convective cells and their relationship to vortex diffusion in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehrhardt, A.B.
1978-01-01
The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes
Multiparticle octupole coupling and magnetic moments of hn9/2 isomers in N=126 isotones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuchbery, A.E.; Byrne, A.P.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fabricius, B.; Kibedi, T.
1992-12-01
The influence of particle-vibration coupling on the g-factors of the (h 9/2 ) n > isomers in the N = 126 isotones is assessed using the multiparticle octupole coupling model. According to the model, admixtures of the configuration (h 9/2 ) n-1 f 7/2 > in the yrast 8 + and 21/2 - states, nominally associated with the configuration (h 9/2 ) n >, increase with n. On its own, the octupole mixing mechanism therefore predicts g-factors for these states that increase with the number of valence protons. This trend is the opposite of that predicted by core-polarization blocking. Combining multiparticle octupole coupling and first order core-polarization blocking significantly reduces the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical g-factors of these states. It is concluded that the observed breakdown in additivity for the g-factors of the (h 9/2 ) n > isomers in the N = 126 isotones arises primarily from first order core-polarization blocking and the combination of configuration mixing due to multiparticle octupole coupling and shell model residual interactions. 40 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs
Single-beam measurements of LHC instability threshold in terms of octupole current
Mounet, N; Buffat, X; Burov, A; Hemelsoet, G; Metral, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Pojer, M; Salvant, B; Trad, G
2012-01-01
This note summarizes two machine development (MD) studies aimed at determining the octupole current needed in the LHC in order to stabilize all headtail instabilities at 4TeV/c, before and after the squeeze, with tight collimator settings, and when a single beam (beam 2) at maximum intensity (1380 bunches, 2.1 1014 protons) is present in the machine. The MDs followed the normal physics operation procedure, at the notable exception that a single beam was used, the other beam containing only one non-colliding nominal bunch. Octupole current (with negative polarity in the focusing octupoles and the opposite in the defocusing ones) was decreased by small steps until the instability threshold was reached. This was performed in two distinct MDs, one before the squeeze and the other after it, testing also several chromaticity values and the effect of the transverse damper in the latter case. Octupole thresholds are shown in each case studied, as well as the rise times of the instabilities observed.
Lower hybrid heating associated with mode conversion on the Wisconsin octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owens, T.L.
1979-08-01
This thesis addresses the following key issues in the lower hybrid frequency range: 1. What are the importent physics aspects of wave propagation and heating in an experimental situation. 2. How effective is plasma heating in the complex magnetic field configuration of the octupole. Experimental work is accomplished by launching 1-10ms pulses of up to 40kW of radio frequency power at 140MHz corresponding to the hot plasma lower hybrid resonance in the octupole. A diploe antenna which is moveable radially and is also rotatable couples wave power to the plasma. Coupling efficiencies greater than 95% are achieved by proper antenna placement near the edge of the plasma radial density profile
Indication for a K/sup π/ = 0- octupole band in 150Nd from electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creswell, C.; Hirsch, A.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Kowalski, S.; Sargent, C.P.; Turchinetz, W.; Dieperink, A.
1978-01-01
Recent electron scattering results on the 0.850 MeV level of 150 Nd, when analyzed in terms of the interacting boson model, are inconsistent with the interpretation of this level as a pure J/sup π/(K) = 2 + (0) state. Very recent (n,n'γ) work has shown this level to be a 1 - , 2 + doublet. Assuming this level to be the band head of a ''K/sup π/ = 0 - '' octupole band, a simple model is used to predict electron scattering form factors for the 0.850 MeV state and a 3 - octupole level observed at 0.931 MeV. Comparison is made between these predicted form factors and recent electron scattering data
Design, fabrication and cold tests of a super ferric octupole corrector for the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Tabares, L.; Calero, J.; Laurent, G.; Russenschuck, S.; Siegel, N.; Traveria, M.; Aguirre, P.; Etxeandia, J.; Garcia, J.
1996-01-01
In the corrections scheme of the LHC it is planed to install octupole corrector magnets in the short straight section of the lattice. Initially these correctors were distributed windings on the cold bore tube nested in the tuning quadrupoles. The latter being suppressed a new compact super ferric design was chosen for the octupole prototype, suitable for a two-in-one configuration. This prototype was designed by CERN and CEDEX/Spain, built at INDAR/Spain and tested at CEDEX. The paper reports on the design of the prototype, describes the fabrication and assembly and presents the measurement results. Special interest has been taken to design a simple and compact magnet, easy to fabricate and training free below nominal field. First results show the feasibility of the solution wich will be finally confirmed by magnetic measurement. (Author) 4 refs
Quadrupole and octupole collectivity and cluster structures in neon isotopes
Marević, P.; Ebran, J.-P.; Khan, E.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.
2018-02-01
The lowest positive- and negative-parity bands of 20Ne and neutron-rich even-even Ne isotopes are investigated using a theoretical framework based on energy density functionals. Starting from a self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculation of axially symmetric and reflection-asymmetric deformation energy surfaces, the collective symmetry-conserving states are built using projection techniques and the generator coordinate method. Overall a good agreement with the experimental excitation energies and transition rates is obtained. In particular, the model provides an accurate description of the excitation spectra and transition probabilities in 20Ne. The contribution of cluster configurations to the low-energy states is discussed, as well as the transitional character of the ground state. The analysis is extended to 22Ne and the shape-coexisting isotope 24Ne, and to the drip-line nuclei 32Ne and 34Ne. The role of valence neutrons in the formation of molecular-type bonds between clusters is discussed.
Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.
1990-01-01
A brief review of the excitation of giant multipole resonances via Coulomb excitation is given which emphasizes the very large cross sections that can be realized through this reaction for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. Discussion and results where available, are provide for the measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a ''tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the singles spectra. 14 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broda, R.
1980-01-01
The experimental results are presented indicating the existence of the energy gap in the single particle level sequence at proton number Z=64. Studied experimentally yrast states of the 64 146 Gd 82 closed core nucleus and of the neighbouring nuclei are interpreted within the framework of the spherical shell model. The consideration of the simple shell model multiparticle configurations is suggested to explain the observed frequent appearance of the high-spin isomers in nuclei of the A approximately 150 region. Emphasized is the role of the octupole excitations in the level structures of considered nuclei and some aspects of the coupling of octupole vibrations with valence nucleons are discussed. (author)
A novel antiproton radial diagnostic based on octupole induced ballistic loss
Andresen, G.B.; Bowe, P.D.; Bray, C.C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C.L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D.R.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayden, M.E.; Humphries, A.J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M.J.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R.D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D.M.; Storey, J.W.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yamazaki, Y.
2008-01-01
We report results from a novel diagnostic that probes the outer radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds. The diagnostic allows us to determine the profile by monitoring the time-history of antiproton losses that occur as an octupole field in the antiproton confinement region is increased. We show several examples of how this diagnostic helps us to understand the radial dynamics of antiprotons in normal and nested Penning-Malmberg traps. Better understanding of these dynamics may aid current attempts to trap antihydrogen atoms.
High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortgang, C.M.
1983-05-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas
Exotic octupole deformation in proton-rich Z=N nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takami, Satoshi; Yabana, K [Niigata Univ. (Japan); Matsuo, M
1998-03-01
We study static non-axial octupole deformations in proton-rich Z=N nuclei, {sup 64}Ge, {sup 68}Se, {sup 72}Kr, {sup 76}Sr, {sup 80}Zr and {sup 84}Mo, by using the Skyrme Hartree-Fock plus BCS method with no restrictions on the nuclear shape. The calculation predicts that the oblate ground state in {sup 68}Se is extremely soft for the Y{sub 33} triangular deformation, and that in {sup 80}Zr the low-lying local minimum state coexisting with the prolate ground state has the Y{sub 32} tetrahedral deformation. (author)
A novel antiproton radial diagnostic based on octupole induced ballistic loss
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Charlton, M.; Humphries, A. J.; Jenkins, M. J.; Joergensen, L. V.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der; Bray, C. C.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; Wurtele, J. S.; Cesar, C. L.; Lambo, R.; Silveira, D. M.; Fujiwara, M. C.
2008-01-01
We report results from a novel diagnostic that probes the outer radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds. The diagnostic allows us to determine the profile by monitoring the time history of antiproton losses that occur as an octupole field in the antiproton confinement region is increased. We show several examples of how this diagnostic helps us to understand the radial dynamics of antiprotons in normal and nested Penning-Malmberg traps. Better understanding of these dynamics may aid current attempts to trap antihydrogen atoms
Observation of Octupole Driven Resonance Phenomena with Space Charge at the CERN Proton Synchrotron
Métral, E; Martini, M; Steerenberg, R; Franchetti, Giuliano; Hofmann, I
2006-01-01
Several benchmarking space charge experiments have been performed during the last few years in the CERN Proton Synchrotron. These controlled experiments are of paramount importance to validate the present very powerful simulation codes. The observations of the combined effect of space charge and nonlinear resonance on beam loss and emittance, using a single controllable octupole during ~ 1 s at 1.4 GeV kinetic energy, are discussed in some detail in the present paper. By lowering the working point towards the octupolar resonance, a gradual transition from a regime of loss-free core emittance blow-up to a regime of continuous loss was found.
Low-energy E1 transitions and octupole softness in odd-A deformed nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagemann, G B [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Hamamoto, I [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics; Kownacki, J; Satula, W [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)
1992-08-01
It is found that B(E1) values for yrast spectroscopy of deformed odd-A rare-earth nuclei calculated by using a model in which one quasiparticle is coupled to a rotor are more than an order of magnitude too small. Therefore, measured B(E1) values for {sup 169}Lu were analyzed by introducing parameters which effectively took octupole softness into account. Some preliminary results of the theoretical analysis which are presented in this paper still give do not agree completely with experiment. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.
Investigation of octupole deformations in the Fr217 nucleus by yrast spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hulne, S.
1988-01-01
The spectroscopic characteristics of the yrast levels of Fr217 are determined. The level scheme up to a value of J = (39/2 + ) for angular momentum and parity is established. The production of the Fr217 nucleus in a heavy ion collision reaction was only possible by using a radioactive Pb210 target. The method for preparing the target is described. The Fr217 nucleus belongs to the category of nuclei showing octupole effects. Mass A = 217 seems to be the lower limit of the region where these effects occur [fr
Coulomb excitation of the two proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg
We propose to use Coulomb excitation of the single magic two-proton-hole nucleus $^{206}$Hg. In a single-step excitation both the first 2$^{+}$ and the highly collective octupole 3$^{-}$ states will be populated. Thus, information on both quadrupole and octupole collectivity will be gained in this neutron-rich nucleus. Due to the high beam intensity, we will be able to observe multi-step Coulomb excitation as well, providing further test on theoretical calculations. The results will be used to improve the predictive power of the shell model for more exotic nuclei as we move to lighter N=126 nuclei. The experiment will use the new HIE-ISOLDE facility and the MINIBALL array, and will take advantage of the recently developed $^{206}$Hg beam from the molten lead target.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spear, R.H.
1988-11-01
Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988
Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wanderer P.; Escallier, J.; Marone, A.; Parker, B.
2011-09-06
A superconducting octupole magnet has seen extensive service as part of the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA has trapped antihydrogen, a crucial step towards performing precision measurements of anti-atoms. The octupole was made at the Direct Wind facility by the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnet was wound with a six-around-one NbTi cable about 1 mm in diameter. It is about 300 mm long, with a radius of 25 mm and a peak field at the conductor of 4.04 T. Specific features of the magnet, including a minimal amount of material in the coil and coil ends with low multipole content, were advantageous to its use in ALPHA. The magnet was operated for six months a year for five years. During this time it underwent about 900 thermal cycles (between 4K and 100K). A novel operational feature is that during the course of data-taking the magnet was repeatedly shut off from its 950 A operating current. The magnet quenches during the shutoff, with a decay constant of 9 ms. Over the course of the five years, the magnet was deliberately quenched many thousands of times. It still performs well.
Using octupoles for background control in linear colliders -- An exploratory conceptual study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitthan, R.
2000-01-01
If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires cooperation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octupoles right before the final focusing Quadrupoles is proposed in order to enlarge the effective beam stay clear by a factor of 2--3, thus reducing the requirements for collimation. This concept would reduce the requirement for collimation but simulation have not been carried out here in detail. To further explore and implement this concept will require a considerable effort in manpower, possibly comparable to, although less in scope, than the effort to develop the NLC RF or the CLIC RF schemes
Studies of electric dipole moments in the octupole collective regions of heavy Radiums and Bariums
Hoff, P; Kaczarowski, R
2002-01-01
%IS386 %title\\ \\It is proposed to study the electric dipole moments in the regions of octupole collective Ra-Th and Ba-Ce nuclei by means of Advanced Time-Delayed (ATD) $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma(t)$ method with a primary goal to provide new and critical data on the properties of E1 moments. The proposal focuses on the nuclei of $^{225,226,229}$Ra, $^{229,233}$Th and $^{149,150}$Ba.\\ \\The ATD $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma$(t) method was first tested at ISOLDE as part of the IS322 study of Fr-Ra nuclei at the limits of octupole deformation region. The results have greatly increased the knowledge of electric dipole moments in the region and demonstrated that new and unique research capabilities in this field are now available at ISOLDE. Based on the experience and new systematics, we propose a specialized study with the aim to determine the missing key aspects of the E1 moment systematics. We propose : \\begin{enumerate}[a)] \\item to measure the lifetimes of the 1$_{1}^{-}$ and 3$_{1}^{-}$ states in $^{226}$Ra with $\\sim$15\\% prec...
Modified random phase approximation for multipole excitations at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Dinh Dang
1991-01-01
The modified finite temperature random phase approximation (modified FT-RPA) has been constructed with taking the influence of thermostat on the structure of quansiparticles into account. The modified FT-RPA linear response for electric quadrupole (λ π = 2 + ) and octupole (λ π = 3 - ) excitations in 5 8Ni has been calculated as a function of the nuclear temperature. As compared to the conventional FT-RPA the modified FT-RPA has given a stronger spreading for the strength distribution of quandrupole excitations at finite temperature T ≤ 3MeV. (author). 22 refs; 4 figs; 2 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [IPN, Orsay (France)] [and others
1996-12-31
The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. In addition to the known yrast and two lowest excited SD bands, a third excited SD band has been seen. All of the three excited bands were found to decay to the yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excitation energy assignments. Comparisons with calculations using the random-phase approximation suggest that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halenka, J.; Olchawa, W.
2005-01-01
From experiments, see e.g. [W. Wiese, D. Kelleher, and D. Paquette, Phys. Rev. A 6, 1132 (1972); V. Helbig and K. Nich, J. Phys. B 14, 3573 (1981).; J. Halenka, Z. Phys. D 16, 1 (1990); . Djurovic, D. Nikolic, I. Savic, S. Sorge, and A.V. Demura, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036407 (2005)], results that the hydrogen lines formed in plasma with N e φ 10 16 cm -3 are asymmetrical. The inhomogeneity of ionic micro field and the higher order corrections (quadratic and next ones) in perturbation theory are the reason for such asymmetry. So far, the ion-emitter quadrupole interaction and the quadratic Stark effect have been included in calculations. The recent work shows that a significant discrepancy between calculations and measurements occurs in the wings of H-beta line in plasmas with cm -3 . It should be stressed here that e.g. for the energy operator the correction raised by the quadratic Stark effect is proportional to (where is the emitter-perturber distance) similarly as the correction caused by the emitter-perturber octupole interaction and the quadratic correction from emitter-perturber quadrupole interaction. Thus, it is obvious that a model of the profile calculation is consistent one if all the aforementioned corrections are simultaneously included. Such calculations are planned in the future paper. A statistics of the octupole inhomogeneity tensor in a plasma is necessarily needed in the first step of such calculations. For the first time the distribution functions of the octupole inhomogeneity have been calculated in this paper using the Mayer-Mayer cluster expansion method similarly as for the quadrupole function in the paper [J. Halenka, Z. Phys. D 16, 1 (1990)]. The quantity is the reduced scale of the micro field strength, where is the Holtsmark normal field and is the mean distance defined by the relationship, that is approximately equal to the mean ion-ion distance; whereas is the screening parameter, where is the electronic Debye radius. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antipov, S.A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-01-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R and D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.
Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-04-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually has both beneficial (improved Landau damping) and harmful properties, such as a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the research goals at the IOTA ring is to achieve a large betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture, using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. The configuration, although not integrable by design, approximates an autonomous 2D Hamiltonian system. In this paper, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for enhancing Landau damping in high intensity machines.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antipov, S. A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.
2017-04-01
Fermilab is constructing the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) as the centerpiece of the Accelerator R&D Program towards high-intensity circular machines. One of the factors limiting the beam intensity in present circular accelerators is collective instabilities, which can be suppressed by a spread of betatron frequencies (tunes) through the Landau damping mechanism or by an external damper, if the instability is slow enough. The spread is usually created by octupole magnets, which introduce the tune dependence on the amplitude and, in some cases, by a chromatic spread (tune dependence on particle's momentum). The introduction of octupoles usually lead to a resonant behavior and a reduction of the dynamic aperture. One of the goals of the IOTA research program is to achieve a high betatron tune spread, while retaining a large dynamic aperture using conventional octupole magnets in a special but realistic accelerator configuration. In this report, we present results of computer simulations of an electron beam in the IOTA by particle tracking and the Frequency Map Analysis. The results show that the ring's octupole magnets can be configured to provide a betatron tune shift of 0.08 (for particles at large amplitudes) with the dynamical aperture of over 20 beam sigma for a 150-MeV electron beam. The influence of the synchrotron motion, lattice errors, and magnet imperfections is insignificant for the parameters and levels of tolerances set by the design of the ring. The described octupole insert could be beneficial for suppression of space-charge induced instabilities in high intensity machines.
Low-lying collective quadrupole and octupole strengths in even-even nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Kahane, S.; Bhatt, K.H.
1991-01-01
The B(E2)↑ values for the first 2 + state of even-even nuclei in the Z≥50 region are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models. Comparative estimates of the overall agreement with the data are provided. Gaps and discrepancies in the data and examples that show interesting features such as shape changes are discussed. The B(E2)↑ values are examined critically to search for the dynamical Pauli effects predicted by the fermion dynamic symmetry model. The empirical B(E2)↑ and B(E3)↑ systematics are employed to obtain a measure of the harmonicity of the quadrupole and octupole vibrations. The fraction of the energy-weighted sum-rule strength exhausted by the sum of all known low-lying 2 + states below 2.3 MeV is found to be surprisingly constant in the 60< A<250 region except near closed shells
Axial to transverse energy mixing dynamics in octupole-based magnetostatic antihydrogen traps
Zhong, M.; Fajans, J.; Zukor, A. F.
2018-05-01
The nature of the trajectories of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole minimum-B trap is of great importance for upcoming spectroscopy, cooling, and gravity experiments. Of particular interest is the mixing time between the axial and transverse energies for the antiatoms. Here, using computer simulations, we establish that almost all trajectories are chaotic, and then quantify the characteristic mixing time between the axial and transverse energies. We find that there are two classes of trajectories: for trajectories whose axial energy is higher than about 20% of the total energy, the axial energy substantially mixes within about 10 s, whereas for trajectories whose axial energy is lower than about 10% of the total energy, the axial energy remains nearly constant for 1000 s or longer.
Ambipolar electric fields and turbulence studies in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armentrout, C.J.
1977-01-01
Detailed studies of hot ion plasmas (T/sub i/ > T/sub e/) in the poloidal field octupole show that the ambipolar electric field which is perpendicular to the flux surfaces is well explained by the observed properties of the microturbulence structures in the plasma. The turbulence structure has been measured by correlation techniques which are carefully described. In these experiments, signals were studied which are aperiodic in time and space, short lived compared to the decay times of the bulk plasma parameters, short ranged compared to the machine size, and are therefore classified as microturbulence structures. The resulting spatial and temporal correlation functions (CFs) are well fitted to a Gaussian function and the associated correlation lengths or times are the half width at half maximum of the CFs. The correlation length is measured to be the ion gyro radius for the hot hydrogen plasma and somewhat less for the helium plasma
Measurements of multipolarities in 227Ra as tests of evidence for stable octupole deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borge, M.J.G.; Burke, D.G.; Gietz, H.; Hill, P.; Kaffrell, N.
1987-01-01
Multipolarities of ∝30 transitions in 227 Ra have been established by measuring conversion electrons following the β - decay of 227 Fr. For this purpose a 'mini-orange'-type electron spectrometer has been constructed. The 227 Fr isotopes were produced by the ISOLDE on-line separator at the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. Internal conversion coefficients were obtained from singles spectra and also from simultaneous γe - and γγ coincidence measurements. The new results support the placement of levels and transitions in the earlier level scheme but require changes in the previously assigned parities for four of the levels. Also, one E0 transition was identified. The results are consistent with previous interpretations for most of the levels that have been used to argue in favour of a small permanent octupole deformation for 227 Ra. (orig.)
A systematic study of the octupole correlations in the lanthanides with realistic forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egido, J.L.; Robledo, L.M.
1992-01-01
We have performed a systematic study of the octupole degree of freedom in the nuclei 140 Ba, 142-150 deg Ce, 144-152 Nd and 146-154 Sm. The static properties (ground state deformations, energy gaps, dipole moments, etc.) have been analyzed within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS approximation (HFBCS); for the dynamical ones (energy splittings, transition probabilities, etc.) the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock plus zero point energy in the cranking approximation (ATDHF+ZPE) has been applied. In both approximations the realistic density-dependent Gogny force has been used. In our parameter-free calculations we are able to describe very well the whole experimental systematic of energy splittings and B(E1), among others. The flatness of the whole experimental systematic of energy splittings and B(E1), among others. The flatness of the potential energy of some nuclei makes the mean field approach unreliable for such nuclei. (orig.)
New levels and reinvestigation of octupole correlations in {sup 146,147}La
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, E.H.; Zachary, C.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Liu, S.H.; Brewer, N.T. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Lewis, W. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Furman University, Department of Physics, Greenville, SC (United States); Luo, Y.X. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rasmussen, J.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, S.J. [Tsinghua University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2017-12-15
High spin states of neutron-rich {sup 146,147}La have been reinvestigated by γ-γ-γ and γ-γ-γ-γ coincidence data from a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission experiment by using Gammasphere. Thirty-two new transitions in {sup 146}La are observed. Two new bands in {sup 146}La have been established. One of them is proposed to be the octupole parity partner of the previously known band. Twenty new transitions in {sup 147}La are observed. The ground state band of {sup 147}La has been established with a proposed 5/2{sup +} band-head. Angular correlation of cascades has been used to study the spins and parities of the states. The B(E1)/B(E2) ratios and dipole moments of bands in {sup 146,} {sup 147}La have been measured. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F.
2011-01-01
The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.
Using Octupoles for Background Control in Linear Colliders an Exploratory Conceptual Study
Pitthan, R
1999-01-01
If one adds a suited Octupole (or an even higher multipole) lattice to linear collider Quadrupole FODO lattices, the amplifying properties of the combined lattice drive particles in the tails, but not those in the core, into resonant losses. This approach is quite different in concept and beam dynamics impact from past proposed use of non-linear elements for collimation. This non-traditional scheme for background control has the added advantage that most, or maybe all, of the Halo collimation can be done using the lever arm of the real estate of the main accelerators, thus reducing the costly length of a separate dedicated collimation section and also unifying machine protection and background control. Simulations of particle distributions are presented. This approach requires co operation by the designers of the accelerators, the beam delivery system, and the Detector, because a careful balance between sometimes conflicting requirements has to be found. As a second component of this approach the use of Octup...
Study of octupole deformation in n-rich Ba isotopes populated via $\\beta$-decay
We propose to exploit the unique capability of the ISOLDE facility to produce $^{150, 151, 152}$Cs beams to investigate their radioactive $\\beta$-decay to $^{150, 151, 152}$Ba. The interest to study this mass region is twofold: these nuclei are expected to show octupole deformations already in their low-lying state, secondly information on the $\\beta$-decay is needed for the nuclear astrophysical model. The experiment will be performed with the ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS) setup using the fast tape station of K.U.-Leuven, equipped with four Clover Germanium detectors, four LaBr$_{3}$(Ce) detectors and one LEP HPGe detector. Information on the $\\beta$-decay, such as lifetimes and delayed neutron-emission probabilities, will be extracted, together with the detailed spectroscopy of the daughter nuclei, via $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$-coincidences and lifetime measurement of specific states.
Experiment and theory of a drift wave in the levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, E.A.
1982-08-01
A very coherent 30 kHz drift wave is observed in the Levitated Toroidal Octupole at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The density and floating potential fluctuations have a well-defined spatial structure in the poloidal magnetic field. Radially the wave has a standing wave structure with amplitude peaked in regions of locally bad magnetic curvature. Poloidally the wave has a standing wave structure with odd symmetry; nodes are located in the regions of locally good magnetic curvature. The wave propagates toroidally in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with a wavelength of 20 centimeters. No changes occur in the wave structure as the plasma is varied over three orders of magnitude in density and beta
Core excitations across the neutron shell gap in 207Tl
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Wilson
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The single closed-neutron-shell, one proton–hole nucleus 207Tl was populated in deep-inelastic collisions of a 208Pb beam with a 208Pb target. The yrast and near-yrast level scheme has been established up to high excitation energy, comprising an octupole phonon state and a large number of core excited states. Based on shell-model calculations, all observed single core excitations were established to arise from the breaking of the N=126 neutron core. While the shell-model calculations correctly predict the ordering of these states, their energies are compressed at high spins. It is concluded that this compression is an intrinsic feature of shell-model calculations using two-body matrix elements developed for the description of two-body states, and that multiple core excitations need to be considered in order to accurately calculate the energy spacings of the predominantly three-quasiparticle states.
Evidence for octupole softness of the superdeformed shape from band interactions in sup 193,4 Hg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cullen, D.M.; Riley, M.A.; Alderson, A.; Ali, I.; Fallon, P.; Forsyth, P.D.; Hanna, F.; Mullins, S.M.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab.); Bengtsson, T. (Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematical Physics); Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Simpson, J. (Science and Engineering Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.); Nazarewicz, W. (Liverpool Univ. (UK). Oliver Lodge Lab. Politechnika Warszawska (Poland). Inst. Fizyki); Poynter, R.; Regan, P.; Wadsworth, R. (York Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Satula, W. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej); Sletten, G. (Niels Bohr Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Tandem Accelerator Lab.); Wyss, R. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden))
1990-12-24
Three superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in {sup 194}Hg and four (or five ) SD bands in {sup 193}Hg using the {sup 150}Nd+{sup 48}Ca reaction. All bands except for two in {sup 193}Hg show a steady increase in dynamical moment of inertia J{sup (2)} with rotational frequency. The two exceptional bands form a classical pair of strongly interacting bands. It is suggested that the strong interaction between the bands is caused by a softness to octupole deformation. Evidence is found for the existence of dipole transitions connecting bands of opposite signature in {sup 193}Hg. The strengths of these transitions suggest that they are probably E1 supporting the importance of the role of octupole vibrations. These data suggest the wider importance of octupole softness in enhancing E1 transitions in the SD feeding and decay mechanisms. The spectroscopy of the observed SD bands in {sup 193,4}Hg are discussed in detail and attention is drawn to the 'identical' energies of {gamma}-rays in these isotopes with those in lighter isotopes. The similarities in bands relate to the neutron sub-shell closure for SD nuclei at N=112. (orig.).
Low frequency turbulence, particle and heat transport in the Wisconsin levitated octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garner, H.R.
1982-01-01
Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation
Core breaking and octupole low-spin states in $^{207}$ Tl
We propose to study the low-spin level structure of the $^{207}$Tl nucleus populated by the $\\beta$- decay of $^{207}$Hg. While $^{207}$Tl is a single-proton hole nucleus, the majority of the observed states will have a three-particle structure thus requiring the breaking of the neutron or proton core, or a collective octupole phonon coupled to the single proton hole. Thus information will be obtained on the single particle orbitals in the vicinity of the N=126 and Z=82 magic numbers, and on the size of the shell gap. The results will be used to improve the predictive power of the shell model for more exotic nuclei as we move to lighter N=126 nuclei.The experiment will use the ISOLDE Decay station, and will take advantage of the $^{207}$Hg beam from the molten lead target. A test on the feasibility to produce an $^{208}$Hg beam from the same target, with the aim to study the $\\beta$-decay into $^{208}$Tl, could be performed at the same time.
Ion heating at the cyclotron resonance in plasmas magnetically confined in a toroidal octupole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.
