Full sized tests on a french coolant pump under two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huchard, J.C.; Bore, C.; Dueymes, E.
1997-01-01
The French Safety Authorities required EDF to demonstrate the ability of the new N4 main coolant pump to withstand two-phase flow conditions without damage. Therefore three full sized tests, simulating a bleeding flow on the primary system, were performed on a laboratory test loop under real operating conditions (temperature = 290 deg. C, pressure = 155 b, flowrate = 7 m 3 /s; electrical power = 7 MW). The maximum value of the mean void fraction reached 75 %. The outcome of the tests is very positive: the mechanical behaviour of the main coolant pump is good, even at high void fraction. The maximum vibration levels were below the limits fixed by the manufacturer. Correlations between the mechanical behaviour of the pump and the pressure pulsation in the test loop have been found. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stosic, Z.V.; Stevanovic, V.D.
2001-01-01
A methodology for the simulation and analysis of one-phase and two-phase coolant flows around one or a row of spacers is presented. It is based on the multidimensional two-fluid mass, momentum and energy balance equations and application of adequate turbulence models. Necessary closure laws for interfacial transfer processes are presented. The stated general approach enables simulation and analyses of reactor coolant flow around spacers on different scale levels of the rod bundle geometry: detailed modelling of coolant flow around spacers and investigation of the influence of spacer's geometry on the coolant thermal-hydraulics, as well as prediction of global thermal-hydraulic parameters within the whole rod bundle with the investigation of the influence of rows of spacers on the bulk thermal-hydraulic processes. Sample problems are included illustrating these different modelling approaches. (author)
The study of two-phase critical flow characteristics in nuclear reactor coolant system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Moon Ki; Chang, Seok Kyu
1993-01-01
This report presents the physical characteristics of two-phase critical flow whcih can be occured in a light water nuclear power plant during LOCA and also reviews the critical flow models and their applications in detail. The existing experimental data base are reviewed and classified. The typical critical flow models which have been applied to the computer code for the accident are also reviewed. Some suggestions are presented for the development of advanced analytical models and the extension of useful experimental database. (Author)
Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.
1983-01-01
Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olive, J.
1990-01-01
The design, operation and safety of nuclear components requires increasingly accurate knowledge of two-phase flows. This knowledge is also necessary for some studies related to electricity applications. The author presents some concrete examples showing the range of problems and the complexity of the phenomena involved in these types of flows. Then, the basic principles of their numerical modelling are explained, as well as the new tendency to use increasingly local and refined models. The newest computer codes developed at EDF are briefly presented. Experimental studies dealing with twophase flow are also referred to, and their connections to numerical modelling are explained. Emphasis is placed on the major efforts devoted to the development of new test rigs and instrumentation [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Y.Y.
1974-01-01
The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaballah, I.
1978-09-01
A contribution to a theory of two-phase flow with phase change and addition of heat in a coolant channel of a LWR-fuel element during a loss-of-coolant accident. A theory was developed for the calculation of a dispersed two phase flow with heat addition in a channel with general area change. The theory was used to study different thermodynamic and gasdynamic processes, which may occur during the emergency cooling after a LOCA of a pressurized water reactor. The basic equations were formulated and solved numerically. The heat transfer mechanism was examined. Calculations have indicated that the radiative heat flux component is small compared to the convective component. A drop size spectrum was used in the calculations. Its effect on the heat transfer was investigated. It was found that the calculation with a mean drop diameter gives good results. Significant thermal non-equilibrium has been evaluated. The effect of different operating parameters on the degree of thermal non-equilibrium was studied. The flow and heat transfer in a channel with cross-sectional area change were calculated. It was shown that the channel deformation affects the state properties and the heat transfer along the channel very strongly. (orig.) 891 GL [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaje, Dzh.
1984-01-01
General hypothesis used to simplify the equations, describing two-phase flows, are considered. Two-component and one-component models of two-phase flow, as well as Zuber and Findlay model for actual volumetric steam content, and Wallis model, describing the given phase rates, are presented. The conclusion is made, that the two-component model, in which values averaged in time are included, is applicable for the solving of three-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow. At the same time, using the two-component model, including values, averaged in space only one-dimensional tasks for unsteady two-phase flow can be solved
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assad, A.C.A.
1984-01-01
The present work deals with an experimental analysis of upward vertical two-phase flow in channels with circular and four-cusp cross-sections. The latter simulates the conditions of a typical nuclear reactor channel, degraded by a loss of coolant accident. Simultaneous flow of air and water has been employed to simulate adiabatic steam-water flow. The installation of air-water separators helped eliminate instabilities during pressure-drop measurements. The gamma ray attenuation was utilized for the void fraction determination. For the four-cusp geommetry, new criteria for two-phase flow regime transitions have been determined, as well as new correlatins for pressure drop and void fraction, as function of the Lockhart-Martinelli factor and vapour mass-fraction, respectively. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boure, J.A.
1974-12-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are classified according to three criteria: the static or dynamic nature of the phenomenon, the necessity or not of a triggering phenomenon, and the pure or compound character of the phenomenon. Tables give the elementary instability phenomena, and the practical types of instability. Flow oscillations (or dynamic instabilities) share a number of characteristics which are dealt with, they are caused by the dynamic interactions between the flow parameters (flow rate, density, pressure, enthalpy and their distributions). Oscillation types are discussed: pure oscillations are density wave oscillations, acoustic oscillations may also occur, various compound oscillations involve either the density wave or the acoustic wave mechanism, interacting with some of the boundary conditions in the device. The analysis of slow oscillations has been made either by means of a simplified model (prediction of the thresholds) or of computer codes. Numerous computer codes are available [fr
Two-phase flow models in unbounded two-phase critical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celata, G.P.; Cumo, M.; Farello, G.E.
1985-01-01
With reference to a Loss-of-Coolant Accident in Light Water Reactors, an analysis of the unbounded two-phase critical flow (i.e. the issuing two-phase jet) has been accomplished. Considering jets external shape, obtained by means of photographic pictures; pressure profiles inside the jet, obtained by means of a movable ''Pitot;'' and jet phases distribution information, obtained by means of X-rays pictures; a characterization of the flow pattern in the unbounded region of a two-phase critical flow is given. Jets X-ray pictures show the existence of a central high density ''core'' gradually evaporating all around, which gives place to a characteristic ''dartflow'' the length of which depends on stagnation thermodynamic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Nishihara, H.
1992-01-01
Two-phase flow in a narrow rectangular duct is important related to abnormal cooling conditions of a MTR type research reactor. In view of this, flow regime, void fraction, slug bubble velocity and pressure loss were measured for rectangular ducts with a narrow gap. The neutron radiography technique was used to visualize the flow and the void fraction was obtained by image processing. The void fraction was correlated well by the drift flux model with existing correlation for the distribution parameter which was about 1.35. Similar results were obtained for slug bubble velocity, however the distribution parameter was in the range from 1.0 to 1.2. The frictional pressure loss was correlated well by the Chisholm-Laird correlation. In collaboration with previously obtained data, it was found that the Chisholm's parameter C, however, changed from 21 to zero as the gap decreased. (author)
Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.
1977-01-01
The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed
Study of nonequilibrium dispersed two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1986-01-01
Understanding the behavior of liquid droplets in a superheated steam environment is essential to the accurate prediction of nuclear fuel rod surface temperatures during the blowdown and reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). In response to this need, this treatise presents several original and significant contributions to the field of thermofluid physics. The research contained herein presents a statistical derivation of the two-phase mass, momentum, and energy-conservation equations using a droplet continuity equation analogous to that used in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time-averaged conservation equations generally used to describe dispersed two-phase flow behavior, this statistical averaging approach results in an additional mass momentum or energy term in each of the respective conservation equations. Further, this study demonstrates that current definitions of the volumetric vapor generation rate used in the mass conservation equation are inappropriate results under certain circumstances. The mass conservation equation derived herein is used to obtain a new definition for the volumetric vapor-generation rate. Last, a simple two phase phenomenological model, based on the statistically averaged conservation equations, is presented and solved analytically. It is shown that the actual quality and vapor temperature, under these circumstances, depend on a single dimensionless group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro
2014-01-01
In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)
Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neff, G.G.; Averill, R.H.; Shurts, S.W.
1979-01-01
Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c) a conductivity sensitive liquid level transducer (LLT). The DTT obtains data on the complex problem of two-phase flow conditions in the LOFT primary coolant system during a loss-os-coolant experiment (LOCE). The discussion of the DTT describes how a turbine, measuring coolant velocity, and a drag disc, measuring coolant momentum flux, can provide valuable mass flow data. The nuclear hardened gamma densitometer is used to obtain density and flow regime information for two-phase flow in the LOFT primary coolant system during a LOCE. The LLT is used to measure water and steam conditions within the LOFT reactor core during a LOCE. The LLT design and the type of data obtained are described
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.; Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London
1989-01-01
A survey is presented of counter-current flow with particular reference to the limits of the regime, namely the 'flooding' phenomena. Emphasis is also given to the transiently counter-current type of flow ('churn flow') which is formed on the break-down of falling film counter-current flow. The mechanisms of flooding are reviewed and flooding in systems with heat transfer and in non-vertical channels is discussed. New data on the flooding phenomena and the region of simultaneous downflow and upflow beyond flooding are presented. The onset of churn flow is discussed and new measurements on churn flow are presented. The characteristics of the churn flow regime are shown to be independent of the coexistence of a falling film region below the liquid injection point. (orig.)
Two-phase flow characteristics in BWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katono, Kenichi; Aoyama, Goro; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Yasuda, Kenichi; Nishida, Koji
2014-01-01
Reliable prediction of two-phase flow characteristics is important for safety and economy improvements of BWR plants. We have been developing two-phase flow measurement tools and techniques for BWR thermal hydraulic conditions, such as a 3D time-averaged X-ray CT system, an ultrasonic liquid film sensor and a wire-mesh sensor. We applied the developed items in experiments using the multi-purpose steam-water test facility known as HUSTLE, which can simulate two-phase thermal-hydraulic conditions in a BWR reactor pressure vessel, and we constructed a detailed instrumentation database. We validated a 3D two-phase flow simulator using the database and developed the reactor internal two-phase flow analysis system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Novotný
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experiments with moist wet steam. The aim of the experiment was to measure the velocity of the growth of a condensing nucleus in wet steam dependent on the velocity of condensation. For the experiments in wet steam an experimental setup was designed and constructed, which generated superheated steam at lowered pressure and a temperature of 50 °C. Low pressure and temperature of the hot vapour was chosen in order to minimize the risk of accidental disruption of the wall. The size of the condensing nucleus was measured by the method of Interferometric Particle Imaging (IPI. The IPI method is a technique for determining the particle size of transparent and spherical particles based on calculating the fringes captured on a CCD array. The number of fringes depends on the particle size and on the optical configuration. The experimental setup used is identical with the setup for measuring flow by the stereo PIV method. The only difference is the use of a special camera mount comprising a transparent mirror and enabling both cameras to be focused to one point. We present the results of the development of the growth of a condensing nucleus and histograms of the sizes of all measured particles depending on position and condensation velocity.
The role of two-phase coolant in moderating fretting in nuclear steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyke, J.M.
2004-01-01
This paper expands the principal of coolant-cushioning in Nuclear Steam Generators whereby the two-phase coolant, especially the bubble film on the tube surface, moderates the vibration of coolant tubes against their supports. The current paper addresses tube bundle and anti-vibration bars (AVB) geometry issues; examines the tube bundle-coolant-AVB interfaces and examines implications for recirculation flow, AVB design and boiler size. In a T(sat) fluid, the tube surface is uniformly coating with growing bubbles whose momentum is perpendicular to the surface at first, then they are swept away by the bulk flow. The combination of this momentum, the phase change and the water film remaining on the surface, counteract the vibration energy of the tube-AVB system, reducing the likelihood of metal-to-metal contact and consequent fretting. To maximize the benefit of the cushioning effect, the following design inputs are needed: 1) the AVB-tube interface should have sufficient clearance for the T(sat) solution to operate, 2) The AVB should be wide enough to generate the necessary cushioning force, and 3) the AVB should be thin enough to be flexible and absorb some of the transferred vibration energy. Furthermore, fretting and crude deposition at the AVB-tube interface can be reduced or eliminated by reducing the number of AVBs, increasing clearances and making the AVBs limber
Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems
Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue
2013-01-01
Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b
Two-phased flow component loss data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fairhurst, C.P.
1983-01-01
Pressure loss measurements were made for valves and orifice plates under horizontal and vertical two-phase, air/water flow. The results displayed similar trends and were successfully correlated using a semi-empirical approach. (author)
Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grison, Pierre; Lauro, J.-F.
1979-01-01
Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320 0 C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data [fr
Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou. Direction des Etudes et Recherches
1979-01-01
Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320/sup 0/C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data.
Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow
Sheppard, John D.; Tong, Long S.
1977-03-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.
Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.
1977-01-01
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods. 3 claims, 9 figures
Current capabilities of transient two-phase flow instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solbrig, C.W.; Kondic, N.N.
1979-01-01
The measurement of two phase flow phenomena in transient conditions representative of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident requires the use of sophisticated instruments and the further development of other instruments. Measurements made in large size pipes are often flow regime dependent. The flow regimes encountered depend upon the system geometry, transient effects, heat transfer, etc. The geometries in which these measurements must be made, the instruments which are currently used, new instruments being developed, the facilities used to calibrate these instruments, and the improvements which must be made to measurement capabilities are described
Two-phase flow in fractured rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, P.; Long, J.; Zuidema, P.
1993-11-01
This report gives the results of a three-day workshop on two-phase flow in fractured rock. The workshop focused on two-phase flow processes that are important in geologic disposal of nuclear waste as experienced in a variety of repository settings. The goals and objectives of the workshop were threefold: exchange information; describe the current state of understanding; and identify research needs. The participants were divided into four subgroups. Each group was asked to address a series of two-phase flow processes. The following groups were defined to address these processes: basic flow processes; fracture/matrix interactions; complex flow processes; and coupled processes. For each process, the groups were asked to address these four issues: (1) describe the two-phase flow processes that are important with respect to repository performance; (2) describe how this process relates to the specific driving programmatic issues given above for nuclear waste storage; (3) evaluate the state of understanding for these processes; and (4) suggest additional research to address poorly understood processes relevant to repository performance. The reports from each of the four working groups are given here
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
Nonlinear dynamics of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizwan-uddin
1986-01-01
Unstable flow conditions can occur in a wide variety of laboratory and industry equipment that involve two-phase flow. Instabilities in industrial equipment, which include boiling water reactor (BWR) cores, steam generators, heated channels, cryogenic fluid heaters, heat exchangers, etc., are related to their nonlinear dynamics. These instabilities can be of static (Ledinegg instability) or dynamic (density wave oscillations) type. Determination of regions in parameters space where these instabilities can occur and knowledge of system dynamics in or near these regions is essential for the safe operation of such equipment. Many two-phase flow engineering components can be modeled as heated channels. The set of partial differential equations that describes the dynamics of single- and two-phase flow, for the special case of uniform heat flux along the length of the channel, can be reduced to a set of two coupled ordinary differential equations [in inlet velocity v/sub i/(t) and two-phase residence time tau(t)] involving history integrals: a nonlinear ordinary functional differential equation and an integral equation. Hence, to solve these equations, the dependent variables must be specified for -(nu + tau) ≤ t ≤ 0, where nu is the single-phase residence time. This system of nonlinear equations has been solved analytically using asymptotic expansion series for finite but small perturbations and numerically using finite difference techniques
Modeling of two-phase slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabre, J.; Line, A.
1992-01-01
When gas and liquid flow in a pipe, over a range of flow rates, a flow pattern results in which sequences of long bubbles, almost filling the pipe cross section, are successively followed by liquid slugs that may contain small bubbles. This flow pattern, usually called slug flow, is encountered in numerous practical situations, such as in the production of hydrocarbons in wells and their transportation in pipelines; the production of steam and water in geothermal power plants; the boiling and condensation in liquid-vapor systems of thermal power plants; emergency core cooling of nuclear reactors; heat and mass transfer between gas and liquid in chemical reactors. This paper provides a review of two phase slug flow modeling
An introduction to two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, Herve
2006-01-01
This course aims at proposing the necessary background for a rational approach to two-phase flows which are notably present in numerous industrial devices and equipment designed to perform energy transfer or mass transfer. The first part proposes a phenomenological approach to main two-phase flow structures and presents their governing variables. The second part presents some proven measurement techniques. The third part focuses on modelling. It recalls the equation elaboration techniques which are based on basic principles of mechanics and thermodynamics and on the application of different averaging operators to these principles. Some useful models are then presented such as models of pressure loss in a duct. The last chapter addresses some fundamental elements of heat transfers in ebullition and condensation
Geometrical automata for two phase flow simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, V.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Clausse, A.
1996-01-01
An automaton is an entity defined by a mathematical state which changes following iterative rules representing the interaction with the neighborhood. A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation consisting in a field of disks which are allowed to change their radii and move in a plane is presented. The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: (1) the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator; and (2) the rules of interaction involve parameters intended to represent some of the most relevant variables governing the actual physical interactions between phases. Computational experiments show that the algorithm captures the essential physics underlying two-phase flow problems such as bubbly-slug pattern transition and void fraction development along tubes. A comparison with experimental data of void fraction profiles is presented, showing excellent agreement. (orig.)
Modelling aspects of two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayinger, F.
1977-01-01
In two phase flow scaling is much more limited to very narrowly defined physical phenomena than in single phase fluids. For complex and combined phenomena it can be achieved not by using dimensionless numbers alone but in addition a detailed mathematical description of the physical problem - usually in the form of a computer program - must be available. An important role plays the scaling of the thermodynamic data of the modelling fluid. From a literature survey and from own scaling experiments the conclusion can be drawn that Freon is a quite suitable modelling fluid for scaling steam-water mixtures. However, whithout a theoretical description of the phenomena nondimensional numbers for scaling two phase flow must be handled very carefully. (orig.) [de
Two-phase coolant pump model of pressurized light water nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, G.A. dos; Freitas, R.L.
1990-01-01
The two-phase coolant pump model of pressurized light water nuclear reactors is an important point for the loss of primary coolant accident analysis. The homologous curves set up the complete performance of the pump and are input for accidents analysis thermal-hydraulic codes. This work propose a mathematical model able to predict the two-phase homologous curves where it was incorporated geometric and operational pump condition. The results were compared with the experimental tests data from literature and it has showed a good agreement. (author)
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.
2014-06-03
This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.
Coupling Two-Phase Fluid Flow with Two-Phase Darcy Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Chen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow.
Construction of the two-phase critical flow test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, C. H.; Chang, S. K.; Park, H. S.; Min, K. H.; Choi, N. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. C.; Chang, M. H.
2002-03-01
The two-phase critical test loop facility has been constructed in the KAERI engineering laboratory for the simulation of small break loss of coolant accident entrained with non-condensible gas of SMART. The test facility can operate at 12 MPa of pressure and 0 to 60 C of sub-cooling with 0.5 kg/s of non- condensible gas injection into break flow, and simulate up to 20 mm of pipe break. Main components of the test facility were arranged such that the pressure vessel containing coolant, a test section simulating break and a suppression tank inter-connected with pipings were installed vertically. As quick opening valve opens, high pressure/temperature coolant flows through the test section forming critical two-phase flow into the suppression tank. The pressure vessel was connected to two high pressure N2 gas tanks through a control valve to control pressure in the pressure vessel. Another N2 gas tank was also connected to the test section for the non-condensible gas injection. The test facility operation was performed on computers supported with PLC systems installed in the control room, and test data such as temperature, break flow rate, pressure drop across test section, gas injection flow rate were all together gathered in the data acquisition system for further data analysis. This test facility was classified as a safety related high pressure gas facility in law. Thus the loop design documentation was reviewed, and inspected during construction of the test loop by the regulatory body. And the regulatory body issued permission for the operation of the test facility
Refrigeration. Two-Phase Flow. Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard
2002-01-01
The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature.......The note gives the basic definitions used in two-phase flow. Flow regimes and flow regimes map are introduced. The different contributions to the pressure drop are stated together with an imperical correlation from the litterature....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, J.P.; Houze, R.N.; Buenger, D.E.; Theofanous, T.G.
1981-01-01
Hot film Anemometry and Laser Doppler Velocimetry have been employed in this work to study the turbulence characteristics of Bubbly and Stratified two-phase flows, respectively. Extensive consistency checks were made to establish the reliability and hence the utility of these experimental techniques for the measurement of turbulence in two-phase flows. Buoyancy-driven turbulence in vertical bubbly flows has been identified experimentally and correlated in terms of a shear velocity superposition approach. This approach provides a criterion for the demarcation of the buoyancy-driven turbulence region from the wall shear-generated turbulence region. Our data confirm the roughly isotropic behavior expected for buoyancy-driven turbulence. Upgrading of our experimental system will permit investigations of the wall-shear dominated regime (i.e., isotropy, superposition approach, etc.). The stratified flow data demonstrate clearly that the maximum in the mean velocity profile does not coincide with the zero shear plane, indicating the existence of a negative eddy viscosity region. Previous studies do not take into account this difference and thus they yield incorrect friction factor data in addition to certain puzzling behavior in the upper wall region. The conditioned turbulence data in the wavy region indicate interesting trends and that an appropriate normalization of intensities must take into account the shear velocity at the interfacial (wavy) region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalinichenko, S.D.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Kroshilin, V.E.; Smirnov, A.V.
2009-01-01
Recent results are exposed, obtained by applying the best-estimate thermal hydraulic code BAGIRA for three-dimensional modeling complex two-phase flow dynamics inside the vessel of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 used in reactor units with VVER-1000. Spatial volumetric void fraction and velocity distributions are calculated and compared with available experimental data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinkov, V.N.
1993-01-01
This paper presents a mathematical model and a open-quotes fastclose quotes computer program for analyzing nonstationary thermohydrodynamic processes in distributed multi-element circuits containing a two-phase coolant. The author's approach is based on representing the distributed multi-element circuits with the two-phase coolant (such as cooling circuits of the reactor of an atomic power station) in the form of equivalent thermohydrodynamic chains composed of idealized elements with the intrinsic properties of the structure elements of real systems. The author has developed the nomenclature of such conceptual elements for objects which can be modelled; the nomenclature encompasses the control volumes (with a single-phase or two-phase coolant or a moving boundary of boiling/condensation) and the branch lines (type of tube and connections in dependence on the inertia of the coolant being taken into account) for a hydrodynamic submodel and the thermal components and lines for a thermal submodel. The mathematical models which have been developed and the program using them are designated for various forms of calculating slow thermohydrodynamic processes in multi-element coolant circuits in reactors and modeling test stands. The program facilitates calculation of the range of stable operation, detailed studies of stationary and nonstationary modes of operation, and forecasts of effective engineering measures to obtain stability with the aid of microcomputers
Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.
Problems of two-phase flows in water cooled and moderated reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Syu, Yu.
1984-01-01
Heat exchange in two-phase flows of coolant in loss of coolant accidents in PWR and BWR reactors has been investigated. Three main stages of accident history are considered: blowdown, reflooding using emergency core cooling system and rewetting. Factors, determining the rate of coolant leakage and the rate of temperature increase in fuel cladding during blowdown, processes of vapour during reflooding and liquid priming by vapour during rewetting, are discussed
Two Phase Flow Simulation Using Cellular Automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcel, C.P.
