Visual Analysis of Inclusion Dynamics in Two-Phase Flow.
Karch, Grzegorz Karol; Beck, Fabian; Ertl, Moritz; Meister, Christian; Schulte, Kathrin; Weigand, Bernhard; Ertl, Thomas; Sadlo, Filip
2018-05-01
In single-phase flow visualization, research focuses on the analysis of vector field properties. In two-phase flow, in contrast, analysis of the phase components is typically of major interest. So far, visualization research of two-phase flow concentrated on proper interface reconstruction and the analysis thereof. In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique that enables the investigation of complex two-phase flow phenomena with respect to the physics of breakup and coalescence of inclusions. On the one hand, we adapt dimensionless quantities for a localized analysis of phase instability and breakup, and provide detailed inspection of breakup dynamics with emphasis on oscillation and its interplay with rotational motion. On the other hand, we present a parametric tightly linked space-time visualization approach for an effective interactive representation of the overall dynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using several two-phase CFD datasets.
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of horizontal two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tselishcheva, Elena A.; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tubes. Two flow situations have been considered: gas/liquid flow in a long straight pipe, and similar flow conditions in a pipe with 90 deg. elbow. The theoretical approach utilizes a multifield modeling concept. A complete three-dimensional two-phase flow model has been implemented in a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The overall model has been tested parametrically. Also, the results of NPHASE simulations have been compared against experimental data for a pipe with 90 deg. elbow.
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tadashi; Hirano, Masashi; Akimoto, Masayuki; Tanabe, Fumiya; Kohsaka, Atsuo.
1992-03-01
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS (Modularized and INtegrated Code System) has been developed to provide a computational tool for analyzing two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. In MINCS, nine types of two-phase flow models-from a basic two-fluid nonequilibrium (2V2T) model to a simple homogeneous equilibrium (1V1T) model-can be used under the same numerical solution method. The numerical technique is based on the implicit finite difference method to enhance the numerical stability. The code structure is highly modularized, so that new constitutive relations and correlations can be easily implemented into the code and hence evaluated. A flow pattern can be fixed regardless of flow conditions, and state equations or steam tables can be selected. It is, therefore, easy to calculate physical or numerical benchmark problems. (author)
Random signal tomographical analysis of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, P.; Wesser, U.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on radiation tomography which is a useful tool for studying the internal structures of two-phase flow. However, general tomography analysis gives only time-averaged results, hence much information is lost. As a result, it is sometimes difficult to identify the flow regime; for example, the time-averaged picture does not significantly change as an annual flow develops from a slug flow. A two-phase flow diagnostic technique based on random signal tomographical analysis is developed. It extracts more information by studying the statistical variation of the measured signal with time. Local statistical parameters, including mean value, variance, skewness and flatness etc., are reconstructed from the information obtained by a general tomography technique. More important information are provided by the results. Not only the void fraction can be easily calculated, but also the flow pattern can be identified more objectively and more accurately. The experimental setup is introduced. It consisted of a two-phase flow loop, an X-ray system, a fan-like five-beam detector system and a signal acquisition and processing system. In the experiment, for both horizontal and vertical test sections (aluminum and steel tube with Di/Do = 40/45 mm), different flow situations are realized by independently adjusting air and water mass flow. Through a glass tube connected with the test section, some typical flow patterns are visualized and used for comparing with the reconstruction results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, J.
1990-01-01
The design, operation and safety of nuclear components requires increasingly accurate knowledge of two-phase flows. This knowledge is also necessary for some studies related to electricity applications. The author presents some concrete examples showing the range of problems and the complexity of the phenomena involved in these types of flows. Then, the basic principles of their numerical modelling are explained, as well as the new tendency to use increasingly local and refined models. The newest computer codes developed at EDF are briefly presented. Experimental studies dealing with twophase flow are also referred to, and their connections to numerical modelling are explained. Emphasis is placed on the major efforts devoted to the development of new test rigs and instrumentation [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Y.Y.
1974-01-01
The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)
Present status of numerical analysis on transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimoto, Masayuki; Hirano, Masashi; Nariai, Hideki.
1987-01-01
The Special Committee for Numerical Analysis of Thermal Flow has recently been established under the Japan Atomic Energy Association. Here, some methods currently used for numerical analysis of transient two-phase flow are described citing some information given in the first report of the above-mentioned committee. Many analytical models for transient two-phase flow have been proposed, each of which is designed to describe a flow by using differential equations associated with conservation of mass, momentum and energy in a continuous two-phase flow system together with constructive equations that represent transportation of mass, momentum and energy though a gas-liquid interface or between a liquid flow and the channel wall. The author has developed an analysis code, called MINCS, that serves for systematic examination of conservation equation and constructive equations for two-phase flow models. A one-dimensional, non-equilibrium two-liquid flow model that is used as the basic model for the code is described. Actual procedures for numerical analysis is shown and some problems concerning transient two-phase analysis are described. (Nogami, K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaje, Dzh.
1984-01-01
General hypothesis used to simplify the equations, describing two-phase flows, are considered. Two-component and one-component models of two-phase flow, as well as Zuber and Findlay model for actual volumetric steam content, and Wallis model, describing the given phase rates, are presented. The conclusion is made, that the two-component model, in which values averaged in time are included, is applicable for the solving of three-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow. At the same time, using the two-component model, including values, averaged in space only one-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow can be solved
Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao
1985-01-01
Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacuci, D.G.
1984-07-01
This report presents a self-contained mathematical formalism for deterministic sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow systems, a detailed application to sensitivity analysis of the homogeneous equilibrium model of two-phase flow, and a representative application to sensitivity analysis of a model (simulating pump-trip-type accidents in BWRs) where a transition between single phase and two phase occurs. The rigor and generality of this sensitivity analysis formalism stem from the use of Gateaux (G-) differentials. This report highlights the major aspects of deterministic (forward and adjoint) sensitivity analysis, including derivation of the forward sensitivity equations, derivation of sensitivity expressions in terms of adjoint functions, explicit construction of the adjoint system satisfied by these adjoint functions, determination of the characteristics of this adjoint system, and demonstration that these characteristics are the same as those of the original quasilinear two-phase flow equations. This proves that whenever the original two-phase flow problem is solvable, the adjoint system is also solvable and, in principle, the same numerical methods can be used to solve both the original and adjoint equations
Analysis of two-phase flow induced vibrations in perpendiculary supported U-type piping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiramatsu, Tsutomu; Komura, Yoshiaki; Ito, Atsushi.
1984-01-01
The perpose of this analysis is to predict the vibration level of a pipe conveying a two-phase flowing fluid. Experiments were carried out with a perpendiculary supported U-type piping system, conveying an air-water two-phase flow in a steady state condition. Fluctuation signals are observed by a void signal sensor, and power spectral densities and probability density functions are obtained from the void signals. Theoretical studies using FEM and an estimation of the exciting forces from the PSD of void signals, provided a good predictional estimation of vibration responses of the piping system. (author)
Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke
2001-01-01
A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boure, J.A.
1974-12-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are classified according to three criteria: the static or dynamic nature of the phenomenon, the necessity or not of a triggering phenomenon, and the pure or compound character of the phenomenon. Tables give the elementary instability phenomena, and the practical types of instability. Flow oscillations (or dynamic instabilities) share a number of characteristics which are dealt with, they are caused by the dynamic interactions between the flow parameters (flow rate, density, pressure, enthalpy and their distributions). Oscillation types are discussed: pure oscillations are density wave oscillations, acoustic oscillations may also occur, various compound oscillations involve either the density wave or the acoustic wave mechanism, interacting with some of the boundary conditions in the device. The analysis of slow oscillations has been made either by means of a simplified model (prediction of the thresholds) or of computer codes. Numerous computer codes are available [fr
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q.
1995-01-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1995-09-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.
Electric capacitance tomography and two-phase flow for the nuclear reactor safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jae Young
2008-01-01
Recently electric capacitance tomography has been developed to be used in the analysis of two-phase flow. Although its electric field is not focused as the hard ray tomography such as the X-ray or gamma ray, its convenience of easy access to the system and easy maintenance due to no requirement of radiation shielding benefits us in its application in the two-phase flow study, one of important area in the nuclear safety analysis. In the present paper, the practical technologies in the electric capacitance tomography are represented in both parts of hardware and software. In the software part, both forward problem and inverse problem are discussed and the method of regularization. In the hardware part, the brief discussion of the electronics circuits is made which provides femto farad resolution with a reasonable speed (150 frame/sec for 16 electrodes). Some representative ideal cases are studied to demonstrate its potential capability for the two-phase flow analysis. Also, some variations of the tomography such as axial tomography, and three dimensional tomography are discussed. It was found that the present ECT is expected to become a useful tool to understand the complicated three dimensional two-phase flow which may be an important feature to be equipped by the safety analysis codes. (author)
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tube with 90 deg elbow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tselishcheva, E.A.; Antal, St.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Marshall, S.
2007-01-01
The development of modeling and simulation capabilities of two-phase flow and heat transfer is very important for the design, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Whereas a significant progress in this field has been made over the recent years, further advancements are clearly needed for new concepts of advanced (Generation-IV in particular) reactors. Difficulties in analyzing gas/liquid flows are due to the fact that such two-phase mixtures can assume several different flow patterns, each characterized by flow-regime specific interfacial phenomena of mass, momentum and energy transfer. The level of difficulty increases even further in the case of a complex tube geometries and spatial orientations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the analysis of a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with a 90-degree elbow. The overall objective of the present work is the development of a 3-dimensional computational model of a two-phase high-Reynolds number turbulent flow. The overall new model has been encoded in the next-generation Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The model has been tested parametrically and the results of NPHASE calculations have been compared against experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent both physically and numerically, the predictions are in a reasonable agreement with the measurements
Nonlinear analysis of gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow in complex networks
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xu
2014-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of multi-phase flows has been a challenge in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. This chapter reviews our work on two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. We systematically carried out gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals which is studied in terms of the mapping from time series to complex networks. Three network mapping methods were proposed for the analysis and identification of flow patterns, i.e. Flow Pattern Complex Network (FPCN), Fluid Dynamic Complex Network (FDCN) and Fluid Structure Complex Network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN based on K-means clustering, distinct flow patterns can be successfully distinguished and identified. A number of FDCN’s under different flow conditions were constructed in order to reveal the dynamical characteristics of two-phase flows. The FDCNs exhibit universal power-law degree distributions. The power-law exponent ...
Ultrafast X-ray tomography for two-phase flow analysis in centrifugal pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Thomas; Hampel, Uwe; Technische Univ. Dresden
2017-01-01
The unsteady behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a centrifugal pump impeller has been visualized, using ultrafast X-ray tomography. Based on the reconstructed tomographic images an evaluation and detailed analysis of the flow conditions has been done. Here, the high temporal resolution of the tomographic images offered the opportunity to get a deep insight into the flow to perform a detailed description of the transient gas-liquid phase distribution inside the impeller. Significant properties of the occurring two-phase flow and characteristic flow patterns have been disclosed. Furthermore, the effects of different air entrainment conditions have been investigated and typical phase distributions inside the impeller have been shown.
Ultrafast X-ray tomography for two-phase flow analysis in centrifugal pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering
2017-07-15
The unsteady behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a centrifugal pump impeller has been visualized, using ultrafast X-ray tomography. Based on the reconstructed tomographic images an evaluation and detailed analysis of the flow conditions has been done. Here, the high temporal resolution of the tomographic images offered the opportunity to get a deep insight into the flow to perform a detailed description of the transient gas-liquid phase distribution inside the impeller. Significant properties of the occurring two-phase flow and characteristic flow patterns have been disclosed. Furthermore, the effects of different air entrainment conditions have been investigated and typical phase distributions inside the impeller have been shown.
Pigging analysis for gas-liquid two phase flow in pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohda, K.; Suzukawa, Y.; Furukawa, H.
1988-01-01
A new method to analyze transient phenomena caused by pigging in gas-liquid two-phase flow is developed. During pigging, a pipeline is divided into three sections by two moving boundaries, namely the pig and the leading edge of the liquid slug in front of the pig. The basic equations are mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The boundary conditions at the moving boundaries are determined from the mass conservation across the boundaries, etc. A finite difference method is used to solve the equations numerically. The method described above is also capable of analyzing transient two-phase flow caused by pressure and flow rate changes. Thus the over-all analysis of transient two-phase flow in pipelines becomes possible. A series of air-water two-phase flow pigging experiments was conducted using 105.3 mm diameter and 1436.5 m long test pipeline. The agreement between the measured and the calculated results is very good
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warde, H.; Marzouk, E.; Ibrahim, S.
1989-01-01
The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy
Steady state flow analysis of two-phase natural circulation in multiple parallel channel loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhusare, V.H.; Bagul, R.K.; Joshi, J.B.; Nayak, A.K.; Kannan, Umasankari; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Vijayan, P.K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Liquid circulation velocity increases with increasing superficial gas velocity. • Total two-phase pressure drop decreases with increasing superficial gas velocity. • Channels with larger driving force have maximum circulation velocities. • Good agreement between experimental and model predictions. - Abstract: In this work, steady state flow analysis has been carried out experimentally in order to estimate the liquid circulation velocities and two-phase pressure drop in air–water multichannel circulating loop. Experiments were performed in 15 channel circulating loop. Single phase and two-phase pressure drops in the channels have been measured experimentally and have been compared with theoretical model of Joshi et al. (1990). Experimental measurements show good agreement with model.
Analysis of one-dimensional nonequilibrium two-phase flow using control volume method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minato, Akihiko; Naitoh, Masanori
1987-01-01
A one-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed for prediction of rapid flow transient behavior involving boiling. This model was based on six conservation equations of time averaged parameters of gas and liquid behavior. These equations were solved by using a control volume method with an explicit time integration. This model did not use staggered mesh scheme, which had been commonly used in two-phase flow analysis. Because void fraction and velocity of each phase were defined at the same location in the present model, effects of void fraction on phase velocity calculation were treated directly without interpolation. Though non-staggered mesh scheme was liable to cause numerical instability with zigzag pressure field, stability was achieved by employing the Godunov method. In order to verify the present analytical model, Edwards' pipe blow down and Zaloudek's initially subcooled critical two-phase flow experiments were analyzed. Stable solutions were obtained for rarefaction wave propagation with boiling and transient two-phase flow behavior in a broken pipe by using this model. (author)
Karimi, Amir
1991-01-01
NASA's effort for the thermal environmental control of the Space Station Freedom is directed towards the design, analysis, and development of an Active Thermal Control System (ATCS). A two phase, flow through condenser/radiator concept was baselined, as a part of the ATCS, for the radiation of space station thermal load into space. The proposed condenser rejects heat through direct condensation of ATCS working fluid (ammonia) in the small diameter radiator tubes. Analysis of the condensation process and design of condenser tubes are based on the available two phase flow models for the prediction of flow regimes, heat transfer, and pressure drops. The prediction formulas use the existing empirical relationships of friction factor at gas-liquid interface. An attempt is made to study the stability of interfacial waves in two phase annular flow. The formulation is presented of a stability problem in cylindrical coordinates. The contribution of fluid viscosity, surface tension, and transverse radius of curvature to the interfacial surface is included. A solution is obtained for Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problem which can be used to determine the critical and most dangerous wavelengths for interfacial waves.
Analysis of Two-Phase Flow in Damper Seals for Cryogenic Turbopumps
Arauz, Grigory L.; SanAndres, Luis
1996-01-01
Cryogenic damper seals operating close to the liquid-vapor region (near the critical point or slightly su-cooled) are likely to present two-phase flow conditions. Under single phase flow conditions the mechanical energy conveyed to the fluid increases its temperature and causes a phase change when the fluid temperature reaches the saturation value. A bulk-flow analysis for the prediction of the dynamic force response of damper seals operating under two-phase conditions is presented as: all-liquid, liquid-vapor, and all-vapor, i.e. a 'continuous vaporization' model. The two phase region is considered as a homogeneous saturated mixture in thermodynamic equilibrium. Th flow in each region is described by continuity, momentum and energy transport equations. The interdependency of fluid temperatures and pressure in the two-phase region (saturated mixture) does not allow the use of an energy equation in terms of fluid temperature. Instead, the energy transport is expressed in terms of fluid enthalpy. Temperature in the single phase regions, or mixture composition in the two phase region are determined based on the fluid enthalpy. The flow is also regarded as adiabatic since the large axial velocities typical of the seal application determine small levels of heat conduction to the walls as compared to the heat carried by fluid advection. Static and dynamic force characteristics for the seal are obtained from a perturbation analysis of the governing equations. The solution expressed in terms of zeroth and first order fields provide the static (leakage, torque, velocity, pressure, temperature, and mixture composition fields) and dynamic (rotordynamic force coefficients) seal parameters. Theoretical predictions show good agreement with experimental leakage pressure profiles, available from a Nitrogen at cryogenic temperatures. Force coefficient predictions for two phase flow conditions show significant fluid compressibility effects, particularly for mixtures with low mass
STUDY OF IDENTIFICATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW PARAMETERS BY PRESSURE FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ondrej Burian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with identification of parameters of simple pool boiling in a vertical rectangular channel by analysis of pressure fluctuation. In this work is introduced a small experimental facility about 9 kW power, which was used for simulation of pool boiling phenomena and creation of steam-water volume. Several pressure fluctuations measurements and differential pressure fluctuations measurements at warious were carried out. Main changed parameters were power of heaters and hydraulics resistance of channel internals. Measured pressure data was statistically analysed and compared with goal to find dependencies between parameters of two-phase flow and statistical properties of pressure fluctuation. At the end of this paper are summarized final results and applicability of this method for parameters determination of two phase flow for pool boiling conditions at ambient pressure.
Two-phase flow modeling in the rod bundle subchannel analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisashi, Ninokata
2006-01-01
In order to practice a design-by-analysis of thermohydraulics design of BWR fuel rod bundles, the subchannel analysis would play a major role. There, the immediate concern is improvement in its predictive capability of CHF due in particular to the film dryout (boiling transition phenomena: BT) on the fuel rod surface. Constitutive equations in the subchannel analysis formulation are responsible for the quality of calculated results. The constitutive equations are a result of integration of the local and instantaneous description of two-phase flows over the subchannel control volume. In general, they are expressed in terms of subchannel-control-volume- as well as area-averaged two-phase flow state variables. In principle the information on local and instantaneous physical phenomena taking place inside subchannels must be counted for in the algebraic form of the equations on the basis of a more mechanistic modeling approach. They should include also influences of the multi-dimensional subchannel geometry and fluid material properties. Thermohydraulics phenomena of interests in this deed are: 1) vapor-liquid re-distribution by inter-subchannel exchanges due to the diversion cross flow, turbulent mixing and void drift, 2) liquid film behaviors, 3) transition of two-phase flow regimes, 4) droplet entrainment and deposition and 5) spacer-droplet interactions. These are considered to be five key factors in understanding the BT in BWR fuel rod bundles. In Japan, a university-industry consortium has been formed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry. This paper describes an outline of the on-going project and, first, an outline of the current efforts is presented in developing a new two-fluid three field subchannel code NASCA being aimed at predicting onset of BT, and post BT phenomena in advanced BWR fuel rod bundles including those of the tight lattice configuration for a higher conversion. Then the current methodology adopted to improve
Two-phase flow modeling in the rod bundle subchannel analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hisashi, Ninokata
2004-01-01
Full text of publication follows:In order to practice a design-by-analysis of thermohydraulics design of BWR fuel rod bundles, the subchannel analysis would play a major role. There, the immediate concern is improvement in its predictive capability of CHF due in particular to the film dryout (boiling transition phenomena: BT) on the fuel rod surface. Constitutive equations in the subchannel analysis formulation are responsible for the quality of calculated results. The constitutive equations are a result of integration of the local and instantaneous description of two-phase flows over the subchannel control volume. In general, they are expressed in terms of subchannel-control-volume- as well as area-averaged two-phase flow state variables. In principle the information on local and instantaneous physical phenomena taking place inside subchannels must be counted for in the algebraic form of the equations on the basis of a more mechanistic modeling approach. They should include also influences of the multi-dimensional subchannel geometry and fluid material properties. Thermohydraulics phenomena of interests in this deed are: 1) vapor-liquid re-distribution by inter-subchannel exchanges due to the diversion cross flow, turbulent mixing and void drift, 2) liquid film behaviors, 3) transition of two-phase flow regimes, 4) droplet entrainment and deposition and 5) spacer-droplet interactions. These are considered to be five key factors in understanding the BT in BWR fuel rod bundles. In Japan, a university-industry consortium has been formed under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry. This paper describes an outline of the on-going project and, first, an outline of the current efforts is presented in developing a new two-fluid three field subchannel code NASCA being aimed at predicting onset of BT, and post BT phenomena in advanced BWR fuel rod bundles including those of the tight lattice configuration for a higher conversion. Then the current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, A.M.; Paul, S.; Singh, S.; Panday, V.
2015-01-01
In this paper the two-phase flow instability analysis of multiple heated channels with various inclinations is studied. In addition, the bifurcation analysis is also carried out to capture the nonlinear dynamics of the system and to identify the regions in parameter space for which subcritical and supercritical bifurcations exist. In order to carry out the analysis, the system is mathematically represented by nonlinear Partial Differential Equation (PDE) for mass, momentum and energy in single as well as two-phase region. Then converted into Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) using weighted residual method. Also, coupling equation is being used under the assumption that pressure drop in each channel is the same and the total mass flow rate is equal to sum of the individual mass flow rates. The homogeneous equilibrium model is used for the analysis. Stability Map is obtained in terms of phase change number (Npch) and Subcooling Number (Nsb) by solving a set of nonlinear, coupled algebraic equations obtained at equilibrium using Newton Raphson Method. MATLAB Code is verified by comparing it with results obtained by Matcont (Open source software) under same parametric values. Numerical simulations of the time-dependent, nonlinear ODEs are carried out for selected points in the operating parameter space to obtain the actual damped and growing oscillations in the channel inlet flow velocity which confirms the stability region across the stability map. Generalized Hopf (GH) points are observed for different inclinations, they are also points for subcritical and supercritical bifurcations. (authors)
Summary on experimental methods for statistical transient analysis of two-phase gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.
1976-06-01
Much work has been done in the study of two-phase gas-liquid flows. Although it has been recognized superficially that such flows are not homogeneous in general, little attention has been paid to the inherent discreteness of the two-phase systems. Only relatively recently have fluctuating characteristics of two-phase flows been studied in detail. As a result, new experimental devices and techniques have been developed for use in measuring quantities previously ignored. This report reviews and summarizes most of these methods in an effort to emphasize the importance of the fluctuating nature of these flows and as a guide to further research in this field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagel, H.
1986-01-01
The flow induced valve operation is calculated for single and two-phase flow conditions by the fluid dynamic computer code DYVRO and results are compared to experimental data. The analysis show that the operational behaviour of the valves is not only dependent on the condition of the induced flow, but also the pipe flow can cause a feedback as a result of the induced pressure waves. For the calculation of pressure wave propagation in pipes of which the operation of flow induced valves has a considerable influence it is therefore necessary to have a coupled analysis of the pressure wave propagation and the operational behaviour of the valves. The analyses of the fast transient transfer from steam to two-phase flow show a good agreement with experimental data. Hence even these very high loads on pipes resulting from such fluid dynamic transients can be calculated realistically. (orig.)
Two-phase flow characteristics in BWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katono, Kenichi; Aoyama, Goro; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Yasuda, Kenichi; Nishida, Koji
2014-01-01
Reliable prediction of two-phase flow characteristics is important for safety and economy improvements of BWR plants. We have been developing two-phase flow measurement tools and techniques for BWR thermal hydraulic conditions, such as a 3D time-averaged X-ray CT system, an ultrasonic liquid film sensor and a wire-mesh sensor. We applied the developed items in experiments using the multi-purpose steam-water test facility known as HUSTLE, which can simulate two-phase thermal-hydraulic conditions in a BWR reactor pressure vessel, and we constructed a detailed instrumentation database. We validated a 3D two-phase flow simulator using the database and developed the reactor internal two-phase flow analysis system. (author)
Numerical analysis of critical two-phase flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romstedt, P.; Werner, W.
1985-01-01
The numerical calculation of critical two-phase flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle is complicated by a singularity of the fluid flow equations at the unknown critical point. This paper describes a method which is able to calculate critical state and its location without any additional assumptions. The critical state is identified by its mathematical properties: characteristics and solvability of linear systems with singular matrix. Because the numerically evaluable mathematical properties are only necessary conditions for the existence of critical flow, some physical ''compatibility-criteria'' (flow velocity equals two-phase sonic velocity, critical flow is independent of downstream flow state variations) are used as a substitute for mathematically sufficient conditions. Numerical results are shown for the critical flow in a LOBI nozzle; the two-phase flow is described by a model with equal phase velocities and thermodynamic non-equilibrium
Three layer model analysis on two-phase critical flow through a converging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ochi, J.; Ayukawa, K.
1991-01-01
A three layer model is proposed for a two-phase critical flow through a converging nozzle in this paper. Most previous analyses of the two phase flow have been based on a homogeneous or a separated flow model as the conservation equations. These results were found to have large deviations from the actual measurements for two phase critical flows. The presented model is based on the assumption that a flow consists of three layers with a mixing region between gas and liquid phase layers. The effect of gas and liquid fraction occupied in the mixing layer was made clear from the numerical results. The measurements of the critical flow rate and the pressure profiles through a converging nozzle were made with air-water flow. The calculated results of these models are discussed in comparison with the experimental data for the flow rates and the pressure distributions under critical conditions
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case.
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y.
2015-01-01
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case
Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Xin-Wang; Jin, Ning-De; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen
2013-09-01
Characterizing complex patterns arising from horizontal oil-water two-phase flows is a contemporary and challenging problem of paramount importance. We design a new multisector conductance sensor and systematically carry out horizontal oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring multivariate signals of different flow patterns. We then infer multivariate recurrence networks from these experimental data and investigate local cross-network properties for each constructed network. Our results demonstrate that a cross-clustering coefficient from a multivariate recurrence network is very sensitive to transitions among different flow patterns and recovers quantitative insights into the flow behavior underlying horizontal oil-water flows. These properties render multivariate recurrence networks particularly powerful for investigating a horizontal oil-water two-phase flow system and its complex interacting components from a network perspective.
Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin
2009-01-01
Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)
Geometric analysis of the solutions of two-phase flows: two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kestin, J.; Zeng, D.L.
1984-01-01
This report contains a lightly edited draft of a study of the two-fluid model in two-phase flow. The motivation for the study stems from the authors' conviction that the construction of a computer code for any model should be preceded by a geometrical analysis of the pattern of trajectories in the phase space appropriate for the model. Such a study greatly facilitates the understanding of the phenomenon of choking and anticipates the computational difficulties which arise from the existence of singularities. The report contains a derivation of the six conservation equations of the model which includes a consideration of the simplifications imposed on a one-dimensional treatment by the presence of boundary layers at the wall and between the phases. The model is restricted to one-dimensional adiabatic flows of a single substance present in two phases, but thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases is not assumed. The role of closure conditions is defined but no specific closure conditions, or explicit equations of state, are introduced
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, R.N. de; Masotti, P.H.F.; Penha, R.M.L.; Andrade, D.A.; Sabundjian, G.; Torres, W.M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A fuzzy classification system for two-phase flow instability patterns is developed. ► Flow patterns are classified based on images of natural circulation experiments. ► Fuzzy inference is optimized to use single grayscale profiles as input. - Abstract: Two-phase flow on natural circulation phenomenon has been an important theme on recent studies related to nuclear reactor designs. The accuracy of heat transfer estimation has been improved with new models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. In this work, visualization of natural circulation cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. A Fuzzy Flow-type Classification System (FFCS) was developed to classify these patterns based only on image extracted features. Image acquisition and temperature measurements were simultaneously done. Experiments in natural circulation facility were adjusted to generate a series of characteristic two-phase flow instability periodic cycles. The facility is composed of a loop of glass tubes, a heat source using electrical heaters, a cold source using a helicoidal heat exchanger, a visualization section and thermocouples positioned over different loop sections. The instability cyclic period is estimated based on temperature measurements associated with the detection of a flow transition image pattern. FFCS shows good results provided that adequate image acquisition parameters and pre-processing adjustments are used.
Analysis of phase dynamics in two-phase flow using latticegas automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohashi, H.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsumaya, A.; Chen, Y.; Akiyama, M.
1998-01-01
In this paper, we describe lattice gas automaton models appropriate for two-phase flow simulation and their applications to study various phase dynamics of two-fluid mixtures. Several algorithms are added to the original immiscible Lattice Gas model to adjust surface tension and to introduce density difference between two fluids. Surface tension is controlled by the collision rules an difference in density is due to nonlocal forces between automaton particles. We simulate the relative motion of the dispersed phase in another continuous fluid. Deformation and disintegration of rising drops are reproduced. The interaction between multiple drops is also observed in calculations. Furutre, we obtain the transition of the two-phase flow pattern from bubbly, slug to annular flow. Density difference of two phase is one of the key ingredients to generate the annular flow pattern
Modeling and analysis of hydrodynamic instabilities in two-phase flow using two-fluid model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, J.; Podowski, M.Z.
2001-01-01
Because of the practical importance of two-phase flow instabilities, especially in boiling water nuclear reactor technology, substantial efforts have been made to date to understand the physical phenomena governing such instabilities and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of marginally-stable/unstable boiling systems. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated methodology for the analysis of flow-induced instabilities in boiling channels and systems. The major novel aspects of the proposed approach are: (a) it is based on the combined frequency-domain and time-domain methods, the former used to quantify stability margins and to determine the onset of instability conditions, the latter to study the nonlinear system response outside the stability boundaries identified using the nearly-exact results of the frequency-domain analysis; (b) the two-fluid model of two-phase flow has been used for the first time to analytically derive the boiling channel transfer functions for the parallel-channel and channel-to-channel instability modes. In this way, the major characteristics of a boiling system, including the onset-of-instability conditions, can be readily evaluated by using the qualitative frequency-domain approach, whereas the explicit time-domain integration is performed, if necessary, only for the operating conditions that have already been identified as unstable. Both methods use the same physical two-fluid model that, in one case, is linearized and used to derive a rigorous analytical solution in the complex domain, and, in the other case, is solved numerically using an algorithm developed especially for this purpose. The results using both methods have been compared against each other and extensively tested. The testing and validation of the new model included comparisons of the predicted steady-state distributions of major parameters and of the transient channel response against experimental data
Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Currie, T.C.
1986-06-01
This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended
Wavelet analysis of interfacial waves in cocurrent two-phase flow in horizontal duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, Masaya; Kukita, Yutaka
1996-07-01
Wavelet analysis was applied to spatially-growing interfacial waves in a cocurrent gas/liquid two-phase flow. The wave growth plays a key role in the transition from stratified-wavy to slug flow, which is an important phenomena in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the present study was the quick growth or decay of particular waves which were observed in experiments together with the general growth of waves with distance in the flow direction. Among the several wavelet functions tested in the present study, the Morlet wavelet and the Gabor function were found to have spectral and spatial resolutions suitable to the analysis of interfacial wave data taken by the authors. The analysis revealed that 1) the spectral components composing the interfacial waves are propagating at different phase velocities which agree to the theoretical velocities of deep-water waves, 2) the group velocity of the waves also agrees to the deep-water theory, and 3) the quick growth and decay of particular waves occur as a result of the superposition of spectral components with different phase velocities. (author)
Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Flow in the Cooling Channel of the PECS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R. J; Ha, K. S; Rhee, B. W; Kim, H. Y [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Decay heat and sensible heat of the relocated and spread corium are removed by the natural circulation flow at the bottom and side wall of the core catcher and the top water cooling of the corium. The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. As shown in Fig. 1, the engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting in the PECS. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is necessary that the coolant be sufficiently circulated along the inclined cooling channel to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. For this reason, a verification experiment on the cooling capability of the EU-APR1400 core catcher has been performed in the CE (Cooling Experiment)-PECS facility at KAERI. Preliminary simulations of two-phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS were performed to predict two-phase flow characteristics and to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel. In this study, simulations of two-phase natural circulation in a real core catcher of the PECS have been performed to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code.
Quasistatic analysis on configuration of two-phase flow in Y-shaped tubes
Zhong, Hua; Wang, Xiaoping; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2014-01-01
We investigate the two-phase flow in a horizontally placed Y-shaped tube with different Young's angle and width in each branch. By using a quasistatic approach, we can determine the specific contact position and the equilibrium contact angle
Modeling and numerical analysis of non-equilibrium two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rascle, P.; El Amine, K.
1997-01-01
We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English)
Numerical and dimensional analysis of nanoparticles transport with two-phase flow in porous media
El-Amin, Mohamed
2015-04-01
In this paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation are developed to describe the imbibition of nanoparticles-water suspension into two-phase flow in a porous medium. The flow system may be changed from oil-wet to water-wet due to nanoparticles (which are also water-wet) deposition on surface of the pores. So, the model is extended to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed-wet relative permeability correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Moreover, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion and mechanical dispersion are considered in the mathematical model. An example of countercurrent imbibition in a core of small scale is considered. A dimensional analysis of the governing equations is introduced to examine contributions of each term of the model. Several important dimensionless numbers appear in the dimensionless equations, such as Darcy number Da, capillary number Ca, and Bond number Bo. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles using numerical experiments.
Transient analysis of air-water two-phase flow in channels and bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.J.; Ye, W.; Pertmer, G.A.
1992-01-01
The algorithm used in this paper is the Newton Block Gauss Seidel method, which has been applied to both simple and complex flow conditions in two-phase flow. This paper contains a description of difference techniques and an iterative solution algorithm that is used to solve the field and constitutive equations of the two-fluid model. In practice, this solution procedure has been proven to be stable and capable of generating solutions in problems where other schemes have failed. The method converges rapidly for reasonable error tolerances and is easily extended to three-dimensional geometries. Using air-water as the two-phase medium, transient flow behavior in several geometries of interest are shown. Flow through a vertical channel with flow obstruction, large U bends, and 90-deg bends are being demonstrated with variation of inlet void fraction and slip ratio. Significant changes in the velocity and void distribution profiles have been observed. Various regions of flow recirculation are obtained in the flow domain for each phase. The phasic velocity and void distributions are dominated by gravity-induced phase separation causing air to accumulate in the upper region. The influence of inlet slip ratio and interfacial momentum transfer on the transient flow profile has been demonstrated in detail
Analysis of two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer in inclined channel of core-catcher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahara, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Abe, N.; Kurita, T.; Hamazaki, R.; Kojima, Y.
2008-01-01
Passive Corium Cooling System (CCS) provides a function of ex-vessel debris cooling and molten core stabilization during a severe accident. CCS features inclined cooling channels arranged axi-symmetrically below the core-catcher basin. In order to estimate the coolability of the inclined cooling channel, it is indispensable to identify the flow pattern of the two-phase flow in the cooling channel. Several former studies for the two-phase flow pattern in the inclined channel are referred. Taitel and Dukler (1976) developed a prediction method of the flow pattern transition in horizontal and near horizontal tubes. Barnea et al. (1980) showed the flow pattern map of upward flow with 10 degrees inclination. Sakaguti et al. (1996) observed the two-phase flow patterns in the horizontal pipe connected with slightly upward pipe, in which the flow pattern in the pipe with a bending part was expressed by the combination of a basic flow pattern and some auxiliary flow patterns. Then we investigated these studies In order to identify the flow patterns observed in the inclined cooling channel of CCS. Furthermore we experimentally observed the flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel with various inlet conditions. As a result of the investigation and observation, typical flow patterns in the inclined cooling channel were identified. Two typical flow patterns were observed depending on the steam flow rate, one of which is 'elongated bubble 'flow, and the other is 'churn with collapsing backward and upward slug 'flow The flow and heat transfer in the inclined channel of CCS is analyzed by using a two-phase analysis code employing two-fluid model in which the constitutive equations for the two-phase flow in inclined channels are incorporated. That is, drift flux parameter for each of the elongated bubble flow, and the churn with collapsing backward and upward slug flow are incorporated to the two-phase analysis code, which are based on the rising velocity of the long bubble in
Numerical analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flow in secondary side of steam generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murase, Michio; Nakamura, Akira; Yagi, Yoshinori [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)
2002-09-01
The steam generator (SG) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is an important two-phase flow component as the boundary between the primary loop and the secondary loop. In this study, we performed gas-liquid two-phase flow analyses for SG reliability tests conduced by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) using the two-fluid model of a thermal-hydraulic computer code PHOENICS. In order to calculate the location of the boiling initiation accurately, detailed inputs were required for the friction coefficients affecting the velocity distribution and the heat transfer distribution. However, the velocity and heat transfer distributions did not greatly affect the void fractions in the upper region of the heat transfer tubes. The calculated void fractions agreed with the measured values within 4% as the local average and within 2% as an average in a cross-section, except the region of low void fractions. (author)
Development of Sodium Two Phase Flow Model for Kalimer Core Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, W.P.; Hahn, Dohee
2002-01-01
An algorithm for sodium boiling is developed in order to extend the applicability of SSC-K, which is a main system analysis code for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) conceptual design. As the capability of the current SSC-K version is limited to simulation of only a single-phase sodium flow, its applicable range should not be enough to assess the fuel integrity under some of HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) initiating events where sodium boiling is anticipated. The two-phase flow model similar to that used for the light water system is known to be no more effective directly to liquid metal reactors, because the phenomena observed between two reactor coolant systems are definitely different. The developing algorithm is based on a multiple-bubble slug ejection model, which allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. The present work is a continuous effort following the former study to confirm a qualitative acceptance on the model. Since the model has been applied only to the active fuel region in the former study, a part of its qualification seems to have already been demonstrated. For its application to the whole KALIMER core channel, however, the model needs to be examined the applicability to the fuel regions other than the active fuel. The present study primarily focuses on that point. In a result, although the model may be improved in a sense through the present study over the previous modeling, a clear limitation is also confirmed with the validity of the model. The further development, therefore, is required for this model to achieve its goal by resolving such limitations. (authors)
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Analysis of the two-fluid model in fully-developed two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azpitarte, Osvaldo Enrique
2003-01-01
The two fluid model is analysed and applied to solve vertical fully-developed bubbly two-phase flows, both in laminar and turbulent conditions.The laminar model is reduced to two differential equations to solve the gas fraction (ε G ) and the velocity (υ L ).For the turbulent condition, a k - ε model for low Reynolds number is implemented, resulting in a set of differential equations to solve the four variables (ε G , υ L , k and ε) along the whole radial domain (including the laminar sub layer).For laminar condition, the system is initially reduced to a single non-dimensional ordinary equation (O D E) to solve ε G in the central region of the duct, without considering the effect of the wall.The equation is solved using Mathematic a.Analysing the solutions it can be concluded that an exact compensation of the applied pressure gradient with the hydrostatic force ρ e ff g occurs (ρ e ff : effective density of the mixture).This compensation implies that the value of ε G at the center of the duct only depends on the applied pressure gradient (dependency is linear), and that the ε G and υ L profiles are necessarily fl ato The complete problem is dealt numerically through the implementation of a finite element co deo The effect of the walls is included via a model of wall force.When the code is applied to a laminar condition, the conclusions previously obtained solving the O D E are confirmed.It is also possible to analyse the regime in which the pressure gradient is greater than the weight of the pure liquid, in which case a region of strictly zero void fraction develops surrounding the axis of the duct (in upward flow).When the code is applied to a turbulent condition, it is shown that the conclusions obtained for laminar condition can also be applied, but within a range of pressure gradient limited by two transition values (θ 1 and θ 2 ).An analysis of transitions θ 1 and θ 2 allows u s to conclude that their origin is a sudden increase of lateral
The effect of the virtual mass force term on the stability of transient two-phase flow analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tadashi; Hirano, Masashi; Tanabe, Fumiya
1989-08-01
The effect of the virtual mass force term on the stability of transient two-phase flow analysis is studied. The objective form of the virtual mass acceleration is used. The virtual mass coefficient is determined from the stability condition of basic equations against infinitesimal high wave-number perturbations. The parameter is chosen so that a reasonable agreement between the analytical and experimental sound speed in two-phase flows can be obtained. A one-dimensional sedimentation problem is simulated by the MINCS code which is a tool for transient two-phase flow analysis. The stability analysis is performed for the numerical procedure. It is shown that calculated results are stabilized so long as the virtual mass coefficient satisfies the stability condition of differential equations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Center], e-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br
2009-07-01
Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, R.N.; Libardi, R.M.P.; Masotti, P.H.F.; Sabundjian, G.; Andrade, D.A.; Umbehaun, P.E.; Torres, W.M.; Conti, T.N.; Macedo, L.A.