1976-01-01
Ion temperatures as high as 600 eV have been produced using rf wave heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency in a toroidal octupole magnetic field. Rf is coupled to the plasma with an externally driven ''fifth'' hoop which forms the inductive leg of an oscillator tank circuit. Power levels up to 1 MW at 1 to 3 MHz have been applied for periods up to 2 msec. Plasmas produced either by ECRH or by gun injection are simulated with a computer program in which known particle and energy production and loss mechanisms are used to predict the spatially averaged time behaviour of the plasma in the presence of the applied ion heating. The program can be used to calculate the consequences of the heating model in the presence of many cooling mechanisms which may each have a separate dependence on instantaneous plasma parameters. Experimental quantities compared to computer predictions include density, ion temperature, and loading of the hoop by the plasma, both resistive and reactive, and neutral reflux from the wall by electron and ion impact. Wave penetration to the resonance zone is good up to the highest densities available (6 x 10 12 cm -3 by gun injection) in good agreement with theory. Neutral reflux from the walls and the large charge exchange cooling which results is the dominant loss mechanism at the higher hoop voltages
Low lying electric dipole excitations in nuclei of the rare earth region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
von Brentano, P.; Zilges, A.; Herzberg, R.D.; Kneissl, U.; Heil, R.D.; Pitz, H.H.; Wesselborg, C.
1992-01-01
From many experiments with low energy photon scattering on deformed rare earth nuclei we have obtained detailed information about the distribution of electric dipole strength below 4 MeV. Apart from some weaker transitions between 2 and 4 MeV we observed one, and sometimes two, very strong El-groundstate transitions around 1.5 MeV in all examined nuclei. They arise from the de-excitation of the bandheads of the (J π ,K)=(l - ,0) and (J π ,K)=(l - ,1) octupole vibrational bands. It is shown that the decay branching ratios and the absolute transition strengths of these states can be reproduced rather well with an improved T(El)-operator in the sdf-Interacting Boson Model. Another class of octupole states has been investigated in the region of the semimagic nucleus 142 Nd. Here a quintuplet of collective excitations around 3.5 MeV is expected due to the coupling of the 3--octupole vibration with the 2+-quadrupole vibration. We performed photon scattering experiments on the odd A neighboring nucleus 141 Pr and found first evidence for the existence of 3 - times 2+circle-times particle-states
Collective excitations in the transitional nuclei /sup 224,226,228,230 /Ra
Kurcewicz, W; Kaffrell, N; Nyman, G H; Ruchowska, E
1981-01-01
The gamma -rays following the beta -decay of /sup 224,226,228,230/Fr have been investigated by means of gamma -ray singles (including multispectrum analysis) and gamma gamma coincidence measurements using Ge(Li) spectrometers. The study of the excited levels in /sup 224,226,228,230/Ra is focused on the properties of collective states. The analysis of the results leads one to the conclusion that a ground- state octupole deformation is the most likely explanation for the special features of the collective excitations in Ra and some neighbouring nuclei in the N136 region. (15 refs).
Sensitivity of the Geomagnetic Octupole to a Stably Stratified Layer in the Earth's Core
Yan, C.; Stanley, S.
2017-12-01
The presence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core has long been proposed for Earth, based on evidence from seismology and geomagnetic secular variation. Geodynamo modeling offers a unique window to inspect the properties and dynamics in Earth's core. For example, numerical simulations have shown that magnetic field morphology is sensitive to the presence of stably stratified layers in a planet's core. Here we use the mMoSST numerical dynamo model to investigate the effects of a thin stably stratified layer at the top of the fluid outer core in Earth on the resulting large-scale geomagnetic field morphology. We find that the existence of a stable layer has significant influence on the octupolar component of the magnetic field in our models, whereas the quadrupole doesn't show an obvious trend. This suggests that observations of the geomagnetic field can be applied to provide information of the properties of this plausible stable layer, such as how thick and how stable this layer could be. Furthermore, we have examined whether the dominant thermal signature from mantle tomography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (a degree & order 2 spherical harmonic) can influence our results. We found that this heat flux pattern at the CMB has no outstanding effects on the quadrupole and octupole magnetic field components. Our studies suggest that if there is a stably stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, it must be limited in terms of stability and thickness, in order to be compatible with the observed paleomagnetic record.
Formation of a uniform ion beam using octupole magnets for BioLEIR facility at CERN
Amin, T.; Barlow, R.; Ghithan, S.; Roy, G.; Schuh, S.
2018-04-01
The possibility to transform the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator at CERN into a multidisciplinary, biomedical research facility (BioLEIR) was investigated based on a request from the biomedical community. BioLEIR aims to provide a unique facility with a range of fully stripped ion beams (e.g. He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O) and energies suitable for multidisciplinary biomedical, clinically-oriented research. Two horizontal and one vertical beam transport lines have been designed for transporting the extracted beam from LEIR to three experimental end-stations. The vertical beamline was designed for a maximum energy of 75 MeV/u, while the two horizontal beamlines shall deliver up to a maximum energy of 440 MeV/u. A pencil beam of 4.3 mm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) as well as a homogeneous broad beam of 40 × 40 mm2, with a beam homogeneity better than ±4%, are available at the first horizontal (H1) irradiation point, while only a pencil beam is available at the second horizontal (H2) and vertical (V) irradiation points. The H1 irradiation point shall be used to conduct systematic studies of the radiation effect from different ion species on cell-lines. The H1 beamline was designed to utilize two octupole magnets which transform the Gaussian beam distribution at the target location into an approximately uniformly distributed rectangular beam. In this paper, we report on the multi-particle tracking calculations performed using MAD-X software suite for the H1 beam optics to arrive at a homogeneous broad beam on target using nonlinear focusing techniques, and on those to create a Gaussian pencil beam on target by adjusting quadrupoles strengths and positions.
Proton-neutron structure of first and second quadrupole excitations of {sup 90}Sr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Severyukhin, A.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna State University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Arsenyev, N.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N.; Werner, V. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)
2018-01-15
Starting from the Skyrme interaction f{sub -} together with the density-dependent pairing interaction, we study the g factors for the 2{sub 1,2}{sup +} excitations of {sup 88,90}Sr and {sup 90,92}Zr. The coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions of excited states is taken into account within the finite-rank separable approximation. Using the same set of parameters we describe available experimental data and give the prediction for {sup 90}Sr, g(2{sub 2}{sup +}) = +0.03 in comparison to +0.31 in the case of {sup 92}Zr. (orig.)
Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY
2012-03-13
The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perin, R.; Siegel, N.; Bidaurrazaga, H.; Garcia Tabares, L.
1992-01-01
CERN is preparing for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be installed in the LEP tunnel. The magnetic lattice of the LHC will consist of a ring of twin aperture dipoles and quadrupoles, connected electrically in series. To adjust the working point of the machine, so called tuning quadrupoles will be installed in pairs in each regular cell, next to the main quadrupoles. Also, to correct multipolar field errors in the LHC, an octupole correction winding is required near each lattice quadrupole. A nested construction of these two magnets is foreseen. As part of the LHC R and D program, CERN and ACICA (a group of five Spanish industries: Abengoz, Canzler, Indar, Cenemesa and AME; since June 1990 Cenemesa is part of ABB Spain), signed a common development agreement for the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype tuning quadrupole and octupole corrector. This paper describes the design of these magnets, giving details of magnetic and mechanical calculations, including results from existing and specially developed computer codes, and model work. Further, the construction procedures are described, including the facilities and tooling developed by ACICA for this work
Mcpeak, W. L.
1975-01-01
A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.
Quadrupole-octupole coupled states in 112Cd populated in the 111Cd(d ⃗,p ) reaction
Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Bildstein, V.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.
2014-11-01
States in 112Cd have been studied with the 111Cd(d ⃗,p ) 12Cd reaction using 22 MeV polarized deuterons. The protons from the reaction were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and spectra have been recorded with a position-sensitive detector located on the focal plane. Angular distributions of cross sections and analyzing powers have been constructed for the low-lying negative-parity states observed, including the 3-,4-, and 5- members of the previously assigned quadrupole-octupole quintuplet. The 5- member at 2373-keV possess the second largest spectroscopic strength observed, and is reassigned as having the s1/2⊗h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration as the dominate component of its wave function.
2-D modeling of dual-mode acoustic phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate
Tai, Po-Tse; Yu, Pyng; Tang, Jau
2010-08-01
In this theoretical work, we investigated coherent phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model. Based on the two-temperature model commonly used in description of laser heating of metals, we considered two kinds of forces related to electronic and lattice stresses. Based on extensive simulation and analysis, we identified two major planar phonon modes, namely, a standing wave mode related to the triangle bisector and another mode corresponding to half of the side length. This work elucidates the roles of laser-induced electronic stress and lattice stress in controlling the initial phase and the amplitude ratio between these two phonon modes.
Impact-parameter dependence of giant resonance excitations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenschloss, A.; Boretzky, K.; Aumann, T.
1999-09-01
Angular distributions of Xe fragments produced in peripheral collisions of a 136 Xe beam (700 MeV/nucleon) with 208 Pb and nat Sn targets were measured. Equivalent sharp-cutoff minimum impact parameters were derived on the basis of a semi-classical description for the electromagnetic excitation of one- and two-phonon giant resonances. The results are compared with current standard parametrizations of minimum impact parameters and with the soft-spheres model using realistic mass density distributions for projectile and targets. (orig.)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Holzricher, John
2004-01-01
To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...
Wright, Bradford L.
1975-01-01
Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)
Lim, Edward C
1974-01-01
Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boudjema, F.; Djouadi, A.; Kneur, J.L.
1992-01-01
The production of excited fermions with mass above 100 GeV is considered. f→Vf (1) decay widths are calculated where V=γ, Z or W. Excited fermion pair production in e + e - annihilation and in γγ collisions, and single production in e + e - annihilation, eγ and γγ collisions is also discussed. Cross sections are calculated for all these cases. The discovery potential of the NLC at 500 GeV is compared with that of other colliders. (K.A.) 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.
1986-01-01
The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.
1986-01-01
The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudek, J.
1990-01-01
Results of the first calculations aiming at determination of the exotic shape effects at large elongations are presented. After discussing some formal aspects of our generalised approach based on the deformed Woods-Saxon potential, the overall trends in the quantal (shell) effects leading to the deformation driving forces in terms of Y λ=3,μ multipole components are presented. Finally, the nuclei are identified in which (at least at a low spin limit) the predicted exotic shape effects should manifest themselves in the most pronounced way. 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, W.G.; Tang, K.T.
1987-01-01
The R -6 , R -8 , and R -10 terms in the long-range expansion for the hyperfine frequency shift are calculated for hydrogen in the presence of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The R -6 terms are based on the dipole oscillator strength sums. For helium, the R -8 and R -10 terms are based on quadrupole and octupole oscillator strength sums. For the heavier inert gases, the results for the R -8 and R -10 terms are obtained from the sum rules and the static polarizabilities. Upper bounds are also determined for the R -8 and R -10 terms
2-D modeling of dual-mode acoustic phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tai, Po-Tse; Yu, Pyng; Tang, Jau
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: Modeling the lattice dynamics of a triangular plate with the arrows indicating the direction of impulsive thermal stress. We investigated ultrafast structural dynamics of triangular nanoplates based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model to explain coherent acoustic phonon excitation in nanoprisms. - Abstract: In this theoretical work, we investigated coherent phonon excitation of a triangular nanoplate based on 2-D Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model. Based on the two-temperature model commonly used in description of laser heating of metals, we considered two kinds of forces related to electronic and lattice stresses. Based on extensive simulation and analysis, we identified two major planar phonon modes, namely, a standing wave mode related to the triangle bisector and another mode corresponding to half of the side length. This work elucidates the roles of laser-induced electronic stress and lattice stress in controlling the initial phase and the amplitude ratio between these two phonon modes.
Excitations of one-valence-proton, one-valence-neutron nucleus {sup 210}Bi from cold-neutron capture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Fornal, B.; Szpak, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland); Leoni, S.; Bottoni, S. [INFN sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bazzacco, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell’Università, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bocchi, G. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); France, G. de [GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Simpson, G. [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ur, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoża 69, 02-681, Warszawa (Poland)
2015-10-15
The low-spin structure of one-proton, one-neutron {sup 210}Bi nucleus was investigated in cold-neutron capture reaction on {sup 209}Bi. The γ-coincidence measurements were performed with use of EXILL array consisted of 16 HPGe detectors. The experimental results were compared to shell-model calculations involving valence particles excitations. The {sup 210}Bi nucleus offers the potential to test the effective proton-neutron interactions because most of the states should arise from the proton-neutron excitations. Additionally, it was discovered that a few states should come from the couplings of valence particles to the 3{sup −} octupole vibration in {sup 208}Pb which provides also the possibility of testing the calculations involving the core excitations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saudinos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1962-07-01
Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascalon-Rozier, V.
1997-01-01
In inelastic heavy ion scattering, to angles near to the grazing angle, giant resonances (GR) are excited with very large differential cross sections. It has been shown that multiphonon states, states built with several GR quanta, can also been excited. These states can be revealed through the measurement of their decay by light particle emission. In this thesis, we report on the study of inelastic scattering of 36 Ar at 44 MeV/u on target of 90 Zr and 94 Zr, measured in coincidence with neutrons detected with the EDEN multidetector. The analysis of the inelastic spectra show evidence for a structure at high excitation energy, exhibiting characteristics compatible with a two-photon excitation. The construction of missing energy spectra allows us to the study of the GR and the high energy structure. In both nuclei, the GR presents a direct decay branch of 8%, which yields informations on the microscopic structure of the resonance. A two phonon state, interpreted as two weakly coupled GR's, built on one top of the other, and each phonon is expected to exhibit the same direct decay pattern as the GR. Such a simple decay is observed in the data, proving that the structure observed is due to the excitation of the two phonon state in both nuclei studied. Finally, we present a theoretical development based on Random Phase Approximation calculation, predicting that the two phonon state should be very harmonic. This result is in agreement with experimental studies of double phonon states over a large range of nuclei (from A = 12 to 208) carried out with several different probes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leander, G.A.
1985-01-01
Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)
The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1976-01-01
It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed
Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Hui; Jiang, Wei-Chun; Zhang, Fang-Xin; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Cheng, Hua-Dong; Xu, Ke-Zun
2007-01-01
The valence shell excitations of argon were investigated by an angle-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV, and the transition multipolarities for the excitations of 3p→3d, 4d, 5s, and 5p were elucidated with the help of the calculated intermediate coupling coefficients using the COWAN code. The generalized oscillator strengths for the excitations to 3p 5 (3d,3d ' ), 3p 5 (5p,5p ' ), and 3p 5 (5s,4d) were measured, and the profiles of these generalized oscillator strength were analyzed. Furthermore, although the present experimental positions of the maxima for the electric-monopole and electric-quadrupole excitations in 3p→5p are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [Amusia et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 022703 (2003)], the generalized oscillator strength profiles show obvious differences. In addition, the experimental generalized oscillator strength ratios for the electric-octupole transitions in 3p→3d are different from the theoretical prediction calculated by the COWAN code
Unsafe Coulomb excitation of 240-244Pu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Cizewski, J.; Cline, D.; Greene, J. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Nisius, D. T.; Reiter, P.; Seabury, E. H.; Seweryniak, D.; Siem, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Wu, C. Y.
1999-01-01
The high spin states of 240 Pu and 244 Pu have been investigated with GAMMASPHERE at ATLAS, using Coulomb excitation with a 208 Pb beam at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Data on a transfer channel leading to 242 Pu were obtained as well. In the case of 244 Pu, the yrast band was extended to 34h b ar revealing the completed πi 13/2 alignment, a ''first'' for actinide nuclei. The yrast sequence of 242 Pu was also extended to higher spin and a similar backbend was delineated. In contrast, while the ground state band of 240 Pu was measured up to the highest rotational frequencies ever reported in the actinide region (approximately300 keV), no sign of particle alignment was observed. In this case, several observable such as the large B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios in the negative parity band, and the vanishing energy staggering between the negative and positive parity bands suggest that the strength of octupole correlations increases with rotational frequency. These stronger correlations may well be responsible for delaying or suppressing the πi 13/2 particle alignment
Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik. Annual report 1991
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-03-01
During the year 1991 the work concentrated on building the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Juelich. The experimental activity was accompanied by theoretical studies in the field of medium energy nuclear physics. The preparation of COSY experiments concerned the realization of multipurpose facilities and other experiments. Work going on in the field of theoretical nuclear physics was strongly connected with research projects at COSY and processes induced in the proton-antiproton interaction. Through nuclear spectroscopy two-phonon octupole excitation had been identified in Gd-148. The ISIS ECR source has been used for the production of ion beams for atomic physics research. (DG)
Monopole strength as a probe of nuclear shape mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, R.A.
1987-01-01
The monopole strength, MS, within a single set of nuclear shape excitations is compared with the MS between different shapes. After misconceptions are pointed out concerning the spin dependence of B(E2) values, MS properties are juxtaposed with gamma-ray and beta-decay properties of 70 Se, 96 Zr, 102 Pd, and the N = 60 isotones to illustrate the utility of combined investigations and evidence is given for the observation of a two-phonon octupole multiplet. Finally, consideration is given to the dominance of the 3 S 1 force in producing deformation in the N > 50 1g nuclei. 23 refs., 4 figs
Excited States in Solution through Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Aidas, Kestutis; Kongsted, Jacob
2010-01-01
mechanical calculation. The polarizable embedding potential is described by an atomistic representation including terms up to localized octupoles and anisotropic polarizabilities. It is generally applicable to any quantum chemical description but is here implemented for the case of Kohn−Sham density...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, J.N.; Shukla, S.
1995-05-01
The experimental status of excited charmed mesons is reviewed and is compared to theoretical expectations. Six states have been observed and their properties are consistent with those predicted for excited charmed states with orbital angular momentum equal to one
Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.
1970-01-01
Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.
Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected
Elementary excitations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmer, R.H.
1987-01-01
The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, S.J.; Wang, M.G.; Long, G.L.; Zhu, L.Y.; Gan, C.Y.; Yang, L.M.; Sakhaee, M.; Li, M.; Deng, J.K. [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, Peoples Republic of (China); Zhu, S.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Jones, E.F.; Hwang, J.K.; Zhang, X.Q.; Gore, P.M.; Peker, L.K.; Drafta, G.; Babu, B.R.; Deng, J.K.; Ginter, T.N.; Beyer, C.J.; Kormicki, J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Physics Department, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Zhu, S.J.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Ma, W.C. [Physics Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Cole, J.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Drigert, M.W. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Asztalos, S.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Chu, S.Y.; Gregorich, K.E.; Mohar, M.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Kliman, J. [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RG (Brazil); Stoyer, M.A.; Lougheed, R.W.; Moody, K.J.; Wild, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Prussin, S.G. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics, SASc, Dubravskacesta 9, 84228 Bratislava (Slovakia); Griffin, H.C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 (United States)
1999-11-01
High spin states in neutron-rich odd-{ital Z} {sup 143,145}Ba nuclei have been investigated from the study of prompt {gamma} rays in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf by using {gamma}-{gamma}- and {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma}- coincidence techniques. Alternating parity bands are identified for the first time in {sup 145}Ba and extended in {sup 143}Ba. A new side band, with equal, constant dynamic, and kinetic moments of inertia equal to the rigid body value, as found in superdeformed bands, is discovered in {sup 145}Ba. Enhanced E1 transitions between the negative- and positive-parity bands in these nuclei give evidence for strong octupole deformation in {sup 143}Ba and in {sup 145}Ba. These collective bands show competition and coexistence between symmetric and asymmetric shapes in {sup 145}Ba. Evidence is found for crossing M1 and E1 transitions between the s=+i and s={minus}i doublets in {sup 143}Ba. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Lovesey, S W; Detlefs, C; Laan, G V D; Sivia, D S; Staub, U
2003-01-01
The phase transition in NpO sub 2 at T sub o approx 25.5K is accompanied by the onset of superlattice reflections in the x-ray Bragg diffraction pattern, with intensity enhanced by an electric-dipole (E1) event. Additional experiments using other techniques indicate no ordering at T sub o of Np magnetic moments. Absence of long-range magnetic order below T sub o fits with the outcome of a polarization analysis of superlattice intensities at 12K; signals are observed in both the unrotated (sigma'sigma) and rotated (pi'sigma) channels of scattering while magnetic (dipole) moments would contribute only in the rotated channel. We demonstrate that these empirical findings, together with a narrow energy profile of the Bragg intensity at the Np M sub 4 edge, are consistent with magnetic and charge contributions to the El Bragg amplitude described by Np 5f multipoles of ranks 3 (octupole) and 4 (hexadecapole). Key to our understanding of the x-ray diffraction data gathered in the vicinity of the Np M sub 4 edge is re...
Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-03-10
Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.
Parametric excitation of the J=2+ modes by zero sound in superfluid 3He-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauls, J.A.; McKenzie, R.H.
1991-01-01
We discuss order-parameter collective modes in weakly inhomogeneous states of superfluid 3 He-B, i.e., states in which the scale of the inhomogeneities is considerably longer than the coherence length ξ 0 =v t /2πTc and the energy associated with the inhomogeneity is small compared to the condensation energy. The theory describes resonance phenomena between order-parameter modes and zero sound. We discuss two specific cases, both of which involve excitation of the J=2 + modes via a parametric field that lifts the selection rule due to particle-hole symmetry. In the case of a static superflow the modes with J=2 + , M=±1 couple to sound for qparallelH, and should be observable as Zeeman states with a maximum absorption that scales as the square of the superflow velocity. The J=2 + modes may also be excited parametrically in a three-wave resonance process involving two zero-sound phonons. We summarize the nonlinear response theory for two-phonon excitation of these modes. (orig.)
a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wenfei; Zhang Fengshou; Chen Liewen
2001-01-01
Within the framework of Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction, the isospin excitation energy as a function of relative neutron excess δ was investigated at different temperatures and densities. It was found that the isospin excitation energy decreased with the increment of temperature and/or the decrement of density. The authors pointed out that the decrement of isospin excitation energy was resulted from the weakening of quantum effect with increment of temperature and/or decrement of density. Meanwhile, the relationship between the isospin excitation energy and the symmetry energy was discussed and found that the symmetry energy was just a part of the isospin excitation energy. With increasing temperature and decreasing density, the contribution of the symmetry energy to the isospin excitation energy becomes more and more important. The isospin excitation energy as a function of relative neutron excess was also investigated using different potential parameters. The results shows that the isospin excitation energy is almost independent of the incompressibility and the effective mass, but strongly depends on the symmetry energy strength coefficient, which indicates that it is possible to extract the symmetry energy of the nuclear equation of state by investigating the isospin excitation energy in experiments
Lim, Edward C
2013-01-01
Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo
Lim, Edward C
1982-01-01
Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho
Effect of octupole interaction on the rotational motion of rotors in a solid Kr-CD4 solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudkin, V V; Bagatskii, M I; Mashchenko, D A
2007-01-01
The heat capacity of solid (CD 4 ) n Kr 1-n solutions with CD 4 concentrations n = 0.09, 0.17, 0.25, 0.35 and solutions with n = 0.25 doped with 0.0005, 0.0021 and 0.0123 of O 2 impurity has been investigated at T 0.6-30 K. It is found that the molecular field responsible for a qualitative change in the rotational motion of the rotators increases sharply as the number of nearest neighbours increases from one to three. Below 1.6 K the temperature dependence of the heat capacities of the rotational subsystems of the solutions can be described by a sum of the contributions made by molecules finding themselves in effective weak, moderate and strong molecular fields. The average concentration and the effective energy differences between the ground and the first excited energy levels of the CD 4 molecules in the above mentioned fields have been estimated. It is shown that the considerable changes in the experimental heat capacities of the rotational subsystem normalized to a mole of rotors are mostly due to the changes in the relative concentrations x(n) of the rotors in these molecular fields. Above T = 0.6 K the nuclear-spin A, T and E species of the molecules reach equilibrium distribution within one measurement of the heat capacity. The O 2 impurity is found to produce great influence on the heat capacity of the rotational subsystem in the solution with n = 0.25 and the equilibrium composition of the nuclear-spin species of the molecules
Harmonic excitations in quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luck, J.M.
1986-03-01
The harmonic excitations (phonons) of quasicrystals are studied in a simple one-dimensional model. The spectrum is a Cantor set, which exhibits selfsimilarity properties. The eigenstates are generically ''critical'', i.e. neither extended nor localized
Radio frequency plasma excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burden, M.St.J.; Cross, K.B.
1979-01-01
An investigation into the use of rf sputtering for ion cleaning of insulating substrates before ion plating is reported. Initial experiments consisted of sputtering metals with rf power followed by the deposition of copper onto glass slides using rf plasma excitation and biasing supply. It was found that good quality films were obtained by rf ion plating onto plastics with excellent adhesion over a wide operating pressure range. A block schematic of the rf plasma excitation system is shown. (UK)
High energy nuclear excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.
1983-09-01
The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering
Giant resonances on excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.
1984-01-01
We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)
Excitation of Nucleon Resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkert, Volker D.
2001-01-01
I discuss developments in the area of nucleon resonance excitation, both necessary and feasible, that would put our understanding of nucleon structure in the regime of strong QCD on a qualitatively new level. They involve the collection of high quality data in various channels, a more rigorous approach in the search for ''missing'' resonances, an effort to compute some critical quantities in nucleon resonance excitations from first principles, i.e. QCD, and a proposal focused to obtain an understanding of a fundamental quantity in nucleon structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.; Sheline, R.K.
1999-01-01
Sources of 230 U - resulting from the β - decay of 230 Pa produced in the reaction 232 Th(p,3n) with 34 MeV protons - were purified and used to determine the half life of the 230.4 keV 1 - state in 226 Th. Using the Doppler shift method, following α decay of 230 U, a value T 1/2 = 3.5 ± 1.2 ps was determined. The half life of the 226.4 keV 4 + state was also measured as T 1/2 = 145 ± 20 ps. The absolute probabilities in Weisskopf units of the 230 keV and 158 keV γ transitions depopulating the 1 - state were determined as (2.50 ± 0.86) x 10 -3 and (4.54 ± 1.55) x 10 -3 respectively. Experimental values of the intrinsic dipole moment, D 0 , and of D 0 /Q 0 , were determined as 0.27 ± 0.05 e.fm and (3.5 ± 1.0) x 10 -4 fm -1 . These data have been compared with theories and experiment. (authors)
Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?
Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J
2018-01-01
Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.
Excitation of Stellar Pulsations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Houdek, G.
2012-01-01
In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrend, H.J.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Fenner, H.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Fuster, J.; Holler, Y.; Meyer, J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Campbell, A.J.; Dainton, J.B.; Hendry, D.; McCurrach, G.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Blobel, V.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Christiansen, W.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Sack, B.; Schacht, P.; Shooshtari, G.; Wiedenmann, W.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Gaillard, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Janot, P.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Ros, E.; Spadafora, A.; Veillet, J.J.; Aleksan, R.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Jarry, P.; Lavagne, Y.; Ould Saada, F.; Pamela, J.; Pierre, F.; Zacek, J.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.
1986-02-01
Using the CELLO detector at PETRA we have searched for excited leptons by studying e + e - interactions which yield p + p - γγ, l + l - γ and γγ final states, where l = 3, μ or τ. We observe good agreement with QED and set new limits on e*, μ*, and τ* production. (orig.)
Hardness and excitation energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...
Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peyrard, M.
1995-01-01
The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)
Pancholi, S C
2011-01-01
By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngo, C.
1986-11-01
Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr
Harmonically excited orbital variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, T.
1985-01-01
Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs
Two- to one-phonon E3 transition strength in {sup 148}Gd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piiparinen, M [Niels Bohr Institute, Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Atac, A; Nyberg, J; Ramsoy, T; Sletten, G [Niels Bohr Institute, Tandem Acceleratory Laboratory, Roskile, (Denmark); Virtanen, A; Muller, D [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Kleinheinz, P [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Blomqvist, J [Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)
1992-08-01
In a plunger experiment the mean life of the ({nu} f{sub 6}{sup 2}x3{sup -}x3{sup -})12{sup +} state at 3.981 MeV in {sub 64}{sup 148}Gd{sub 84} was measured as {tau}=83(10)ps, giving 77(11)B{sub w} for the 1286 keV 12{sup +} {yields} 9{sup -} E3 transition rate, which confirms the double-octupole character of the 12{sup +} state. The observed deviations in energy and transition rate from harmonic vibration are shown to be caused by the exclusion principle acting between nucleons in the two phonons and are related to the dominant contributions to the {sup 148}Gd octupole phonon of the low-lying {Delta}l={Delta}j=3 proton- and neutron in-shell 3{sup -} excitations which are of vital significance for the octupole mode in open-shell nuclei. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.
2017-01-01
This edition is the ninth in a series of workshops that had been previously organised in Poland (2009), Slovakia (2010 and 2015), France (2011), Portugal (2012 and 2016) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2013 and 2014). In the year 2017 the workshop goes to the beautiful Sintra near Lisbon, Portugal. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, new resonances, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-gluon plasma, holography, colour-glass condensate, compact stars, applications to astrophysics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Littman, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.L.