2002-01-01
The classical mathematical treatment of two-phase flows is based on the average of the conservation equations for each phase.In this work, a complementary approach to the modeling of these systems based on statistical population balances of aut omata sets is presented.Automata are entities defined by mathematical states that change following iterative rules representing interactions with the neighborhood.A model of automata for two-phase flow simulation is presented.This model consists of fie lds of virtual spheres that change their volumes and move around a certain environment.The model is more general than the classical cellular automata in two respects: the grid of cellular automata is dismissed in favor of a trajectory generator, and the rules of interaction involve parameters representing the actual physical interactions between phases.Automata simulation was used to study unsolved two-phase flow problems involving high heat flux rates. One system described in this work consists of a vertical channel with saturated water at normal pressure heated from the lower surface.The heater causes water to boil and starts the bubble production.We used cellular automata to describe two-phase flows and the interaction with the heater.General rule s for such cellular automata representing bubbles moving in stagnant liquid were used, with special attention to correct modeling of different mechanisms of heat transfer.The results of the model were compared to previous experiments and correlations finding good agreement.One of the most important findings is the confirmation of Kutateladze's idea about a close relation between the start of critical heat flux and a change in the flow's topology.This was analyzed using a control volume located in the upper surface of the heater.A strong decrease in the interfacial surface just before the CHF start was encountered.The automata describe quite well some characteristic parameters such as the shape of the local void fraction in the
Two-phase interfacial area and flow regime modeling in FLOWTRAN-TF code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, F.G. III; Lee, S.Y.; Flach, G.P.; Hamm, L.L.
1992-01-01
FLOWTRAN-TF is a new two-component, two-phase thermal-hydraulics code to capture the detailed assembly behavior associated with loss-of-coolant accident analyses in multichannel assemblies of the SRS reactors. The local interfacial area of the two-phase mixture is computed by summing the interfacial areas contributed by each of three flow regimes. For smooth flow regime transitions, the code uses an interpolation technique in terms of component void fraction for each basic flow regime
Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.
2000-06-01
The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)
Flow patterns in vertical two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McQuillan, K.W.; Whalley, P.B.
1985-01-01
This paper is concerned with the flow patterns which occur in upwards gas-liquid two-phase flow in vertical tubes. The basic flow patterns are described and the use of flow patter maps is discussed. The transition between plug flow and churn flow is modelled under the assumption that flooding of the falling liquid film limits the stability of plug flow. The resulting equation is combined with other flow pattern transition equations to produce theoretical flow pattern maps, which are then tested against experimental flow pattern data. Encouraging agreement is obtained
Numerical calculation of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, J.R.; Harlow, F.H.; Amsden, A.A.
1975-06-01
The theoretical study of time-varying two-phase flow problems in several space dimensions introduces such a complicated set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations that numerical solution procedures for high-speed computers are required in almost all but the simplest examples. Efficient attainment of realistic solutions for practical problems requires a finite- difference formulation that is simultaneously implicit in the treatment of mass convection, equations of state, and the momentum coupling between phases. Such a method is described, the equations on which it is based are discussed, and its properties are illustrated by means of examples. In particular, the capability for calculating physical instabilities and other time-varying dynamics, at the same time avoiding numerical instability is emphasized. The computer code is applicable to problems in reactor safety analysis, the dynamics of fluidized dust beds, raindrops or aerosol transport, and a variety of similar circumstances, including the effects of phase transitions and the release of latent heat or chemical energy. (U.S.)
Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter
Unsteady interfacial coupling of two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.
2006-01-01
The primary coolant circuit in a nuclear power plant contains several distinct components (vessel, core, pipes,...). For all components, specific codes based on the discretization of partial differential equations have already been developed. In order to obtain simulations for the whole circuit, the interfacial coupling of these codes is required. The approach examined within this work consists in coupling codes by providing unsteady information through the coupling interface. The numerical technique relies on the use of an interface model, which is combined with the basic strategy that was introduced by Greenberg and Leroux in order to compute approximations of steady solutions of non-homogeneous hyperbolic systems. Three different coupling cases have been examined: (i) the coupling of a one-dimensional Euler system with a two-dimensional Euler system; (ii) the coupling of two distinct homogeneous two-phase flow models; (iii) the coupling of a four-equation homogeneous model with the standard two-fluid model. (author)
Measurement of two-phase flow momentum with force transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardy, J.E.; Smith, J.E.
1990-01-01
Two strain-gage-based drag transducers were developed to measure two-phase flow in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) test facilities. One transducer, a drag body (DB), was designed to measure the bidirectional average momentum flux passing through an end box. The second drag sensor, a break through detector (BTD), was designed to sense liquid downflow from the upper plenum to the core region. After prototype sensors passed numerous acceptance tests, transducers were fabricated and installed in two experimental test facilities, one in Japan and one in West Germany. High-quality data were extracted from both the DBs and BTDs for a variety of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The information collected from these sensors has added to the understanding of the thermohydraulic phenomena that occur during the refill/reflood stage of a LOCA in a PWR. 9 refs., 15 figs
Thermo-fluid dynamics of two-phase flow
Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, M
2006-01-01
Provides a very systematic treatment of two phase flow problems from a theoretical perspectiveProvides an easy to follow treatment of modeling and code devlopemnt of two phase flow related phenomenaCovers new results of two phase flow research such as coverage of fuel cells technology.
Two-phase flow characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblond, J.; Javelot, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebon, L.
1998-01-01
The results presented in this paper demonstrate the performance of the PFGSE-NMR to obtain a complete characterisation of two-phase flows. Different methods are proposed to characterise air-water flows in different regimes: stationary two-phase flows and flows in transient condition. Finally a modified PFGSE is proposed to analyse the turbulence of air-water bubbly flow. (author)
Two-phase flow model with nonequilibrium and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sureau, H.; Houdayer, G.
1976-01-01
The model proposed includes the three conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy) applied to the two phase flows and a fourth partial derivative equation which takes into account the nonequilibriums and describes the mass transfer process. With this model, the two phase critical flow tests performed on the Moby-Dick loop (CENG) with several geometries, are interpreted by a unique law. Extrapolations to industrial dimension problems show that geometry and size effects are different from those obtained with earlier models (Zaloudek, Moody, Fauske) [fr
Experimental investigation of a two-phase nozzle flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kedziur, F.; John, H.; Loeffel, R.; Reimann, J.
1980-07-01
Stationary two-phase flow experiments with a convergent nozzle are performed. The experimental results are appropriate to validate advanced computer codes, which are applied to the blowdown-phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The steam-water experiments present a broad variety of initial conditions: the pressure varies between 2 and 13 MPa, the void fraction between 0 (subcooled) and about 80%, a great number of critical as well as subcritical experiments with different flow pattern is investigated. Additional air-water experiments serve for the separation of phase transition effects. The transient acceleration of the fluid in the LOCA-case is simulated by a local acceleration in the experiment. The layout of the nozzle and the applied measurement technique allow for a separate testing of blowdown-relevant, physical models and the determination of empirical model parameters, respectively. The measured quantities are essentially the mass flow rate, quality, axial pressure and temperature profiles as well as axial and radial density/void profiles obtained by a γ-ray absorption device. Moreover, impedance probes and a pitot probe are used. Observed phenomena like a flow contraction, radial pressure and void profiles as well as the appearance of two chocking locations are described, because their examination is rather instructive about the refinement of a program. The experimental facilities as well as the data of 36 characteristic experiments are documented. (orig.) [de
System identification on two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Shaorong; Zhang Youjie; Wang Dazhong; Bo Jinghai; Wang Fei
1996-01-01
The theoretical principle, experimental method and results of interrelation analysis identification for the instability of two-phase flow are described. A completely new concept of test technology and method on two-phase flow stability was developed by using he theory of information science on system stability and system identification for two-phase flow stability in thermo-physics field. Application of this method would make it possible to identify instability boundary of two-phase flow under stable operation conditions of two-phase flow system. The experiment was carried out on the thermohydraulic test system HRTL-5. Using reverse repeated pseudo-random sequences of heating power as input signal sources and flow rate as response function in the test, the two-phase flow stability and stability margin of the natural circulation system are investigated. The effectiveness and feasibility of identifying two-phase flow stability by using this system identification method were experimentally demonstrated. Basic data required for mathematics modeling of two-phase flow and analysis of two-phase flow stability were obtained, which are useful for analyzing, monitoring of the system operation condition, and forecasting of two-phase flow stability in engineering system
Mixed convection in a two-phase flow cooling loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Daubner, M.; Knebel, J.U.
2002-03-01
This report summarizes the numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX4.1 which has additional models for subcooled flow boiling phenomena and the interfacial forces. The improved CFX4.1 code can be applied to the design of boiling induced mixed convection cooling loops in a defined parameter range. The experimental part describes the geysering experiments and the instability effects on the two-phase natural circulation flow. An experimentally validated flow pattern map in the Phase Change Number - Subcooling Number (N PCh - N Sub ) diagram defines the operational range in which flow instabilities such as geysering can be expected. One important perspective of this combined experimental/numerical work, which is in the field of two-phase flow, is its application to the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS). The main objective on an ADS is its potential to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products, thus participating in closing the fuel cycle. The development of an ADS is an important issue within the Euratom Fifth FP on Partitioning and Transmutation. One concept of an ADS, which is investigated in more detail within the ''preliminary design study of an experimental ADS'' Project (PDS-XADS) of the Euratom Fifth FP, is the XADS lead-bismuth cooled Experimental ADS of ANSALDO. An essential feature of this concept is the natural circulation of the primary coolant within the reactor pool. The natural circulation, which is driven by the density differences between the blanket and the heat exchanger, is enhanced by the injection of the nitrogen cover gas through spargers located in a riser part just above the blanket. This so-called gas-lift pump system has not been investigated in more detail nor has this gas-lift pump system been numerically/experimentally confirmed. The knowledge gained within the SUCO Programe, i.e. the modelling of the interfacial forces, the experimental work on flow instabilities and the modelling of the interfacial area
Mixed convection in a two-phase flow cooling loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Daubner, M.; Knebel, J.U.
2002-03-01
This report summarizes the numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX4.1 which has additional models for subcooled flow boiling phenomena and the interfacial forces. The improved CFX4.1 code can be applied to the design of boiling induced mixed convection cooling loops in a defined parameter range. The experimental part describes the geysering experiments and the instability effects on the two-phase natural circulation flow. An experimentally validated flow pattern map in the Phase Change Number - Subcooling Number (N{sub PCh} - N{sub Sub}) diagram defines the operational range in which flow instabilities such as geysering can be expected. One important perspective of this combined experimental/numerical work, which is in the field of two-phase flow, is its application to the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS). The main objective on an ADS is its potential to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products, thus participating in closing the fuel cycle. The development of an ADS is an important issue within the Euratom Fifth FP on Partitioning and Transmutation. One concept of an ADS, which is investigated in more detail within the ''preliminary design study of an experimental ADS'' Project (PDS-XADS) of the Euratom Fifth FP, is the XADS lead-bismuth cooled Experimental ADS of ANSALDO. An essential feature of this concept is the natural circulation of the primary coolant within the reactor pool. The natural circulation, which is driven by the density differences between the blanket and the heat exchanger, is enhanced by the injection of the nitrogen cover gas through spargers located in a riser part just above the blanket. This so-called gas-lift pump system has not been investigated in more detail nor has this gas-lift pump system been numerically/experimentally confirmed. The knowledge gained within the SUCO Programe, i.e. the modelling of the interfacial forces, the experimental work on flow instabilities and the
Flooding and flow reversal of two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asahi, Y.
1978-01-01
The flooding and flow reversal conditions of two-phase annular flow are mathematically defined in terms of a characteristic function representing a force balance. Sufficiently below the flooding point in counter-current flow, the interface is smooth and the characteristic equation reduces to the Nusselt relationship. Just below flooding point and above the flow reversal point in cocurrent flow, the interface is 'wavy', so that the interfacial shear effect plays an important role. The theoretical analysis is compared with experimental results by others. It is suggested that the various length effects which have been experimentally observed may be accounted for by the spatial variation of the droplet entrainment. (Auth.)
A review of damping of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio
1993-01-01
Damping of two-phase flows has been recognized as one of the most unknown parameters in analyzing vibrational characteristics of structures subjected to two-phase flows since it seems to be influenced by many physical parameters involved in the physics of dynamic energy dissipation of a vibrating structure, for example, liquid viscosity, surface tension, flow velocity, mass ratio, frequency, void fraction, flow regime and so forth. This paper deals with a review of scientific works done to date on the damping of two phase flows and discussions about what has been clarified and what has not been known to us, or what kinds of research are needed about two-phase flow damping. The emphasis is put on the definition of two-phase fluid damping, damping measurement techniques, damping characteristics in relation to two phase flow configurations, and damping generation mechanisms
Effects of Parallel Channel Interactions on Two-Phase Flow Split in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The tests would aid the development of a realistic transient computer model for tracking the distribution of two-phase flows into the multiple parallel channels of a Nuclear Reactor, during Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA), and were performed at the General Electric Nuclear Energy Division Laboratory, California. The test ...
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case.
Post Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Mass Flow Rate for CE-PECS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, R. J.; Ha, K. S.; Rhee, B. W.; Kim, H. Y.
2015-01-01
The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. The engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is required that the coolant be circulated at a rate along the inclined cooling channel sufficient to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. In this study, post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CEPECS have been performed to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. Post simulations of two phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS have been conducted to evaluate two phase flow characteristics and the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. The RELAP5/MOD3 results have shown that the water circulation mass flow rate is approximately 8.7 kg/s in the base case
Two-phase flow dynamics in ECC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albraaten, P.J.
1981-07-01
The present report summarizes the achievements within the project ''Two-phase Systems and ECC''. The results during 1978 - 1980 are accounted for in brief as they have been documented in earlier reports. The results during the first half of 1981 are accounted for in greater detail. They contain a new model for the Basset force and test runs with this model using the test code RISQUE. Furthermore, test runs have been performed with TRAC-PD2 MOD 1. This code was implemented on Edwards Pipe Blowdown experiment (a standard test case) and UC-Berkeley Reflooding experiment (a non-standard test case.) (Auth.)
Numerical method for two-phase flow discontinuity propagation calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.
1989-01-01
In this paper, we present a class of numerical shock-capturing schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws modelling two-phase flow. First, we solve the Riemann problem for a two-phase flow with unequal velocities. Then, we construct two approximate Riemann solvers: an one intermediate-state Riemann solver and a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver. We give some numerical results for one-dimensional shock-tube problems and for a standard two-phase flow heat addition problem involving two-phase flow instabilities
Program determines two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashiro, C.E.; Espiell, L.G.S.; Farina, I.H.
1986-01-01
When a mixture of a gas and a liquid flows along a horizontal pipe, it is possible to have up to seven different flow patterns. These flow patterns are: 1. Dispersed. When nearly all the liquid is entrained as spray by the gas; 2. Annular. The liquid forms a film around the inside wall of the pipe, and the gas flows at a high velocity as a central core; 3. Bubble. Bubbles of gas move along at about the same velocity as the liquid; 4. Stratified. The liquid flows along the bottom of the pipe and the gas flows above over a smooth gas-liquid interface; 5. Wave. Is similar to stratified except the interface is disturbed by waves moving in the direction of flow; 6. Slug. Waves are picked up periodically in the form of frothy slugs that move at a much greater velocity than the average liquid velocity; 7. Plug. Alternate plugs of liquid and gas move along the pipe
Two-phase flow structure in large diameter pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.R.; Schlegel, J.P.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Local profiles of various quantities measured in large diameter pipe. ► Database for interfacial area in large pipes extended to churn-turbulent flow. ► Flow regime map confirms previous models for flow regime transitions. ► Data will be useful in developing interfacial area transport models for large pipes. - Abstract: Flow in large pipes is important in a wide variety of applications. In the nuclear industry in particular, understanding of flow in large diameter pipes is essential in predicting the behavior of reactor systems. This is especially true of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designs, where a large-diameter chimney above the core provides the gravity head to drive circulation of the coolant through the reactor. The behavior of such reactors during transients and during normal operation will be predicted using advanced thermal–hydraulics analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model. Essential to accurate two-fluid model calculations is reliable and accurate computation of the interfacial transfer terms. These interfacial transfer terms can be expressed as the product of one term describing the potential driving the transfer and a second term describing the available surface area for transfer, or interfacial area concentration. Currently, the interfacial area is predicted using flow regime dependent empirical correlations; however the interfacial area concentration is best computed through the use of the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE). To facilitate the development of IATE source and sink term models in large-diameter pipes a fundamental understanding of the structure of the two-phase flow is essential. This understanding is improved through measurement of the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration and gas velocity profiles in pipes with diameters of 0.102 m and 0.152 m under a wide variety of flow conditions. Additionally, flow regime identification has been performed to
Industrial aspects of gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.
1977-01-01
The lecture begins by reviewing the various types of plant in which two phase flow occurs. Specifically, boiling plant, condensing plant and pipelines are reviewed, and the various two phase flow problems occurring in them are described. Of course, many other kinds of chemical engineering plant involve two phase flow, but are somewhat outside the scope of this lecture. This would include distillation columns, vapor-liquid separators, absorption towers etc. Other areas of industrial two phase flow which have been omitted for space reasons from this lecture are those concerned with gas/solids, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid flows. There then follows a description of some of the two phase flow processes which are relevant in industrial equipment and where special problems occur. The topics chosen are as follows: (1) pressure drop; (2) horizontal tubes - separation effects non-uniformites in heat transfer coefficient, effect of bends on dryout; (3) multicomponent mixtures - effects in pool boiling, mass transfer effects in condensation and Marangoni effects; (4) flow distribution - manifold problems in single phase flow, separation effects at a single T-junction in two phase flow and distribution in manifolds in two phase flow; (5) instability - oscillatory instability, special forms of instability in cryogenic systems; (6) nucleate boiling - effect of variability of surface, unresolved problems in forced convective nucleate boiling; and (7) shell side flows - flow patterns, cross flow boiling, condensation in cross flow
Mathematical modelling of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komen, E.M.J.; Stoop, P.M.
1992-11-01
A gradual shift from methods based on experimental correlations to methods based on mathematical models to study 2-phase flows can be observed. The latter can be used to predict dynamical behaviour of 2-phase flows. This report discusses various mathematical models for the description of 2-phase flows. An important application of these models can be found in thermal-hydraulic computer codes used for analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of water cooled nuclear power plants. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs
Constitutive equations for two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boure, J.A.
1974-12-01
The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji
1988-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to understand two-phase flow discharged from a stratified two-phase region through a small break. This problem is important for an analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor (LWR). The present theoretical results show that a break quality is a function of h/h b , where h is the elevation difference between a bulk water level in the upstream region and break and b the suffix for entrainment initiation. This result is consistent with existing eperimental results in literature. An air-water experiment was also conducted changing a break orientation as an experimental parameter to develop and assess the model. Comparisons between the model and the experimental results show that the present model can satisfactorily predict the flow rate and the quality at the break without using any adjusting constant when liquid entrainment occurs in a stratified two-phase region. When gas entrainment occurs, the experimental data are correlated well by using a single empirical constant. (author)
Unsteady State Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop Calculations
Ayatollahi, Shahaboddin
1992-01-01
A method is presented to calculate unsteady state two phase flow in a gas-liquid line based on a quasi-steady state approach. A computer program for numerical solution of this method was prepared. Results of calculations using the computer program are presented for several unsteady state two phase flow systems
Development of two-phase Flow Model, 'SOBOIL', for Sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, Do Hee; Chang, Won Pyo; Kim, In Chul; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum
2000-03-01
The objective of this research is to develop a sodium two-phase flow analysis model, 'SOBOIL', for the assessment of the initial stage of the KALIMER HCDA (Hypotherical Core Disruptive Accident). The 'SOBOIL' is basically similar to the multi-bubble slug ejection model used in SAS2A[1]. When a bubble is formed within the liquid slug, the bubble fills the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a film left on the cladding or on the structure. Up to nine bubbles, separated by the liquid slugs, are allowed in the channel at any time. Each liquid slug flow rate in the model is performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the preliminary flow rate in the liquid slug is calculated neglecting the effect of changes in the vapor bubble pressures over the time step. The temperature and pressure distributions, and interface velocity at the interface between the liquid slug and vapor bubble are also calculated during this process. The new vapor temperature and pressure are then determined from the balance between the net energy transferred into the vapor and the change of the vapor energy. The liquid flow is finally calculated considering the change of the vapor pressure over a time step and the calculation is repeated until specified elapsed time is met. Continuous effort, therefore, must be made on the examination and improvement for the model to become reliable. To this end, much interest must be concentrated in the relevant international collaborations for access to a reference model or test data for the verification
Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.
2013-01-01
occurring in at least two different spatial scales. Uncertainty in modelling of bubble departure diameter at boiling was studied by M. Matkovic and B. Koncar. In this article the propagation of input uncertainties for the simplified model of bubble departure size is evaluated. A methodology for estimating the prediction capability of a given correlation is provided taking into account its range of applicability. Aqueous nanofluids have a great potential for cooling applications, hence they have been studied in the article of P.N. Alekseev et al. as a possible coolant in pressurized water reactor (PWR). The theoretical study presents how a stable formation of nanoparticles in water solution can be established. Formation of fractal nanoparticles with a higher thermal conductivity than water can enhance the heat transfer of water used as a coolant in PWR. Apart from solid particles, also alternative formation of gaseous nanoparticles in density fluctuations of water is discussed. The article of R. Rzehak and E. Krepper provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of CFD modelling of subcooled flow boiling. The efficient predictive capability of current models requires calibration of model parameters over a wide range of measured data and operating conditions.The results presented in the article confirmed the great potential of the existing modelling approach for the 3D simulation of subcooled flow boiling in industrial applications but also highlight the need for specific model improvements to achieve highly accurate predictions. Two articles deal with one-dimensional analyses of two phase flows. In the article of O.Costa et al., a rapid depressurization in vertical heated pipe is simulated with the in-house 1D computer code WAHA, which was developed specifically for simulations of two-phase water hammer phenomena. The WAHA results were confronted with the simulations of the well-known system code RELAP5 on the same experimental data. The thermal
Waves in separated two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pols, R.M.
1998-06-01
This dissertation presents an integral approach to the modelling of co-current flow of liquid and gas for a class of non-linear wave problems. Typically the liquid phase and the gas phase are decoupled and the liquid is depth averaged. The resulting non-linear shallow water equations are solved to predict the behaviour of the finite amplitude waves. The integral approach is applied to the modelling of two-dimensional waves in a horizontal and slightly inclined rectangular channel, two-dimensional waves in a vertical pipe and three-dimensional waves in a horizontal tube. For flow in a horizontal or slightly inclined channel the liquid is driven by the interfacial shear from the gas phase and the surface is subject to extensive wave action. For thin liquid films the pressure in the liquid may be taken as hydrostatic and gravity acts as a restoring force on the liquid. Roll wave solutions to the non-linear shallow water equations are sought corresponding to an interfacial shear stress dependent on the liquid film height. Wave solutions are shown to exist but only for parameters within a defined range dependent on the channel inclination, interfacial roughness and linear dependence on the liquid film height of the shear stresses. Such solutions are discontinuous and are pieced together by a jump where mass and momentum are conserved. The model calculations on wave height and wave velocity are compared with experimental data. The essentially two-dimensional analysis developed for stratified horizontal flow can be extended to quasi three-dimensional flow in the case of shallow liquid depth for a circular pipe. In this case the liquid depth changes with circumferential position and consequently modifies the interfacial shear exerted on the liquid surface creating a wave spreading mechanism alongside changing the wave profile across the pipe. The wave spreading mechanism supposes a wave moving in axial direction at a velocity faster than the liquid thereby sweeping liquid
Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.