2009-01-01
Visualization of natural circulation test loop cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Experimental studies on natural circulation flow were originally related to accidents and transient simulations relative to nuclear reactor systems with light water refrigeration. In this regime, fluid circulation is mainly caused by a driving force ('thermal head') which arises from density differences due to temperature gradient. Natural circulation phenomenon has been important to provide residual heat removal in cases of 'loss of pump power' or plant shutdown in nuclear power plant accidents. The new generation of compact nuclear reactors includes natural circulation of their refrigerant fluid as a security mechanism in their projects. Two-phase flow patterns have been studied for many decades, and the related instabilities have been object of special attention recently. Experimental facility is an all glass-made cylindrical tubes loop which contains about twelve demineralized water liters, a heat source by an electrical resistor immersion heater controlled by a Variac, and a helicoidal heat exchanger working as cold source. Data is obtained through thermo-pairs distributed over the loop and CCD cameras. Artificial intelligence based algorithms are used to improve (bubble) border detection and patterns recognition, in order to estimate and characterize, phase transitions patterns and correlate them with the periodic static instability (chugging) cycle observed in this circuit. Most of initial results show good agreement with previous numerical studies in this same facility. (author)
Analysis of heat and mass transfers in two-phase flow by coupling optical diagnostic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E.
2008-01-01
During the course of a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant, spraying might be actuated to reduce static pressure in the containment. To acquire a better understanding of the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the surrounding confined gas, non-intrusive optical measurements have to be carried out simultaneously on both phases. The coupling of global rainbow refractometry with out-of-focus imaging and spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy allows us to calculate the local Spalding parameter B M , which is useful in describing heat transfer associated with two-phase flow. (orig.)
Analysis of heat and mass transfers in two-phase flow by coupling optical diagnostic techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Saclay (France)
2008-08-15
During the course of a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant, spraying might be actuated to reduce static pressure in the containment. To acquire a better understanding of the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the surrounding confined gas, non-intrusive optical measurements have to be carried out simultaneously on both phases. The coupling of global rainbow refractometry with out-of-focus imaging and spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy allows us to calculate the local Spalding parameter B{sub M}, which is useful in describing heat transfer associated with two-phase flow. (orig.)
Two-Phase Flow in Pipes: Numerical Improvements and Qualitative Analysis for a Refining Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teixeira R.G.D.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Two-phase flow in pipes occurs frequently in refineries, oil and gas production facilities and petrochemical units. The accurate design of such processing plants requires that numerical algorithms be combined with suitable models for predicting expected pressure drops. In performing such calculations, pressure gradients may be obtained from empirical correlations such as Beggs and Brill, and they must be integrated over the total length of the pipe segment, simultaneously with the enthalpy-gradient equation when the temperature profile is unknown. This paper proposes that the set of differential and algebraic equations involved should be solved as a Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE System, which poses a more CPU-efficient alternative to the “marching algorithm” employed by most related work. Demonstrating the use of specific regularization functions in preventing convergence failure in calculations due to discontinuities inherent to such empirical correlations is also a key feature of this study. The developed numerical techniques are then employed to examine the sensitivity to heat-transfer parameters of the results obtained for a typical refinery two-phase flow design problem.
Quasistatic analysis on configuration of two-phase flow in Y-shaped tubes
Zhong, Hua
2014-12-01
We investigate the two-phase flow in a horizontally placed Y-shaped tube with different Young\\'s angle and width in each branch. By using a quasistatic approach, we can determine the specific contact position and the equilibrium contact angle of fluid in each branch based on the minimization problem of the free energy of the system. The wettability condition and the width of the two branches play important roles in the distribution of fluid in each branch. We also consider the effect of gravity. Some fluid in the upper branch will be pulled down due to the competition of the surface energy and the gravitational energy. The result provides some insights on the theory of two-phase flow in porous media. In particular, it highlights that the inhomogeneous wettability distribution affects the direction of the fluid penetrating a given porous medium domain. It also sheds light on the current debate whether relative permeability may be considered as a full tensor rather than a scalar.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stekelenburg, A.J.C.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der
1996-01-01
In this paper, the state of the art of the measurement of two-phase flow variables in a boiling water reactor (BWR) by analysis of in-core neutron detector noise signals is given. It is concluded that the neutronic processes involved in neutron noise are quite well understood, but that little is known about the density fluctuations in two-phase flow which are the main cause of the neutron noise. For this reason, the neutron noise measurements, like the well known two-detector velocity measurements, are still difficult to interpret. By analyzing neutron noise measurements in a natural circulation cooled BWR, it is illustrated that, once a theory on the density fluctuations is developed, two-phase flow can be monitored with a single in-core detector. (author). 70 refs, 4 figs
Analysis of turbulence spectra in gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Besnard, D.C.; Serizawa, Akimi.
1993-01-01
An analysis was made on the turbulence spectra in bubbly flow. Basic equation for turbulence spectrum in bubbly flow was formulated considering the eddy disintegration induced by bubble. Based on the dimensional analysis and modeling of eddy disintegration by bubble, constitutive equations for eddy disintegration were derived. Using these equations, turbulence spectra in bubbly flow (showing -8/3 power) was successfully explained. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebihara, Ken-ichi
2005-03-01
Two-phase flow is one of the important phenomena in nuclear reactors and heat exchangers at nuclear plants. It is desired for the optimum design and safe operation of such equipment to understand and predict the two-phase flow phenomenon by numerical analysis. In the present, the two-fluid model is widely used for the numerical analysis of two-phase flow. The numerical analysis method using the two-fluid model solves macroscopic hydrodynamic equations, in which fluid is regarded as continuum, with the boundary conditions at the wall, the inlet and outlet, and the interface between two phases. Since the interfacial and the wall boundary conditions utilized by this method are given as the model, such as the flow regime map and correlation, which is usually constructed on the basis of experimental results, the accuracy of the two-phase flow analysis using the two-fluid model depends on that of the utilized model or the experiment result for modeling. Tremendous progress of the computer performance and the development of new computational methods make the numerical simulation of two-phase flow with the interfacial motion possible in resent years. In such circumstances, the lattice-gas method and the lattice Boltzmann method, which represent fluid by many particles or the particle distribution function on the spatial lattice, was proposed in 1990s and these methods are applied to the numerical simulation of two-phase flow. The main feature of the two-phase fluid model of those methods is the capability of the simulation of two-phase flow without the procedure for tracking the interfacial position and shape owing to the inlet-particle potential generating the interface. Therefore it is expected that the lattice-gas method and the lattice Boltzmann method possess the predictability of the experiment by the numerical analysis of two-phase flow as well as the possibility of giving the substitute of the flow regime map and the correlation used by the two-fluid model. In this
Analysis of gas-liquid metal two-phase flows using a reactor safety analysis code SIMMER-III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Kondo, Satoru; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro
2003-01-01
SIMMER-III, a safety analysis code for liquid-metal fast reactors (LMFRs), includes a momentum exchange model based on conventional correlations for ordinary gas-liquid flows, such as an air-water system. From the viewpoint of safety evaluation of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) in LMFRs, we need to confirm that the code can predict the two-phase flow behaviors with high liquid-to-gas density ratios formed during a CDA. In the present study, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III was assessed and improved using experimental data of two-phase flows containing liquid metal, on which fundamental information, such as bubble shapes, void fractions and velocity fields, has been lacking. It was found that the original SIMMER-III can suitably represent high liquid-to-gas density ratio flows including ellipsoidal bubbles as seen in lower gas fluxes. In addition, the employment of Kataoka-Ishii's correlation has improved the accuracy of SIMMER-III for gas-liquid metal flows with cap-shape bubbles as identified in higher gas fluxes. Moreover, a new procedure, in which an appropriate drag coefficient can be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. Through this work, the reliability and the precision of SIMMER-III have been much raised with regard to bubbly flows for various liquid-to-gas density ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.; Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London
1989-01-01
A survey is presented of counter-current flow with particular reference to the limits of the regime, namely the 'flooding' phenomena. Emphasis is also given to the transiently counter-current type of flow ('churn flow') which is formed on the break-down of falling film counter-current flow. The mechanisms of flooding are reviewed and flooding in systems with heat transfer and in non-vertical channels is discussed. New data on the flooding phenomena and the region of simultaneous downflow and upflow beyond flooding are presented. The onset of churn flow is discussed and new measurements on churn flow are presented. The characteristics of the churn flow regime are shown to be independent of the coexistence of a falling film region below the liquid injection point. (orig.)
An investigation of subchannel analysis models for single-phase and two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Dae Hyun
1996-01-01
The governing equations and lateral transport modelings of subchannel analysis code, which is the most widely used tool for the analysis of thermal hydraulics fields in reactor cores, have been thoroughly investigated in this study. The procedure for the derivation of subchannel integral balance equations from the local instantaneous phase equations was investigated by stages. The characteristics of governing equations according to the treatment of phase velocity were studies, and the equations based on the drift-flux equilibrium formulation have been derived. Turbulent mixing and void drift modeling, which affect considerably to the accuracy of subchannel analysis code, have been reviewed. In addition, some representative modelings of single-phase and two-phase turbulent mixing models have been introduced. (author). 5 tabs., 4 figs., 16 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ninokata, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Deguchi, A. [ENO Mathematical Analysis, Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, A. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)
1995-09-01
A new void drift model for the subchannel analysis method is presented for the thermohydraulics calculation of two-phase flows in rod bundles where the flow model uses a two-fluid formulation for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A void drift model is constructed based on the experimental data obtained in a geometrically simple inter-connected two circular channel test sections using air-water as working fluids. The void drift force is assumed to be an origin of void drift velocity components of the two-phase cross-flow in a gap area between two adjacent rods and to overcome the momentum exchanges at the phase interface and wall-fluid interface. This void drift force is implemented in the cross flow momentum equations. Computational results have been successfully compared to experimental data available including 3x3 rod bundle data.
Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De
2016-01-01
Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows. PMID:27306101
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Novotný
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experiments with moist wet steam. The aim of the experiment was to measure the velocity of the growth of a condensing nucleus in wet steam dependent on the velocity of condensation. For the experiments in wet steam an experimental setup was designed and constructed, which generated superheated steam at lowered pressure and a temperature of 50 °C. Low pressure and temperature of the hot vapour was chosen in order to minimize the risk of accidental disruption of the wall. The size of the condensing nucleus was measured by the method of Interferometric Particle Imaging (IPI. The IPI method is a technique for determining the particle size of transparent and spherical particles based on calculating the fringes captured on a CCD array. The number of fringes depends on the particle size and on the optical configuration. The experimental setup used is identical with the setup for measuring flow by the stereo PIV method. The only difference is the use of a special camera mount comprising a transparent mirror and enabling both cameras to be focused to one point. We present the results of the development of the growth of a condensing nucleus and histograms of the sizes of all measured particles depending on position and condensation velocity.
Two-phase flow models in unbounded two-phase critical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celata, G.P.; Cumo, M.; Farello, G.E.
1985-01-01
With reference to a Loss-of-Coolant Accident in Light Water Reactors, an analysis of the unbounded two-phase critical flow (i.e. the issuing two-phase jet) has been accomplished. Considering jets external shape, obtained by means of photographic pictures; pressure profiles inside the jet, obtained by means of a movable ''Pitot;'' and jet phases distribution information, obtained by means of X-rays pictures; a characterization of the flow pattern in the unbounded region of a two-phase critical flow is given. Jets X-ray pictures show the existence of a central high density ''core'' gradually evaporating all around, which gives place to a characteristic ''dartflow'' the length of which depends on stagnation thermodynamic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seleghim, Paulo
1996-01-01
This work concerns the development of a methodology which objective is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. In a first time, the efforts focused on: 1) the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way, 2) the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe, the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the un-stationary degree. In a second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, which objective was to demonstrate the correlation between un-stationary and regime transition. The un-stationary degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local-time frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (author) [fr
Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems
Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue
2013-01-01
Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b
System identification on two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Shaorong; Zhang Youjie; Wang Dazhong; Bo Jinghai; Wang Fei
1996-01-01
The theoretical principle, experimental method and results of interrelation analysis identification for the instability of two-phase flow are described. A completely new concept of test technology and method on two-phase flow stability was developed by using he theory of information science on system stability and system identification for two-phase flow stability in thermo-physics field. Application of this method would make it possible to identify instability boundary of two-phase flow under stable operation conditions of two-phase flow system. The experiment was carried out on the thermohydraulic test system HRTL-5. Using reverse repeated pseudo-random sequences of heating power as input signal sources and flow rate as response function in the test, the two-phase flow stability and stability margin of the natural circulation system are investigated. The effectiveness and feasibility of identifying two-phase flow stability by using this system identification method were experimentally demonstrated. Basic data required for mathematics modeling of two-phase flow and analysis of two-phase flow stability were obtained, which are useful for analyzing, monitoring of the system operation condition, and forecasting of two-phase flow stability in engineering system
On some issues of the modeling and analysis of two phase flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ndjinga, M.
2007-04-01
Two-fluid and multi-field models are commonly used in the modeling and numerical simulation of two phase flows. They however present several mathematical and numerical difficulties, such as their lack of hyperbolicity or their non trivial Eigen-structure. It is important to understand the well-posedness of such possibly non hyperbolic systems before solving them numerically. For this reason, we study the solutions of systems of first order partial differential equations having a possibly complex Eigen-structure. We then characterise the hyperbolicity of the six equations two-fluid model with interfacial forces having differential expressions such as the interfacial pressure term, virtual mass and lift forces. The study of the characteristic polynomial leads to a diagram representing the location and topology of the non hyperbolic regions. We eventually propose numerous closure laws that make the two-fluid and multi-field models unconditionally hyperbolic. In order to numerically solve the two-fluid and multi-field models equations in a finite volume approach using a Roe type scheme, we propose two new algorithms designed for an efficient computation of the matrix absolute value function. These algorithms are robust as they avoid the computation of the eigenvectors of the argument matrix. The first is based on an iterative approach and converges in a finite number of steps if the eigenvalues are real. The second is faster, and besides can handle the case of complex eigenvalues. Thanks to these new algorithms, it is now possible to solve efficiently the six equations two-fluid model with differential interfacial terms, or the multi-field model with an arbitrary number of fields. We finally show the results of some recent numerical simulations of the six equations two-fluid model and the multi-field model with interfacial forces having a differential expression. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.C. da; Silva, D.E. da
1981-01-01
The linear momentum and energy equation of the Relap 4/Mod 5 computer code were modified, permiting us to take in account the effects of slip between the phases of two phase flow. The modified computer code were used for the simulation of loss of coolant accident in Angra 1 power plant. The comparison of the results obtained by the modified version with experimental results show that the new model are more realistic. (E.G.) [pt
Two-phased flow component loss data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairhurst, C.P.
1983-01-01
Pressure loss measurements were made for valves and orifice plates under horizontal and vertical two-phase, air/water flow. The results displayed similar trends and were successfully correlated using a semi-empirical approach. (author)
Tan, Chao; Zhao, Jia; Dong, Feng
2015-03-01
Flow behavior characterization is important to understand gas-liquid two-phase flow mechanics and further establish its description model. An Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) provides information regarding flow conditions at different directions where the sensing electrodes implemented. We extracted the multivariate sample entropy (MSampEn) by treating ERT data as a multivariate time series. The dynamic experimental results indicate that the MSampEn is sensitive to complexity change of flow patterns including bubbly flow, stratified flow, plug flow and slug flow. MSampEn can characterize the flow behavior at different direction of two-phase flow, and reveal the transition between flow patterns when flow velocity changes. The proposed method is effective to analyze two-phase flow pattern transition by incorporating information of different scales and different spatial directions. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Computational issues in the analysis of nonlinear two-phase flow dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosa, Mauricio A. Pinheiro [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados. Div. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: pinheiro@ieav.cta.br; Podowski, Michael Z. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, NY (United States)
2001-07-01
This paper is concerned with the issue of computer simulations of flow-induced instabilities in boiling channels and systems. A computational model is presented for the time-domain analysis of nonlinear oscillations in interconnected parallel boiling channels. The results of model testing and validation are shown. One of the main concerns here has been to show the importance in performing numerical testing regarding the selection of a proper numerical integration method and associated nodalization and time step as well as to demonstrate the convergence of the numerical solution prior to any analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leavell, W.H.; Mullens, J.A.
1981-01-01
A computational algorithm has been developed to measure transient, phase-interface velocity in two-phase, steam-water systems. The algorithm will be used to measure the transient velocity of steam-water mixture during simulated PWR reflood experiments. By utilizing signals produced by two, spatially separated impedance probes immersed in a two-phase mixture, the algorithm computes the average transit time of mixture fluctuations moving between the two probes. This transit time is computed by first, measuring the phase shift between the two probe signals after transformation to the frequency domain and then computing the phase shift slope by a weighted least-squares fitting technique. Our algorithm, which has been tested with both simulated and real data, is able to accurately track velocity transients as fast as 4 m/s/s
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcel, C.P.
2002-01-01
channel. It was noticed that the CHF phenomena generally starts in cells located at the boundary.The fact that the phenomena can be well described by using simple rules shows that the related physics and even the physics with stochastic characteristics, has been captured with t his simple model. Some fractal properties of automata were also studied, arriving at the conclusion that the internal dynamics present fractal characteristics.Findings hint towards a new approach to solve open issues.Finally, a calculus related to the Australian reactor designed by INVAP was performed.The problem consists of a simulation of helium bubble production by the mechanism of mass diffusion in heavy water.It was verified that cellular automata systems are a powerful tool for describing problems with high complexity and short reach interactions between components.It was proved that two-phase flows could be described very well with this model.The approach is a powerful tool to describe non-equilibrium features, such as boiling flow development and interfacial topological transitions.A novel computer model of boiling crisis was encountered following this type of analysis.By means of this research, without invalidating the important advances obtained in other directions, a new tool is offered which can be useful regarding the modeling of boiling heat transfer systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delhaye, J M; Jones, Jr, O C
1976-06-01
Much work has been done in the study of two-phase gas-liquid flows. Although it has been recognized superficially that such flows are not homogeneous in general, little attention has been paid to the inherent discreteness of the two-phase systems. Only relatively recently have fluctuating characteristics of two-phase flows been studied in detail. As a result, new experimental devices and techniques have been developed for use in measuring quantities previously ignored. This report reviews and summarizes most of these methods in an effort to emphasize the importance of the fluctuating nature of these flows and as a guide to further research in this field.
Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow
Sheppard, John D.; Tong, Long S.
1977-03-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.
Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.
1977-01-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods. 3 claims, 9 figures
A renormalization group scaling analysis for compressible two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.; Deng, Y.; Glimm, J.; Li, G.; Zhang, Q.; Sharp, D.H.
1993-01-01
Computational solutions to the Rayleigh--Taylor fluid mixing problem, as modeled by the two-fluid two-dimensional Euler equations, are presented. Data from these solutions are analyzed from the point of view of Reynolds averaged equations, using scaling laws derived from a renormalization group analysis. The computations, carried out with the front tracking method on an Intel iPSC/860, are highly resolved and statistical convergence of ensemble averages is achieved. The computations are consistent with the experimentally observed growth rates for nearly incompressible flows. The dynamics of the interior portion of the mixing zone is simplified by the use of scaling variables. The size of the mixing zone suggests fixed-point behavior. The profile of statistical quantities within the mixing zone exhibit self-similarity under fixed-point scaling to a limited degree. The effect of compressibility is also examined. It is found that, for even moderate compressibility, the growth rates fail to satisfy universal scaling, and moreover, increase significantly with increasing compressibility. The growth rates predicted from a renormalization group fixed-point model are in a reasonable agreement with the results of the exact numerical simulations, even for flows outside of the incompressible limit
Numerical Thermodynamic Analysis of Two-Phase Solid-Liquid Abrasive Flow Polishing in U-Type Tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junye Li
2014-08-01
Full Text Available U-type tubes are widely used in military and civilian fields and the quality of the internal surface of their channel often determines the merits and performance of a machine in which they are incorporated. Abrasive flow polishing is an effective method for improving the channel surface quality of a U-type tube. Using the results of a numerical analysis of the thermodynamic energy balance equation of a two-phase solid-liquid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of the heat transfer and surface processing characteristics of a two-phase solid-liquid abrasive flow polishing of a U-type tube. The distribution cloud of the changes in the inlet turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, and dynamic pressure near the wall of the tube were obtained. The relationships between the temperature and the turbulent kinetic energy, between the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity, and between the temperature and the processing velocity were also determined to develop a theoretical basis for controlling the quality of abrasive flow polishing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessho, Y.; Uchikawa, S.
1985-01-01
A subchannel analysis program, MENUETT, is developed for evaluation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiling water reactor fuel bundles. This program is based on five conservation equations of two-phase flow with the drift-flux correlation. The cross flows are calculated separately for liquid and vapor phases from the lateral momentum conservation equation. The effects of turbulent mixing and void drift are accounted for in the program. The conservation equations are implicitly differentiated with the convective terms by the donor-cell method, and are solved iteratively in the axial and lateral directions. Data of the 3 X 3 rod bundle experiments are used for program verification. The lateral distributions of equilibrium quality and mass flow rate at the bundle exit calculated by the program compare satisfactorily with the experimental results
Two-phase flow in fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P.; Long, J.; Zuidema, P.
1993-11-01
This report gives the results of a three-day workshop on two-phase flow in fractured rock. The workshop focused on two-phase flow processes that are important in geologic disposal of nuclear waste as experienced in a variety of repository settings. The goals and objectives of the workshop were threefold: exchange information; describe the current state of understanding; and identify research needs. The participants were divided into four subgroups. Each group was asked to address a series of two-phase flow processes. The following groups were defined to address these processes: basic flow processes; fracture/matrix interactions; complex flow processes; and coupled processes. For each process, the groups were asked to address these four issues: (1) describe the two-phase flow processes that are important with respect to repository performance; (2) describe how this process relates to the specific driving programmatic issues given above for nuclear waste storage; (3) evaluate the state of understanding for these processes; and (4) suggest additional research to address poorly understood processes relevant to repository performance. The reports from each of the four working groups are given here
Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Regime Maps for Development of Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Doo; Kim, Byoung Jae; Lee, Seong Wook
2010-04-01
This reports is a literature survey on models and correlations for determining flow pattern that are used to simulate thermal-hydraulics in nuclear reactors. Determination of flow patterns are a basis for obtaining physical values of wall/interfacial friction, wall/interfacial heat transfer, and droplet entrainment/de-entrainment. Not only existing system codes, such as RELAP5-3D, TRAC-M, MARS, TRACE, CATHARE) but also up-to-date researches were reviewed to find models and correlations
Nonlinear dynamics of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizwan-uddin
1986-01-01
Unstable flow conditions can occur in a wide variety of laboratory and industry equipment that involve two-phase flow. Instabilities in industrial equipment, which include boiling water reactor (BWR) cores, steam generators, heated channels, cryogenic fluid heaters, heat exchangers, etc., are related to their nonlinear dynamics. These instabilities can be of static (Ledinegg instability) or dynamic (density wave oscillations) type. Determination of regions in parameters space where these instabilities can occur and knowledge of system dynamics in or near these regions is essential for the safe operation of such equipment. Many two-phase flow engineering components can be modeled as heated channels. The set of partial differential equations that describes the dynamics of single- and two-phase flow, for the special case of uniform heat flux along the length of the channel, can be reduced to a set of two coupled ordinary differential equations [in inlet velocity v/sub i/(t) and two-phase residence time tau(t)] involving history integrals: a nonlinear ordinary functional differential equation and an integral equation. Hence, to solve these equations, the dependent variables must be specified for -(nu + tau) ≤ t ≤ 0, where nu is the single-phase residence time. This system of nonlinear equations has been solved analytically using asymptotic expansion series for finite but small perturbations and numerically using finite difference techniques
An analysis of the flow stress of a two-phase alloy system, Ti-6Al-4V
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reed-Hill, R.E.; Iswaran, C.V.; Kaufman, M.J.
1996-01-01
An analysis of the tensile deformation behavior of a two-phase body-centered cubic (bcc)-hexagonal close-packed (hcp) alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been made. This has shown that the temperature dependence of the flow stress, the logarithm of the effective stress, and the strain-rate sensitivities can be described by simple analytical equations if the thermally activated strain-rate equation contains the Yokobori activation enthalpy H = H 0 ln (σ* 0 /σ*), where H 0 is a constant, σ* the effective stress, and σ* 0 its 0 K value. The flow stress-temperature plateau region (500 to 600 K) also can be rationalized analytically in terms of oxygen dynamic strain aging in the alpha phase
Flooding and flow reversal of two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asahi, Y.
1978-01-01
The flooding and flow reversal conditions of two-phase annular flow are mathematically defined in terms of a characteristic function representing a force balance. Sufficiently below the flooding point in counter-current flow, the interface is smooth and the characteristic equation reduces to the Nusselt relationship. Just below flooding point and above the flow reversal point in cocurrent flow, the interface is 'wavy', so that the interfacial shear effect plays an important role. The theoretical analysis is compared with experimental results by others. It is suggested that the various length effects which have been experimentally observed may be accounted for by the spatial variation of the droplet entrainment. (Auth.)
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Zhai, Lu-Sheng; Dang, Wei-Dong; Yu, Jia-Liang; Jin, Ning-De
2016-02-02
High water cut and low velocity vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow is a typical complex system with the features of multiscale, unstable and non-homogenous. We first measure local flow information by using distributed conductance sensor and then develop a multivariate multiscale complex network (MMCN) to reveal the dispersed oil-in-water local flow behavior. Specifically, we infer complex networks at different scales from multi-channel measurements for three typical vertical oil-in-water flow patterns. Then we characterize the generated multiscale complex networks in terms of network clustering measure. The results suggest that the clustering coefficient entropy from the MMCN not only allows indicating the oil-in-water flow pattern transition but also enables to probe the dynamical flow behavior governing the transitions of vertical oil-water two-phase flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, Richard T.; Drew, Donald A.
2001-01-01
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the prediction of multidimensional multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena using a four field, two-fluid model. It is shown that accurate mechanistic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions are possible for a wide variety of adiabatic and diabatic flows using this computational model. In particular, the model is able to predict the bubbly air/water upflow data of Serizawa (Serizawa, A., 1974. Fluid dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow. Ph.D. thesis, (Nuclear Engineering), Kyoto University, Japan), the downflow data of Wang et al. (Wang, S.K., Lee, S.J., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1987. 3-D turbulence structure and phase distribution measurements in bubbly two-phase flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 13 (3), 327-343), the isosceles triangle upflow data of Lopez de Bertodano et al. (Lopez de Bertodano, M., Lahey Jr., R.T., Jones, O.C., 1994b. Phase distribution in bubbly two-phase flow in vertical ducts. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 20 (5), 805-818), the heated annular R-113 subcooled boiling data of Velidandala, et al. (Velidandla, V., Pulta, S., Roy, P., Kaira, S.P., 1995. Velocity field in turbulent subcooled boiling flow. ASME Preprint HTD-314, 107-123) and the R-113 CHF data of Hino and Ueda (Hino, R., Ueda, T., 1985. Studies on heat transfer and flow characteristics in subcooled boiling-part 2, flow characteristics. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 11, 283-297). It can also predict external two-phase flows, such as those for spreading two-phase jets (Bonetto, F., Lahey Jr., R.T., 1993. An experimental study on air carryunder due to a plunging liquid jet. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 19 (2), 281-294) and multiphase flows around the hull of naval surface ships (Carrica, P.M., Bonetto, F., Drew, D.A., Lahey, R.T., 1999. A polydispersed model for bubbly two-phase flow around a surface ship. Int. J. Multiphase Flow 25 (2), 257-305)
Modeling of two-phase slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre, J.; Line, A.
1992-01-01
When gas and liquid flow in a pipe, over a range of flow rates, a flow pattern results in which sequences of long bubbles, almost filling the pipe cross section, are successively followed by liquid slugs that may contain small bubbles. This flow pattern, usually called slug flow, is encountered in numerous practical situations, such as in the production of hydrocarbons in wells and their transportation in pipelines; the production of steam and water in geothermal power plants; the boiling and condensation in liquid-vapor systems of thermal power plants; emergency core cooling of nuclear reactors; heat and mass transfer between gas and liquid in chemical reactors. This paper provides a review of two phase slug flow modeling
An introduction to two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, Herve
2006-01-01
This course aims at proposing the necessary background for a rational approach to two-phase flows which are notably present in numerous industrial devices and equipment designed to perform energy transfer or mass transfer. The first part proposes a phenomenological approach to main two-phase flow structures and presents their governing variables. The second part presents some proven measurement techniques. The third part focuses on modelling. It recalls the equation elaboration techniques which are based on basic principles of mechanics and thermodynamics and on the application of different averaging operators to these principles. Some useful models are then presented such as models of pressure loss in a duct. The last chapter addresses some fundamental elements of heat transfers in ebullition and condensation
Geometrical automata for two phase flow simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, V.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Clausse, A.
1996-01-01
An automaton is an entity defined by a mathematical state which changes following iterative rules representing the interaction with the neighborhood. A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation consisting in a field of disks which are allowed to change their radii and move in a plane is presented. The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: (1) the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator; and (2) the rules of interaction involve parameters intended to represent some of the most relevant variables governing the actual physical interactions between phases. Computational experiments show that the algorithm captures the essential physics underlying two-phase flow problems such as bubbly-slug pattern transition and void fraction development along tubes. A comparison with experimental data of void fraction profiles is presented, showing excellent agreement. (orig.)
Modelling aspects of two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayinger, F.
1977-01-01
In two phase flow scaling is much more limited to very narrowly defined physical phenomena than in single phase fluids. For complex and combined phenomena it can be achieved not by using dimensionless numbers alone but in addition a detailed mathematical description of the physical problem - usually in the form of a computer program - must be available. An important role plays the scaling of the thermodynamic data of the modelling fluid. From a literature survey and from own scaling experiments the conclusion can be drawn that Freon is a quite suitable modelling fluid for scaling steam-water mixtures. However, whithout a theoretical description of the phenomena nondimensional numbers for scaling two phase flow must be handled very carefully. (orig.) [de
Numerical calculation of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, J.R.; Harlow, F.H.; Amsden, A.A.
1975-06-01
The theoretical study of time-varying two-phase flow problems in several space dimensions introduces such a complicated set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations that numerical solution procedures for high-speed computers are required in almost all but the simplest examples. Efficient attainment of realistic solutions for practical problems requires a finite- difference formulation that is simultaneously implicit in the treatment of mass convection, equations of state, and the momentum coupling between phases. Such a method is described, the equations on which it is based are discussed, and its properties are illustrated by means of examples. In particular, the capability for calculating physical instabilities and other time-varying dynamics, at the same time avoiding numerical instability is emphasized. The computer code is applicable to problems in reactor safety analysis, the dynamics of fluidized dust beds, raindrops or aerosol transport, and a variety of similar circumstances, including the effects of phase transitions and the release of latent heat or chemical energy. (U.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussain Alamin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.
Hussain, Alamin; Fsadni, Andrew M.
2016-03-01
Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.
The Finite Element Analysis for a Mini-Conductance Probe in Horizontal Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weihang Kong
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Oil-water two-phase flow is widespread in petroleum industry processes. The study of oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipes and the liquid holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow are of great importance for the optimization of the oil production process. This paper presents a novel sensor, i.e., a mini-conductance probe (MCP for measuring pure-water phase conductivity of oil-water segregated flow in horizontal pipes. The MCP solves the difficult problem of obtaining the pure-water correction for water holdup measurements by using a ring-shaped conductivity water-cut meter (RSCWCM. Firstly, using the finite element method (FEM, the spatial sensitivity field of the MCP is investigated and the optimized MCP geometry structure is determined in terms of the characteristic parameters. Then, the responses of the MCP for the oil-water segregated flow are calculated, and it is found that the MCP has better stability and sensitivity to the variation of water-layer thickness in the condition of high water holdup and low flow velocity. Finally, the static experiments for the oil-water segregated flow were carried out and a novel calibration method for pure-water phase conductivity measurements was presented. The validity of the pure-water phase conductivity measurement with segregated flow in horizontal pipes was verified by experimental results.
The Finite Element Analysis for a Mini-Conductance Probe in Horizontal Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow.
Kong, Weihang; Kong, Lingfu; Li, Lei; Liu, Xingbin; Xie, Ronghua; Li, Jun; Tang, Haitao
2016-08-24
Oil-water two-phase flow is widespread in petroleum industry processes. The study of oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipes and the liquid holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow are of great importance for the optimization of the oil production process. This paper presents a novel sensor, i.e., a mini-conductance probe (MCP) for measuring pure-water phase conductivity of oil-water segregated flow in horizontal pipes. The MCP solves the difficult problem of obtaining the pure-water correction for water holdup measurements by using a ring-shaped conductivity water-cut meter (RSCWCM). Firstly, using the finite element method (FEM), the spatial sensitivity field of the MCP is investigated and the optimized MCP geometry structure is determined in terms of the characteristic parameters. Then, the responses of the MCP for the oil-water segregated flow are calculated, and it is found that the MCP has better stability and sensitivity to the variation of water-layer thickness in the condition of high water holdup and low flow velocity. Finally, the static experiments for the oil-water segregated flow were carried out and a novel calibration method for pure-water phase conductivity measurements was presented. The validity of the pure-water phase conductivity measurement with segregated flow in horizontal pipes was verified by experimental results.
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.
2014-06-03
This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.
Coupling Two-Phase Fluid Flow with Two-Phase Darcy Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Chen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow.
Refrigeration. Two-Phase Flow. Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard
2002-01-01
The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature.......The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, J.P.; Houze, R.N.; Buenger, D.E.; Theofanous, T.G.
1981-01-01
Hot film Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry have been employed in this work to study the turbulence characteristics of Bubbly and Stratified two-phase flows, respectively. Extensive consistency checks were made to establish the reliability and hence the utility of these experimental techniques for the measurement of turbulence in two-phase flows. Buoyancy-driven turbulence in vertical bubbly flows has been identified experimentally and correlated in terms of a shear velocity superposition approach. This approach provides a criterion for the demarcation of the buoyancy-driven turbulence region from the wall shear-generated turbulence region. Our data confirm the roughly isotropic behavior expected for buoyancy-driven turbulence. Upgrading of our experimental system will permit investigations of the wall-shear dominated regime (i.e., isotropy, superposition approach, etc.). The stratified flow data demonstrate clearly that the maximum in the mean velocity profile does not coincide with the zero shear plane, indicating the existence of a negative eddy viscosity region. Previous studies do not take into account this difference and thus they yield incorrect friction factor data in addition to certain puzzling behavior in the upper wall region. The conditioned turbulence data in the wavy region indicate interesting trends and that an appropriate normalization of intensities must take into account the shear velocity at the interfacial (wavy) region
Analysis of the test results for the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, S. K.; Chung, C. H.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.