1981-01-01
Highly excited atoms are often called Rydberg atoms. These atoms have a wealth of exotic properties which are discussed. Of special interest, are the effects of electric and magnetic fields on Rydberg atoms. Ordinary atoms are scarcely affected by an applied electric or magnetic field; Rydberg atoms can be strongly distorted and even pulled apart by a relatively weak electric field, and they can be squeezed into unexpected shapes by a magnetic field. Studies of the structure of Rydberg atoms in electric and magnetic fields have revealed dramatic atomic phenomena that had not been observed before
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, S.F.; Hanly, J.M.; Hicks, S.E.; Shen, G.R.; McEllistrem, M.T.
1994-01-01
Differential elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections have been measured for neutrons incident on 204 Pb and 206 Pb at energies of 2.5, 4.6, and 8.0 MeV and total cross sections in 100-keV steps from 250 keV to 4.0 MeV. Both spherical and coupled-channels analyses have been used to interpret this large set of data, together with other cross sections extending to 8 MeV. Several purposes motivate this work. The first is to establish the dispersion-corrected mean field appropriate for these nuclei. A consistent description of the energy dependent neutron scattering potential includes a dispersion relation connecting the real and imaginary parts of the potential; the resultant potential relates the energy dependent scattering field to one representing bound single particle levels. Dispersion relations using both the single channel and coupled-channels models have been examined; both give very similar results. The second motivation is to deduce neutron and proton excitation strengths of the lowest-energy quadrupole and octupole excitations seen via neutron scattering, and to compare those strengths with similar values derived from electromagnetic exciton, heavy-ion and pion scattering. The role of target neutrons in both collective excitations was found to be enhanced compared to the proton role
CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation
de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.
2017-08-01
CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.
Soliton excitation in superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Twum, A.K.
1995-10-01
Excitation of soliton in superlattice has been investigated theoretically. It is noted that the soliton velocity u and the length L depend on the amplitude E 0 and that an increase in the amplitude causes soliton width L to approach zero and the velocity u to that of light V in homogeneous medium. The characteristic parameters of soliton u, L and E 0 are related by expression u/L E 0 = ed/2(h/2π) which is constant depending only on the SL period d. It is observed also that the soliton has both energy E = 8V 2 (1 - u 2 /V 2 ) -1/2 and momentum P = u/V 2 E which makes it behave as relativistic free particle with rest energy 8V 2 . Its interaction with electrons can cause the soliton electric effect in SL. (author). 27 refs
Charmonium non-potential excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borue, V.Y.; Khokhlachev, S.B.
1990-01-01
Within the framework of an effective theory of quantum gluodynamics formulated earlier in terms of the glueball degrees of freedom, the excitations of gluon bunch formed by heavy quark and antiquark are considered. It is shown that these excitations correspond to the vibration of the gluon bunch shape and lie nearly 800 MeV higher than the charmonium ground state. The consequences of the existence of these excitations are discussed
Fission fragment excited laser system
McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.
1976-01-01
A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.
Subsurface excitations in a metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Sosolik, C. E.
2009-01-01
We investigate internal hot carrier excitations in a Au thin film bombarded by hyperthermal and low energy alkali and noble gas ions. Excitations within the thin film of a metal-oxide-semiconductor device are measured revealing that ions whose velocities fall below the classical threshold given...... by the free-electron model of a metal still excite hot carriers. Excellent agreement between these results and a nonadiabatic model that accounts for the time-varying ion-surface interaction indicates that the measured excitations are due to semilocalized electrons near the metal surface....
Vibrational-rotational excitation: chemical reactions of vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, C.B.; Smith, I.W.M.
1979-03-01
This review considers a limited number of systems, particularly gas-phase processes. Excited states and their preparation, direct bimolecular reactions, reactions of highly excited molecules, and reactions in condensed phases are discussed. Laser-induced isotope separation applications are mentioned briefly. 109 references
High energy magnetic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endoh, Yasuo
1988-01-01
The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)
Topological excitations in magnetic materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Doria, M.M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Rodrigues, E.I.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2016-05-20
In this work we propose a new route to describe topological excitations in magnetic systems through a single real scalar field. We show here that spherically symmetric structures in two spatial dimensions, which map helical excitations in magnetic materials, admit this formulation and can be used to model skyrmion-like structures in magnetic materials.
Bechert, D. W.
1982-01-01
The generation of instability waves in free shear layers is investigated. The model assumes an infinitesimally thin shear layer shed from a semi-infinite plate which is exposed to sound excitation. The acoustical shear layer excitation by a source further away from the plate edge in the downstream direction is very weak while upstream from the plate edge the excitation is relatively efficient. A special solution is given for the source at the plate edge. The theory is then extended to two streams on both sides of the shear layer having different velocities and densities. Furthermore, the excitation of a shear layer in a channel is calculated. A reference quantity is found for the magnitude of the excited instability waves. For a comparison with measurements, numerical computations of the velocity field outside the shear layer were carried out.
Barranco Garcia, Javier; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider has shown with various experimental verifications that one of the main limitations to the collider performance and to a possible upgrade can come from the long-range beam-beam effects which will define the operational parameters (intensities and emittances) and machine set-up (crossing angles and the minimum beta function at the interaction points). The High Luminosity project aims at very high intensities and will therefore need much larger separations to keep the long range effects weak. In the past several studies of possible active compensators have been carried out and experimental studies are planned to explore such schemes in the LHC. In this note we show the feasibility of using octupole magnets to compensate the effects of long range beam-beam interactions by use of dynamical aperture simulations. A prove of principle of such a compensation scheme is shown for the HL-LHC optics. Preliminary studies for the LHC optics ATS and standard are also presented pointing to the import...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)
2001-02-01
Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2010-01-01
We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization...... and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering....
Uniform excitations in magnetic nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steen Mørup
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We present a short review of the magnetic excitations in nanoparticles below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature. In this temperature regime, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by uniform excitations, and this leads to a linear temperature dependence of the magnetization and the magnetic hyperfine field, in contrast to the Bloch T3/2 law in bulk materials. The temperature dependence of the average magnetization is conveniently studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The energy of the uniform excitations of magnetic nanoparticles can be studied by inelastic neutron scattering.
Excited states in biological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.
1979-01-01
Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt
Scattering of highly excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raith, W.
1980-01-01
Experimental methods to excite atomic beams into Rydberg states and the first results of collision experiments with such beams are reported. For further information see hints under relevant topics. (orig.) [de
High power laser exciter accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, T.H.
1975-01-01
Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)
Autowaves in moving excitable media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.A.Davydov
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.
Magnetic excitations in amorphous ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Continentino, M.A.
The propagation of magnetic excitations in amorphous ferromagnets is studied from the point of view of the theory of random frequency modulation. It is shown that the spin waves in the hydrodynamic limit are well described by perturbation theory while the roton-like magnetic excitations with wavevector about the peak in the structure factor are not. A criterion of validity of perturbation theory is found which is identical to a narrowing condition in magnetic resonance. (author) [pt
Excitations of strange bottom baryons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woloshyn, R.M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
2016-09-15
The ground-state and first-excited-state masses of Ω{sub b} and Ω{sub bb} baryons are calculated in lattice QCD using dynamical 2 + 1 flavour gauge fields. A set of baryon operators employing different combinations of smeared quark fields was used in the framework of the variational method. Results for radial excitation energies were confirmed by carrying out a supplementary multiexponential fitting analysis. Comparison is made with quark model calculations. (orig.)
2010-10-01
... 46 CFR 110.10-1). In particular, no static exciter may be used for excitation of an emergency generator unless it is provided with a permanent magnet or a residual-magnetism-type exciter that has the...
Electron-excited molecule interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christophorou, L.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN
1991-01-01
In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10 6 to 10 7 times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs
Excited states rotational effects on the behavior of excited molecules
Lim, Edward C
2013-01-01
Excited States, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper reviews the rotational involvement in intra-molecular in vibrational redistribution. This paper analyzes the vibrational Hamiltonian as to its efficacy in detecting the manifestations of intra-molecular state-mixing in time-resolved and time-averaged spectroscopic measurements. The next paper examines the temporal behavior of intra-molecular vibration-rotation energy transfer (IVRET) and the effects of IVRET on collision, reaction, and the decomposition processes. This paper also
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauerwein, Anne; Derya, Vera; Endres, Janis; Hennig, Andreas; Zilges, Andreas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany). Research Div.; Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Tornow, Werner [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics
2013-07-01
Vibrational excitations in atomic nuclei can be described within the scope of the harmonic phonon-model. The coupling of a quadrupole phonon with an octupole phonon leads to a quintuplet of negative-parity states, including the two-phonon J{sup π} = 1{sup -} state. A direct test of the two-phonon character is the study of the γ decay into constituent one-phonon excitations, and the comparison of their reduced transition strengths to model predictions. The high-efficiency γ{sup 3} setup at the High Intensity γ-ray Source facility was used, in order to investigate the γ-decay behavior of (2{sup +} x 3{sup -}){sub 1}{sup -} candidates in {sup 40}Ca and {sup 140}Ce. A detector-array consisting of four High-Purity Germanium detectors, four 3'' LaBr detectors and three 1.5'' LaBr detectors was used for γ-ray detection. The data acquisition is capable of storing γ-γ coincidence events as well as singles events, allowing for the determination of γ-decay branching ratios.
Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rekling, J C; Funk, G D; Bayliss, D A
2000-01-01
important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization......, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions...... and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K(+) current, cationic inward...
Nuclear spin and isospin excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osterfeld, F.
1992-01-01
A review is given of our present knowledge of collective spin-isospin excitations in nuclei. Most of this knowledge comes from intermediate-energy charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron- and proton-scattering experiments. The nuclear-spin dynamics is governed by the spin-isospin-dependent two-nucleon interaction in the medium. This interaction gives rise to collective spin modes such as the giant Gamow-Teller resonances. An interesting phenomenon is that the measured total Gamow-Teller transition strength in the resonance region is much less than a model-independent sum rule predicts. Two physically different mechanisms have been discussed to explain this so-called quenching of the total Gamow-Teller strength: coupling to subnuclear degrees of freedom in the form of Δ-isobar excitation and ordinary nuclear configuration mixing. Both detailed nuclear structure calculations and extensive analyses of the scattering data suggest that the nuclear configuration mixing effect is the more important quenching mechanism, although subnuclear degrees of freedom cannot be ruled out. The quenching phenomenon occurs for nuclear-spin excitations at low excitation energies (ω∼10--20 MeV) and small-momentum transfers (q≤0.5 fm -1 ). A completely opposite effect is anticipated in the high (ω,q)-transfer region (0≤ω≤500 MeV, 0.5≤q≤3 fm -1 ). The nuclear spin-isospin response might be enhanced due to the attractive pion field inside the nucleus. Charge-exchange reactions at GeV incident energies have been used to study the quasifree peak region and the Δ-resonance region. An interesting result of these experiments is that the Δ excitation in the nucleus is shifted downwards in energy relative to the Δ excitation of the free proton
Nuclear excitation in muonic gold
Robert Tissot, B; Debrunner, P; Engfer, R; Link, R; Schellenberg, L; Schneuwly, H; Walter, H K
1973-01-01
Energies and intensities of muonic X-rays in gold were measured at the CERN muon channel with an experimental set-up as described by Backe et al. (1972). The 2p-1s and 3d-2p transitions could only be analysed taking into account beside the static quadrupole interaction a dynamical hyperfine interaction of the 2p states, which leads to an excitation of the first four nuclear levels. The dynamical hyperfine interaction was calculated using the core excitation model (de Shalit, (1961)). (0 refs).
Entanglement entropy of excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alba, Vincenzo; Fagotti, Maurizio; Calabrese, Pasquale
2009-01-01
We study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in excited states of spin chains. We consider the XY model in a transverse field and the XXZ Heisenberg spin chain. For the latter, we developed a numerical application of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We find two main classes of states with logarithmic and extensive behavior in the dimension of the block, characterized by the properties of excitations of the state. This behavior can be related to the locality properties of the Hamiltonian having a given state as the ground state. We also provide several details of the finite size scaling
Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas
Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori
2011-01-01
We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandao, S.B.
1987-01-01
The level structure of 189 Os has been studied by Coulomb excitation using 35 Cl, 28 Si, 16 O beams. GOSIA, a code written to analyze multiple Coulomb excitation, was used to obtain the reduced probabilities of transition B(E2). The results for interband and intraband turned out possible the classification of the states following Nilsson levels. Gamma-rays originating from deexcitation of 216.7 and 219.4 keV have been separated and the reduced probability of transition has been measured. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Laser excitation spectroscopy of uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solarz, R.W.
1976-01-01
Laser excitation spectroscopy, recently applied to uranium enrichment research at LLL, has produced a wealth of new and vitally needed information about the uranium atom and its excited states. Among the data amassed were a large number of cross sections, almost a hundred radiative lifetimes, and many level assignments. Rydberg states, never before observed in uranium or any of the actinides, have been measured and cataloged. This work puts a firm experimental base under laser isotope separation, and permits a choice of the laser frequencies most appropriate for practical uranium enrichment
Quenching reactions of electronically excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setser, D.W.
2001-01-01
The two-body, thermal quenching reactions of electronically excited atoms are reviewed using excited states of Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms as examples. State-specific interstate relaxation and excitation-transfer reactions with atomic colliders are discussed first. These results then are used to discuss quenching reactions of excited-state atoms with diatomic and polyatomic molecules, the latter have large cross sections, and the reactions can proceed by excitation transfer and by reactive quenching. Excited states of molecules are not considered; however, a table of quenching rate constants is given for six excited-state molecules in an appendix
Calibrated Noncontact Exciters for Optical Modal Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrik O. Saldner
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Two types of exciters were investigated experimentally One of the exciters uses a small permanent magnet fastened on the object. The force is introduced by the change in the electromagnetic field from a coil via an air gap. The second exciter is an eddy-current electromagnet one. The amplitude of the forces from these exciters are calibrated by using dynamic reciprocity in conjunction with electronic holography. These forces strongly depend upon the distance between the exciter and the object.
Gluonic excitations in hadronic spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1983-09-01
Theoretical expectations are described for new forms of hadronic matter containing gluons as excitable degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to hybrid states containing both quarks and gluons. Recent work on the spectroscopy of hybrid mesons and hybrid baryons is reviewed. Comparisons of bag model, lattice QCD and QCD sum rule predictions are made and some confrontation with data attempted. (author)
Predictions for Excited Strange Baryons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernando, Ishara P.; Goity, Jose L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-04-01
An assessment is made of predictions for excited hyperon masses which follow from flavor symmetry and consistency with a 1/N c expansion of QCD. Such predictions are based on presently established baryonic resonances. Low lying hyperon resonances which do not seem to fit into the proposed scheme are discussed.
Launch Excitement with Water Rockets
Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John
2007-01-01
Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…
Peeters, E; Martinez-Hernandez, NL; Rodriguez-Fernandez, NJ; Tielens, [No Value
An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. H II regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernova Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarised, their diagnostic
Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, N. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.
2004-01-01
An overview is given of ISO results on regions of high excitation ISM and gas, i.e. HII regions, the Galactic Centre and Supernovae Remnants. IR emission due to fine-structure lines, molecular hydrogen, silicates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dust are summarized, their diagnostic capabilities illustrated and their implications highlighted.
Electron excitation of alkali atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ormonde, S.
1979-02-01
The development and testing of a synthesized close-coupling effective model potential ten-channel electron-atom scattering code and some preliminary calculations of resonances in cross sections for the excitation of excited states of potassium by low energy electrons are described. The main results obtained are: identification of 1 S and 1 D structures in excitation cross sections below the 5 2 S threshold of neutral potassium; indications of additional structures - 1 P and 1 D between the 5 2 S and 5 2 D thresholds; and a suggested explanation of anomalously high interstate-electron impact excitation cross sections inferred from experiments on potassium-seeded plasmas. The effective potential model imbedded in the code can be used to simulate any atomic system that can be approximated by a single bound electron outside an ionic core. All that is needed is a set of effective potential parameters--experimental or theoretical. With minor modifications the code could be adapted to calculations of electron scattering by two-electron systems
Proton exciting X ray analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Xinpei
1986-04-01
The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained
Excitation of solar and stellar oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudin, Frederic
2009-01-01
In this report for an Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), and after an introduction which outlines the potential of helio-seismology, the author addresses the problem of excitation and amplitude of stellar oscillations with respect to their most important aspects, i.e. the theoretical framework of the present understanding of excitation mechanisms, and instrumental influences on measurements which are used to assess excitation rates, the difficulty to perform these measurements, and their analysis in some various cases. Thus, the author addresses excitation mechanisms of stellar oscillation (stochastic excitation, opacity- related excitation, and other excitation mechanisms), the excitation of solar modes (observation and theoretical predictions, influence of magnetic phenomena, solar g modes), and the excitation of modes in other stars (solar-type pulsators, red giants, and not so conventional pulsators such as HD180642 and Be stars like HD49330)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorner, B.
1996-01-01
A short introduction to instrumental resolution is followed by a discussion of visibilities of phonon modes due to their eigenvectors. High precision phonon dispersion curves in GaAs are presented together with 'ab initio' calculations. Al 2 O 3 is taken as an example of selected visibility due to group theory. By careful determination of phonon intensities eigenvectors can be determined, such as in Silicon and Diamond. The investigation of magnon modes is shown for the garnet Fe 2 Ca 3 (GeO 4 ) 3 , where also a quantum gap due to zero point spin fluctuations was observed. The study of the splitting of excitons in CsFeCl 3 in an applied magnetic field demonstrates the possibilities of neutron polarisation analysis, which made it possible to observe a mode crossing. An outlook to inelastic X-ray scattering with very high energy resolution of synchrotron radiation is given with the examples of phonons in Beryllium and in water. (author) 19 figs., 36 refs
Mean excitation energies for molecular ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Oddershede, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sabin, John R., E-mail: sabin@qtp.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Quantum Theory Project, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
2017-03-01
The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase with ionic charge. However, while the mean excitation energies of atoms also increase with atomic number, the opposite is the case for mean excitation energies for molecules and molecular ions. The origin of these effects is explained by considering the spectral representation of the excited state contributing to the mean excitation energy.
Excited negative parity bands in 160Yb
Saha, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, A.; de Angelis, G.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Das Gupta, S.; Dey, B.; Goswami, A.; Mondal, D.; Pandit, D.; Palit, R.; Roy, T.; Singh, R. P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.
2018-03-01
Negative parity rotational bands in {} 70160Yb{}90 nucleus have been studied. They were populated in the 148Sm(16O, 4n)160Yb reaction at 90 MeV. The gamma-coincidence data have been collected using Indian National Gamma Array composed of twenty Compton suppressed clover germanium (Ge) detectors. Double gating on triple gamma coincidence data were selectively used to develop the decay scheme for these negative parity bands by identifying and taking care of the multiplet transitions. The even- and odd-spin negative parity bands in 160Yb have been studied by comparing the reduced transition probability ratios with the similar bands in neighbouring even-even rare earth nuclei. It is concluded that the concerned odd-spin and even-spin bands are not signature partners and that their structures are compatible with those of the ‘pear-shape’ and ‘pyramid-shape’ oscillations, respectively, the octupole shapes superposed with the quadrupole shape of the ground-state.
Uniform magnetic excitations in nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Britt Rosendahl
2005-01-01
We have used a spin-wave model to calculate the temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization of magnetic nanoparticles. The uniform precession mode, corresponding to a spin wave with wave vector q=0, is predominant in nanoparticles and gives rise to an approximately linear temperature...... dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization well below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature for both ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic particles. This is in accordance with the results of a classical model for collective magnetic excitations in nanoparticles. In nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic...... materials, quantum effects give rise to a small deviation from the linear temperature dependence of the (sublattice) magnetization at very low temperatures. The complex nature of the excited precession states of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials, with deviations from antiparallel orientation...
Receiver-exciter controller design
Jansma, P. A.
1982-01-01
A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.
International Meeting: Excited QCD 2014
Giacosa, Francesco; Malek, Magdalena; Marinkovic, Marina; Parganlija, Denis
2014-01-01
Excited QCD 2014 will take place on the beautiful Bjelasnica mountain located in the vicinity of the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Bjelasnica was a venue of the XIV Winter Olympic Games and it is situated only 30 kilometers from Sarajevo International Airport. The workshop program will start on February 2 and finish on February 8, 2014, with scientific lectures taking place from February 3 to 7. Workshop participants will be accomodated in Hotel Marsal, only couple of minutes by foot from the Olympic ski slopes. ABOUT THE WORKSHOP This edition is the sixth in a series of workshops that were previously organised in Poland, Slovakia, France and Portugal. Following the succesful meeting in 2013, the Workshop is returning to Sarajevo Olympic mountains in 2014, exactly thirty years after the Games. The workshop covers diverse aspects of QCD: (i) QCD at low energies: excited hadrons, glueballs, multiquarks. (ii) QCD at high temperatures and large densities: heavy-ion collisions, jets, diffraction, hadronisation, quark-...
Laser amplification in excited dielectrics
Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas
2018-01-01
Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.
Vibrational excitation from heterogeneous catalysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purvis, G.D. III; Redmon, M.J.; Woken, G. Jr.
1979-01-01
Classical trajectories have been used by numerous researchers to investigate the dynamics of exothermic chemical reactions (atom + diatom) with a view toward understanding what leads to vibrational excitation of the product molecule. Unlike these studies, the case where the reaction is catalyzed by a solid surface is considered. The trajectory studies indicate that there should be conditions under which considerable vibrational energy appears in the product molecules without being lost to the solid during the course of the reaction. 2 figures, 3 tables
Magnetic excitations in thulium metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Baca, J.A.; Nicklow, R.M.; Rhyne, J.J.
1989-01-01
We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on a single crystal specimen of Tm at wavevectors rvec κ = (1,1, ζ) and (0,0,2 + ζ) (ζ = 0, hor-ellipsis, 1). Most of the measurements have been made at T = 5K, where Tm exhibits a seven layer ferrimagnetic-antiphase-domain structure (four moments up, parallel to the c-axis, followed by three moments down). At this temperature the excitation spectra consist of three peaks. The two lower energy excitations have been identified as originating from magneto-vibrational scattering from the TA phonon, while the higher energy excitation is magnetic and exhibits only a weak dispersion (between 8.3 and 9.6 meV). At T = 50K, a temperature at which the system exhibits a c-axis sinusoidally modulated structure, the magnetic mode shows significant softening and broadening. The magneto-vibrational scattering vanishes above the Neel temperature (T N = 58.5K) while the magnetic mode persists at least up to T = 70K. These results suggest that the Hamiltonian in this system is dominated by the crystal-field-anistropy energy, and that the exchange interaction is relatively weak. 9 refs., 2 figs
Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This invention relates to isotope separation employing isotopically selective vibrational excitation and vibration-translation reactions of the excited particles. Uranium enrichment, using uranium hexafluoride, is a particular embodiment. (U.K.)
Spurious Excitations in Semiclassical Scattering Theory.
Gross, D. H. E.; And Others
1980-01-01
Shows how through proper handling of the nonuniform motion of semiclassical coordinates spurious excitation terms are eliminated. An application to the problem of nuclear Coulomb excitation is presented as an example. (HM)
Backreaction of excitations on a vortex
Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek
1996-01-01
Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found ...
Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milojčić Nemanja
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.
Continuum emission of excited sodium dimer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pardo, A.; Poyato, J.M.L.; Alonso, J.I.; Rico, F.R.
1980-01-01
A study has been made of the behaviour of excited molecular sodium using high-power Ar + laser radiation. A continuum emission was observed in the red wavelength region. This emission was thought to be caused by the formation of excited triatomic molecules. Energy transfer was observed from excited molecules to atoms. (orig.)
Control of excitation in the fluorescence microscope.
Lea, D J; Ward, D J
1979-01-01
In fluorescence microscopy image brightness and contrast and the rate of fading depend upon the intensity of illumination of the specimen. An iris diaphragm or neutral density filters may be used to reduce fluorescence excitation. Also the excitation bandwidth may be varied by using a broad band exciter filter with a set of interchangeable yellow glass filters at the lamphouse.
Production of excited charmed mesons at LEP
Abbaneo, D
2000-01-01
Studies od the production of orbitally excited charmed and charmed strange mesons in e+e- collisions, performed by the LEP collaborations are reviewed. Measurements of the production rates of orbitally excited charmed mesons in semileptonic b decays are presented. Searches for charmed meson radial excitations are also briefly discussed.
Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Balling, Peter; Frislev, Martin Thomas
2012-01-01
We report an approach to modeling the interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and dielectric materials. The model includes the excitation of carriers by the laser through strongfield excitation, collisional excitation, and absorption in the plasma consisting of conduction-band electrons formed...
Photoionization of excited molecular states using multiphoton excitation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
Photoelectron spectra are reported for three photon resonant, four photon ionization of H 2 via the B 1 Σ/sub u/ + , v = 7 (J = 2,4) and C 1 π/sub u'/, v = 0-4 (J = 1) levels and of N 2 via the o 3 1 π/sub u'/, v = 1,2, b 1 π/sub u'/, v = 3-5, and c 1 π/sub u'/, v = 0 levels. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon factors are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization. 23 references, 6 figures, 2 tables
Photoionization of excited molecular states using multiphoton excitation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.; Dehmer, J.L.
1984-01-01
Photoelectron spectra are reported for three photon resonant, four photon ionization of H 2 via the B 1 Σ + /sub u/, v = 7 (J = 2,4) and C 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 0-4 (J = 1) levels and of N 2 via the o 3 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 1,2, b 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 3-5, and c 1 Pi/sub u/, v = 0 levels. The results reflect both the spectroscopy and the dynamics of photoionization of excited molecular states and are discussed in terms of the selection rules for photoionization and the relative probabilities of photoionization from Rydberg and valence states. In some cases, in accordance with the Franck-Condon principle, the results demonstrate that resonant multiphoton ionization through Rydberg states may be a powerful technique for the production of electronic, vibrational, and rotational state selected ions. However, in other cases, systematic departures from Franck-Condon factors are observed, which reflect the more subtle dynamics of excited state photoionization
Excited states in stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, H.M.; Marshall, T.W.
1987-12-01
It is shown that the set of Wigner functions associated with the excited states of the harmonic oscillator constitute a complete set of functions over the phase space. An arbitraty distribution can be expanded in terms of these Wigner functions. By studying the time evolution, according to Stochastic Electrodynamics, of the expansion coefficients, becomes feasible to separate explicity the contributionsof the radiative reaction and the vaccuum field to the Einsten. A coefficients for this system. A simple semiclassical explanation of the Weisskopf-Heitler phenomenon in resonance fluorescence is also supplied. (author) [pt
Hadron excitation of giant resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsch, H.-P.
1985-01-01
A review is given on giant resonance studies in heavy nuclei using scattering of different hadronic probes. Concerning isoscalar giant resonances compression modes are discussed with the possibility to obtain more detailed structure information. From detailed studies of α scattering the distribution of isoscalar strengths of multipolarity up to L=6 was obtained. Some recent aspects of heavy ion excitation of collective modes are mentioned. The possibility to study isovector giant resonances in hadron charge exchange reactions is discussed. Finally, a comparison is made between α and 200 MeV proton scattering from which isoscalar and spin-isospin continuum response are extracted. (orig.)
Magnetic excitations in ferromagnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furdyna, J.K.; Liu, X.; Zhou, Y.Y.
2009-01-01
Magnetic excitations in a series of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor films were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Using the FMR approach, multi-mode spin wave resonance spectra have been observed, whose analysis provides information on magnetic anisotropy (including surface anisotropy), distribution of magnetization precession within the GaMnAs film, dynamic surface spin pinning (derived from surface anisotropy), and the value of exchange stiffness constant D. These studies illustrate a combination of magnetism and semiconductor physics that is unique to magnetic semiconductors
Laser amplification in excited dielectrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian
2018-01-01
Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...
Importance of being topologically excited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldi, D.G.
1980-08-01
A class of Euclidean configurations that appear to be dominant in the functional integral of the CP/sup N-1/ models is identified. These configurations are point-like topological excitations, and they may be viewed as constituents of instantons, although they are defined independently of instantons through a continuum duality transformation. Not only do these configurations survive as N → infinity, but in the plasma phase they are responsible for the effects encountered within the 1/N expansion - confinement, theta dependence, and dynamical mass generation
Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
1998-01-01
Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....
Thermodynamical description of excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonche, P.
1989-01-01
In heavy ion collisions it has been possible to obtain composite systems at rather high excitation energies corresponding to temperatures of several MeV. The theoretical studies of these systems are based on concepts borrowed from thermodynamics or statistical physics, such as the temperature. In these lectures, we present the concepts of statistical physics which are involved in the physics of heavy ion as they are produced nowadays in the laboratory and also during the final stage of a supernova collapse. We do not attempt to describe the reaction mechanisms which yield such nuclear systems nor their decay by evaporation or fragmentation. We shall only study their static properties. The content of these lectures is organized in four main sections. The first one gives the basic features of statistical physics and thermodynamics necessary to understand quantum mechanics at finite temperature. In the second one, we present a study of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear physics. A phenomenological approach of the stability of hot nuclei follows. The microscopic point of view is proposed in the third part. Starting from the basic concepts derived in the first part, it provides a description of excited or hot nuclei which confirms the qualitative results of the second part. Furthermore it gives a full description of most properties of these nuclei as a function of temperature. Finally in the last part, a microscopic derivation of the equation of state of nuclear matter is proposed to study the collapse of a supernova core
Nuclear excited power generation system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.