2011-01-01
Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G
1970-01-01
The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.
Two-phase flow patterns and their relationship to two-phase heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.
1977-01-01
The objective of this lecture was to discuss the general nature of two phase flows, to define the various regimes of flow and to discuss the influence of these regimes on the heat transfer processes taking place. The methods of regime delineation are briefly described and regime descriptions introduced for both vertical and horizontal flows in tubes. ''Flow regime maps'' have been widely used as an aid to determination of the regime which occurs in a given situation. Some of the more widely used maps are described and the limitations of this approach discussed. There have been many attempts to obtain a better phenomenological description of two phase flow patterns. In this lecture, these attempts will be reviewed in the context of the bubble/plug, plug/churn and churn/annular flow transitions in vertical flow. The latter two transitions are related to the flooding/flow reversal phenomena. For horizontal flows, recent work on the onset of slugging will be reviewed. In flows with evaporation or condensation, the situation is influenced by departures from thermodynamic equilibrium and the types of departure observed are discuss briefly. Flow patterns and their relationships with heat transfer regimes are then reviewed for the case of condensation in horizontal tubes and evaporation in vertical tubes
Regimes of Two-Phase Flow in Short Rectangular Channel
Chinnov, Evgeny A.; Guzanov, Vladimir V.; Cheverda, Vyacheslav; Markovich, Dmitry M.; Kabov, Oleg A.
2009-08-01
Experimental study of two-phase flow in the short rectangular horizontal channel with height 440 μm has been performed. Characteristics of liquid motion inside the channel have been registered and measured by the Laser Induced Fluorescence technique. New information has allowed determining more precisely the characteristics of churn regime and boundaries between different regimes of two-phase flow. It was shown that formation of some two-phase flow regimes and transitions between them are determined by instability of the flow in the lateral parts of the channel.
Two-phase-flow models and their limitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.
1982-01-01
An accurate prediction of transient two-phase flow is essential to safety analyses of nuclear reactors under accident conditions. The fluid flow and heat transfer encountered are often extremely complex due to the reactor geometry and occurrence of transient two-phase flow. Recently considerable progresses in understanding and predicting these phenomena have been made by a combination of rigorous model development, advanced computational techniques, and a number of small and large scale supporting experiments. In view of their essential importance, the foundation of various two-phase-flow models and their limitations are discussed in this paper
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
Ishii, Mamrou
2011-01-01
"Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Second Edition" is focused on the fundamental physics of two-phase flow. The authors present the detailed theoretical foundation of multi-phase flow thermo-fluid dynamics as they apply to: Nuclear reactor transient and accident analysis; Energy systems; Power generation systems; Chemical reactors and process systems; Space propulsion; Transport processes. This edition features updates on two-phase flow formulation and constitutive equations and CFD simulation codes such as FLUENT and CFX, new coverage of the lift force model, which is of part
Two-phase flow patterns in horizontal rectangular minichannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron’shin Fedor
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The two-phase flow in a short horizontal channel of rectangular cross-section of 1 × 19 mm2 has been studied experimentally. Five conventional two-phase flow patterns have been detected (bubble, churn, stratified, annular and jet and transitions between them have been determined. It is shown that a change in the width of the horizontal channels has a substantial effect on the boundaries between the flow regimes.
State of the art: two-phase flow calibration techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanley, M.L.
1977-01-01
The nuclear community faces a particularly difficult problem relating to the calibration of instrumentation in a two-phase flow steam/water environment. The rationale of the approach to water reactor safety questions in the United States demands that accurate measurements of mass flows in a decompressing two-phase flow be made. An accurate measurement dictates an accurate calibration. This paper addresses three questions relating to the state of the art in two-phase calibration: (1) What do we mean by calibration. (2) What is done now. (3) What should be done
Modeling two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yun; Basu, Suman; Wang, Chao-Yang [Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2008-05-01
This paper is concerned with the simultaneous flow of liquid water and gaseous reactants in mini-channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Envisaging the mini-channels as structured and ordered porous media, we develop a continuum model of two-phase channel flow based on two-phase Darcy's law and the M{sup 2} formalism, which allow estimate of the parameters key to fuel cell operation such as overall pressure drop and liquid saturation profiles along the axial flow direction. Analytical solutions of liquid water saturation and species concentrations along the channel are derived to explore the dependences of these physical variables vital to cell performance on operating parameters such as flow stoichiometric ratio and relative humility. The two-phase channel model is further implemented for three-dimensional numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component transport in a single fuel-cell channel. Three issues critical to optimizing channel design and mitigating channel flooding in PEM fuel cells are fully discussed: liquid water buildup towards the fuel cell outlet, saturation spike in the vicinity of flow cross-sectional heterogeneity, and two-phase pressure drop. Both the two-phase model and analytical solutions presented in this paper may be applicable to more general two-phase flow phenomena through mini- and micro-channels. (author)
DISTRIBUTION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A DISTRIBUTOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AZRIDJAL AZIZ
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The flow configuration and distribution behavior of two-phase flow in a distributor made of acrylic resin have been investigated experimentally. In this study, air and water were used as two-phase flow working fluids. The distributor consists of one inlet and two outlets, which are set as upper and lower, respectively. The flow visualization at the distributor was made by using a high–speed camera. The flow rates of air and water flowing out from the upper and lower outlet branches were measured. Effects of inclination angle of the distributor were investigated. By changing the inclination angle from vertical to horizontal, uneven distributions were also observed. The distribution of two-phase flow through distributor tends even flow distribution on the vertical position and tends uneven distribution on inclined and horizontal positions. It is shown that even distribution could be achieved at high superficial velocities of both air and water.
Fluid-elastic vibration in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.; Serizawa, A.; Kawara, Z.
2003-01-01
The present work aims at clarifying the mechanisms of fluid elastic vibration of tube bundles in two-phase cross flow. The experiment is conducted using air-water two-phase flow under atmospheric pressure. The test section is a 1.03m long transparent acrylic square duct with 128 x 128 mm 2 cross section, which consists of 3 rod-rows with 5 rods in each row. The rods are 125mm long aluminum rods with 22 mm in diameter (p/D=1.45). The natural frequency of rod vibration is about 30Hz. The result indicated a diversion of observed trend in vibration behavior depending on two-phase flow patterns either bubbly flow or churn flow. Specifically, in churn flow, the fluid elastic vibration has been observed to occur when the frequency in void fraction fluctuation approached to the natural frequency of the rods, but this was not the case in fluid elastic vibration in bubbly flow. This fact suggests the existence of mechanisms closely coupled with two-phase flow structures depending on the flow patterns, that is, static two-phase character-controlled mechanism in bubbly flow and dynamic character- controlled in churn flow
Experiments of steady state head and torque of centrifugal pumps in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minato, Akihiko; Tominaga, Kenji.
1988-01-01
Circulation pump behavior has large effect on coolant discharge flow rate in case of reactor pipe break. Experiment of two-phase pump performance was conducted as a joint study of Japanese BWR user utilities and makers. Two-phase head and torque of three centrifugal pumps in high temperature and high pressure (around 6 MPa) steam/water were measured. Head was decreased from single-phase characteristics when gas was mixed in liquid flow in condition with normal flow and normal rotation directions. When flow rate was large enough, two-phase head was about the same as single-phase one in reversal flow conditions. Two-phase head was smoothly increased as flowing steam volumetic concentration increased when flow rate was small and flow direction was reversal. Changes of torque with gas concentration were correspondent to those of head. This suggested that changes of interaction between flow and impellers due to phase slip effected on torque which caused head differences between single- and two-phase flows. Dependence of dimensionless head and torque of three test pumps on steam concentration were almost the same as each other. (author)
Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadrist, L.
2007-01-01
Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries
Visual Analysis of Inclusion Dynamics in Two-Phase Flow.
Karch, Grzegorz Karol; Beck, Fabian; Ertl, Moritz; Meister, Christian; Schulte, Kathrin; Weigand, Bernhard; Ertl, Thomas; Sadlo, Filip
2018-05-01
In single-phase flow visualization, research focuses on the analysis of vector field properties. In two-phase flow, in contrast, analysis of the phase components is typically of major interest. So far, visualization research of two-phase flow concentrated on proper interface reconstruction and the analysis thereof. In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique that enables the investigation of complex two-phase flow phenomena with respect to the physics of breakup and coalescence of inclusions. On the one hand, we adapt dimensionless quantities for a localized analysis of phase instability and breakup, and provide detailed inspection of breakup dynamics with emphasis on oscillation and its interplay with rotational motion. On the other hand, we present a parametric tightly linked space-time visualization approach for an effective interactive representation of the overall dynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using several two-phase CFD datasets.
Metrology of two-phase flow: different methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.; Reocreux, M.; Ricque, R.
Nine papers are presented concerning different methods of measuring two-phase flow. Some of the methods and equipment discussed include: radiation absorption, electromagnetic flowmeter, anemometry, resistance probes, phase indicating microthermocouples, optical probes, sampling methods, and pitot tubes
Qualitative behaviour of incompressible two-phase flows with phase ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jan Prüss
2017-11-07
Nov 7, 2017 ... Qualitative behaviour of incompressible two-phase flows with phase ... Germany. 2Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, ... Note that j is a dummy variable as it can be eliminated from the ...
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi
1988-10-01
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of horizontal two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tselishcheva, Elena A.; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tubes. Two flow situations have been considered: gas/liquid flow in a long straight pipe, and similar flow conditions in a pipe with 90 deg. elbow. The theoretical approach utilizes a multifield modeling concept. A complete three-dimensional two-phase flow model has been implemented in a state-of-the-art computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The overall model has been tested parametrically. Also, the results of NPHASE simulations have been compared against experimental data for a pipe with 90 deg. elbow.
Varseev, E.
2017-11-01
The present work is dedicated to verification of numerical model in standard solver of open-source CFD code OpenFOAM for two-phase flow simulation and to determination of so-called “baseline” model parameters. Investigation of heterogeneous coolant flow parameters, which leads to abnormal friction increase of channel in two-phase adiabatic “water-gas” flows with low void fractions, presented.
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandotto Biettoli, M.
2006-04-01
The report presents globally the works done by the author in the thermohydraulic applied to nuclear reactors flows. It presents the studies done to the numerical simulation of the two phase flows in the steam generators and a finite element method to compute these flows. (author)
A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.
1990-01-01
A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs
Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media
Chen, J.; Sun, S.; Chen, Z.
2014-01-01
in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Tadashi; Hirano, Masashi; Akimoto, Masayuki; Tanabe, Fumiya; Kohsaka, Atsuo.
1992-03-01
Two-phase flow characteristics analysis code: MINCS (Modularized and INtegrated Code System) has been developed to provide a computational tool for analyzing two-phase flow phenomena in one-dimensional ducts. In MINCS, nine types of two-phase flow models-from a basic two-fluid nonequilibrium (2V2T) model to a simple homogeneous equilibrium (1V1T) model-can be used under the same numerical solution method. The numerical technique is based on the implicit finite difference method to enhance the numerical stability. The code structure is highly modularized, so that new constitutive relations and correlations can be easily implemented into the code and hence evaluated. A flow pattern can be fixed regardless of flow conditions, and state equations or steam tables can be selected. It is, therefore, easy to calculate physical or numerical benchmark problems. (author)
An analytical model for prediction of two-phase (noncondensable) flow pump performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, O.
1985-01-01
During operational transients or a hypothetical LOCA (loss of coolant accident) condition, the recirculating coolant of PWR (pressurized water reactor) may flash into steam due to a loss of line pressure. Under such two-phase flow conditions, it is well known that the recirculation pump becomes unable to generate the same head as that of the single-phase flow case. Similar situations also exist in oil well submersible pumps where a fair amount of gas is contained in oil. Based on the one dimensional control volume method, an analytical method has been developed to determine the performance of pumps operating under two-phase flow conditions. The analytical method has incorporated pump geometry, void fraction, flow slippage and flow regime into the basic formula, but neglected the compressibility and condensation effects. During the course of model development, it has been found that the head degradation is mainly caused by higher acceleration on liquid phase and deceleration on gas phase than in the case of single-phase flows. The numerical results for head degradations and torques obtained with the model favorably compared with the air/water two-phase flow test data of Babcock and Wilcox (1/3 scale) and Creare (1/20 scale) pumps
Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio
1980-01-01
This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)
Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR
Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.
1975-12-19
A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.
Microgravity two-phase flow and heat transfer
Gabriel, Kamiel S
2007-01-01
Advances in understanding the behaviour of multiphase thermal systems could lead to higher efficiency energy production systems, but such advances have been greatly hindered by the strong effect of gravitational acceleration on the flow. This book presents a coverage of various aspects of two-phase flow behaviour in the virtual absence of gravity.
Two Phase Flow Split Model for Parallel Channels | Iloeje | Nigerian ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The model and code are capable of handling single and two phase flows, steady states and transients, up to ten parallel flow paths, simple and complicated geometries, including the boilers of fossil steam generators and nuclear power plants. A test calculation has been made with a simplified three-channel system ...
Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mat, M. D.; Kaplan, Y.; Celik, S.; Oeztural, A.
2007-01-01
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells. Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance. Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics (V-I curves) is measured depending on the process parameters (temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc)
Multiparticle imaging velocimetry measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.
1998-01-01
The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being extended to determine the velocity fields in two and three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has attracted quite a lot of interest. PIV enables fluid velocities across a region of a flow to be measured at a single instant in time in global domain. This instantaneous velocity profile of a given flow field is determined by digitally recording particle (microspheres or bubbles) images within the flow over multiple successive video frames and then conducting flow pattern identification and analysis of the data. This paper presents instantaneous velocity measurements in various two and three- dimensional, two-phase flow situations. (author)
Mathematical modeling of disperse two-phase flows
Morel, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book develops the theoretical foundations of disperse two-phase flows, which are characterized by the existence of bubbles, droplets or solid particles finely dispersed in a carrier fluid, which can be a liquid or a gas. Chapters clarify many difficult subjects, including modeling of the interfacial area concentration. Basic knowledge of the subjects treated in this book is essential to practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics for two-phase flows in a variety of industrial and environmental settings. The author provides a complete derivation of the basic equations, followed by more advanced subjects like turbulence equations for the two phases (continuous and disperse) and multi-size particulate flow modeling. As well as theoretical material, readers will discover chapters concerned with closure relations and numerical issues. Many physical models are presented, covering key subjects including heat and mass transfers between phases, interfacial forces and fluid particles coalescence and breakup, a...
Interfacial structures in downward two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S.S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
Downward two-phase flow was studied considering its significance in view of Light Water Reactor Accidents (LWR) such as Loss of Heat Sink (LOHS) by feed water loss or secondary pipe break. The flow studied, was an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, vertically downward two-phase flow. The experimental test sections had internal hydraulic diameters of 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm. Flow regime map was obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology to minimize the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. A four sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, which characterize the interfacial structures. The local time averaged two-phase flow parameters measured were: void fraction (α), interfacial area concentration (a i ), bubble velocity (v g ), and Sauter mean diameter (D Sm ). The flow conditions were from the bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development revealed the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provided a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along the flow field. An interfacial area transport equation was developed for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration were compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. (author)
Random signal tomographical analysis of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, P.; Wesser, U.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on radiation tomography which is a useful tool for studying the internal structures of two-phase flow. However, general tomography analysis gives only time-averaged results, hence much information is lost. As a result, it is sometimes difficult to identify the flow regime; for example, the time-averaged picture does not significantly change as an annual flow develops from a slug flow. A two-phase flow diagnostic technique based on random signal tomographical analysis is developed. It extracts more information by studying the statistical variation of the measured signal with time. Local statistical parameters, including mean value, variance, skewness and flatness etc., are reconstructed from the information obtained by a general tomography technique. More important information are provided by the results. Not only the void fraction can be easily calculated, but also the flow pattern can be identified more objectively and more accurately. The experimental setup is introduced. It consisted of a two-phase flow loop, an X-ray system, a fan-like five-beam detector system and a signal acquisition and processing system. In the experiment, for both horizontal and vertical test sections (aluminum and steel tube with Di/Do = 40/45 mm), different flow situations are realized by independently adjusting air and water mass flow. Through a glass tube connected with the test section, some typical flow patterns are visualized and used for comparing with the reconstruction results
Stability of interfacial waves in two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, W S [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)
1996-12-31
The influence of the interfacial pressure and the flow distribution in the one-dimensional two-fluid model on the stability problems of interfacial waves is discussed. With a proper formulation of the interfacial pressure, the following two-phase phenomena can be predicted from the stability and stationary criteria of the interfacial waves: onset of slug flow, stationary hydraulic jump in a stratified flow, flooding in a vertical pipe, and the critical void fraction of a bubbly flow. It can be concluded that the interfacial pressure plays an important role in the interfacial wave propagation of the two-fluid model. The flow distribution parameter may enhance the flow stability range, but only plays a minor role in the two-phase characteristics. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.
Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering
Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.
2015-07-01
Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.
Analysis of Two Phase Natural Circulation Flow in the Cooling Channel of the PECS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, R. J; Ha, K. S; Rhee, B. W; Kim, H. Y [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Decay heat and sensible heat of the relocated and spread corium are removed by the natural circulation flow at the bottom and side wall of the core catcher and the top water cooling of the corium. The coolant in the inclined channel absorbs the decay heat and sensible heat transferred from the corium through the structure of the core catcher body and flows up to the pool as a two phase mixture. On the other hand, some of the pool water will flow into the inlet of the downcomer piping, and will flow into the inclined cooling channel of the core catcher by gravity. As shown in Fig. 1, the engineered cooling channel is designed to provide effective long-term cooling and stabilization of the corium mixture in the core catcher body while facilitating steam venting in the PECS. To maintain the integrity of the ex-vessel core catcher, however, it is necessary that the coolant be sufficiently circulated along the inclined cooling channel to avoid CHF (Critical Heat Flux) on the heating surface of the cooling channel. For this reason, a verification experiment on the cooling capability of the EU-APR1400 core catcher has been performed in the CE (Cooling Experiment)-PECS facility at KAERI. Preliminary simulations of two-phase natural circulation in the CE-PECS were performed to predict two-phase flow characteristics and to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel. In this study, simulations of two-phase natural circulation in a real core catcher of the PECS have been performed to determine the natural circulation mass flow rate in the flow channel using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code.
Modulating patterns of two-phase flow with electric fields.
Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Anand, Robbyn K; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T
2014-07-01
This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flow in a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.
Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, Ran; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu
2017-02-15
Highlights: • A visualization study is performed to develop flow regime map in horizontal flow. • Database in horizontal bubbly flow is extended using a local conductivity probe. • Frictional pressure drop analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. • Drift flux analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental studies performed to characterize horizontal air–water two-phase flow in a round pipe with an inner diameter of 3.81 cm. A detailed flow visualization study is performed using a high-speed video camera in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions to verify previous flow regime maps. Two-phase flows are classified into bubbly, plug, slug, stratified, stratified-wavy, and annular flow regimes. While the transition boundaries identified in the present study compare well with the existing ones (Mandhane et al., 1974) in general, some discrepancies are observed for bubbly-to-plug/slug, and plug-to-slug transition boundaries. Based on the new transition boundaries, three additional test conditions are determined in horizontal bubbly flow to extend the database by Talley et al. (2015a). Various local two-phase flow parameters including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble velocity, and bubble Sauter mean diameter are obtained. The effects of increasing gas flow rate on void fraction, bubble Sauter mean diameter, and bubble velocity are discussed. Bubbles begin to coalesce near the gas–liquid layer instead of in the highly packed region when gas flow rate increases. Using all the current experimental data, two-phase frictional pressure loss analysis is performed using the Lockhart–Martinelli method. It is found that the coefficient C = 24 yields the best agreement with the data with the minimum average difference. Moreover, drift flux analysis is performed to predict void-weighted area-averaged bubble velocity and area-averaged void fraction. Based on the current database, functional
Critical pressure of non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minzer, U [Israel Electric Corp. Ltd., Haifa (Israel)
1996-12-01
Critical pressure is defined as the pressure existing at the exit edge of the piping, when it remains constant despite a decrease in the back. According to this definition the critical pressure is larger than the back pressure and for two-phase conditions below saturation pressure. The two-phase critical pressure has a major influence on the two-phase critical flow characteristics. Therefore it is of High significance in calculations of critical mass flux and critical depressurization rate, which are important in the fields of Nuclear Reactor Safety and Industrial Safety. At the Nuclear Reactor Safety field is useful for estimations of the Reactor Cooling System depressurization, the core coolant level, and the pressure build-up in the containment. In the Industrial Safety field it is helpful for estimating the leakage rate of toxic gases Tom liquefied gas pressure vessels, depressurization of pressure vessels, and explosion conditions due to liquefied gas release. For physical description of non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow it would be convenient to divide the flow into two stages. The first stage is the flow of subcooled liquid at constant temperature and uniform pressure drop (i.e., the case of incompressible fluid and uniform piping cross section). The rapid flow of the liquid causes a delay in the boiling of the liquid, which begins to boil below saturation pressure, at thermal non-equilibrium. The boiling is the beginning of the second stage, characterized by a sharp increase of the pressure drop. The liquid temperature on the second stage is almost constant because most of the energy for vaporization is supplied from the large pressure drop The present work will focus on the two-phase critical pressure of water, since water serves as coolant in the vast majority of nuclear power reactors throughout the world. (author).
Critical pressure of non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minzer, U.
1996-01-01
Critical pressure is defined as the pressure existing at the exit edge of the piping, when it remains constant despite a decrease in the back. According to this definition the critical pressure is larger than the back pressure and for two-phase conditions below saturation pressure. The two-phase critical pressure has a major influence on the two-phase critical flow characteristics. Therefore it is of High significance in calculations of critical mass flux and critical depressurization rate, which are important in the fields of Nuclear Reactor Safety and Industrial Safety. At the Nuclear Reactor Safety field is useful for estimations of the Reactor Cooling System depressurization, the core coolant level, and the pressure build-up in the containment. In the Industrial Safety field it is helpful for estimating the leakage rate of toxic gases Tom liquefied gas pressure vessels, depressurization of pressure vessels, and explosion conditions due to liquefied gas release. For physical description of non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow it would be convenient to divide the flow into two stages. The first stage is the flow of subcooled liquid at constant temperature and uniform pressure drop (i.e., the case of incompressible fluid and uniform piping cross section). The rapid flow of the liquid causes a delay in the boiling of the liquid, which begins to boil below saturation pressure, at thermal non-equilibrium. The boiling is the beginning of the second stage, characterized by a sharp increase of the pressure drop. The liquid temperature on the second stage is almost constant because most of the energy for vaporization is supplied from the large pressure drop The present work will focus on the two-phase critical pressure of water, since water serves as coolant in the vast majority of nuclear power reactors throughout the world. (author)
1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Cheol
2007-02-01
During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift
Approximate characteristics for one-dimensional two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarayloo, A.; Peddleson, J.