2002-07-01
The two-phase critical flow test was performed for simulating the pipe break accident of SMART reactor. The requirements of the critical flow test are 7∼20mm pipe break dia., 7∼12MPa stagnation pressure, 0∼60 .deg. C subcooling degree and 0∼0.5kg/s N 2 gas flow rate. The test section is sharp edged pipe type which has the dimension of I.D.=20, L=300mm and I.D.=10.9, L=1000mm. The test conditions are 4, 7, 10 MPa at stagnation pressure, 0, 20, 50 .deg. C of subcooling degree and 0.028∼0.39 kg/s of N 2 injection gas flowrate. The measured data at test section and other components in terms of pressure, temperature and flowrate were collected in DAS computer with maintaining the steady state conditions at least 60 seconds. From the test results, the critical characteristics of the break pipe were analysed and verified the capacity of the test facility. For the verification of the Modified Henry-Fauske model which can predict the two-phase critical flow with non-condensible gas, the code simulation using MARS which contains the option of the Modified Henry -Fauske model was performed. The simulation results of steady-state two-phase critical flow experiments show that they agree with the measured critical flow rates within 6% root-mean-square error
Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.
Study of nonequilibrium dispersed two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1986-01-01
Understanding the behavior of liquid droplets in a superheated steam environment is essential to the accurate prediction of nuclear fuel rod surface temperatures during the blowdown and reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). In response to this need, this treatise presents several original and significant contributions to the field of thermofluid physics. The research contained herein presents a statistical derivation of the two-phase mass, momentum, and energy-conservation equations using a droplet continuity equation analogous to that used in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time-averaged conservation equations generally used to describe dispersed two-phase flow behavior, this statistical averaging approach results in an additional mass momentum or energy term in each of the respective conservation equations. Further, this study demonstrates that current definitions of the volumetric vapor generation rate used in the mass conservation equation are inappropriate results under certain circumstances. The mass conservation equation derived herein is used to obtain a new definition for the volumetric vapor-generation rate. Last, a simple two phase phenomenological model, based on the statistically averaged conservation equations, is presented and solved analytically. It is shown that the actual quality and vapor temperature, under these circumstances, depend on a single dimensionless group
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
We analyze a combined method consisting of the mixed finite element method for pressure equation and the discontinuous Galerkin method for saturation equation for the coupled system of incompressible two-phase flow in porous media. The existence and uniqueness of numerical solutions are established under proper conditions by using a constructive approach. Optimal error estimates in L2(H1) for saturation and in L∞(H(div)) for velocity are derived. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kou, Jisheng
2013-06-20
We analyze a combined method consisting of the mixed finite element method for pressure equation and the discontinuous Galerkin method for saturation equation for the coupled system of incompressible two-phase flow in porous media. The existence and uniqueness of numerical solutions are established under proper conditions by using a constructive approach. Optimal error estimates in L2(H1) for saturation and in L∞(H(div)) for velocity are derived. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadioglu, Samet Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-08-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
Determination and analysis of a non-permanent two phase flow in a non-saturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giorgetti, M.F.; Popi, O.
1982-01-01
The water two-phase flow were determined in a soil from Sao Carlos region and in a quartzose sand with uniform granulometry. The humidity measures were done by the gamma attenuation technique. The diffusion and conduction coefficient were determined by the Bruce and Klute method, from the data of horizontal one-dimensional infiltration tests and the humidity retention curve. The flow differential equation is submitted to a Kirchhoff transformation. This equation is discussed, showing its similarity with the advection - diffusion equation. Methods of solution are discussed, showing the new possibilities and necessities of research in this area. (E.G.) [pt
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray; Martineau, Richard
2016-01-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)'s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL's product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
Marrone, Salvatore; Colagrossi, Andrea; Di Mascio, Andrea; Le Touzé, David
2016-05-01
The study of energetic free-surface flows is challenging because of the large range of interface scales involved due to multiple fragmentations and reconnections of the air-water interface with the formation of drops and bubbles. Because of their complexity the investigation of such phenomena through numerical simulation largely increased during recent years. Actually, in the last decades different numerical models have been developed to study these flows, especially in the context of particle methods. In the latter a single-phase approximation is usually adopted to reduce the computational costs and the model complexity. While it is well known that the role of air largely affects the local flow evolution, it is still not clear whether this single-phase approximation is able to predict global flow features like the evolution of the global mechanical energy dissipation. The present work is dedicated to this topic through the study of a selected problem simulated with both single-phase and two-phase models. It is shown that, interestingly, even though flow evolutions are different, energy evolutions can be similar when including or not the presence of air. This is remarkable since, in the problem considered, with the two-phase model about half of the energy is lost in the air phase while in the one-phase model the energy is mainly dissipated by cavity collapses.
Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio
1980-01-01
This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-08-29
Purpose In this paper, we introduce modeling, numerical simulation, and convergence analysis of the problem nanoparticles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium. The model consists of equations of pressure, saturation, nanoparticles concentration, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-walls, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in pore-throats. Design/methodology/approach Nonlinear iterative IMPES-IMC (IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation–IMplicit Concentration) scheme is used to solve the problem under consideration. The governing equations are discretized using the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method. The pressure and saturation equations are coupled to calculate the pressure, then the saturation is updated explicitly. Therefore, the equations of nanoparticles concentration, the deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore walls and the entrapped nanoparticles concentration in pore throats are computed implicitly. Then, the porosity and the permeability variations are updated. Findings We stated and proved three lemmas and one theorem for the convergence of the iterative method under the natural conditions and some continuity and boundedness assumptions. The theorem is proved by induction states that after a number of iterations the sequences of the dependent variables such as saturation and concentrations approach solutions on the next time step. Moreover, two numerical examples are introduced with convergence test in terms of Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition and a relaxation factor. Dependent variables such as pressure, saturation, concentration, deposited concentrations, porosity and permeability are plotted as contours in graphs, while the error estimations are presented in table for different values of number of time steps, number of iterations and mesh size. Research limitations/implications The domain of the computations is relatively small however, it is straightforward to extend this method
Bubble parameters analysis of gas-liquid two-phase sparse bubbly flow based on image method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Yunlong; Zhou Hongjuan; Song Lianzhuang; Liu Qian
2012-01-01
The sparse rising bubbles of gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical pipe were measured and studied based on image method. The bubble images were acquired by high-speed video camera systems, the characteristic parameters of bubbles were extracted by using image processing techniques. Then velocity variation of rising bubbles were drawn. Area and centroid variation of single bubble were also drawn. And then parameters and movement law of bubbles were analyzed and studied. The test results showed that parameters of bubbles had been analyzed well by using image method. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleh, K.
2012-01-01
This thesis deals with the Baer-Nunziato two-phase flow model. The main objective of this work is to propose some techniques to cope with phase vanishing regimes which produce important instabilities in the model and its numerical simulations. Through analysis and simulation methods using Suliciu relaxation approximations, we prove that in these regimes, the solutions can be stabilised by introducing some extra dissipation of the total mixture entropy. In a first approach, called the Eulerian approach, the exact resolution of the relaxation Riemann problem provides an accurate entropy-satisfying numerical scheme, which turns out to be much more efficient in terms of CPU-cost than the classical and very simple Rusanov's scheme. Moreover, the scheme is proved to handle the vanishing phase regimes with great stability. The scheme, first developed in 1D, is then extended in 3D and implemented in an industrial code developed by EDF. The second approach, called the acoustic splitting approach, considers a separation of fast acoustic waves from slow material waves. The objective is to avoid the resonance due to the interaction between these two types of waves, and to allow an implicit treatment of the acoustics, while material waves are explicitly discretized. The resulting scheme is very simple and allows to deal simply with phase vanishing. The originality of this work is to use new dissipative closure laws for the interfacial velocity and pressure, in order to control the solutions of the Riemann problem associated with the acoustic step, in the phase vanishing regimes. (author)
Multiparticle imaging velocimetry measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.
1998-01-01
The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being extended to determine the velocity fields in two and three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has attracted quite a lot of interest. PIV enables fluid velocities across a region of a flow to be measured at a single instant in time in global domain. This instantaneous velocity profile of a given flow field is determined by digitally recording particle (microspheres or bubbles) images within the flow over multiple successive video frames and then conducting flow pattern identification and analysis of the data. This paper presents instantaneous velocity measurements in various two and three- dimensional, two-phase flow situations. (author)
Flow patterns in vertical two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McQuillan, K.W.; Whalley, P.B.
1985-01-01
This paper is concerned with the flow patterns which occur in upwards gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical tubes. The basic flow patterns are described and the use of flow patter maps is discussed. The transition between plug flow and churn flow is modelled under the assumption that flooding of the falling liquid film limits the stability of plug flow. The resulting equation is combined with other flow pattern transition equations to produce theoretical flow pattern maps, which are then tested against experimental flow pattern data. Encouraging agreement is obtained
Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Khan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.
Development of a Two-Phase Flow Analysis Code based on a Unstructured-Mesh SIMPLE Algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jong Tae; Park, Ik Kyu; Cho, Heong Kyu; Yoon, Han Young; Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun
2008-09-15
For analyses of multi-phase flows in a water-cooled nuclear power plant, a three-dimensional SIMPLE-algorithm based hydrodynamic solver CUPID-S has been developed. As governing equations, it adopts a two-fluid three-field model for the two-phase flows. The three fields represent a continuous liquid, a dispersed droplets, and a vapour field. The governing equations are discretized by a finite volume method on an unstructured grid to handle the geometrical complexity of the nuclear reactors. The phasic momentum equations are coupled and solved with a sparse block Gauss-Seidel matrix solver to increase a numerical stability. The pressure correction equation derived by summing the phasic volume fraction equations is applied on the unstructured mesh in the context of a cell-centered co-located scheme. This paper presents the numerical method and the preliminary results of the calculations.
Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter
Thermo-fluid dynamics of two-phase flow
Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, M
2006-01-01
Provides a very systematic treatment of two phase flow problems from a theoretical perspectiveProvides an easy to follow treatment of modeling and code devlopemnt of two phase flow related phenomenaCovers new results of two phase flow research such as coverage of fuel cells technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.C.
1981-04-01
The application of the dynamic slip technique to modify the conservation of the thermodynamic model use in Relap4/Mod5 is aimed at. The new model contain additional terms which allow take in account the influence of separated flows. The modified code has been submitted to a test. A simulation of a small LOCA has been performed with an equivalent area of 181.045 cm 2 in the piping between the reactor vessel and one of the main coolant pumps of Angra 1 plant. The same procedure was performed by using the original version of the code. The comparison between results of both versions show that the dynamic slip model gives more realistic (less conservative) results. (E.G.) [pt
Mathematical modelling of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komen, E.M.J.; Stoop, P.M.
1992-11-01
A gradual shift from methods based on experimental correlations to methods based on mathematical models to study 2-phase flows can be observed. The latter can be used to predict dynamical behaviour of 2-phase flows. This report discusses various mathematical models for the description of 2-phase flows. An important application of these models can be found in thermal-hydraulic computer codes used for analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of water cooled nuclear power plants. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakawa, H.; Antal, S.P.; Lahey, R T.
2008-01-01
The object of this work was to simulate developing multidimensional velocity and void fraction distributions in bubbly and churn turbulent two-phase flows. An advanced Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE, was used to perform three-dimensional, multi-field simulations of the developing phasic velocity and phase distributions in vertical adiabatic conduits. The NPHASE code employed a multi-field two-fluid model, in which, for churn turbulent flow, the vapor phase was divided into small and large, cap bubble fields. In addition, state-of-the-art interfacial area density and field-to-field mass transfer models were used for both the small and large, cap bubbles. In particular, the bubble breakup and coalescence processes were quantified using a two-group interfacial area density transport equation. This allowed the CMFD simulation of developing churn turbulent flows in an ESBWR with and without vertical riser channels in the chimney region above the core. Based on these simulations it was concluded that riser channels have little adverse effect on the induced natural circulation flow through the core and the stability characteristics of an ESBWR. (authors)
Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, Ran; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu
2017-02-15
Highlights: • A visualization study is performed to develop flow regime map in horizontal flow. • Database in horizontal bubbly flow is extended using a local conductivity probe. • Frictional pressure drop analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. • Drift flux analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental studies performed to characterize horizontal air–water two-phase flow in a round pipe with an inner diameter of 3.81 cm. A detailed flow visualization study is performed using a high-speed video camera in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions to verify previous flow regime maps. Two-phase flows are classified into bubbly, plug, slug, stratified, stratified-wavy, and annular flow regimes. While the transition boundaries identified in the present study compare well with the existing ones (Mandhane et al., 1974) in general, some discrepancies are observed for bubbly-to-plug/slug, and plug-to-slug transition boundaries. Based on the new transition boundaries, three additional test conditions are determined in horizontal bubbly flow to extend the database by Talley et al. (2015a). Various local two-phase flow parameters including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble velocity, and bubble Sauter mean diameter are obtained. The effects of increasing gas flow rate on void fraction, bubble Sauter mean diameter, and bubble velocity are discussed. Bubbles begin to coalesce near the gas–liquid layer instead of in the highly packed region when gas flow rate increases. Using all the current experimental data, two-phase frictional pressure loss analysis is performed using the Lockhart–Martinelli method. It is found that the coefficient C = 24 yields the best agreement with the data with the minimum average difference. Moreover, drift flux analysis is performed to predict void-weighted area-averaged bubble velocity and area-averaged void fraction. Based on the current database, functional
Two-phase flow characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblond, J.; Javelot, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebon, L.
1998-01-01
The results presented in this paper demonstrate the performance of the PFGSE-NMR to obtain a complete characterisation of two-phase flows. Different methods are proposed to characterise air-water flows in different regimes: stationary two-phase flows and flows in transient condition. Finally a modified PFGSE is proposed to analyse the turbulence of air-water bubbly flow. (author)
Two-phase flow model with nonequilibrium and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sureau, H.; Houdayer, G.
1976-01-01
The model proposed includes the three conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy) applied to the two phase flows and a fourth partial derivative equation which takes into account the nonequilibriums and describes the mass transfer process. With this model, the two phase critical flow tests performed on the Moby-Dick loop (CENG) with several geometries, are interpreted by a unique law. Extrapolations to industrial dimension problems show that geometry and size effects are different from those obtained with earlier models (Zaloudek, Moody, Fauske) [fr
Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN
2008-01-01
The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.
A void fraction model for annular two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tandon, T.N.; Gupta, C.P.; Varma, H.K.
1985-01-01
An analytical model has been developed for predicting void fraction in two-phase annular flow. In the analysis, the Lockhart-Martinelli method has been used to calculate two-phase frictional pressure drop and von Karman's universal velocity profile is used to represent the velocity distribution in the annular liquid film. Void fractions predicted by the proposed model are generally in good agreement with a available experimental data. This model appears to be as good as Smith's correlation and better than the Wallis and Zivi correlations for computing void fraction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, O.B.; Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.
1981-03-01
Under special conditions a water-cooled reactor or other multiphase process can be subject to instabilities as the so called density-wave oscillations phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to derive the stability limits of a boiling channel for the dynamic response to an inlet velocity perturbation. The solution scheme allowed a coupling for the single and two-phase regions together with a model for the dynamic thermal response of the heated surface. The frequency response of a rational transfer function is obtained and a Nyquist plot is used for stability analysis. The model is, although simplified, quite capable of predicting the threshold for self-excited system or the trends given by more exact solution. (Author) [pt
Dynamic modelling for two-phase flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, M.A.
1991-06-01
Several models for two-phase flow have been studied, developing a thermal-hydraulic analysis code with one of these models. The program calculates, for one-dimensional cases with variable flow area, the transient behaviour of system process variables, when the boundary conditions (heat flux, flow rate, enthalpy and pressure) are functions of time. The modular structure of the code, eases the program growth. In fact, the present work is the basis for a general purpose accident and transient analysis code in nuclear reactors. Code verification has been made against RETRAN-02 results. Satisfactory results have been achieved with the present version of the code. (Author) [es
A review of damping of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio
1993-01-01
Damping of two-phase flows has been recognized as one of the most unknown parameters in analyzing vibrational characteristics of structures subjected to two-phase flows since it seems to be influenced by many physical parameters involved in the physics of dynamic energy dissipation of a vibrating structure, for example, liquid viscosity, surface tension, flow velocity, mass ratio, frequency, void fraction, flow regime and so forth. This paper deals with a review of scientific works done to date on the damping of two phase flows and discussions about what has been clarified and what has not been known to us, or what kinds of research are needed about two-phase flow damping. The emphasis is put on the definition of two-phase fluid damping, damping measurement techniques, damping characteristics in relation to two phase flow configurations, and damping generation mechanisms
Waves in separated two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pols, R.M.
1998-06-01
This dissertation presents an integral approach to the modelling of co-current flow of liquid and gas for a class of non-linear wave problems. Typically the liquid phase and the gas phase are decoupled and the liquid is depth averaged. The resulting non-linear shallow water equations are solved to predict the behaviour of the finite amplitude waves. The integral approach is applied to the modelling of two-dimensional waves in a horizontal and slightly inclined rectangular channel, two-dimensional waves in a vertical pipe and three-dimensional waves in a horizontal tube. For flow in a horizontal or slightly inclined channel the liquid is driven by the interfacial shear from the gas phase and the surface is subject to extensive wave action. For thin liquid films the pressure in the liquid may be taken as hydrostatic and gravity acts as a restoring force on the liquid. Roll wave solutions to the non-linear shallow water equations are sought corresponding to an interfacial shear stress dependent on the liquid film height. Wave solutions are shown to exist but only for parameters within a defined range dependent on the channel inclination, interfacial roughness and linear dependence on the liquid film height of the shear stresses. Such solutions are discontinuous and are pieced together by a jump where mass and momentum are conserved. The model calculations on wave height and wave velocity are compared with experimental data. The essentially two-dimensional analysis developed for stratified horizontal flow can be extended to quasi three-dimensional flow in the case of shallow liquid depth for a circular pipe. In this case the liquid depth changes with circumferential position and consequently modifies the interfacial shear exerted on the liquid surface creating a wave spreading mechanism alongside changing the wave profile across the pipe. The wave spreading mechanism supposes a wave moving in axial direction at a velocity faster than the liquid thereby sweeping liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.
1982-11-01
An extensive and detailed investigation of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlating noise signals of information carriers (neutrons, gammas, visible light) modulated by the two-phase flow and registered by two axially placed detectors outside the flow is pursued. To this end, a detailed analysis of velocity measurements in experimental loops and a large number of velocity measurements in a commercial BWR is undertaken, and the applicability and limitations of the drift flux model for their interpretation is investigated. On the basis of this extensive analysis, the authors propose a physically plausible explanation for the deviations in the upper part of the core, expound on why the drift flux model is, to a great extent, not suitable for interpreting two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques reported in the present work, and conclude that due to the large number of uncertainties and the lack of detailed knowledge about the kind of microstructures of the flow which the detectors prefer to ''sample'', one can safely assume that at least in the lower half of the core the velocity measured can be well approximated by the velocity of the centre of volume, from which the mass fluxes can readily be computed. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.H.; Yoo, Y.J.; Kim, K.K.
1998-08-01
A linear model, named ALFS, is developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities caused by density wave oscillation and flow excursion in a vertical boiling channel with constant pressure drop conditions. The ALFS code can take into account the effect of the phase velocity difference and the thermally non-equilibrium phenomena, and the neutral boundary of the two-phase flow instability was analyzed by D-partition method. Three representative two-phase flow models ( i.e. HEM, DEM, and DNEM) were examined to investigate the effects on the stability analysis. As the results, it reveals that HEM shows the most conservative prediction of heat flux at the onset of flow instability. three linear models, Ishiis DEM, Sahas DNEM, and ALFS model, were applied to Sahas experimental data of density wave oscillation, and as the result, the mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-measured heat flux at the onset of instability were calculated as 0.93/0.162, 0.79/0.112, and 0.95/0.143, respectively. For the long test section, however, ALFS model tends to predict the heat fluxes about 30 % lower than the measured values. (author). 14 refs
High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, A.H.; Wang, S.L.
1983-01-01
Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)
Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, E.D.
1979-01-01
The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)
Two-phase flow dynamics in ECC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albraaten, P.J.
1981-07-01
The present report summarizes the achievements within the project ''Two-phase Systems and ECC''. The results during 1978 - 1980 are accounted for in brief as they have been documented in earlier reports. The results during the first half of 1981 are accounted for in greater detail. They contain a new model for the Basset force and test runs with this model using the test code RISQUE. Furthermore, test runs have been performed with TRAC-PD2 MOD 1. This code was implemented on Edwards Pipe Blowdown experiment (a standard test case) and UC-Berkeley Reflooding experiment (a non-standard test case.) (Auth.)
An objective indicator for two-phase flow pattern transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieua, E.; Seleghim, P. Jr.
1998-01-01
This work concerns the development of a methodology the objective of which is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. During the first time, the efforts focused on: (1) the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way; (2) the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe; and (3) the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the unstationarity degree. During the second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, the objective of which was to demonstrate the correlation between unstationarity and regime transition. The unstationarity degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local time-frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (orig.)
An objective indicator for two-phase flow pattern transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieu, E.; Seleghim, P. Jr.
1998-01-01
This work concerns the development of a methodology which objective is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. In a first time, the efforts focused on: the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way; the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe; the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the unstationarity degree. In a second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, which objective was to demonstrate the correlation between unstationarity and regime transition. The unstationarity degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local time-frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandao, Luis E.B.; Salgado, Cesar M., E-mail: brandaos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Radiofarmacos; Sicilliano, Umberto C.C.S., E-mail: umberto.cassara@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia
2013-07-01
In mineral industry is common to use water to transport pellets inside pipes. In these units, the correct measurement of flow (both solid and liquid phase) is important to guarantee a safe operation. Cross correlation flow meters are devices specially suited to be used in dual-phase flow and they are based on measure the transit time due the disturbances registered between two points, in our case gamma attenuation from radioactive sources. The emphasis of this work is the application of gamma transmission and scattering technique associated with spectral analysis methods to measure the flow of solid phase in a liquid fluid in side the pipe. The detectors and the sources are out side of the tube and are positioned 10.0 cm distant one from the other. The photons of transmission/scattering gamma radiation were registered, and across-correlation method was applied to measure the flow and spectral analysis was used to study the flow profile inside the pipe. (author)
Numerical method for two-phase flow discontinuity propagation calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.
1989-01-01
In this paper, we present a class of numerical shock-capturing schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws modelling two-phase flow. First, we solve the Riemann problem for a two-phase flow with unequal velocities. Then, we construct two approximate Riemann solvers: an one intermediate-state Riemann solver and a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver. We give some numerical results for one-dimensional shock-tube problems and for a standard two-phase flow heat addition problem involving two-phase flow instabilities
Program determines two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashiro, C.E.; Espiell, L.G.S.; Farina, I.H.
1986-01-01
When a mixture of a gas and a liquid flows along a horizontal pipe, it is possible to have up to seven different flow patterns. These flow patterns are: 1. Dispersed. When nearly all the liquid is entrained as spray by the gas; 2. Annular. The liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe, and the gas flows at a high velocity as a central core; 3. Bubble. Bubbles of gas move along at about the same velocity as the liquid; 4. Stratified. The liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows above over a smooth gas-liquid interface; 5. Wave. Is similar to stratified except the interface is disturbed by waves moving in the direction of flow; 6. Slug. Waves are picked up periodically in the form of frothy slugs that move at a much greater velocity than the average liquid velocity; 7. Plug. Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the pipe
Rolling effects on two-phase flow pattern and void fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Changqi; Yu Kaiqiu; Luan Feng; Cao Xiaxin
2008-01-01
The experimental and theoretical study was carried out for the upward gas-liquid two-phase explained reasonably through the analysis of slip ratio of two-phase flow and theoretical analysis using momentum equation of two-phase flow separating model. (authors)
Industrial aspects of gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.
1977-01-01
The lecture begins by reviewing the various types of plant in which two phase flow occurs. Specifically, boiling plant, condensing plant and pipelines are reviewed, and the various two phase flow problems occurring in them are described. Of course, many other kinds of chemical engineering plant involve two phase flow, but are somewhat outside the scope of this lecture. This would include distillation columns, vapor-liquid separators, absorption towers etc. Other areas of industrial two phase flow which have been omitted for space reasons from this lecture are those concerned with gas/solids, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid flows. There then follows a description of some of the two phase flow processes which are relevant in industrial equipment and where special problems occur. The topics chosen are as follows: (1) pressure drop; (2) horizontal tubes - separation effects non-uniformites in heat transfer coefficient, effect of bends on dryout; (3) multicomponent mixtures - effects in pool boiling, mass transfer effects in condensation and Marangoni effects; (4) flow distribution - manifold problems in single phase flow, separation effects at a single T-junction in two phase flow and distribution in manifolds in two phase flow; (5) instability - oscillatory instability, special forms of instability in cryogenic systems; (6) nucleate boiling - effect of variability of surface, unresolved problems in forced convective nucleate boiling; and (7) shell side flows - flow patterns, cross flow boiling, condensation in cross flow
Two-phase flow boiling pressure drop in small channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardeshpande, Madhavi V.; Shastri, Parikshit; Ranade, Vivek V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Study of typical 19 mm steam generator tube has been undertaken in detail. • Study of two phase flow boiling pressure drop, flow instability and identification of flow regimes using pressure fluctuations is the main focus of present work. • Effect of heat and mass flux on pressure drop and void fraction was studied. • Flow regimes identified from pressure fluctuations data using FFT plots. • Homogeneous model predicted pressure drop well in agreement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow boiling in small channels finds a variety of applications in power and process industries. Heat transfer, boiling flow regimes, flow instabilities, pressure drop and dry out are some of the key issues related to two-phase flow boiling in channels. In this work, the focus is on pressure drop in two-phase flow boiling in tubes of 19 mm diameter. These tubes are typically used in steam generators. Relatively limited experimental database is available on 19 mm ID tube. Therefore, in the present work, the experimental set-up is designed for studying flow boiling in 19 mm ID tube in such a way that any of the different flow regimes occurring in a steam generator tube (from pre-heating of sub-cooled water to dry-out) can be investigated by varying inlet conditions. The reported results cover a reasonable range of heat and mass flux conditions such as 9–27 kW/m 2 and 2.9–5.9 kg/m 2 s respectively. In this paper, various existing correlations are assessed against experimental data for the pressure drop in a single, vertical channel during flow boiling of water at near-atmospheric pressure. A special feature of these experiments is that time-dependent pressures are measured at four locations along the channel. The steady-state pressure drop is estimated and the identification of boiling flow regimes is done with transient characteristics using time series analysis. Experimental data and corresponding results are compared with the reported correlations. The results will be
Constitutive equations for two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boure, J.A.
1974-12-01
The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr
Unsteady State Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop Calculations
Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin
1992-01-01
A method is presented to calculate unsteady state two phase flow in a gas-liquid line based on a quasi-steady state approach. A computer program for numerical solution of this method was prepared. Results of calculations using the computer program are presented for several unsteady state two phase flow systems
Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.
2011-01-01
Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G
1970-01-01
The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HELTON, JON CRAIG; BEAN, J.E.; ECONOMY, K.; GARNER, J.W.; MACKINNON, ROBERT J.; MILLER, JOEL D.; SCHREIBER, J.D.; VAUGHN, PALMER
2000-01-01
Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository under disturbed conditions resulting from drilling intrusions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformations are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure and brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite are potentially the most important in PA for the WIPP. Subsequent to a drilling intrusion repository pressure was dominated by borehole permeability and generally below the level (i.e., 8 MPa) that could potentially produce spallings and direct brine releases. Brine flow from the repository to the Culebra Dolomite tended to be small or nonexistent with its occurrence and size also dominated by borehole permeability
Two-phase flow patterns and their relationship to two-phase heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.
1977-01-01
The objective of this lecture was to discuss the general nature of two phase flows, to define the various regimes of flow and to discuss the influence of these regimes on the heat transfer processes taking place. The methods of regime delineation are briefly described and regime descriptions introduced for both vertical and horizontal flows in tubes. ''Flow regime maps'' have been widely used as an aid to determination of the regime which occurs in a given situation. Some of the more widely used maps are described and the limitations of this approach discussed. There have been many attempts to obtain a better phenomenological description of two phase flow patterns. In this lecture, these attempts will be reviewed in the context of the bubble/plug, plug/churn and churn/annular flow transitions in vertical flow. The latter two transitions are related to the flooding/flow reversal phenomena. For horizontal flows, recent work on the onset of slugging will be reviewed. In flows with evaporation or condensation, the situation is influenced by departures from thermodynamic equilibrium and the types of departure observed are discuss briefly. Flow patterns and their relationships with heat transfer regimes are then reviewed for the case of condensation in horizontal tubes and evaporation in vertical tubes
Regimes of Two-Phase Flow in Short Rectangular Channel
Chinnov, Evgeny A.; Guzanov, Vladimir V.; Cheverda, Vyacheslav; Markovich, Dmitry M.; Kabov, Oleg A.
2009-08-01
Experimental study of two-phase flow in the short rectangular horizontal channel with height 440 μm has been performed. Characteristics of liquid motion inside the channel have been registered and measured by the Laser Induced Fluorescence technique. New information has allowed determining more precisely the characteristics of churn regime and boundaries between different regimes of two-phase flow. It was shown that formation of some two-phase flow regimes and transitions between them are determined by instability of the flow in the lateral parts of the channel.
Two-phase-flow models and their limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.
1982-01-01
An accurate prediction of transient two-phase flow is essential to safety analyses of nuclear reactors under accident conditions. The fluid flow and heat transfer encountered are often extremely complex due to the reactor geometry and occurrence of transient two-phase flow. Recently considerable progresses in understanding and predicting these phenomena have been made by a combination of rigorous model development, advanced computational techniques, and a number of small and large scale supporting experiments. In view of their essential importance, the foundation of various two-phase-flow models and their limitations are discussed in this paper
Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champmartin, A.
2011-01-01
This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author) [fr
Two-phase flow patterns in horizontal rectangular minichannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron’shin Fedor
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The two-phase flow in a short horizontal channel of rectangular cross-section of 1 × 19 mm2 has been studied experimentally. Five conventional two-phase flow patterns have been detected (bubble, churn, stratified, annular and jet and transitions between them have been determined. It is shown that a change in the width of the horizontal channels has a substantial effect on the boundaries between the flow regimes.
State of the art: two-phase flow calibration techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanley, M.L.
1977-01-01
The nuclear community faces a particularly difficult problem relating to the calibration of instrumentation in a two-phase flow steam/water environment. The rationale of the approach to water reactor safety questions in the United States demands that accurate measurements of mass flows in a decompressing two-phase flow be made. An accurate measurement dictates an accurate calibration. This paper addresses three questions relating to the state of the art in two-phase calibration: (1) What do we mean by calibration. (2) What is done now. (3) What should be done
Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.
1977-01-01
The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed
Modeling two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yun; Basu, Suman; Wang, Chao-Yang [Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2008-05-01
This paper is concerned with the simultaneous flow of liquid water and gaseous reactants in mini-channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Envisaging the mini-channels as structured and ordered porous media, we develop a continuum model of two-phase channel flow based on two-phase Darcy's law and the M{sup 2} formalism, which allow estimate of the parameters key to fuel cell operation such as overall pressure drop and liquid saturation profiles along the axial flow direction. Analytical solutions of liquid water saturation and species concentrations along the channel are derived to explore the dependences of these physical variables vital to cell performance on operating parameters such as flow stoichiometric ratio and relative humility. The two-phase channel model is further implemented for three-dimensional numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component transport in a single fuel-cell channel. Three issues critical to optimizing channel design and mitigating channel flooding in PEM fuel cells are fully discussed: liquid water buildup towards the fuel cell outlet, saturation spike in the vicinity of flow cross-sectional heterogeneity, and two-phase pressure drop. Both the two-phase model and analytical solutions presented in this paper may be applicable to more general two-phase flow phenomena through mini- and micro-channels. (author)
DISTRIBUTION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A DISTRIBUTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AZRIDJAL AZIZ
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The flow configuration and distribution behavior of two-phase flow in a distributor made of acrylic resin have been investigated experimentally. In this study, air and water were used as two-phase flow working fluids. The distributor consists of one inlet and two outlets, which are set as upper and lower, respectively. The flow visualization at the distributor was made by using a high–speed camera. The flow rates of air and water flowing out from the upper and lower outlet branches were measured. Effects of inclination angle of the distributor were investigated. By changing the inclination angle from vertical to horizontal, uneven distributions were also observed. The distribution of two-phase flow through distributor tends even flow distribution on the vertical position and tends uneven distribution on inclined and horizontal positions. It is shown that even distribution could be achieved at high superficial velocities of both air and water.
Fluid-elastic vibration in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.; Serizawa, A.; Kawara, Z.
2003-01-01
The present work aims at clarifying the mechanisms of fluid elastic vibration of tube bundles in two-phase cross flow. The experiment is conducted using air-water two-phase flow under atmospheric pressure. The test section is a 1.03m long transparent acrylic square duct with 128 x 128 mm 2 cross section, which consists of 3 rod-rows with 5 rods in each row. The rods are 125mm long aluminum rods with 22 mm in diameter (p/D=1.45). The natural frequency of rod vibration is about 30Hz. The result indicated a diversion of observed trend in vibration behavior depending on two-phase flow patterns either bubbly flow or churn flow. Specifically, in churn flow, the fluid elastic vibration has been observed to occur when the frequency in void fraction fluctuation approached to the natural frequency of the rods, but this was not the case in fluid elastic vibration in bubbly flow. This fact suggests the existence of mechanisms closely coupled with two-phase flow structures depending on the flow patterns, that is, static two-phase character-controlled mechanism in bubbly flow and dynamic character- controlled in churn flow
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.
2012-01-01
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)
2012-09-26
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
Experimental and numerical investigation on two-phase flow instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruspini, Leonardo Carlos
2013-03-01
-dimensional similitude analysis are used to support the design, regarding the occurrence of two-phase flow instabilities. Some experimental results are presented in order to validate the current design. A full characterisation of the pressure drop losses in the facility is presented. Both, distributed and local pressure drop losses are investigated and the experimental results are compared with the main correlations used in the literature for the analysis of pressure drop in two-phase flow systems. Finally, pressure drop and density wave oscillations are studied experimentally, with main focus on the interaction of these two oscillation modes. In addition, the influence of compressibility volumes on the stability limits for the density wave phenomenon is analysed.(Author)
Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadrist, L.
2007-01-01
Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries
Metrology of two-phase flow: different methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.; Reocreux, M.; Ricque, R.
Nine papers are presented concerning different methods of measuring two-phase flow. Some of the methods and equipment discussed include: radiation absorption, electromagnetic flowmeter, anemometry, resistance probes, phase indicating microthermocouples, optical probes, sampling methods, and pitot tubes
Qualitative behaviour of incompressible two-phase flows with phase ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jan Prüss
2017-11-07
Nov 7, 2017 ... Qualitative behaviour of incompressible two-phase flows with phase ... Germany. 2Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, ... Note that j is a dummy variable as it can be eliminated from the ...
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi
1988-10-01
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating immiscible two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reis, T; Phillips, T N
2007-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann equation is often promoted as a numerical simulation tool that is particularly suitable for predicting the flow of complex fluids. This paper develops a two-dimensional 9-velocity (D2Q9) lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible binary fluids with variable viscosities and density ratio using a single relaxation time for each fluid. In the macroscopic limit, this model is shown to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows. This is achieved by constructing a two-phase component of the collision operator that induces the appropriate surface tension term in the macroscopic equations. A theoretical expression for surface tension is determined. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by comparing numerical and theoretical predictions of surface tension as a function of density. The model is also shown to predict Laplace's law for surface tension and Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids. The spinodal decomposition of two fluids of equal density but different viscosity is then studied. At equilibrium, the system comprises one large low viscosity bubble enclosed by the more viscous fluid in agreement with theoretical arguments of Renardy and Joseph (1993 Fundamentals of Two-Fluid Dynamics (New York: Springer)). Two other simulations, namely the non-equilibrium rod rest and the coalescence of two bubbles, are performed to show that this model can be used to simulate two fluids with a large density ratio
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandotto Biettoli, M.
2006-04-01
The report presents globally the works done by the author in the thermohydraulic applied to nuclear reactors flows. It presents the studies done to the numerical simulation of the two phase flows in the steam generators and a finite element method to compute these flows. (author)
Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wulff, W.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T Andrade
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the oil industry the multiphase flow occur throughout the production chain, from reservoir rock until separation units through the production column, risers and pipelines. During the whole process the fluid flows through the horizontal pipes, curves, connections and T joints. Today, technological and economic challenges facing the oil industry is related to heavy oil transportation due to its unfavourable characteristics such as high viscosity and high density that provokes high pressure drop along the flow. The coreflow technique consists in the injection of small amounts of water into the pipe to form a ring of water between the oil and the wall of the pipe which provides the reduction of friction pressure drop along the flow. This paper aim to model and simulate the transient two-phase flow (water-heavy oil in a horizontal pipe and T joint by numerical simulation using the software ANSYS CFX® Release 12.0. Results of pressure and volumetric fraction distribution inside the horizontal pipe and T joint are presented and analysed.