1989-01-01
A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop
Core excitation and de-excitation spectroscopies of free atoms and molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Kiyoshi
2006-01-01
This article provides a review of the current status of core excitation and de-excitation spectroscopy studies of free atoms molecules using a high-resolution soft X-ray monochromator and a high-resolution electron energy analyzer, installed in the soft X-ray photochemistry beam line at SPring-8. Experimental results are discussed for 1s excitation of Ne, O 1s excitation of CO and H 2 O, and F 1s excitation of CF 4 . (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotthaus, Tanja
2010-01-01
In this thesis five heavy deformed isotopes from the mass region A≥230, namely 234 U, 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa, were investigated by means of deuteron-induced neutron transfer reactions. The even-even isotope 234 U has been studied with the 4π-γ-spectrometer MINIBALL at the Cologne Tandem accelerator. Excited nuclei in the isotope 234 U were produced using the reaction 235 U(d,t) at a beam energy of 11 MeV. The target thickness was 3.5 mg/cm 2 . The analysis of the γγ-coincidence data yielded a reinterpretation of the level scheme in 12 cases. Considering its decay characteristics, the 4 + state at an excitation energy of 1886.7 keV is a potential candidate for a two-phonon vibrational state. The isotopes 233 U, 231 Th, 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated at the Munich Q3D spectrometer. For each isotope an angular distribution with angles between 5 and 45 were measured. In all four cases the energy of the polarized deuteron beam (vector polarization of 80%) was 22 MeV. As targets 234 U (160 μg/cm 2 ), 230 Th (140 μg/cm 2 ) and 231 Pa (140 μg/cm 2 ) were used. The experimental angular distributions were compared to results of DWBA calculations. For the odd isotope 233 U spin and parity for 33 states are assigned and in the other odd isotope 231 Th 22 assignments are made. The excitation spectra of the two odd-odd isotopes 230 Pa and 232 Pa were investigated for the first time. For the isotope 230 Pa 63 states below an excitation energy of 1.5 MeV are identified. Based on the new experimental data the Nilsson configuration of the ground state is either 1/2[530] p -5/2[633] n or 1/2[530] p +3/2[631] n . In addition 12 rotational bands are proposed and from this six values for the GM splitting energy are deduced as well as two new values for the Newby shift. In the other odd-odd isotope 232 Pa 40 states below an excitation energy of 850 keV are observed and suggestions for the groundstate band and its GM partner are made. From this one GM splitting
Microwave Excitation In ECRIS plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.; Tumino, L.
2007-01-01
A number of phenomena related to the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) has been better understood recently by means of the improvement of comprehension of the coupling mechanism between microwave generators and ECR plasma. In particular, the two frequency heating and the frequency tuning effect, that permit a remarkable increase of the current for the highest charge states ions, can be explained in terms of modes excitation in the cylindrical cavity of the plasma chamber. Calculations based on this theoretical approach have been performed, and the major results will be presented. It will be shown that the electric field pattern completely changes for a few MHz frequency variations and the changes in ECRIS performances can be correlated to the efficiency of the power transfer between electromagnetic field and plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vara Cuadrado, J. M.
1969-01-01
A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T 1 ) detectors. (Author) 54 refs
Quantized wobbling excitations with alignments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, Ikuko; Hagemann, Gudrun B.
2003-01-01
The wobbling excitations in the presence of an appreciable amount of alignment are expected to appear more easily at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra, compared with those in the textbook example. The large B(E2;I→I-1) value for Δn=1 transitions where n expresses the number of wobbling phonons is shown to be a strongly increasing function of the triaxiality parameter γ, especially for γ > or approx. +20 deg., while it is relatively independent of moments of inertia. On the other hand, the relation of the wobbling phonon energy to the total angular momentum may be used to extract quantitative information on nuclear moments of inertia. It is concluded that the γ value of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in 163 Lu is about equal to +20 deg. and may be slightly increasing as a function of I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.M.; Lu, K.T.; Lee, J.M.; Ho, S.C.; Chang, H.W.; Lee, Y.Y.
2005-01-01
State-selective dissociation dynamics for the excited fragments of gaseous Si(CH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 following Cl 2p and Si 2p core-level excitations have been investigated by resonant photoemission spectroscopy and dispersed UV/optical fluorescence spectroscopy. The main features in the gaseous Si(CH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 fluorescence spectrum are identified as the emission from excited Si*, Si + *, CH* and H*. The core-to-Rydberg excitations at both Si 2p and Cl 2p edges lead to a noteworthy production of not only the excited atomic fragments, neutral and ionic (Si*, Si + *) but also the excited diatomic fragments (CH*). In particular, the excited neutral atomic fragments Si* are significantly reinforced. The experimental results provide deeper insight into the state-selective dissociation dynamics for the excited fragments of molecules via core-level excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheikh Obeid, Abdulrahman
2014-11-01
In the framework of this thesis electron scattering experiments on low-energy excitations of {sup 92}Zr and {sup 94}Zr were performed at the S-DALINAC in a momentum transfer range q=0.3-0.6 fm{sup -1}. The nature of one-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states of {sup 92}Zr was investigated by comparison with predictions of the quasi-particle phonon model (QPM). Theoretical (e,e') cross sections have been calculated within the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) to account for Coulomb distortion effects. The reduced strengths of the one-quadrupole phonon states and the one-octupole phonon state have been extracted. The similarity of the momentum-transfer dependence of the form factors between the 2{sup +} states supports the one-phonon nature of the 2{sup +}{sub 2} state of {sup 92}Zr. A new method based on the Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA) for a model-independent determination of the ratio of the E2 transition strengths of fully symmetric (FSS) and mixed-symmetry (MSS) one-phonon excitations of heavy vibrational nuclei is introduced. Due to the sensitivity of electron scattering to charge distributions, the charge transition-radii difference can be determined. The basic assumptions (independence from the ratio of Coulomb corrections and from absolute values of transition radii) are tested within the Tassie model, which makes no specific assumptions about the structure of the states other than collectivity. It is shown that a PWBA analysis of the form factors, which usually fails for heavy nuclei, can nevertheless be applied in a relative analysis. This is a new promising approach to determine the ground state transition strength of the 2{sup +} MSS of vibrational nuclei with a precision limited only by the experimental information about the B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}→0{sup +}{sub 1}) strength. The PWBA approach furthermore provides information about differences of the proton transition radii of the respective states
Back reaction of excitations on a vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.
1997-01-01
Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Back reaction of excitations on a vortex
Arodź, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek
1997-01-01
Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.
Orientation of nuclei excited by polarized neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifshits, E.P.
1986-01-01
Polarization and radiation angular distribution of oriented nuclei in inelastic scattering of polarized neutrons were investigated. Nucleus orientation in the final state was described by polarization density matrix (PDM). If PDM is known, angular distributions, linear and circular polarization of γ-quanta emitted by a nucleus can be determined. Analytical expression for PDM, conditions of its diagonalization in the case of direct nucleus excitation and excitation by the stage of compound nucleus were obtained. Orientation of 12 C nuclei in the excited state 4.439 MeV, 2 + at energy of incident neutrons in the laboratory system from 4.8 MeV (excitation threshold) upt to 9 MeV was calculated as an example. Neutrons in initial state are completely polarized along Z axis. Calculations showed that excitation proceeds mainly by the stage of compound nucleus formation and 12 C nucleus is highly polarized in excited state
Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calero, C.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Garanin, D.A.
2007-01-01
We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid
Relaxation of the electron spin in quantum dots via one- and two-phonon processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calero, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)]. E-mail: carlos.calero-borrallo@lehman.cuny.edu; Chudnovsky, E.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States); Garanin, D.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)
2007-09-15
We have studied direct and Raman processes of the decay of electron spin states in a quantum dot via radiation of phonons corresponding to elastic twists. Universal dependence of the spin relaxation rate on the strength and direction of the magnetic field has been obtained in terms of the electron gyromagnetic tensor and macroscopic elastic constants of the solid.
Two-phonon absorption spectra in CuInSe2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobotta, H.; Neumann, H.; Kissinger, W.; Riede, V.; Kuehn, G.
1981-01-01
An attempt was made to measure and to analyse phonon combination mode spectra of CuInSe 2 and in this way to determine the phonon mode frequencies unknown so far. Considering the absorption coefficient spectra, there are to well-pronounced peaks at 405 and 428 cm -1 at room temperature which are shifted to 412 and 433 cm -1 , respectively, at 105 K. Accounting for the fact that the absorption peaks at 405 and 428 cm -1 show the same temperature shift, it seems to be not unreasonable to assume that all the phonon modes participating in these absorption processes are characterized by the same temperature dependence of the mode frequencies. The corresponding mode Grueneisen parameters have been estimated using the thermal expansion coefficients for CuInSe 2 . Values of 1.7 to 2.0 were obtained being nearly of the same magnitude as the values of the high-energy zone-center modes in CuAlS 2 and CuGaS 2 derived from high-pressure Raman scattering studies
Multiple electromagnetic excitations of relativistic projectiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Llope, W.J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.
1992-01-01
Conditions optimum for the first experimental verification of the multiplication electromagnetic excitations of nuclei in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are described. The relative magnitudes of three important physical processes that might interfere with such a measurement are compared to the predicted strengths for the single and multiple electromagnetic excitations for various choices of the projectile mass and beam energy. Strategies are presented for making inferences concerning the presence of multiple excitation strength in experimental data
Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation
Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.
2002-01-01
The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...
Nuclear wobbling-phonon excitations with alignments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, I.
2003-01-01
Wobbling-phonon excitations, which are recently observed in 71 163 Lu 92 , are studied. The presence of alignments in nuclei makes it easier for wobbling excitations to appear at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra. A family of rotational bands with wobbling excitations, which have nearly the same nuclear intrinsic structure, have been pinned down by observing specific electromagnetic decay properties between them. The triaxiality parameter γ = +20 deg. is obtained for the nuclear shape from measured E2 transition probabilities
New mode of magnetic excitation in praseodymium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, K.N.; McEwen, K.A.; Jensen, J.
1994-01-01
A novel propagating mode of magnetic excitation has been observed in Pr. It takes the form of low-energy satellites to the crystal-field excitations on both the hexagonal and cubic sites which are very broad at long wavelengths, rise in energy and rapidly narrow with increasing q, and disappear...... beyond the point at which the two excitations would cross. The broadening may be abruptly quenched by a magnetic field. The satellite excitations are believed to be associated with the dynamics of the conduction electrons....
Stabilization of nonlinear excitations by disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.
1998-01-01
Using analytical and numerical techniques we analyze the static and dynamical properties of solitonlike excitations in the presence of parametric disorder in the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a homogeneous power nonlinearity. Both the continuum and the discrete problem...... are investigated. We find that otherwise unstable excitations can be stabilized by the presence of disorder in the continuum problem. For the very narrow excitations of the discrete problem we find that the disorder has no effect on the averaged behavior. Finally, we show that the disorder can be applied to induce...... a high degree of controllability of the spatial extent of the stable excitations in the continuum system....
Numerical simulation of the cavitation's hydrodynamic excitement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassis, H.; Dueymes, E.; Lauro, J.F.
1993-01-01
First, we study the motion, the velocity, the phases plane and the acoustic sources associated to a spherical bubble in a compressible or incompressible medium. The bubble can be excited by periodic or random excitements. We study the parameters which influence their behaviour: periodicity or not of motion, implosion and explosion or oscillation of bubble. We take into account this behaviour in a model of cavitation: it is a numerical simulation using population of bubbles which are with positions (in the cavitation volume) and sizes are random. These bubbles are excited by a random excitement: a model of turbulent flow or implosion and explosion of bubble. (author)
Excited-state density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harbola, Manoj K; Hemanadhan, M; Shamim, Md; Samal, P
2012-01-01
Starting with a brief introduction to excited-state density functional theory, we present our method of constructing modified local density approximated (MLDA) energy functionals for the excited states. We show that these functionals give accurate results for kinetic energy and exchange energy compared to the ground state LDA functionals. Further, with the inclusion of GGA correction, highly accurate total energies for excited states are obtained. We conclude with a brief discussion on the further direction of research that include the construction of correlation energy functional and exchange potential for excited states.
The mechanisms of Excited states in enzymes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Bohr, Henrik
2010-01-01
Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes.......Enzyme catalysis is studied on the basis of excited state processes, which are of electronic, vibrational and thermal nature. The ways of achieving the excited state, such as photo-absorption and ligand binding, are discussed and exemplified by various cases of enzymes....
Caroline Duc
2013-01-01
As the first and last proton-lead run of 2013 draws to a close, the extensive upgrade and maintenance programme of the LHC's first long shutdown (LS1) is about to get under way. The LHC has provided physicists with a huge quantity of data to analyse since the first physics run in 2009. Now it's time for the machine, along with CERN's other accelerators, to get a facelift. LS1 will start on 13 February 2013, but this doesn’t mean that life at the Laboratory will be any less rich and exciting. Although there will be no collisions for a period of almost two years, the whole CERN site will be a hive of activity, with large-scale work under way to modernise the infrastructure and prepare the LHC for operation at higher energy. "A whole series of renovation work will be carried out around the LHC during LS1,” explains Simon Baird, deputy head of the EN Department. "The key driver is of course the consolidation of the 10,170 high-curren...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donne, A.J.H.
1985-01-01
In this thesis aspects of the structure of the nucleus 19 F are discussed as a result of transverse electron-scattering experiments, with emphasis on the ground state. The magnetization distribution of this state has been obtained from the measurement of electrons scattered from 19 F at backward angles. An introduction to the electron-scattering formalism is presented briefly together with the interpretation of electron-scattering results in terms of the nuclear shell model. The experimental apparatus for the measurement of electron scattering through an angle of 180 0 is described. This instrumentation has been installed in the low-energy facility (LEF) at NIKHEF-K. Simultaneously with the study of the magnetic ground state distribution of 19 F, also excited states of this nucleus up to an energy of 4.4 MeV have been investigated, mainly from data obtained in the EMIN station. Also for these states, the shell-model calculations have been the guide to determine their structure. (Auth.)
Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.
1990-01-01
The main theme of this report is the study and interpretation of the sequence of events that occur during the collisions of nuclear particles. Some of the processes discussed in parts A and B involve short range interactions; others involve interactions of long range. In most of part A one of the particles in the initial or in the final state (or in both) is a photon, which serves as a probe of the second particle, which may be a nucleus, a proton, a pion or any other hadron. The complexity of the processes taking place during the collisions makes it necessary to simplify some aspects of the physical problem. This leads to the introduction of modals which are used to describe a limited number of features in as much detail as possible. The main interest is the understanding of the hadronic excitations which result from the absorption of a photon and the determination of the fundamental structure constants of the target particle. In part B, all the particles are hadrons. The purpose here is to develop and apply optimal quantal methods appropriate for describing the interacting systems. Of particular interest are three-particle collision systems in which the final state consists of three free particles. Part B also considers the process of nuclear fusion as catalyzed by bound muons
Excited-state imaging of cold atoms
Sheludko, D.V.; Bell, S.C.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Scholten, R.E.; Deshmukh, P.C.; Chakraborty, P.; Williams, J.F.
2007-01-01
We have investigated state-selective diffraction contrast imaging (DCI) of cold 85Rb atoms in the first excited (52P3/2) state. Excited-state DCI requires knowledge of the complex refractive index of the atom cloud, which was calculated numerically using a semi-classical model. The Autler-Townes
Mean excitation energies for molecular ions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Phillip W.K.; Sauer, Stephan P.A.; Oddershede, Jens
2017-01-01
The essential material constant that determines the bulk of the stopping power of high energy projectiles, the mean excitation energy, is calculated for a range of smaller molecular ions using the RPA method. It is demonstrated that the mean excitation energy of both molecules and atoms increase...
Spectrochemical analysis using laser plasma excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radziemski, L.J.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on analyses of gases, liquids, particles, and surfaces in which laser plasma is used to vaporize and excite a material. The authors present a discussion of the interaction between laser radiation and a solid and some recent analytical results using laser plasma excitation on metals. The use of laser plasmas as an ablation source is also discussed
Excitations of Neodymium Ions in Praseodymium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wulff, M.; Jensen, J.; Mackintosh, A.R.
1983-01-01
The excitations of Nd ions dissolved in Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. A crystal-field level at about 1.2 meV interferes strongly with the host excitations. In the antiferromagnetic phase, another level is observed about 0.5 meV above the ground-state, which is split...
S-parameters for weakly excited slots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albertsen, Niels Christian
1999-01-01
A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.
1984-01-01
Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...
Total cross section of highly excited strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.
1990-01-01
The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Using excitation patterns to predict auditory masking
Heijden, van der M.L.; Kohlrausch, A.G.
1992-01-01
We investigated how well auditory masking can be predicted from excitation patterns. For this purpose, a quantitative model proposed by Moore and Glasberg (1987) and Glasberg and Moore (1990) was used to calculate excitation patterns evoked by stationary sounds. We performed simulations of a number
Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.
1979-01-01
Vibrational excitation of molecules having components of a selected isotope type is used to produce a conversion from vibrational to translational excitation of the molecules by collision with the molecules of a heavy carrier gas. The resulting difference in translaton between the molecules of the selected isotope type and all other molecules of the same compound permits their separate collection. When applied to uranium enrichment, a subsonic cryogenic flow of molecules of uranium hexafluoride in combination with an argon carrier gas is directed through a cooled chamber that is illuminated by laser radiaton tuned to vibrationally excite the uranium hexafluoride molecules of a specific uranium isotope. The excited molecules collide with carrier gas molecules, causing a conversion of the excitation energy into a translation of the excited molecule, which results in a higher thermal energy or diffusivity than that of the other uranium hexafluoride molecules. The flowing molecules including the excited molecules directly enter a set of cryogenically cooled channels. The higher thermal velocity of the excited molecules increases the probability of their striking a collector surface. The molecules which strike this surface immediately condense. After a predetermined thickness of molecules is collected on the surface, the flow of uranium hexafluoride is interrupted and the chamber heated to the point of vaporization of the collected hexafluoride, permitting its removal. (LL)
Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves
Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der
2003-01-01
Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others
1995-08-01
The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.
Production of Excited Neutrinos at the LHC
Belyaev, A; Mehdiyev, R
2005-01-01
We study the potential of the CERN LHC in the search for the single production of excited neutrino through gauge interactions. Subsequent decays of excited neutrino via gauge interactions are examined. The mass range accessible with the ATLAS detector is obtained.
A large electrically excited synchronous generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
This invention relates to a large electrically excited synchronous generator (100), comprising a stator (101), and a rotor or rotor coreback (102) comprising an excitation coil (103) generating a magnetic field during use, wherein the rotor or rotor coreback (102) further comprises a plurality...... adjacent neighbouring poles. In this way, a large electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) is provided that readily enables a relatively large number of poles, compared to a traditional EESG, since the excitation coil in this design provides MMF for all the poles, whereas in a traditional EESG...... each pole needs its own excitation coil, which limits the number of poles as each coil will take up too much space between the poles....
Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaklevic, J.M.
1976-01-01
The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed
Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional
Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.
2018-06-01
The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.
Seismic excitation by space shuttles
Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.
1992-01-01
Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were
Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.
Hyperon excitation in nuclear coulomb field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanyashin, A.V.; Nikitin, Yu.P.; Shan'gin, A.A.
1981-01-01
A possibility is studied to measure radiative decay partial widths from the 3/2 + decuplet hyperon resonances by means of the Coulomb excitation method of the octet hyperons. The expected contributions from the strong and electromagnetic interactions in the coherence range to the hyperon excitation cross sections on heavy nuclei and on the 4 He nucleus are estimated. The particle angular distributions in the reactions Σ-+A→Σ-(1385)+A and Λ+A→Σ 0 (1385)+A are analysed in order to determine the energy range where the background conditions are the most favorable to extract the electromagnetic mechanism of the hyperon excitation [ru
Excited-state molecular photoionization dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, S.T.
1995-01-01
This review presents a survey of work using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and double-resonance techniques to study excited-state photoionization dynamics in molecules. These techniques routinely provide detail and precision that are difficult to achieve in single-photon ionization from the ground state. The review not only emphasizes new aspects of photoionization revealed in the excited-state experiments but also shows how the excited-state techniques can provide textbook illustrations of some fundamental mechanisms in molecular photoionization dynamics. Most of the examples are confined to diatomic molecules. (author)
Surface and bulk excitations in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, R.H.
1988-01-01
In this lecture collective and single-particle electron excitations of solids will be discussed with emphasis on the properties of metallic and semiconducting materials. However, some of the general properties of long-wavelength collective modes to be discussed are valid for insulators as well, and some considerations apply to nuclear excitations such as optical or acoustical phonons, dipolar plasmons, etc. The concept of elementary excitations in solids, pioneered by Bohm and Pines almost 4 decades ago, has proved to be extremely useful in understanding the properties of systems of many particles, especially in respect to the response to the action of external probes. 32 refs., 12 figs
Two-photon excitation of argon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.
1982-01-01
The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon
Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latimer, C.J.
1979-01-01
Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)
Geophysical excitation of the chandler wobble revisited
A. Brzezinski; Henryk Dobslaw; Robert Dill; Maik Thomas
2012-01-01
The 14-month Chandler wobble is a free motion of the pole excited by geophysical processes. Several recent studies demonstrated that the combination of atmospheric and oceanic excitations contains enough power at the Chandler frequency and is significantly coherent with the observed free wobble. This paper is an extension of earlier studies by Brzeziński and Nastula (Adv Space Res 30:195–200, 2002), Brzeziński et al. (Oceanic excitation of the Chandler wobble using a 50-year time series of oc...
Symmetry characterization of electrons and lattice excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schober H.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Symmetry concerns all aspects of a physical system from the electronic orbitals to structural and magnetic excitations. In this article we will try to elaborate the fundamental connection between symmetry and excitations. As excitations are manyfold in physical systems it is impossible to treat them exhaustively. We thus concentrate on the two topics of Bloch electrons and phonons. These two examples are complementary in the sense that Bloch electrons describe single particles in an external periodic potential while phonons exemplify a decoupled system of interacting particles. The way we develop the argument gives as by-product a short account of molecular orbitals and molecular vibrations.
Rowan, D. R.
1989-01-01
The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.
Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kailas, S.
1981-01-01
In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)
Dark excitations in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deilmann, Thorsten; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2017-01-01
Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess unique optoelectronic properties, including strongly bound excitons and trions. To date, most studies have focused on optically active excitations, but recent experiments have highlighted the existence of dark states, which are equally...
Non-equilibrium entropy in excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betak, E.
1991-06-01
The time-dependent behaviour of entropy in excited nuclei is investigated. In distinction to recent claims, it is shown that no self-organization is involved in pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. (author). 9 refs.; 4 figs
Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation
Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Al Hennawi, Qais M.; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.
Regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savchenko, I.S.
1989-01-01
Two methods of fast regulation of fields excited by permanent magnets in salient-pole electron-optical lenses are described: 1)the hybrid method realized using the additional electromagnet introduced to a magnetic chain sequentially its field being composed or substracted with magnetosolid exciter field; 2)the method with saturation of a part of a magnetic circuit, with saturation being achievable at the begining or in the end of a regulation cycle. In the second method it is proposed to direct orthogonally the main flux excited by permanent magnets and the flux in the saturated part of the magnetic circuit excited using an electromagnet. It is shown that the second method allows one to reduce the required ampere-coils by more than an order as compared to the first method at one and the same regulation range and other equal conditions. The frequency of field regulation in the experimental mock-up was 10 kHz. 3 refs.; 2 figs
Dissociative Excitation of Thymine by Electron Impact
McConkey, William; Tiessen, Collin; Hein, Jeffrey; Trocchi, Joshuah; Kedzierski, Wladek
2014-05-01
A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of thymine (C5H6N2O2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. A special stainless steel oven is used to vaporize the thymine and form it into a beam where it is intersected by a magnetically collimated electron beam, typical current 50 μA. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The probability of extracting excited C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. In addition to spectral data, excitation probability curves as a function of electron energy will be presented for the main emission features. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.
Optical studies of multiply excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannervik, S.
1989-01-01
Optical studies of multiply-excited states are reviewed with emphasis on emission spectroscopy. From optical measurements, properties such as excitation energies, lifetimes and autoionization widths can be determined with high accuracy, which constitutes a challenge for modern computational methods. This article mainly covers work on two-, three- and four-electron systems, but also sodium-like quartet systems. Furthermore, some comments are given on bound multiply-excited states in negative ions. Fine structure effects on transition wavelengths and lifetimes (autoionization) are discussed. In particular, the most recent experimental and theoretical studies of multiply-excited states are covered. Some remaining problems, which require further attention, are discussed in more detail. (orig.) With 228 refs
Wideband MEMS Resonator Using Multifrequency Excitation
Jaber, Nizar
2016-03-09
We demonstrate the excitation of combination resonances of additive and subtractive types and their exploitations to realize a large bandwidth micro-machined resonator of large amplitude even at higher harmonic modes of vibrations. The investigation is conducted on a Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeam fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. The microbeam is excited by a two-source harmonic excitation, where the first frequency source is swept around the targeted resonance (first or third mode of vibration) while the second source frequency is kept fixed. We report for the first time a large bandwidth and large amplitude response near the higher order modes of vibration. Also, we show that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled.
Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.
Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas
2013-03-01
Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.
Language identification using excitation source features
Rao, K Sreenivasa
2015-01-01
This book discusses the contribution of excitation source information in discriminating language. The authors focus on the excitation source component of speech for enhancement of language identification (LID) performance. Language specific features are extracted using two different modes: (i) Implicit processing of linear prediction (LP) residual and (ii) Explicit parameterization of linear prediction residual. The book discusses how in implicit processing approach, excitation source features are derived from LP residual, Hilbert envelope (magnitude) of LP residual and Phase of LP residual; and in explicit parameterization approach, LP residual signal is processed in spectral domain to extract the relevant language specific features. The authors further extract source features from these modes, which are combined for enhancing the performance of LID systems. The proposed excitation source features are also investigated for LID in background noisy environments. Each chapter of this book provides the motivatio...
Students Excited by Stellar Discovery
2011-02-01
In the constellation of Ophiuchus, above the disk of our Milky Way Galaxy, there lurks a stellar corpse spinning 30 times per second -- an exotic star known as a radio pulsar. This object was unknown until it was discovered last week by three high school students. These students are part of the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) project, run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, and West Virginia University (WVU). The pulsar, which may be a rare kind of neutron star called a recycled pulsar, was discovered independently by Virginia students Alexander Snider and Casey Thompson, on January 20, and a day later by Kentucky student Hannah Mabry. "Every day, I told myself, 'I have to find a pulsar. I better find a pulsar before this class ends,'" said Mabry. When she actually made the discovery, she could barely contain her excitement. "I started screaming and jumping up and down." Thompson was similarly expressive. "After three years of searching, I hadn't found a single thing," he said, "but when I did, I threw my hands up in the air and said, 'Yes!'." Snider said, "It actually feels really neat to be the first person to ever see something like that. It's an uplifting feeling." As part of the PSC, the students analyze real data from NRAO's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to find pulsars. The students' teachers -- Debra Edwards of Sherando High School, Leah Lorton of James River High School, and Jennifer Carter of Rowan County Senior High School -- all introduced the PSC in their classes, and interested students formed teams to continue the work. Even before the discovery, Mabry simply enjoyed the search. "It just feels like you're actually doing something," she said. "It's a good feeling." Once the pulsar candidate was reported to NRAO, Project Director Rachel Rosen took a look and agreed with the young scientists. A followup observing session was scheduled on the GBT. Snider and Mabry traveled to West Virginia to assist in the
Search for Excited Leptons at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hansen, J.M.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2003-01-01
A search for charged and neutral excited leptons is performed in 217 pb-1 of data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. The pair- and single-production mechanisms are investigated and no signals are detected. Combining with L3 results from searches at lower centre-of-mass energies, gives improved limits on the masses and couplings of excited leptons.
Microstructure ion Nuclear Spectra at High Excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ericson, T.E.O.
1969-01-01
The statistical microstructure of highly excited systems is illustrated by the distribution and fluctuations of levels, widths and cross-sections of nuclei both for the case of sharp resonances and the continuum case. The coexistence of simple modes of excitation with statistical effects in terms of strength functions is illustrated by isobaric analogue states. The analogy is made with similar phenomena for coherent light, is solid-state physics and high-energy physics. (author)
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;
Probability of collective excited state decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manykin, Eh.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Poluehktov, P.P.
1987-01-01
Decay mechanisms of condensed excited state formed of highly excited (Rydberg) atoms are considered, i.e. stability of so-called Rydberg substance is analyzed. It is shown that Auger recombination and radiation transitions are the basic processes. The corresponding probabilities are calculated and compared. It is ascertained that the ''Rydberg substance'' possesses macroscopic lifetime (several seconds) and in a sense it is metastable
Excitation mechanisms in singly ionized krypton laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Sherbini, Th.M.