1985-01-01
An approximate method for determining the characteristics associated with one-dimensional particulate two-phase flow models is presented. The method is based on iteration and is valid for small particulate volume fractions. The method is applied to several special cases involving incompressible particles suspended in a gas. The influences of certain changes in the physical model are investigated
Determination of bubble parameters in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Lira, C.A.B. de.
1980-01-01
A development of a probe-detector system for measurement of bubble parameters like size, rise velocity and void fraction in two-phase flow is presented. The method uses an electro resistivity probe and a compact electronic circuit has been developed for obtain this purpose. (author)
Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting
Gu, H.
2011-01-01
Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two
Two-phase flow instrumentation research at RPI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Krycuk, G.
1979-01-01
Novel instrumentation for the measurement of void fraction and phase velocity was developed. An optical digital interferometer and a dual beam x-ray equipment were designed for detection of voids. Pitot tube measurements were made to understand two-phase flow phenomena in liquid phase velocity
Fluid dynamics of cryogenic two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verfondern, K.; Jahn, W.
2004-01-01
The objective of this study was to examine the flow behavior of a methane hydrate/methane-liquid hydrogen dispersed two-phase fluid through a given design of a moderator chamber for the ESS target system. The calculations under simplified conditions, e.g., taking no account of heat input from outside, have shown that the computer code used, CFX, was able to simulate the behavior of the two-phase flow through the moderator chamber, producing reasonable results up to a certain level of the solid phase fraction, that allowed a continuous flow process through the chamber. Inlet flows with larger solid phase fractions than 40 vol% were found to be a ''problem'' for the computer code. From the computer runs based on fractions between 20 and 40 vol%, it was observed that with increasing solid phase fraction at the inlet, the resulting flow pattern revealed a strong tendency for blockage within the chamber, supported by the ''heavy weight'' of the pellets compared to the carrying liquid. Locations which are prone to the development of such uneven flow behavior are the areas around the turning points in the semispheres and near the exit of the moderator. The considered moderator chamber with horizontal inlet and outlet flow for a solid-liquid two-phase fluid does not seem to be an appropriate design. (orig.)
Two-phase flow measurement by pulsed neutron activation techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehler, P.
1978-01-01
The Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) technique for measuring the mass flow velocity and the average density of two-phase mixtures is described. PNA equipment can be easily installed at different loops, and PNA techniques are non-intrusive and independent of flow regimes. These features of the PNA technique make it suitable for in-situ measurement of two-phase flows, and for calibration of more conventional two-phase flow measurement devices. Analytic relations governing the various PNA methods are derived. The equipment and procedures used in the first air-water flow measurement by PNA techniques are discussed, and recommendations are made for improvement of future tests. In the present test, the mass flow velocity was determined with an accuracy of 2 percent, and average densities were measured down to 0.08 g/cm 3 with an accuracy of 0.04 g/cm 3 . Both the accuracy of the mass flow velocity measurement and the lower limit of the density measurement are functions of the injected activity and of the total number of counts. By using a stronger neutron source and a larger number of detectors, the measurable density can be decreased by a factor of 12 to .007 g/cm 3 for 12.5 cm pipes, and to even lower ranges for larger pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, G.A. dos.
1990-01-01
The two-phase coolant pump model of pressurized light water nuclear reactors is an important point for the loss of primary coolant accident analysis. The single-phase pump characteristics are an essential feature for operational transients studies, for example, the shut-down and start-up of pump. These parameters, in terms of the homologous curves, set up the complete performance of the pump and are input for transients and accidents analysis thermal-hydraulic codes. This work propose a mathematical model able to predict the single-phase and two-phase homologous curves where it was incorporated geometric and operational pump condition. The results were compared with the experimental tests data from literature and it has showed a good agreement. (author)
Study on flow instabilities in two-phase mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.
1976-03-01
Various mechanisms that can induce flow instabilities in two-phase flow systems are reviewed and their relative importance discussed. In view of their practical importance, the density-wave instabilities have been analyzed in detail based on the one-dimensional two-phase flow formulation. The dynamic response of the system to the inlet flow perturbations has been derived from the model; thus the characteristic equation that predicts the onset of instabilities has been obtained. The effects of various system parameters, such as the heat flux, subcooling, pressure, inlet velocity, inlet orificing, and exit orificing on the stability boundary have been analyzed. In addition to numerical solutions, some simple stability criteria under particular conditions have been obtained. Both results have been compared with various experimental data, and a satisfactory agreement has been demonstrated
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tentner, A.
2009-01-01
A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.
Computational methods for two-phase flow and particle transport
Lee, Wen Ho
2013-01-01
This book describes mathematical formulations and computational methods for solving two-phase flow problems with a computer code that calculates thermal hydraulic problems related to light water and fast breeder reactors. The physical model also handles the particle and gas flow problems that arise from coal gasification and fluidized beds. The second part of this book deals with the computational methods for particle transport.
High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, A.H.; Wang, S.L.
1983-01-01
Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)
Shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liangju ZHAO; Fei WANG; Hong GAO; Jingwen TANG; Yuexiang YUAN
2008-01-01
The shock wave of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in a pressure-gain steam injector is studied by build-ing a mathematic model and making calculations. The results show that after the shock, the vapor is nearly com-pletely condensed. The upstream Mach number and the volume ratio of vapor have a great effect on the shock. The pressure and Mach number of two-phase shock con-form to the shock of ideal gas. The analysis of available energy shows that the shock is an irreversible process with entropy increase.
A void fraction model for annular two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tandon, T.N.; Gupta, C.P.; Varma, H.K.
1985-01-01
An analytical model has been developed for predicting void fraction in two-phase annular flow. In the analysis, the Lockhart-Martinelli method has been used to calculate two-phase frictional pressure drop and von Karman's universal velocity profile is used to represent the velocity distribution in the annular liquid film. Void fractions predicted by the proposed model are generally in good agreement with a available experimental data. This model appears to be as good as Smith's correlation and better than the Wallis and Zivi correlations for computing void fraction.
Operation of pumps in two-phase steam-water flow. [PWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou
1978-01-01
Determining the two-phase flow (critical or not) through a pump is an esential element for a complete description of loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor. This article descibes the theoretical and experimental research being done on this subject in France. The model of the pump is first described and its behaviour is examined in different possible cases, particularly that of critical flow. The analysis of the behaviour of the pump is then used to define the experimental conditions for the tests. Two test loops, EVA and EPOPEE, were built. The experimental results are then compared with the theoretical forecasts.
Operation of pumps in two-phase steam-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grison, P.; Lauro, J.F.
1978-01-01
Determining the two-phase flow (critical or not) through a pump is an esential element for a complete description of loss of coolant accident in a PWR reactor. This article descibes the theoretical and experimental research being done on this subject in France. The model of the pump is first described and its behaviour is examined in different possible cases, particularly that of critical flow. The analysis of the behaviour of the pump is then used to define the experimental conditions for the tests. Two test loops, EVA and EPOPEE, were built. The experimental results are then compared with the theoretical forecasts [fr
Design and construction of two phases flow meter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nor Paiza Mohamad Hasan
2002-01-01
This paper deals with design of the gamma ray correlometer and flow loop system for measuring the velocity between two parallel cross-sections of a pipeline. In the laboratory, the radioisotope source and detector were collimated by brass with small beam slit respectively. The flow loop system consists of transparent pipeline, adjustable frequency pump and water container. As a result, when the construction of the flow loop and correlometer is completed, the velocity of two phases flow can be measured by the cross-correlation techniques. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong Yunxian; Wang Wenran
1992-03-01
The mass flowrate and steam quality measuring of two phase flowrate is an essential issue in the tests of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The spatial stochastic distribution of phase concentration would cause a differential pressure noise when two phase flow is crossing a throttling set. Under the assumption of that the variance of disperse phase concentration is proportional to its mean phase concentration and by using the separated flow model of two phase flow, it has demonstrated that the variance of noise of differential pressure square root is approximately proportional to the flowrate of disperse phase. Thus, a theoretical model for measuring mass flowrate and quality of two phase flow by noise measurement is developed. It indicates that there is a possibility to measure two phase flowrate and steam quality by using the simple theoretical model and a single throttling set
Two-phase flow instabilities in a vertical annular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babelli, I.; Nair, S.; Ishii, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1995-09-01
An experimental test facility was built to study two-phase flow instabilities in vertical annular channel with emphasis on downward flow under low pressure and low flow conditions. The specific geometry of the test section is similar to the fuel-target sub-channel of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Mark 22 fuel assembly. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was observed following flow excursion and flow reversal in the test section. Density wave instability was not recorded in this series of experimental runs. The results of this experimental study show that flow excursion is the dominant instability mode under low flow, low pressure, and down flow conditions. The onset of instability data are plotted on the subcooling-Zuber (phase change) numbers stability plane.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.C. da; Silva, D.E. da
1981-01-01
The linear momentum and energy equation of the Relap 4/Mod 5 computer code were modified, permiting us to take in account the effects of slip between the phases of two phase flow. The modified computer code were used for the simulation of loss of coolant accident in Angra 1 power plant. The comparison of the results obtained by the modified version with experimental results show that the new model are more realistic. (E.G.) [pt
Mechanism of falling water limitation in two-phase counter flow through single hole vertical channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudo, Yukio; Ohnuki, Akira
1983-01-01
In the safety evaluation at the time of loss coolant accident, which is a credible accident in LWRs, recently main effort has been concentrated to the optimum evaluation calculation, and the grasp of vapor-liquid two-phase flow phenomena has become important. As one of the important phenomena, there is the limitation of falling water in two-phase counter flow through a vertical channel. This phenomenon is divided into the limitation of falling water stored in an upper plenum to a core through an upper core-supporting plate and a tie plate at the time of reflooding, and the limitation of falling emergency core-cooling water in downcomer channels at the time of reflooding in PWRs, under the presence of rising steam flow. In both cases, the evaluation of the quantity of falling water is important, because it contributes directly to core cooling. In this research, in order to clarify the mechanism of limitation of falling water in two-phase vertical counter flow, first, two-phase flow of air-water system through a single-hole vertical channel was taken up, and the effect of main parameters was experimentally studied. At the same time, the theoretical investigation was performed, and the comparison with the experimental results obtained so far was carried out. The different mechanisms for short and long channels gave the good results. (Kako, I.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Samuel Gomes Medeiros
2011-09-01
Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the thermophysical properties of ice slurry with conventional single-phase secondary fluids used in thermal storage cooling systems. The ice slurry is a two-phase fluid consisting of water, antifreeze and ice crystals. It is a new technology that has shown great energy potential. In addition to transporting energy as a heat transfer fluid, it has thermal storage properties due to the presence of ice, storing coolness by latent heat of fusion. The single-phase fluids analyzed are water-NaCl and water-propylene glycol solutions, which also operate as carrier fluids in ice slurry. The presence of ice changes the thermophysical properties of aqueous solutions and a number of these properties were determined: density, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Data were obtained by software simulation. The results show that the presence of 10% by weight of ice provides a significant increase in thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, without causing changes in density. The rheological behavior of ice slurries, associated with its high viscosity, requires higher pumping power; however, this was not significant because higher thermal conductivity allows a lower mass flow rate without the use of larger pumps. Thus, the ice slurry ensures its high potential as a secondary fluid in thermal storage cooling systems, proving to be more efficient than single-phase secondary fluids.
Non-Darcy behavior of two-phase channel flow.
Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Xiaoping
2014-08-01
We study the macroscopic behavior of two-phase flow in porous media from a phase-field model. A dissipation law is first derived from the phase-field model by homogenization. For simple channel geometry in pore scale, the scaling relation of the averaged dissipation rate with the velocity of the two-phase flow can be explicitly obtained from the model which then gives the force-velocity relation. It is shown that, for the homogeneous channel surface, Dacry's law is still valid with a significantly modified permeability including the contribution from the contact line slip. For the chemically patterned surfaces, the dissipation rate has a non-Darcy linear scaling with the velocity, which is related to a depinning force for the patterned surface. Our result offers a theoretical understanding on the prior observation of non-Darcy behavior for the multiphase flow in either simulations or experiments.
Macroscopic balance equations for two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, E.D.
1979-01-01
The macroscopic, or overall, balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy are derived for a two-fluid model of two-phase flows in complex geometries. These equations provide a base for investigating methods of incorporating improved analysis methods into computer programs, such as RETRAN, which are used for transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic analyses of nuclear steam supply systems. The equations are derived in a very general manner so that three-dimensional, compressible flows can be analysed. The equations obtained supplement the various partial differential equation two-fluid models of two-phase flow which have recently appeared in the literature. The primary objective of the investigation is the macroscopic balance equations. (Auth.)
An objective indicator for two-phase flow pattern transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieua, E.; Seleghim, P. Jr.
1998-01-01
This work concerns the development of a methodology the objective of which is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. During the first time, the efforts focused on: (1) the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way; (2) the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe; and (3) the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the unstationarity degree. During the second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, the objective of which was to demonstrate the correlation between unstationarity and regime transition. The unstationarity degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local time-frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (orig.)
An objective indicator for two-phase flow pattern transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervieu, E.; Seleghim, P. Jr.
1998-01-01
This work concerns the development of a methodology which objective is to characterize and diagnose two-phase flow regime transitions. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption that a transition flow is less stationary than a flow with an established regime. In a first time, the efforts focused on: the design and construction of an experimental loop, allowing to reproduce the main horizontal two-phase flow patterns, in a stable and controlled way; the design and construction of an electrical impedance probe, providing an imaged information of the spatial phase distribution in the pipe; the systematic study of the joint time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods, which permitted to define an adequate parameter quantifying the unstationarity degree. In a second time, in order to verify the fundamental assumption, a series of experiments were conducted, which objective was to demonstrate the correlation between unstationarity and regime transition. The unstationarity degree was quantified by calculating the Gabor's transform time-frequency covariance of the impedance probe signals. Furthermore, the phenomenology of each transition was characterized by the joint moments and entropy. The results clearly show that the regime transitions are correlated with local time-frequency covariance peaks, which demonstrates that these regime transitions are characterized by a loss of stationarity. Consequently, the time-frequency covariance constitutes an objective two-phase flow regime transition indicator. (author)
Two-phase flow boiling pressure drop in small channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardeshpande, Madhavi V.; Shastri, Parikshit; Ranade, Vivek V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Study of typical 19 mm steam generator tube has been undertaken in detail. • Study of two phase flow boiling pressure drop, flow instability and identification of flow regimes using pressure fluctuations is the main focus of present work. • Effect of heat and mass flux on pressure drop and void fraction was studied. • Flow regimes identified from pressure fluctuations data using FFT plots. • Homogeneous model predicted pressure drop well in agreement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow boiling in small channels finds a variety of applications in power and process industries. Heat transfer, boiling flow regimes, flow instabilities, pressure drop and dry out are some of the key issues related to two-phase flow boiling in channels. In this work, the focus is on pressure drop in two-phase flow boiling in tubes of 19 mm diameter. These tubes are typically used in steam generators. Relatively limited experimental database is available on 19 mm ID tube. Therefore, in the present work, the experimental set-up is designed for studying flow boiling in 19 mm ID tube in such a way that any of the different flow regimes occurring in a steam generator tube (from pre-heating of sub-cooled water to dry-out) can be investigated by varying inlet conditions. The reported results cover a reasonable range of heat and mass flux conditions such as 9–27 kW/m 2 and 2.9–5.9 kg/m 2 s respectively. In this paper, various existing correlations are assessed against experimental data for the pressure drop in a single, vertical channel during flow boiling of water at near-atmospheric pressure. A special feature of these experiments is that time-dependent pressures are measured at four locations along the channel. The steady-state pressure drop is estimated and the identification of boiling flow regimes is done with transient characteristics using time series analysis. Experimental data and corresponding results are compared with the reported correlations. The results will be
Measurement of Two-Phase Flow Characteristics Under Microgravity Conditions
Keshock, E. G.; Lin, C. S.; Edwards, L. G.; Knapp, J.; Harrison, M. E.; Xhang, X.
1999-01-01
This paper describes the technical approach and initial results of a test program for studying two-phase annular flow under the simulated microgravity conditions of KC-135 aircraft flights. A helical coil flow channel orientation was utilized in order to circumvent the restrictions normally associated with drop tower or aircraft flight tests with respect to two-phase flow, namely spatial restrictions preventing channel lengths of sufficient size to accurately measure pressure drops. Additionally, the helical coil geometry is of interest in itself, considering that operating in a microgravity environment vastly simplifies the two-phase flows occurring in coiled flow channels under 1-g conditions for virtually any orientation. Pressure drop measurements were made across four stainless steel coil test sections, having a range of inside tube diameters (0.95 to 1.9 cm), coil diameters (25 - 50 cm), and length-to-diameter ratios (380 - 720). High-speed video photographic flow observations were made in the transparent straight sections immediately preceding and following the coil test sections. A transparent coil of tygon tubing of 1.9 cm inside diameter was also used to obtain flow visualization information within the coil itself. Initial test data has been obtained from one set of KC-135 flight tests, along with benchmark ground tests. Preliminary results appear to indicate that accurate pressure drop data is obtainable using a helical coil geometry that may be related to straight channel flow behavior. Also, video photographic results appear to indicate that the observed slug-annular flow regime transitions agree quite reasonably with the Dukler microgravity map.
Laser doppler anemometry in single- and two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, F.
1976-01-01
The present report gives an introduction into laser-Doppler anemometry and tries to explain the basic physical principles of this measuring technique. Moire fringe patterns are used in order to visually model LDA-signals and to explain the basic difference in optical systems. It is pointed out that LDA measurements in highly turbulent flows and in two-phase flows should be attempted with direction sensitive instruments only. Some of the optical systems developed by the author and his collaborators are introduced and their functioning in measurements is demonstrated. These measurements embrace investigations in a number of single-phase flows including flames. (orig.) [de
Dynamic modelling for two-phase flow systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, M.A.
1991-06-01
Several models for two-phase flow have been studied, developing a thermal-hydraulic analysis code with one of these models. The program calculates, for one-dimensional cases with variable flow area, the transient behaviour of system process variables, when the boundary conditions (heat flux, flow rate, enthalpy and pressure) are functions of time. The modular structure of the code, eases the program growth. In fact, the present work is the basis for a general purpose accident and transient analysis code in nuclear reactors. Code verification has been made against RETRAN-02 results. Satisfactory results have been achieved with the present version of the code. (Author) [es
Heat transfer in two-phase flow of helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbotin, V.I.; Deev, V.I.; Solodovnikov, V.V.; Arkhipov, V.V.
1986-01-01
The results of experimental study of heat transfer in two-phase helium flow are presented. The effect of operating parameters (pressure, mass velocity, heat flux and quality) on boiling heat transfer intensity was investigated. A significant influence of boiling process prehistory on heat transfer coefficients was demonstrated. On the basis of experimental data obtained three typical regimes of flow boiling heat transfer were found. Analogy of heat transfer in flow boiling and pool boiling of helium and noncryogenic liquids was established. Correlations were developed which are in close agreement with available heat transfer data
Two-Phase Annular Flow in Helical Coil Flow Channels in a Reduced Gravity Environment
Keshock, Edward G.; Lin, Chin S.
1996-01-01
A brief review of both single- and two-phase flow studies in curved and coiled flow geometries is first presented. Some of the complexities of two-phase liquid-vapor flow in curved and coiled geometries are discussed, and serve as an introduction to the advantages of observing such flows under a low-gravity environment. The studies proposed -- annular two-phase air-water flow in helical coil flow channels are described. Objectives of the studies are summarized.
Two-phase flow experiments through intergranular stress corrosion cracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collier, R.P.; Norris, D.M.
1984-01-01
Experimental studies of critical two-phase water flow, through simulated and actual intergranular stress corrosion cracks, were performed to obtain data to evaluate a leak flow rate model and investigate acoustic transducer effectiveness in detecting and sizing leaks. The experimental program included a parametric study of the effects of crack geometry, fluid stagnation pressure and temperature, and crack surface roughness on leak flow rate. In addition, leak detection, location, and leak size estimation capabilities of several different acoustic transducers were evaluated as functions of leak rate and transducer position. This paper presents flow rate data for several different cracks and fluid conditions. It also presents the minimum flows rate detected with the acoustic sensors and a relationship between acoustic signal strength and leak flow rate
Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2016-12-15
Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.
Reactor vessel and core two-phase flow ultrasonic densitometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arave, A.E.
1979-01-01
A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia. Separate effects tests and two-phase flow tests have been conducted to characterize the detector. Tests show the detector can perform in a 343 0 C pressurized water reactor environment and measure the average density of the media surrounding the sensor
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Macian, R.
1997-01-01
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques
Recent advances in two-phase flow numerics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Macian, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1997-07-01
The authors review three topics in the broad field of numerical methods that may be of interest to individuals modeling two-phase flow in nuclear power plants. The first topic is iterative solution of linear equations created during the solution of finite volume equations. The second is numerical tracking of macroscopic liquid interfaces. The final area surveyed is the use of higher spatial difference techniques.
Laser Doppler measurements in two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durst, F.; Zare, M.
1976-01-01
Basic theory for laser-Doppler velocity measurements of large reflecting or refracting surfaces is provided. It is shown that the Doppler-signals contain information of the velocity and size of the large bodies, and relationships for transforming velocity and radius of curvature of moving spheres are presented. Preliminary experiments verified the analytical findings and demonstrated the applicability of the method to some two-phase flows
Two-phase flow instability and propagation of disturbances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadigaroglu, G.
1984-01-01
Various mechanisms of static and dynamic macroinstabilities, appearing in two-phase flows, have been considered. Types of instabilities, conditioned by the form of hydraulic characteristics of the channel and density waves are analyzed in detail. Problems of instabilities in nuclear reactor circuits, in particular problems of instabilities, conditioned by water and steam mixing and vapour condensation, and problems of steam generator operation instability are discussed
Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gidi, A.
2009-01-01
The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to
Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigmatulin, B.I.; Ivandaev, A.I.
1977-01-01
The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperseannular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section
Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigmatulin, B I; Ivandaev, A I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Mekhaniki
1977-01-01
The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperse annular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section.
Interfacial area measurements in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veteau, J.-M.
1979-08-01
A thorough understanding of two-phase flow requires the accurate measurement of the time-averaged interfacial area per unit volume (also called the time-averaged integral specific area). The so-called 'specific area' can be estimated by several techniques described in the literature. These different methods are reviewed and the flow conditions which lead to a rigourous determination of the time-averaged integral specific area are clearly established. The probe technique, involving local measurements seems very attractive because of its large range of application [fr
Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandotto Biettoli, M.
2006-04-01
The author gives an overview of his research activity since 1981. He first gives a detailed presentation of properties and equations of two-phase flows in heat exchangers, and of their mathematical and numerical investigation: semi-local equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation and energy conservation), homogenized conservation equations (mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation, boundary conditions), equation closures, discretization, resolution algorithm, computational aspects and applications. Then, he reports the works performed in the field of turbulent flows, hyperbolic methods, low Mach methods, the Neptune project, and parallel computing
Two-phase flow in a diverging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadle, M.