Image processing analysis on the air-water slug two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe
Dinaryanto, Okto; Widyatama, Arif; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Deendarlianto, Indarto
2016-06-01
Slug flow is a part of intermittent flow which is avoided in industrial application because of its irregularity and high pressure fluctuation. Those characteristics cause some problems such as internal corrosion and the damage of the pipeline construction. In order to understand the slug characteristics, some of the measurement techniques can be applied such as wire-mesh sensors, CECM, and high speed camera. The present study was aimed to determine slug characteristics by using image processing techniques. Experiment has been carried out in 26 mm i.d. acrylic horizontal pipe with 9 m long. Air-water flow was recorded 5 m from the air-water mixer using high speed video camera. Each of image sequence was processed using MATLAB. There are some steps including image complement, background subtraction, and image filtering that used in this algorithm to produce binary images. Special treatments also were applied to reduce the disturbance effect of dispersed bubble around the bubble. Furthermore, binary images were used to describe bubble contour and calculate slug parameter such as gas slug length, gas slug velocity, and slug frequency. As a result the effect of superficial gas velocity and superficial liquid velocity on the fundamental parameters can be understood. After comparing the results to the previous experimental results, the image processing techniques is a useful and potential technique to explain the slug characteristics.
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.; Sun, S.; Chen, Z.
2014-01-01
in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition
Construction of the two-phase critical flow test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.
2002-03-01
The two-phase critical test loop facility has been constructed in the KAERI engineering laboratory for the simulation of small break loss of coolant accident entrained with non-condensible gas of SMART. The test facility can operate at 12 MPa of pressure and 0 to 60 C of sub-cooling with 0.5 kg/s of non- condensible gas injection into break flow, and simulate up to 20 mm of pipe break. Main components of the test facility were arranged such that the pressure vessel containing coolant, a test section simulating break and a suppression tank inter-connected with pipings were installed vertically. As quick opening valve opens, high pressure/temperature coolant flows through the test section forming critical two-phase flow into the suppression tank. The pressure vessel was connected to two high pressure N2 gas tanks through a control valve to control pressure in the pressure vessel. Another N2 gas tank was also connected to the test section for the non-condensible gas injection. The test facility operation was performed on computers supported with PLC systems installed in the control room, and test data such as temperature, break flow rate, pressure drop across test section, gas injection flow rate were all together gathered in the data acquisition system for further data analysis. This test facility was classified as a safety related high pressure gas facility in law. Thus the loop design documentation was reviewed, and inspected during construction of the test loop by the regulatory body. And the regulatory body issued permission for the operation of the test facility
Two-dimensional analysis of two-phase reacting flow in a firing direct-injection diesel engine
Nguyen, H. Lee
1989-01-01
The flow field, spray penetration, and combustion in two-stroke diesel engines are described. Fuel injection begins at 345 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) and n-dodecane is used as the liquid fuel. Arrhenius kinetics is used to calculate the reaction rate term in the quasi-global combustion model. When the temperature, fuel, and oxygen mass fraction are within suitable flammability limits, combustion begins spontaneously. No spark is necessary to ignite a localized high temperature region. Compression is sufficient to increase the gaseous phase temperature to a point where spontaneous chemical reactions occur. Results are described for a swirl angle of 22.5 degrees.
Entrainment in vertical annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawant, Pravin; Ishii, Mamoru; Mori, Michitsugu
2009-01-01
Prediction of amount of entrained droplets or entrainment fraction in annular two-phase flow is essential for the estimation of dryout condition and analysis of post dryout heat transfer in light water nuclear reactors and steam boilers. In this study, air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow entrainment experiments have been carried out in 9.4 and 10.2 mm diameter test sections, respectively. Both the experiments covered three distinct pressure conditions and wide range of liquid and gas flow conditions. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water annular flow conditions. In each of the experiments, measurements of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate and droplet deposition rate have been performed by using a liquid film extraction method. A simple, explicit and non-dimensional correlation developed by Sawant et al. (2008a) for the prediction of entrainment fraction is further improved in this study in order to account for the existence of critical gas and liquid flow rates below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, a new correlation is proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction condition. The improved correlation successfully predicted the newly collected air-water and Freon-113 entrainment fraction data. Furthermore, the correlations satisfactorily compared with the air-water, helium-water and air-genklene experimental data measured by Willetts (1987). (author)
Thermalhydraulic instability analysis of a two phase natural circulation loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesini, Paula Aida
1998-01-01
This work presents an analysis of a loop operating in natural circulation regime. Experiments were done in a rectangular closed circuit in one and two-phase flows. Numerical analysis were performed initially with the CIRNAT code and afterwards with RELAP5/MOD2. The limitations of CIRNAT were studied and new developments for this code are proposed. (author)
Statistical descriptions of polydisperse turbulent two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minier, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.minier@edf.fr
2016-12-15
Disperse two-phase flows are flows containing two non-miscible phases where one phase is present as a set of discrete elements dispersed in the second one. These discrete elements, or ‘particles’, can be droplets, bubbles or solid particles having different sizes. This situation encompasses a wide range of phenomena, from nano-particles and colloids sensitive to the molecular fluctuations of the carrier fluid to inertia particles transported by the large-scale motions of turbulent flows and, depending on the phenomenon studied, a broad spectrum of approaches have been developed. The aim of the present article is to analyze statistical models of particles in turbulent flows by addressing this issue as the extension of the classical formulations operating at a molecular or meso-molecular level of description. It has a three-fold purpose: (1) to bring out the thread of continuity between models for discrete particles in turbulent flows (above the hydrodynamical level of description) and classical mesoscopic formulations of statistical physics (below the hydrodynamical level); (2) to reveal the specific challenges met by statistical models in turbulence; (3) to establish a methodology for modeling particle dynamics in random media with non-zero space and time correlations. The presentation is therefore centered on organizing the different approaches, establishing links and clarifying physical foundations. The analysis of disperse two-phase flow models is developed by discussing: first, approaches of classical statistical physics; then, by considering models for single-phase turbulent flows; and, finally, by addressing current formulations for discrete particles in turbulent flows. This brings out that particle-based models do not cease to exist above the hydrodynamical level and offer great interest when combined with proper stochastic formulations to account for the lack of equilibrium distributions and scale separation. In the course of this study, general
Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR
Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.
1975-12-19
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
No, Hee Cheon; Mayinger, F.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional numerical tool is developed to calculate the potential distribution, electric field, and conductance for any types of conductance probes immersed in the wavy liquid film with various shapes of its free surface. The tool is validated against various analytical solutions. It is applied to find out the characteristics of the wire-wire probe, the flush-wire probe and the flush-flush probe in terms of resolution, linearity, and sensitivity. The wire-wire probe shows high resolution and excellent linearity for various film thickness, but comparably low sensitivity for low film thickness fixed. The flush-wire probe shows good linearity and high sensitivity for varying film thickness, but resolution degrading with an increase in film thickness. In order to check the applicability of the three types of probes in the real situation, the Korteweg-de Vries(KdV) two-dimensional solitary wave is simulated. The wire-wire probe is strongly affected by the installation direction of the two wires; when the wires are installed perpendicularly to the flow direction, the wire-wire probe shows large distortion of the solitary wave. In order to measure the transverse profile of waves, the wire-wire probes and the flush-wire probes are required to be separately installed 2mm and 2mm, respectively
Microgravity two-phase flow and heat transfer
Gabriel, Kamiel S
2007-01-01
Advances in understanding the behaviour of multiphase thermal systems could lead to higher efficiency energy production systems, but such advances have been greatly hindered by the strong effect of gravitational acceleration on the flow. This book presents a coverage of various aspects of two-phase flow behaviour in the virtual absence of gravity.
Two Phase Flow Split Model for Parallel Channels | Iloeje | Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The model and code are capable of handling single and two phase flows, steady states and transients, up to ten parallel flow paths, simple and complicated geometries, including the boilers of fossil steam generators and nuclear power plants. A test calculation has been made with a simplified three-channel system ...
Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mat, M. D.; Kaplan, Y.; Celik, S.; Oeztural, A.
2007-01-01
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells. Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance. Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics (V-I curves) is measured depending on the process parameters (temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc)
Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Wang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
Zero-G two phase flow regime modeling in adiabatic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinarts, T.R.; Best, F.R.; Wheeler, M.; Miller, K.M.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow, thermal management systems are currently being considered as an alternative to conventional, single phase systems for future space missions because of their potential to reduce overall system mass, size, and pumping power requirements. Knowledge of flow regime transitions, heat transfer characteristics, and pressure drop correlations is necessary to design and develop two-phase systems. This work is concerned with microgravity, two-phase flow regime analysis. The data come from a recent sets of experiments. The experiments were funded by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and conducted by NASA JSC with Texas A ampersand M University. The experiment was on loan to NASA JSC from Foster-Miller, Inc., who constructed it with funding from the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The experiment used R12 as the working fluid. A Foster-Miller two phase pump was used to circulate the two phase mixture and allow separate measurements of the vapor and liquid flow streams. The experimental package was flown 19 times for 577 parabolas aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which simulates zero-G conditions by its parabolic flight trajectory. Test conditions included bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes in 0-G. The superficial velocities of liquid and vapor have been obtained from the measured flow rates and are presented along with the observed flow regimes and several flow regime transition predictions. None of the predictions completely describe the transitions as indicated by the data
Sweijen, Thomas; Hartog, Niels; Marsman, Annemieke; Keijzer, Thomas J S
2014-06-01
Mercury is a contaminant of global concern. The use of elemental mercury in various (former) industrial processes, such as chlorine production at chlor-alkali plants, is known to have resulted in soil and groundwater contaminations worldwide. However, the subsurface transport behaviour of elemental mercury as an immiscible dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in porous media has received minimal attention to date. Even though, such insight would aid in the remediation effort of mercury contaminated sites. Therefore, in this study a detailed field characterization of elemental mercury DNAPL distribution with depth was performed together with two-phase flow modelling, using STOMP. This is to evaluate the dynamics of mercury DNAPL migration and the controls on its distribution in saturated porous media. Using a CPT-probe mounted with a digital camera, in-situ mercury DNAPL depth distribution was obtained at a former chlor-alkali-plant, down to 9 m below ground surface. Images revealing the presence of silvery mercury DNAPL droplets were used to quantify its distribution, characteristics and saturation, using an image analysis method. These field-observations with depth were compared with results from a one-dimensional two-phase flow model simulation for the same transect. Considering the limitations of this approach, simulations reasonably reflected the variability and range of the mercury DNAPL distribution. To further explore the impact of mercury's physical properties in comparison with more common DNAPLs, the migration of mercury and PCE DNAPL in several typical hydrological scenarios was simulated. Comparison of the simulations suggest that mercury's higher density is the overall controlling factor in controlling its penetration in saturated porous media, despite its higher resistance to flow due to its higher viscosity. Based on these results the hazard of spilled mercury DNAPL to cause deep contamination of groundwater systems seems larger than for any other
Mathematical modeling of disperse two-phase flows
Morel, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book develops the theoretical foundations of disperse two-phase flows, which are characterized by the existence of bubbles, droplets or solid particles finely dispersed in a carrier fluid, which can be a liquid or a gas. Chapters clarify many difficult subjects, including modeling of the interfacial area concentration. Basic knowledge of the subjects treated in this book is essential to practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics for two-phase flows in a variety of industrial and environmental settings. The author provides a complete derivation of the basic equations, followed by more advanced subjects like turbulence equations for the two phases (continuous and disperse) and multi-size particulate flow modeling. As well as theoretical material, readers will discover chapters concerned with closure relations and numerical issues. Many physical models are presented, covering key subjects including heat and mass transfers between phases, interfacial forces and fluid particles coalescence and breakup, a...
The Condensation effect on the two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdou Mohamed, Hesham Nagah
2005-01-01
A one-dimensional analytical model has been developed to be used for the linear analysis of density-wave oscillations in a parallel heated channel and a natural circulation loop.The heater and the riser sections are divided into a single-phase and a two-phase region.The two-phase region is represented by the drift-flux model. The model accounts for aphasic slip and subcooled boiling.The localized friction at the heater and the riser exit is treated considering the two-phase mixture.Also the effects of the condensation in the riser and the change in the system pressure have been studied.The exact equation for the heated channel and the total loop pressure drop is perturbed around the steady state.he stability characteristics of the heated channel and the loop are investigated using the Root finding method criterion.The results are summarized on instability maps in the plane of subcooled boiling number vs. phase change number (i.e., inlet subcooling vs. heater heat flux).The predictions of the model are compared with experimental results published in open literature. The results show that, the treatment effect of localized friction in two-phase mixtures stabilizes the system and improves the agreement of the calculations with the experimental results.For a parallel heated channel, the results indicate a more stable system with high inlet restriction, low outlet restriction, and high inlet velocity. And for a natural circulation loop, an increase in the inlet restriction broadened the range of the continuous circulation mode and stabilized the system, a decrease in the exit restriction or the liquid charging level shifted to the right the range of the continuous circulation mode and stabilized the system and an increase in the riser condensation shifted to the right the range of the continuous circulation mode and stabilized the system.The results show that the model agrees well with the available experimental data. In particular, the results show the significance of
Two-phase flow structure in large diameter pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.R.; Schlegel, J.P.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Local profiles of various quantities measured in large diameter pipe. ► Database for interfacial area in large pipes extended to churn-turbulent flow. ► Flow regime map confirms previous models for flow regime transitions. ► Data will be useful in developing interfacial area transport models for large pipes. - Abstract: Flow in large pipes is important in a wide variety of applications. In the nuclear industry in particular, understanding of flow in large diameter pipes is essential in predicting the behavior of reactor systems. This is especially true of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designs, where a large-diameter chimney above the core provides the gravity head to drive circulation of the coolant through the reactor. The behavior of such reactors during transients and during normal operation will be predicted using advanced thermal–hydraulics analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model. Essential to accurate two-fluid model calculations is reliable and accurate computation of the interfacial transfer terms. These interfacial transfer terms can be expressed as the product of one term describing the potential driving the transfer and a second term describing the available surface area for transfer, or interfacial area concentration. Currently, the interfacial area is predicted using flow regime dependent empirical correlations; however the interfacial area concentration is best computed through the use of the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE). To facilitate the development of IATE source and sink term models in large-diameter pipes a fundamental understanding of the structure of the two-phase flow is essential. This understanding is improved through measurement of the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration and gas velocity profiles in pipes with diameters of 0.102 m and 0.152 m under a wide variety of flow conditions. Additionally, flow regime identification has been performed to
Interfacial structures in downward two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S.S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
Downward two-phase flow was studied considering its significance in view of Light Water Reactor Accidents (LWR) such as Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) by feed water loss or secondary pipe break. The flow studied, was an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, vertically downward two-phase flow. The experimental test sections had internal hydraulic diameters of 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm. Flow regime map was obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology to minimize the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. A four sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, which characterize the interfacial structures. The local time averaged two-phase flow parameters measured were: void fraction (α), interfacial area concentration (a i ), bubble velocity (v g ), and Sauter mean diameter (D Sm ). The flow conditions were from the bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development revealed the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provided a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along the flow field. An interfacial area transport equation was developed for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration were compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. (author)
Stability of interfacial waves in two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)
1996-12-31
The influence of the interfacial pressure and the flow distribution in the one-dimensional two-fluid model on the stability problems of interfacial waves is discussed. With a proper formulation of the interfacial pressure, the following two-phase phenomena can be predicted from the stability and stationary criteria of the interfacial waves: onset of slug flow, stationary hydraulic jump in a stratified flow, flooding in a vertical pipe, and the critical void fraction of a bubbly flow. It can be concluded that the interfacial pressure plays an important role in the interfacial wave propagation of the two-fluid model. The flow distribution parameter may enhance the flow stability range, but only plays a minor role in the two-phase characteristics. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.
Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering
Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.
2015-07-01
Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.
Modulating patterns of two-phase flow with electric fields.
Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Anand, Robbyn K; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T
2014-07-01
This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flow in a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.
System for recording and displaying two-phase flow topographies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cary, C.N.; Block, J.A.
1979-01-01
A system of hardware and software has been developed and used to record and display in various forms details of the countercurrent flow topographies occurring in a scaled Pressurized Water Reactor downcomer annulus. An array of 288 conductivity sensors was mounted in a 1/15 scale PWR annulus. At each moment in time, the state of each probe indicates the presence or absence of water in this immediate vicinity. An electronic data acquisition system records the states of all probes 108 times per second on magnetic tape; software routines retrieve the data and reconstruct visual analogs of the flow topographies. The instantaneous two-phase state of the annulus at each instant can be displayed on a hard copy plotter or on a CRT screen. By synchronizing a camera drive with the CRT display, 16mm films have been made recreating the flow process at full speed and at various slow motion rates. All data obtained are stored in computer files in numerical form and can be subjected to various types of quantitative analysis to assist in advanced code development and verification
Acceleration of a two-phase flow by boiling, (3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio; Iwata, Shoichiro
1976-01-01
Acceleration of two-component, two-phase flow has been studied, and a method using the volume expansion by boiling for accelerating fluid has been investigated. In this study, the phenomena of atomizing and boiling were separated, and the liquid with low boiling point was injected into water at lower than the saturation temperature, and was atomized. Then, this was mixed with high temperature liquid and was boiled. The uniform buffle flow was produced, and the phenomena were observed with a high speed camera. The process of acceleration and the acceleration performance were compared with the results of theoretical analysis described in the second report. The experiment was carried out with liquid R113, and at first, the mechanism of atomizing was studied. The atomizing was caused when the relative velocity between R113 and water was more than 4 m/s irrespective of water velocity. The distribution of the diameter of fine liquid drops was almost normal distribution. When the fine drops of R113 were mixed with the high temperature water, bubbles were produced, and the production rate showed definite dependence on the degree of overheating. The flow of bubbles was uniform. However, some of R113 did not become bubbles. The efficiency of acceleration was 1.0 which was independent of the degree of overheating. A further problem is to reduce the quantity of the liquid which does not boil. (Kato, T.)
Approximate characteristics for one-dimensional two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarayloo, A.; Peddleson, J.
1985-01-01
An approximate method for determining the characteristics associated with one-dimensional particulate two-phase flow models is presented. The method is based on iteration and is valid for small particulate volume fractions. The method is applied to several special cases involving incompressible particles suspended in a gas. The influences of certain changes in the physical model are investigated
Determination of bubble parameters in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Lira, C.A.B. de.
1980-01-01
A development of a probe-detector system for measurement of bubble parameters like size, rise velocity and void fraction in two-phase flow is presented. The method uses an electro resistivity probe and a compact electronic circuit has been developed for obtain this purpose. (author)
Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting
Gu, H.
2011-01-01
Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two
Two-phase flow instrumentation research at RPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Krycuk, G.
1979-01-01
Novel instrumentation for the measurement of void fraction and phase velocity was developed. An optical digital interferometer and a dual beam x-ray equipment were designed for detection of voids. Pitot tube measurements were made to understand two-phase flow phenomena in liquid phase velocity
Fluid dynamics of cryogenic two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verfondern, K.; Jahn, W.
2004-01-01
The objective of this study was to examine the flow behavior of a methane hydrate/methane-liquid hydrogen dispersed two-phase fluid through a given design of a moderator chamber for the ESS target system. The calculations under simplified conditions, e.g., taking no account of heat input from outside, have shown that the computer code used, CFX, was able to simulate the behavior of the two-phase flow through the moderator chamber, producing reasonable results up to a certain level of the solid phase fraction, that allowed a continuous flow process through the chamber. Inlet flows with larger solid phase fractions than 40 vol% were found to be a ''problem'' for the computer code. From the computer runs based on fractions between 20 and 40 vol%, it was observed that with increasing solid phase fraction at the inlet, the resulting flow pattern revealed a strong tendency for blockage within the chamber, supported by the ''heavy weight'' of the pellets compared to the carrying liquid. Locations which are prone to the development of such uneven flow behavior are the areas around the turning points in the semispheres and near the exit of the moderator. The considered moderator chamber with horizontal inlet and outlet flow for a solid-liquid two-phase fluid does not seem to be an appropriate design. (orig.)
Two-phase flow measurement by pulsed neutron activation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehler, P.
1978-01-01
The Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) technique for measuring the mass flow velocity and the average density of two-phase mixtures is described. PNA equipment can be easily installed at different loops, and PNA techniques are non-intrusive and independent of flow regimes. These features of the PNA technique make it suitable for in-situ measurement of two-phase flows, and for calibration of more conventional two-phase flow measurement devices. Analytic relations governing the various PNA methods are derived. The equipment and procedures used in the first air-water flow measurement by PNA techniques are discussed, and recommendations are made for improvement of future tests. In the present test, the mass flow velocity was determined with an accuracy of 2 percent, and average densities were measured down to 0.08 g/cm 3 with an accuracy of 0.04 g/cm 3 . Both the accuracy of the mass flow velocity measurement and the lower limit of the density measurement are functions of the injected activity and of the total number of counts. By using a stronger neutron source and a larger number of detectors, the measurable density can be decreased by a factor of 12 to .007 g/cm 3 for 12.5 cm pipes, and to even lower ranges for larger pipes
Study on flow instabilities in two-phase mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.
1976-03-01
Various mechanisms that can induce flow instabilities in two-phase flow systems are reviewed and their relative importance discussed. In view of their practical importance, the density-wave instabilities have been analyzed in detail based on the one-dimensional two-phase flow formulation. The dynamic response of the system to the inlet flow perturbations has been derived from the model; thus the characteristic equation that predicts the onset of instabilities has been obtained. The effects of various system parameters, such as the heat flux, subcooling, pressure, inlet velocity, inlet orificing, and exit orificing on the stability boundary have been analyzed. In addition to numerical solutions, some simple stability criteria under particular conditions have been obtained. Both results have been compared with various experimental data, and a satisfactory agreement has been demonstrated
Computational methods for two-phase flow and particle transport
Lee, Wen Ho
2013-01-01
This book describes mathematical formulations and computational methods for solving two-phase flow problems with a computer code that calculates thermal hydraulic problems related to light water and fast breeder reactors. The physical model also handles the particle and gas flow problems that arise from coal gasification and fluidized beds. The second part of this book deals with the computational methods for particle transport.
Numerical flow analyses of a two-phase hydraulic coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hur, N.; Kwak, M.; Moshfeghi, M. [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C.-S.; Kang, N.-W. [VS Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
We investigated flow characteristics in a hydraulic coupling at different charged water conditions and speed ratios. Hence, simulations were performed for three-dimensional two-phase flow by using the VOF method. The realizable k-ε turbulence model was adopted. To resolve the interaction of passing blades of the primary and secondary wheels, simulations were conducted in the unsteady framework using a sliding grid technique. The results show that the water-air distribution inside the wheel is strongly dependent upon both amount of charged water and speed ratio. Generally, air is accumulated in the center of the wheel, forming a toroidal shape wrapped by the circulating water. The results also show that at high speed ratios, the solid-body-like rotation causes dry areas on the periphery of the wheels and, hence, considerably decreases the circulating flow rate and the transmitted torque. Furthermore, the momentum transfer was investigated through the concept of a mass flux triangle based on the local velocity multiplied by the local mixture density instead of the velocity triangle commonly used in a single-phase turbomachine analysis. Also, the mass fluxes along the radius of the coupling in the partially charged and fully charged cases were found to be completely different. It is shown that the flow rate at the interfacial plane and also the transmitted torque are closely related and are strongly dependent upon both the amount of charged water and speed ratio. Finally, a conceptual categorization together with two comprehensive maps was provided for the torque transmission and also circulating flow rates. These two maps in turn exhibit valuable engineering information and can serve as bases for an optimal design of a hydraulic coupling.
Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grison, Pierre; Lauro, J.-F.
1979-01-01
Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320 0 C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data [fr
Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou. Direction des Etudes et Recherches
1979-01-01
Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320/sup 0/C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rascle, P.; El Amine, K. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)
1997-12-31
We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English). 136 refs. This document represents a PhD thesis in the speciality Applied Mathematics presented par Khalid El Amine to the Universite Paris 6.
Phenomenological studies of two-phase flow processes for nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S.; Persoff, P.; Oldenburg, C.
1994-01-01
The US civilian radioactive waste management program is unique in its focus on a site in the unsaturated zone, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Two-phase flow phenomena can also play an important role in repositories beneath the water table where gas is generated by corrosion, hydrolysis, and biological degradation of the waste packages. An integrated program has been initiated to enhance our understanding of two-phase flow behavior in fractured rock masses. The studies include two-phase (gas-liquid) flow experiments in laboratory specimens of natural rock fractures, analysis and modeling of heterogeneity and instability effects in two-phase flow, and design and interpretation of field experiments by means of numerical simulation. We present results that identify important aspects of two-phase flow behavior on different space and time scales which are relevant to nuclear waste disposal in both unsaturated and saturated formations
Design and construction of two phases flow meter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan
2002-01-01
This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)
Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1995-09-01
An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.
Non-Darcy behavior of two-phase channel flow.
Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Xiaoping
2014-08-01
We study the macroscopic behavior of two-phase flow in porous media from a phase-field model. A dissipation law is first derived from the phase-field model by homogenization. For simple channel geometry in pore scale, the scaling relation of the averaged dissipation rate with the velocity of the two-phase flow can be explicitly obtained from the model which then gives the force-velocity relation. It is shown that, for the homogeneous channel surface, Dacry's law is still valid with a significantly modified permeability including the contribution from the contact line slip. For the chemically patterned surfaces, the dissipation rate has a non-Darcy linear scaling with the velocity, which is related to a depinning force for the patterned surface. Our result offers a theoretical understanding on the prior observation of non-Darcy behavior for the multiphase flow in either simulations or experiments.
Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neff, G.G.; Averill, R.H.; Shurts, S.W.
1979-01-01
Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c) a conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer (LLT). The DTT obtains data on the complex problem of two-phase flow conditions in the LOFT primary coolant system during a loss-os-coolant experiment (LOCE). The discussion of the DTT describes how a turbine, measuring coolant velocity, and a drag disc, measuring coolant momentum flux, can provide valuable mass flow data. The nuclear hardened gamma densitometer is used to obtain density and flow regime information for two-phase flow in the LOFT primary coolant system during a LOCE. The LLT is used to measure water and steam conditions within the LOFT reactor core during a LOCE. The LLT design and the type of data obtained are described
Development of two-phase Flow Model, 'SOBOIL', for Sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, Do Hee; Chang, Won Pyo; Kim, In Chul; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum
2000-03-01
The objective of this research is to develop a sodium two-phase flow analysis model, 'SOBOIL', for the assessment of the initial stage of the KALIMER HCDA (Hypotherical Core Disruptive Accident). The 'SOBOIL' is basically similar to the multi-bubble slug ejection model used in SAS2A[1]. When a bubble is formed within the liquid slug, the bubble fills the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a film left on the cladding or on the structure. Up to nine bubbles, separated by the liquid slugs, are allowed in the channel at any time. Each liquid slug flow rate in the model is performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the preliminary flow rate in the liquid slug is calculated neglecting the effect of changes in the vapor bubble pressures over the time step. The temperature and pressure distributions, and interface velocity at the interface between the liquid slug and vapor bubble are also calculated during this process. The new vapor temperature and pressure are then determined from the balance between the net energy transferred into the vapor and the change of the vapor energy. The liquid flow is finally calculated considering the change of the vapor pressure over a time step and the calculation is repeated until specified elapsed time is met. Continuous effort, therefore, must be made on the examination and improvement for the model to become reliable. To this end, much interest must be concentrated in the relevant international collaborations for access to a reference model or test data for the verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chenu, A.
2011-10-01
liquid film after dryout onset. The validation of the extended TRACE code has been achieved through the successful simulation of out-of-pile experiments. A review of available sodium boiling test data has first been carried out, and complementary tests have been selected to assess the quality of the different physical models like the pressure drop and cooling limits under quasi steady-state conditions, as well as the simulation of a loss-of-flow transient. The extended TRACE code has demonstrated its capacity to predict the main thermal-hydraulics characteristics such as the single- and two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer, as also the boiling inception, void fraction evolution and expansion of the boiling region, pressure evolution, as well as coolant and clad temperatures. The natural convection test conducted in 2009 in the Phenix reactor has been used to validate TRACE single-phase sodium flow modelling. Data from the Phenix test have been used for the validation of the FAST code system. Analyses based on a point-kinetics TRACE model and on coupled TRACE/PARCS 3D-kinetics modelling have enabled an in-depth understanding of the transient behaviour of a sodium-cooled fast reactor core, leading to potential improvements in the FAST code system. The experimental power evolution could be satisfactorily reproduced within the measurement uncertainties with both models, and the detailed analysis of the core neutronics has enabled one to define the most important reactivity feedbacks taking place during the considered transient. The developed tool has been applied to the simulation of a hypothetical, unprotected loss-of-flow event for one of the European SFR core concepts. This study has demonstrated the new calculation tool’s capability to adequately simulate the core response through the modelling of single- and two-phase sodium flow, coupled to 3D neutron kinetics. Thereby, the space-dependent reactivity feedbacks, such as the void and Doppler effects, have been
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1996-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified
Measurement of Two-Phase Flow Characteristics Under Microgravity Conditions
Keshock, E. G.; Lin, C. S.; Edwards, L. G.; Knapp, J.; Harrison, M. E.; Xhang, X.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the technical approach and initial results of a test program for studying two-phase annular flow under the simulated microgravity conditions of KC-135 aircraft flights. A helical coil flow channel orientation was utilized in order to circumvent the restrictions normally associated with drop tower or aircraft flight tests with respect to two-phase flow, namely spatial restrictions preventing channel lengths of sufficient size to accurately measure pressure drops. Additionally, the helical coil geometry is of interest in itself, considering that operating in a microgravity environment vastly simplifies the two-phase flows occurring in coiled flow channels under 1-g conditions for virtually any orientation. Pressure drop measurements were made across four stainless steel coil test sections, having a range of inside tube diameters (0.95 to 1.9 cm), coil diameters (25 - 50 cm), and length-to-diameter ratios (380 - 720). High-speed video photographic flow observations were made in the transparent straight sections immediately preceding and following the coil test sections. A transparent coil of tygon tubing of 1.9 cm inside diameter was also used to obtain flow visualization information within the coil itself. Initial test data has been obtained from one set of KC-135 flight tests, along with benchmark ground tests. Preliminary results appear to indicate that accurate pressure drop data is obtainable using a helical coil geometry that may be related to straight channel flow behavior. Also, video photographic results appear to indicate that the observed slug-annular flow regime transitions agree quite reasonably with the Dukler microgravity map.
Laser doppler anemometry in single- and two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, F.
1976-01-01
The present report gives an introduction into laser-Doppler anemometry and tries to explain the basic physical principles of this measuring technique. Moire fringe patterns are used in order to visually model LDA-signals and to explain the basic difference in optical systems. It is pointed out that LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows and in two-phase flows should be attempted with direction sensitive instruments only. Some of the optical systems developed by the author and his collaborators are introduced and their functioning in measurements is demonstrated. These measurements embrace investigations in a number of single-phase flows including flames. (orig.) [de
Current capabilities of transient two-phase flow instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solbrig, C.W.; Kondic, N.N.
1979-01-01
The measurement of two phase flow phenomena in transient conditions representative of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident requires the use of sophisticated instruments and the further development of other instruments. Measurements made in large size pipes are often flow regime dependent. The flow regimes encountered depend upon the system geometry, transient effects, heat transfer, etc. The geometries in which these measurements must be made, the instruments which are currently used, new instruments being developed, the facilities used to calibrate these instruments, and the improvements which must be made to measurement capabilities are described
Heat transfer in two-phase flow of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbotin, V.I.; Deev, V.I.; Solodovnikov, V.V.; Arkhipov, V.V.
1986-01-01
The results of experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase helium flow are presented. The effect of operating parameters (pressure, mass velocity, heat flux and quality) on boiling heat transfer intensity was investigated. A significant influence of boiling process prehistory on heat transfer coefficients was demonstrated. On the basis of experimental data obtained three typical regimes of flow boiling heat transfer were found. Analogy of heat transfer in flow boiling and pool boiling of helium and noncryogenic liquids was established. Correlations were developed which are in close agreement with available heat transfer data
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe, E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.d [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)
2010-09-15
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 {sup o}C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar
2010-01-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 o C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at 1
Two-phase flow field simulation of horizontal steam generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabiee, Ataollah; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Hadad, Kamal [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-15
The analysis of steam generators as an interface between primary and secondary circuits in light water nuclear power plants is crucial in terms of safety and design issues. VVER-1000 nuclear power plants use horizontal steam generators which demand a detailed thermal hydraulics investigation in order to predict their behavior during normal and transient operational conditions. Two phase flow field simulation on adjacent tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results. However, the complexity of the tube bundles, due to geometry and arrangement, makes it complicated. Employment of porous media is suggested to simplify numerical modeling. This study presents the use of porous media to simulate the tube bundles within a general-purpose computational fluid dynamics code. Solved governing equations are generalized phase continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Boundary conditions, as one of the main challenges in this numerical analysis, are optimized. The model has been verified and tuned by simple two-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the obtained vapor volume fraction near the cold and hot collectors predict the experimental results more accurately than in previous studies.
Two-Phase Annular Flow in Helical Coil Flow Channels in a Reduced Gravity Environment
Keshock, Edward G.; Lin, Chin S.
1996-01-01
A brief review of both single- and two-phase flow studies in curved and coiled flow geometries is first presented. Some of the complexities of two-phase liquid-vapor flow in curved and coiled geometries are discussed, and serve as an introduction to the advantages of observing such flows under a low-gravity environment. The studies proposed -- annular two-phase air-water flow in helical coil flow channels are described. Objectives of the studies are summarized.
Two-phase flow experiments through intergranular stress corrosion cracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collier, R.P.; Norris, D.M.
1984-01-01
Experimental studies of critical two-phase water flow, through simulated and actual intergranular stress corrosion cracks, were performed to obtain data to evaluate a leak flow rate model and investigate acoustic transducer effectiveness in detecting and sizing leaks. The experimental program included a parametric study of the effects of crack geometry, fluid stagnation pressure and temperature, and crack surface roughness on leak flow rate. In addition, leak detection, location, and leak size estimation capabilities of several different acoustic transducers were evaluated as functions of leak rate and transducer position. This paper presents flow rate data for several different cracks and fluid conditions. It also presents the minimum flows rate detected with the acoustic sensors and a relationship between acoustic signal strength and leak flow rate
Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-12-15
Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.
Reactor vessel and core two-phase flow ultrasonic densitometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arave, A.E.
1979-01-01
A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia. Separate effects tests and two-phase flow tests have been conducted to characterize the detector. Tests show the detector can perform in a 343 0 C pressurized water reactor environment and measure the average density of the media surrounding the sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adeshina S. Adegoke
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper studied the nonlinear vibrations of top-tensioned cantilevered pipes conveying pressurized steady two-phase flow under thermal loading. The coupled axial and transverse governing partial differential equations of motion of the system were derived based on Hamilton’s mechanics, with the centerline assumed to be extensible. Using the multiple-scale perturbation technique, natural frequencies, mode shapes, and first order approximate solutions of the steady-state response of the pipes were obtained. The multiple-scale assessment reveals that at some frequencies the system is uncoupled, while at some frequencies a 1:2 coupling exists between the axial and the transverse frequencies of the pipe. Nonlinear frequencies versus the amplitude displacement of the cantilever pipe, conveying two-phase flow at super-critical mixture velocity for the uncoupled scenario, exhibit a nonlinear hardening behavior; an increment in the void fractions of the two-phase flow results in a reduction in the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies and the coupled amplitude of the system. However, increases in the temperature difference, pressure, and the presence of top tension were observed to increase the pipe’s transverse vibration frequencies without a significant change in the coupled amplitude of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji
1988-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to understand two-phase flow discharged from a stratified two-phase region through a small break. This problem is important for an analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor (LWR). The present theoretical results show that a break quality is a function of h/h b , where h is the elevation difference between a bulk water level in the upstream region and break and b the suffix for entrainment initiation. This result is consistent with existing eperimental results in literature. An air-water experiment was also conducted changing a break orientation as an experimental parameter to develop and assess the model. Comparisons between the model and the experimental results show that the present model can satisfactorily predict the flow rate and the quality at the break without using any adjusting constant when liquid entrainment occurs in a stratified two-phase region. When gas entrainment occurs, the experimental data are correlated well by using a single empirical constant. (author)
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Macian, R.
1997-01-01
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Macian, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1997-07-01
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques.
Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, F.; Zare, M.
1976-01-01
Basic theory for laser-Doppler velocity measurements of large reflecting or refracting surfaces is provided. It is shown that the Doppler-signals contain information of the velocity and size of the large bodies, and relationships for transforming velocity and radius of curvature of moving spheres are presented. Preliminary experiments verified the analytical findings and demonstrated the applicability of the method to some two-phase flows
Two-phase flow instability and propagation of disturbances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.
1984-01-01
Various mechanisms of static and dynamic macroinstabilities, appearing in two-phase flows, have been considered. Types of instabilities, conditioned by the form of hydraulic characteristics of the channel and density waves are analyzed in detail. Problems of instabilities in nuclear reactor circuits, in particular problems of instabilities, conditioned by water and steam mixing and vapour condensation, and problems of steam generator operation instability are discussed
Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gidi, A.
2009-01-01
The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Takaya; Kitamura, Masashi; Ohi, Tadashi; Akagi, Katsumi
1999-01-01
As advanced monitoring and controlling systems, such as the advanced main control console and the operator support system have been developed, real-time simulators' simulation accuracy must be improved and simulation limits must be extended. Therefore the authors have developed a distributed simulation system to achieve high processing performance using low cost hardware. Moreover, the authors have developed a thermal-hydraulic computer code, using drift-flux non-equilibrium model, which can realize a high precision two-phase flow analysis, which is considered to have the same prediction capability as two-fluid models, while achieving high speed and stability for real-time simulators. The distributed plant simulator for PWR plants was realized as a result. The distributed simulator consists of multi-processors connected to each other by an optical fiber network. Controlling software for synchronized scheduling and memory transfer was also developed. The simulation results of the four loop PWR simulator are compared with experimental data and real plant data; the agreement is satisfactory for a plant simulator. The simulation speed is also satisfactory being twice as fast as real-time. (author)
Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigmatulin, B.I.; Ivandaev, A.I.