1982-01-01
Lifetimes for the low lying 4p 4 4d and 4p 4 5s levels of singly ionized krypton laser are calculated, taking into account configuration interaction effects. The results show that some of these levels are metastable. They also suggest a two step excitation from the ground state of the ion (or the atom) to the upper 4p 4 5p laser levels involving some intermediate metastable states as a possible excitation mechanism. (author)
Excited quark production at hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baur, U.; Hinchliffe, I.; Zeppenfeld, D.
1987-06-01
Composite models generally predict the existence of excited quark and lepton states. We consider the production and experimental signatures of excited quarks Q* of spin and isospin 1/2 at hadron colliders and estimate the background for those channels which are most promising for Q* identification. Multi-TeV pp-colliders will give access to such particles with masses up to several TeV
Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus
2013-01-01
We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....
Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.
1996-12-01
Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams
High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prange, R.E.
1984-01-01
Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations
Excitation of giant resonances in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehn, W.
1991-01-01
Introduction: What are Giant Resonances? General Features of Giant Resonances, Macroscopic Description and Classification, Basic Excitation Mechanisms, Decay Modes, Giant Resonances Built on Excited States, Relativistic Coulomb Excitation of Giant Resonances, Experimental Situation. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyuan Qiu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise.
Coulomb excitation of radioactive 20, 21Na
Schumaker, M. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.
2009-12-01
The low-energy structures of the radioactive nuclei 20, 21Na have been examined using Coulomb excitation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Beams of ˜ 5×106 ions/s were accelerated to 1.7MeV/A and Coulomb excited in a 0.5mg/cm^2 natTi target. Two TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors perpendicular to the beam axis were used for γ -ray detection, while scattered nuclei were observed by the Si detector BAMBINO. For 21Na , Coulomb excitation from the 3/2+ ground state to the first excited 5/2+ state was observed, while for 20Na , Coulomb excitation was observed from the 2+ ground state to the first excited 3+ and 4+ states. For both beams, B ( λ L) values were determined using the 2+ rightarrow 0+ de-excitation in 48Ti as a reference. The resulting B( E2) ↓ value for 21Na is 137±9 e^2fm^4, while the resulting B( λ L) ↓ values for 20Na are 55±6 e^2fm^4 for the 3+ rightarrow 2+ , 35.7±5.7 e^2 fm^4 for the 4+ rightarrow 2+ , and 0.154±0.030 μ_ N^2 for the 4+ rightarrow 3+ transitions. This analysis significantly improves the measurement of the 21Na B( E2) value, and provides the first experimental determination of B( λ L) values for the proton dripline nucleus 20Na .-1
Studies of interstellar vibrationally-excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziurys, L.M.; Snell, R.L.; Erickson, N.R.
1986-01-01
Several molecules thus far have been detected in the ISM in vibrationally-excited states, including H 2 , SiO, HC 3 N, and CH 3 CN. In order for vibrational-excitation to occur, these species must be present in unusually hot and dense gas and/or where strong infrared radiation is present. In order to do a more thorough investigation of vibrational excitation in the interstellar medium (ISM), studies were done of several mm-wave transitions originating in excited vibrational modes of HCN, an abundant interstellar molecule. Vibrationally-excited HCN was recently detected toward Orion-KL and IRC+10216, using a 12 meter antenna. The J=3-2 rotational transitions were detected in the molecule's lowest vibrational state, the bending mode, which is split into two separate levels, due to l-type doubling. This bending mode lies 1025K above ground state, with an Einstein A coefficient of 3.6/s. The J=3-2 line mode of HCN, which lies 2050K above ground state, was also observed toward IRC+10216, and subsequently in Orion-KL. Further measurements of vibrationally-excited HCN were done using a 14 meter telescope, which include the observations of the (0,1,0) and (0,2,0) modes towards Orion-KL, via their J=3-2 transitions at 265-267 GHz. The spectrum of the J=3-2 line in Orion taken with the 14 meter telescope, is shown, along with a map, which indicates that emission from vibrationally-excited HCN arises from a region probably smaller than the 14 meter telescope's 20 arcsec beam
van der Waals interaction of excited media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherkunov, Yury
2005-01-01
The Casimir interaction between two media of ground-state atoms is well described with the help of the Lifshitz formula depending upon the permittivity of the media. We will show that this formula is in contradiction with experimental evidence for excited atoms. We calculate the Casimir force between two atoms if one or both of them are excited. We use methods of quantum electrodynamics specially derived for the problem. It enables us to take into account the excited-state radiation widths of atoms. Then we calculate the force between the excited atom and medium of ground-state atoms. The results are in agreement with the ones obtained by other authors who used perturbation theory or linear response theory. Generalization of our results to the case of the interaction between two media of excited atoms results in a formula, which is in not only in quantitative, but in qualitative contradiction with the Lifshitz formula. This contradiction disappears if the media of ground-state atoms are considered. Moreover, our result does not include the permittivity of the media. It includes a quantity which differs from the permittivity only for excited atoms. The main features of our results are as follows. The interaction is resonant, the force may be either attractive or repulsive depending on the resonant frequencies of the atoms of different media, and the value of the Casimir force may be several orders of magnitude lager than that predicted by the Lifshitz formula. The features mentioned here are in agreement with known experimental and theoretical evidence obtained by many authors for the interaction of a single excited atom with dielectric media
The rotational excitation of HF by H
Desrousseaux, Benjamin; Lique, François
2018-06-01
The HF molecule is a key tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Accurate modelling of the HF abundance in such media requires one to model its excitation by both radiation and collisions. In diffuse ISM, the dominant collisional partners are atomic and molecular hydrogen. We report quantum time-independent calculations of collisional cross-sections and rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HF by H. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account in the scattering calculations. For the first time, HF-H rate coefficients are provided for temperature ranging from 10 to 500 K. The strongest collision-induced rotational HF transitions are those with Δj = 1, and the order of magnitude of the new HF-H rate coefficients is similar to that of the HF-H2 ones previously computed. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of HF by both H and H2 in typical diffuse ISM. We show that, depending on the rotational transition, hydrogen atoms increase or decrease the simulated excitation temperatures compared to collisional excitation only due to H2 molecules. Such results suggest that the new HF-H collisional data have to be used for properly modelling the abundance of HF in diffuse ISM.
Photoionization dynamics of excited molecular states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehmer, J.L.; O'Halloran, M.A.; Tomkins, F.S.; Dehmer, P.M.; Pratt, S.T.
1987-01-01
Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) utilizes tunable dye lasers to ionize an atom or molecule by first preparing an excited state by multiphoton absorption and then ionizing that state before it can decay. This process is highly selective with respect to both the initial and resonant intermediate states of the target, and it can be extremely sensitive. In addition, the products of the REMPI process can be detected as needed by analyzing the resulting electrons, ions, fluorescence, or by additional REMPI. This points to a number of opportunities for exploring excited state physics and chemistry at the quantum-state-specific level. Here we will first give a brief overview of the large variety of experimental approaches to excited state phenomena made possible by REMPI. Then we will examine in more detail, recent studies of the three photon resonant, four photon (3 + 1) ionization of H 2 via the C 'PI/sup u/ state. Strong non-Franck-Condon behavior in the photoelectron spectra of this nominally simple Rydberg state has led to the examination of a variety of dynamical mechanisms. Of these, the role of doubly excited autoionizing states now seems decisive. Progress on photoelectron studies of autoionizing states in H 2 , excited in a (2 + 1) REMPI process via the E, F 1 Σ/sub g/ + will also be briefly discussed. 26 refs., 7 figs
Electron-beam-excited gas laser research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, A.W.; Gerardo, J.B.; Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.; Rice, J.K.; Bingham, F.W.
1975-01-01
Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe 2 / sup *(1)/, Kr:O(2 1 S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)
Detection of interstellar vibrationally excited HCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziurys, L.M.; Turner, B.E.
1986-01-01
Vibrationally excited HCN has been observed for the first time in the interstellar medium. The J = 3-2 rotational transitions of the l-doubled (0,1/sup 1d/,1c, 0) bending mode of HCN have been detected toward Orion-KL and IRC +10216. In Orion, the overall column density in the (0,1,0) mode, which exclusively samples the ''hot core,'' is 1.7-10 16 cm -2 and can be understood in terms of the ''doughnut'' model for Orion. The ground-state HCN column density implied by the excited-state observations is 2.3 x 10 18 cm -2 in the hot core, at least one order of magnitude greater than the column densities derived for HCN in its spike and plateau/doughnut components. Radiative excitation by 14 μm flux from IRc2 accounts for the (0,1,0) population provided the hot core is approx.6-7 x 10 16 cm distant from IRc2, in agreement with the ''cavity'' model for KL. Toward IRC +10216 we have detected J = 3-2 transitions of both (0,1/sup 1c/,/sup 1d/,0) and (0,2 0 ,0) excited states. The spectral profiles have been modeled to yield abundances and excitation conditions throughout the expanding envelope
Exciplex formation accompanied with excitation quenching.
Fedorenko, Stanislav G; Burshtein, Anatoly I
2010-04-08
The competence of the reversible exciplex formation and parallel quenching of excitation (by electron or energy transfer) was considered using a non-Markovian pi-forms approach, identical to integral encounter theory (IET). General equations accounting for the reversible quenching and exciplex formation are derived in the contact approximation. Their general solution was obtained and adopted to the most common case when the ground state particles are in great excess. Particular cases of only photoionization or just exciplex formation separately studied earlier by means of IET are reproduced. In the case of the irreversible excitation quenching, the theory allows specifying the yields of the fluorescence and exciplex luminescence, as well as the long time kinetics of excitation and exciplex decays, in the absence of quenching. The theory distinguishes between the alternative regimes of (a) fast equilibration between excitations and exciplexes followed by their decay with a common average rate and (b) the fastest and deep excitation decay followed by the weaker and slower delayed fluorescence, backed by exciplex dissociation.
Nuclear transitions induced by atomic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyer, P.; Bounds, J.A.; Haight, R.C.; Luk, T.S.
1988-01-01
In the two-step pumping scheme for a gamma-ray laser, an essential step is that of exciting the nucleus from a long-lived storage isomer to a nearby short- lived state that then decays to the upper lasing level. An experiment is in progress to induce this transfer by first exciting the atomic electrons with UV photons. The incident photons couple well to the electrons, which then couple via a virtual photon to the nucleus. As a test case, excitation of the 235 U nucleus is being sought, using a high- brightness UV laser. The excited nuclear state, having a 26- minute half-life, decays by internal conversion, resulting in emission of an atomic electron. A pulsed infrared laser produces an atomic beam of 235 U which is then bombarded by the UV laser beam. Ions are collected, and conversion electrons are detected by a channel electron multiplier. In preliminary experiments, an upper limit of 7 x 10 -5 has been obtained for the probability of exciting a 235 U atom in the UV beam for one picosecond at an intensity of about 10 15 W/cm 2 . Experiments with higher sensitivities and at higher UV beam intensities are underway
Inelastic scattering of {sup 9}Li and excitation mechanism of its first excited state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Falou, H. [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Kanungo, R., E-mail: ritu@triumf.ca [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Davids, B.; Djongolov, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gallant, A.T. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Galinski, N.; Howell, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Kshetri, R.; Niamir, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Orce, J.N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, P/B X17, Bellville, ZA-7535 (South Africa); Shotter, A.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Sjue, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Tanihata, I. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567 0047 (Japan); Thompson, I.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Triambak, S. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Uchida, M. [Astronomy and Physics Department, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Walden, P. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Wiringa, R.B. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2013-04-25
The first measurement of inelastic scattering of {sup 9}Li from deuterons at the ISAC facility is reported. The measured angular distribution for the first excited state confirms the nature of excitation to be an E2 transition. The quadrupole deformation parameter is extracted from an analysis of the angular distribution.
Inelastic scattering of 9Li and excitation mechanism of its first excited state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Falou, H.; Kanungo, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.S.; Davids, B.; Djongolov, M.; Gallant, A.T.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Kshetri, R.; Niamir, D.; Orce, J.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Sjue, S.; Tanihata, I.; Thompson, I.J.; Triambak, S.; Uchida, M.; Walden, P.; Wiringa, R.B.
2013-01-01
The first measurement of inelastic scattering of 9 Li from deuterons at the ISAC facility is reported. The measured angular distribution for the first excited state confirms the nature of excitation to be an E2 transition. The quadrupole deformation parameter is extracted from an analysis of the angular distribution
Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena
2005-01-01
theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing......-linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...
Elementary excitations in single-chain magnets
Lutz, Philipp; Aguilà, David; Mondal, Abhishake; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Marx, Raphael; Neugebauer, Petr; Fâk, Björn; Ollivier, Jacques; Clérac, Rodolphe; van Slageren, Joris
2017-09-01
Single-chain magnets (SCMs) are one-dimensional coordination polymers or spin chains that display slow relaxation of the magnetization. Typically their static magnetic properties are described by the Heisenberg model, while the description of their dynamic magnetic properties is based on an Ising-like model. The types of excitations predicted by these models (collective vs localized) are quite different. Therefore we probed the nature of the elementary excitations for two SCMs abbreviated Mn2Ni and Mn2Fe , as well as a mononuclear derivative of the Mn2Fe chain, by means of high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HFEPR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). We find that the HFEPR spectra of the chains are clearly distinct from those of the monomer. The momentum transfer dependence of the INS intensity did not reveal significant dispersion, indicating an essentially localized nature of the excitations. At the lowest temperatures these are modified by the occurrence of short-range correlations.
Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer
2017-01-01
Background Nerve excitability testing by threshold-tracking is the only available method to study axonal ion channel function and membrane potential in the clinical setting. The measures are, however, indirect and the interpretation of neuropathic changes remains challenging. The same multiple...... measures of axonal excitability were adapted to further explore the pathophysiological changes in rodent disease models under pharmacologic and genetic manipulations. These studies are typically limited to the investigation of the “long nerves” such as the tail or the tibial nerves. New method We introduce...... a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests...
Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andersson Andreas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.
Encryption in Chaotic Systems with Sinusoidal Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Obregón-Pulido
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution an encryption method using a chaotic oscillator, excited by “n” sinusoidal signals, is presented. The chaotic oscillator is excited by a sum of “n” sinusoidal signals and a message. The objective is to encrypt such a message using the chaotic behavior and transmit it, and, as the chaotic system is perturbed by the sinusoidal signal, the transmission security could be increased due to the effect of such a perturbation. The procedure is based on the regulation theory and consider that the receiver knows the frequencies of the perturbing signal, with this considerations the algorithm estimates the excitation in such a way that the receiver can cancel out the perturbation and all the undesirable dynamics in order to produce only the message. In this way we consider that the security level is increased.
Electron-impact excitation of Zn II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Msezane, A.Z.; Henry, R.J.W.
1982-01-01
Collision strengths are calculated for excitation of Zn II from the 4s ground state to excited states 4p, 3d 9 4s 2 , 5s, and 4d in a five-state close-coupling approximation for the electron-impact energy range 15 5 3d 10 4s 2 in a two-state close-coupling approximation for the same energy range. Accurate target functions are used in the expansion. Very good agreement with measurements of absolute emission cross sections of Rogers et al. is obtained for energy region 15< E<100 eV, when cascade contributions are included. Poorer agreement is obtained with experiment for excitation of the 5s state, owing to sensitivities in the close-coupling approximation
Adaptive transition rates in excitable membranes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shimon Marom
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Adaptation of activity in excitable membranes occurs over a wide range of timescales. Standard computational approaches handle this wide temporal range in terms of multiple states and related reaction rates emanating from the complexity of ionic channels. The study described here takes a different (perhaps complementary approach, by interpreting ion channel kinetics in terms of population dynamics. I show that adaptation in excitable membranes is reducible to a simple Logistic-like equation in which the essential non-linearity is replaced by a feedback loop between the history of activation and an adaptive transition rate that is sensitive to a single dimension of the space of inactive states. This physiologically measurable dimension contributes to the stability of the system and serves as a powerful modulator of input-output relations that depends on the patterns of prior activity; an intrinsic scale free mechanism for cellular adaptation that emerges from the microscopic biophysical properties of ion channels of excitable membranes.
Collective excitations in itinerant spiral magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kampf, A.P.
1996-01-01
We investigate the coupled charge and spin collective excitations in the spiral phases of the two-dimensional Hubbard model using a generalized random-phase approximation. Already for small doping the spin-wave excitations are strongly renormalized due to low-energy particle-hole excitations. Besides the three Goldstone modes of the spiral state the dynamical susceptibility reveals an extra zero mode for low doping and strong coupling values signaling an intrinsic instability of the homogeneous spiral state. In addition, near-zero modes are found in the vicinity of the spiral pitch wave number for out-of-plane spin fluctuations. Their origin is found to be the near degeneracy with staggered noncoplanar spiral states which, however, are not the lowest energy Hartree-Fock solutions among the homogeneous spiral states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Triple Giant Resonance Excitations: A Microscopic Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lanza, E.G.; Andres, M.V.; Catara, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Fallot, M.; Scarpaci, J.A.
2007-01-01
We present, for the first time, microscopic calculations of inelastic cross sections of the triple excitation of giant resonances induced by heavy ion probes. We start from a microscopic approach based on RPA. The mixing of three-phonon states among themselves and with two- and one-phonon states is considered within a boson expansion with Pauli corrections. In this way we go beyond the standard harmonic approximations and get anharmonic excitation spectra. At the same time we also introduce non-linearities in the external field. The calculations are done by solving semiclassical coupled channel equations, the channels being superpositions of one-, two- and three-phonon states. Previous calculations for the Double Giant Resonance excitation show good agreement with experimental cross sections. The inclusion of the three phonon components confirms the previous results for the DGR and produces a strong increase in the Triple GR energy region
Elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, R.A.
1985-01-01
Neutron scattering is and will continue to be a uniquely powerful tool for the study of elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids. The paper examines a few recent experiments on molecular crystals, superionic materials, paramagnetic scattering and phase transitions to see what experimental features made these experiments possible, and hence to make suggestions about future needs. It is concluded that new instruments will extend the scope of neutron scattering studies to new excitations, that there is a need for higher resolution, particularly for phase transition studies, and that it will be important to use intensity information, discrimination against unwanted inelastic processes and polarization analysis to reliably measure the excitations in new materials. (author)
Electronic-excitation energy transfer in heterogeneous dye solutions under laser excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levshin, L.V.; Mukushev, B.T.; Saletskii, A.M.
1995-01-01
An experimental study has been made of electronic-excitation energy transfer (EEET) among dye molecules of different types for different exciting-fight wavelengths and temperatures. Upon selective laser excitation of the donor, the inhomogeneous broadening of molecular levels increases the probability of EEET from the donor to acceptor molecules. The efficiency of this process is directly proportional to the acceptor molecule concentration and is temperature dependent. The EEET is accompanied by the spectral migration of energy among donor molecules, which reduces the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the donor. Increasing the frequency of the exciting light decreases in the donor fluorescence quantum efficiency. An increase in the acceptor molecule concentration results in a decrease of the spectral migration of excitation in the donor molecule system. 5 refs., 5 figs
Characterization of weakly excited final states by shakedown spectroscopy of laser-excited potassium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, J.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Sankari, R.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Kukk, E.
2006-01-01
3p shakedown spectra of laser excited potassium atoms as well as direct 3p photoemission of ground state potassium have been studied. These two excitation schemes lead to the same final states and thereby provide a good basis for a detailed study of the 3p 5 (4s3d) 1 configurations of singly ionized potassium and the photoemission processes leading to these configurations. The comparison of direct photoemission from the ground state and conjugate shakedown spectra from 4p 1/2 laser excited potassium made it possible to experimentally determine the character of final states that are only weakly excited in the direct photoemission but have a much higher relative intensity in the shakedown spectrum. Based on considerations of angular momentum and parity conservation the excitation scheme of the final states can be understood
Nonlinear Characteristics of Randomly Excited Transonic Flutter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Mosekilde, Erik
2002-01-01
. When this model is extended by the introduction of nonlinear terms, it can reproduce the subcritical Hopf bifurcation. We hereafter consider the effects of subjecting simplified versions of the model to random external excitations representing the fluctuations present in the airflow. These models can......The paper describes the effects of random external excitations on the onset and dynamical characteristics of transonic flutter (i.e. large-amplitude, self-sustained oscillations) for a high aspect ratio wing. Wind tunnel experiments performed at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) in Japan have...
Computing correct truncated excited state wavefunctions
Bacalis, N. C.; Xiong, Z.; Zang, J.; Karaoulanis, D.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate that, if a wave function's truncated expansion is small, then the standard excited states computational method, of optimizing one "root" of a secular equation, may lead to an incorrect wave function - despite the correct energy according to the theorem of Hylleraas, Undheim and McDonald - whereas our proposed method [J. Comput. Meth. Sci. Eng. 8, 277 (2008)] (independent of orthogonality to lower lying approximants) leads to correct reliable small truncated wave functions. The demonstration is done in He excited states, using truncated series expansions in Hylleraas coordinates, as well as standard configuration-interaction truncated expansions.
Clinical Comparison of Pulse and Chirp Excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Misaridis, T.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2002-01-01
Coded excitation (CE) using frequency modulated signals (chirps) combined with modified matched filtering has earlier been presented showing promising results in simulations and in-vitro. In this study an experimental ultrasound system is evaluated in a clinical setting, where image sequences...... and short pulse excitation to simultaneously produce identical image sequences using both techniques. Nine healthy male volunteers were scanned in abdominal locations. All sequences were evaluated by 3 skilled medical doctors, blinded to each other and to the technique used. They assessed the depth (1...
Electron-impact excitation of molecular ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neufeld, D.A.; Dalgarno, A.
1989-01-01
A simple expression is derived that relates the rate coefficient for dipole-allowed electron-impact excitation of a molecular ion in the Coulomb-Born approximation to the Einstein A coefficient for the corresponding radiative decay. Results are given for several molecular ions of astrophysical interest. A general analytic expression is obtained for the equilibrium rotational level populations in the ground vibrational state of any molecular ion excited by collisions with electrons. The expression depends only upon the electron temperature, the electron density, and the rotational constant of the molecular ion. A similar expression is obtained for neutral polar molecules
Spectra from foil-excited molybdenum ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Cecchi, J.L.; Kruse, T.H.
1978-01-01
The extreme-ultraviolet spectra (5 to 55 nm) for foil-excited molybdenum ions have been measured using 22 to 200 MeV beams from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator facility, 20 μg/cm 2 C stripping foils, and a grazing incidence spectrometer. The mean ion charge states (13 to 28) and the narrow distribution widths (about 2 charge states) were accurately predictable from experimental parameters. Where possible, comparisons are given with Mo radiation from tokamaks, vacuum sparks, and laser-excited plasmas
From fusion hierarchy to excited state TBA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juettner, G.; Kluemper, A.
1998-01-01
Functional relations among the fusion hierarchy of quantum transfer matrices give a novel derivation of the TBA equations, namely without string hypothesis. This is demonstrated for two important models of 1D highly correlated electron systems, the supersymmetric t-J model and the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model. As a consequence, ''the excited state TBA'' equations, which characterize correlation lengths, are explicitly derived for the t-J model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first explicit derivation of excited state TBA equations for 1D lattice electron systems. (orig.)
Excitation Chains at the Glass Transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, J. S.
2006-01-01
The excitation-chain theory of the glass transition, proposed in an earlier publication, predicts diverging, super-Arrhenius relaxation times and, via a similarly diverging length scale, suggests a way of understanding the relations between dynamic and thermodynamic properties of glass-forming liquids. I argue here that critically large excitation chains play a role roughly analogous to that played by critical clusters in the droplet model of vapor condensation. Unlike a first-order condensation point in a vapor, the glass transition is not a conventional phase transformation, and may not be a thermodynamic transition at all
Topological excitations in U(1) -invariant theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savit, R.
1977-01-01
A class of U(1) -invariant theories in d dimensions is introduced on a lattice. These theories are labeled by a simplex number s, with 1 < or = s < d. The case with s = 1 is the X-Y model; and s = 2 gives compact photodynamics. An exact duality transformation is applied to show that the U(1) -invariant theory in d dimensions with simplex number s is the same as a similar theory in d dimensions but which is Z /sub infinity/-invariant and has simplex number s = d-s. This dual theory describes the topological excitations of the original theory. These excitations are of dimension s - 1
Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang
1989-01-01
The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed
Isovector excitations of N ≠ Z nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passos, E.J.V. de; Menezes, D.P.; Galeao, A.P.N.R.
1987-09-01
We show that the method based on the tensor coupling of an appropriate family of isovector excitation operators to the parent isospin multiplet can be used, to advantage, for the correct treatment of the isospin degree of freedom in non isoscalar nuclei. This method is applicable to any isovector excitation operator and for parent states which need not to be of the closed subshells type. As an illustration we apply it to the study of the Gamow-Teller transition strength in 90 Zr. (author) [pt
Phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakarchuk, I.A.; Migal', V.M.; Tkachuk, V.M.
1988-01-01
The method of two-time temperature-dependent Green's functions is used to investigate phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids. The equation obtained for the energy spectrum of the phonon excitations takes into account the damping associated with scattering of phonons by structure fluctuations. The quasicrystal approximation is considered, and as an example explicit expressions are obtained for the case of a two-component amorphous solid for the frequencies of the acoustical and optical modes and for the longitudinal and transverse velocities of sound. The damping is investigated
Mexican waves in an excitable medium.
Farkas, I; Helbing, D; Vicsek, T
2002-09-12
The Mexican wave, or La Ola, which rose to fame during the 1986 World Cup in Mexico, surges through the rows of spectators in a stadium as those in one section leap to their feet with their arms up, and then sit down again as the next section rises to repeat the motion. To interpret and quantify this collective human behaviour, we have used a variant of models that were originally developed to describe excitable media such as cardiac tissue. Modelling the reaction of the crowd to attempts to trigger the wave reveals how this phenomenon is stimulated, and may prove useful in controlling events that involve groups of excited people.
Elementary spin excitations in ultrathin itinerant magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakeri, Khalil, E-mail: zakeri@mpi-halle.de
2014-12-10
Elementary spin excitations (magnons) play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics, since many phenomena e.g. magnetic ordering, electrical (as well as heat) transport properties, ultrafast magnetization processes, and most importantly electron/spin dynamics can only be understood when these quasi-particles are taken into consideration. In addition to their fundamental importance, magnons may also be used for information processing in modern spintronics. Here the concept of spin excitations in ultrathin itinerant magnets is discussed and reviewed. Starting with a historical introduction, different classes of magnons are introduced. Different theoretical treatments of spin excitations in solids are outlined. Interaction of spin-polarized electrons with a magnetic surface is discussed. It is shown that, based on the quantum mechanical conservation rules, a magnon can only be excited when a minority electron is injected into the system. While the magnon creation process is forbidden by majority electrons, the magnon annihilation process is allowed instead. These fundamental quantum mechanical selection rules, together with the strong interaction of electrons with matter, make the spin-polarized electron spectroscopies as appropriate tools to excite and probe the elementary spin excitations in low-dimensional magnets e.g ultrathin films and nanostructures. The focus is put on the experimental results obtained by spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy and spin-polarized inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. The magnon dispersion relation, lifetime, group and phase velocity measured using these approaches in various ultrathin magnets are discussed in detail. The differences and similarities with respect to the bulk excitations are addressed. The role of the temperature, atomic structure, number of atomic layers, lattice strain, electronic complexes and hybridization at the interfaces are outlined. A possibility of simultaneous probing of magnons and phonons
A Search for Excited Fermions at HERA
Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.
2000-01-01
A search for excited fermions f^* of the first generation in e^+p scattering at the collider HERA is presented using H1 data with an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^(-1). All electroweak decays of excited fermions, f^* -> f gamma, f W, f Z are considered and all possible final states resulting from the Z or W hadronic decays or decays into leptons of the first two generations are taken into account. No evidence for f^* production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on cross-sections and on the ratio of coupling constants to the compositeness scale are derived.
Dissociative Excitation of Adenine by Electron Impact
McConkey, J. William; Trocchi, Joshuah; Dech, Jeffery; Kedzierski, Wladek
2017-04-01
Dissociative excitation of adenine (C6H5NH2) into excited atomic fragments has been studied in the electron impact energy range from threshold to 300 eV. A crossed beam system coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) monochromator is used to study emissions in the wavelength range from 110 to 200 nm. The beam of adenine vapor from a stainless steel oven is crossed at right angles by the electron beam and the resultant UV radiation is detected in a mutually orthogonal direction. The strongest feature in the spectrum is H Lyman- α. Financial support from NSERC and CFI, Canada, is gratefully acknowledged.
Search for Excited Neutrinos at HERA
Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.