1986-05-01
Stationary two-phase flow experiments were performed with steam-water and air-water mixtures in a well-instrumented horizontal diverging nozzle. The test section consisted of a constant diameter tube, the friction-section, followed by an expansion, the diffusor, which has a tanh-contour and finally another constant diameter tube. The diameter ratio sigma=D1/D2 is 16/80. For the steam-water experiments the flow parameters were: 0 2 and for air-water mixtures (0 2 ). The initial conditions were varied to achieve subcritical and critical mass flow rates. A new model for the pressure recovery in an abrupt expansion is presented. It is based on the superficial velocity concept and agrees well with the steam-water and the water-air experimental data as well as with the experiments of other authors. The experiments were also calculated with the two-phase code DUESE. The Drift-Flux models in this code as well as the constitutive correlations and their empirical constants could be tested. It is shown, that a 1D Drift-Flux code can handle the highly transient flow in the diffusor if the proper drift model is used. In a 1D simulation it is only necessary that the computational flow area is expanded to its full width within an axial length which is equivalent to the real contour. (orig./GL) [de
Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Champmartin, A.
2011-01-01
This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author) [fr
Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keto, V. (Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Espoo (Finland))
2010-01-15
The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)
Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keto, V.
2010-01-01
The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hideo
1996-05-01
The slug flow transitions and related phenomena for horizontal two-phase flows were studied for a better prediction of two-phase flows that typically appear during the reactor loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). For better representation of the flow conditions experimentally, two large-scaled facility: TPTF for high-pressure steam/water two-phase flows and large duct test facility for air/water two-phase flows, were used. The visual observation of the flow using a video-probe was performed in the TPTF experiments for good understanding of the phenomena. The currently-used models and correlations based mostly on the small-scale low-pressure experiments were reviewed and improved based on these experimental results. The modified Taitel-Dukler model for prediction of transition into slug flow from wavy flow and the modified Steen-Wallis correlation for prediction of onset of liquid entrainment from the interfacial waves were obtained. An empirical correlation for the gas-liquid interfacial friction factor was obtained further for prediction of liquid levels at wavy flow. The region of slug flow regime that is generally under influences of the channel height and system pressure was predicted well when these models and correlations were applied together. (author). 90 refs
Gulping phenomena in transient countercurrent two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tehrani, Ali A.K.
2001-04-01
Apart from previous work on countercurrent gas-liquid flow, transient tank drainage through horizontal off-take pipes is described, including experimental procedure, flow pattern on observations and countercurrent flow limitation results. A separate chapter is devoted to countercurrent two-phase flow in a pressurised water reactor hot-leg scaled model. Results concerning low head flooding, high head and loss of bowl flooding, transient draining of the steam generator and pressure variation and bubble detachment are presented. The following subjects are covered as well: draining of sealed tanks of vertical pipes, unsteady draining of closed vessel via vertical tube, unsteady filling of a closed vessel via vertical tube from a constant head reservoir. Practical significance of the results obtained is discussed
Two-phase flow and heat transfer under low gravity
Frost, W.
1981-01-01
Spacelab experiment to investigate two-phase flow patterns under gravity uses a water-air mixture experiment. Air and water are circulated through the system. The quality or the mixture or air-water is controlled. Photographs of the test section are made and at the same time pressure drop across the test section is measured. The data establishes a flow regime map under reduced gravity conditions with corresponding pressure drop correlations. The test section is also equipped with an electrical resistance heater in order to allow a flow boiling experiment to be carried out using Freon II. High-speed photographs of the test section are used to determine flow patterns. The temperature gradient and pressure drop along the duct can be measured. Thus, quality change can be measured, and heat transfer calculated.
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.
2012-01-01
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)
2012-09-26
The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the
CFD Simulations of Pb-Bi Two-Phase Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dostal, Vaclav; Zelezny, Vaclav; Zacha, Pavel
2008-01-01
In a Pb-Bi cooled direct contact steam generation fast reactor water is injected directly above the core, the produced steam is separated at the top and is send to the turbine. Neither the direct contact phenomenon nor the two-phase flow simulations in CFD have been thoroughly described yet. A first attempt in simulating such two-phase flow in 2D using the CFD code Fluent is presented in this paper. The volume of fluid explicit model was used. Other important simulation parameters were: pressure velocity relation PISO, discretization scheme body force weighted for pressure, second order upwind for momentum and CISCAM for void fraction. Boundary conditions were mass flow inlet (Pb-Bi 0 kg/s and steam 0.07 kg/s) and pressure outlet. The effect of mesh size (0.5 mm and 0.2 mm cells) was investigated as well as the effect of the turbulent model. It was found that using a fine mesh is very important in order to achieve larger bubbles and the turbulent model (k-ε realizable) is necessary to properly model the slug flow. The fine mesh and unsteady conditions resulted in computationally intense problem. This may pose difficulties in 3D simulations of the real experiments. (authors)
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrey Ioilev; Maskhud Samigulin; Vasily Ustinenko; Simon Lo; Adrian Tentner
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The goal of this project is to develop an advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code (CFD-BWR) that allows the detailed analysis of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle under various operating conditions. This code will include more fundamental physical models than the current generation of sub-channel codes and advanced numerical algorithms for improved computational accuracy, robustness, and speed. It is highly desirable to understand the detailed two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for the analysis of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is still too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Recent progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), coupled with the rapidly increasing computational power of massively parallel computers, shows promising potential for the fine-mesh, detailed simulation of fuel assembly two-phase flow phenomena. However, the phenomenological models available in the commercial CFD programs are not as advanced as those currently being used in the sub-channel codes used in the nuclear industry. In particular, there are no models currently available which are able to reliably predict the nature of the flow regimes, and use the appropriate sub-models for those flow regimes. The CFD-BWR code is being developed as a customized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD Code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. The paper describes the model development strategy which has been adopted by the development team for the
Experimental and numerical investigation on two-phase flow instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruspini, Leonardo Carlos
2013-03-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are experimentally and numerically studied within this thesis. In particular, the phenomena called Ledinegg instability, density wave oscillations and pressure drop oscillations are investigated. The most important investigations regarding the occurrence of two-phase flow instabilities are reviewed. An extensive description of the main contributions in the experimental and analytical research is presented. In addition, a critical discussion and recommendations for future investigations are presented. A numerical framework using a hp-adaptive method is developed in order to solve the conservation equations modelling general thermo-hydraulic systems. A natural convection problem is analysed numerically in order to test the numerical solver. Moreover, the description of an adaptive strategy to solve thermo-hydraulic problems is presented. In the second part of this dissertation, a homogeneous model is used to study Ledinegg, density wave and pressure drop oscillations phenomena numerically. The dynamic characteristics of the Ledinegg (flow excursion) phenomenon are analysed through the simulation of several transient examples. In addition, density wave instabilities in boiling and condensing systems are investigated. The effects of several parameters, such as the fluid inertia and compressibility volumes, on the stability limits of Ledinegg and density wave instabilities are studied, showing a strong influence of these parameters. Moreover, the phenomenon called pressure drop oscillations is numerically investigated. A discussion of the physical representation of several models is presented with reference to the obtained numerical results. Finally, the influence of different parameters on these phenomena is analysed. In the last part, an experimental investigation of these phenomena is presented. The designing methodology used for the construction of the experimental facility is described. Several simulations and a non
Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, S.H.
1995-01-01
The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C 4 F 10 and C 4 F 8 , were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C 4 F 10 mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C 4 F 10 weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd
Mathematical model of two-phase flow in accelerator channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О.Ф. Нікулін
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of two-phase flow composed of energy-carrier phase (Newtonian liquid and solid fine-dispersed phase (particles in counter jet mill accelerator channel is considered. The mathematical model bases goes on the supposition that the phases interact with each other like independent substances by means of aerodynamics’ forces in conditions of adiabatic flow. The mathematical model in the form of system of differential equations of order 11 is represented. Derivations of equations by base physical principles for cross-section-averaged quantity are produced. The mathematical model can be used for estimation of any kinematic and thermodynamic flow characteristics for purposely parameters optimization problem solving and transfer functions determination, that take place in counter jet mill accelerator channel design.
Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating immiscible two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reis, T; Phillips, T N
2007-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann equation is often promoted as a numerical simulation tool that is particularly suitable for predicting the flow of complex fluids. This paper develops a two-dimensional 9-velocity (D2Q9) lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible binary fluids with variable viscosities and density ratio using a single relaxation time for each fluid. In the macroscopic limit, this model is shown to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows. This is achieved by constructing a two-phase component of the collision operator that induces the appropriate surface tension term in the macroscopic equations. A theoretical expression for surface tension is determined. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by comparing numerical and theoretical predictions of surface tension as a function of density. The model is also shown to predict Laplace's law for surface tension and Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids. The spinodal decomposition of two fluids of equal density but different viscosity is then studied. At equilibrium, the system comprises one large low viscosity bubble enclosed by the more viscous fluid in agreement with theoretical arguments of Renardy and Joseph (1993 Fundamentals of Two-Fluid Dynamics (New York: Springer)). Two other simulations, namely the non-equilibrium rod rest and the coalescence of two bubbles, are performed to show that this model can be used to simulate two fluids with a large density ratio
Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosaka, Minoru
1977-01-01
Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)
Digital video image processing applications to two phase flow measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biscos, Y.; Bismes, F.; Hebrard, P.; Lavergne, G.
1987-01-01
Liquid spraying is common in various fields (combustion, cooling of hot surfaces, spray drying,...). For two phase flows modeling, it is necessary to test elementary laws (vaporizing drops, equation of motion of drops or bubbles, heat transfer..). For example, the knowledge of the laws related to the behavior of vaporizing liquid drop in a hot airstream and impinging drops on a hot surface is important for two phase flow modeling. In order to test these different laws in elementary cases, the authors developed different measurement techniques, associating video and microcomputers. The test section (built in perpex or glass) is illuminated with a thin sheet of light generated by a 15mW He-Ne laser and appropriate optical arrangement. Drops, bubbles or liquid film are observed at right angle by a video camera synchronised with a microcomputer either directly or with an optical device (lens, telescope, microscope) providing sufficient magnification. Digitizing the video picture in real time associated with an appropriate numerical treatment allows to obtain, in a non interfering way, a lot of informations relative to the pulverisation and the vaporization as function of space and time (drop size distribution; Sauter mean diameter as function of main flow parameters: air velocity, surface tension, temperature; isoconcentration curves, size evolution relative to vaporizing drops, film thickness evolution spreading on a hot surface...)
The PDF method for Lagrangian two-phase flow simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1996-04-01
A recent turbulence model put forward by Pope (1991) in the context of PDF modelling has been used. In this approach, the one-point joint velocity-dissipation pdf equation is solved by simulating the instantaneous behaviour of a large number of Lagrangian fluid particles. Closure of the evolution equations of these Lagrangian particles is based on stochastic models and more specifically on diffusion processes. Such models are of direct use for two-phase flow modelling where the so-called fluid seen by discrete inclusions has to be modelled. Full Lagrangian simulations have been performed for shear-flows. It is emphasized that this approach gives far more information than traditional turbulence closures (such as the K-ε model) and therefore can be very useful for situations involving complex physics. It is also believed that the present model represents the first step towards a complete Lagrangian-Lagrangian model for dispersed two-phase flow problems. (authors). 21 refs., 6 figs
A study of critical two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siikonen, T.
1982-01-01
The existing computer codes use different boundary conditions in the calculation of critical two-phase flow. In the present study these boundary conditions are compared. It is shown that the boundary condition should be determined from the hydraulic model used in the computer code. The use of a correlation, which is not based on the hydraulic model used, leads often to bad results. Usually a good agreement with data is obtained in the calculation as far as the critical mass flux is concerned, but the agreement is not so good in the pressure profiles. The reason is suggested to be mainly in inadequate modeling of non-equilibrium effects. (orig.)
Research on boiling and two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinsek, Z.; Gaspersic, B.; Pavselj, D.; Tomsic, M.
1977-01-01
Report consists of three contributions. Experimental apparatus with pressure chamber (up to 25 bar and 250 deg C) was constructed including optical bubble detection device, and test measurements of mutual influence of boiling bubbles from two adjacent nucleation sites were performed; for analyses, a computer programme package for coincidence analyses of events was made, including data acquisition hardware. Two-phase pressure drop in subcooled Vertical annular water flow was measured, for pressures up to 10 bar, mass velocity 500 to 760 kg/m 2 s and vapour quality 0 to .01. Results agree fairly well with Martinelli-Nelson model
Virtual mass effects in two-phase flow. Topical report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.Y.; Drew, D.A.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.
1978-03-01
The effect of virtual mass on phase separation during the acceleration of a two-phase mixture was studied. Virtual mass can be regarded as an induced inertia on the dispersed phase which is accelerating relative to the continuous phase, and it was found that the virtual mass acceleration is objective, implying an invariance with respect to reference frame. An objective form of the virtual acceleration was derived and required parameters were determined for limiting cases. Analyses determined that experiments on single bubble nozzle/diffuser flow cannot readily discriminate between various virtual mass acceleration models
Simulation experiments for hot-leg U-bend two-phase flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, M.; Hsu, J.T.; Tucholke, D.; Lambert, G.; Kataoka, I.
1986-01-01
In order to study the two-phase natural circulation and flow termination during a small break loss of coolant accident in LWR, simulation experiments have been performed. Based on the two-phase flow scaling criteria developed under this program, an adiabatic hot leg U-bend simulation loop using nitrogen gas and water and a Freon 113 boiling and condensation loop were built. The nitrogen-water system has been used to isolate key hydrodynamic phenomena from heat transfer problems, whereas the Freon loop has been used to study the effect of phase changes and fluid properties. Various tests were carried out to establish the basic mechanism of the flow termination and reestablishment as well as to obtain essential information on scale effects of parameters such as the loop frictional resistance, thermal center, U-bend curvature and inlet geometry. In addition to the above experimental study, a preliminary modeling study has been carried out for two-phase flow in a large vertical pipe at relatively low gas fluxes typical of natural circulation conditions
The pdf approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric
2001-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a probabilistic approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows. The two-phase flows considered are composed of a continuous phase, which is a turbulent fluid, and a dispersed phase, which represents an ensemble of discrete particles (solid particles, droplets or bubbles). Gathering the difficulties of turbulent flows and of particle motion, the challenge is to work out a general modelling approach that meets three requirements: to treat accurately the physically relevant phenomena, to provide enough information to address issues of complex physics (combustion, polydispersed particle flows, …) and to remain tractable for general non-homogeneous flows. The present probabilistic approach models the statistical dynamics of the system and consists in simulating the joint probability density function (pdf) of a number of fluid and discrete particle properties. A new point is that both the fluid and the particles are included in the pdf description. The derivation of the joint pdf model for the fluid and for the discrete particles is worked out in several steps. The mathematical properties of stochastic processes are first recalled. The various hierarchies of pdf descriptions are detailed and the physical principles that are used in the construction of the models are explained. The Lagrangian one-particle probabilistic description is developed first for the fluid alone, then for the discrete particles and finally for the joint fluid and particle turbulent systems. In the case of the probabilistic description for the fluid alone or for the discrete particles alone, numerical computations are presented and discussed to illustrate how the method works in practice and the kind of information that can be extracted from it. Comments on the current modelling state and propositions for future investigations which try to link the present work with other ideas in physics are made at the end of the paper.
Statistical descriptions of polydisperse turbulent two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minier, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.minier@edf.fr
2016-12-15
Disperse two-phase flows are flows containing two non-miscible phases where one phase is present as a set of discrete elements dispersed in the second one. These discrete elements, or ‘particles’, can be droplets, bubbles or solid particles having different sizes. This situation encompasses a wide range of phenomena, from nano-particles and colloids sensitive to the molecular fluctuations of the carrier fluid to inertia particles transported by the large-scale motions of turbulent flows and, depending on the phenomenon studied, a broad spectrum of approaches have been developed. The aim of the present article is to analyze statistical models of particles in turbulent flows by addressing this issue as the extension of the classical formulations operating at a molecular or meso-molecular level of description. It has a three-fold purpose: (1) to bring out the thread of continuity between models for discrete particles in turbulent flows (above the hydrodynamical level of description) and classical mesoscopic formulations of statistical physics (below the hydrodynamical level); (2) to reveal the specific challenges met by statistical models in turbulence; (3) to establish a methodology for modeling particle dynamics in random media with non-zero space and time correlations. The presentation is therefore centered on organizing the different approaches, establishing links and clarifying physical foundations. The analysis of disperse two-phase flow models is developed by discussing: first, approaches of classical statistical physics; then, by considering models for single-phase turbulent flows; and, finally, by addressing current formulations for discrete particles in turbulent flows. This brings out that particle-based models do not cease to exist above the hydrodynamical level and offer great interest when combined with proper stochastic formulations to account for the lack of equilibrium distributions and scale separation. In the course of this study, general
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Woon
2009-01-01
This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.
Entrainment in vertical annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawant, Pravin; Ishii, Mamoru; Mori, Michitsugu
2009-01-01
Prediction of amount of entrained droplets or entrainment fraction in annular two-phase flow is essential for the estimation of dryout condition and analysis of post dryout heat transfer in light water nuclear reactors and steam boilers. In this study, air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow entrainment experiments have been carried out in 9.4 and 10.2 mm diameter test sections, respectively. Both the experiments covered three distinct pressure conditions and wide range of liquid and gas flow conditions. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water annular flow conditions. In each of the experiments, measurements of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate and droplet deposition rate have been performed by using a liquid film extraction method. A simple, explicit and non-dimensional correlation developed by Sawant et al. (2008a) for the prediction of entrainment fraction is further improved in this study in order to account for the existence of critical gas and liquid flow rates below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, a new correlation is proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction condition. The improved correlation successfully predicted the newly collected air-water and Freon-113 entrainment fraction data. Furthermore, the correlations satisfactorily compared with the air-water, helium-water and air-genklene experimental data measured by Willetts (1987). (author)
Droplets formation and merging in two-phase flow microfluidics.
Gu, Hao; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder
2011-01-01
Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i) the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution); and (ii) the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wulff, W.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)
Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Gu
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.
Characterization of the two-phase Taylor Couette flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehel A; Gabillet B; Djeridi H
2005-01-01
The focus of the present study concerns the effects of a dispersed phase on the structure of a quasi periodic Couette Taylor flow. The two phase flow patterns are investigated experimentally for the Taylor number Ta=780. Small bubbles (0.035 times as small as the gap) are generated by agitation of the upper free surface. Larger bubbles (0.15 times as small as the gap) are produced by injection at the bottom of the apparatus associated with a pressure drop. Void fraction, bubble size and velocity are measured, as well as the azimuthal and axial velocity components of the liquid. A premature transition to turbulence is pointed out and discussed according to the bubble size and their localization in the gap. (authors)
Two-phase flow in beds of spherical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulenberg, T.; Mueller, U.
1984-02-01
A refined model for two-phase flow in beds of uniform spherical particles is presented. It includes the influence of interfacial drag forces between liquid and gas, which are important in beds of coarse particles, and an incrase of porosity due to vapour channels or similiar irreversible bed disturbances, which occur in beds of fine particles. The model is based on the momentum equations for separated flow, which are closed with empirical relations for wall shear stress and interfacial drag. To improve this model it is applied to volumetrically heated beds on a adiabatic bottom, which are saturated and superimposed with a boiling liquid. In case of fine particles only an impermeable bottom is considered, whereas in case of coarse particles also beds on a permeable support are discussed. (orig.) [de
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-11-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment
Experiments in polydisperse two-phase turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachalo, W.D.; Houser, M.J.
1985-01-01
Aspects of turbulent two-phase flow measurements obtained with a laser Doppler velocimeter that was modified to also obtain particle size were investigated. Simultaneous measurements of the particle size and velocity allowed the determination of the lag characteristics of particles over a range of sizes. Relatively large particles were found to respond well to the turbulent fluctuations in low speed flows. Measurements of sprays were obtained at various points throughout the spray plume. Velocity measurements for each drop size class were obtained and revealed the relative velocity relaxation with downstream distance. The evolution of the rms velocities for each size class was also examined. Difficulties associated with seeding polydispersions to obtain gas phase turbulence data were discussed. Several approaches for mitigating the errors due to seed particle concentration bias were reviewed
Interfacial shear modeling in two-phase annular flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.; Edwards, D.P.
1996-07-01
A new interfacial shear stress model called the law of the interface model, based on the law of the wall approach in turbulent flows, has been developed and locally applied in a fully developed, adiabatic, two-phase annular flow in a duct. Numerical results have been obtained using this model in conjunction with other models available in the literature that are required for the closure of the continuity and momentum equations. These results have been compared with droplet velocity data (using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot film anemometry), void fraction data (using gamma densitometry) and pressure drop data obtained in a R-134A refrigerant test facility. Droplet velocity results match the experimental data well, however, the prediction of the void fraction is less accurate. The poor prediction of void fraction, especially for the low void fraction cases, appears to be due to the lack of a good mechanistic model for entrainment
Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.
1982-01-01
Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding
Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.
1982-01-01
Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sim, Woo Gun; Dagdan, Banzragch [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.
Labelling Of Coolant Flow Anomaly Using Fractal Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djainal, Djen Djen
1996-01-01
This research deals with the instrumentation of the detection and characterization of vertical two-phase flow coolant. This type of work is particularly intended to find alternative method for the detection and identification of noise in vertical two-phase flow in a nuclear reactor environment. Various new methods have been introduced in the past few years, an attempt to developed an objective indicator off low patterns. One of new method is Fractal analysis which can complement conventional methods in the description of highly irregular fluctuations. In the present work, Fractal analysis was applied to analyze simulated boiling coolant signal. This simulated signals were built by sum random elements in small subchannels of the coolant channel. Two modes are defined and both are characterized by their void fractions. In the case of uni modal -PDF signals, the difference between these modes is relatively small. On other hand, bimodal -PDF signals have relative large range. In this research, Fractal dimension can indicate the characters of that signals simulation
The three-dimensional transient two-phase flow computer programme BACCHUS-3D/TP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bottoni, M.; Dorr, B.; Homann, C.