1977-01-01
The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperseannular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section
Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, B I; Ivandaev, A I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Mekhaniki
1977-01-01
The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperse annular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section.
Interfacial area measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veteau, J.-M.
1979-08-01
A thorough understanding of two-phase flow requires the accurate measurement of the time-averaged interfacial area per unit volume (also called the time-averaged integral specific area). The so-called 'specific area' can be estimated by several techniques described in the literature. These different methods are reviewed and the flow conditions which lead to a rigourous determination of the time-averaged integral specific area are clearly established. The probe technique, involving local measurements seems very attractive because of its large range of application [fr
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandotto Biettoli, M.
2006-04-01
The author gives an overview of his research activity since 1981. He first gives a detailed presentation of properties and equations of two-phase flows in heat exchangers, and of their mathematical and numerical investigation: semi-local equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation and energy conservation), homogenized conservation equations (mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation, boundary conditions), equation closures, discretization, resolution algorithm, computational aspects and applications. Then, he reports the works performed in the field of turbulent flows, hyperbolic methods, low Mach methods, the Neptune project, and parallel computing
Measurement of Liquid-Metal Two-Phase Flow with a Dynamic Neutron Radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, J. E.; Lim, I. C.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, C. M.; Nam, H. Y.; Saito, Y.
2005-01-01
The dynamic neutron radiography(DNR) has complementary characteristics to X-ray radiography and is suitable to visualization and measurement of a multi-phase flow research in a metallic duct and liquid metal flow. The flow-field information of liquid metal system is very important for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactor and the design of the spallation target of accelerator driven system. A DNR technique was applied to visualize the flow field in the gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with the HANARO-beam facility. The lead bismuth eutectic and the nitrogen gas were used to construct the two-phase flow field in the natural circulation U-channel. The two-phase flow images in the riser were taken at various combinations of the liquid flow and gas flow with high frame-rate neutron radiography at 1000 fps
Two-phase flow in a diverging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadle, M.
1986-05-01
Stationary two-phase flow experiments were performed with steam-water and air-water mixtures in a well-instrumented horizontal diverging nozzle. The test section consisted of a constant diameter tube, the friction-section, followed by an expansion, the diffusor, which has a tanh-contour and finally another constant diameter tube. The diameter ratio sigma=D1/D2 is 16/80. For the steam-water experiments the flow parameters were: 0 2 and for air-water mixtures (0 2 ). The initial conditions were varied to achieve subcritical and critical mass flow rates. A new model for the pressure recovery in an abrupt expansion is presented. It is based on the superficial velocity concept and agrees well with the steam-water and the water-air experimental data as well as with the experiments of other authors. The experiments were also calculated with the two-phase code DUESE. The Drift-Flux models in this code as well as the constitutive correlations and their empirical constants could be tested. It is shown, that a 1D Drift-Flux code can handle the highly transient flow in the diffusor if the proper drift model is used. In a 1D simulation it is only necessary that the computational flow area is expanded to its full width within an axial length which is equivalent to the real contour. (orig./GL) [de
Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keto, V. (Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Espoo (Finland))
2010-01-15
The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)
Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keto, V.
2010-01-01
The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong
1992-11-01
It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given
Mechanics of occurrence of critical flow in compressible two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katto, Yoshiro; Sudo, Yukio
1976-01-01
Fundamental framework of mechanics for the occurrence of critical flow is investigated, following the principle that the critical flow appears as a limit in a continuous change of state of flow along a nozzle (or a pipe) and should be derived only from simultaneous mechanical equations concerned with the flow. Mathematical procedures with which the critical flow: (i) the single phase flow of an arbitrary fluid, unrestricted by the equation of state of ideal gas, where the number of simultaneous equations is equal to the number of independent variables, and (ii) the one-component, separated two-phase flow under saturated condition, where the number of equations exceeds that of variables. In each case, interesting mechanism of leading to the occurrence of a limiting state of flow at a definite cross-section in a nozzle (incl. a pipe) is clarified, and a definite state of flow at the critical cross-section is also determined. Then, the analysis is extended to the critical flow which should appear in the completely isolated and the homogeneously dispersed, two-component, two-phase flow (composed of a compressible and an incompressible substance). It is found that the analyses of these special flow patterns provide several supplementary information to the mechanics of critical flow. (auth.)
Inlet effects on vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiao, Shouxu; Mena, Daniel; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Inlet effects on two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward flow are studied. • Flow regimes in the vertical-downward two-phase flow are defined. • Vertical-downward flow regime maps for three inlet configurations are developed. • Frictional pressure loss analysis for three different inlets is performed. • Database of local two-phase flow parameters for each inlet configuration. - Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating the geometric effects of inlets on global and local two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow. Flow visualization, frictional pressure loss analysis, and local experiments are performed in a test facility constructed from 50.8 mm inner diameter acrylic pipes. Three types of inlets of interest are studied: (1) two-phase flow injector without a flow straightener (Type A), (2) two-phase flow injector with a flow straightener (Type B), and (3) injection through a horizontal-to-vertical-downward 90° vertical elbow (Type C). A detailed flow visualization study is performed to characterize flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flow. Flow regime maps for each inlet are developed and compared to identify the effects of each inlet. Frictional pressure loss analysis shows that the Lockhart–Martinelli method is capable of correlating the frictional loss data acquired for Type B and Type C inlets with a coefficient value of C = 25, but additional data may be needed to model the Type A inlet. Local two-phase flow parameters measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in four bubbly and near bubbly flow conditions are analyzed. It is observed that vertical-downward two-phase flow has a characteristic center-peaked void profile as opposed to a wall-peaked profile as seen in vertical-upward flow. Furthermore, it is shown that the Type A inlet results in the most pronounced center-peaked void fraction profile, due to the coring phenomenon. Type B and Type C inlets
Gulping phenomena in transient countercurrent two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tehrani, Ali A.K.
2001-04-01
Apart from previous work on countercurrent gas-liquid flow, transient tank drainage through horizontal off-take pipes is described, including experimental procedure, flow pattern on observations and countercurrent flow limitation results. A separate chapter is devoted to countercurrent two-phase flow in a pressurised water reactor hot-leg scaled model. Results concerning low head flooding, high head and loss of bowl flooding, transient draining of the steam generator and pressure variation and bubble detachment are presented. The following subjects are covered as well: draining of sealed tanks of vertical pipes, unsteady draining of closed vessel via vertical tube, unsteady filling of a closed vessel via vertical tube from a constant head reservoir. Practical significance of the results obtained is discussed
Two-phase flow and heat transfer under low gravity
Frost, W.
1981-01-01
Spacelab experiment to investigate two-phase flow patterns under gravity uses a water-air mixture experiment. Air and water are circulated through the system. The quality or the mixture or air-water is controlled. Photographs of the test section are made and at the same time pressure drop across the test section is measured. The data establishes a flow regime map under reduced gravity conditions with corresponding pressure drop correlations. The test section is also equipped with an electrical resistance heater in order to allow a flow boiling experiment to be carried out using Freon II. High-speed photographs of the test section are used to determine flow patterns. The temperature gradient and pressure drop along the duct can be measured. Thus, quality change can be measured, and heat transfer calculated.
Numerical study for two phase flow in the near nozzle region of turbine combustors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervez, K.; Mushtaq, S.
1999-01-01
In the present study flow conditions in the near nozzle region of the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion zone largely depends on the spray field in the near nozzle region the studies are conducted to determined the effects of multi jets on the flow pattern in the near nozzle region The phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) has been used to measure the velocities and sizes of the droplets. The flow field of two-phase liquid drop-air jets is formed from three injectors arranged in t line. Furthermore the two-phase flow field has been analyzed numerically also. The numerical analysis consists of two computational models, namely (i) 3 non-evaporating two-phase jets, (II) 3 evaporating two phase jets. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach in incorporated in both the numerical models. Since the flow is turbulent, a two-equation model (k-Epsilon) is implemented in the numerical analysis. Numerical solution of the conservation equation is obtained using PHOENICS computer code. Boundary conditions are provided from the experimental measurements. Numerical domain for the two models of the analysis starts at some distance (about 10 diameters of the injector orifice) where the atomization process is complete and droplet size and velocity could be measured experimentally. (author)
CFD Simulations of Pb-Bi Two-Phase Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dostal, Vaclav; Zelezny, Vaclav; Zacha, Pavel
2008-01-01
In a Pb-Bi cooled direct contact steam generation fast reactor water is injected directly above the core, the produced steam is separated at the top and is send to the turbine. Neither the direct contact phenomenon nor the two-phase flow simulations in CFD have been thoroughly described yet. A first attempt in simulating such two-phase flow in 2D using the CFD code Fluent is presented in this paper. The volume of fluid explicit model was used. Other important simulation parameters were: pressure velocity relation PISO, discretization scheme body force weighted for pressure, second order upwind for momentum and CISCAM for void fraction. Boundary conditions were mass flow inlet (Pb-Bi 0 kg/s and steam 0.07 kg/s) and pressure outlet. The effect of mesh size (0.5 mm and 0.2 mm cells) was investigated as well as the effect of the turbulent model. It was found that using a fine mesh is very important in order to achieve larger bubbles and the turbulent model (k-ε realizable) is necessary to properly model the slug flow. The fine mesh and unsteady conditions resulted in computationally intense problem. This may pose difficulties in 3D simulations of the real experiments. (authors)
Personal view of educating two-phase flow and human resource development as a nuclear engineer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, Akitoshi
2010-01-01
As an engineer who has devoted himself in the nuclear industry for almost three decades, the author gave a personal view on educating two-phase flow and developing human resources. An expected role of universities in on-going discussions of collaboration among industry-government-academia is introduced. Reformation of two-phase flow education is discussed from two extreme viewpoints, the basic structure of physics and the practical system analysis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su
2008-01-01
Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated
Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О.Ф. Нікулін
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in counter jet mill accelerator channel design.
Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosaka, Minoru
1977-01-01
Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)
Digital video image processing applications to two phase flow measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biscos, Y.; Bismes, F.; Hebrard, P.; Lavergne, G.
1987-01-01
Liquid spraying is common in various fields (combustion, cooling of hot surfaces, spray drying,...). For two phase flows modeling, it is necessary to test elementary laws (vaporizing drops, equation of motion of drops or bubbles, heat transfer..). For example, the knowledge of the laws related to the behavior of vaporizing liquid drop in a hot airstream and impinging drops on a hot surface is important for two phase flow modeling. In order to test these different laws in elementary cases, the authors developed different measurement techniques, associating video and microcomputers. The test section (built in perpex or glass) is illuminated with a thin sheet of light generated by a 15mW He-Ne laser and appropriate optical arrangement. Drops, bubbles or liquid film are observed at right angle by a video camera synchronised with a microcomputer either directly or with an optical device (lens, telescope, microscope) providing sufficient magnification. Digitizing the video picture in real time associated with an appropriate numerical treatment allows to obtain, in a non interfering way, a lot of informations relative to the pulverisation and the vaporization as function of space and time (drop size distribution; Sauter mean diameter as function of main flow parameters: air velocity, surface tension, temperature; isoconcentration curves, size evolution relative to vaporizing drops, film thickness evolution spreading on a hot surface...)
The PDF method for Lagrangian two-phase flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1996-04-01
A recent turbulence model put forward by Pope (1991) in the context of PDF modelling has been used. In this approach, the one-point joint velocity-dissipation pdf equation is solved by simulating the instantaneous behaviour of a large number of Lagrangian fluid particles. Closure of the evolution equations of these Lagrangian particles is based on stochastic models and more specifically on diffusion processes. Such models are of direct use for two-phase flow modelling where the so-called fluid seen by discrete inclusions has to be modelled. Full Lagrangian simulations have been performed for shear-flows. It is emphasized that this approach gives far more information than traditional turbulence closures (such as the K-ε model) and therefore can be very useful for situations involving complex physics. It is also believed that the present model represents the first step towards a complete Lagrangian-Lagrangian model for dispersed two-phase flow problems. (authors). 21 refs., 6 figs
A study of critical two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siikonen, T.
1982-01-01
The existing computer codes use different boundary conditions in the calculation of critical two-phase flow. In the present study these boundary conditions are compared. It is shown that the boundary condition should be determined from the hydraulic model used in the computer code. The use of a correlation, which is not based on the hydraulic model used, leads often to bad results. Usually a good agreement with data is obtained in the calculation as far as the critical mass flux is concerned, but the agreement is not so good in the pressure profiles. The reason is suggested to be mainly in inadequate modeling of non-equilibrium effects. (orig.)
Research on boiling and two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinsek, Z.; Gaspersic, B.; Pavselj, D.; Tomsic, M.
1977-01-01
Report consists of three contributions. Experimental apparatus with pressure chamber (up to 25 bar and 250 deg C) was constructed including optical bubble detection device, and test measurements of mutual influence of boiling bubbles from two adjacent nucleation sites were performed; for analyses, a computer programme package for coincidence analyses of events was made, including data acquisition hardware. Two-phase pressure drop in subcooled Vertical annular water flow was measured, for pressures up to 10 bar, mass velocity 500 to 760 kg/m 2 s and vapour quality 0 to .01. Results agree fairly well with Martinelli-Nelson model
Virtual mass effects in two-phase flow. Topical report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.Y.; Drew, D.A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.
1978-03-01
The effect of virtual mass on phase separation during the acceleration of a two-phase mixture was studied. Virtual mass can be regarded as an induced inertia on the dispersed phase which is accelerating relative to the continuous phase, and it was found that the virtual mass acceleration is objective, implying an invariance with respect to reference frame. An objective form of the virtual acceleration was derived and required parameters were determined for limiting cases. Analyses determined that experiments on single bubble nozzle/diffuser flow cannot readily discriminate between various virtual mass acceleration models
Mixed convection in a two-phase flow cooling loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Daubner, M.; Knebel, J.U.
2002-03-01
This report summarizes the numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX4.1 which has additional models for subcooled flow boiling phenomena and the interfacial forces. The improved CFX4.1 code can be applied to the design of boiling induced mixed convection cooling loops in a defined parameter range. The experimental part describes the geysering experiments and the instability effects on the two-phase natural circulation flow. An experimentally validated flow pattern map in the Phase Change Number - Subcooling Number (N PCh - N Sub ) diagram defines the operational range in which flow instabilities such as geysering can be expected. One important perspective of this combined experimental/numerical work, which is in the field of two-phase flow, is its application to the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS). The main objective on an ADS is its potential to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products, thus participating in closing the fuel cycle. The development of an ADS is an important issue within the Euratom Fifth FP on Partitioning and Transmutation. One concept of an ADS, which is investigated in more detail within the ''preliminary design study of an experimental ADS'' Project (PDS-XADS) of the Euratom Fifth FP, is the XADS lead-bismuth cooled Experimental ADS of ANSALDO. An essential feature of this concept is the natural circulation of the primary coolant within the reactor pool. The natural circulation, which is driven by the density differences between the blanket and the heat exchanger, is enhanced by the injection of the nitrogen cover gas through spargers located in a riser part just above the blanket. This so-called gas-lift pump system has not been investigated in more detail nor has this gas-lift pump system been numerically/experimentally confirmed. The knowledge gained within the SUCO Programe, i.e. the modelling of the interfacial forces, the experimental work on flow instabilities and the modelling of the interfacial area
Mixed convection in a two-phase flow cooling loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Daubner, M.; Knebel, J.U.
2002-03-01
This report summarizes the numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX4.1 which has additional models for subcooled flow boiling phenomena and the interfacial forces. The improved CFX4.1 code can be applied to the design of boiling induced mixed convection cooling loops in a defined parameter range. The experimental part describes the geysering experiments and the instability effects on the two-phase natural circulation flow. An experimentally validated flow pattern map in the Phase Change Number - Subcooling Number (N{sub PCh} - N{sub Sub}) diagram defines the operational range in which flow instabilities such as geysering can be expected. One important perspective of this combined experimental/numerical work, which is in the field of two-phase flow, is its application to the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS). The main objective on an ADS is its potential to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products, thus participating in closing the fuel cycle. The development of an ADS is an important issue within the Euratom Fifth FP on Partitioning and Transmutation. One concept of an ADS, which is investigated in more detail within the ''preliminary design study of an experimental ADS'' Project (PDS-XADS) of the Euratom Fifth FP, is the XADS lead-bismuth cooled Experimental ADS of ANSALDO. An essential feature of this concept is the natural circulation of the primary coolant within the reactor pool. The natural circulation, which is driven by the density differences between the blanket and the heat exchanger, is enhanced by the injection of the nitrogen cover gas through spargers located in a riser part just above the blanket. This so-called gas-lift pump system has not been investigated in more detail nor has this gas-lift pump system been numerically/experimentally confirmed. The knowledge gained within the SUCO Programe, i.e. the modelling of the interfacial forces, the experimental work on flow instabilities and the
Application of two-phase flow for cooling of hybrid microchannel PV cells: A comparative study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand; Rahimi, Masoud; Karimi, Ebrahim; Asadi, Masomeh
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Showing cooling potential of gas–liquid two-phase flow in microchannels for PV cell. ► Introducing the concept of using slug flow in microchannels for cooling of PV cells. ► In single-phase flow, increasing the liquid flow rate enhances the PV power. ► Showing that in two-phase flow the output power related the fluid flow regime. ► By coupling PV and microchannel an increase up to 38% in output power was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the experimental data from performance of two-phase flows in a small hybrid microchannel solar cell. Using air and water as two-phase fluid, the experiments were conducted at indoor condition in an array of rectangular microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 0.667 mm. The gas superficial velocity ranges were between 0 and 3.27 m s −1 while liquid flow rate was 0.04 m s −1 . The performance analysis of the PV cell at slug and transitional slug/annular flow regimes are the focus of this study. The influence of two-phase working fluid on PV cell cooling was compared with single-phase. In addition, the great potential of slug flow for heat removal enhancement in PV/T panel was investigated. The obtained data showed the proposed hybrid system could substantially increases the output power of PV solar cells
The pdf approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric
2001-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a probabilistic approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows. The two-phase flows considered are composed of a continuous phase, which is a turbulent fluid, and a dispersed phase, which represents an ensemble of discrete particles (solid particles, droplets or bubbles). Gathering the difficulties of turbulent flows and of particle motion, the challenge is to work out a general modelling approach that meets three requirements: to treat accurately the physically relevant phenomena, to provide enough information to address issues of complex physics (combustion, polydispersed particle flows, …) and to remain tractable for general non-homogeneous flows. The present probabilistic approach models the statistical dynamics of the system and consists in simulating the joint probability density function (pdf) of a number of fluid and discrete particle properties. A new point is that both the fluid and the particles are included in the pdf description. The derivation of the joint pdf model for the fluid and for the discrete particles is worked out in several steps. The mathematical properties of stochastic processes are first recalled. The various hierarchies of pdf descriptions are detailed and the physical principles that are used in the construction of the models are explained. The Lagrangian one-particle probabilistic description is developed first for the fluid alone, then for the discrete particles and finally for the joint fluid and particle turbulent systems. In the case of the probabilistic description for the fluid alone or for the discrete particles alone, numerical computations are presented and discussed to illustrate how the method works in practice and the kind of information that can be extracted from it. Comments on the current modelling state and propositions for future investigations which try to link the present work with other ideas in physics are made at the end of the paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitoh, Masanori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ninokata, Hisashi; Anahara, Naoki; Dosaki, Koji; Katono, Kenichi; Akiyama, Minoru; Saitoh, Hiroaki
2007-01-01
Problems in major components and structural materials in nuclear power plants have often been caused by flow induced vibration, corrosion and their overlapping effects. In order to establish safe and reliable plant operation, it is necessary to predict future problems for structural materials based on combined analyses of flow dynamics and corrosion and to mitigate them before they become serious issues for plant operation. An innovative method for flow induced vibration of structures in two phase flow by combined analyses of three dimensional flow dynamics and structures is to be introduced. (author)
Droplets formation and merging in two-phase flow microfluidics.
Gu, Hao; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder
2011-01-01
Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i) the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution); and (ii) the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Gu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishimoto, Jun; Kamiyama, Shinichi; Okubo, Masaaki.
1995-01-01
Effects of magnetic field on the characteristics of boiling two-phase pipe flow of temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid are clarified in detail both theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, governing equations of two-phase magnetic fluid flow based on the thermal nonequilibrium two-fluid model are presented and numerically solved considering evaporation and condensation between gas- and liquid-phases. Next, behaviour of vapor bubbles is visualized with ultrasonic echo in the region of nonuniform magnetic field. This is recorded and processed with an image processor. As a result, the distributions of void fraction in the two-phase flow are obtained. Furthermore, detailed characteristics of the two-phase magnetic fluid flow are investigated using a small test loop of the new energy conversion system. From the numerical and experimental results, it is known that the precise control of the boiling two-phase flow and bubble generation is possible by using the nonuniform magnetic field effectively. These fundamental studies on the characteristics of two-phase magnetic fluid flow will contribute to the development of the new energy conversion system using a gas-liquid boiling two-phase flow of magnetic fluid. (author)
Characterization of the two-phase Taylor Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehel A; Gabillet B; Djeridi H
2005-01-01
The focus of the present study concerns the effects of a dispersed phase on the structure of a quasi periodic Couette Taylor flow. The two phase flow patterns are investigated experimentally for the Taylor number Ta=780. Small bubbles (0.035 times as small as the gap) are generated by agitation of the upper free surface. Larger bubbles (0.15 times as small as the gap) are produced by injection at the bottom of the apparatus associated with a pressure drop. Void fraction, bubble size and velocity are measured, as well as the azimuthal and axial velocity components of the liquid. A premature transition to turbulence is pointed out and discussed according to the bubble size and their localization in the gap. (authors)
Two-phase flow in beds of spherical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulenberg, T.; Mueller, U.
1984-02-01
A refined model for two-phase flow in beds of uniform spherical particles is presented. It includes the influence of interfacial drag forces between liquid and gas, which are important in beds of coarse particles, and an incrase of porosity due to vapour channels or similiar irreversible bed disturbances, which occur in beds of fine particles. The model is based on the momentum equations for separated flow, which are closed with empirical relations for wall shear stress and interfacial drag. To improve this model it is applied to volumetrically heated beds on a adiabatic bottom, which are saturated and superimposed with a boiling liquid. In case of fine particles only an impermeable bottom is considered, whereas in case of coarse particles also beds on a permeable support are discussed. (orig.) [de
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-11-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment
Experiments in polydisperse two-phase turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachalo, W.D.; Houser, M.J.
1985-01-01
Aspects of turbulent two-phase flow measurements obtained with a laser Doppler velocimeter that was modified to also obtain particle size were investigated. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity allowed the determination of the lag characteristics of particles over a range of sizes. Relatively large particles were found to respond well to the turbulent fluctuations in low speed flows. Measurements of sprays were obtained at various points throughout the spray plume. Velocity measurements for each drop size class were obtained and revealed the relative velocity relaxation with downstream distance. The evolution of the rms velocities for each size class was also examined. Difficulties associated with seeding polydispersions to obtain gas phase turbulence data were discussed. Several approaches for mitigating the errors due to seed particle concentration bias were reviewed
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-07-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment
Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.
1982-01-01
Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding
Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.
1982-01-01
Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sim, Woo Gun; Dagdan, Banzragch [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.
Dynamics of a two-phase flow through a minichannel: Transition from churn to slug flow
Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2016-04-01
The churn-to-slug flow bifurcations of two-phase (air-water) flow patterns in a 2mm diameter minichannel were investigated. With increasing a water flow rate, we observed the transition of slugs to bubbles of different sizes. The process was recorded by a digital camera. The sequences of light transmission time series were recorded by a laser-phototransistor sensor, and then analyzed using the recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Due to volume dependence of bubbles velocities, we observed the formation of periodic modulations in the laser signal.
Enhanced mixing in two-phase Taylor-Couette flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dherbecourt, Diane
2015-01-01
In the scope of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, Taylor-Couette flows between two concentric cylinders (the inner one in rotation and the outer one at rest) are used at laboratory scale to study the performances of new liquid/liquid extraction processes. Separation performances are strongly related to the mixing efficiency, the quantification of the latter is therefore of prime importance. A previous Ph.D. work has related the mixing properties to the hydrodynamics parameters in single-phase flow, using both experimental and numerical investigations. The Reynolds number, flow state and vortices height (axial wavelength) impacts were thus highlighted. This Ph.D. work extends the previous study to two-phase configurations. For experimental simplification, and to avoid droplets coalescence or breakage, spherical solid particles of PMMA from 800 μm to 1500 μm diameter are used to model rigid droplets. These beads are suspended in an aqueous solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and potassium Thiocyanate (KSCN). The experimental setup uses coupled Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to access simultaneously the hydrodynamic and the mixing properties. Although the two phases are carefully chosen to match in density and refractive index, these precautions are not sufficient to ensure a good measurement quality, and a second PLIF channel is added to increase the precision of the mixing quantification. The classical PLIF channel monitors the evolution of Rhodamine WT concentration, while the additional PLIF channel is used to map a Fluorescein dye, which is homogeneously concentrated inside the gap. This way, a dynamic mask of the bead positions can be created and used to correct the Rhodamine WT raw images. Thanks to this experimental setup, a parametric study of the particles size and concentration is achieved. A double effect of the dispersed phase is evidenced. On one hand, the particles affect the flow hydrodynamic properties
El-Amin, Mohamed; Saad, Adel; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including waternanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-08-28
In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including waternanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.
Experimental investigation of a two-phase nozzle flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kedziur, F.; John, H.; Loeffel, R.; Reimann, J.
1980-07-01
Stationary two-phase flow experiments with a convergent nozzle are performed. The experimental results are appropriate to validate advanced computer codes, which are applied to the blowdown-phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The steam-water experiments present a broad variety of initial conditions: the pressure varies between 2 and 13 MPa, the void fraction between 0 (subcooled) and about 80%, a great number of critical as well as subcritical experiments with different flow pattern is investigated. Additional air-water experiments serve for the separation of phase transition effects. The transient acceleration of the fluid in the LOCA-case is simulated by a local acceleration in the experiment. The layout of the nozzle and the applied measurement technique allow for a separate testing of blowdown-relevant, physical models and the determination of empirical model parameters, respectively. The measured quantities are essentially the mass flow rate, quality, axial pressure and temperature profiles as well as axial and radial density/void profiles obtained by a γ-ray absorption device. Moreover, impedance probes and a pitot probe are used. Observed phenomena like a flow contraction, radial pressure and void profiles as well as the appearance of two chocking locations are described, because their examination is rather instructive about the refinement of a program. The experimental facilities as well as the data of 36 characteristic experiments are documented. (orig.) [de
Interaction between local parameters of two-phase flow and random forces on a cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sylviane Pascal-Ribot; Yves Blanchet; Franck Baj; Phillippe Piteau
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: In the frame of assessments of steam generator tube bundle vibrations, a study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of an air/water flow on turbulent buffeting forces induced on a cylinder. The main purpose is to relate the physical parameters characterizing an air/water two-phase crossflow with the structural loading of a fixed cylindrical tube. In this first approach, the experiments are carried out in a rectangular acrylic test section supplied with a vertical upward bubbly flow. This flow is transversally impeded by a fixed rigid 12,15 mm diameter cylinder. Different turbulence grids are used in order to modify two-phase characteristics such as bubble diameter, void fraction profile, fluctuation parameters. Preliminarily, a dimensional analysis of fluid-structure interaction under two-phase turbulent solicitations has enabled to identify a list of physically relevant variables which must be measured to evaluate the random forces. The meaning of these relevant parameters as well as the effect of flow patterns are discussed. Direct measurements of two-phase flow parameters are performed simultaneously with measurements of forces exerted on the cylinder. The main descriptive parameters of a two-phase flow are measured using a bi-optical probe, in particular void fraction profiles, interfacial velocities, bubble diameters, void fraction fluctuations. In the same time, the magnitude of random forces caused by two-phase flow is measured with a force transducer. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is then undertaken in order to correlate physical two-phase mechanisms with the random forces exerted on the cylinder. The hypotheses made while applying the dimensional analysis are verified and their pertinence is discussed. Finally, physical parameters involved in random buffeting forces applied on a transverse tube are proposed to scale the spectral magnitude of these forces and comparisons with other authors
HRL Aespoe - two-phase flow experiment - gas and water flow in fractured crystalline rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kull, H.; Liedtke, L.
1998-01-01
(The full text of the contribution follows:) Gas generated from radioactive waste may influence the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the man-made barriers and the immediate surroundings of the repository. Prediction of alteration in fractured crystalline rock is difficult. There is a lack of experimental data, and calibrated models are not yet available. Because of the general importance of this matter the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology decided to conduct a two-phase flow study at HRL Aespoe within the scope of the co-operation agreement with SKB. Within the presentation an overview of field experiments and modelling studies scheduled until end of '99 are given. Conceptual models for one- and two-phase flow, methodologies and with respect to numerical calculations necessary parameter set-ups are discussed. Common objective of in-situ experiments is to calibrate flow models to improve the reliability of predictions for gas migration through fractured rock mass. Hence, in a defined dipole flow field in niche 2/715 at HRL Aespoe effective hydraulic parameters are evaluated. Numerical modelling of non-isothermal, two-phase, two-component processes is feasible only for two-dimensional representation of a porous medium. To overcome this restriction a computer program will be developed to model three-dimensional, fractured, porous media. Rational aspects of two-phase flow studies are for the designing of geotechnical barriers and for the long-term safety analysis of potential radionuclide transport in a future repository required for the licensing process
Magnitude and sign correlations in conductance fluctuations of horizontal oil water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, L; Jin, N D; Gao, Z K; Zong, Y B; Zhai, L S; Wang, Z Y
2012-01-01
In experiment we firstly define five typical horizontal oil-water flow patterns. Then we introduce an approach for analyzing signals by decomposing the original signals increment into magnitude and sign series and exploring their scaling properties. We characterize the nonlinear and linear properties of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow, which relate to magnitude and sign series respectively. We find that the joint distribution of different scaling exponents can effectively identify flow patterns, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on magnitude and sign series can represent typical horizontal oil-water two-phase flow dynamics characteristics. The results indicate that the magnitude and sign decomposition method can be a helpful tool for characterizing complex dynamics of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.
Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.
2013-01-01
Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena
Unsteady interfacial coupling of two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.
2006-01-01
The primary coolant circuit in a nuclear power plant contains several distinct components (vessel, core, pipes,...). For all components, specific codes based on the discretization of partial differential equations have already been developed. In order to obtain simulations for the whole circuit, the interfacial coupling of these codes is required. The approach examined within this work consists in coupling codes by providing unsteady information through the coupling interface. The numerical technique relies on the use of an interface model, which is combined with the basic strategy that was introduced by Greenberg and Leroux in order to compute approximations of steady solutions of non-homogeneous hyperbolic systems. Three different coupling cases have been examined: (i) the coupling of a one-dimensional Euler system with a two-dimensional Euler system; (ii) the coupling of two distinct homogeneous two-phase flow models; (iii) the coupling of a four-equation homogeneous model with the standard two-fluid model. (author)
Numerical modeling of two-phase transonic flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 88 (2010), s. 1624-1635 ISSN 0378-4754 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0012 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : two - phase flow * condensation * fractional step method Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4VNK68X-2-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409000421&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlb-zSkWb&md5=5ba607428fac339a3e5f67035d3996d0&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
Measurement of two-phase flow momentum with force transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardy, J.E.; Smith, J.E.
1990-01-01
Two strain-gage-based drag transducers were developed to measure two-phase flow in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) test facilities. One transducer, a drag body (DB), was designed to measure the bidirectional average momentum flux passing through an end box. The second drag sensor, a break through detector (BTD), was designed to sense liquid downflow from the upper plenum to the core region. After prototype sensors passed numerous acceptance tests, transducers were fabricated and installed in two experimental test facilities, one in Japan and one in West Germany. High-quality data were extracted from both the DBs and BTDs for a variety of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The information collected from these sensors has added to the understanding of the thermohydraulic phenomena that occur during the refill/reflood stage of a LOCA in a PWR. 9 refs., 15 figs
A contribution to the study of two-phase steam-water critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reocreux, M.
1975-06-01
Conservation equations were derived to describe two phase flow systems and conditions were established in order to satisfy critical flow. The theoretical analysis performed to establish the above condition has demonstrated the important part played by transfer terms. Experimental studies on glass and metal channels showed the importance of the way evaporation was initiated. (R.L.)
Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graves, R.D.
1983-04-01
The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure
Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.
2018-04-01
Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.
Two-phase flow characteristics of HFC and HCFC fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, T.; Matsuda, K.; Kusakabe, T.
1998-01-01
Some two-phase flow characteristics of HFC and HCFC fluid have been investigated experimentally. Fluids used in this experiment are HCFC22 (hereinafter called 'R22'), HCFC123 (hereinafter called 'R123') and Mixture of HFC fluid (hereinafter called 'R407C'). The fluid R407C are mixture of HFC32, HFC134a and HFC125, and their concentrations are 23wt%, 52wt% and 25wt%, respectively. This paper presents main flow parameters such as void fraction, interfacial velocities, bubble diameter distribution and pressure drop multiplier, which can characterize flow behavior. The void fractions and interfacial velocities were measured at some local positions in the single pipe using the bi-optical probe(hereinafter called 'BOP'). The procedure to calculate the void fraction from the void signals obtained by BOP were adopted the so-called slice method. The effects of slice levels on the void fraction were discussed taking into account bubble diameter. The new correlation of slice level as the function of void fraction has been proposed. The area-averaged void fractions obtained from BOP's void signals using new correlation were compared with void fractions obtained from pressure drops. The area-averaged interfacial velocities were also compared with the superficial gas velocities. It was concluded that the accuracy of BOP measurements are 5% for void fraction and less than 8.5% for interfacial velocity
Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Zhiwei [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory Zurich (Switzerland)
1995-09-01
The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.
On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles
Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.
2016-10-01
Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assad, A.C.A.
1984-01-01
The present work deals with an experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in channels with circular and four-cusp cross-sections. The latter simulates the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident. Simultaneous flow of air and water has been employed to simulate adiabatic steam-water flow. The installation of air-water separators helped eliminate instabilities during pressure-drop measurements. The gamma ray attenuation was utilized for the void fraction determination. For the four-cusp geommetry, new criteria for two-phase flow regime transitions have been determined, as well as new correlatins for pressure drop and void fraction, as function of the Lockhart-Martinelli factor and vapour mass-fraction, respectively. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miteff, L.
1983-08-01
The starting point of this work were neutron flux correlation measurements in the core of the Muehleberg boiling water reactor. During these measurements a new effect was observed i.e. that the cross power spectral density (CPSD) phases could be approximated by two straight lines of different slopes. The two linear domains of the CPSD-phases are separated along the frequency axis by a transition interval. It was supposed that such CPSD-phases could account for the propagation in the axial direction of two different thermohydraulic perturbations in the upper part of the Muehleberg BWR-core. It was also assumed that the second linear domain of these CPSD-phases could be related to a characteristic property of an annular flow regime of the steam-water two-phase flows in the bundles around the neutron detectors. The author attempts to give an explanation for the existence of a second transport phenomenon. This was achieved by in-core and out-core correlation measurements as well as by theoretical work. The out-core measurements were performed on an water-air simulation loop by use of laser beams. (Auth.)
On the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize vertical two-phase bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, H.; Jullien, P.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We provide a complete theory of the PGSE measurement in single and two-phase flow. → Friction velocity can be directly determinated from measured velocity distributions. → Fast determination of moments shorten PGSE process with small loss of accuracy. → Turbulent diffusion measurements agree well with known trends and existing models. → We think NMR can be a tool to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flow. - Abstract: Since the pioneering work of who showed that NMR can be used to measure accurately the mean liquid velocity and void fraction in two-phase pipe flow, it has been shown that NMR signal can also characterize the turbulent eddy diffusivity and velocity fluctuations. In this paper we provide an in depth validation of these statements together with a clarification of the nature of the mean velocity that is actually measured by NMR PFGSE sequence. The analysis shows that the velocity gradient at the wall is finely space-resolved and allows the determination of the friction velocity in single-phase flows. Next turbulent diffusion measurements in two-phase flows are presented, analyzed and compared to existing data and models. It is believed that NMR velocity measurement is sufficiently understood that it can be utilized to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flows. Theoretical results presented in this paper also show how this can be undertaken.
Simulation of two-phase flows by domain decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, T.H.