2002-01-01
We present a search for excited neutrinos using e^-p data taken by the H1 experiment at HERA at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 15 pb-1. No evidence for excited neutrino production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits are determined for the ratio of the coupling to the compositeness scale, f/Lambda, independently of the relative couplings to the SU(2) and U(1) gauge bosons. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous searches at other colliders.
Low-frequency excitations in zirconium hydrides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radulescu, A.; Padureanu, I.; Rapeanu, S.N.; Beldiman, A.; Kozlov, Zh.A.; Semenov, V.A.
1999-01-01
The slow inelastic neutron scattering (INS) on ZrH x systems (x = 0.38, 0.52) revealed new excitations located within the energy range 2-10 MeV. Besides the acoustic vibrations specific to α-HCP Zr and γ-FCO Zr hydride the fine structure of these excitations is clearly observed. The origin of the new observed peaks is not very clear but a proton tunneling or a resonance effect in α-Zr lattice could be taken into account
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moenke, D.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Hutton, R.; Jupen, C.; Kirm, M.; Westerlind, M.
1994-01-01
We have investigated the relative excitation functions for low-lying singly excited and low-lying core-excited levels in S V (S 4+ ) to S IX (S 8+ ) after beam-foil excitation using ions in the energy range 2--10 MeV. The spectral line intensities have been normalized to the same number of particles at each ion energy and corrections for the level lifetimes have been made. The overall accuracy of the measured relative excitation function at each energy and charge state is estimated to be better than 2%. A comparison of the relative excitation functions for singly excited and core-excited lines shows a difference in S VII, but not in S VI
Electron impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited sodium atoms Na*(7d)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nienhaus, J.; Dorn, A.; Mehlhorn, W.; Zatsarinny, O.I.
1997-01-01
We have investigated the ejected-electron spectrum following impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited Na * (nl) atoms by 1.5 keV electrons. By means of two-laser excitation 3s → 3p 3/2 → 7d and subsequent cascading transitions about 8% (4%) of the target atoms were in excited states with n > 3 (7d). The experimental ejected-electron spectrum due to the decay of Auger and autoionization states of laser-excited atoms Na * (nl) with n = 4-7 has been fully interpreted by comprehensive calculations of the energies, cross sections and decay probabilities of the corresponding states. The various processes contributing to the ejected-electron spectrum are with decreasing magnitude: 2s ionization leading to 2s2p 6 nl Auger states, 2p → 3s excitation leading to 2p 5 3s( 1 P)nl autoionization states and 2s → 3l' excitation leading to 2s2p 6 3l'( 1 L)nl autoionization states. (Author)
Laser pulses for coherent xuv Raman excitation
Greenman, Loren; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2015-07-01
We combine multichannel electronic structure theory with quantum optimal control to derive femtosecond-time-scale Raman pulse sequences that coherently populate a valence excited state. For a neon atom, Raman target populations of up to 13% are obtained. Superpositions of the ground and valence Raman states with a controllable relative phase are found to be reachable with up to 4.5% population and arbitrary phase control facilitated by the pump pulse carrier-envelope phase. Analysis of the optimized pulse structure reveals a sequential mechanism in which the valence excitation is reached via a fast (femtosecond) population transfer through an intermediate resonance state in the continuum rather than avoiding intermediate-state population with simultaneous or counterintuitive (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) pulse sequences. Our results open a route to coupling valence excitations and core-hole excitations in molecules and aggregates that locally address specific atoms and represent an initial step towards realization of multidimensional spectroscopy in the xuv and x-ray regimes.
Pion absorption in excited nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, H.R.; Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Plasil, F.; Saini, S.; Tincknell, M.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Claesson, G.; Eklund, A.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Idh, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Franz, A.; Jacobs, P.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Kristiansson, P.; Loehner, H.; Obenshain, F.E.; Sorensen, S.P.; Siemiarczuk, T.
1992-02-01
The target dependence and azimuthal correlations of protons and plons are investigated for pA reactions at 4.9, 60 and 200 GeV. The experimental observations can be understood qualitatively under the assumption that pions are absorbed in excited target spectator matter. (orig.)
Effects of noise in excitable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindner, B.; Garcia-Ojalvo, J.; Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.
2004-01-01
We review the behavior of theoretical models of excitable systems driven by Gaussian white noise. We focus mainly on those general properties of such systems that are due to noise, and present several applications of our findings in biophysics and lasers. As prototypes of excitable stochastic dynamics we consider the FitzHugh-Nagumo and the leaky integrate-and-fire model, as well as cellular automata and phase models. In these systems, taken as individual units or as networks of globally or locally coupled elements, we study various phenomena due to noise, such as noise-induced oscillations, stochastic resonance, stochastic synchronization, noise-induced phase transitions and noise-induced pulse and spiral dynamics. Our approach is based on stochastic differential equations and their corresponding Fokker-Planck equations, treated by both analytical calculations and/or numerical simulations. We calculate and/or measure the rate and diffusion coefficient of the excitation process, as well as spectral quantities like power spectra and degree of coherence. Combined with a multiparametric bifurcation analysis of the corresponding cumulant equations, these approaches provide a comprehensive picture of the multifaceted dynamical behaviour of noisy excitable systems
Favored neutron excitations in superdeformed Gd-147
Theisen, C; Khadiri, N; Vivien, JP; Ragnarsson, J; Beausang, CW; Beck, FA; Belier, G; Byrski, T; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Disdier, D; Duchene, G; Finck, C; Flibotte, S; Gall, B; Haas, B; Hanine, H; Herskind, B; Kharraja, B; Merdinger, JC; Nourreddine, A; Nyako, BM; Perez, GE; Prevost, D; Stezowski, O; Rauch, I; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; SharpeySchafer, J; Twin, PJ; Wei, L; Zuber, K
1996-01-01
Four new superdeformed (SD) bands have been observed in Gd-147 using the EUROGAM II spectrometer. By comparison with (146,148,149),Gd SD bands, we use the effective alignment to assign excited band configurations, with the support of the Nilsson-Strutinsky cranking formalism. The effect of the
Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...
The Mean Excitation Energy of Atomic Ions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sauer, Stephan; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.
2015-01-01
A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum...
Multipurpose exciter with low phase noise
Conroy, B.; Le, D.
1989-01-01
Results of an effort to develop a lower-cost exciter with high stability, low phase noise, and controllable phase and frequency for use in Deep Space Network and Goldstone Solar System Radar applications are discussed. Included is a discussion of the basic concept, test results, plans, and concerns.
Fluorescent excitation of interstellar H2
Black, J.H.; Dishoeck, van E.F.
1987-01-01
The infrared emission spectrum of H2 excited by ultraviolet absorption, followed by fluorescence, was investigated using comprehensive models of interstellar clouds for computing the spectrum and to assess the effects on the intensity to various cloud properties, such as density, size, temperature,
Electronic excitation in ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, V.D.; Miraglia, J.E.
1988-01-01
Theoretical calculations for excitation of hydrogen-like atoms by ion impact at high and intermediate energies, are presented. Impulsive and eikonal wave functions are employed, both normalized. It is studied the dependence on energy and projectil charge (saturation) of cross sections, compared to experimental results. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Strange diquarks and orbital excitations of hyperons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyuk, L.A.; Ralchenko, Yu.V.; Vasilets, A.V.
1987-01-01
Using the model of the QCD string with spin-orbital interaction the masses of strange diquarks are determined. The spectra of orbital excitations of the Λ and Σ hyperons are calculated and discussed. Also the decay modes for Λ's and Σ's are considered
Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?
Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu
2016-11-01
Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Development of longitudinally excited CO2 laser
Masroon, N. S.; Tanaka, M.; Tei, M.; Uno, K.; Tsuyama, M.; Nakano, H.
2018-05-01
Simple, compact, and affordable discharged-pumped CO2 laser controlled by a fast high voltage solid state switch has been developed. In this study, longitudinal excitation scheme has been adapted for simple configuration. In the longitudinal excitation scheme, the discharge is produced along the direction of the laser axis, and the electrodes are well separated with a small discharge cross-section. Triggered spark gap switch is usually used to switch out the high voltage because of simple and low cost. However, the triggered spark gap operates in the arc mode and suffer from recovery problem causing a short life time and low efficiency for high repetition rate operation. As a result, there is now considerable interest in replacing triggered spark gap switch with solid state switches. Solid state switches have significant advantages compared to triggered spark gap switch which include longer service lifetime, low cost and stable high trigger pulse. We have developed simple and low cost fast high voltage solid state switch that consists of series connected-MOSFETs. It has been installed to the longitudinally excited CO2 laser to realize the gap switch less operation. Characteristics of laser oscillation by varying the discharge length, charging voltage, capacitance and gas pressure have been evaluated. Longer discharge length produce high power of laser oscillation. Optimum charging voltage and gas pressure were existed for longitudinally excited CO2 laser.
An analytical excitation for an ionizing plasma
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sijde, van der B.; Schram, D.C.
1983-01-01
From an analytical model for the population of high-lying excited levels in ionizing plasmas it appears that the distribution is a superposition of the equilibrium (Saha) value and an overpopulation. This overpopulation takes the form of a Maxwell distribution for free electrons. Experiments for He
Excited species in the FBX dosimeter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, B.L.
2003-01-01
In the FBX dosimeter solution, the excitation of xylenol orange (XO) produces maximum emission at 550-575 nm both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures (about 85%) having a lifetime of 0.20-0.36 ns. In addition, at room temperature there is an emission at 350 nm for the excitation at 260 nm (about 15%) having a longer lifetime of 3.71-4.01 ns. Benzoic acid (BA) has excitation at 284-295 nm and emission at 320-365 nm having a lifetime of 1.38 ns. In an aqueous solution containing 5x10 -3 mol dm -3 BA, 2x10 -4 mol dm -3 XO and 0.04 mol dm -3 H 2 SO 4 there is no XO emission at 550 nm due to UV absorption at 260 nm by BA. In this solution, 2 emissions are observed near 350-360 nm, having lifetimes of 1.25 ns (89%) and 2.86 ns (11%). The wavelengths for the emission of XO and absorption of ferric-XO complex are nearly the same. Excited XO produces oxidation of ferrous ions and BA increases the chain length
Nuclear excitations in the nuclear response theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Giai.
1983-01-01
The Random Phase Approximation is used to calculate the response of a nucleus to an external field. The method allows a full treatment of continuum effects. Effective interactions to be used are discussed, and the consistency between the mean field and the residual interaction is stressed. Some applications to excitation properties of spherical nuclei are shown
Collective Quadrupole Excitations of Transactinide Nuclei
Zajac, K; Pomorski, K; Rohozinski, S G; Srebrny, J
2003-01-01
The quadrupole excitations of transuranic nuclei are described in the frame of the microscopic Bohr Hamiltonian modified by adding the coupling with the collective pairing vibrations. The energies of the states from the ground-state bands in U to No even-even isotopes as well as the B(E2) transition probabilities are reproduced within the model containing no adjustable parameters.
Coherent acoustic excitation of cavity polaritons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poel, Mike van der; de Lima, M. M.; Hey, R.
The study of acoustic excitation of semiconductor based photonic structures is anemerging field with great potential for new types of photonic manipulation1. In this paperwe present results of using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) to modulate a microcavitywith embedded quantum-well (QW) active layer...
Giant dipole resonances built on excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snover, K.A.
1983-01-01
The properties of giant dipole resonances built on excited nuclear states are reviewed, with emphasis on recent results. Nonstatistical (p,γ) reactions in light nuclei, and statistical complex-particle reactions in light and heavy nuclei are discussed. 27 references
Excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, T.; Dagotto, E.; Riera, J.; Swanson, E.S.
1993-01-01
Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin ''ladders'' (two coupled spin chains) are low-dimensional magnetic systems which for S=1/2 interpolate between half-integer-spin chains, when the chains are decoupled, and effective integer-spin one-dimensional chains in the strong-coupling limit. The spin-1/2 ladder may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . In this paper we apply strong-coupling perturbation theory, spin-wave theory, Lanczos techniques, and a Monte Carlo method to determine the ground-state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum of the ladder. We find evidence of a nonzero spin gap for all interchain couplings J perpendicular >0. A band of spin-triplet excitations above the gap is also analyzed. These excitations are unusual for an antiferromagnet, since their long-wavelength dispersion relation behaves as (k-k 0 ) 2 (in the strong-coupling limit J perpendicular much-gt J, where J is the in-chain antiferromagnetic coupling). Their band is folded, with a minimum energy at k 0 =π, and a maximum between k 1 =π/2 (for J perpendicular =0) and 0 (for J perpendicular =∞). We also give numerical results for the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω), which can be determined in neutron scattering experiments. Finally, possible experimental techniques for studying the excitation spectrum are discussed
Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases
Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.
2009-01-01
We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show
Creation of skyrmion through resonance excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhi-xiong; Chen, Yi-fu; Zhou, Zhen-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn
2017-07-01
Highlights: • Intrinsic oscillation modes of skyrmion are studied by using micromagnetic simulation. • Creation of skyrmion through resonant excitation is proposed. • The number of generated skyrmions can be effectively controlled by manipulating the driving field. • Skyrmion lattice in extended film is generated via resonant excitation. - Abstract: Controllable creation of magnetic skyrmions in nanostructures is a prerequisite for the application of skyrmions in spintronics. Here, we propose a new method for the creation of skyrmions. We show by using micromagnetic simulations that the skyrmions can be nucleated by resonantly exciting one of the skyrmion intrinsic oscillation modes. We first studied the dynamics of skyrmion in a ferromagnetic nanodisk with perpendicular anisotropy. One breathing mode and two non-degenerate gyrotropic modes are identified. Then we applied a circular-polarized microwave field to excite the uniformly magnetized nanodisk. When the frequency of the driving field is equal to the eigenfrequency of the skyrmion gyrotropic mode, stable skyrmions can be created from the initial uniform state. The number of skyrmions can be effectively controlled by appropriately choosing the duration of the driving field or tuning the field amplitude.
Topics in magnetism: magnetic excitations in insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezende, S.M.
1975-01-01
The concept of spin waves is introduced and green's functions formalism is used in connection with thermodynamic properties of ferromagnets. Simple features of magnons in ferromagnetic insulators are discussed and also of those with dipolar and anisotropic contributions in the hamiltonian. Magnons in more complex systems, e.g. antiferromagnetic crystals, are dealt with. Finally, excitation and detection of magnons are also discussed [pt
Structure of wobbling excitations in 163Lu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsson, B.G.
2007-01-01
Using a many-particles plus rotor model, wobbling excitations built on top of a triaxial superdeformed band in 163 Lu are investigated. By extracting all parameters for the rotor from a mean field calculation a good correspondence with calculations based on the random-phase approximation is achieved. (author)
Excited state properties of aryl carotenoids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fuciman, M.; Chábera, P.; Župčanová, Anita; Hříbek, P.; Arellano, J.B.; Vácha, František; Pšenčík, J.; Polívka, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 13 (2010), s. 3112-3120 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA608170604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoids * excited-states * femtosecond spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010
Collective excitations in deformed alkali metal clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo
1991-01-01
A theoretical study of collective excitations in deformed metal clusters is presented. Sum rules are used to study the splittings of the dipole surface plasma resonance originating from the cluster deformation. The vibrating potential model is developed and used to predict the occurrence of a low lying collective mode of orbital magnetic nature. (orig.)
Baryon excitations in the bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaffe, R.L.
1976-07-01
Two recent spectroscopic applications of the bag model are discussed. The first is a study of the place of multiquark states in meson and baryon spectroscopy, and the second is an attempt to sort out the P-wave baryon excitations in a bag model. 33 references
Extended Lagrangian Excited State Molecular Dynamics.
Bjorgaard, J A; Sheppard, D; Tretiak, S; Niklasson, A M N
2018-02-13
An extended Lagrangian framework for excited state molecular dynamics (XL-ESMD) using time-dependent self-consistent field theory is proposed. The formulation is a generalization of the extended Lagrangian formulations for ground state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008 100, 123004]. The theory is implemented, demonstrated, and evaluated using a time-dependent semiempirical model, though it should be generally applicable to ab initio theory. The simulations show enhanced energy stability and a significantly reduced computational cost associated with the iterative solutions of both the ground state and the electronically excited states. Relaxed convergence criteria can therefore be used both for the self-consistent ground state optimization and for the iterative subspace diagonalization of the random phase approximation matrix used to calculate the excited state transitions. The XL-ESMD approach is expected to enable numerically efficient excited state molecular dynamics for such methods as time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TD-HF), Configuration Interactions Singles (CIS), and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).
Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes
Ploeger, Egbert Johan
1974-01-01
LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ain, M.; Reichardt, W.; Hennion, B.; Pepy, G.; Wanklyn, B.M.
1989-01-01
The authors have studied the magnetic excitations of CuO both in the ordered and the paramagnetic phase. Their results demonstrate the dominance of the magnetic interaction along the 10-1 Cu-O zigzag chains. In this direction the slope of the acoustic branch is 550 neV Angstrom
Surface excitation parameter for rough surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da, Bo; Salma, Khanam; Ji, Hui; Mao, Shifeng; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Ding, Zejun
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Instead of providing a general mathematical model of roughness, we directly use a finite element triangle mesh method to build a fully 3D rough surface from the practical sample. • The surface plasmon excitation can be introduced to the realistic sample surface by dielectric response theory and finite element method. • We found that SEP calculated based on ideal plane surface model are still reliable for real sample surface with common roughness. - Abstract: In order to assess quantitatively the importance of surface excitation effect in surface electron spectroscopy measurement, surface excitation parameter (SEP) has been introduced to describe the surface excitation probability as an average number of surface excitations that electrons can undergo when they move through solid surface either in incoming or outgoing directions. Meanwhile, surface roughness is an inevitable issue in experiments particularly when the sample surface is cleaned with ion beam bombardment. Surface roughness alters not only the electron elastic peak intensity but also the surface excitation intensity. However, almost all of the popular theoretical models for determining SEP are based on ideal plane surface approximation. In order to figure out whether this approximation is efficient or not for SEP calculation and the scope of this assumption, we proposed a new way to determine the SEP for a rough surface by a Monte Carlo simulation of electron scattering process near to a realistic rough surface, which is modeled by a finite element analysis method according to AFM image. The elastic peak intensity is calculated for different electron incident and emission angles. Assuming surface excitations obey the Poisson distribution the SEPs corrected for surface roughness are then obtained by analyzing the elastic peak intensity for several materials and for different incident and emission angles. It is found that the surface roughness only plays an
Electric quadrupole excitation of the first excited state of 11B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fewell, M.P.; Spear, R.H.; Zabel, T.H.; Baxter, A.M.
1980-02-01
The Coulomb excitation of backscattered 11 B projectiles has been used to measure the reduced E2 transition probability B(E2; 3/2 - →1/2 - ) between the 3/2 - ground state and the 1/2 - first excited state of 11 B. It is found that B(E2; 3/2 - →1/2 - ) = 2.1 +- 0.4 e 2 fm 4 , which agrees with shell-model predictions but is a factor of 10 larger than the prediction of the core-excitation model
Saturated excitation of Fluorescence to quantify excitation enhancement in aperture antennas
Aouani, Heykel
2012-07-23
Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used to probe the electromagnetic intensity amplification on optical antennas, yet measuring the excitation intensity amplification is a challenge, as the detected fluorescence signal is an intricate combination of excitation and emission. Here, we describe a novel approach to quantify the electromagnetic amplification in aperture antennas by taking advantage of the intrinsic non linear properties of the fluorescence process. Experimental measurements of the fundamental f and second harmonic 2f amplitudes of the fluorescence signal upon excitation modulation are used to quantify the electromagnetic intensity amplification with plasmonic aperture antennas. © 2012 Optical Society of America.
Saturated excitation of Fluorescence to quantify excitation enhancement in aperture antennas
Aouani, Heykel; Hostein, Richard; Mahboub, Oussama; Devaux, Eloï se; Rigneault, Hervé
2012-01-01
Fluorescence spectroscopy is widely used to probe the electromagnetic intensity amplification on optical antennas, yet measuring the excitation intensity amplification is a challenge, as the detected fluorescence signal is an intricate combination of excitation and emission. Here, we describe a novel approach to quantify the electromagnetic amplification in aperture antennas by taking advantage of the intrinsic non linear properties of the fluorescence process. Experimental measurements of the fundamental f and second harmonic 2f amplitudes of the fluorescence signal upon excitation modulation are used to quantify the electromagnetic intensity amplification with plasmonic aperture antennas. © 2012 Optical Society of America.
Composite model describing the excitation and de-excitation of nitrogen by an electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kassem, A.E.; Hickman, R.S.
1975-01-01
Based on recent studies, the effect of re-excited ions in the emission of electron beam induced fluorescence in nitrogen has been estimated. These effects are included in the formulation of a composite model describing the excitation and de-excitation of nitrogen by an electron beam. The shortcomings of previous models, namely the dependence of the measured temperature on true gas temperature as well as the gas density, are almost completely eliminated in the range of temperatures and densities covered by the available data. (auth)
Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.
1979-01-01
Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies
Self-excitation of single nanomechanical pillars
Kim, Hyun S.; Qin, Hua; Blick, Robert H.
2010-03-01
Self-excitation is a mechanism that is ubiquitous for electromechanical power devices such as electrical generators. This is conventionally achieved by making use of the magnetic field component in electrical generators (Nedic and Lipo 2000 IEEE/IAS Conf. Records (Rome, Italy) vol 1 pp 51-6), a good and widely visible example of which is the wind turbine farm (Muljadi et al 2005 J. Sol. Energy Eng. 127 581-7). In other words, a static force, such as the wind acting on rotor blades, can generate a resonant excitation at a certain mechanical frequency. For nanomechanical systems (Craighead 2000 Science 290 1532-5 Roukes 2001 Phys. World 14 25-31 Cleland 2003 Foundations of Nanomechanics (Berlin: Springer); Ayari et al 2007 Nano Lett. 7 2252-7 Koenig et al 2008 Nat. Nanotechnol. 3 482-4) such a self-excitation (SE) mechanism is also highly desirable, because it can generate mechanical oscillations at radio frequencies by simply applying a dc bias voltage. This is of great importance for low-power signal communication devices and detectors, as well as for mechanical computing elements. For a particular nanomechanical system—the single electron shuttle—this effect was predicted some time ago by Gorelik et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 4526-9). Here, we use a nanoelectromechanical single electron transistor (NEMSET) to demonstrate self-excitation for both the soft and hard regimes, respectively. The ability to use self-excitation in nanomechanical systems may enable the detection of quantum mechanical backaction effects (Naik et al 2006 Nature 443 193-6) in direct tunneling, macroscopic quantum tunneling (Savelev et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 105-15) and rectification (Pistolesi and Fazio 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 036806-4). All these effects have so far been overshadowed by the large driving voltages that had to be applied.
Coulomb excitation of {sup 8}Li
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assuncao, Marlete; Britos, Tatiane Nassar [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Descouvemont, Pierre [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique; Lepine-Szily, Alinka; Lichtenthaler Filho, Rubens; Barioni, Adriana; Silva, Diego Medeiros da; Pereira, Dirceu; Mendes Junior, Djalma Rosa; Pires, Kelly Cristina Cezaretto; Gasques, Leandro Romero; Morais, Maria Carmen; Added, Nemitala; Neto Faria, Pedro; Rec, Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear
2012-07-01
Full text: This work shows the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets that have effectively behavior of Rutherford in angles and energies of interest for determining the value of the B(E2) electromagnetic transition. Theoretical aspects involved in this type of measure, known as COULEX [1], and some results in the literature [2-3] will be presented. Some problems with the targets and measurement system while performing an experiment on Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li will be discussed: the energy resolution, background, possible contributions of the primary beam and also the excited states of the target near the region of elastic and inelastic peaks. They will be illustrated by measurements of the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets of {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb using the system RIBRAS(Brazilian Radioactive Ion Beam). In this case, the {sup 8}Li beam(T{sub 1/2} = 838 ms)is produced by {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li;{sup 8} Li){sup 8}Be reaction from RIBRAS system which is installed at Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo. The primary {sup 7L}i beam is provided by Pelletron Accelerator. [1] K. Alder and A. Winther, Electromagnetic Excitation, North-Holland, New York, 1975; [2] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Phys. Letts. B 292, 235-238, 1992; [3] J. A. Brown, F. D. Becchetti, J. W. Jaenecke, K, Ashktorab, and D. A. Roberts, J. J. Kolata, R. J. Smith, and K. Lamkin, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. Letts., 66, 19, 1991; [4] R. J. Smith, J. J Kolata, K. Lamkin and A. Morsard, F. D. Becchetti, J. A. Brown, W. Z. Liu, J. W. Jaenecke, and D. A. Roberts, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. C, 43, 5, 1991. (author)
Fatigue diminishes motoneuronal excitability during cycling exercise.
Weavil, Joshua C; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Mangum, Tyler S; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus
2016-10-01
Exercise-induced fatigue influences the excitability of the motor pathway during single-joint isometric contractions. This study sought to investigate the influence of fatigue on corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise. Eight men performed fatiguing constant-load (80% W peak ; 241 ± 13 W) cycling to exhaustion during which the percent increase in quadriceps electromyography (ΔEMG; vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was quantified. During a separate trial, subjects performed two brief (∼45 s) nonfatiguing cycling bouts (244 ± 15 and 331 ± 23W) individually chosen to match the ΔEMG across bouts to that observed during fatiguing cycling. Corticospinal excitability during exercise was quantified by transcranial magnetic, electric transmastoid, and femoral nerve stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEP), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP), and M waves in the quadriceps. Peripheral and central fatigue were expressed as pre- to postexercise reductions in quadriceps twitch force (ΔQ tw ) and voluntary quadriceps activation (ΔVA). Whereas nonfatiguing cycling caused no measureable fatigue, fatiguing cycling resulted in significant peripheral (ΔQ tw : 42 ± 6%) and central (ΔVA: 4 ± 1%) fatigue. During nonfatiguing cycling, the area of MEPs and CMEPs, normalized to M waves, similarly increased in the quadriceps (∼40%; P fatiguing cycling. As a consequence, the ratio of MEP to CMEP was unchanged during both trials (P > 0.5). Therefore, although increases in muscle activation promote corticospinal excitability via motoneuronal facilitation during nonfatiguing cycling, this effect is abolished during fatigue. We conclude that the unaltered excitability of the corticospinal pathway from start of intense cycling exercise to exhaustion is, in part, determined by inhibitory influences on spinal motoneurons obscuring the facilitating effects of muscle activation.
Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel eAvesar
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.
Vibrational excitation in a hydrogen volume source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eenshuistra, P.J.
1989-01-01
In this thesis the complex of processes which determines the D - or H - density in a volume source, a hydrogen discharge, is studied. D - beams are of interest for driving the current of a fusion plasma in a TOKAMAK. Densities of vibrationally excited molecules, of H atoms, and of metastable hydrogen molecules were determined using Resonance-Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI). An experiment in which vibrationally highly excited molecules are formed by recombination of atoms in a cold metal surface, is described. The production and destruction of vibrationally excited molecules and atoms in the discharge is discussed. The vibrational distribution for 3≤ν≤5 (ν = vibrational quantumnumber) is strongly super-thermal. This effect is more apparent at higher discharge current and lower gas pressure. The analysis with a model based on rate equations, which molecules are predominantly produced by primary electron excitation of hydrogen molecules and deexcited upon one wall collision. The atom production is compatible with dissociation of molecules by primary electrons, dissociation of molecules on the filaments, and collisions between positive ions and electrons. The electrons are predominantly destroyed by recombination on the walls. Finally the production and destruction of H - in the discharge are discussed. The density of H - in the plasma, the electron density and temperature were determined. H - extraction was measured. The ratio of the extracted H - current and the H - density in the plasma gives an indication of the drift velocity of H - in the plasma. This velocity determines the emittance of the extracted beam. It was found that the H - velocity scales with the square root of the electron temperature. The measured H - densities are compatible with a qualitative model in which dissociative attachment of plasma electrons to vibrationally excited molecules is the most important process. (author). 136 refs.; 39 figs.; 10 tabs
Dissociative Excitation of Acetylene Induced by Electron Impact: Excitation-emission Cross-sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Országh, Juraj; Danko, Marián; Čechvala, Peter; Matejčík, Štefan, E-mail: matejcik@fmph.uniba.sk [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlynská dolina F-2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)
2017-05-20
The optical emission spectrum of acetylene excited by monoenergetic electrons was studied in the range of 190–660 nm. The dissociative excitation and dissociative ionization associated with excitation of the ions initiated by electron impact were dominant processes contributing to the spectrum. The spectrum was dominated by the atomic lines (hydrogen Balmer series, carbon) and molecular bands (CH(A–X), CH(B–X), CH{sup +}(B–A), and C{sub 2}). Besides the discrete transitions, we have detected the continuum emission radiation of ethynyl radical C{sub 2}H(A–X). For most important lines and bands of the spectrum we have measured absolute excitation-emission cross sections and determined the energy thresholds of the particular dissociative channels.