1992-04-01
The three-dimensional single-phase flow version of the BACCHUS code, which describes the thermal behaviour of a coolant in hexagonal bundle geometry, developed earlier, provided the basis for the development of the two-phase flow version documented in this report. A detailed description is given of the two-phase Slip Model (SM), and of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) as a subcase, which presents several improvements from both viewpoints of physical modelling and numerical treatment, with respect to usual models found in the literature. The most advanced Separated Phases Model (SPM) is then described in all analytical details necessary to fully understand its implementation in the code. Poblems related to the link between the two above models into an integrated code version are then discussed. The code provides an additional option for modelling of active or passive, permeable or impermeable blockages. This option is documented separately. New numerical methods for solving the algebraic systems of equations derived from the linearization of the fundamental equations have completely superseded previous ones and are explained in detail. Eventually a section is dedicated to an overview of the code verification, made over several years, which goes from steady state single-phase unheated bundle experiments up to fast transient two-phase flow experiments in electrically heated 37-pin bundles. (orig.) [de
The Condensation effect on the two-phase flow stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdou Mohamed, Hesham Nagah
2005-01-01
considering riser condensation and of correcting the localized friction due to the presence of the two-phase mixture in the two-phase region.These effects are more important for high heating power and high inlet subcooling. CAREM 25 nuclear power reactor is investigated to get the stability boundary map. The flow instability regions are appeared at low and high core power. In the low heat flux range, the trends of the thermal equilibrium - equal velocity (homogeneous) model and the thermal non equilibrium - non equal velocity model are the same because the steam quality is small.In the high heat flux range, for the subcooled boiling number and the phase change number, the marginal stability boundaries are crossed in a point, determining tow different regions, of high and low inlet subcooling.For the first region, the steam quality calculation of the first model is greater and has the effect of stabilizing the system more than the second one.For the second region, the two-phase region length calculation of the first model is smaller and has the effect of stabilizing the system less than the second one. In general, the model predicts a more stable system with an increase in inlet restriction or riser condensation or system pressure or a decrease in exit restriction [es
Enhanced mixing in two-phase Taylor-Couette flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dherbecourt, Diane
2015-01-01
In the scope of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, Taylor-Couette flows between two concentric cylinders (the inner one in rotation and the outer one at rest) are used at laboratory scale to study the performances of new liquid/liquid extraction processes. Separation performances are strongly related to the mixing efficiency, the quantification of the latter is therefore of prime importance. A previous Ph.D. work has related the mixing properties to the hydrodynamics parameters in single-phase flow, using both experimental and numerical investigations. The Reynolds number, flow state and vortices height (axial wavelength) impacts were thus highlighted. This Ph.D. work extends the previous study to two-phase configurations. For experimental simplification, and to avoid droplets coalescence or breakage, spherical solid particles of PMMA from 800 μm to 1500 μm diameter are used to model rigid droplets. These beads are suspended in an aqueous solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and potassium Thiocyanate (KSCN). The experimental setup uses coupled Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) to access simultaneously the hydrodynamic and the mixing properties. Although the two phases are carefully chosen to match in density and refractive index, these precautions are not sufficient to ensure a good measurement quality, and a second PLIF channel is added to increase the precision of the mixing quantification. The classical PLIF channel monitors the evolution of Rhodamine WT concentration, while the additional PLIF channel is used to map a Fluorescein dye, which is homogeneously concentrated inside the gap. This way, a dynamic mask of the bead positions can be created and used to correct the Rhodamine WT raw images. Thanks to this experimental setup, a parametric study of the particles size and concentration is achieved. A double effect of the dispersed phase is evidenced. On one hand, the particles affect the flow hydrodynamic properties
Fuel performance in NPD while operating with two-phase coolant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bain, A.S.
1978-03-01
The NPD reactor operated as a boiling heavy water reactor from October 27, 1968 to April 18, 1971. At 25 MWe the steam quality at the steam generator inlet was 13 wt%, and fuel channel outlet steam qualities ranged from 2 to 22 wt%. During this period ammonia was used for oxygen suppression and pH control. At equilibrium the coolant had 7 mg NH 3 /kg D 2 O, 60 ml D 2 /kg D 2 O and 20 ml N 2 /kg D 2 O. The performance of the fuel was excellent during the time that NPD operated in the boiling mode. No indications were observed of dimensional changes, inter-element fretting, fuel/sheath interaction, excessive oxidation, excessive deuterium concentrations, or unusual migration of hydrogen and deuterium to the cooler end plugs. One element defected; although the defect mechanism could not be identified at the time, we now believe the defect was associated with faulty bar stock for end plugs. The behaviour of the defective element was similar to that for other defective elements in CANDU reactors. No problems were encountered in removing the defected bundle from the reactor. (author)
Investigation for vertical, two-phase steam-water flow of three turbine models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverman, S.; Goodrich, L.D.
1977-01-01
One of the basic quantities of interest during a loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) is the primary system mass flow rate. Presently, there are no transducers commercially available which continuously measure this parameter. Therefore, a transducer was designed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. which combines a drag-disc and turbine into a single unit. The basis for the design was that the drag-disc would measure momentum flux (rhoV 2 ), the turbine would measure velocity and the mass flow rate could then be calculated from the two quantities by assuming a flow profile. For two-phase flow, the outputs are approximately proportional to the desired parameter, but rather large errors can be expected under those assumptions. Preliminary evaluation of the experimental two- and single-phase calibration data has resulted in uncertainty estimates of +-8% of range for the turbine and +-20% of range for the drag-disc. In an effort to reduce the errors, further investigations were made to determine what the drag-disc and turbine really measure. In the present paper, three turbine models for vertical, two-phase, steam/water flow are investigated; the Aya Model, the Rouhani Model, and a volumetric flow model. Theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data for vertical, two-phase steam/water flow. For the purposes of the mass flow calculation, velocity profiles were assumed to be flat for the free-field condition. It is appreciated that this may not be true for all cases investigated, but for an initial inspection, flat profiles were assumed
Numerical modeling of two-phase transonic flow
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Halama, Jan; Benkhaldoun, F.; Fořt, Jaroslav
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 88 (2010), s. 1624-1635 ISSN 0378-4754 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA201/08/0012 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : two - phase flow * condensation * fractional step method Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V0T-4VNK68X-2-R&_cdi=5655&_user=640952&_pii=S0378475409000421&_origin=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2010&_sk=999199991&view=c&wchp=dGLzVlb-zSkWb&md5=5ba607428fac339a3e5f67035d3996d0&ie=/sdarticle.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.
1979-01-01
Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT
One-dimensional transient unequal velocity two-phase flow by the method of characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasouli, F.
1981-01-01
An understanding of two-phase flow is important when one is analyzing the accidental loss of coolant or when analyzing industrial processes. If a pipe in the steam generator of a nuclear reactor breaks, the flow will remain critical (or choked) for almost the entire blowdown. For this reason the knowledge of the two-phase maximum (critical) flow rate is important. A six-equation model--consisting of two continuity equations, two energy equations, a mixture momentum equation, and a constitutive relative velocity equation--is solved numerically by the method of characteristics for one-dimensional, transient, two-phase flow systems. The analysis is also extended to the special case of transient critical flow. The six-equation model is used to study the flow of a nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the critical flow condition is at the entrance. A four-equation model is used to study the pressure-pulse propagation rate in an isothermal air-water system, and the results that are found are compared with the experimental data. Proper initial and boundary conditions are obtained for the blowdown problem. The energy and mass exchange relations are evaluated by comparing the model predictions with results of void-fraction and heat-transfer experiments. A simplified two-equation model is obtained for the special case of two incompressible phases. This model is used in the preliminary analysis of batch sedimentation. It is also used to predict the shock formation in the gas-solid fluidized bed
System for recording and displaying two-phase flow topographies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cary, C.N.; Block, J.A.
1979-01-01
A system of hardware and software has been developed and used to record and display in various forms details of the countercurrent flow topographies occurring in a scaled Pressurized Water Reactor downcomer annulus. An array of 288 conductivity sensors was mounted in a 1/15 scale PWR annulus. At each moment in time, the state of each probe indicates the presence or absence of water in this immediate vicinity. An electronic data acquisition system records the states of all probes 108 times per second on magnetic tape; software routines retrieve the data and reconstruct visual analogs of the flow topographies. The instantaneous two-phase state of the annulus at each instant can be displayed on a hard copy plotter or on a CRT screen. By synchronizing a camera drive with the CRT display, 16mm films have been made recreating the flow process at full speed and at various slow motion rates. All data obtained are stored in computer files in numerical form and can be subjected to various types of quantitative analysis to assist in advanced code development and verification
Two-phase flow characteristics of HFC and HCFC fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, T.; Matsuda, K.; Kusakabe, T.
1998-01-01
Some two-phase flow characteristics of HFC and HCFC fluid have been investigated experimentally. Fluids used in this experiment are HCFC22 (hereinafter called 'R22'), HCFC123 (hereinafter called 'R123') and Mixture of HFC fluid (hereinafter called 'R407C'). The fluid R407C are mixture of HFC32, HFC134a and HFC125, and their concentrations are 23wt%, 52wt% and 25wt%, respectively. This paper presents main flow parameters such as void fraction, interfacial velocities, bubble diameter distribution and pressure drop multiplier, which can characterize flow behavior. The void fractions and interfacial velocities were measured at some local positions in the single pipe using the bi-optical probe(hereinafter called 'BOP'). The procedure to calculate the void fraction from the void signals obtained by BOP were adopted the so-called slice method. The effects of slice levels on the void fraction were discussed taking into account bubble diameter. The new correlation of slice level as the function of void fraction has been proposed. The area-averaged void fractions obtained from BOP's void signals using new correlation were compared with void fractions obtained from pressure drops. The area-averaged interfacial velocities were also compared with the superficial gas velocities. It was concluded that the accuracy of BOP measurements are 5% for void fraction and less than 8.5% for interfacial velocity
Acceleration of a two-phase flow by boiling, (3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio; Iwata, Shoichiro
1976-01-01
Acceleration of two-component, two-phase flow has been studied, and a method using the volume expansion by boiling for accelerating fluid has been investigated. In this study, the phenomena of atomizing and boiling were separated, and the liquid with low boiling point was injected into water at lower than the saturation temperature, and was atomized. Then, this was mixed with high temperature liquid and was boiled. The uniform buffle flow was produced, and the phenomena were observed with a high speed camera. The process of acceleration and the acceleration performance were compared with the results of theoretical analysis described in the second report. The experiment was carried out with liquid R113, and at first, the mechanism of atomizing was studied. The atomizing was caused when the relative velocity between R113 and water was more than 4 m/s irrespective of water velocity. The distribution of the diameter of fine liquid drops was almost normal distribution. When the fine drops of R113 were mixed with the high temperature water, bubbles were produced, and the production rate showed definite dependence on the degree of overheating. The flow of bubbles was uniform. However, some of R113 did not become bubbles. The efficiency of acceleration was 1.0 which was independent of the degree of overheating. A further problem is to reduce the quantity of the liquid which does not boil. (Kato, T.)
Numerical flow analyses of a two-phase hydraulic coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hur, N.; Kwak, M.; Moshfeghi, M. [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C.-S.; Kang, N.-W. [VS Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
We investigated flow characteristics in a hydraulic coupling at different charged water conditions and speed ratios. Hence, simulations were performed for three-dimensional two-phase flow by using the VOF method. The realizable k-ε turbulence model was adopted. To resolve the interaction of passing blades of the primary and secondary wheels, simulations were conducted in the unsteady framework using a sliding grid technique. The results show that the water-air distribution inside the wheel is strongly dependent upon both amount of charged water and speed ratio. Generally, air is accumulated in the center of the wheel, forming a toroidal shape wrapped by the circulating water. The results also show that at high speed ratios, the solid-body-like rotation causes dry areas on the periphery of the wheels and, hence, considerably decreases the circulating flow rate and the transmitted torque. Furthermore, the momentum transfer was investigated through the concept of a mass flux triangle based on the local velocity multiplied by the local mixture density instead of the velocity triangle commonly used in a single-phase turbomachine analysis. Also, the mass fluxes along the radius of the coupling in the partially charged and fully charged cases were found to be completely different. It is shown that the flow rate at the interfacial plane and also the transmitted torque are closely related and are strongly dependent upon both the amount of charged water and speed ratio. Finally, a conceptual categorization together with two comprehensive maps was provided for the torque transmission and also circulating flow rates. These two maps in turn exhibit valuable engineering information and can serve as bases for an optimal design of a hydraulic coupling.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in horizontal interconnected subchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoukri, M.; Tahir, A.; Carver, M.B.
1983-01-01
Different subchannel computer codes have been successfully used for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in vertical fuel channels. However, none of these methods is suitable for two-phase flow in horizontal fuel channels, such as those of the CANDU nuclear reactors, due to the lack of appropriate constitutive relationships that can correctly account for the gravity separation effects. This paper describes the incorporation of a transverse vapour drift model which accounts for the combined effect of gravity separation and turbulent diffusion into the existing subchannel computer code SAGA. Although the basic structure of the code remains similar to SAGA III some modifications in both the mathematical formulation and numerical solution have been incorporated. These modifications resulted in significant improvements in the code's ability in modelling horizontal two-phase subchannel flow. The new version of the code was tested and found to be capable of simulating the complex exchange phenomenon between adjacent horizontal subchannels caused by the interaction of turbulent diffusion, pressure gradient as well as gravity induced cross flows. The code predictions were compared with experimental data obtained from two different sources and showed good agreement
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in horizontal interconnected subchannels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shourki, M.; Carver, M.B.; Tahir, A.
1985-01-01
Different subchannel computer codes have been successfully used for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of coolant flow in vertical fuel channels. None of these methods, however, is suitable for two-phase flow in horizontal fuel channels, such as those of the CANDU nuclear reactors, due to the lack of appropriate constitutive relationships that can correctly account for the gravity separation effects. A transverse vapor drift model that accounts for the combined effect of gravity separation and turbulent diffusion has been incorporated into the existing subchannel computer code SAGA. Although the basic structure of the code remains similar to SAGA III, some modifications in both the mathematical formulation and numerical solution have been incorporated. These modifications resulted in significant improvements in the code's ability to model horizontal two-phase subchannel flow. The new version of the code was tested and found to be capable of simulating the complex exchange phenomenon between adjacent horizontal subchannels caused by the interaction of turbulent diffusion, pressure gradient, and gravity-induced cross flows. The code predictions were compared with experimental data obtained from two different sources and showed good agreement
Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2006-01-01
To understand fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to two-phase flow, it is essential to get detailed information about the characteristics of two-phase flow. Stratified steady and unsteady two-phase flows between two parallel plates have been studied to investigate the general characteristics of the flow related to flow-induced vibration. Based on the spectral collocation method, a numerical approach has been developed for the unsteady two-phase flow. The method is validated by comparing numerical result to analytical one given for a simple harmonic two-phase flow. The flow parameters for the steady two-phase flow, such as void fraction and two-phase frictional multiplier, are evaluated. The dynamic characteristics of the unsteady two-phase flow, including the void fraction effect on the complex unsteady pressure, are illustrated
Simulation of two-phase flows by domain decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, T.H.
2013-01-01
This thesis deals with numerical simulations of compressible fluid flows by implicit finite volume methods. Firstly, we studied and implemented an implicit version of the Roe scheme for compressible single-phase and two-phase flows. Thanks to Newton method for solving nonlinear systems, our schemes are conservative. Unfortunately, the resolution of nonlinear systems is very expensive. It is therefore essential to use an efficient algorithm to solve these systems. For large size matrices, we often use iterative methods whose convergence depends on the spectrum. We have studied the spectrum of the linear system and proposed a strategy, called Scaling, to improve the condition number of the matrix. Combined with the classical ILU pre-conditioner, our strategy has reduced significantly the GMRES iterations for local systems and the computation time. We also show some satisfactory results for low Mach-number flows using the implicit centered scheme. We then studied and implemented a domain decomposition method for compressible fluid flows. We have proposed a new interface variable which makes the Schur complement method easy to build and allows us to treat diffusion terms. Using GMRES iterative solver rather than Richardson for the interface system also provides a better performance compared to other methods. We can also decompose the computational domain into any number of sub-domains. Moreover, the Scaling strategy for the interface system has improved the condition number of the matrix and reduced the number of GMRES iterations. In comparison with the classical distributed computing, we have shown that our method is more robust and efficient. (author) [fr
Features of two-phase flow in a microchannel of 0.05×20 mm
Ronshin, Fedor
2017-10-01
We have studied the two-phase flow in a microchannel with cross-section of 0.05×20 mm2. The following two-phase flow regimes have been registered: jet, bubble, stratified, annular, and churn ones. The main features of flow regimes in this channel such as formation of liquid droplets in all two-phase flows have been distinguished.
Calorimetric and reactor coolant system flow uncertainty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, L.; McLean, T.
1991-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for the quantification of errors associated with the determination of a feedwater flow, secondary power, and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) flow used at the Trojan Nuclear Plant to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. The sources of error in Plant indications and process measurement are identified and tracked, using examples, through the mathematical processes necessary to calculate the uncertainty in the RCS flow measurement. An error of approximately 1.4 percent is calculated for secondary power. This error results, along with the consideration of other errors, in an uncertainty of approximately 3 percent in the RCS flow determination
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vallee, Christophe, E-mail: c.vallee@fzd.d [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Safety Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)
2010-09-15
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 {sup o}C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at
Experimental CFD grade data for stratified two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallee, Christophe; Lucas, Dirk; Beyer, Matthias; Pietruske, Heiko; Schuetz, Peter; Carl, Helmar
2010-01-01
Stratified two-phase flows were investigated at two test facilities with horizontal test-sections. For both, rectangular channel cross-sections were chosen to provide optimal observation possibilities for the application of optical measurement techniques. In order to show the local flow structure, high-speed video observation was applied, which delivers the high-resolution in space and time needed for CFD code validation. The first investigations were performed in the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC), which is made of acrylic glass and allows the investigation of air/water co-current flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for well-defined and adjustable inlet boundary conditions. For the quantitative analysis of the optical measurements performed at the HAWAC, an algorithm was developed to recognise the stratified interface in the camera frames. This allows to make statistical treatments for comparison with CFD calculation results. As an example, the unstable wave growth leading to slug flow is shown from the test-section inlet. Moreover, the hydraulic jump as the quasi-stationary discontinuous transition between super- and subcritical flow was investigated in this closed channel. The structure of the hydraulic jump over time is revealed by the calculation of the probability density of the water level. A series of experiments show that the hydraulic jump profile and its position from the inlet vary substantially with the inlet boundary conditions due to the momentum exchange between the phases. The second channel is built in the pressure chamber of the TOPFLOW test facility, which is used to perform air/water and steam/water experiments at pressures of up to 5.0 MPa and temperatures of up to 264 o C, but under pressure equilibrium with the vessel inside. In the present experiment, the test-section represents a flat model of the hot leg of the German Konvoi pressurised water reactor scaled at 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staebler, T.; Meyer, L.; Schulenberg, T.; Laurien, E.
2006-01-01
When a leakage, a 'loss-of-coolant accident', occurs in a light water reactor, the emergency cooling system is able to supply large amounts of coolant to ensure residual heat removal. This supply can be routed through a special emergency cooling pipe, the 'scoop', into the horizontal section of the main coolant pipe, the 'hot leg'. At the same time, hot steam from the superheated, partly voided core flows against the coolant. This gives rise to a two-phase flow in the opposite direction. A factor of primary interest in this situation is whether the coolant supplied by the emergency cooling system will reach the reactor core. The research project is being conducted in order to compute the rate of water supply by numerical methods. The WENKA test facility has been designed and built at the Karlsruhe Research Center to verify numerical calculations. It can be used to study the fluid dynamics phenomena expected to arise in emergency coolant feeding into the hot leg; the necessary local data can be determined experimentally. An extensive database for validating the numerical calculations is then available to complete the experimental work. (orig.)
Interfacial Instability in Two-Phase Flow: Manipulating Coalescence and Condensation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two-phase flow under microgravity conditions presents a number of technical challenges ( and ). Life support and habitation depend on systems that use two-phase flow...
Numerical methods for two-phase flow with contact lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Clauido
2012-07-01
This thesis focuses on numerical methods for two-phase flows, and especially flows with a moving contact line. Moving contact lines occur where the interface between two fluids is in contact with a solid wall. At the location where both fluids and the wall meet, the common continuum descriptions for fluids are not longer valid, since the dynamics around such a contact line are governed by interactions at the molecular level. Therefore the standard numerical continuum models have to be adjusted to handle moving contact lines. In the main part of the thesis a method to manipulate the position and the velocity of a contact line in a two-phase solver, is described. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized using an explicit finite difference method on a staggered grid. The position of the interface is tracked with the level set method and the discontinuities at the interface are treated in a sharp manner with the ghost fluid method. The contact line is tracked explicitly and its dynamics can be described by an arbitrary function. The key part of the procedure is to enforce a coupling between the contact line and the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the level set method. Results for different contact line models are presented and it is demonstrated that they are in agreement with analytical solutions or results reported in the literature.The presented Navier-Stokes solver is applied as a part in a multiscale method to simulate capillary driven flows. A relation between the contact angle and the contact line velocity is computed by a phase field model resolving the micro scale dynamics in the region around the contact line. The relation of the microscale model is then used to prescribe the dynamics of the contact line in the macro scale solver. This approach allows to exploit the scale separation between the contact line dynamics and the bulk flow. Therefore coarser meshes can be applied for the macro scale flow solver compared to global phase field simulations
A model for non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous two-phase critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassel, Wageeh Sidrak; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun
1999-01-01
Critical two phase flow is a very important phenomena in nuclear reactor technology for the analysis of loss of coolant accident. Several recent papers, Lee and Shrock (1990), Dagan (1993) and Downar (1996) , among others, treat the phenomena using complex models which require heuristic parameters such as relaxation constants or interfacial transfer models. In this paper a mathematical model for one dimensional non equilibrium and non homogeneous two phase flow in constant area duct is developed. The model is constituted of three conservation equations type mass ,momentum and energy. Two important variables are defined in the model: equilibrium constant in the energy equation and the impulse function in the momentum equation. In the energy equation, the enthalpy of the liquid phase is determined by a linear interpolation function between the liquid phase enthalpy at inlet condition and the saturated liquid enthalpy at local pressure. The interpolation coefficient is the equilibrium constant. The momentum equation is expressed in terms of the impulse function. It is considered that there is slip between the liquid and vapor phases, the liquid phase is in metastable state and the vapor phase is in saturated stable state. The model is not heuristic in nature and does not require complex interface transfer models. It is proved numerically that for the critical condition the partial derivative of two phase pressure drop with respect to the local pressure or to phase velocity must be zero.This criteria is demonstrated by numerical examples. The experimental work of Fauske (1962) and Jeandey (1982) were analyzed resulting in estimated numerical values for important parameters like slip ratio, equilibrium constant and two phase frictional drop. (author)
Two-phase flow field simulation of horizontal steam generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabiee, Ataollah; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Hadad, Kamal [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-15
The analysis of steam generators as an interface between primary and secondary circuits in light water nuclear power plants is crucial in terms of safety and design issues. VVER-1000 nuclear power plants use horizontal steam generators which demand a detailed thermal hydraulics investigation in order to predict their behavior during normal and transient operational conditions. Two phase flow field simulation on adjacent tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results. However, the complexity of the tube bundles, due to geometry and arrangement, makes it complicated. Employment of porous media is suggested to simplify numerical modeling. This study presents the use of porous media to simulate the tube bundles within a general-purpose computational fluid dynamics code. Solved governing equations are generalized phase continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Boundary conditions, as one of the main challenges in this numerical analysis, are optimized. The model has been verified and tuned by simple two-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the obtained vapor volume fraction near the cold and hot collectors predict the experimental results more accurately than in previous studies.
Two phase flow problems in power station boilers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firman, E.C.