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with numerical simulations of compressible fluid flows by implicit finite volume methods. Firstly, we studied and implemented an implicit version of the Roe scheme for compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Thanks to Newton method for solving nonlinear systems, our schemes are conservative. Unfortunately, the resolution of nonlinear systems is very expensive. It is therefore essential to use an efficient algorithm to solve these systems. For large size matrices, we often use iterative methods whose convergence depends on the spectrum. We have studied the spectrum of the linear system and proposed a strategy, called Scaling, to improve the condition number of the matrix. Combined with the classical ILU pre-conditioner, our strategy has reduced significantly the GMRES iterations for local systems and the computation time. We also show some satisfactory results for low Mach-number flows using the implicit centered scheme. We then studied and implemented a domain decomposition method for compressible fluid flows. We have proposed a new interface variable which makes the Schur complement method easy to build and allows us to treat diffusion terms. Using GMRES iterative solver rather than Richardson for the interface system also provides a better performance compared to other methods. We can also decompose the computational domain into any number of sub-domains. Moreover, the Scaling strategy for the interface system has improved the condition number of the matrix and reduced the number of GMRES iterations. In comparison with the classical distributed computing, we have shown that our method is more robust and efficient. (author) [fr
Features of two-phase flow in a microchannel of 0.05×20 mm
Ronshin, Fedor
2017-10-01
We have studied the two-phase flow in a microchannel with cross-section of 0.05×20 mm2. The following two-phase flow regimes have been registered: jet, bubble, stratified, annular, and churn ones. The main features of flow regimes in this channel such as formation of liquid droplets in all two-phase flows have been distinguished.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, J; Dong, F; Xu, Y Y
2009-01-01
This paper introduces the fundamental of cross-section measurement system based on Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The measured data of four flow regimes of the gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe flow are obtained by an ERT system. For the measured data, five entropies are extracted to analyze the experimental data according to the different flow regimes, and the analysis method is examined and compared in three different perspectives. The results indicate that three different perspectives of entropy-based feature extraction are sensitive to the flow pattern transition in gas/liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing the results of three different perspectives with the changes of gas/liquid two-phase flow parameters, the dynamic structures of gas/liquid two-phase flow is obtained, and they also provide an efficient supplementary to reveal the flow pattern transition mechanism of gas/liquid two-phase flow. Comparison of the three different methods of feature extraction shows that the appropriate entropy should be used for the identification and prediction of flow regimes.
Interfacial Instability in Two-Phase Flow: Manipulating Coalescence and Condensation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two-phase flow under microgravity conditions presents a number of technical challenges ( and ). Life support and habitation depend on systems that use two-phase flow...
Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Clauido
2012-07-01
This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations
Saad, Bilal Mohammed; Saad, Mazen
2014-01-01
We study the convergence of a combined finite volume nonconforming finite element scheme on general meshes for a partially miscible two-phase flow model in anisotropic porous media. This model includes capillary effects and exchange between the phase. The diffusion term,which can be anisotropic and heterogeneous, is discretized by piecewise linear nonconforming triangular finite elements. The other terms are discretized by means of a cell-centered finite volume scheme on a dual mesh. The relative permeability of each phase is decentred according the sign of the velocity at the dual interface. The convergence of the scheme is proved thanks to an estimate on the two pressures which allows to show estimates on the discrete time and compactness results in the case of degenerate relative permeabilities. A key point in the scheme is to use particular averaging formula for the dissolution function arising in the diffusion term. We show also a simulation of CO2 injection in a water saturated reservoir and nuclear waste management. Numerical results are obtained by in-house numerical code. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Ishii, Mamoru; Serizawa, Akimi
1994-01-01
Interfacial area concentration measurement is quite important in gas-liquid two-phase flow. To determine the accuracy of measurement of the interfacial area using electrical resistivity probes, numerical simulations of a passing bubble through sensors are carried out. The two-sensors method, the four-sensors method and the correlative method are tested and the effects of sensor spacing, bubble diameter and hitting angle of the bubbles on the accuracy of each measurement method are investigated. The results indicated that the two-sensors method is insensitive to the ratio between sensor spacing and bubble diameter, and hitting angle. It overestimates the interfacial area for small hitting angles while it gives a reasonable accuracy for smaller bubbles and large hitting angles. The four-sensors method gives accurate interfacial area measurements particularly for the larger bubble diameters and smaller hitting angles, while for smaller bubbles and larger hitting angles, the escape probability of bubbles through the sensors becomes large and the accuracy becomes worse. The correlative method gives an overall accuracy for interfacial area measurement. Particularly, it gives accurate measurements for large bubbles and larger hitting angles while for smaller hitting angles, the spatial dependence of the correlation functions affects the accuracy. (orig.)
Two phase flow problems in power station boilers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firman, E.C.
1974-01-01
The paper outlines some of the waterside thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena relating to design and operation of large boilers in central power stations. The associated programme of work is described with an outline of some results already obtained. By way of introduction, the principal features of conventional and nuclear drum boilers and once-through nuclear heat exchangers are described in so far as they pertain to this area of work. This is followed by discussion of the relevant physical phenomena and problems which arise. For example, the problem of steam entrainment from the drum into the tubes connecting it to the furnace wall tubes is related to its effects on circulation and possible mechanisms of tube failure. Other problems concern the transient associated with start-up or low load operation of plant. The requirement for improved mathematical representation of steady and dynamic performance is mentioned together with the corresponding need for data on heat transfer, pressure loss, hydrodynamic stability, consequences of deposits, etc. The paper concludes with reference to the work being carried out within the C.E.G.B. in relation to the above problems. The facilities employed and the specific studies being made on them are described: these range from field trials on operational boilers to small scale laboratory investigations of underlying two phase flow mechanisms and include high pressure water rigs and a freon rig for simulation studies
Ferrofluid-in-oil two-phase flow patterns in a flow-focusing microchannel
Sheu, T. S.; Chen, Y. T.; Lih, F. L.; Miao, J. M.
This study investigates the two-phase flow formation process of water-based Fe3O4 ferrofluid (dispersed phase) in a silicon oil (continuous phase) flow in the microfluidic flow-focusing microchannel under various operational conditions. With transparent PDMS chip and optical microscope, four main two-phase flow patterns as droplet flow, slug flow, ring flow and churn flow are observed. The droplet shape, size, and formation mechanism were also investigated under different Ca numbers and intended to find out the empirical relations. The paper marks an original flow pattern map of the ferrofluid-in-oil flows in the microfluidic flow-focusing microchannels. The flow pattern transiting from droplet flow to slug flow appears for an operational conditions of QR < 1 and Lf / W < 1. The power law index that related Lf / W to QR was 0.36 in present device.
Analysis of the two-fluid model and the drift-flux model for numerical calculation of two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munkejord, Svend Tollak
2006-05-11
This thesis analyses models for two-phase flows and methods for the numerical resolution of these models. It is therefore one contribution to the development of reliable design tools for multiphase applications. Such tools are needed and expected by engineers in a range of fields, including in the oil and gas industry. The approximate Riemann solver of Roe has been studied. Roe schemes for three different two-phase flow models have been implemented in the framework of a standard numerical algorithm for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws. The schemes have been analysed by calculation of benchmark tests from the literature, and by comparison with each other. A Roe scheme for the four-equation one-pressure two-fluid model has been implemented, and a second-order extension based on wave decomposition and flux-difference splitting was shown to work well and to give improved results compared to the first-order scheme. The convergence properties of the scheme were tested on smooth and discontinuous solutions. A Roe scheme has been proposed for a five-equation two-pressure two-fluid model with pressure relaxation. The use of analogous numerical methods for the five-equation and four-equation models allowed for a direct comparison of a method with and without pressure relaxation. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the two approaches converged to the same results, but that the five-equation pressure-relaxation method was significantly more dissipative, particularly for contact discontinuities. Furthermore, even though the five-equation model with instantaneous pressure relaxation has real eigenvalues, the calculations showed that it produced oscillations for cases where the four-equation model had complex eigenvalues. A Roe scheme has been constructed for the drift-flux model with general closure laws. For the case of the Zuber-Findlay slip law describing bubbly flows, the Roe matrix is completely analytical. Hence the present Roe scheme is more efficient than
Li, Junye; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling; Hu, Jinglei; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhihui
2018-01-01
In many areas of precision machining abrasive flow polishing technology has an important role. In order to study the influence of abrasive flow on the polishing effect of variable diameter parts, the fifth step variable diameter tube was taken as the research object to analyze the dynamic pressure and turbulent kinetic energy distribution of inlet velocity on the fifth-order variable diameter tube influences. Through comparative analysis, the abrasive flow polished variable diameter pipe parts have very effective and significant polishing effect and the higher the inlet speed, the more significant the polishing effect.
Measurement of two phase flow properties using the nuclear reactor instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, R.W.; Washington Univ., Seattle; Crowe, R.D.; Dailey, D.J.; Kosaly, G.; Damborg, M.J.
1982-01-01
A procedure is introduced for characterizing one dimensional, two phase flow in terms of three properties; propagation, structure, and dynamics. It is shown that all of these properties can be measured by analyzing the response of the reactor neutron field to a two phase flow perturbation. Therefore, a nuclear reactor can be regarded as a two phase flow instrument. (author)
Flow visualization of two-phase flows using photochromic dye activation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, M.; Ahmad, W.; DeJesus, J.M.; Sutharshan, B.; Lorencez, C.; Ojha, M.
1993-01-01
A non-intrusive flow visualization technique based on light activation of photochromic dye material has been used to obtain velocity profiles in gas-liquid flows including annular, slug and stratified flows. The preliminary results revealed several important two-phase flow mechanisms that have not been clearly seen previously. (orig.)
Two-phase wall function for modeling of turbulent boundary layer in subcooled boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostjan Koncar; Borut Mavko; Yassin A Hassan
2005-01-01
flow experiments from the literature. A sensitivity analysis of the influence of the 'two-phase' wall function will be performed. Reference: A.A. Troshko, Y.A. Hassan, A two-equation turbulence model of turbulent bubbly flows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, Vol. 27 (2001), 1965-2000. (authors)
2017-05-01
area ratio φ angle of rod density of liquid phase (kg/m3) density of vapor phase (kg/m3) ...heat transfer in order to manage the ever-increasing airframe and engine heat loads. Two-phase liquid -vapor refrigerant systems are one solution for...the heat removal from these systems. However, they require more study before implementation. This study examines the velocities of two-phase liquid
Development of a Laser Dopper Anemometer technique for the measurement of two phase dispersed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasan, J.
1978-05-01
A new optical technique using Laser-Doppler Anemometry is presented for the measurement of the local number densities and two-dimensional velocity probability densities of a turbulent dilute two-phase dispersion which has a distribution of particle size and a predominant direction of flow. This technique establishes that by a suitable scheme of discrimination on the signal amplitude, residence time and frequency of the Doppler signals caused by the scattered light from individual particles in the probing volume, the size distribution of moderately large particles in a dilute dispersed flow can be determined. The newly developed Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) technique was applied to a solid particle-water two-phase flow and a water droplet-air two-phase flow. Particular emphasis was placed on turbulent two-phase water droplet-air flow inside a vertical rectangular channel. At each of nine different measuring locations along the transverse axis (starting at 250μ from the channel wall), over 20,000 Doppler signals were individually examined. The particle size and number density distributions, and the axial and lateral velocity distributions of both phases are reported. The analysis reveals some interesting features of two-phase dispersed flow. A film of water on the channel wall was formed due to the deposition of droplets from the flow. The water droplet entrainment from the wall film and the subsequent breakup of some of these into the flow are discussed. A discussion of the relationship between the particle distributions and turbulent flow characteristics is presented
Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structure Characteristics under Periodic Cross Forces Action
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Perevezentsev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a study of two-phase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces. The work objective is to obtain experimental data for further analysis and have structure characteristics of the two-phase flow movement. For research, to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow were used optic PIV (Particle Image Visualization methods because of their noninvasiveness. The cross forces influence was provided by an experimental stand design to change the angular amplitudes and the periods of channel movement cycle with two-phase flow. In the range of volume gas rates was shown a water flow rate versus the inclination angle of immovable riser section and the characteristic angular amplitudes and periods of riser section inclination cycle under periodic cross forces. Data on distribution of average water velocity in twophase flow in abovementioned cases were also obtained. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that a velocity distribution depends on the angular amplitude and on the period of the riser section roll cycle. This article belongs to publications, which study two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data give an insight into understanding a pattern of twophase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces and can be used to verify the mathematical models of the CFD thermo-hydraulic codes. In the future, the work development expects taking measurements with more frequent interval in the ranges of angular amplitudes and periods of the channel movement cycle and create a mathematical model to show the action of periodic cross forces on two-phase gas-liquid flow.
Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howarth, S.M.
1993-07-01
The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia's Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93
Two-phase flow regimes and mechanisms of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Corre, Jean-Marie; Yao, Shi-Chune; Amon, Cristina H.
2010-01-01
A literature review of critical heat flux (CHF) experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available experimental information. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. Even though the selected concept has not received much attention (in term or theoretical developments and applications) as compared to other more popular DNB models, its basis have often been cited by experimental investigators and is considered by the authors as the 'most-likely' mechanism based on the literature review and analysis performed in this work. The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow and has been numerically implemented and validated in bubbly flow and coupled with one- and three-dimensional (CFD) two-phase flow codes, in a companion paper. [Le Corre, J.M., Yao, S.C., Amon, C.H., in this issue. A mechanistic model of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions for application to one and three-dimensional computer codes. Nucl. Eng. Des.].
Modeling and measurement of interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, Sidharth; Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, Takashi
2010-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling approaches in characterizing interfacial structures in gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the modeling of the interfacial structure characterization, the interfacial area transport equation proposed earlier has been studied to provide a dynamic and mechanistic prediction tool for two-phase flow analysis. A state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique has been developed to obtain detailed local interfacial structure information in a wide range of flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows. Newly obtained interfacial area data in 8 x 8 rod-bundle test section are also presented. This paper also reviews available models of the interfacial area sink and source terms and existing databases. The interfacial area transport equation has been benchmarked using condensation bubbly flow data.
Contribution to the study of helium two-phase vertical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augyrond, L.
1998-04-01
This work aims at a better understanding of the dynamics of helium two-phase flow in a vertical duct. The case of bubble flow is particularly investigated. The most descriptive parameter of two-phase flow is the void fraction. A sensor to measure this parameter was specially designed and calibrated, it is made of a radioactive source and a semiconductor detector. Sensors based on light attenuation were used to study the behaviour of this two-phase flow. The experimental set-up is described. The different flow types were photographed and video filmed. This visualization has allowed to measure the diameter of bubbles and to study their movements in the fluid. Bubble flow then churn and annular flows were observed but slug flow seems not to exist with helium. A modelling based on a Zuber model matches better the experimental results than a Levy type model. The detailed analysis of the signals given by the optical sensors has allowed to highlight a bubble appearance frequency directly linked to the flowrate. (A.C.)
Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.
2003-07-01
dissipation in particle-driven gravity current; a model for highly concentrated suspensions in a diffusive turbulence. Topic 6: strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows, phase change: microparticle formation in a reacting flow; crystallization and melting in two-phase flows from a non-equilibrium thermodynamics viewpoint; study of a statistical modeling of turbulent flows with very variable density, application to atomization; breakup mechanisms in coaxial atomization; application of Batchelor's fluidized bed stability analysis for wispy-annular flow; unsteady effects induced by non-uniformities of particle concentration in a two-phase boundary layer; one-way and two-way coupled gas-particle flows over a blunt body: the role of particle particle collisions and the shielding effect; particulate aerosols spreading in the planetary boundary layer on complex terrain. Model development and validation examples.
Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten
2012-01-01
by a high resolution finite difference scheme due to Kurganov and Tadmore. The homogeneous formulation requires a set of thermodynamic relations to cover the entire range from liquid to gas state. This leads a number of numerical challenges since these relations introduce discontinuities in the derivative...... of the variables and are usually very slow to evaluate. To overcome these challenges, we use an interpolation scheme with local refinement. The simulations show that the method handles crossing of the saturation lines for both liquid to two-phase and two-phase to gas regions. Furthermore, a novel result obtained...
Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi
2015-01-01
The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)
Two-phase flow in volatile oil reservoir using two-phase pseudo-pressure well test method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharifi, M.; Ahmadi, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2009-09-15
A study was conducted to better understand the behaviour of volatile oil reservoirs. Retrograde condensation occurs in gas-condensate reservoirs when the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) lowers below the dewpoint pressure, thus creating 4 regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Similarly, when the BHP of volatile oil reservoirs falls below the bubblepoint pressure, two phases are created in the region around the wellbore, and a single phase (oil) appears in regions away from the well. In turn, higher gas saturation causes the oil relative permeability to decrease towards the near-wellbore region. Reservoir compositional simulations were used in this study to predict the fluid behaviour below the bubblepoint. The flowing bottomhole pressure was then exported to a well test package to diagnose the occurrence of different mobility regions. The study also investigated the use of a two-phase pseudo-pressure method on volatile and highly volatile oil reservoirs. It was concluded that this method can successfully predict the true permeability and mechanical skin. It can also distinguish between mechanical skin and condensate bank skin. As such, the two-phase pseudo-pressure method is particularly useful for developing after-drilling well treatment and enhanced oil recovery process designs. However, accurate relative permeability and PVT data must be available for reliable interpretation of the well test in volatile oil reservoirs. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.
Two-phase flow instrumentation and laser beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.
1976-01-01
Some methods based on laser techniques in order to place emphasis on the relation between measured quantities and the primary variables entering the general equations of two-phase systems are reviewed and summarized. The case where the bubbles or droplets are so small that they act as individual scattering centers is excluded [fr
Two-phase upward air water flow in a prismatic channel with rectangular base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de
1984-01-01
Two-phase liquid-gas mixtures provide suitable means to simulate water-water vapor flows, which may occur in nuclear reactor cores. The mastery of physical transport phenomena is of great importance, as far as the analysis of such thermal systems is concerned. Within the framework of thermal-hydraulic programs, experiments have been carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. In this paper, flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, T.; Furuya, M.; Kanai, T.; Shirakawa, K.
2011-01-01
An accurate subchannel database is crucial for modeling the multidimensional two-phase flow in a rod bundle and for validating subchannel analysis codes. Based on available reference, it can be said that a point-measurement sensor for acquiring void fractions and bubble velocity distributions do not infer interactions of the subchannel flow dynamics, such as a cross flow and flow distribution, etc. In order to acquire multidimensional two-phase flow in a 10×10 rod bundle with an o.d. of 10 mm and 3110 mm length, a new sensor consisting of 11-wire by 11-wire and 10-rod by 10-rod electrodes was developed. Electric potential in the proximity region between two wires creates a void fraction in the center subchannel region, like a so-called wire mesh sensor. A unique aspect of the devised sensor is that the void fraction near the rod surface can be estimated from the electric potential in the proximity region between one wire and one rod. The additional 400 points of void fraction and phasic velocity in 10×10 bundle can therefore be acquired. The devised sensor exhibits the quasi three-dimensional flow structures, i.e. void fraction, phasic velocity and bubble chord length distributions. These quasi three-dimensional structures exhibit the complexity of two-phase flow dynamics, such as coalescence and the breakup of bubbles in transient phasic velocity distributions. (author)
Electrical Capacitance Probe Characterization in Vertical Annular Two-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grazia Monni
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental analysis and the characterization of an electrical capacitance probe (ECP that has been developed at the SIET Italian Company, for the measurement of two-phase flow parameters during the experimental simulation of nuclear accidents, as LOCA. The ECP is used to investigate a vertical air/water flow, characterized by void fraction higher than 95%, with mass flow rates ranging from 0.094 to 0.15 kg/s for air and from 0.002 to 0.021 kg/s for water, corresponding to an annular flow pattern. From the ECP signals, the electrode shape functions (i.e., the signals as a function of electrode distances in single- and two-phase flows are obtained. The dependence of the signal on the void fraction is derived and the liquid film thickness and the phase’s velocity are evaluated by means of rather simple models. The experimental analysis allows one to characterize the ECP, showing the advantages and the drawbacks of this technique for the two-phase flow characterization at high void fraction.
Features of two-phase flow in a microchannel of 0.05×20 mm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronshin Fedor
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We have studied the two-phase flow in a microchannel with cross-section of 0.05×20 mm2. The following two-phase flow regimes have been registered: jet, bubble, stratified, annular, and churn ones. The main features of flow regimes in this channel such as formation of liquid droplets in all two-phase flows have been distinguished.
Numerical simulation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipe networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyan; Kuang Bo; Zhou Guoliang; Xu Jijun
1998-01-01
The complex pipe network characters can not directly presented in single phase flow, gas-liquid two phase flow pressure drop and void rate change model. Apply fluid network theory and computer numerical simulation technology to phase flow pipe networks carried out simulate and compute. Simulate result shows that flow resistance distribution is non-linear in two phase pipe network
Study of dynamics of two-phase flow through a minichannel by means of recurrences
Litak, Grzegorz; Górski, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2017-05-01
By changing air and water flow rates in the two-phase (air-water) flow through a minichannel, we observed the evolution of air bubbles and slugs patterns. This spatiotemporal behaviour was identified qualitatively by using a digital camera. Simultaneously, we provided a detailed analysis of these phenomena by using the corresponding sequences of light transmission time series recorded with a laser-phototransistor sensor. To distinguish particular patterns, we used recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. Finally, we showed that the maxima of various recurrence quantificators obtained from the laser time series could follow the bubble and slugs patterns in studied ranges of air and water flows.
Possible effects of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones
Goto, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Aichi, M.
2016-12-01
To investigate the influence of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones, laboratory experiments were conducted. In the experiment, air was injected from the bottom of the water-saturated Quaternary Umegase mudstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were monitored during the experiment. Numerical simulation of the experiment was tried by using a simulator which can solve coupled two-phase flow and poroelastic deformation assuming the extended-Darcian flow with relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of the wetting-phase fluid saturation. In the numerical simulation, the volumetric discharge of water was reproduced well while both strains were not. Three dimensionless numbers, i.e., the viscosity ratio, the Capillary number, and the Bond number, which characterize the two-phase flow pattern (Lenormand et al., 1988; Ewing and Berkowitz, 1998) were calculated to be 2×10-2, 2×10-11, and 7×10-11, respectively, in the experiment. Because the Bond number was quite small, it was possible to apply Lenormand et al. (1988)'s diagram to evaluate the flow regime, and the flow regime was considered to be capillary fingering. While, in the numerical simulation, air moved uniformly upward with quite low non-wetting phase saturation conditions because the fluid flow obeyed the two-phase Darcy's law. These different displacement patterns developed in the experiment and assumed in the numerical simulation were considered to be the reason why the deformation behavior observed in the experiment could not be reproduced by numerical simulation, suggesting that the two-phase flow pattern could affect the changes of internal fluid pressure patterns during displacement processes. For further studies, quantitative analysis of the experimental results by using a numerical simulator which can solve the coupled
Temperature oscillations at critical temperature in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brevi, R.; Cumo, M.; Palmieri, A.; Pitimada, D.
Some experiments on the temperature oscillations, or thermal cycling, which occur with steam-water flow in once-through cooling systems at the critical temperature zone, i.e., when dryout occurs, are described. A theoretical analysis is done on the characteristic frequency of the oscillations, and the parameters upon which the operating characteristics and the physical properties of the fluid depend. Finally, the temperature distribution in the critical zone is analyzed, examining the thermal transitions that occur due to the rapid variations in the coefficient of heat transfer
Experimental and numerical studies of two-phase microfluidic flows
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mbanjwa, MB
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Flow of immiscible fluids is important in microfluidics for applications such as generation of emulsions and vesicles, drug delivery capsules, cell encapsulation and chemical reactions. The behaviour of these flows differs from large scale flows...
Damping and fluidelastic instability in two-phase cross-flow heat exchanger tube arrays
Moran, Joaquin E.
flux, and its dependency is a function of void fraction. A dimensional analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between damping and two-phase flow related parameters. As a result, the inclusion of surface tension in the form of the Capillary number appears to be useful when combined with the two-phase component of the damping ratio (interfacial damping). A strong dependence of damping on flow regime was observed when plotting the interfacial damping versus the void fraction, introducing an improvement over the previous result obtained by normalizing the two-phase damping, which does not exhibit this behaviour. The interfacial velocity model was selected to represent the fluidelastic data in two-phase experiments, due to the inclusion of the tube array geometry and density ratio effects, which does not exist for the pitch velocity approach. An essential component in reliably establishing the velocity threshold for fluidelastic instability, is a measure of the energy dissipation available in the system to balance the energy input from the flow. The present analysis argues that the damping in-flow is not an appropriate measure and demonstrates that the use of quiescent fluid damping provides a better measure of the energy dissipation, which produces a much more logical trend in the stability behaviour. This value of damping, combined with the RAD density and the interfacial velocity, collapses the available data well and provides the expected trend of two-phase flow stability data over the void fraction range from liquid to gas flows. The resulting stability maps represent a significant improvement over existing maps for predicting fluidelastic instability of tube bundles in two-phase flows. This result also tends to confirm the hypothesis that the basic mechanism of fluidelastic instability is the same for single and two-phase flows.
Numerical approach of multi-field two-phase flow models in the OVAP code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anela Kumbaro
2005-01-01
use full Eigen-structure information. Basic comparisons in terms of numerical results and physical modeling will be provided and interpreted. The intent is to provide guidelines for future development of such methods and models. References: [1] Lahey, R.T. Jr., Drew D.A. An Analysis of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer using a Multidimensional, Multi-Field, Two-Fluid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model, Japan/US Seminar on Two-Phase Flow Dynamics, California, June 5-8, 2000. [2] Lo S., Some recent developments and applications of CFD to multiphase flows in stirred reactors, AMIF-ESF Workshop, Computing two-phase flows, Aussois, 2000. [3] Roe P.L., Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference schemes, J. Comp. Phys., 43(2), 1981. [4] Toumi and A. Kumbaro, An Approximate Linearized Riemann Solver for a Two-Fluid Model, J. Comput. Phys., 124, 286-300, 1996. [5] A. Kumbaro, I. Toumi and V. Seignole, Numerical Modeling of Two-Phase Flows Using Advanced Two Fluid Systems, Tenth International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, April 14-18 2002, Arlington, Virginia, USA. (author)
Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.; Bromhal, Grant
2010-01-01
Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the
1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Cheol
2007-02-01
During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift
Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.
1980-01-01
The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)
Mass flow rate measurements in two-phase mixtrues with stagnation probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.
1979-01-01
Applications of stagnation probes to the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows are discussed. Descriptions of several stagnation devices, which have been evaluated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are presented along with modeling techniques and two-phase flow data
On intermittent flow characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thaker, Jignesh; Banerjee, Jyotirmay, E-mail: jbaner@gmail.com
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Unified correlations for intermittent flow characteristics are developed. • Influence of inflow conditions on intermittent flow characteristics is analysed. • Developed correlations can be used for effective design of piping components. - Abstract: Flow visualisation experiments are reported for intermittent regime of gas–liquid two-phase flow. Intermittent flow characteristics, which include plug/slug frequency, liquid plug/slug velocity, liquid plug/slug length, and plug/slug bubble length are determined by image processing of flow patterns captured at a rate of 1600 frames per second (FPS). Flow characteristics are established as a function of inlet superficial velocity of both the phases (in terms of Re{sub SL} and Re{sub SG}). The experimental results are first validated with the existing correlations for slug flow available in literature. It is observed that the correlations proposed in literature for slug flow do not accurately predict the flow characteristics in the plug flow regime. The differences are clearly highlighted in this paper. Based on the measured database for both plug and slug flow regime, modified correlations for the intermittent flow regime are proposed. The correlations reported in the present paper, which also include plug flow characteristics will aid immensely to the effective design and optimization of operating conditions for safer operation of two-phase flow piping systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Xiao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This work combines fuzzy logic and a support vector machine (SVM with a principal component analysis (PCA to create an artificial-intelligence system that identifies nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow states in a vertical mini-channel. Flow-pattern recognition requires finding the operational details of the process and doing computer simulations and image processing can be used to automate the description of flow patterns in nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow. This work uses fuzzy logic and a SVM with PCA to improve the accuracy with which the flow pattern of a nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow is identified. To acquire images of nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns of flow boiling, a high-speed digital camera was used to record four different types of flow-pattern images, namely annular flow, bubbly flow, churn flow, and slug flow. The textural features extracted by processing the images of nanofluid gas–liquid two-phase flow patterns are used as inputs to various identification schemes such as fuzzy logic, SVM, and SVM with PCA to identify the type of flow pattern. The results indicate that the SVM with reduced characteristics of PCA provides the best identification accuracy and requires less calculation time than the other two schemes. The data reported herein should be very useful for the design and operation of industrial applications.
Xiao, Jian; Luo, Xiaoping; Feng, Zhenfei; Zhang, Jinxin
2018-01-01
This work combines fuzzy logic and a support vector machine (SVM) with a principal component analysis (PCA) to create an artificial-intelligence system that identifies nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow states in a vertical mini-channel. Flow-pattern recognition requires finding the operational details of the process and doing computer simulations and image processing can be used to automate the description of flow patterns in nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow. This work uses fuzzy logic and a SVM with PCA to improve the accuracy with which the flow pattern of a nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow is identified. To acquire images of nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns of flow boiling, a high-speed digital camera was used to record four different types of flow-pattern images, namely annular flow, bubbly flow, churn flow, and slug flow. The textural features extracted by processing the images of nanofluid gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns are used as inputs to various identification schemes such as fuzzy logic, SVM, and SVM with PCA to identify the type of flow pattern. The results indicate that the SVM with reduced characteristics of PCA provides the best identification accuracy and requires less calculation time than the other two schemes. The data reported herein should be very useful for the design and operation of industrial applications.
Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi; Abe, Yutaka; Kimura, Ko-ji
1995-01-01
In the present paper, characteristics of low mass velocity two-phase flow was analyzed based on a concept that pressure energy of two-phase flow is converted into acceleration work, gravitational work and frictional work, and the pressure energy consumption rate should be minimum at the stable two-phase flow condition. Experimental data for vertical upward air-water two-phase flow at atmospheric pressure was used to verify this concept and the turbulent model used in this method is optimized with the data. (author)
A study on two phase flows of linear compressors for the prediction of refrigerant leakage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Il Sun; Lee, Young Lim; Oh, Won Sik; Park, Kyeong Bae
2015-01-01
Usage of linear compressors is on the rise due to their high efficiency. In this paper, leakage of a linear compressor has been studied through numerical analysis and experiments. First, nitrogen leakage for a stagnant piston with fixed cylinder pressure as well as for a moving piston with fixed cylinder pressure was analyzed to verify the validity of the two-phase flow analysis model. Next, refrigerant leakage of a linear compressor in operation was finally predicted through 3-dimensional unsteady, two phase flow CFD (Computational fluid dynamics). According to the research results, the numerical analyses for the fixed cylinder pressure models were in good agreement with the experimental results. The refrigerant leakage of the linear compressor in operation mainly occurred through the oil exit and the leakage became negligible after about 0.4s following operation where the leakage became lower than 2.0x10 -4 kg/s.
A study of Two-Phase Flow Regime Maps in Vertical and Horizontal Pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kyung Doo; Kang, Doo Hyuk
2007-10-01
A safety analysis code to design a pressurized water reactor and to obtain the licences including entire proprietary rights is under development in domestic research and development project. The purpose and scope of this report is to develop the flow regimes related models for inter-phase friction, wall frictions, wall heat transfer, and inter-phase heat and mass transfer in two-phase three-field equations. In order to choose choose the flow regime criteria, we have investigated various exiting best-estimate T/H codes in this chapter 2. They are the RELAP5-3D, TRAC-M, CATHARE, MARS codes. Around 500 references used in these codes have been collected and reviewed. Also we have investigated eleven papers in detail. In chapter 3, based on the selected flow regimes, the flow regime maps for a gas-liquid flow in horizontal and vertical tubes have decided including the mechanisms of flow regime transition regions. Conclusively, the process will be presented for choosing the best flow regime maps which occur in gas-liquid two-phase flow in horizontal and vertical pipes. We will look forward to decide the constitutive relations based upon the flow regime maps that are determined in this works. The constitutive relations will be used for the code under development
Experimental study on two-phase flow parameters of subcooled boiling in inclined annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Tae Ho; Kim, Moon Oh; Park, Goon Cherl
1999-01-01
Local two-phase flow parameters of subcooled flow boiling in inclined annulus were measured to investigate the effect of inclination on the internal flow structure. Two-conductivity probe technique was applied to measured local gas phasic parameters, including void by fraction, vapor bubble frequency, chord length, vapor bubble velocity and interfacial area concentration. Local liquid velocity was measured by Pitot tube. Experiments were conducted for three angles of inclination: 0 o (vertical), 30 o , 60 o . The system pressure was maintained at atmospheric pressure. The range of average void fraction was up to 10 percent and the average liquid superficial velocities were less than 1.3 m/sec. The results of experiments showed that the distributions of two-phase flow parameters were influenced by the angle of channel inclination. Especially, the void fraction and chord length distributions were strongly affected by the increase of inclination angle, and flow pattern transition to slug flow was observed depending on the flow conditions. The profiles of vapor velocity, liquid velocity and interfacial area concentration were found to be affected by the non-symmetric bubble size distribution in inclined channel. Using the measured distributions of local phasic parameters, an analysis for predicting average void fraction was performed based on the drift flux model and flowing volumetric concentration. And it was demonstrated that the average void fraction can be more appropriately presented in terms of flowing volumetric concentration. (Author). 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs
Fundamental research of two-phase flows with high liquid/gas density ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi; Saito, Yasushi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Tohru
2000-07-01
In order to analyze the boiling of a fuel-steel mixture pool formed during the core disruptive accident in a fast breeder reactor, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase pools containing molten reactor materials. Since the liquid/gas density ratio is high, the characteristics of such two-phase flows may differ from those of ordinary flows such as water/air flow. In this study, as a fundamental research of two-phase flows with a high liquid/gas density ratio, the experiments were performed to visualize and measure molten metal (lead-bismuth)/nitrogen gas two-phase flows using a neutron radiography technique. From these experiments, fundamental data such as bubble shapes, void fractions and liquid velocity fields were obtained. In addition, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III, which has been developed by JNC, was assessed and improved using the experimental data. In the visualization by neutron radiography, it was found that deformed ellipsoidal bubbles could be seen with smaller gas flux or lower void fractions, and spherical cap bubbles could be seen with larger gas flux or higher void fractions. In addition, a correlation applicable to SIMMER-III was proposed through a comparison between the experimental data and traditional empirical correlations. Furthermore, a visualization experiment using gold-cadmium tracer particles showed that the image processing technique used in the quantification of void fractions is applicable to the measurement of the liquid velocity fields. On the other hand, in the analysis by SIMMER-III, it was confirmed that the original momentum exchange model was appropriate for ellipsoidal bobby flows and that the accuracy of SIMMER-III for cap bubbly flows was much improved with the proposed correlation. Moreover, a new procedure, in which the appropriate drag coefficient could be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. The SIMMER-III code improved through this study can
R 12 two-phase flow in throttle capillaries in critical flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, G.