Production of excited double hypernuclei via Fermi breakup of excited strange systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Botvina, Alexander S.; Pochodzalla, Josef
2011-01-01
Precise spectroscopy of multi-strange hypernuclei provides a unique chance to explore the hyperon-hyperon interaction. In the present work we explore the production of excited states in double hypernuclei following the micro-canonical break-up of an initially excited double hypernucleus which is created by the absorption and conversion of a stopped Ξ - hyperon. Rather independent on the spectrum of possible excited states in the produced double hypernuclei the formation of excited states dominates in our model. For different initial target nuclei which absorb the Ξ - , different double hypernuclei nuclei dominate. Thus the ability to assign the various observable γ-transitions in a unique way to a specific double hypernuclei by exploring various light targets as proposed by the PANDA Collaboration seems possible. We also confront our predictions with the correlated pion spectra measured by the E906 Collaboration.
Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olariu, Albert
2003-01-01
We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frascaria, N.
1987-09-01
A review of experimental results on high excitation energy structures in heavy ion inelastic scattering is presented. The contribution to the spectra of the pick-up break-up mechanism is discussed in the light of the data obtained with light heavy ion projectiles. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at various energies will show that target excitations contribute strongly to the measured cross section
A scalable piezoelectric impulse-excited energy harvester for human body excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pillatsch, P; Yeatman, E M; Holmes, A S
2012-01-01
Harvesting energy from low-frequency and non-harmonic excitations typical of human motion presents specific challenges. While resonant devices do have an advantage in environments where the excitation frequency is constant, and while they can make use of the entire proof mass travel range in the case of excitation amplitudes that are smaller than the internal displacement limit, they are not suitable for body applications since the frequencies are random and the amplitudes tend to be larger than the device size. In this paper a piezoelectric, impulse-excited approach is presented. A cylindrical proof mass actuates an array of piezoelectric bi-morph beams through magnetic attraction. After the initial excitation these transducers are left to vibrate at their natural frequency. This increases the operational frequency range as well as the electromechanical coupling. The principle of impulse excitation is discussed and a centimetre-scale functional model is introduced as a proof of concept. The obtained data show the influence of varying the frequency, acceleration and proof mass. Finally, a commercially available integrated circuit for voltage regulation is tested. At a frequency of 2 Hz and an acceleration of 2.7 m s −2 a maximal power output of 2.1 mW was achieved. (paper)
Excitation and photon decay of giant resonances excited by intermediate energy heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.
1987-01-01
Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the giant resonances. In particular, recent measurements have been made of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented. 22 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Compensating amplitude-dependent tune-shift without driving fourth-order resonances
Ögren, J.; Ziemann, V.
2017-10-01
If octupoles are used in a ring to correct the amplitude-dependent tune-shift one normally tries to avoid that the octupoles drive additional resonances. Here we consider the optimum placement of octupoles that only affects the amplitude-dependent tune-shift, but does not drive fourth-order resonances. The simplest way turns out to place three equally powered octupoles with 60 ° phase advance between adjacent magnets. Using two such octupole triplets separated by a suitable phase advance cancels all fourth-order resonance driving terms and forms a double triplet we call a six-pack. Using three six-packs at places with different ratios of the beta functions allows to independently control all amplitude-dependent tune-shift terms without exciting additional fourth-order resonances in first order of the octupole excitation.
Isotope separation using vibrationally excited molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woodroffe, J.A.; Keck, J.C.
1977-01-01
A system for isotope separation or enrichment wherein molecules of a selected isotope type in a flow of molecules of plural isotope types are vibrationally excited and collided with a background gas to provide enhanced diffusivity for the molecules of the selected isotope type permitting their separate collection. The system typically is for the enrichment of uranium using a uranium hexafluoride gas in combination with a noble gas such as argon. The uranium hexafluoride molecules having a specific isotope of uranium are vibrationally excited by laser radiation. The vibrational energy is converted to a translation energy upon collision with a particle of the background gas and the added translation energy enhances the diffusivity of the selected hexafluoride molecules facilitating its condensation on collection surfaces provided for that purpose. This process is periodically interrupted and the cryogenic flow halted to permit evaporation of the collected molecules to provide a distinct, enriched flow
Nuclear Excitations by Antiprotons and Antiprotonic Atoms
2002-01-01
The proposal aims at the investigation of nuclear excitations following the absorption and annihilation of stopped antiprotons in heavier nuclei and at the same time at the study of the properties of antiprotonic atoms. The experimental arrangement will consist of a scintillation counter telescope for the low momentum antiproton beam from LEAR, a beam degrader, a pion multiplicity counter, a monoisotopic target and Ge detectors for radiation and charged particles. The data are stored by an on-line computer.\\\\ \\\\ The Ge detectors register antiprotonic x-rays and nuclear @g-rays which are used to identify the residual nucleus and its excitation and spin state. Coincidences between the two detectors will indicate from which quantum state the antiprotons are absorbed and to which nuclear states the various reactions are leading. The measured pion multiplicity characterizes the annihilation process. Ge&hyphn. and Si-telescopes identify charged particles and determine their energies.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment will gi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.
1977-01-01
The β + -decay of 79 Rb has been studied with Ge(Li) detectors in single and coincidence modes. The half-life of the 147.06 keV level in 79 Kr has been determined to be (78+-6) ns. The relative electron intensities of seventeen transitions have been measured with a magnetic Si(Li) spectrometer. The internal conversion coefficients have been determined. The transition multipolarities have been deduced. The spin-parity assignments have been made for excited states of 79 Kr and a β-decaying sta 79 Rb(5/2 + ). The structure of excited states in 79 Kr is discussed in the framework of the Alaga and Coriolis coupling models. It is shown that the properties of some levels in 79 Kr can be explained by the existence of relatively pure rotational bands
Excitation equilibria in plasmas: a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullen, J.-J.A.M. van der.
1986-01-01
In this thesis the author presents a classification of plasmas based on the atomic state distribution function. The study is based on the relation between the distribution function and the underlying processes and starts with the proper understanding of thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Four types of proper balances are relevant: The 'Maxwell balance' of kinetic energy transfer, the 'Boltzmann balance' of excitation/deexcitation, the 'Saha balance' of ionization/recombination and the 'Planck balance' for interaction of atoms with radiation. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the ionizing excitation saturation balance. The classification theory of the distribution functions in relation with underlying balances is supported by experimental evidence in an ionizing argon plasma. The AR I system provides a pertinent support of the theory. Experimental facts found in the AR II system can be interpreted in global terms. (Auth.)
Production and de excitation of hot nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auger, F.; Faure, B.; Wirleczki, J.P.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Plagnol, E.
1988-01-01
We studied Kr induced reactions on C, Al and Ti at 26.4, 34.4 and 45.4 MeV/nucleon. The aims of these experiments were to learn about the influence of the incident energy and asymmetry of the system on the incomplete fusion mechanism, that is on the characteristics (E,l) of the nuclei formed in the reactions and on the competition between massive transfer and preequilibrium emission. We also wanted to study the influence of excitation energy and angular momentum of the nuclei on their deexcitation modes, specially on the competition between light particles (n, p, α) and complex fragments (M>4). Considering the available energies (2.8 < ε < 10.5 MeV/nucleon), the grazing and the total masses (96 ≤ M ≤ 132), nuclei with masses around 100 are likely to be formed with very different excitation energies and angular momenta
Coulomb excitation of {sup 123}Cd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartig, Anna-Lena; Kroell, Thorsten; Ilieva, Stoyanka; Boenig, Sabine; Thuerauf, Michael [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Simpson, Gary; Drouet, Floriane; Ramdhane, Mourad [LPSC, Grenoble (France); Georgiev, Georgi [CSNSM, Orsay (France); Kesteloot, Nele; Wrzosek-Lipska, Kasia [KU, Leuven (Belgium); Jungclaus, Andrea; Illana Sison, Andres [CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Balabanski, Dimiter [INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Warr, Nigel [Koeln Univ. (Germany). IKP; Voulot, Didier; Wenander, Fredrik; Marsh, Bruce [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2013-07-01
On the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability in the vicinity of the double magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn one can find the {sup 123}Cd isotope. Surprisingly the neutron-rich even-A Cd isotopes in this region are showing signs of collectivity beyond that calculated by modern shell-model predictions. In order to gain a deeper insight in this phenomenon we started to extend these studies to odd-A Cd isotopes. As first isotope the exotic nucleus {sup 123}Cd was produced for safe Coulomb excitation by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and post-accelerated by REX-ISOLDE. The γ-decay from excited states was detected with the MINIBALL array. A report on the status of the ongoing analysis is given.
Lifetime measurements of excited Co I levels
Klotz, W D; Gobel, L H
1977-01-01
In the region of 3500 AA the lifetimes of eight excited Cobalt I levels have been measured by means of the zero field level crossing method. The measured lifetimes belong to the odd configurations 3d/sup 7/4s4p and 3d/sup 8/4p and are of the accuracy of about 5%. The hyperfine structure of levels with I not=J has to be taken into account in evaluating lifetimes from level crossing data, because the nuclear spin of the natural isotope /sup 59/Co is I=7/2. Therefore the influence of the line profile of the exciting resonance lines on the lifetimes has been investigated. The results are compared with those of other authors. Furthermore absolute oscillator strengths were calculated with known branching ratios and a new absolute scale has been established. (23 refs).
Statistical density of nuclear excited states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Kolomietz
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A semi-classical approximation is applied to the calculations of single-particle and statistical level densities in excited nuclei. Landau's conception of quasi-particles with the nucleon effective mass m* < m is used. The approach provides the correct description of the continuum contribution to the level density for realistic finite-depth potentials. It is shown that the continuum states does not affect significantly the thermodynamic calculations for sufficiently small temperatures T ≤ 1 MeV but reduce strongly the results for the excitation energy at high temperatures. By use of standard Woods - Saxon potential and nucleon effective mass m* = 0.7m the A-dependency of the statistical level density parameter K was evaluated in a good qualitative agreement with experimental data.
Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.
Multiflavour excited mesons from the fifth dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paredes, Angel [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)]. E-mail: angel.paredes@cpht.polytechnique.fr; Talavera, Pere [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Jordi Girona 1-3, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: pere.talavera@upc.es
2005-05-02
We study the Regge trajectories and the quark-antiquark energy in excited hadrons composed by different dynamical mass constituents via the gauge/string correspondence. First we exemplify the procedure in a supersymmetric system, D3-D7, in the extremal case. Afterwards we discuss the model dual to large-N{sub c} QCD, D4-D6 system. In the latter case we find the field theory expected gross features of vector like theories: the spectrum resembles that of heavy quarkonia and the Chew-Frautschi plot of the singlet and first excited states is in qualitative agreement with those of lattice QCD. We stress the salient points of including different constituents masses.
Multiflavour excited mesons from the fifth dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paredes, Angel; Talavera, Pere
2005-01-01
We study the Regge trajectories and the quark-antiquark energy in excited hadrons composed by different dynamical mass constituents via the gauge/string correspondence. First we exemplify the procedure in a supersymmetric system, D3-D7, in the extremal case. Afterwards we discuss the model dual to large-N c QCD, D4-D6 system. In the latter case we find the field theory expected gross features of vector like theories: the spectrum resembles that of heavy quarkonia and the Chew-Frautschi plot of the singlet and first excited states is in qualitative agreement with those of lattice QCD. We stress the salient points of including different constituents masses
Excitable particles in an optical torque wrench
Pedaci, Francesco; Huang, Zhuangxiong; van Oene, Maarten; Barland, Stephane; Dekker, Nynke H.
2011-03-01
The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique capable of applying and directly measuring torque on microscopic birefringent particles using spin momentum transfer, and has found application in the measurement of static torsional properties of biological molecules such as single DNAs. Motivated by the potential of the optical torque wrench to access the fast rotational dynamics of biological systems, a result of its all-optical manipulation and detection, we focus on the angular dynamics of the trapped birefringent particle, demonstrating its excitability in the vicinity of a critical point. This links the optical torque wrench to nonlinear dynamical systems such as neuronal and cardiovascular tissues, nonlinear optics and chemical reactions, all of which display an excitable binary (`all-or-none') response to input perturbations. On the basis of this dynamical feature, we devise and implement a conceptually new sensing technique capable of detecting single perturbation events with high signal-to-noise ratio and continuously adjustable sensitivity.
Antiferromagnetic resonance excited by oscillating electric currents
Sluka, Volker
2017-12-01
In antiferromagnetic materials the order parameter exhibits resonant modes at frequencies that can be in the terahertz range, making them interesting components for spintronic devices. Here, it is shown that antiferromagnetic resonance can be excited using the inverse spin-Hall effect in a system consisting of an antiferromagnetic insulator coupled to a normal-metal waveguide. The time-dependent interplay between spin torque, ac spin accumulation, and magnetic degrees of freedom is studied. It is found that the dynamics of the antiferromagnet affects the frequency-dependent conductivity of the normal metal. Further, a comparison is made between spin-current-induced and Oersted-field-induced excitation under the condition of constant power injection.
The triplet excited state of bilirubin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Land, E.J.
1976-01-01
Pulse radiolysis of benzene solutions of 40 μM bilirubin alone or with 0.1 M biphenyl has yielded evidence for the formation of the triplet excited state of bilirubin. Measurements were made of a number of properties, including the absorption spectrum (lambdasub(max)500nm), lifetime 9μs), extinction coefficient (8800 M -1 cm -1 ), energy level (approximately 150 kJ mol -1 ) and the rate of quenching by oxygen (rate constant, 8.2 x 10 8 M -1 s -1 ). An upper limit of 0.1 has also been obtained for the singlet to triplet crossover efficiency of bilirubin following excitation by 353 nm radiation. Consideration is given to the relevance of these data to the mechanism of bilirubin photo-destruction, both in vivo and in vitro. (U.K.)
Calculations of coincident ionization plus excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, R.L.
1986-01-01
For Li- and Be-like ions, K x-ray yields, together with detection that the ionic charge has increased, give the cross section for ionization plus excitation (IE), a process which can exhibit electron-electron correlations. Measurements of IE for 14 Si 11+ + He stimulated our coupled-channels calculations in the independent-Fermi-particle model (IFPM), which includes Pauli correlations. We discuss how the IFPM expressions, generalized here to include an open shell, differ from those for distinguishable electrons. The sensitivity of σ/sub IE/ to correlations is shown. Recent additional measurements and future ones giving excitation functions for resolved configurations and complementary Auger data will provide even more sensitive tests of collisional correlation theory. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Quadrupole collective excitations in rapidly rotating nuclej
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhajlov, I.N.
1983-01-01
The spectrum of collective quadrupole excitations in nuclei is investigated. The average nucleus field has the axial symmetry and rotation occurs relatively to this axis. Dependences of the spectrum of quadrupole oscillations on rotation rate for classic liquid drop (CLD) and for a drop of fermi-liquid (DFL) with fissionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) are presented. The dependence of probabilities of E2-transitions between single-phonon and phonon-free states on rotation rate for CLD and DFL with fussionability parameter X=0.62 ( 154 Er) is also presented. It is shown that for CLD collective E2-transition of states of yrast-consequence is absolutely forbidden. For DFL transitions are possible that lead to decay of phonon-free state with the excitation of phonons of γ-modes and decrease of angular momentum
Excitations of single-beauty hadrons
Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Lang, Christian B.; Limmer, Markus; Schäfer, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this work we study the predominantly orbital and radial excitations of hadrons containing a single heavy quark. We present meson and baryon mass splittings and ratios of meson decay constants (e.g., fBs/fB and fBs'/fBs) resulting from quenched and dynamical two-flavor configurations. Light quarks are simulated using the chirally improved lattice Dirac operator at valence masses as light as Mπ≈350MeV. The heavy quark is approximated by a static propagator, appropriate for the b quark on our lattices (1/ã1-2GeV). We also include some preliminary calculations of the O(1/mQ) kinetic corrections to the states, showing, in the process, a viable way of applying the variational method to three-point functions involving excited states. We compare our results with recent experimental findings.
Excitations of single-beauty hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burch, Tommy; Hagen, Christian; Lang, Christian B.; Limmer, Markus; Schaefer, Andreas
2009-01-01
In this work we study the predominantly orbital and radial excitations of hadrons containing a single heavy quark. We present meson and baryon mass splittings and ratios of meson decay constants (e.g., f B s /f B and f B s ' /f B s ) resulting from quenched and dynamical two-flavor configurations. Light quarks are simulated using the chirally improved lattice Dirac operator at valence masses as light as M π ≅350 MeV. The heavy quark is approximated by a static propagator, appropriate for the b quark on our lattices (1/a∼1-2 GeV). We also include some preliminary calculations of the O(1/m Q ) kinetic corrections to the states, showing, in the process, a viable way of applying the variational method to three-point functions involving excited states. We compare our results with recent experimental findings.
Isovector excitations in charge independent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, D.P.
1986-01-01
A method for building states with good isospin, from states given by the action of an isovector excitation operator on states of the parent multiplet is developed. This new method is a generalization of Toki's method and is applicable to cases involving any isovector excitation operator and a parent state, which is not a double magic nucleus. Once obtained these states with well defined isospin, it is shown how to do a Tamm-Dancoff calculation for determining the energy levels. The transition matrix elements of an isotensor operator are also calculated. An application of this formalism to the Gamow-Teller transition strength in 90 Zr is studied. In this case, besides the double magic configuration, the 2 particles - 2 holes (Π1g 9/2 ) 2 (υ 2p 1/2 -1 ) 2 configuration is also considered. (author) [pt
Search for Excited Electrons at HERA
Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.
2002-01-01
A search for excited electron e* production is described in which the electroweak decays e*->e gamma, e*->e Z and e*->nu W are considered. The data used correspond to an integrated luminosity of 120 pb^(-1) taken in e^(+-)p collisions from 1994 to 2000 with the H1 detector at HERA at centre-of-mass energies of 300 and 318 GeV. No evidence for a signal is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits are derived for the ratio of the couplings to the compositeness scale, f/Lambda. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous direct searches for excited electrons.
Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.
1987-01-01
There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed
Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glatzmaier, G.A.
1983-01-01
Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region
Multi-quasiparticle excitations in 145Tb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yong; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu; Liu Minliang; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Kusakari, H.; Sugawara, M.
2004-01-01
High-spin states in 145 Tb have been populated using the 118 Sn( 32 S, 1p4n) reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV. The level scheme of 145 Tb has been established for the first time. The level scheme shows characteristics of spherical or slightly oblate nucleus. Based on the systematic trends of the level structure in the neighboring N=80 isotones, the level structure in 145 Tb below 2 MeV excitation is well explained by coupling an h 11/2 valence proton to the even-even 144 Gd core. Above 2 MeV excitation, most of the yrast levels are interpreted with multi-quasiparticle shell-model configurations. (authors)
Enhanced E3 transitions and mixed configurations for core excited isomers in 210At and 211At
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dracoulis, G.D.; Steed, C.A.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, S.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bark, R.A.
1986-09-01
The lifetime and branching ratio of the 19 + isomer in 210 At have been measured. Its enhanced E3 decay and g-factor, and those of the related 39/2 - isomer in 211 At are compared with the results of a semi-empirical shell model calculation which includes couplings to the 3 - octupole vibration, resulting in mixed configurations. Lifetimes were also obtained for the 15 - isomer in 210 At, and he 29/2 + isomer in 209 At
Magnetic Excitations and Magnetic Ordering in Praseodymium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Chapellier, M.; Mackintosh, A. R.
1975-01-01
The dispersion relations for magnetic excitons propagating on the hexagonal sites of double-hcp Pr provide clear evidence for a pronounced anisotropy in the exchange. The energy of the excitations decreases rapidly as the temperature is lowered, but becomes almost constant below about 7 K......, in agreement with a random-phase-approximation calculation. No evidence of magnetic ordering has been observed above 0.4 K, although the exchange is close to the critical value necessary for an antiferromagnetic state....
Electroluminescence from graphene excited by electron tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beams, Ryan; Bharadwaj, Palash; Novotny, Lukas
2014-01-01
We use low-energy electron tunneling to excite electroluminescence in single layer graphene. Electrons are injected locally using a scanning tunneling microscope and the luminescence is analyzed using a wide-angle optical imaging system. The luminescence can be switched on and off by inverting the tip–sample bias voltage. The observed luminescence is explained in terms of a hot luminescence mechanism. (paper)
Charges and Electromagnetic Radiation as Topological Excitations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manfried Faber
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss a model with stable topological solitons in Minkowski space with only three degrees of freedom, the rotational angles of a spatial Dreibein. This model has four types of solitons differing in two topological quantum numbers which we identify with electric charge and spin. The vacuum has a two-dimensional degeneracy leading to two types of massless excitations, characterised by a topological quantum number which could have a physical equivalent in the photon number.
Controlling nonlinear waves in excitable media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puebla, Hector; Martin, Roland; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Aguilar-Lopez, Ricardo
2009-01-01
A new feedback control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media. Applying suitable external forcing to the system's slow variable, successful suppression and control of propagating pulses as well as spiral waves can be obtained. The proposed controller is composed by an observer to infer uncertain terms such as diffusive transport and kinetic rates, and an inverse-dynamics feedback function. Numerical simulations shown the effectiveness of the proposed feedback control approach.
Controlling nonlinear waves in excitable media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puebla, Hector [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco 02200, DF, Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: hpuebla@correo.azc.uam.mx; Martin, Roland [Laboratoire de Modelisation et d' Imagerie en Geosciences, CNRS UMR and INRIA Futurs Magique-3D, Universite de Pau (France); Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico); Aguilar-Lopez, Ricardo [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico)
2009-01-30
A new feedback control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media. Applying suitable external forcing to the system's slow variable, successful suppression and control of propagating pulses as well as spiral waves can be obtained. The proposed controller is composed by an observer to infer uncertain terms such as diffusive transport and kinetic rates, and an inverse-dynamics feedback function. Numerical simulations shown the effectiveness of the proposed feedback control approach.
Self-excitation of space charge waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, Mikhail
1997-01-01
We report a direct observation of space charge waves in photorefractive crystals with point group 23 (sillenites) based on their penetration into an area with uniform light illumination. It is shown experimentally that the quality factor of the waves increases substantially with respect to what c...... current theory predicts [B. Sturman el al., Appl. Phys. A 55, 235 (1992)]. This results in the appearance of strong spontaneous beams caused by space charge wave self-excitation....
Particle decay of (12)Be excited states
Charity, R. J.; Komarov, S. A.; Sobotka, L. G.; Clifford, J.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Lee, Jenny; Lukyanov, S. M.; Lynch, W. G.; Mocko, M.; Lobastov, S. P.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Wallace, M. S.; Hudan, S.; Metelko, C.; Famiano, M. A.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; van Goethem, M. J.
2007-01-01
The breakup of E/A=50 MeV (12)Be fragments following inelastic scattering off of hydrogen and carbon target nuclei has been studied. The breakup channels alpha+(8)He, (6)He+(6)He, t+(9)Li, and p+(11)Li were observed. Two doublets at excitation energies of 12.8 and 15.5 MeV were found for the
Neutron excitation function guide for reactor dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritzay, O.; Vlasov, M.; Chervonna, L.; Klimova, N.; Kolota, G.; Zerkin, V.
2002-01-01
Neutron Excitation Function Guide for Reactor Dosimetry (NEFGRD) has been prepared in the Ukrainian Nuclear Data Center (UKRNDC) using ZVV 9.2 code for graphical data presentation. The data can be retrieved through Web or obtained on CD-ROM or as hard copy report. NEFGRD contains graphical and text information for 56 nuclides (81 dosimetry reactions). Each reaction is provided by the information part and several graphical function blocks (from one to nine). (author)
Fractal effects on excitations in diluted ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, D.
1981-08-01
The low energy spin-wave like excitations in diluted ferromagnets near percolation threshold are studied. For this purpose an explicit use of the fractal model for the backbone of the infinite percolating cluster due to Kirkpatrick is made. Three physical effects are identified, which cause the softening of spin-waves as the percolation point is approached. The importance of fractal effects in the calculation of density of states and the low temperature thermodynamics is pointed out. (author)
Electronic excitation and Auger spectroscopy of hexamethyldissilane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, G.G.B. de; Azevedo e Souza, A.C. de; Martins, R.J.; Lucas, C.A.
1988-01-01
In this work, it is presented an spectroscopic study of Si 2 (CH 3 ) 6 which presents interesting characteristics in the Si - Si bond. Electron energy loss technique was used in the energy range of 500 - 200 eV for the electron beam. Electronic excitation spectra were obtained for the energy loss range from 5 to 30 eV, and also Auger spectra. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Radial excitations in nucleon-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre-Brac, B.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.
1986-01-01
In the non-relativistic constituent quark model, the role of the radial excitations of the nucleon is studied within a resonating group approach of the nucleon-nucleon scattering. It is shown that, rather than the inclusion of new channels, it is important to include mixed-symmetry spin-isospin components in the nucleon wave function. It is also found that during the collision there is no significant deformation of the nucleon. (orig.)
Hot nuclei, limiting temperatures and excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, J.
1986-09-01
Hot fusion nuclei are produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (20-100 MeV/U). Information on the maximum excitation energy per nucleon -and temperatures- indicated by the experimental data is compared to the predictions of static and dynamical calculations. Temperatures around 5-6 MeV are reached and seem to be the limit of formation of thermally equilibrated fusion nuclei
Axonal excitability properties in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C
2006-07-01
To investigate axolemmal ion channel function in patients diagnosed with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A recently described threshold tracking protocol was implemented to measure multiple indices of axonal excitability in 26 ALS patients by stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. The excitability indices studied included: stimulus-response curve (SR); strength-duration time constant (tauSD); current/threshold relationship; threshold electrotonus to a 100 ms polarizing current; and recovery curves to a supramaximal stimulus. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were significantly reduced in ALS patients (ALS, 2.84+/-1.17 mV; controls, 8.27+/-1.09 mV, P<0.0005) and the SR curves for both 0.2 and 1 ms pulse widths were shifted in a hyperpolarized direction. Threshold electrotonus revealed a greater threshold change to both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing conditioning stimuli, similar to the 'fanned out' appearance that occurs with membrane hyperpolarization. The tauSD was significantly increased in ALS patients (ALS, 0.50+/-0.03 ms; controls, 0.42+/-0.02 ms, P<0.05). The recovery cycle of excitability following a conditioning supramaximal stimulus revealed increased superexcitability in ALS patients (ALS, 29.63+/-1.25%; controls, 25.11+/-1.01%, P<0.01). Threshold tracking studies revealed changes indicative of widespread dysfunction in axonal ion channel conduction, including increased persistent Na+ channel conduction, and abnormalities of fast paranodal K+ and internodal slow K+ channel function, in ALS patients. An increase in persistent Na+ conductances coupled with reduction in K+ currents would predispose axons of ALS patients to generation of fasciculations and cramps. Axonal excitability studies may provide insight into mechanisms responsible for motor neuron loss in ALS.
Electron spectroscopy of collisional excited atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straten, P. van der.
1987-01-01
In this thesis measurements are described in which coincidences are detected between scattered projectiles and emitted electrons. This yields information on two-electron excitation processes. In order to show what can be learnt from coincidence experiments a detailed theoretical analysis is given. The transition amplitudes, which contain all the information, are introduced (ch.2). In ch.3 the experimental set-up is shown. The results for the Li + -He system are shown in ch. 7 and are compared with predictions based on the Molecular-Orbitalmodel which however does not account for two-excitation mechanisms. With the transition amplitudes also the wave function of the excited atom has been completely determined. In ch.8 the shape of the electron cloud, induced by the collision, is derived from the amplitudes. The relation between the oscillatory motion of this cloud after the collision and the correlation between the two electrons of the excited atom is discussed. In ch. 6 it is shown that the broad structures in the non-coincident energy spectra of the Li + -He system are erroneously interpretated as a result of electron emission from the (Li-He) + -quasimolecule. A model is presented which explains, based on the results obtained from the coincidence measurements, these broad structures. In ch. 4 the Post-Collision Interaction process is treated. It is shown that for high-energy collisions, in contrast with general assumptions, PCI is important. In ch. 5 the importance of PCI-processes in photoionization of atoms, followed by Auger decay, are studied. From the formulas derived in ch. 4 simple analytical results are obtained. These are applied to recent experiments and good agreement is achieved. 140 refs.; 55 figs.; 9 tabs
Dynamical analysis of highly excited molecular spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kellman, M.E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is new methods for analysis of spectra and dynamics of highly excited vibrational states of molecules. In these systems, strong mode coupling and anharmonicity give rise to complicated classical dynamics, and make the simple normal modes analysis unsatisfactory. New methods of spectral analysis, pattern recognition, and assignment are sought using techniques of nonlinear dynamics including bifurcation theory, phase space classification, and quantization of phase space structures. The emphasis is chaotic systems and systems with many degrees of freedom.
Rearrangements in ground and excited states
de Mayo, Paul
1980-01-01
Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.
Nonlinear stability of spin-flip excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunasalam, V.