1974-01-01
The paper outlines some of the waterside thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena relating to design and operation of large boilers in central power stations. The associated programme of work is described with an outline of some results already obtained. By way of introduction, the principal features of conventional and nuclear drum boilers and once-through nuclear heat exchangers are described in so far as they pertain to this area of work. This is followed by discussion of the relevant physical phenomena and problems which arise. For example, the problem of steam entrainment from the drum into the tubes connecting it to the furnace wall tubes is related to its effects on circulation and possible mechanisms of tube failure. Other problems concern the transient associated with start-up or low load operation of plant. The requirement for improved mathematical representation of steady and dynamic performance is mentioned together with the corresponding need for data on heat transfer, pressure loss, hydrodynamic stability, consequences of deposits, etc. The paper concludes with reference to the work being carried out within the C.E.G.B. in relation to the above problems. The facilities employed and the specific studies being made on them are described: these range from field trials on operational boilers to small scale laboratory investigations of underlying two phase flow mechanisms and include high pressure water rigs and a freon rig for simulation studies
Ferrofluid-in-oil two-phase flow patterns in a flow-focusing microchannel
Sheu, T. S.; Chen, Y. T.; Lih, F. L.; Miao, J. M.
This study investigates the two-phase flow formation process of water-based Fe3O4 ferrofluid (dispersed phase) in a silicon oil (continuous phase) flow in the microfluidic flow-focusing microchannel under various operational conditions. With transparent PDMS chip and optical microscope, four main two-phase flow patterns as droplet flow, slug flow, ring flow and churn flow are observed. The droplet shape, size, and formation mechanism were also investigated under different Ca numbers and intended to find out the empirical relations. The paper marks an original flow pattern map of the ferrofluid-in-oil flows in the microfluidic flow-focusing microchannels. The flow pattern transiting from droplet flow to slug flow appears for an operational conditions of QR < 1 and Lf / W < 1. The power law index that related Lf / W to QR was 0.36 in present device.
Measurement of two phase flow properties using the nuclear reactor instruments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, R.W.; Washington Univ., Seattle; Crowe, R.D.; Dailey, D.J.; Kosaly, G.; Damborg, M.J.
1982-01-01
A procedure is introduced for characterizing one dimensional, two phase flow in terms of three properties; propagation, structure, and dynamics. It is shown that all of these properties can be measured by analyzing the response of the reactor neutron field to a two phase flow perturbation. Therefore, a nuclear reactor can be regarded as a two phase flow instrument. (author)
Flow visualization of two-phase flows using photochromic dye activation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, M.; Ahmad, W.; DeJesus, J.M.; Sutharshan, B.; Lorencez, C.; Ojha, M.
1993-01-01
A non-intrusive flow visualization technique based on light activation of photochromic dye material has been used to obtain velocity profiles in gas-liquid flows including annular, slug and stratified flows. The preliminary results revealed several important two-phase flow mechanisms that have not been clearly seen previously. (orig.)
Reactor coolant flow measurements at Point Lepreau
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenciaglia, G.; Gurevich, Y.; Liu, G.
1996-01-01
The CROSSFLOW ultrasonic flow measurement system manufactured by AMAG is fully proven as reliable and accurate when applied to large piping in defined geometries for such applications as feedwater flows measurement. Its application to direct reactor coolant flow (RCF) measurements - both individual channel flows and bulk flows such as pump suction flow - has been well established through recent work by AMAG at Point Lepreau, with application to other reactor types (eg. PWR) imminent. At Point Lepreau, Measurements have been demonstrated at full power; improvements to consistently meet ±1% accuracy are in progress. The development and recent customization of CROSSFLOW to RCF measurement at Point Lepreau are described in this paper; typical measurement results are included. (author)
Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Wang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As two-phase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.
Zero-G two phase flow regime modeling in adiabatic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinarts, T.R.; Best, F.R.; Wheeler, M.; Miller, K.M.
1993-01-01
Two-phase flow, thermal management systems are currently being considered as an alternative to conventional, single phase systems for future space missions because of their potential to reduce overall system mass, size, and pumping power requirements. Knowledge of flow regime transitions, heat transfer characteristics, and pressure drop correlations is necessary to design and develop two-phase systems. This work is concerned with microgravity, two-phase flow regime analysis. The data come from a recent sets of experiments. The experiments were funded by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and conducted by NASA JSC with Texas A ampersand M University. The experiment was on loan to NASA JSC from Foster-Miller, Inc., who constructed it with funding from the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. The experiment used R12 as the working fluid. A Foster-Miller two phase pump was used to circulate the two phase mixture and allow separate measurements of the vapor and liquid flow streams. The experimental package was flown 19 times for 577 parabolas aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which simulates zero-G conditions by its parabolic flight trajectory. Test conditions included bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes in 0-G. The superficial velocities of liquid and vapor have been obtained from the measured flow rates and are presented along with the observed flow regimes and several flow regime transition predictions. None of the predictions completely describe the transitions as indicated by the data
Rolling effects on two-phase flow pattern and void fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Changqi; Yu Kaiqiu; Luan Feng; Cao Xiaxin
2008-01-01
The experimental and theoretical study was carried out for the upward gas-liquid two-phase explained reasonably through the analysis of slip ratio of two-phase flow and theoretical analysis using momentum equation of two-phase flow separating model. (authors)
Dynamic Modeling of Phase Crossings in Two-Phase Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Veje, Christian; Willatzen, Morten
2012-01-01
by a high resolution finite difference scheme due to Kurganov and Tadmore. The homogeneous formulation requires a set of thermodynamic relations to cover the entire range from liquid to gas state. This leads a number of numerical challenges since these relations introduce discontinuities in the derivative...... of the variables and are usually very slow to evaluate. To overcome these challenges, we use an interpolation scheme with local refinement. The simulations show that the method handles crossing of the saturation lines for both liquid to two-phase and two-phase to gas regions. Furthermore, a novel result obtained...
Two-phase flow in volatile oil reservoir using two-phase pseudo-pressure well test method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharifi, M.; Ahmadi, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2009-09-15
A study was conducted to better understand the behaviour of volatile oil reservoirs. Retrograde condensation occurs in gas-condensate reservoirs when the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) lowers below the dewpoint pressure, thus creating 4 regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Similarly, when the BHP of volatile oil reservoirs falls below the bubblepoint pressure, two phases are created in the region around the wellbore, and a single phase (oil) appears in regions away from the well. In turn, higher gas saturation causes the oil relative permeability to decrease towards the near-wellbore region. Reservoir compositional simulations were used in this study to predict the fluid behaviour below the bubblepoint. The flowing bottomhole pressure was then exported to a well test package to diagnose the occurrence of different mobility regions. The study also investigated the use of a two-phase pseudo-pressure method on volatile and highly volatile oil reservoirs. It was concluded that this method can successfully predict the true permeability and mechanical skin. It can also distinguish between mechanical skin and condensate bank skin. As such, the two-phase pseudo-pressure method is particularly useful for developing after-drilling well treatment and enhanced oil recovery process designs. However, accurate relative permeability and PVT data must be available for reliable interpretation of the well test in volatile oil reservoirs. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.
Two-phase flow instrumentation and laser beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.
1976-01-01
Some methods based on laser techniques in order to place emphasis on the relation between measured quantities and the primary variables entering the general equations of two-phase systems are reviewed and summarized. The case where the bubbles or droplets are so small that they act as individual scattering centers is excluded [fr
Contribution to the theoretical study of transient two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Achard, J.L.
1978-12-01
The work presented in this paper has been given rise from the existence of violent boiling phenomena of the coolant that have been revealed by reactor safety studies with water and sodium. The aim as to describe in a basic mammer, one of these phenomena called ''chugging'' or ''choucage''. The experimental part of this work concerns two original works concerning the temperature measurement at the wall; a device is proposed to evaluate the contact resistance and the thermal inertia of the thermocouple; from the measurements that have been obtained, the flux the wall transfers to the flow and the temperature of the internal wall surface are deduced. A statistical method is developed for dispersed two-phase flow study, to establish: 1) a mass transfer law, 2) a law of change of the flow configuration. The proposed model contains: 1) for the dispersed phase (vapor bubbles), the basic momentum transport equations; 2) for the continuous phase (liquid), the transport equations of the classical formulation. The statistical formulation introduces the interaction phenomenon between the phases before applying the operation of the average (homogenization method); it allows to introduce the coalescence phenomena of bubbles. Finally, structures of exchange laws for transient laminar flows are proposed: transient linear momentum exchange law; possible structures of heat exchange laws [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lillibridge, K.H.; Ghiaasiaan, S.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
1994-01-01
Countercurrent two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined channels, connecting a sealed liquid-filled reservoir to the atmosphere, is experimentally studied. This type of gravity-driven countercurrent two-phase flow can occur during the operation of passive safety coolant injection systems of advanced reactors. It can also occur in the pressurizer surge line of pressurized water reactors during severe accidents when the hot leg becomes voided. Four distinct flow regimes are identified: (a) stratified countercurrent, which mainly occurs when the channel is horizontal; (b) intermittent stratified-slug; (c) oscillating, which occurs when the angle of inclination is ≥30 deg; and (d) annular countercurrent. The characteristics of each regime and their sensitivity to important geometric parameters are examined. The superficial velocities in the stratified countercurrent and oscillating regimes are empirically correlated
Features of two-phase flow in a microchannel of 0.05×20 mm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronshin Fedor
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We have studied the two-phase flow in a microchannel with cross-section of 0.05×20 mm2. The following two-phase flow regimes have been registered: jet, bubble, stratified, annular, and churn ones. The main features of flow regimes in this channel such as formation of liquid droplets in all two-phase flows have been distinguished.
Numerical simulation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipe networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyan; Kuang Bo; Zhou Guoliang; Xu Jijun
1998-01-01
The complex pipe network characters can not directly presented in single phase flow, gas-liquid two phase flow pressure drop and void rate change model. Apply fluid network theory and computer numerical simulation technology to phase flow pipe networks carried out simulate and compute. Simulate result shows that flow resistance distribution is non-linear in two phase pipe network
Experimental and numerical studies of two-phase microfluidic flows
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mbanjwa, MB
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Flow of immiscible fluids is important in microfluidics for applications such as generation of emulsions and vesicles, drug delivery capsules, cell encapsulation and chemical reactions. The behaviour of these flows differs from large scale flows...
Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.
1980-01-01
The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1996-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified
Mass flow rate measurements in two-phase mixtrues with stagnation probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.
1979-01-01
Applications of stagnation probes to the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows are discussed. Descriptions of several stagnation devices, which have been evaluated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, are presented along with modeling techniques and two-phase flow data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lokanathan, Manojkumar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)
2016-10-15
Highlights: • Downward flow regime maps and models were studied for 25.4 to 101.6 mm pipe diameters. • Effect of flow inlet on flow transition, void & interfacial area profile were studied. • Bubble void profiles were associated with the interfacial forces for downward flow. • Flow regime pressure drop and interfacial friction factor were studied. • The most applicable and accurate downward drift-flux correlation was determined. - Abstract: Downward two-phase flow is observed in light water reactor accident scenarios such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and loss of heat sink accident (LOHS) due to loss of feed water or a secondary pipe break. Hence, a comprehensive literature review has been performed for the co-current downward two-phase flow with information on the flow regime transitions and flow characteristics for each regime in the downward flow. The review compares the experimental data of the flow regime map and the current available transition models. Objectivity of the data varies on the method utilized as a certain degree of subjectivity is still present in the most objective method. Nevertheless, experimental data through subjective methods such as direct visualization or analysis of a wire mesh sensor (WMS) data were still studied in this review. Despite the wide range of flow regime data for numerous pipe sizes, a consensus was not reached for the effect of pipe sizes on flow regime transition. However, it is known that a larger pipe results in greater degree of coalescence at lower gas flow rates (Hibiki et al., 2004). The introduction of a flow straightener at the inlet led to less coring and fluid rotation and inevitably, reduced bubble coalescence. This also resulted in the disappearance of the kinematic shock wave phenomenon, contrary to an inlet without a flow straightener. The effect of flow inlet, flow location, pipe diameter and bubble interfacial forces on the radial distribution as well as bubble coalescence and breakup rate
On intermittent flow characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thaker, Jignesh; Banerjee, Jyotirmay, E-mail: jbaner@gmail.com
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Unified correlations for intermittent flow characteristics are developed. • Influence of inflow conditions on intermittent flow characteristics is analysed. • Developed correlations can be used for effective design of piping components. - Abstract: Flow visualisation experiments are reported for intermittent regime of gas–liquid two-phase flow. Intermittent flow characteristics, which include plug/slug frequency, liquid plug/slug velocity, liquid plug/slug length, and plug/slug bubble length are determined by image processing of flow patterns captured at a rate of 1600 frames per second (FPS). Flow characteristics are established as a function of inlet superficial velocity of both the phases (in terms of Re{sub SL} and Re{sub SG}). The experimental results are first validated with the existing correlations for slug flow available in literature. It is observed that the correlations proposed in literature for slug flow do not accurately predict the flow characteristics in the plug flow regime. The differences are clearly highlighted in this paper. Based on the measured database for both plug and slug flow regime, modified correlations for the intermittent flow regime are proposed. The correlations reported in the present paper, which also include plug flow characteristics will aid immensely to the effective design and optimization of operating conditions for safer operation of two-phase flow piping systems.
Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi; Abe, Yutaka; Kimura, Ko-ji
1995-01-01
In the present paper, characteristics of low mass velocity two-phase flow was analyzed based on a concept that pressure energy of two-phase flow is converted into acceleration work, gravitational work and frictional work, and the pressure energy consumption rate should be minimum at the stable two-phase flow condition. Experimental data for vertical upward air-water two-phase flow at atmospheric pressure was used to verify this concept and the turbulent model used in this method is optimized with the data. (author)
Evaluation of advanced two-phase flow instrumentation in SCTF Core-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Sudo, Yukio; Adachi, Hiromichi
1984-03-01
In the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) Core-I, advanced two-phase flow instruments have been provided by the USNRC to measure the thermohydraulic behavior in the primary system including pressure vessel during the end of blowdown, refill and reflood phases of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor. The advanced instruments are turbine meters, drag disks, γ-densitometers, spool pieces, liquid level detectors (LLD), fluid distribution grids (FDG), impedance probes (flag, prong and string probes), film probes, and video optical probes. This report presents evaluated results of the data from these instruments. Some instruments are quantitatively evaluated by comparing with the data from the conventional instruments or the other advanced instruments. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) The spool pieces and the γ-densitometers work well and provide satisfactory results; (2) Some of the turbine meters, the impedance probes and the film probes give partially reasonable results, but still more improvements are required; (3) Most of the LLDs, the FDGs, the impedance probes, and the film probes do not work well due to a hard cable corrosion, and (4) The video optical probes give clear image of the flow pattern. (author)
Validation of Friction Models in MARS-MultiD Module with Two-Phase Cross Flow Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Chi-Jin; Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Park, Goon-Cher; Euh, Dong-Jin
2015-01-01
In the downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) which has direct vessel injection (DVI) lines as an emergency core cooling system, multidimensional two-phase flow may occur due to the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). The accurate prediction about that is high relevance to evaluation of the integrity of the reactor core. For this reason, Yang performed an experiment that was to investigate the two-dimensional film flow which simulated the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer, and obtained the local liquid film velocity and thickness data. From these data, it could be possible to validate the multidimensional modules of system analysis codes. In this study, MARS-MultiD was used to simulate the Yang's experiment, and obtained the local variables. Then, the friction models used in MARS-MultiD were validated by comparing the two-phase flow experimental results with the calculated local variables. In this study, the two-phase cross flow experiment was modeled by the MARS-MultiD. Compared with the experimental results, the calculated results by the code properly presented mass conservation which could be known from the relation between the liquid film velocity and thickness at the same flow rate. The magnitude and direction of the liquid film, however, did not follow well with experimental results. According to the results of Case-2, wall friction should be increased, and interfacial friction should be decreased in MARS-MultiD. These results show that it is needed to modify the friction models in the MARS-MultiD to simulate the two-phase cross flow
R 12 two-phase flow in throttle capillaries in critical flow conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petry, G.
1983-01-01
In this dissertation, the state of knowledge on two phase flow, its use and measurement processes are given from an extensive search of the literature. In the experimental part of the work, a continuously working experimental circuit was built up, by which single component two phase flow can be examined in critical flow conditions. Using the maintenance equations, a system of equations was produced, by which the content of steam flow, the content of steam volume and the slip between the phases at the end corssection of the capillary can be determined. The transfer of the experimental results into the Baker diagram shows that the experimental values lie in the region of mist, bubble and foam flow. (orig.) [de
Horizontal two phase flow pattern identification by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crivelaro, Kelen Cristina Oliveira; Seleghim Junior, Paulo; Hervieu, Eric
1999-01-01
A multiphase fluid can flow according to several flow regimes. The problem associated with multiphase systems are basically related to the behavior of macroscopic parameters, such as pressure drop, thermal exchanges and so on, and their strong correlation to the flow regime. From the industrial applications point of view, the safety and longevity of equipment and systems can only be assured when they work according to the flow regimes for which they were designed to. This implies in the need to diagnose flow regimes in real time. The automatic diagnosis of flow regimes represents an objective of extreme importance, mainly for applications on nuclear and petrochemical industries. In this work, a neural network is used in association to a probe of direct visualization for the identification of a gas-liquid flow horizontal regimes, developed in an experimental circuit. More specifically, the signals produced by the probe are used to compose a qualitative image of the flow, which is promptly sent to the network for the recognition of the regimes. Results are presented for different transitions among the flow regimes, which demonstrate the extremely satisfactory performance of the diagnosis system. (author)
Mechanics of occurrence of critical flow in compressible two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katto, Yoshiro; Sudo, Yukio
1976-01-01
Fundamental framework of mechanics for the occurrence of critical flow is investigated, following the principle that the critical flow appears as a limit in a continuous change of state of flow along a nozzle (or a pipe) and should be derived only from simultaneous mechanical equations concerned with the flow. Mathematical procedures with which the critical flow: (i) the single phase flow of an arbitrary fluid, unrestricted by the equation of state of ideal gas, where the number of simultaneous equations is equal to the number of independent variables, and (ii) the one-component, separated two-phase flow under saturated condition, where the number of equations exceeds that of variables. In each case, interesting mechanism of leading to the occurrence of a limiting state of flow at a definite cross-section in a nozzle (incl. a pipe) is clarified, and a definite state of flow at the critical cross-section is also determined. Then, the analysis is extended to the critical flow which should appear in the completely isolated and the homogeneously dispersed, two-component, two-phase flow (composed of a compressible and an incompressible substance). It is found that the analyses of these special flow patterns provide several supplementary information to the mechanics of critical flow. (auth.)
Mathematical models for two-phase stratified pipe flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biberg, Dag
2005-06-01
The simultaneous transport of oil, gas and water in a single multiphase flow pipe line has for economical and practical reasons become common practice in the gas and oil fields operated by the oil industry. The optimal design and safe operation of these pipe lines require reliable estimates of liquid inventory, pressure drop and flow regime. Computer simulations of multiphase pipe flow have thus become an important design tool for field developments. Computer simulations yielding on-line monitoring and look ahead predictions are invaluable in day-to-day field management. Inaccurate predictions may have large consequences. The accuracy and reliability of multiphase pipe flow models are thus important issues. Simulating events in large pipelines or pipeline systems is relatively computer intensive. Pipe-lines carrying e.g. gas and liquefied gas (condensate) may cover distances of several hundred km in which transient phenomena may go on for months. The evaluation times associated with contemporary 3-D CFD models are thus not compatible with field applications. Multiphase flow lines are therefore normally simulated using specially dedicated 1-D models. The closure relations of multiphase pipe flow models are mainly based on lab data. The maximum pipe inner diameter, pressure and temperature in a multiphase pipe flow lab is limited to approximately 0.3 m, 90 bar and 60{sup o}C respectively. The corresponding field values are, however, much higher i.e.: 1 m, 1000 bar and 200{sup o}C respectively. Lab data does thus not cover the actual field conditions. Field predictions are consequently frequently based on model extrapolation. Applying field data or establishing more advanced labs will not solve this problem. It is in fact not practically possible to acquire sufficient data to cover all aspects of multiphase pipe flow. The parameter range involved is simply too large. Liquid levels and pressure drop in three-phase flow are e.g. determined by 13 dimensionless parameters
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume I. Chapters 1-5)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume IV. Chapters 15-19)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume II. Chapters 6-10)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Interfacial Area and Interfacial Transfer in Two-Phase Flow Systems (Volume III. Chapters 11-14)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, T.; Park, J.; Kojasoy, G.
2003-03-15
Experiments were performed on horizontal air-water bubbly two-phase flow, axial flow, stratified wavy flow, and annular flow. Theoretical studies were also undertaken on interfacial parameters for a horizontal two-phase flow.
Measurement of the single and two phase flow using newly developed average bidirectional flow tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Byong Jo; Euh, Dong Jin; Kang, Kyung Ho; Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, Won Pil
2005-01-01
A new instrument, an average BDFT (Birectional Flow Tube), was proposed to measure the flow rate in single and two phase flows. Its working principle is similar to that of the pitot tube, wherein the dynamic pressure is measured. In an average BDFT, the pressure measured at the front of the flow tube is equal to the total pressure, while that measured at the rear tube is slightly less than the static pressure of the flow field due to the suction effect downstream. The proposed instrument was tested in air/water vertical and horizontal test sections with an inner diameter of 0.08m. The tests were performed primarily in single phase water and air flow conditions to obtain the amplification factor(k) of the flow tube in the vertical and horizontal test sections. Tests were also performed in air/water vertical two phase flow conditions in which the flow regimes were bubbly, slug, and churn turbulent flows. In order to calculate the phasic mass flow rates from the measured differential pressure, the Chexal dirft-flux correlation and a momentum exchange factor between the two phases were introduced. The test results show that the proposed instrument with a combination of the measured void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation, and Bosio and Malnes' momentum exchange model could predict the phasic mass flow rates within a 15% error. A new momentum exchange model was also proposed from the present data and its implementation provides a 5% improvement to the measured mass flow rate when compared to that with the Bosio and Malnes' model
Parallel two-phase-flow-induced vibrations in fuel pin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Fumio; Yamashita, Tadashi
1978-01-01
This paper reports the experimental results of vibrations of a fuel pin model -herein meaning the essential form of a fuel pin from the standpoint of vibration- in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow. The essential part of the experimental apparatus consisted of a flat elastic strip made of stainless steel, both ends of which were firmly supported in a circular channel conveying the two-phase fluid. Vibrational strain of the fuel pin model, pressure fluctuation of the two-phase flow and two-phase-flow void signals were measured. Statistical measures such as power spectral density, variance and correlation function were calculated. The authors obtained (1) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow velocity, (2) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, (3) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, and (4) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of two-phase-flow void signals. The authors conclude that there exist two kinds of excitation mechanisms in vibrations of a fuel pin model inserted in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow; namely, (1) parametric excitation, which occurs when the fundamental natural frequency of the fuel pin model is related to the dominant travelling frequency of water slugs in the two-phase flow by the ratio 1/2, 1/1, 3/2 and so on; and (2) vibrational resonance, which occurs when the fundamental frequency coincides with the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation. (auth.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-01-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-07-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Wire-mesh sensors for two-phase flow investigations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasser, H.M.