1983-01-01
In this dissertation, the state of knowledge on two phase flow, its use and measurement processes are given from an extensive search of the literature. In the experimental part of the work, a continuously working experimental circuit was built up, by which single component two phase flow can be examined in critical flow conditions. Using the maintenance equations, a system of equations was produced, by which the content of steam flow, the content of steam volume and the slip between the phases at the end corssection of the capillary can be determined. The transfer of the experimental results into the Baker diagram shows that the experimental values lie in the region of mist, bubble and foam flow. (orig.) [de
Horizontal two phase flow pattern identification by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crivelaro, Kelen Cristina Oliveira; Seleghim Junior, Paulo; Hervieu, Eric
1999-01-01
A multiphase fluid can flow according to several flow regimes. The problem associated with multiphase systems are basically related to the behavior of macroscopic parameters, such as pressure drop, thermal exchanges and so on, and their strong correlation to the flow regime. From the industrial applications point of view, the safety and longevity of equipment and systems can only be assured when they work according to the flow regimes for which they were designed to. This implies in the need to diagnose flow regimes in real time. The automatic diagnosis of flow regimes represents an objective of extreme importance, mainly for applications on nuclear and petrochemical industries. In this work, a neural network is used in association to a probe of direct visualization for the identification of a gas-liquid flow horizontal regimes, developed in an experimental circuit. More specifically, the signals produced by the probe are used to compose a qualitative image of the flow, which is promptly sent to the network for the recognition of the regimes. Results are presented for different transitions among the flow regimes, which demonstrate the extremely satisfactory performance of the diagnosis system. (author)
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrey Ioilev; Maskhud Samigulin; Vasily Ustinenko; Simon Lo; Adrian Tentner
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The goal of this project is to develop an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code (CFD-BWR) that allows the detailed analysis of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle under various operating conditions. This code will include more fundamental physical models than the current generation of sub-channel codes and advanced numerical algorithms for improved computational accuracy, robustness, and speed. It is highly desirable to understand the detailed two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is still too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupled with the rapidly increasing computational power of massively parallel computers, shows promising potential for the fine-mesh, detailed simulation of fuel assembly two-phase flow phenomena. However, the phenomenological models available in the commercial CFD programs are not as advanced as those currently being used in the sub-channel codes used in the nuclear industry. In particular, there are no models currently available which are able to reliably predict the nature of the flow regimes, and use the appropriate sub-models for those flow regimes. The CFD-BWR code is being developed as a customized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD Code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The paper describes the model development strategy which has been adopted by the development team for the
Influence and applicability of wire-mesh sensor to acquire two phase flow dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu
2011-01-01
Wire-mesh sensors (WMS) are able to measure void distributions and velocity profile at high speed. Immersing the wire-mesh affects the structure of two-phase flow. Experiments were performed for single rising air bubble in a vertical pipe of i.d. 50 mm and 224 mm at water velocities ranging from 0.05 to 0.52 m/s and 0.42 to 0.83 m/s. Distortion of a relatively large bubble with the wire-mesh was small in the water velocity over 0.25 m/s and confirmed by cross-correlation analysis as well. Bubble rising velocity acquired by WMS is in good agreement with that estimated high-speed camera in the experimental range. WMS has applicability to acquire two phase flow dynamics in the water velocity over 0.25 m/s. (author)
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2013-01-01
A class of discontinuous Galerkin methods with interior penalties is presented for incompressible two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media with capillary pressures. The semidiscrete approximate schemes for fully coupled system of two-phase flow are formulated. In highly heterogeneous permeable media, the saturation is discontinuous due to different capillary pressures, and therefore, the proposed methods incorporate the capillary pressures in the pressure equation instead of saturation equation. By introducing a coupling approach for stability and error estimates instead of the conventional separate analysis for pressure and saturation, the stability of the schemes in space and time and a priori hp error estimates are presented in the L2(H 1) for pressure and in the L∞(L2) and L2(H1) for saturation. Two time discretization schemes are introduced for effectively computing the discrete solutions. © 2013 Societ y for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Measurement of the single and two phase flow using newly developed average bidirectional flow tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Byong Jo; Euh, Dong Jin; Kang, Kyung Ho; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil
2005-01-01
A new instrument, an average BDFT (Birectional Flow Tube), was proposed to measure the flow rate in single and two phase flows. Its working principle is similar to that of the pitot tube, wherein the dynamic pressure is measured. In an average BDFT, the pressure measured at the front of the flow tube is equal to the total pressure, while that measured at the rear tube is slightly less than the static pressure of the flow field due to the suction effect downstream. The proposed instrument was tested in air/water vertical and horizontal test sections with an inner diameter of 0.08m. The tests were performed primarily in single phase water and air flow conditions to obtain the amplification factor(k) of the flow tube in the vertical and horizontal test sections. Tests were also performed in air/water vertical two phase flow conditions in which the flow regimes were bubbly, slug, and churn turbulent flows. In order to calculate the phasic mass flow rates from the measured differential pressure, the Chexal dirft-flux correlation and a momentum exchange factor between the two phases were introduced. The test results show that the proposed instrument with a combination of the measured void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation, and Bosio and Malnes' momentum exchange model could predict the phasic mass flow rates within a 15% error. A new momentum exchange model was also proposed from the present data and its implementation provides a 5% improvement to the measured mass flow rate when compared to that with the Bosio and Malnes' model
Parallel two-phase-flow-induced vibrations in fuel pin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio; Yamashita, Tadashi
1978-01-01
This paper reports the experimental results of vibrations of a fuel pin model -herein meaning the essential form of a fuel pin from the standpoint of vibration- in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow. The essential part of the experimental apparatus consisted of a flat elastic strip made of stainless steel, both ends of which were firmly supported in a circular channel conveying the two-phase fluid. Vibrational strain of the fuel pin model, pressure fluctuation of the two-phase flow and two-phase-flow void signals were measured. Statistical measures such as power spectral density, variance and correlation function were calculated. The authors obtained (1) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow velocity, (2) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, (3) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, and (4) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of two-phase-flow void signals. The authors conclude that there exist two kinds of excitation mechanisms in vibrations of a fuel pin model inserted in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow; namely, (1) parametric excitation, which occurs when the fundamental natural frequency of the fuel pin model is related to the dominant travelling frequency of water slugs in the two-phase flow by the ratio 1/2, 1/1, 3/2 and so on; and (2) vibrational resonance, which occurs when the fundamental frequency coincides with the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation. (auth.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-01-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-07-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-09-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Measurements of local two-phase flow parameters in a boiling flow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Byong Jo; Park, Goon-CherI; Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa
1998-01-01
Local two-phase flow parameters were measured lo investigate the internal flow structures of steam-water boiling flow in an annulus channel. Two kinds of measuring methods for local two-phase flow parameters were investigated. These are a two-conductivity probe for local vapor parameters and a Pitot cube for local liquid parameters. Using these probes, the local distribution of phasic velocities, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and void fraction is measured. In this study, the maximum local void fraction in subcooled boiling condition is observed around the heating rod and the local void fraction is smoothly decreased from the surface of a heating rod to the channel center without any wall void peaking, which was observed in air-water experiments. The distributions of local IAC and bubble frequency coincide with those of local void fraction for a given area-averaged void fraction. (author)
One-dimensional transient unequal velocity two-phase flow by the method of characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasouli, F.
1981-01-01
An understanding of two-phase flow is important when one is analyzing the accidental loss of coolant or when analyzing industrial processes. If a pipe in the steam generator of a nuclear reactor breaks, the flow will remain critical (or choked) for almost the entire blowdown. For this reason the knowledge of the two-phase maximum (critical) flow rate is important. A six-equation model--consisting of two continuity equations, two energy equations, a mixture momentum equation, and a constitutive relative velocity equation--is solved numerically by the method of characteristics for one-dimensional, transient, two-phase flow systems. The analysis is also extended to the special case of transient critical flow. The six-equation model is used to study the flow of a nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the critical flow condition is at the entrance. A four-equation model is used to study the pressure-pulse propagation rate in an isothermal air-water system, and the results that are found are compared with the experimental data. Proper initial and boundary conditions are obtained for the blowdown problem. The energy and mass exchange relations are evaluated by comparing the model predictions with results of void-fraction and heat-transfer experiments. A simplified two-equation model is obtained for the special case of two incompressible phases. This model is used in the preliminary analysis of batch sedimentation. It is also used to predict the shock formation in the gas-solid fluidized bed
Horizontal liquid film-mist two phase flow, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akagawa, Koji; Sakaguchi, Tadashi; Fujii, Terushige; Nakatani, Yoji; Nakaseko, Kosaburo.
1979-01-01
The characteristics of liquid film in annular spray flow, the generation of droplets from liquid film and the transport of droplets to a wall are the important matters in the planning and design of nuclear reactor cooling system and the channels of steam generators. The study on the liquid film spray flow is scarce, and its characteristics are not yet elucidated. The purpose of this series of studies is to clarify the characteristics of liquid film, the generation, diffusion and distribution of droplets and pressure loss in the liquid film spray flow composed of the liquid film on the lower wall and spraying gas flow in a rectangular, horizontal channel. In this paper, the concentration distribution and the diffusion coefficient of droplets on a cross section in the region of flow completion are reported. The experimental apparatuses and the experimental method, the flow rate of droplets and the velocity distribution of gas phase, the concentration distribution and the diffusion coefficient of droplets, and the diameter of generated droplets are explained. The equation for the concentration distribution of droplets using dimensionless characteristic value was derived. The mean diffusion coefficient of droplets was constant on a cross section, and the effects of gravity and turbulent diffusion can be evaluated. (Kako, I.)
Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.
1987-01-01
An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.
1979-01-01
Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT
Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.
Evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takamori, Kazuhide; Minato, Akihiko
1993-01-01
A multidimensional analysis code for two-phase flow using a two-fluid model was improved by taking into consideration the condensation heat transfer, film thickness, and film velocity, in order to develop an evaluation method for two-phase flow and heat transfer in a feed-water heater. The following results were obtained by a two-dimensional analysis of a feed-water heater for a power plant. (1) In the model, the film flowed downward in laminar flow due to gravity, with droplet entrainment and deposition. For evaluation of the film thickness, Fujii's equation was used in order to account for forced convection of steam flow. (2) Based on the former experimental data, the droplet deposition coefficient and droplet entrainment rate of liquid film were determined. When the ratio at which the liquid film directly flowed from an upper heat transfer tube to a lower heat transfer tube was 0.7, the calculated total heat transfer rate agreed with the measured value of 130 MW. (3) At the upper region of a heat transfer tube bundle where film thickness was thin, and at the outer region of a heat transfer tube bundle where steam velocity was high, the heat transfer rate was large. (author)
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy
1997-12-31
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narumo, T.
1997-01-01
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors
Design and development of drag-disc flowmeter for measurement of transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
1990-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1988-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point. 45 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.
1989-01-01
Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakarian, E.
2000-03-10
Recent estimations predict that over half the remaining offshore oil and gas reserves are located in deep water and marginal fields. For such reserves, economic recovery methods are required. Then, multiphase flows are transported within pipelines and separated on treatment platforms built in shallow water or processed in onshore facilities. Unfortunately, hydrodynamic instabilities may occur whenever gas and liquid flow in a pipeline, generating serious operating problems. This dissertation presents a new way to model two-phase flows in pipelines such as pipeline-riser systems. Equations are algebraic and differential. Their smoothness depends on the closure laws of the problem such as slip or friction laws. Smooth forms of these closure laws are presented for the first time in this dissertation. Therefore, a mathematical analysis of our model fits into a classical frame: a linear analysis leads to an analytical expression of the boundary between stable and unstable flows. A nonlinear analysis provides for the first time, the bifurcation curves of gas-liquid flows in pipe-riser systems, locally round their stability boundary. (author)
Operation of pumps in two-phase steam-water flow. [PWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou
1978-01-01
Determining the two-phase flow (critical or not) through a pump is an esential element for a complete description of loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor. This article descibes the theoretical and experimental research being done on this subject in France. The model of the pump is first described and its behaviour is examined in different possible cases, particularly that of critical flow. The analysis of the behaviour of the pump is then used to define the experimental conditions for the tests. Two test loops, EVA and EPOPEE, were built. The experimental results are then compared with the theoretical forecasts.
Operation of pumps in two-phase steam-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grison, P.; Lauro, J.F.
1978-01-01
Determining the two-phase flow (critical or not) through a pump is an esential element for a complete description of loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor. This article descibes the theoretical and experimental research being done on this subject in France. The model of the pump is first described and its behaviour is examined in different possible cases, particularly that of critical flow. The analysis of the behaviour of the pump is then used to define the experimental conditions for the tests. Two test loops, EVA and EPOPEE, were built. The experimental results are then compared with the theoretical forecasts [fr
Gravity Effect on Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Layered Reservoirs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2012-01-01
An upscaling method is developed for two-phase immiscible incompressible flows in layered reservoirs with good communication between the layers. It takes the effect of gravity into consideration. Waterflooding of petroleum reservoirs is used as a basic example for application of this method....... An asymptotic analysis is applied to a system of 2D flow equations for incompressible fluids at high-anisotropy ratios, but low to moderate gravity ratios, which corresponds to the most often found reservoir conditions. The 2D Buckley–Leverett problem is reduced to a system of 1D parabolic equations...
Study of two-phase critical flows through small breaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chalant, Jean Marc; Willocx, Marc
1981-06-01
The first part of this academic document reports experimental works performed for the design and realisation of an installation (DALIDA) aimed at the study of critical flow rates through a hole. As this experimental study had to be given up for practical reasons, the authors focused on the theoretical study of this phenomenon. Based on a model proposed by Lackme for critical flows in long tubes, the authors developed a model which could be applied to the case of a tube ended by a hole. Numerical results have been obtained which are still to be experimentally confirmed [fr
Flow regime classification in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow.
Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H
2008-05-21
A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-01-01
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model
Two phase flow combustion modelling of a ducted rocket
Stowe, R.A.; Dubois, C.; Harris, P.G.; Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Champlain, A. de; Ringuette, S.
2001-01-01
Under a co-operative program, the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier and Université Laval in Canada and the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory in the Netherlands have studied the use of a ducted rocket for missile propulsion. Hot-flow direct-connect combustion experiments using both simulated and
Two-phase PIV of bubbly flows: status and trends
Deen, N.G.; Westerweel, Jerry; Delnoij, E.
2002-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique that has received a lot of attention for this purpose in the last decade. PIV is an optical and thus non-intrusive measurement technique that gives instantaneous 2D velocity data for a whole plane in a 3D flow field. In this paper we will
A continuum theory for two-phase flows of particulate solids: application to Poiseuille flows
Monsorno, Davide; Varsakelis, Christos; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.
2015-11-01
In the first part of this talk, we present a novel two-phase continuum model for incompressible fluid-saturated granular flows. The model accounts for both compaction and shear-induced dilatancy and accommodates correlations for the granular rheology in a thermodynamically consistent way. In the second part of this talk, we exercise this two-phase model in the numerical simulation of a fully-developed Poiseuille flow of a dense suspension. The numerical predictions are shown to compare favorably against experimental measurements and confirm that the model can capture the important characteristics of the flow field, such as segregation and formation of plug zones. Finally, results from parametric studies with respect to the initial concentration, the magnitude of the external forcing and the width of the channel are presented and the role of these physical parameters is quantified. Financial Support has been provided by SEDITRANS, an Initial Training Network of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haga, D; Niibori, Y; Chida, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)
1998-10-25
Fluids in geothermal reservoirs are not necessarily in the single phase but is occasionally in the gas-liquid double phase. This study aims to collect fundamental knowledge about the analysis of tracer responses in a gas-liquid two-phase flow, with special attention paid to the movement of substances in the liquid-phase portion of the two-phase flow. A tracer test is conducted in a glass bead-filled layer, and then it is found that the conventional mixture-diffusion model fails to explain the outcome of the test conducted using the said very simple apparatus. The failure is attributed to the coexistence of high-saturation and low-saturation layers throughout the glass bead-filled layer, and a mathematical model is formulated, which is a development from the two-fractured-layer (TFL) model. It turns out that the mathematical model excellently describes the test result that the mixture-diffusion model fails to explain. In the numerical solution of this problem, the validity is confirmed of the use of the SIMPLEX method for the estimation of the effect of the numerical dispersion term of the third-order accurate finite upstream difference method, and of unknown parameters. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
A simple delay model for two-phase flow dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clausse, A.; Delmastro, D.F.; Juanico`, L.E. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)
1995-09-01
A model based in delay equations for density-wave oscillations is presented. High Froude numbers and moderate ones were considered. The equations were numerically analyzed and compared with more sophisticated models. The influence of the gravity term was studied. Different kinds of behavior were found, particularly sub-critical and super-critical Hopf bifurcations. Moreover the present approach can be used to better understand the complicated dynamics of boiling flows systems.
Numerical calculation of two phase flow in a shock tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivard, W.C.; Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.
1976-01-01
Numerical calculations of the dynamics of initially saturated water-steam mixtures in a shock tube demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of a new solution technique for the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid equations. The dependence of the calculated results on time step and cell size are investigated. The effects of boiling and condensation on the flow physics suggest the merits of basic fluid dynamic measurements for the determination and evaluation of mass exchange models
Radiogauging to investigate two phase flow. Graduation report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corten, G.P.
1992-01-01
New measuring methods are developed and are tested with the small reactor simulator MIDAS (Mini Dodewaard ASsembly). The purpose of this work is to be able to measure accurately as many different properties of the flow as possible in the coming bigger simulator SIDAS (Simulated Dodewaard ASsembly). In SIDAS the flow around a fuel assembly of the Dutch Dodewaard reactor will be simulated. An extensive evaluation of the gamma detection system showed that the detection system could be simplified strongly. The simplified system is used to measure the radial and axial distribution of the void fraction in the core of MIDAS for three different operating conditions. Two new measuring methods have been developed and tested. A method to estimate the probability density of the void fraction in time. Due to the nonlinear relation between transmission and void fraction the determined average value of the void fraction in general will contain a systematic error. In this investigation it is shown that this error can be maximally 7.5% in MIDAS and maximally 25% in SIDAS. Therefore a new measuring method has been developed in which the true probability density of the void fraction in time is approximated by two different values of the void fraction, each with a certain probability. With this new method firstly the average void fraction can be determined much more precisely and secondly it often can be used to determine the flow pattern. (orig./WL)
Radiogauging to investigate two phase flow. Graduation report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corten, G P
1992-11-12
New measuring methods are developed and are tested with the small reactor simulator MIDAS (Mini Dodewaard ASsembly). The purpose of this work is to be able to measure accurately as many different properties of the flow as possible in the coming bigger simulator SIDAS (Simulated Dodewaard ASsembly). In SIDAS the flow around a fuel assembly of the Dutch Dodewaard reactor will be simulated. An extensive evaluation of the gamma detection system showed that the detection system could be simplified strongly. The simplified system is used to measure the radial and axial distribution of the void fraction in the core of MIDAS for three different operating conditions. Two new measuring methods have been developed and tested. A method to estimate the probability density of the void fraction in time. Due to the nonlinear relation between transmission and void fraction the determined average value of the void fraction in general will contain a systematic error. In this investigation it is shown that this error can be maximally 7.5% in MIDAS and maximally 25% in SIDAS. Therefore a new measuring method has been developed in which the true probability density of the void fraction in time is approximated by two different values of the void fraction, each with a certain probability. With this new method firstly the average void fraction can be determined much more precisely and secondly it often can be used to determine the flow pattern. (orig./WL).
Acceleration of two-phase flow by boiling, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Toshitsugu; Uchida, Motokazu; Mitani, Akio; Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio.
1975-01-01
This paper reports on the experimental results concerning the acceleration mechanism of the liquid used for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The experiment simulated two-component flow by injecting low boiling point liquid (R113) which is not soluble in main high temperature flow (hot water). From the boiling of this two component flow, the relations among the acceleration performance of the liquid, the number and frequency of bubbles generated from liquid drops, and the growth velocity of the bubbles have been investigated. All the injected liquid drops did not necessarily boil even if they were heated above the saturation temperature. The probability of boiling of the liquid drops becomes larger as the temperature difference between two liquids becomes larger. The bubble generation frequency distributed around the mean elapsed time of the liquid drops. The larger temperature difference between two liquids presents sharper distribution. The radius of bubbles increased proportionally to the two-thirds power of the elapsed time and also to two-thirds power of the temperature difference. The liquid acceleration performance by bubbles increased as the bubble generation frequency distribution becomes sharpe. (Tai, I.)
Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.
2000-06-01
The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)
Effect of surface wettability on flow patterns in vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, D.
2005-01-01
To examine the effect of the surface characteristics on the flow regime in two-phase flow, visualization study was performed using three test pipes, namely a no-coating pipe, a water-attracting coating pipe, a water-shedding coating pipe. Three flow regime maps were obtained based on the visual observation in the three pipes. In the water-attracting coating pipe, the slug flow-to-churn flow transition boundary was shifted to higher gas velocity at a given liquid velocity, whereas the churn flow-to-annular flow transition boundary was shifted to lower gas velocity at a given liquid velocity. In the water shedding coating pipe, the inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was to be observed in a no-coating pipe, whereas the droplet flow regime was observed in the region where the annular flow regime was to be observed in a no-coating pipe. The criteria for the slug flow-to-inverted-churn flow transition and the inverted-churn flow-to-droplet flow transition were modeled by force balance approaches. The modeled transition criteria could predict the observed flow transition boundaries reasonably well. (authors)
Prediction of two-phase choked-flow through safety valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnulfo, G; Bertani, C; De Salve, M
2014-01-01
Different models of two-phase choked flow through safety valves are applied in order to evaluate their capabilities of prediction in different thermal-hydraulic conditions. Experimental data available in the literature for two-phase fluid and subcooled liquid upstream the safety valve have been compared with the models predictions. Both flashing flows and non-flashing flows of liquid and incondensable gases have been considered. The present paper shows that for flashing flows good predictions are obtained by using the two-phase valve discharge coefficient defined by Lenzing and multiplying it by the critical flow rate in an ideal nozzle evaluated by either Omega Method or the Homogeneous Non-equilibrium Direct Integration. In case of non-flashing flows of water and air, Leung/Darby formulation of the two-phase valve discharge coefficient together with the Omega Method is more suitable to the prediction of flow rate.
Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems
Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D
2013-12-03
A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.
A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji
2000-01-01
Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)
Extension of CFD Codes Application to Two-Phase Flow Safety Problems - Phase 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bestion, D.; Anglart, H.; Mahaffy, J.; Lucas, D.; Song, C.H.; Scheuerer, M.; Zigh, G.; Andreani, M.; Kasahara, F.; Heitsch, M.; Komen, E.; Moretti, F.; Morii, T.; Muehlbauer, P.; Smith, B.L.; Watanabe, T.
2014-11-01
The Writing Group 3 on the extension of CFD to two-phase flow safety problems was formed following recommendations made at the 'Exploratory Meeting of Experts to Define an Action Plan on the Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety Problems' held in Aix-en-Provence, in May 2002. Extension of CFD codes to two-phase flow is significant potentiality for the improvement of safety investigations, by giving some access to smaller scale flow processes which were not explicitly described by present tools. Using such tools as part of a safety demonstration may bring a better understanding of physical situations, more confidence in the results, and an estimation of safety margins. The increasing computer performance allows a more extensive use of 3D modelling of two-phase Thermal hydraulics with finer nodalization. However, models are not as mature as in single phase flow and a lot of work has still to be done on the physical modelling and numerical schemes in such two-phase CFD tools. The Writing Group listed and classified the NRS problems where extension of CFD to two-phase flow may bring real benefit, and classified different modelling approaches in a first report (Bestion et al., 2006). First ideas were reported about the specification and analysis of needs in terms of validation and verification. It was then suggested to focus further activity on a limited number of NRS issues with a high priority and a reasonable chance to be successful in a reasonable period of time. The WG3-step 2 was decided with the following objectives: - selection of a limited number of NRS issues having a high priority and for which two-phase CFD has a reasonable chance to be successful in a reasonable period of time; - identification of the remaining gaps in the existing approaches using two-phase CFD for each selected NRS issue; - review of the existing data base for validation of two-phase CFD application to the selected NRS problems
Two-phase flows in the formed tornado funnel
Sinkevich, O. A.; Bortsova, A. A.
2017-10-01
At present, it is obvious that the problem of the tornado is important not only for our planetЮ to determine the conditions for the formation of a tornado, it is required to take into account a number of hydrodynamic and plasma processes [1 - 6]. Along to prediction of a tornado generation conditions [1 - 3] it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of its quasi-stationary motion in a formed funnel: the mass of the moving moist air involved in the funnel and the size and form of the funnel. For a complete description of the phenomena, it is necessary to involve numerical calculations. We note that even for numerical calculations using powerful computers, the problem is very difficult because of the need to calculate multiphase turbulent flows with free, self-organizing boundaries [1, 6]. However, “strict” numerical calculations, it is impossible to do without the use of many, often mutually exclusive, models. For example, how to choice an adequate model of turbulence (algebraic, k-ε model, etc.) or the use of additional, often not accepted, hypotheses about certain processes used in calculations (mechanisms on the nature of moisture condensation, etc.). Therefore, along with numerical calculations of such flows, modeling problems that allow an exact solution and allow to determine the most important and observed characteristics of a tornado.
Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding
Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling
2018-03-01
In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.
Dessirier, Benoît; Frampton, Andrew; Jarsjö, Jerker
2015-11-01
Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep crystalline rock is investigated as a possible long term solution in Sweden and Finland. The fuel rods would be cased in copper canisters and deposited in vertical holes in the floor of deep underground tunnels, embedded within an engineered bentonite buffer. Recent experiments at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) showed that the high suction of unsaturated bentonite causes a de-saturation of the adjacent rock at the time of installation, which was also independently predicted in model experiments. Remaining air can affect the flow patterns and alter bio-geochemical conditions, influencing for instance the transport of radionuclides in the case of canister failure. However, thus far, observations and model realizations are limited in number and do not capture the conceivable range and combination of parameter values and boundary conditions that are relevant for the thousands of deposition holes envisioned in an operational final repository. In order to decrease this knowledge gap, we introduce here a formalized, systematic and fully integrated approach to study the combined impact of multiple factors on air saturation and dissolution predictions, investigating the impact of variability in parameter values, geometry and boundary conditions on bentonite buffer saturation times and on occurrences of rock de-saturation. Results showed that four parameters consistently appear in the top six influential factors for all considered output (target) variables: the position of the fracture intersecting the deposition hole, the background rock permeability, the suction representing the relative humidity in the open tunnel and the far field pressure value. The combined influence of these compared to the other parameters increases as one targets a larger fraction of the buffer reaching near-saturation. Strong interaction effects were found, which means that some parameter combinations yielded results (e.g., time to
Validation of model predictions of pore-scale fluid distributions during two-phase flow
Bultreys, Tom; Lin, Qingyang; Gao, Ying; Raeini, Ali Q.; AlRatrout, Ahmed; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.
2018-05-01
Pore-scale two-phase flow modeling is an important technology to study a rock's relative permeability behavior. To investigate if these models are predictive, the calculated pore-scale fluid distributions which determine the relative permeability need to be validated. In this work, we introduce a methodology to quantitatively compare models to experimental fluid distributions in flow experiments visualized with microcomputed tomography. First, we analyzed five repeated drainage-imbibition experiments on a single sample. In these experiments, the exact fluid distributions were not fully repeatable on a pore-by-pore basis, while the global properties of the fluid distribution were. Then two fractional flow experiments were used to validate a quasistatic pore network model. The model correctly predicted the fluid present in more than 75% of pores and throats in drainage and imbibition. To quantify what this means for the relevant global properties of the fluid distribution, we compare the main flow paths and the connectivity across the different pore sizes in the modeled and experimental fluid distributions. These essential topology characteristics matched well for drainage simulations, but not for imbibition. This suggests that the pore-filling rules in the network model we used need to be improved to make reliable predictions of imbibition. The presented analysis illustrates the potential of our methodology to systematically and robustly test two-phase flow models to aid in model development and calibration.
Immiscible two-phase fluid flows in deformable porous media
Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Majer, Ernest
Macroscopic differential equations of mass and momentum balance for two immiscible fluids in a deformable porous medium are derived in an Eulerian framework using the continuum theory of mixtures. After inclusion of constitutive relationships, the resulting momentum balance equations feature terms characterizing the coupling among the fluid phases and the solid matrix caused by their relative accelerations. These terms, which imply a number of interesting phenomena, do not appear in current hydrologic models of subsurface multiphase flow. Our equations of momentum balance are shown to reduce to the Berryman-Thigpen-Chen model of bulk elastic wave propagation through unsaturated porous media after simplification (e.g., isothermal conditions, neglect of gravity, etc.) and under the assumption of constant volume fractions and material densities. When specialized to the case of a porous medium containing a single fluid and an elastic solid, our momentum balance equations reduce to the well-known Biot model of poroelasticity. We also show that mass balance alone is sufficient to derive the Biot model stress-strain relations, provided that a closure condition for porosity change suggested by de la Cruz and Spanos is invoked. Finally, a relation between elastic parameters and inertial coupling coefficients is derived that permits the partial differential equations of the Biot model to be decoupled into a telegraph equation and a wave equation whose respective dependent variables are two different linear combinations of the dilatations of the solid and the fluid.
Experimental study and theoretical modelling of two-phase flow in a converging diverging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selmer-Olsen, Stale
1991-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of high quality two-phase flows in converging-diverging nozzles is presented. The main objectives are the prediction of critical (choked) flow rates and the evolution of characteristic parameters towards the nozzle outlet. First, a thorough analysis of available models shows the importance of a correct modelling of the mechanical and thermal interactions between the gas and liquid phases. As a second step, a purely dispersed flow model is considered. The solution algorithm which is utilized describes accurately the critical (choked) flow conditions as well as the topology of the solutions. The dispersed flow model accounts for effects on the gas flow rate of the upstream and the downstream pressures, the liquid flow rate and the nozzle geometry. The pressure profile along the nozzle and the location of the critical cross-section are also well predicted. The flow is shown to switch from critical to sub-critical when the liquid flow rate is increased, all other control parameters at the inlet and the outlet maintained. This new finding is interpreted as a result of the possible location of the critical cross-section anywhere in the diverging part of the nozzle. Moreover, the experiments show that the critical (choked) gas flow rate depends on the inlet configuration of gas/liquid. In the third step, a careful analysis of the data is used as a basis for proposing a new dispersed-annular flow model. This model accounts for the liquid flowing both as a liquid film and as entrained droplets in the core, non-developed flow is accounted for as well as flow separation in the diffuser. Finally, advanced local measuring techniques of pressure, film thickness and film velocity have been developed in the course of the work. In particular film thickness measurements allowed the development of the flow structure to be understood. (author) [fr
Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.
1992-01-01
FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime
Pressure distribution over tube surfaces of tube bundle subjected to two phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2013-01-01
Two phase vapor liquid flows exist in many shell and tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators and nuclear steam generators. To understand the fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to a two phase flow, it is essential to obtain detailed information about the characteristics of a two phase flow. The characteristics of a two phase flow and the flow parameters were introduced, and then, an experiment was performed to evaluate the pressure loss in the tube bundles and the fluid dynamic force acting on the cylinder owing to the pressure distribution. A two phase flow was pre mixed at the entrance of the test section, and the experiments were undertaken using a normal triangular array of cylinders subjected to a two phase cross flow. The pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles was measured to calculate the two phase friction multiplier, and the multiplier was compared with the analytical value. Furthermore, the circular distributions of the pressure on the cylinders were measured. Based on the distribution and the fundamental theory of two phase flow, the effects of the void fraction and mass flux per unit area on the pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure on the tube by a numerical method. It was found that for low mass fluxes, the measured two phase friction multipliers agree well with the analytical results, and good agreement for the effect of the void fraction on the drag coefficients, as calculated by the measured pressure distributions, is shown qualitatively, as compared to the existing experimental results
Two phase flow measurement and visualization using Wire Mesh Sensors (WMS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajalakshmi, R.; Robin, Roshini; Rama Rao, A.
2016-01-01
Two phase flow behavior studies have gained importance in nuclear power plants to enhance fuel performance and safety. In this paper, taking into consideration low cost, high space-time resolution and instantaneous mapping, electrical sensors such as wire mesh sensors (WMS) is proposed for measurement of void distribution and its visualization. The sensor works on the conductivity principle and by measuring the variations in conductivity values of the two phases, the flow distributions can be identified. This paper describes the conceptual design of the WMS for two phase void measurements, Mathematical modeling of the sensor for data evaluation, modeling of the sensor geometry and FEM simulation studies for optimizing sensor geometry and excitation parameters, CFD two phase flows simulations, development of suitable algorithm and programming for two phase visualization and void distribution studies, prototype sensor fabrication and testing
Two-phase flow and cross-mixing measurements in a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yloenen, A.; Prasser, H.-M.
2011-01-01
The wire-mesh sensor technique has been used for the first time to study two-phase flow and liquid mixing in a rod bundle. A dedicated test facility (SUBFLOW) was constructed at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in a co-operation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich). Simultaneous injection of salt water as tracer and air bubbles can be used to quantify the enhancement of liquid mixing in two-phase flow when the results are compared with the single-phase mixing experiment with the same test parameters. The second aspect in the current experiments is the two-phase flow in bundle geometry. (author)
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)
2009-02-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong
2009-01-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
Strong enhancement of streaming current power by application of two phase flow
Xie, Yanbo; Sherwood, John D.; Shui, Lingling; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.
2011-01-01
We show that the performance of a streaming-potential based microfluidic energy conversion system can be strongly en-hanced by the use of two phase flow. In single-phase systems, the internal conduction current induced by the streaming poten-tial limits the output power, while in a two-phase system
Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows
Sihao, L. V.; Yang, Weihua; Li, Xiangli; Li, Guohui
2013-01-01
A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent
Analytical simulations in the field of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwat, H.
1978-01-01
Power reactors are designed with engineered safeguards to cope with the consequences of possible failures or malfunctions. Experiments are carried out to verify the analytical simulations used in the design of these engineered safeguards. The paper discusses the basis for the verification of the analytical simulations, the requirements of corresponding experiments used to validitate the analysis and the necessary boundary conditions of the experiment as well as of the reactor systems. A detailed description of a typical boundary condition for real reactor systems is shown to be important, if experimental observations are to be interpreted correctly. Finally, the question will be addressed whether experiments on a larger scale than 1/1000 or 1/100 are necessary to extrapolate experimental observatons to a full scale reactor situation. (author)
Identification of two-phase flow regimes by time-series modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, C.H.; Ouyang, M.S.; Pei, B.S.
1987-01-01
The identification of two-phase flow patterns in pipes or ducts is important to the design and operation of thermal-hydraulic systems, especially in the nuclear reactor cores of boiling water reactors or in the steam generators of pressurized water reactors. Basically, two-phase flow shows some fluctuating characteristics even at steady-state conditions. These fluctuating characteristics can be analyzed by statistical methods for obtaining flow signatures. There have been a number of experimental studies conducted that are concerned with the statistical properties of void fraction or pressure pulsation in two-phase flow. In this study, the authors propose a new technique of identifying the patterns of air-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. This technique is based on analyzing the statistic characteristics of the pressure signals of the test loop by time-series modeling
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-01
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-15
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.
Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B. [Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment (Italy)
1995-09-01
This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.
A model for non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous two-phase critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassel, Wageeh Sidrak; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun
1999-01-01
Critical two phase flow is a very important phenomena in nuclear reactor technology for the analysis of loss of coolant accident. Several recent papers, Lee and Shrock (1990), Dagan (1993) and Downar (1996) , among others, treat the phenomena using complex models which require heuristic parameters such as relaxation constants or interfacial transfer models. In this paper a mathematical model for one dimensional non equilibrium and non homogeneous two phase flow in constant area duct is developed. The model is constituted of three conservation equations type mass ,momentum and energy. Two important variables are defined in the model: equilibrium constant in the energy equation and the impulse function in the momentum equation. In the energy equation, the enthalpy of the liquid phase is determined by a linear interpolation function between the liquid phase enthalpy at inlet condition and the saturated liquid enthalpy at local pressure. The interpolation coefficient is the equilibrium constant. The momentum equation is expressed in terms of the impulse function. It is considered that there is slip between the liquid and vapor phases, the liquid phase is in metastable state and the vapor phase is in saturated stable state. The model is not heuristic in nature and does not require complex interface transfer models. It is proved numerically that for the critical condition the partial derivative of two phase pressure drop with respect to the local pressure or to phase velocity must be zero.This criteria is demonstrated by numerical examples. The experimental work of Fauske (1962) and Jeandey (1982) were analyzed resulting in estimated numerical values for important parameters like slip ratio, equilibrium constant and two phase frictional drop. (author)
A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels.
Li, Huajun; Ji, Haifeng; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing; Wu, Guohua
2016-01-27
Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow) are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers' works.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in horizontal interconnected subchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoukri, M.; Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.
1983-01-01
Different subchannel computer codes have been successfully used for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in vertical fuel channels. However, none of these methods is suitable for two-phase flow in horizontal fuel channels, such as those of the CANDU nuclear reactors, due to the lack of appropriate constitutive relationships that can correctly account for the gravity separation effects. This paper describes the incorporation of a transverse vapour drift model which accounts for the combined effect of gravity separation and turbulent diffusion into the existing subchannel computer code SAGA. Although the basic structure of the code remains similar to SAGA III some modifications in both the mathematical formulation and numerical solution have been incorporated. These modifications resulted in significant improvements in the code's ability in modelling horizontal two-phase subchannel flow. The new version of the code was tested and found to be capable of simulating the complex exchange phenomenon between adjacent horizontal subchannels caused by the interaction of turbulent diffusion, pressure gradient as well as gravity induced cross flows. The code predictions were compared with experimental data obtained from two different sources and showed good agreement
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in horizontal interconnected subchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shourki, M.; Carver, M.B.; Tahir, A.
1985-01-01
Different subchannel computer codes have been successfully used for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in vertical fuel channels. None of these methods, however, is suitable for two-phase flow in horizontal fuel channels, such as those of the CANDU nuclear reactors, due to the lack of appropriate constitutive relationships that can correctly account for the gravity separation effects. A transverse vapor drift model that accounts for the combined effect of gravity separation and turbulent diffusion has been incorporated into the existing subchannel computer code SAGA. Although the basic structure of the code remains similar to SAGA III, some modifications in both the mathematical formulation and numerical solution have been incorporated. These modifications resulted in significant improvements in the code's ability to model horizontal two-phase subchannel flow. The new version of the code was tested and found to be capable of simulating the complex exchange phenomenon between adjacent horizontal subchannels caused by the interaction of turbulent diffusion, pressure gradient, and gravity-induced cross flows. The code predictions were compared with experimental data obtained from two different sources and showed good agreement
Void fraction fluctuations in two-phase gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulbrich, R.
1987-01-01
Designs of the apparatus in which two-phase gas-liquid flow occurs are usually based on the mean value of parameters such as pressure drop and void fraction. The flow of two-phase mixtures generally presents a very complicated flow structure, both in terms of the unsteady formation on the interfacial area and in terms of the fluctuations of the velocity, pressure and other variables within the flow. When the gas void fraction is near 0 or 1 / bubble or dispersed flow regimes / then oscillations of void fraction are very small. The intermittent flow such as plug and slug/ froth is characterized by alternately flow portions of liquid and gas. It influences the change of void fractions in time. The results of experimental research of gas void fraction fluctuations in two-phase adiabatic gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe are presented
Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations in PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Gallo, D.; Royer, E.