1975-01-01
A rather complete discussion of the nonlinear electrodynamic behavior of a negative-temperature spin system is presented. The method presented here is based on a coupled set of master equations, one describing the time evolution of the photon (i.e., the spin-flip excitation) distribution function and the other describing the time evolution of the particle distribution function. It is found that the initially unstable (i.e., growing) spin-flip excitations grow to such a large amplitude that their nonlinear reaction on the particle distribution function becomes important. It is then shown that the initially totally inverted two-level spin system evolves rapidly (through this nonlinear photon-particle coupling) towards a quasilinear steady state where the populations of the spin-up and the spin-down states are equal to each other. Explicit expressions for the time taken to reach this quasilinear steady state and the energy in the spin-flip excitations at this state are also presented
Demystifying autofluorescence with excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging
Deal, Joshua; Harris, Bradley; Martin, Will; Lall, Malvika; Lopez, Carmen; Rider, Paul; Boudreaux, Carole; Rich, Thomas; Leavesley, Silas J.
2018-02-01
Autofluorescence has historically been considered a nuisance in medical imaging. Many endogenous fluorophores, specifically, collagen, elastin, NADH, and FAD, are found throughout the human body. Diagnostically, these signals can be prohibitive since they can outcompete signals introduced for diagnostic purposes. Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have allowed the acquisition of significantly more data in a shorter time period by scanning the excitation spectra of fluorophores. The reduced acquisition time and increased signal-to-noise ratio allow for separation of significantly more fluorophores than previously possible. Here, we propose to utilize excitation-scanning of autofluorescence to examine tissues and diagnose pathologies. Spectra of autofluorescent molecules were obtained using a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with a Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 360 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. The resultant spectra were used to examine hyperspectral image stacks from various collaborative studies, including an atherosclerotic rat model and a colon cancer study. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with ENVI and custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and principal component analysis (PCA). Initial results suggest the ability to separate the signals of endogenous fluorophores and measure the relative concentrations of fluorophores among healthy and diseased states of similar tissues. These results suggest pathology-specific changes to endogenous fluorophores can be detected using excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging. Future work will expand the library of pure molecules and will examine more defined disease states.
Field theories with multiple fermionic excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, J.P.
1978-01-01
The reason for the existence of the muon has been an enigma since its discovery. Since that time there has been a continuing proliferation of elementary particles. It is proposed that this proliferation of leptons and quarks is comprehensible if there are only four fundamental particles, the leptons ν/sub e/ and e - , and the quarks u and d. All other leptons and quarks are imagined to be excited states of these four fundamental entities. Attention is restricted to the charged leptons and the electromagnetic interactions only. A detailed study of a field theory in which there is only one fundamental charged fermionic field having two (or more) excitations is made. When the electromagnetic interactions are introduced and the theory is second quantized, under certain conditions this theory reproduces the S matrix obtained from usual OED. In this case no electromagnetic transitions are allowed. A leptonic charge operator is defined and a superselection rule for this leptonic charge is found. Unfortunately, the mass spectrum cannot be obtained. This theory has many renormalizable generalizations including non-abelian gauge theories, Yukawa-type theories, and Fermi-type theories. Under certain circumstances the Yukawa- and Fermi-type theories are finite in perturbation theory. It is concluded that there are no fundamental objections to having fermionic fields with more than one excitation
Seismic Excitation of the Polar Motion
Chao, Benjamin Fong; Gross, Richard S.; Han, Yan-Ben
1996-01-01
The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed by Chao and Gross (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0-1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards approx. 140 deg E, away from the actually observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field by Chao and Gross (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.
Analytical study of doubly excited ridge states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, H.Y.
1988-01-01
Two different non-separable problems are explored and analyzed. Non-perturbative methods need to be used to handle them, as the competing forces involved in these problems are equally strong and do not yield to a perturbative analysis. The first one is the study of doubly excited ridge states of atoms, in which two electrons are comparably excited. An analytical wavefunction for such states is introduced and is used to solve the two-electron Hamiltonian in the pair coordinates called hyperspherical coordinates variationally. The correlation between the electrons is built in analytically into the structure of the wavefunction. Sequences of ridge states out to very high excitation are computed and are organized as Rydberg series converging to the double ionization limit. Numerical results of such states in He and H - are compared with other theoretical calculations where available. The second problem is the analysis of the photodetachment of negative ions in an electric field via the frame transformation theory. The presence of the electron field requires a transformation from spherical to cylindrical symmetry for the outgoing photoelectron. This gives an oscillatory modulating factor as the effect of the electric field on cross-sections. All of this work is derived analytically in a general form applicable to the photodetachment of any negative ion. The expressions are applied to H - and S - for illustration
Excitation mechanisms for Jovian seismic modes
Markham, Steve; Stevenson, Dave
2018-05-01
Recent (2011) results from the Nice Observatory indicate the existence of global seismic modes on Jupiter in the frequency range between 0.7 and 1.5 mHz with amplitudes of tens of cm/s. Currently, the driving force behind these modes is a mystery; the measured amplitudes are many orders of magnitude larger than anticipated based on theory analogous to helioseismology (that is, turbulent convection as a source of stochastic excitation). One of the most promising hypotheses is that these modes are driven by Jovian storms. This work constructs a framework to analytically model the expected equilibrium normal mode amplitudes arising from convective columns in storms. We also place rough constraints on Jupiter's seismic modal quality factor. Using this model, neither meteor strikes, turbulent convection, nor water storms can feasibly excite the order of magnitude of observed amplitudes. Next we speculate about the potential role of rock storms deeper in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the rock storms' expected energy scales make them promising candidates to be the chief source of excitation for Jovian seismic modes, based on simple scaling arguments. We also suggest some general trends in the expected partition of energy between different frequency modes. Finally we supply some commentary on potential applications to gravity, Juno, Cassini and Saturn, and future missions to Uranus and Neptune.
Excitation equilibria in plasmas; a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullen, J.A.M. van der
1990-01-01
This review gives a classification of the excitation kinetics ruled by electrons in plasmas. It is a study on the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) and its relation with underlying processes, which, for the case of an electron excitation kinetics (EEK) plasma, is merely a competition between free and bound electrons, the same particles in different circumstances. In a quasi steady state the population density of an atomic state results from production-destruction balances in equilibrium. If all balances are proper, i.e., consist of each other's inverse processes, then the ASDF is described by the Boltzmann-Saha relation. In other cases the balance will be denoted as improper, the ASDF will deviate from the equilibrium shape, but reflecting the underlying improper balances, it may give information about the plasma. Four improper balances and their impact on the ASDF are dealt with. An important feature is that improper balances are associated with particle transport. Special attention is paid to the distribution function of the excitation saturation balance in which the overpopulated bound electrons are subjected to frequent interactions with free electrons and the energy distribution of the free electrons is taken over. This distribution, denoted as the bound Maxwell distribution, is experimentally found in several ionizing plasmas. Its recombining counterpart, the deexcitation saturation balance, creates under certain conditions inversion in the ASDF, the basis for the recombination laser. (orig.)
Isoscalar spin excitation in 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morlet, M.; Willis, A.; Van de Wiele, J.; Marty, N.; Johnson, B.N.; Bimbot, L.; Guillot, J.; Jourdan, F.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Rosier, L.; Glashausser, C.; Beatty, D.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Green, A.; Djalali, C.; Youn, M.Y.
1992-01-01
A signature S d y of isoscalar spin-transfer strength has been tested in the inelastic scattering of 400 MeV deuterons from 12 C. It was then applied to the study of 40 Ca over an angular range from 3 deg to 7 deg (momentum transfer range from 0.26 to 0.8 fm -1 ) and an excitation energy range from 6.25 to 42 MeV. This is the first study of isoscalar spin strength in the continuum. Spin excitations were found in the 9 MeV region, and over a broad range in the continuum with a cluster of strength around 15 MeV. The results are compared with spin-flip probability measurements in proton scattering. In contrast to the total relative spin response, which is strongly enhanced at high excitation, the isoscalar relative spin response is roughly consistent with non interacting Fermi gas values. (authors) 39 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab
Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J
2010-01-01
We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.
Synchro-betatron resonance excitation in LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, S.
1987-01-01
The excitation of synchrotro-betatron resonances due to spurious dispersion and induced transverse deflecting fields at the RF cavities has been simulated for the LEP storage ring. These simulations have been performed for various possible modes of operation. In particular, a scenario has been studied in which LEP is operated at the maximum possible value of the synchrotron tune throughout the acceleration cycle, in an attempt to maximise the threshold intensity at which the Transverse Mode Coupling Instability (TMCI) occurs. This mode of operation necessitates the crossing of synchro-betatron resonances at some points in the acceleration cycle if low order non-linear machine resonances are to be avoided. Simulations have been performed in which the machine tune is swept across these synchro-betratron resonances at a rate given by the bandwidth of the magnet plus power supply circuits of the main quadrupole chain. The effect of longitudinal and transverse wake-fields on the excitation of these resonances has been investigated. These studies indicate that the distortion of the RF potential well caused by the longitudinal wake fields increases the non-linear content of the synchrotron motion and consequently increases significantly the excitation of the higher order synchro-betatron resonances
Atomic collisions research with excited atomic species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoogerland, M.D.; Gulley, R.J.; Colla, M.; Lu, W.; Milic, D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.
1999-01-01
Measurements and calculations of fundamental atomic collision and spectroscopic properties such as collision cross sections, reaction rates, transition probabilities etc. underpin the understanding and operation of many plasma and gas-discharge-based devices and phenomena, for example plasma processing and deposition. In almost all cases the complex series of reactions which sustains the discharge or plasma, or produces the reactive species of interest, has a precursor electron impact excitation, attachment, dissociation or ionisation event. These processes have been extensively studied in a wide range of atomic and molecular species and an impressive data base of collision cross sections and reaction rates now exists. However, most of these measurements are for collisions with stable atomic or molecular species which are initially in their ground electronic state. Relatively little information is available for scattering from excited states or for scattering from unstable molecular radicals. Examples of such species would be metastable excited rare gases, which are often used as buffer gases, or CF 2 radicals formed by electron impact dissociation in a CF 4 plasma processing discharge. We are interested in developing experimental techniques which will enable the quantitative study of such exotic atomic and molecular species. In this talk I would like to outline one such facility which is being used for studies of collisions with metastable He(2 3 S) atoms
Electrically Excited Plasmonic Nanoruler for Biomolecule Detection.
Dathe, André; Ziegler, Mario; Hübner, Uwe; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Stranik, Ondrej
2016-09-14
Plasmon-based sensors are excellent tools for a label-free detection of small biomolecules. An interesting group of such sensors are plasmonic nanorulers that rely on the plasmon hybridization upon modification of their morphology to sense nanoscale distances. Sensor geometries based on the interaction of plasmons in a flat metallic layer together with metal nanoparticles inherit unique advantages but need a special optical excitation configuration that is not easy to miniaturize. Herein, we introduce the concept of nanoruler excitation by direct, electrically induced generation of surface plasmons based on the quantum shot noise of tunneling currents. An electron tunneling junction consisting of a metal-dielectric-semiconductor heterostructure is directly incorporated into the nanoruler basic geometry. With the application of voltage on this modified nanoruler, the plasmon modes are directly excited without any additional optical component as a light source. We demonstrate via several experiments that this electrically driven nanoruler possesses similar properties as an optically exited one and confirm its sensing capabilities by the detection of the binding of small biomolecules such as antibodies. This new sensing principle could open the way to a new platform of highly miniaturized, integrated plasmonic sensors compatible with monolithic integrated circuits.
Excitation and decay of correlated atomic states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, A.R.P.
1992-01-01
Doubly excited states of atoms and ions in which two electrons are excited from the ground configuration display strong radial and angular electron correlations. They are prototypical examples of quantum-mechanical systems with strong coupling. Two distinguishing characteristics of these states are: (1) their organization into successive families, with only weak coupling between families, and (2) a hierarchical nature of this coupling, with states from one family decaying primarily to those in the next lower family. A view of the pair of electrons as a single entity, with the electron-electron repulsion between them divided into a adiabatic and nonadiabatic piece, accounts for many of the dominant features. The stronger, adiabatic part determines the family structure and the weaker, nonadiabatic part the excitation and decay between successive families. Similar considerations extend to three-electron atomic states, which group into five different classes. They are suggestive of composite models for quarks in elementary particle physics, which exhibit analogous groupings into families with a hierarchical arrangement of masses and electroweak decays. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Picosecond excitation transport in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hart, D.E.
1987-11-01
Time-resolved fluorescence decay profiles are used to study excitation transport in 2- and 3-dimensional disordered systems. Time-correlated single photon counting detection is used to collect the fluorescence depolarization data. The high signal-to-noise ratios afforded by this technique makes it possible to critically examine current theories of excitation transport. Care has been taken to eliminate or account for the experimental artifacts common to this type of study. Solutions of 3,3'-diethyloxadicarbocyanine iodide (DODCI) in glycerol serve as a radomly distributed array of energy donors in 3-dimensions. A very thin sample cell (/approximately/ 2 μm) is used to minimize the effects of fluorescence self-absorption on the decay kinetics. Evidence of a dynamic shift of the fluorescence spectrum of DODCI in glycerol due to solvent reorganization is presented. The effects of excitation trapping on the decay profiles is minimized in the data analysis procedure. The 3-body theory of Gochanour, Andersen, and Fayer (GAF) and the far less complex 2-particle analytic theory of Huber, Hamilton, and Barnett yield indistinguishable fits to the data over the wide dynamic range of concentrations and decay times studied
Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS)
Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.
1996-01-01
One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.
Finite rank separable approximation for Skyrme interactions: spin-isospin excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severyukhin, A.P.; Voronov, V.V.; Borzov, I.N.; Nguyen Van Giai
2012-01-01
A finite rank separable approximation for the quasiparticle random phase approximation with the Skyrme interactions is applied for the case of charge-exchange nuclear modes. The coupling between one- and two-phonon terms in the wave functions is taken into account. It has been shown that the approximation reproduces reasonably well the full charge-exchange RPA results for the spin-dipole resonances in 132 Sn. As an illustration of the method, the phonon-phonon coupling effect on the β-decay half-life of 78 Ni is considered
Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.
2014-01-01
Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations
The [NeIV] Lines in High Excitation Gaseous Nebulae.
Aller, L H
1970-04-01
The "forbidden" lines of three times ionized neon are among the most precious indicators of electron temperature and excitation. They are also predicted to be among the strongest lines observed in the far ultraviolet spectra of high excitation nebulae.
Electromagnetic radiation of ultrarelativistic particles at scattering in excited medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malyshevskij, V.S.
1990-01-01
The interaction between relativistic particles and a gaseous or condensed medium with a high density of nondegenerate excited quantum states involves the coherent conversion of atomic or molecular excitations into electromagnetic radiation
Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor
Zhuravlev, V. Ph.
2010-08-01
Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.
Properties of excited xenon atoms in a plasma display panel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Byoung H.; Oh, Phil Y.; Choi, Eun H.
2009-01-01
The luminance efficiency of a plasma display panel is directly related to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light that is emitted from excited xenon (Xe) atoms and molecules. It is therefore necessary to investigate the properties of excited xenon atoms. This study presents experimental data associated with the behavior of excited xenon atoms in a PDP discharge cell and compares the data with the theoretical results obtained using an analytical model. The properties of excited xenon atoms in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel are investigated by measuring the excited atom density through the use of laser absorption spectroscopy. The density of the excited xenon atoms increases from zero, reaches its peak, and decreases with time in the discharge cells. The profile of the excited xenon atoms is also studied in terms of the xenon mole fraction. The typical density of the excited xenon atoms in the metastable state is on the order of 10 13 atoms per cubic cm.
Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators
Ramini, Abdallah; Alcheikh, Nouha; Ilyas, Saad; Younis, Mohammad I.
2016-01-01
efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting
Few Issues Related to an Electrodynamic Exciter Control
Čala, M.
2015-01-01
There are multiple problems to solve when controlling an electromagnetic exciter for vibrations generation. Main challenge is to straighten a frequency response of an exciter which is normally not uniform due to resonances resulting from the mechanical construction of an exciter, specimen to test, or mounting fixture. This paper describes number of aspects to consider, which arose during implementation of the control system for small electrodynamic exciter on the Department of Control and Ins...
Quinary excitation method for pulse compression ultrasound measurements.
Cowell, D M J; Freear, S
2008-04-01
A novel switched excitation method for linear frequency modulated excitation of ultrasonic transducers in pulse compression systems is presented that is simple to realise, yet provides reduced signal sidelobes at the output of the matched filter compared to bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation. Pulse compression signal sidelobes are reduced through the use of simple amplitude tapering at the beginning and end of the excitation duration. Amplitude tapering using switched excitation is realised through the use of intermediate voltage switching levels, half that of the main excitation voltages. In total five excitation voltages are used creating a quinary excitation system. The absence of analogue signal generation and power amplifiers renders the excitation method attractive for applications with requirements such as a high channel count or low cost per channel. A systematic study of switched linear frequency modulated excitation methods with simulated and laboratory based experimental verification is presented for 2.25 MHz non-destructive testing immersion transducers. The signal to sidelobe noise level of compressed waveforms generated using quinary and bipolar pseudo-chirp excitation are investigated for transmission through a 0.5m water and kaolin slurry channel. Quinary linear frequency modulated excitation consistently reduces signal sidelobe power compared to bipolar excitation methods. Experimental results for transmission between two 2.25 MHz transducers separated by a 0.5m channel of water and 5% kaolin suspension shows improvements in signal to sidelobe noise power in the order of 7-8 dB. The reported quinary switched method for linear frequency modulated excitation provides improved performance compared to pseudo-chirp excitation without the need for high performance excitation amplifiers.
Vector boson excitations near deconfined quantum critical points.
Huh, Yejin; Strack, Philipp; Sachdev, Subir
2013-10-18
We show that the Néel states of two-dimensional antiferromagnets have low energy vector boson excitations in the vicinity of deconfined quantum critical points. We compute the universal damping of these excitations arising from spin-wave emission. Detection of such a vector boson will demonstrate the existence of emergent topological gauge excitations in a quantum spin system.
Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence
Chimczak, Eugeniusz
2007-01-01
Integrated light in direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence has been investigated. In the investigations reported here, monomolecular centers were taken into account. It was found that the integrated light is equal to the product of generation rate and time of duration of excitation pulse for both direct excitation and energy transfer luminescence.
Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren
1994-01-01
indicate that phenyl torsional motion is not important to the excited-state dynamics and reveal alternative excited-state reaction pathways. The results demonstrate how molecular systems that are structually similar can exhibit different electronic properties and excited-state dynamics....
Excited state kinetics of anthracene-bridge-aniline intramolecular exciplexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thyrhaug, Erling; Hammershøj, Peter; Kjær, Kasper Skov
2014-01-01
excited anthracene state (LE) and an excited state complex (exciplex, EP) in non-polar solvents. The kinetics of the excited state processes were established in decalin from the time-resolved emission, and was shown to be strongly influenced by an electron-transfer state (ET). For quantitative studies...
Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse
2014-01-01
A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...
Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.
2017-11-01
Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, P.
1984-01-01
Kinetic energy spectra of heavy fragments from the 36Ar+208Pb reaction at 11 MeV/n and 20 Ne+ 208 Pb at 30 MeV/n have been measured with a time of flight spectrometer. Numerous structures ranging up to 100 MeV excitation energy are observed in the inelastic and few nucleon transfer channels. These structures are shown to be due to an excitation of the 208 Pb target nucleus and not to decay products of excited ejectiles. Positions of low lying structures (E* 208 Pb. The linear response of the target nucleus to the external field created by the projectile is calculated microscopically in the Random Phase Approximation resolved using the Green's function method in coordinate space with a Skyrme interaction. In the independant quasi-boson approximation multiple phonon excitations reproduce the main features of the experimental data and appear as a plausible interpretation of the observed structures. The theoretical calculations and experimental observations suggest that multiphonon excitations play an important role in heavy ion reactions and contribute strongly to the kinetic energy dissipation [fr
Localized excitations and the geometry of the 1nπ* excited states of pyrazine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleier, D.A.; Martin, R.L.; Wadt, W.R.; Moomaw, W.R.
1982-01-01
Previous theoretical work has shown that the lowest excited singlet state of pyrazine, the π* 1 B 3 u state, is best described in terms of interacting excitations localized on each nitrogen. The present work refines the localized excitation model and considers its implications for the geometry of the 1 B 3 u state. Hartree-Fock calculations show that the best single configuration description of the nπ* state has broken ( 1 B 1 ) symmetry with the excitation strongly localized at one end of the molcule. If the symmetry-restricted hf result is used for reference, this localization describes an important correlation effect. The excited-state geometry was probed using configuration interaction wave functions based on the symmetry-restricted orbitals, as well as properly symmetrized ''valance-bond'' wave functions based on the broken symmetry solutions. Both descriptions lead to a very flat potential for a b/sub 1u/ vibrational mode. This mode reduces the molecular geometry from D/sub 2h/ to C/sub 2v/. We present spectroscopic evidence of our own and of other workers which is consistent with such a flat potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)
2016-07-07
In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Quanshi; Chang Yongfu
2000-01-01
The comparisons of two radioisotope source ( 241 Am and 238 Pu) which are the most available in the radioisotope excited X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique and two characteristic X ray series (KX and LX) analyzed for the determination of the rare-earth (RE) elements were investigated in detail. According to the principle of emission and detection of X ray , the relative excitation efficiencies were calculated by the some fundamental physical parameters including the photoelectric mass attenuation coefficient, the fluorescent yield, the absorption jump factor, the emission probability of the detected fluorescent line with reference to other liens of the same series etc., The advantages and disadvantages of the two conditions are discussed. These results may determine the optimal excitation and detection conditions for different rare-earth elements. The experimental results with nine rare-earth elements (Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Tm, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) are in agreement with the results of theoretical calculations
Electron impact excitation of xenon from the metastable state to the excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang Jun; Dong Chenzhong; Xie Luyou; Zhou Xiaoxin [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Jianguo [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematic, Beijing 100088 (China)], E-mail: dongcz@nwnu.edu.cn
2008-12-28
The electron impact excitation cross sections from the lowest metastable state 5p{sup 5}6sJ = 2 to the six lowest excited states of the 5p{sup 5}6p configuration of xenon are calculated systematically by using the fully relativistic distorted wave method. In order to discuss the effects of target state descriptions on the electron impact excitation cross sections, two correlation models are used to describe the target states based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. It is found that the correlation effects play a very important role in low energy impact. For high energy impact, however, the cross sections are not sensitive to the description of the target states, but many more partial waves must be included.
Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de
2008-01-01
Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form
Zhang, Xueliang; Wen, Bangchun; Zhao, Chunyu
2017-11-01
In present work vibratory synchronization transmission (VST) of a cylindrical roller with dry friction in a vibrating mechanical system excited by two exciters, is studied. Using the average method, the criterion of implementing synchronization of two exciters and that of ensuring VST of a roller, are achieved. The criterion of stability of the synchronous states satisfies the Routh-Hurwitz principle. The influences of the structural parameters of the system to synchronization and stability, are discussed numerically, which can be served as the theoretical foundation for engineering designs. An experiment is carried out, which approximately verify the validity of the theoretical and numerical results, as well as the feasibility of the method used. Utilizing the VST theory of a roller, some types of vibrating crushing or grinding equipments, etc., can be designed.
Bifurcation and chaos in neural excitable system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing Zhujun; Yang Jianping; Feng Wei
2006-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of neural excitable system without periodic external current (proposed by Chialvo [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] and with periodic external current as system's parameters vary. The existence and stability of three fixed points, bifurcation of fixed points, the conditions of existences of fold bifurcation, flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are derived by using bifurcation theory and center manifold theorem. The chaotic existence in the sense of Marotto's definition of chaos is proved. We then give the numerical simulated results (using bifurcation diagrams, computations of Maximum Lyapunov exponent and phase portraits), which not only show the consistence with the analytic results but also display new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including the complete period-doubling and inverse period-doubling bifurcation, symmetry period-doubling bifurcations of period-3 orbit, simultaneous occurrence of two different routes (invariant cycle and period-doubling bifurcations) to chaos for a given bifurcation parameter, sudden disappearance of chaos at one critical point, a great abundance of period windows (period 2 to 10, 12, 19, 20 orbits, and so on) in transient chaotic regions with interior crises, strange chaotic attractors and strange non-chaotic attractor. In particular, the parameter k plays a important role in the system, which can leave the chaotic behavior or the quasi-periodic behavior to period-1 orbit as k varies, and it can be considered as an control strategy of chaos by adjusting the parameter k. Combining the existing results in [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] with the new results reported in this paper, a more complete description of the system is now obtained
First 3- excited state of 56Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fotiades, N.; Nelson, R. O.; Devlin, M.
2010-01-01
There is no reliable evidence for the existence of the 3.076 MeV (3 - ) level adopted in the ENSDF evaluation for 56 Fe although it has been reported in a few experiments. Previous reports of the observation of this level appear to be based on an incorrect assignment in early (e,e ' ) work. Recent neutron inelastic scattering measurements by Demidov et al. [Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1884, (2004)] show that the assigned γ-ray decay of this state does not occur at a level consistent with known properties of inelastic scattering. In the present work the 56 Fe(n,n ' γ) reaction was used to populate excited states in 56 Fe. Neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV were provided by the pulsed neutron source of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility. Deexciting γ rays were detected with the GEANIE spectrometer, a Compton suppressed array of 26 Ge detectors. The γ-γ data obtained with GEANIE were used to establish coincidence relations between transitions. All previously reported levels up to E x =3.6 MeV excitation energy were observed except for the 3.076 MeV (3 - ) level. The 991- and 2229-keV transitions, previously reported to deexcite this level, were not observed in the γ-γ coincidence data obtained in the present experiment. The present work supports the assignment of the 4509.6 keV level as the first 3 - excited state in 56 Fe by observation of two previously known transitions deexciting this state.
The structure of 83Sr excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.
1976-01-01
The β-decay of 83 Y isomers (7.06 min and 2.85 min) have been studied by means of Ge(Li) detectors. The proposed level scheme of the 83 Sr nucleus is based on the coincidence measurement and the analysis of energy sums. The intensity balance requirement leads to αsub(T)(35.5keV)=3.2 which is consistent with M1 multipolarity of this transition. A probable structure of some of the excited states in the 83 Sr nucleus is discussed in the frame work of Alaga's model and Kuriyama's model
Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.
1996-07-08
Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).
Motor axon excitability during Wallerian degeneration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian
2008-01-01
Axonal loss and degeneration are major factors in determining long-term outcome in patients with peripheral nerve disorders or injury. Following loss of axonal continuity, the isolated nerve stump distal to the lesion undergoes Wallerian degeneration in several phases. In the initial 'latent' phase......, action potential propagation and structural integrity of the distal segment are maintained. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the changes in membrane function of motor axons during the 'latent' phase of Wallerian degeneration. Multiple indices of axonal excitability of the tibial nerve...
Form factors and excitations of topological solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weir, David J.; Rajantie, Arttu
2011-01-01
We show how the interaction properties of topological solitons in quantum field theory can be calculated with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Topologically nontrivial field configurations are key to understanding the nature of the QCD vacuum through, for example, the dual superconductor picture. Techniques that we have developed to understand the excitations and form factors of topological solitons, such as kinks and 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, should be equally applicable to chromoelectric flux tubes. We review our results for simple topological solitons and their agreement with exact results, then discuss our progress towards studying objects of interest to high energy physics.
Anisotropic Intervalley Plasmon Excitations in Graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Jian; Xu Huai-Zhe
2015-01-01
We investigate theoretically the intervalley plasmon excitations (IPEs) in graphene monolayer within the random-phase approximation. We derive an analytical expression of the real part of the dielectric function. We find a low-energy plasmon mode with a linear anisotropic dispersion which depends on the Fermi energy and the dielectric constant of substrate. The IPEs show strongly anisotropic behavior, which becomes significant around the zigzag crystallographic direction. More interestingly, the group velocity of IPE varies from negative to positive, and vanishes at special energy. (paper)
Pulsed excitation terahertz tomography - multiparametric approach
Lopato, Przemyslaw
2018-04-01
This article deals with pulsed excitation terahertz computed tomography (THz CT). Opposite to x-ray CT, where just a single value (pixel) is obtained, in case of pulsed THz CT the time signal is acquired for each position. Recorded waveform can be parametrized - many features carrying various information about examined structure can be calculated. Based on this, multiparametric reconstruction algorithm was proposed: inverse Radon transform based reconstruction is applied for each parameter and then fusion of results is utilized. Performance of the proposed imaging scheme was experimentally verified using dielectric phantoms.
Excited state dynamics of DNA bases
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kleinermanns, K.; Nachtigallová, Dana; de Vries, M. S.
2013-01-01
Roč. 32, č. 2 (2013), s. 308-342 ISSN 0144-235X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1318 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE-0911564; NASA (US) NNX12AG77G; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 663; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) KI 531-29 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA bases * nucleobases * excited state * dynamics * computations * gas phase * conical intersections Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.920, year: 2013