1997-01-01
This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods. They are based on an extension of Roe's approximate Riemann solver to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. To go forward in time, a linearized conservative implicit integrating step is used, together with a Newton iterative method. We also present here some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. This kind of numerical method, which is widely used for fluid dynamic calculations, is proved to be very efficient for the numerical solution to two-phase flow problems. This numerical method has been implemented for the three dimensional thermal-hydraulic code FLICA-4 which is mainly dedicated to core thermal-hydraulic transient and steady-state analysis. Hereafter, we will also find some results obtained for the EPR reactor running in a steady-state at 60% of nominal power with 3 pumps out of 4, and a thermal-hydraulic core analysis for a 1300 MW PWR at low flow steam-line-break conditions. (author)
An advanced ultrasonic technique for slow and void fraction measurements of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, J.L.H.; Su, J.; Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present a hybrid type counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic technique (CPTU) for flow and time averaging ultrasonic transmission intensity void fraction measurements (TATIU) of air-water two-phase flow, which is tested in the new two-phase flow test section mounted recently onto an existing single phase flow rig. The circular pipe test section is made of 51.2 mm stainless steel, followed by a transparent extruded acrylic pipe aimed at flow visualization. The two-phase flow rig operates in several flow regimes: bubbly, smooth stratified, wavy stratified and slug flow. The observed flow patterns are compared with previous experimental and numerical flow regime map for horizontal two phase flows. These flow patterns will be identified by time averaging transmission intensity ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. A counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic flowmeter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid phase. A pulse-echo TATIU ultrasonic technique used to measure the void fraction of the horizontal test section is presented. We can draw the following conclusions: 1) the ultrasonic system was able to characterize the 2 flow patterns simulated (stratified and plug flow); 2) the results obtained for water volumetric fraction require more experimental work to determine exactly the technique uncertainties but, a priori, they are consistent with earlier work; and 3) the experimental uncertainties can be reduced by improving the data acquisition system, changing the acquisition time interval from seconds to milliseconds
Two-phase flow operational maps for multi-microchannel evaporators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szczukiewicz, Sylwia; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John Richard
2013-01-01
Highlights: • New operational maps for several different micro-evaporators are presented. • Inlet micro-orifices prevented flow instability, back flow, and flow maldistribution. • Eight different operating regimes were distinguished. • The flashing two-phase flow without back flow operating regime is preferred. -- Abstract: The current paper presents new operational maps for several different multi-microchannel evaporators, with and without any inlet restrictions (micro-orifices), for the two-phase flow of refrigerants R245fa, R236fa, and R1234ze(E). The test fluids flowed in 67 parallel channels, each having a cross-sectional area of 100 × 100 μm 2 . In order to emulate the power dissipated by active components in a 3D CMOS CPU chip, two aluminium microheaters were sputtered onto the back-side of the test section providing a 0.5 cm 2 each. Without any inlet restrictions in the micro-evaporator, significant parallel channel flow instabilities, vapor back flow, and flow maldistribution led to high-amplitude and high-frequency temperature and pressure oscillations. Such undesired phenomena were then prevented by placing restrictions at the inlet of each channel. High-speed flow visualization distinguished eight different operating regimes of the two-phase flow depending on the tested operating conditions. Therefore, the preferred operating regimes can be easily traced. In particular, flashing two-phase flow without back flow appeared to be the best operating regime without any flow and temperature instabilities
Fluid-elastic force measurements acting on a tube bundle in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Kawamura, Koji; Yasuo, Akira
1996-01-01
Fluid-elastic force acting on a square tube bundle of P/D = 1.47 in air-water two-phase cross flow was measured to investigate the characteristics and to clarify whether the fluid elastic vibration characteristics could be expressed using two-phase mixture characteristics. Measured fluid elastic forces were separated into fluid-elastic force coefficients such as added mass, added stiffness, and added damping coefficient. The added damping coefficient was separated into a two-phase damping and a flow-dependent component as in previous research (Carlucci, 1981 and 1983; Pettigrew, 1994). These coefficients were nondimensionalized with two-phase mixture characteristics such as void fraction, mixture density and mixture velocity, which were obtained using the drift-flux model with consideration given to the model. The result was compared with the result obtained with the homogeneous model. It was found that fluid-elastic force coefficients could be expressed with two-phase flow mixture characteristics very well in the experimental result, and that better result can be derived using the slip model as compared to the homogeneous model. Added two-phase flow, which could be expressed as a function of void fraction, where two-phase damping was nondimensionalized with the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases used as a reference velocity. Using these, the added stiffness coefficient and flow-dependent component of damping could be expressed very well as a function of nondimensional mixture velocity
Contribution to the study of critical flow rates in a water-vapour two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reocreux, Michel
1974-01-01
This research thesis aims at studying and analysing mechanisms involved in critical flows by adopting a theoretical and an experimental approach. After a recall of previous theoretical results and a discussion of their comparison with experimental results, the author outlines the main problems: the flow representation by a realistic model which takes all factors on which depend critical flow as well as many non critical flows into account, and the formulation of conditions to be met for a flow to be critical. Then, after a recall of the properties of critical single-phase flows, the author proposes an equation system. In the next part, he reports the development of an equation system for two-phase flows. The properties of the solutions of this system are studied to establish the general conditions required for a flow described by this system to be critical. These results are then applied to the equation system describing two-phase flows, and results are interpreted and discussed. In a second part, the author reports the experimental study by addressing experimental devices which could well produce the studied phenomenon, instrumentation and measurements, and the presentation and analysis of results [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruspini, L.C.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The stability influence of piping fluid inertia on two-phase instabilities is studied. ► Inlet inertia stabilizes the system while outlet inertia destabilizes it. ► High-order modes oscillations are found and analyzed. ► The effect of compressible volumes in the system is studied. ► Inlet compressibility destabilizes the system while outlet comp. stabilizes it. - Abstract: The most common kind of static and dynamic two-phase flow instabilities namely Ledinegg and density wave oscillations are studied. A new model to study two-phase flow instabilities taking into account general parameters from real systems is proposed. The stability influence of external parameters such as the fluid inertia and the presence of compressible gases in the system is analyzed. High-order oscillation modes are found to be related with the fluid inertia of external piping. The occurrence of high-order modes in experimental works is analyzed with focus on the results presented in this work. Moreover, both inertia and compressibility are proven to have a high impact on the stability limits of the systems. The performed study is done by modeling the boiling channel using a one dimensional equilibrium model. An incompressible transient model describes the evolution of the flow and pressure in the non-heated regions and an ideal gas model is used to simulate the compressible volumes in the system. The use of wavelet decomposition analysis is proven to be an efficient tool in stability analysis of several frequencies oscillations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chunwei; Qiu Suizheng; Yan Mingyu; Wang Bulei; Nie Changhua
2005-01-01
The flow regime transition criteria for the boiling water two-phase flow in horizontal rectangular narrow channels (1 x 20 mm, 2 x 20 mm) were theoretically explored. The discernible flow patterns were bubble, intermittent slug, churn, annular and steam-water separation flow. By using two-fluid model, equations of conservation of momentum were established for the two-phase flow. New flow-regime criteria were obtained and agreed well with the experiment data. (authors)
Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers
Flow Regime Identification of Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow With Neural Network Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiroshi Goda; Seungjin Kim; Ye Mi; Finch, Joshua P.; Mamoru Ishii; Jennifer Uhle
2002-01-01
Flow regime identification for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in the 25.4 mm ID and the 50.8 mm ID round tubes was performed by employing an impedance void meter coupled with the neural network classification approach. This approach minimizes the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. The signals obtained by an impedance void meter were applied to train the self-organizing neural network to categorize these impedance signals into a certain number of groups. The characteristic parameters set into the neural network classification included the mean, standard deviation and skewness of impedance signals in the present experiment. The classification categories adopted in the present investigation were four widely accepted flow regimes, viz. bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flows. These four flow regimes were recognized based upon the conventional flow visualization approach by a high-speed motion analyzer. The resulting flow regime maps classified by the neural network were compared with the results obtained through the flow visualization method, and consequently the efficiency of the neural network classification for flow regime identification was demonstrated. (authors)
Experiments of steady state head and torque of centrifugal pumps in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minato, Akihiko; Tominaga, Kenji.
1988-01-01
Circulation pump behavior has large effect on coolant discharge flow rate in case of reactor pipe break. Experiment of two-phase pump performance was conducted as a joint study of Japanese BWR user utilities and makers. Two-phase head and torque of three centrifugal pumps in high temperature and high pressure (around 6 MPa) steam/water were measured. Head was decreased from single-phase characteristics when gas was mixed in liquid flow in condition with normal flow and normal rotation directions. When flow rate was large enough, two-phase head was about the same as single-phase one in reversal flow conditions. Two-phase head was smoothly increased as flowing steam volumetic concentration increased when flow rate was small and flow direction was reversal. Changes of torque with gas concentration were correspondent to those of head. This suggested that changes of interaction between flow and impellers due to phase slip effected on torque which caused head differences between single- and two-phase flows. Dependence of dimensionless head and torque of three test pumps on steam concentration were almost the same as each other. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauter, H.; Meyder, R.; Philipp, P.; Samstag, M.
1995-01-01
The NOVA program was continued with turbulent, vertical, upward two-phase flow experiments. The development of a local gas distribution along the test section was visualized by X-ray tomography. (orig.)
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A.
2015-09-01
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...... possibility of modeling two-phase flow through energy balance. The saturation profile generated through the suggested approach is different from those through other approaches....
A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces
Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng
2012-01-01
We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2015-09-15
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
Two-phase flow boiling in small channels: A brief review
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
fer coefficients, reduced inventory requirements, low capital cost etc. ... lot of work has been done to understand the fundamental aspects of two-phase flow and ... occurrence would facilitate optimal and safe operation of the involved systems.
A new treatment of capillarity to improve the stability of IMPES two-phase flow formulation
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present an efficient numerical method for two-phase immiscible flow in porous media with different capillarity pressures. In highly heterogeneous permeable media, the saturation is discontinuous due to different capillary pressure
Experimental study on downward two-phase flow in narrow rectangular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, T.H.; Jeong, J.H. [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-01
Adiabatic vertical two-phase flow of air and water through narrow rectangular channels was investigated. This study involved the observation of flow using a high speed camera and flow regimes were determined by image processing program using a MATLAB. The flows regimes in channel with downward flow are similar to those found by previous studies with upward flow. The flow regimes in downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from the previous studies in upward flow. The flow regimes can be classified into bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug and churn flow. (author)
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable
Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Y; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Fan, H G; Zhuge, W L
2013-01-01
The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k–ε turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling
Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austregesilo Filho, H.
1986-01-01
A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt
Two-phase flow void fraction measurement using gamma ray attenuation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, R.D. da.
1985-01-01
The present work deals with experimental void fraction measurements in two-phase water-nitrogen flow, by using a gamma ray attenuation technique. Several upward two-phase flow regimes in a vertical tube were simulated. The water flow was varied from 0.13 to 0.44 m 3 /h while the nitrogen flow was varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m 3 /h. The mean volumetric void fraction was determined based on the measured linear void fraction for each flow condition. The results were compared with other authors data and showed a good agreement. (author) [pt
Fang, Hongwei
1996-02-01
Based on the tensor analysis of water-sediment two-phase flow, the basic model equations for clear water flow and sediment-laden flow are deduced in the general curve coordinates for natural water variable-density turbulent flow. Furthermore, corresponding boundary conditions are also presented in connection with the composition and movement of non-uniform bed material. The theoretical results are applied to the calculation of the float open caisson in the construction period and good results are obtained.
An investigation of two-phase flow instability using wavelet signal extraction technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shang Zhi; Yang Ruichang; Cao Xuewu; Yang Yanhua
2004-01-01
When the oscillation periods of the instability of two-phase flow are sought with traditional methods of signal analysis, generally the Fourier transform must be employed and then the oscillation periods will be gotten at the location of the local maximum amplitude of frequency transform. However, Fourier transform will be difficult to clearly analyze the unsteady signals especially when the signals include many peaks and the noise interference is not generated by white noise in many areas of practical engineering like the oscillation of the instability of two-phase flow. The most effective solving method for the difficulty of Fourier transform is to analyze the signals directly in time domain. Wavelet analysis is able to search out the periods from time domain directly. It also has more excellent local characteristics than Fourier analysis in the both of time and frequency domains. In this paper, not only is a direct detecting method of the oscillation periods successfully applied based on the wavelet signal extraction techniques, but also the oscillation of density wave type of TYPE I is found as a kind of oscillations with a high-frequency harmonization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinato, Giulia; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John R.
2015-01-01
In the framework of efficient thermal management schemes, pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) represent a breakthrough solution for passive on-chip two-phase flow cooling of micro-electronics. Unfortunately, the unique coupling of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics and heat transfer, responsible for the self-sustained pulsating two-phase flow in such devices, presents many challenges to the understanding of the underlying physical phenomena which have so far eluded accurate prediction. In this experimental study, the novel time-strip image processing technique was used to investigate the thermo-flow dynamics of a single-turn channel CLPHP (closed loop pulsating heat pipe) charged with R245fa and tested under different operating conditions. The resulting frequency data confirmed the effect of flow pattern, and thus operating conditions, on the oscillating behavior. Dominant frequencies from 1.2 Hz for the oscillating regime to 0.6 Hz for the unidirectional flow circulation regime were measured, whilst wide spectral bands were observed for the unstable circulation regime. In order to analytically assess the observed trends in the spectral behavior, a spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. As well as showing that system stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics, further insights into the flow pattern transition mechanism were also gained. - Highlights: • A novel synchronized thermal and visual investigation technique was applied to a CLPHP. • Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were analyzed by means of spectral analysis. • 3D frequency spectra for temperature and flow data show significant trends. • A spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. • System stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics.
An experimental study of two-phase natural circulation in an adiabatic flow loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, M.J.; Lambert, G.A.; Ishii, Mamoru.
1988-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow aspect of the phenomena of interruption and resumption of natural circulation, two-phase flow patterns and pattern transitions in the hot legs of B and W light water reactor systems. The test facility was a scaled adiabatic loop designed in accordance with the scaling criteria developed by Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii. The diameter and the height of the hot leg were 10 cm and 5.5 m, respectively; the working fluid pair was nitrogen-water. The effects of the thermal center in the steam generators, friction loss in the cold leg, and configuration of the inlet to the hot leg on the flow conditions in the hot leg were investigated by varying the water level in a gas separator, controlling the size of opening of a friction loss control valve, and using two inlet geometries. Methods for estimating the distribution parameter and the average drift velocity are proposed so that they may be used in the application of one-dimensional drift-flux model to the analysis of the interruption and resumption of natural circulation in a similar geometry. 7 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs
Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.
2004-01-01
A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles
Pressure Drop Correlations of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow in Rolling Tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia-xin Cao; Chang-qi Yan; Pu-zhen Gao; Zhong-ning Sun
2006-01-01
A series of experimental studies of frictional pressure drop for single phase and two-phase bubble flow in smooth rolling tubes were carried out. The tube inside diameters were 15 mm, 25 mm and 34.5 mm respectively, the rolling angles of tubes could be set as 10 deg. and 20 deg., and the rolling periods could be set as 5 s, 10 s and 15 s. Combining with the analysis of single-phase water motion, it was found that the traditional correlations for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient were not suitable for the rolling condition. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient under rolling condition was presented, and the calculations not only agreed well with the experimental data, but also could display the periodically dynamic characteristics of frictional coefficients. Applying the new correlation to homogeneous flow model, two-phase frictional pressure drop of bubble flow in rolling tubes could be calculated, the results showed that the relative error between calculation and experimental data was less than ± 25%. (authors)
DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)
2014-12-09
Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.
DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation
Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling
2014-12-01
Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petkov, K.P.; Puton, M; Madsen, Søren Peder
2014-01-01
are accounted for through both friction and acceleration as in a conventional formulation. However, in this analysis the acceleration term is both attributed geometrical effects through the area change and fluid dynamic effects through the expansion of the two-phase flow. The comparison of numerical...... is a one dimensional formulation in space and the equations incorporates the change in tubes and orifice diameter as formulated in (S. Madsen et.al., Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow, Communications in Computational Physics 12 (4), 1129-1147). The pressure changes in the flow...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholpanov, L.P.; Babak, T.B.; Babak, V.N.; Malyusov, V.A.; Zhavoronkov, N.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii)
1980-01-01
To determine the ways of intensification of heat and mass transfer processes, the direct flow and counterflow heat and mass transfer is analytically investigated during the turbulent flow of a liquid and gas film on the basis of solving the energy equation for liquid and gas film, i.e. the two-phase film heat transfer is investigated from the position of a conjugate task. The analysis of the two-phase heat transfer has shown that it is necessary to know the position of each point in a plane before using this or that formula. Depending on its position on this plane, the heat transfer process will be determined by one or two phases only. It is found, that in the case of a single-phase heat transfer the temperature on the surface remains stable over the channel length. In the case of a two-phase heat transfer it can significantly change over the channel length [ru
Tan, C; Liu, W L; Dong, F
2016-06-28
Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of the WMS is treated as a node, so the measurement on each node is the phase fraction in this local area. An undirected and unweighted flow pattern network was established based on connections that are formed by cross-correlating the time series of each node under different flow patterns. The structure of the flow pattern network reveals the relationship of the phase fluctuations at each node during flow pattern transition, which is then quantified by introducing the topological index of the complex network. The proposed analysis method using the WMS not only provides three-dimensional visualizations of the gas-liquid two-phase flow, but is also a thorough analysis for the structure of flow patterns and the characteristics of flow pattern transition. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Liu, W. L.; Dong, F.
2016-01-01
Understanding of flow patterns and their transitions is significant to uncover the flow mechanics of two-phase flow. The local phase distribution and its fluctuations contain rich information regarding the flow structures. A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) was used to study the local phase fluctuations of horizontal gas–liquid two-phase flow, which was verified through comparing the reconstructed three-dimensional flow structure with photographs taken during the experiments. Each crossing point of the WMS is treated as a node, so the measurement on each node is the phase fraction in this local area. An undirected and unweighted flow pattern network was established based on connections that are formed by cross-correlating the time series of each node under different flow patterns. The structure of the flow pattern network reveals the relationship of the phase fluctuations at each node during flow pattern transition, which is then quantified by introducing the topological index of the complex network. The proposed analysis method using the WMS not only provides three-dimensional visualizations of the gas–liquid two-phase flow, but is also a thorough analysis for the structure of flow patterns and the characteristics of flow pattern transition. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Supersensing through industrial process tomography’. PMID:27185959
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.
1995-01-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De
2013-01-01
We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G R; Bullock, D E [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1999-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1998-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Forced convection flow boiling and two-phase flow phenomena in a microchannel
Na, Yun Whan
2008-07-01
The present study was performed to numerically analyze the evaporation phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface and to investigate bubble dynamics and heat transfer behavior during forced convective flow boiling in a microchannel. Flow instabilities of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel were studied as well. The main objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel and provide predictive tools to design thermal management systems, for example, microchannel heat sinks. The numerical results obtained from this study were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with experimental results in the open literature. Physical and mathematical models, accounting for evaporating phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface in a microchannel at constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, have been developed, respectively. The heat transfer mechanism is affected by the dominant heat conduction through the thin liquid film and vaporization at the liquid-vapor interface. The thickness of the liquid film and the pressure of the liquid and vapor phases were simultaneously solved by the governing differential equations. The developed semi-analytical evaporation model that takes into account of the interfacial phenomena and surface tension effects was used to obtain solutions numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of heat flux 19 and wall temperature on the liquid film were evaluated. The obtained pressure drops in a microchannel were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of Qu and Mudawar (2004). Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation to investigate bubble dynamics, flow patterns, and heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using the finite volume method while the liquid-vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the VOF (Volume of Fluid
Two-phase flow patterns in adiabatic and diabatic corrugated plate gaps
Polzin, A.-E.; Kabelac, S.; de Vries, B.
2016-09-01
Correlations for two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop can be improved considerably, when they are adapted to specific flow patterns. As plate heat exchangers find increasing application as evaporators and condensers, there is a need for flow pattern maps for corrugated plate gaps. This contribution presents experimental results on flow pattern investigations for such a plate heat exchanger background, using an adiabatic visualisation setup as well as a diabatic setup. Three characteristic flow patterns were observed in the considered range of two-phase flow: bubbly flow, film flow and slug flow. The occurrence of these flow patterns is a function of mass flux, void fraction, fluid properties and plate geometry. Two different plate geometries having a corrugation angle of 27° and 63°, respectively and two different fluids (water/air and R365mfc liquid/vapor) have been analysed. A flow pattern map using the momentum flux is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.W.; Pei, B.S.; King, C.H.; Lee, S.C.
1989-01-01
Recently, King et al. and Wang et al. analyzed the fluctuating characteristics of differential pressure and void fraction by the optimum modeling method and by spectral analysis, respectively. These two investigations presented some new concepts and deterministic criteria, which are based on purely empirical formulas, to identify two-phase flow patterns. These deterministic criteria on two-phase flow patterns' identification seem to show reasonable performance. In King's and Wang's studies, there are at least three problems that need further investigations for the applications to the nuclear reactor engineering field. These three problems are the following: 1. Is the response to a certain two-phase flow pattern, i.e., the fluctuating characteristics, of neutrons the same as that of differential pressure or void fraction? 2. Could those criteria developed from air/water flow be allowed to identify steam/water two-phase flow patterns? 3. Could those criteria be applied to identify two-phase flow patterns in rod bundles? In this paper, parts of the investigated results answer the first problem, and detailed comparisons with the previous work of the authors are given on a variety of items
Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
Two-phase cross-flow-induced forces acting on a circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, F.
1982-01-01
This paper clarifies the characteristics of unsteady flow-induced lift and drag forces acting on a circular cylinder immersed perpendicular to a two-phase bubbly air-water flow, in conjunction with Karman vortex shedding and pressure fluctuations. Experimental results presented show that Karman vortex shedding disappears over a certain value of air concentration in the two-phase flow. Related to this disappearance, flow-induced forces are rather small and periodical in low air concentration but become very large and random in higher air concentration. 7 refs
Experimental investigations of two-phase flow measurement using ultrasonic sensors
Abbagoni, Baba Musa
2016-01-01
This thesis presents the investigations conducted in the use of ultrasonic technology to measure two-phase flow in both horizontal and vertical pipe flows which is important for the petroleum industry. However, there are still key challenges to measure parameters of the multiphase flow accurately. Four methods of ultrasonic technologies were explored. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was first applied to the ultrasound signals of air-water flow on horizontal flow for measur...
Design and development of drag-disc flow meter for measurement of transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
1989-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 6 figs
Shanthi, C; Pappa, N
2017-05-01
Flow pattern recognition is necessary to select design equations for finding operating details of the process and to perform computational simulations. Visual image processing can be used to automate the interpretation of patterns in two-phase flow. In this paper, an attempt has been made to improve the classification accuracy of the flow pattern of gas/ liquid two- phase flow using fuzzy logic and Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The videos of six different types of flow patterns namely, annular flow, bubble flow, churn flow, plug flow, slug flow and stratified flow are recorded for a period and converted to 2D images for processing. The textural and shape features extracted using image processing are applied as inputs to various classification schemes namely fuzzy logic, SVM and SVM with PCA in order to identify the type of flow pattern. The results obtained are compared and it is observed that SVM with features reduced using PCA gives the better classification accuracy and computationally less intensive than other two existing schemes. This study results cover industrial application needs including oil and gas and any other gas-liquid two-phase flows. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Film boiling from spheres in single- and two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.
1992-01-01
Experimental data on film boiling heat transfer from single, inductively heated, spheres in single- and two-phase flow (saturated water and steam, respectively) are presented. In the single-phase-flow experiments water velocities ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 m/s; in the two-phase-flow experiments superficial water and steam velocities covered 0.1 to 0.6 m/s and 4 to 10 m/s, respectively. All experiments were run at atmospheric pressure and with sphere temperatures from 900C down to quenching. Limited interpretations of the single-phase- flow data are possible, but the two-phase-flow data are new and unique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccaccini, L.V.
1986-07-01
To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcel, C P [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)
2002-07-01
channel. It was noticed that the CHF phenomena generally starts in cells located at the boundary.The fact that the phenomena can be well described by using simple rules shows that the related physics and even the physics with stochastic characteristics, has been captured with t his simple model. Some fractal properties of automata were also studied, arriving at the conclusion that the internal dynamics present fractal characteristics.Findings hint towards a new approach to solve open issues.Finally, a calculus related to the Australian reactor designed by INVAP was performed.The problem consists of a simulation of helium bubble production by the mechanism of mass diffusion in heavy water.It was verified that cellular automata systems are a powerful tool for describing problems with high complexity and short reach interactions between components.It was proved that two-phase flows could be described very well with this model.The approach is a powerful tool to describe non-equilibrium features, such as boiling flow development and interfacial topological transitions.A novel computer model of boiling crisis was encountered following this type of analysis.By means of this research, without invalidating the important advances obtained in other directions, a new tool is offered which can be useful regarding the modeling of boiling heat transfer systems.
A component architecture for the two-phase flows simulation system Neptune
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechaud, C; Boucker, M; Douce, A [Electricite de France (EDF-RD/MFTT), 78 - Chatou (France); Grandotto, M [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTP/STH), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Tajchman, M [CEA Saclay (DEN/DM2S/SFME), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2003-07-01
Electricite de France (EdF) and the French atomic energy commission (Cea) have planed a large project to build a new set of software in nuclear reactors analysis. One of the main idea is to allow coupled calculations in which several scientific domains are involved. This paper presents the software architecture of the two-phase flows simulation Neptune project. Neptune should allow computations of two-phase flows in 3 dimensions under normal operating conditions as well as safety conditions. Three scales are identified: the local scale where there is only homogenization between the two phases, an intermediate scale where solid internal structures are homogenized with the fluid and the system scale where some parts of the geometry under study are considered point-wise or subject to one dimensional simplifications. The main properties of this architecture are as follow: -) coupling with scientific domains, and between different scales, -) re-using of quite all or parts of existing validated codes, -) components usable by the different scales, -) easy introducing of new physical modeling as well as new numerical methods, -) local, distributed and parallel computing. The Neptune architecture is based on the component concept with stable and well suited interface. In the case of a distributed application the components are managed through a Corba bus. The building of the components is organized in shell: a programming shell (Fortran or C++ routines), a managing shell (C++ language), an interpreted shell (Python language), a Corba shell and a global driving shell (C++ or Python). Neptune will use the facilities offered by the Salome project: pre and post processors and controls. A data model has been built to have a common access to the information exchanged between the components (meshes, fields, physical and technical information). This architecture has first been setup and tested on some simple but significant cases and is now currently in use to build the Neptune
A component architecture for the two-phase flows simulation system Neptune
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechaud, C.; Boucker, M.; Douce, A.; Grandotto, M.; Tajchman, M.
2003-01-01
Electricite de France (EdF) and the French atomic energy commission (Cea) have planed a large project to build a new set of software in nuclear reactors analysis. One of the main idea is to allow coupled calculations in which several scientific domains are involved. This paper presents the software architecture of the two-phase flows simulation Neptune project. Neptune should allow computations of two-phase flows in 3 dimensions under normal operating conditions as well as safety conditions. Three scales are identified: the local scale where there is only homogenization between the two phases, an intermediate scale where solid internal structures are homogenized with the fluid and the system scale where some parts of the geometry under study are considered point-wise or subject to one dimensional simplifications. The main properties of this architecture are as follow: -) coupling with scientific domains, and between different scales, -) re-using of quite all or parts of existing validated codes, -) components usable by the different scales, -) easy introducing of new physical modeling as well as new numerical methods, -) local, distributed and parallel computing. The Neptune architecture is based on the component concept with stable and well suited interface. In the case of a distributed application the components are managed through a Corba bus. The building of the components is organized in shell: a programming shell (Fortran or C++ routines), a managing shell (C++ language), an interpreted shell (Python language), a Corba shell and a global driving shell (C++ or Python). Neptune will use the facilities offered by the Salome project: pre and post processors and controls. A data model has been built to have a common access to the information exchanged between the components (meshes, fields, physical and technical information). This architecture has first been setup and tested on some simple but significant cases and is now currently in use to build the Neptune
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lokanathan, Manojkumar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)
2016-10-15
Highlights: • Downward flow regime maps and models were studied for 25.4 to 101.6 mm pipe diameters. • Effect of flow inlet on flow transition, void & interfacial area profile were studied. • Bubble void profiles were associated with the interfacial forces for downward flow. • Flow regime pressure drop and interfacial friction factor were studied. • The most applicable and accurate downward drift-flux correlation was determined. - Abstract: Downward two-phase flow is observed in light water reactor accident scenarios such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and loss of heat sink accident (LOHS) due to loss of feed water or a secondary pipe break. Hence, a comprehensive literature review has been performed for the co-current downward two-phase flow with information on the flow regime transitions and flow characteristics for each regime in the downward flow. The review compares the experimental data of the flow regime map and the current available transition models. Objectivity of the data varies on the method utilized as a certain degree of subjectivity is still present in the most objective method. Nevertheless, experimental data through subjective methods such as direct visualization or analysis of a wire mesh sensor (WMS) data were still studied in this review. Despite the wide range of flow regime data for numerous pipe sizes, a consensus was not reached for the effect of pipe sizes on flow regime transition. However, it is known that a larger pipe results in greater degree of coalescence at lower gas flow rates (Hibiki et al., 2004). The introduction of a flow straightener at the inlet led to less coring and fluid rotation and inevitably, reduced bubble coalescence. This also resulted in the disappearance of the kinematic shock wave phenomenon, contrary to an inlet without a flow straightener. The effect of flow inlet, flow location, pipe diameter and bubble interfacial forces on the radial distribution as well as bubble coalescence and breakup rate
Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe.
Park, Yu Sun; Chang, Soon Heung
2011-04-04
A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.
Application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to two-phase flows with a change of phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.
1969-01-01
In this report we use the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in two-phase flows. This paper follows a prior one in which we have studied the conservation laws and derived the general equations of two-phase flow. In the first part the basic ideas of thermodynamics of irreversible systems are given. We follow the classical point of view. The second part is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of equations for the two phase elementary volume model. In this model we assume that the elementary volume contains two phases and that it is possible to define a volumetric local concentration. To obtain the entropy balance we can choose either the reversibility of the barycentric motion or the reversibility of each phase. We adopt the last assumption and our derivation is the same as this of I.Prigogine and P. Mazur about the hydrodynamics of liquid helium. The scope of this work is not to find a general solution to the problems of two phase flows but to obtain a new set of equations which may be used to explain some characteristic phenomena of two-phase flow such as wave propagation or critical states. (author) [fr
Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity
Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.
1999-01-01
The present investigation reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions, using both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. This study may be used in the conceptual design of a space-based thermal management system. Ensuing two-phase flow void fraction can be accurately monitored using a single nozzle gas injection system within a continuous liquid flow conduit, as utilized in the present investigation. Accurate monitoring of void fraction leads to precise control of heat and mass transfer coefficients related to a thermal management system; hence providing an efficient and highly effective means of removing heat aboard spacecraft or space stations. Our experiments are performed in parabolic flight aboard the modified DC-9 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft at NASA Lewis Research Center, using an air-water system. For the purpose of bubble dispersion in a flowing liquid, we use both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. In the co-flow geometry, air is introduced through a nozzle in the same direction with the liquid flow. On the other hand, in the cross-flow configuration, air is injected perpendicular to the direction of water flow, via a nozzle protruding inside the two-phase flow conduit. Three different flow conduit (pipe) diameters are used, namely, 1.27 cm, 1.9 cm and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of nozzle to pipe diameter (D(sub N))sup * are considered, namely (D(sub N))sup * = 0.1 and 0.2, while superficial liquid velocities are varied from 8 to 70 cm/s depending on flow conduit diameter. It is experimentally observed that by holding all other flow conditions and geometry constant, generated bubbles decrease in size with increase in superficial liquid velocity. Detached bubble diameter is shown to increase with air injection nozzle diameter. Likewise, generated bubbles grow in size with increasing pipe diameter. Along the same lines, it is shown that bubble frequency of formation increases and hence the time to detachment of a
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1997-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)
Fast X-ray imaging of two-phase flows: Application to cavitating flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlifa, Ilyass
2014-01-01
A promising method based on fast X-ray imaging has been developed to investigate the dynamics and the structure of complex two-phase flows. It has been applied in this work on cavitating flows created inside a Venturi-type test section and helped therefore to better understand flows inside cavitation pockets. Seeding particles were injected into the flow to trace the liquid phase. Thanks to the characteristics of the beam provided by the APS synchrotron (Advance Photon Source, USA), high definition X-ray images of the flow containing simultaneously information for both liquid and vapour were obtained. Velocity fields of both phases were thus calculated using image cross-correlation algorithms. Local volume fractions of vapour have also been obtained using local intensities of the images. Beforehand however, image processing is required to separate phases for velocity measurements. Validation methods of all applied treatments were developed, they allowed to characterise the measurement accuracy. This experimental technique helped us to have more insight into the dynamic of cavitating flows and especially demonstrates the presence of significant slip velocities between phases. (author)
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior
Two-phase flow measurements using a photochromic dye activation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, M.
1998-01-01
A novel flow visualization method called photochromic dye activation (PDA) technique has been used to investigate flow structures and mechanisms in various two-phase flow regimes. This non-intrusive flow visualization technique utilizes light activation of a photochromic dye material dissolved in a clear liquid and is a molecular tagging technique, requiring no seed particles. It has been used to yield both quantitative and qualitative flow data in the liquid phase in annular flow, slug flow and stratified-wavy flows. (author)
A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.
2002-01-01
In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)
Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces and local conductivity probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnage, K.G.; Davis, C.E.
1979-01-01
A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented spool pieces and with conductivity probes obtained from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data is made and preliminary results are shown. Velocity and void fraction information derived from the conductivity probes is presented and compared to velocities and void fractions obtained using the spool piece instrumentation
The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martsiniouk, D.Ye.; Sorokin, A.P.
2000-01-01
The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)
Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Short Horizontal Mini Channel Height of 1 MM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron’shin Fedor
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The experiments with two-phase flow in the short horizontal rectangular minichannel with the height of 1 mm and width of 29 mm have been carried out using water and gas nitrogen. The five two-phase flow patterns have been recognized in the minichannel: churn, stratified, annular, bubble, and jet. These regimes are plotted on a graph and the boundaries between them determine precisely. The height of a horizontal minichannels has a significant role on boundaries between the flow regimes.
Analyses of liquid-gas two-phase flow in fermentation tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, Takashi; Serizawa, Akimi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawara, Zensaku; Gofuku, Akio; Kataoka, Isao.
1993-01-01
The understanding of two-phase flow is one of the important problems for both design and safety analyses of various engineering systems. For example, the flow conditions in beer fermentation tanks have an influence on the quality of production and productivity of tank. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical calculation code based on the one-pressure two-fluid model is developed to understand the circulation structure of low quality liquid-gas two-phase flows induced by bubble plume in a tank. (author)
A facility for the experimental investigation of single substance two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeder, P.F.; Dickinson, D.A.; Nikitopoulos, D.E.; DiPippo, R.
1985-01-01
The paper describes a research facility dedicated to single-substance two-phase flow. The working fluid is dichlorotetrafluoroethane (or refrigerant R-114), allowing both operation at manageable pressures, temperatures and flowrates, and application of results to practical situations through similarity. Operation is in the blowdown mode. The control and data acquisition systems are fully automated and computer controlled. A range of flow conditions from predominantly liquid flow to high velocity, high void fraction choked flow can be attained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Mamoru; Sun, Xiaodong
2004-01-01
mechanistic prediction tool for two-phase flow analysis. Based on detailed modeling of the bubble interactions, the one-group and two-group interfacial area transport equations have been preliminarily developed. (author)
Investigation of vertical slug flow with advanced two-phase flow instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mi, Y.; Ishii, M.; Tsoukalas, L.H.
2001-01-01
Extensive experiments of vertical slug flow were carried out with an electromagnetic flowmeter and an impedance void-meter in an air-water two-phase experimental loop. The basic principles of these instruments in vertical slug flow measurements are discussed. Time series of the liquid velocity and the impedance were separated into two parts corresponding to the Taylor bubble and the liquid slug. Characteristics of slug flow, such as the void fractions, probabilities and lengths of the Taylor bubble and liquid slug, slug unit velocity, area-averaged liquid velocity, and liquid film velocity of the Taylor bubble tail, etc., were obtained. For the first time, the area-averaged liquid velocity of slug flow was revealed by the electromagnetic flowmeter. It is realized that the void fraction of the liquid slug is determined by the turbulent intensity due to the relative liquid motion between the Taylor bubble tail region and its wake region. A correlation of the void fraction of the liquid slug is developed based on experimental results obtained from a test section with 50.8 mm i.d. The results of this study suggest a promising improvement in understanding of vertical slug flow
A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying
1992-08-01
A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%
Experimental study on local resistance of two-phase flow through spacer grid with rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Chaoxing; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Tian Qiwei
2015-01-01
The experimental study on local resistance of single-phase and two-phase flows through a spacer grid in a vertical channel with 3 × 3 rod bundle was carried out under the normal temperature and pressure. For the case of single-phase flow, the liquid Reynolds number covered the range of 290-18 007. For the case of two-phase flow, the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities were 0.013-3.763 m/s and 0.076-1.792 m/s, respectively. A correlation for predicting local resistance of single-phase flow was given based on experimental results. Eight classical two-phase viscosity formulae for homogeneous model were evaluated against the experimental data of two-phase flow. The results show that Dukler model predicts the experimental data well in the range of Re 1 < 9000 while McAdams correlation is the best one for Re 1 ≥ 9000. For all experimental data, Dukler model provides the best prediction with the mean relative error of 29.03%. A new correlation is fitted for the range of Re 1 < 9000 by considering mass quality, two- phase Reynolds number and liquid and gas densities, resulting in a good agreement with the experimental data. (authors)
Measurement of void fraction and bubble size distribution in two-phase flow system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huahun, G.
1987-01-01
The importance of study two phase flow parameter and microstructure has appeared increasingly, with the development of two-phase flow discipline. In the paper, the measurement methods of several important microstructure parameter in a two phase flow vertical channel have been studied. Using conductance probe the two phase flow pattern and the average void fraction have been measured previously by the authors. This paper concerns microstructure of the bubble size distribution and local void fraction. The authors studied the methods of measuring bubble velocity, size distribution and local void fraction using double conductance probes and a set of apparatus. Based on our experiments and Yoshihiro work, a formula of calculated local void fraction has been deduced by using the statistical characteristics of bubbles in two phase flow and the relation between calculated bubble size and voltage has been determined. Finally the authors checked by using photograph and fast valve, which is classical but reliable. The results are the same with what has been studied before