1999-09-01
In the annual report 1996 a new wire-mesh sensor for gas-liquid flows was presented. It was used to visualise the cavitation bubble behind a fast acting shut-off valve in a pipeline with a time resolution of over 1000 frames per second for the first time. In the last two years the sensor was applied to an air-water flow in a vertical pipeline (inner diameter D=51.2 mm) to study the flow structure in a wide range of superficial velocities. Besides the void fraction distributions, the high resolution of the sensor allows to calculate bubble size distributions from the primary measuring data. It was possible to study the evolution of the bubble size distribution along the flow path with growing distance from the gas injection (inlet length, L). (orig.)
Measurements of local two-phase flow parameters in a boiling flow channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Byong Jo; Park, Goon-CherI; Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa
1998-01-01
Local two-phase flow parameters were measured lo investigate the internal flow structures of steam-water boiling flow in an annulus channel. Two kinds of measuring methods for local two-phase flow parameters were investigated. These are a two-conductivity probe for local vapor parameters and a Pitot cube for local liquid parameters. Using these probes, the local distribution of phasic velocities, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and void fraction is measured. In this study, the maximum local void fraction in subcooled boiling condition is observed around the heating rod and the local void fraction is smoothly decreased from the surface of a heating rod to the channel center without any wall void peaking, which was observed in air-water experiments. The distributions of local IAC and bubble frequency coincide with those of local void fraction for a given area-averaged void fraction. (author)
Horizontal liquid film-mist two phase flow, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akagawa, Koji; Sakaguchi, Tadashi; Fujii, Terushige; Nakatani, Yoji; Nakaseko, Kosaburo.
1979-01-01
The characteristics of liquid film in annular spray flow, the generation of droplets from liquid film and the transport of droplets to a wall are the important matters in the planning and design of nuclear reactor cooling system and the channels of steam generators. The study on the liquid film spray flow is scarce, and its characteristics are not yet elucidated. The purpose of this series of studies is to clarify the characteristics of liquid film, the generation, diffusion and distribution of droplets and pressure loss in the liquid film spray flow composed of the liquid film on the lower wall and spraying gas flow in a rectangular, horizontal channel. In this paper, the concentration distribution and the diffusion coefficient of droplets on a cross section in the region of flow completion are reported. The experimental apparatuses and the experimental method, the flow rate of droplets and the velocity distribution of gas phase, the concentration distribution and the diffusion coefficient of droplets, and the diameter of generated droplets are explained. The equation for the concentration distribution of droplets using dimensionless characteristic value was derived. The mean diffusion coefficient of droplets was constant on a cross section, and the effects of gravity and turbulent diffusion can be evaluated. (Kako, I.)
Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.
1987-01-01
An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)
Experimental study on flow pattern transitions for inclined two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Nam Yee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Woong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
In this paper, experimental data on flow pattern transition of inclination angles from 0-90 are presented. A test section is constructed 2 mm long and I.D 1inch using transparent material. The test section is supported by aluminum frame that can be placed with any arbitrary inclined angles. The air-water two-phase flow is observed at room temperature and atmospheric condition using both high speed camera and void impedance meter. The signal is sampled with sampling rate 1kHz and is analyzed under fully-developed condition. Based on experimental data, flow pattern maps are made for various inclination angles. As increasing the inclination angels from 0 to 90, the flow pattern transitions on the plane jg-jf are changed, such as stratified flow to plug flow or slug flow or plug flow to bubbly flow. The transition lines between pattern regimes are moved or sometimes disappeared due to its inclined angle.
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy
1997-12-31
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narumo, T.
1997-01-01
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors
Design and development of drag-disc flowmeter for measurement of transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
1990-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs
Stress Analysis of Fuel Rod under Axial Coolant Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Hai Lan; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Hyun Seung [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Num Kyu; Jeon, Kyung Rok [Kerea Nuclear Fuel., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-05-15
A pressurized water reactor(PWR) fuel assembly, is a typical bundle structure, which uses light water as a coolant in most commercial nuclear power plants. Fuel rods that have a very slender and long clad are supported by fuel assembly which consists of several spacer grids. A coolant is a fluid which flows through device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. But at the same time, the coolant flow will bring out the fluid induced vibration(FIV) of fuel rods and even damaged the fuel rod. This study has been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics and nuclear reactor fuel rod stress under effect of coolant. Fluid structure interaction(FSI) analysis on nuclear reactor fuel rod was performed. Fluid analysis of the coolant which flow along the axial direction and structural analysis under effect of flow velocity were carried out under different output flow velocity conditions
Stress Analysis of Fuel Rod under Axial Coolant Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Hai Lan; Lee, Young Shin; Lee, Hyun Seung; Park, Num Kyu; Jeon, Kyung Rok
2010-01-01
A pressurized water reactor(PWR) fuel assembly, is a typical bundle structure, which uses light water as a coolant in most commercial nuclear power plants. Fuel rods that have a very slender and long clad are supported by fuel assembly which consists of several spacer grids. A coolant is a fluid which flows through device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. But at the same time, the coolant flow will bring out the fluid induced vibration(FIV) of fuel rods and even damaged the fuel rod. This study has been conducted to investigate the flow characteristics and nuclear reactor fuel rod stress under effect of coolant. Fluid structure interaction(FSI) analysis on nuclear reactor fuel rod was performed. Fluid analysis of the coolant which flow along the axial direction and structural analysis under effect of flow velocity were carried out under different output flow velocity conditions
Development of two-phase Flow Model, 'SOBOIL', for Sodium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hahn, Do Hee; Chang, Won Pyo; Kim, In Chul; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum
2000-03-01
The objective of this research is to develop a sodium two-phase flow analysis model, 'SOBOIL', for the assessment of the initial stage of the KALIMER HCDA (Hypotherical Core Disruptive Accident). The 'SOBOIL' is basically similar to the multi-bubble slug ejection model used in SAS2A[1]. When a bubble is formed within the liquid slug, the bubble fills the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a film left on the cladding or on the structure. Up to nine bubbles, separated by the liquid slugs, are allowed in the channel at any time. Each liquid slug flow rate in the model is performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the preliminary flow rate in the liquid slug is calculated neglecting the effect of changes in the vapor bubble pressures over the time step. The temperature and pressure distributions, and interface velocity at the interface between the liquid slug and vapor bubble are also calculated during this process. The new vapor temperature and pressure are then determined from the balance between the net energy transferred into the vapor and the change of the vapor energy. The liquid flow is finally calculated considering the change of the vapor pressure over a time step and the calculation is repeated until specified elapsed time is met. Continuous effort, therefore, must be made on the examination and improvement for the model to become reliable. To this end, much interest must be concentrated in the relevant international collaborations for access to a reference model or test data for the verification.
Study of two-phase critical flows through small breaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chalant, Jean Marc; Willocx, Marc
1981-06-01
The first part of this academic document reports experimental works performed for the design and realisation of an installation (DALIDA) aimed at the study of critical flow rates through a hole. As this experimental study had to be given up for practical reasons, the authors focused on the theoretical study of this phenomenon. Based on a model proposed by Lackme for critical flows in long tubes, the authors developed a model which could be applied to the case of a tube ended by a hole. Numerical results have been obtained which are still to be experimentally confirmed [fr
Flow regime classification in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow.
Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H
2008-05-21
A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.
Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng
2014-01-01
Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model
Phenomenological studies of two-phase flow processes for nuclear waste isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruess, K.; Finsterle, S.; Persoff, P.; Oldenburg, C.
1994-01-01
The US civilian radioactive waste management program is unique in its focus on a site in the unsaturated zone, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Two-phase flow phenomena can also play an important role in repositories beneath the water table where gas is generated by corrosion, hydrolysis, and biological degradation of the waste packages. An integrated program has been initiated to enhance our understanding of two-phase flow behavior in fractured rock masses. The studies include two-phase (gas-liquid) flow experiments in laboratory specimens of natural rock fractures, analysis and modeling of heterogeneity and instability effects in two-phase flow, and design and interpretation of field experiments by means of numerical simulation. We present results that identify important aspects of two-phase flow behavior on different space and time scales which are relevant to nuclear waste disposal in both unsaturated and saturated formations
Two phase flow combustion modelling of a ducted rocket
Stowe, R.A.; Dubois, C.; Harris, P.G.; Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Champlain, A. de; Ringuette, S.
2001-01-01
Under a co-operative program, the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier and Université Laval in Canada and the TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory in the Netherlands have studied the use of a ducted rocket for missile propulsion. Hot-flow direct-connect combustion experiments using both simulated and
Two-phase PIV of bubbly flows: status and trends
Deen, N.G.; Westerweel, Jerry; Delnoij, E.
2002-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a measurement technique that has received a lot of attention for this purpose in the last decade. PIV is an optical and thus non-intrusive measurement technique that gives instantaneous 2D velocity data for a whole plane in a 3D flow field. In this paper we will
Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly
Hutter, Ernest
1986-01-01
A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.
Heat transfer to a dispersed two phase flow and detailed quench front velocity research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Boer, T.C.; Van der Molen, S.B.
1985-01-01
During the blow-down phase of a loss-off coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor the core will heat up dramatically. Water will be injected in the system, and by bottom flooding the core will be cooled. The use of one-dimensional computer models for the calculation of the reflood process in a bundle needs a better justification. The influence of an unheated shroud on prequench heat transfer is investigated in a tube, an annulus and a 4 rod bundle. By using a glass shroud for the annulus, optical analysis of the dispersed two-phase flow regime has been performed. The ECN 36-rod bundle tests as performed with axial uniform power profile are reflood and boil-down at 0.2 MPa pressure executed for different conditions. The experiment yield a data base suitable for code validation and development. Better understanding is obtained for the influence of the radial non-uniform temperature and/or power distributions on the reflood process. Heat transfer improvement induced by the presence of spacer grids is observed. 72 refs.; 220 figs.
A continuum theory for two-phase flows of particulate solids: application to Poiseuille flows
Monsorno, Davide; Varsakelis, Christos; Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.
2015-11-01
In the first part of this talk, we present a novel two-phase continuum model for incompressible fluid-saturated granular flows. The model accounts for both compaction and shear-induced dilatancy and accommodates correlations for the granular rheology in a thermodynamically consistent way. In the second part of this talk, we exercise this two-phase model in the numerical simulation of a fully-developed Poiseuille flow of a dense suspension. The numerical predictions are shown to compare favorably against experimental measurements and confirm that the model can capture the important characteristics of the flow field, such as segregation and formation of plug zones. Finally, results from parametric studies with respect to the initial concentration, the magnitude of the external forcing and the width of the channel are presented and the role of these physical parameters is quantified. Financial Support has been provided by SEDITRANS, an Initial Training Network of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme
A simple delay model for two-phase flow dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clausse, A.; Delmastro, D.F.; Juanico`, L.E. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)
1995-09-01
A model based in delay equations for density-wave oscillations is presented. High Froude numbers and moderate ones were considered. The equations were numerically analyzed and compared with more sophisticated models. The influence of the gravity term was studied. Different kinds of behavior were found, particularly sub-critical and super-critical Hopf bifurcations. Moreover the present approach can be used to better understand the complicated dynamics of boiling flows systems.
Numerical calculation of two phase flow in a shock tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rivard, W.C.; Travis, J.R.; Torrey, M.D.
1976-01-01
Numerical calculations of the dynamics of initially saturated water-steam mixtures in a shock tube demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of a new solution technique for the transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid equations. The dependence of the calculated results on time step and cell size are investigated. The effects of boiling and condensation on the flow physics suggest the merits of basic fluid dynamic measurements for the determination and evaluation of mass exchange models
Radiogauging to investigate two phase flow. Graduation report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corten, G.P.
1992-01-01
New measuring methods are developed and are tested with the small reactor simulator MIDAS (Mini Dodewaard ASsembly). The purpose of this work is to be able to measure accurately as many different properties of the flow as possible in the coming bigger simulator SIDAS (Simulated Dodewaard ASsembly). In SIDAS the flow around a fuel assembly of the Dutch Dodewaard reactor will be simulated. An extensive evaluation of the gamma detection system showed that the detection system could be simplified strongly. The simplified system is used to measure the radial and axial distribution of the void fraction in the core of MIDAS for three different operating conditions. Two new measuring methods have been developed and tested. A method to estimate the probability density of the void fraction in time. Due to the nonlinear relation between transmission and void fraction the determined average value of the void fraction in general will contain a systematic error. In this investigation it is shown that this error can be maximally 7.5% in MIDAS and maximally 25% in SIDAS. Therefore a new measuring method has been developed in which the true probability density of the void fraction in time is approximated by two different values of the void fraction, each with a certain probability. With this new method firstly the average void fraction can be determined much more precisely and secondly it often can be used to determine the flow pattern. (orig./WL)
Radiogauging to investigate two phase flow. Graduation report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corten, G P
1992-11-12
New measuring methods are developed and are tested with the small reactor simulator MIDAS (Mini Dodewaard ASsembly). The purpose of this work is to be able to measure accurately as many different properties of the flow as possible in the coming bigger simulator SIDAS (Simulated Dodewaard ASsembly). In SIDAS the flow around a fuel assembly of the Dutch Dodewaard reactor will be simulated. An extensive evaluation of the gamma detection system showed that the detection system could be simplified strongly. The simplified system is used to measure the radial and axial distribution of the void fraction in the core of MIDAS for three different operating conditions. Two new measuring methods have been developed and tested. A method to estimate the probability density of the void fraction in time. Due to the nonlinear relation between transmission and void fraction the determined average value of the void fraction in general will contain a systematic error. In this investigation it is shown that this error can be maximally 7.5% in MIDAS and maximally 25% in SIDAS. Therefore a new measuring method has been developed in which the true probability density of the void fraction in time is approximated by two different values of the void fraction, each with a certain probability. With this new method firstly the average void fraction can be determined much more precisely and secondly it often can be used to determine the flow pattern. (orig./WL).
Acceleration of two-phase flow by boiling, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Toshitsugu; Uchida, Motokazu; Mitani, Akio; Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio.
1975-01-01
This paper reports on the experimental results concerning the acceleration mechanism of the liquid used for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The experiment simulated two-component flow by injecting low boiling point liquid (R113) which is not soluble in main high temperature flow (hot water). From the boiling of this two component flow, the relations among the acceleration performance of the liquid, the number and frequency of bubbles generated from liquid drops, and the growth velocity of the bubbles have been investigated. All the injected liquid drops did not necessarily boil even if they were heated above the saturation temperature. The probability of boiling of the liquid drops becomes larger as the temperature difference between two liquids becomes larger. The bubble generation frequency distributed around the mean elapsed time of the liquid drops. The larger temperature difference between two liquids presents sharper distribution. The radius of bubbles increased proportionally to the two-thirds power of the elapsed time and also to two-thirds power of the temperature difference. The liquid acceleration performance by bubbles increased as the bubble generation frequency distribution becomes sharpe. (Tai, I.)
Effect of surface wettability on flow patterns in vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, D.
2005-01-01
To examine the effect of the surface characteristics on the flow regime in two-phase flow, visualization study was performed using three test pipes, namely a no-coating pipe, a water-attracting coating pipe, a water-shedding coating pipe. Three flow regime maps were obtained based on the visual observation in the three pipes. In the water-attracting coating pipe, the slug flow-to-churn flow transition boundary was shifted to higher gas velocity at a given liquid velocity, whereas the churn flow-to-annular flow transition boundary was shifted to lower gas velocity at a given liquid velocity. In the water shedding coating pipe, the inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was to be observed in a no-coating pipe, whereas the droplet flow regime was observed in the region where the annular flow regime was to be observed in a no-coating pipe. The criteria for the slug flow-to-inverted-churn flow transition and the inverted-churn flow-to-droplet flow transition were modeled by force balance approaches. The modeled transition criteria could predict the observed flow transition boundaries reasonably well. (authors)
Prediction of two-phase choked-flow through safety valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnulfo, G; Bertani, C; De Salve, M
2014-01-01
Different models of two-phase choked flow through safety valves are applied in order to evaluate their capabilities of prediction in different thermal-hydraulic conditions. Experimental data available in the literature for two-phase fluid and subcooled liquid upstream the safety valve have been compared with the models predictions. Both flashing flows and non-flashing flows of liquid and incondensable gases have been considered. The present paper shows that for flashing flows good predictions are obtained by using the two-phase valve discharge coefficient defined by Lenzing and multiplying it by the critical flow rate in an ideal nozzle evaluated by either Omega Method or the Homogeneous Non-equilibrium Direct Integration. In case of non-flashing flows of water and air, Leung/Darby formulation of the two-phase valve discharge coefficient together with the Omega Method is more suitable to the prediction of flow rate.
Heat transfer and fluid flow aspects of fuel--coolant interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corradini, M.L.
1978-09-01
A major portion of the safety analysis effort for the LMFBR is involved in assessing the consequences of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident (HCDA). The thermal interaction of the hot fuel and the sodium coolant during the HCDA is investigated in two areas. A postulated loss of flow transient may produce a two-phase fuel at high pressures. The thermal interaction phenomena between fuel and coolant as the fuel is ejected into the upper plenum are investigated. A postulated transient overpower accident may produce molten fuel being released into sodium coolant in the core region. An energetic coolant vapor explosion for these reactor materials does not seem likely. However, experiments using other materials (e.g., Freon/water, tin/water) have demonstrated the possibility of this phenomenon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Ki Won [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Thanh Hung [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Revankar, Shripad T., E-mail: shripad@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Two-phase flow regimes and transition behavior were observed in the coolant channel. • Test were conducted for natural circulation with air-water. • Data were obtained on flow regime, void fraction, flow rates and re-wetting time. • The data were related to a cooling capability of core catcher system. - Abstract: Ex-vessel core catcher cooling system driven by natural circulation is designed using a full scaled air-water system. A transparent half symmetric section of a core catcher coolant channel of a pressurized water reactor was designed with instrumentations for local void fraction measurement and flow visualization. Two designs of air-water top separator water tanks are studied including one with modified ‘super-step’ design which prevents gas entrainment into down-comer. In the experiment air flow rates are set corresponding to steam generation rate for given corium decay power. Measurements of natural circulation flow rate, spatial local void fraction distribution and re-wetting time near the top wall are carried out for various air flow rates which simulate boiling-induced vapor generation. Since heat transfer and critical heat flux are strongly dependent on the water mass flow rate and development of two-phase flow on the heated wall, knowledge of two-phase flow characteristics in the coolant channel is essential. Results on flow visualization showing two phase flow structure specifically near the high void accumulation regions, local void profiles, rewetting time, and natural circulation flow rate are presented for various air flow rates that simulate corium power levels. The data are useful in assessing the cooling capability of and safety of the core catcher system.
Enhanced two phase flow in heat transfer systems
Tegrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Lavender, Curt A; Caldwell, Dustin D
2013-12-03
A family of structures and designs for use in devices such as heat exchangers so as to allow for enhanced performance in heat exchangers smaller and lighter weight than other existing devices. These structures provide flow paths for liquid and vapor and are generally open. In some embodiments of the invention, these structures can also provide secondary heat transfer as well. In an evaporate heat exchanger, the inclusion of these structures and devices enhance the heat transfer coefficient of the evaporation phase change process with comparable or lower pressure drop.
Temperature oscillations at critical temperature in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brevi, R.; Cumo, M.; Palmieri, A.; Pitimada, D.
Some experiments on the temperature oscillations, or thermal cycling, which occur with steam-water flow in once-through cooling systems at the critical temperature zone, i.e., when dryout occurs, are described. A theoretical analysis is done on the characteristic frequency of the oscillations, and the parameters upon which the operating characteristics and the physical properties of the fluid depend. Finally, the temperature distribution in the critical zone is analyzed, examining the thermal transitions that occur due to the rapid variations in the coefficient of heat transfer
Summary on experimental methods for statistical transient analysis of two-phase gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.; Jones, O.C. Jr.
1976-06-01
Much work has been done in the study of two-phase gas-liquid flows. Although it has been recognized superficially that such flows are not homogeneous in general, little attention has been paid to the inherent discreteness of the two-phase systems. Only relatively recently have fluctuating characteristics of two-phase flows been studied in detail. As a result, new experimental devices and techniques have been developed for use in measuring quantities previously ignored. This report reviews and summarizes most of these methods in an effort to emphasize the importance of the fluctuating nature of these flows and as a guide to further research in this field
A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji
2000-01-01
Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)
Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in AxialCentrifugal Impeller by Hydrodynamic Modeling Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. O. Lomakin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The article provides a methodology to study the flow in the wet part of the pump with fundamentally new axial-centrifugal impeller by methods of hydrodynamic modeling in the software package STAR CCM +. The objective of the study was to determine the normal and cavitation characteristics of the pump with a new type of wet part, as well as optimization of the geometrical parameters of the pump. Authors solved this problem using an example of the hot coolant pump, which should meet high requirements for cavitation quality and efficiency (hydraulic efficiency up to 87%, critical value of NPSH to 2.2 m.Also, the article focuses on the methods of numerical solution of two-phase flow simulation in a pump that are needed for a more accurate simulation of cavitation in the pump and research work in liquids with high gas content.Hydrodynamic modeling was performed on a computing cluster at the department E-10 of BMSTU for pump flow simulation in unsteady statement of problem using the computational grid size to 1.5 million cells. Simultaneously, the experimental model of the pump was made by 3D printing and tested at the stand in the BMSTU. Test results, which were compared with the calculated data are also given in the article. Inaccuracy of the calculation of pump head does not exceed 5%.The simulation results may be of interest to specialists in the field of hydrodynamic modeling, and for designers of such pumps. The authors also report production of a full-length prototype of the pump in order to conduct further testing for the verification of the data in the article, primarily in terms of cavitation characteristics.
Two-phase flows in the formed tornado funnel
Sinkevich, O. A.; Bortsova, A. A.
2017-10-01
At present, it is obvious that the problem of the tornado is important not only for our planetЮ to determine the conditions for the formation of a tornado, it is required to take into account a number of hydrodynamic and plasma processes [1 - 6]. Along to prediction of a tornado generation conditions [1 - 3] it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of its quasi-stationary motion in a formed funnel: the mass of the moving moist air involved in the funnel and the size and form of the funnel. For a complete description of the phenomena, it is necessary to involve numerical calculations. We note that even for numerical calculations using powerful computers, the problem is very difficult because of the need to calculate multiphase turbulent flows with free, self-organizing boundaries [1, 6]. However, “strict” numerical calculations, it is impossible to do without the use of many, often mutually exclusive, models. For example, how to choice an adequate model of turbulence (algebraic, k-ε model, etc.) or the use of additional, often not accepted, hypotheses about certain processes used in calculations (mechanisms on the nature of moisture condensation, etc.). Therefore, along with numerical calculations of such flows, modeling problems that allow an exact solution and allow to determine the most important and observed characteristics of a tornado.
Dynamics of a two-phase flow through a minichannel: Transition from churn to slug flow
Górski, Grzegorz; Litak, Grzegorz; Mosdorf, Romuald; Rysak, Andrzej
2016-04-01
The churn-to-slug flow bifurcations of two-phase (air-water) flow patterns in a 2mm diameter minichannel were investigated. With increasing a water flow rate, we observed the transition of slugs to bubbles of different sizes. The process was recorded by a digital camera. The sequences of light transmission time series were recorded by a laser-phototransistor sensor, and then analyzed using the recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). Due to volume dependence of bubbles velocities, we observed the formation of periodic modulations in the laser signal.
HRL Aespoe - two-phase flow experiment - gas and water flow in fractured crystalline rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kull, H.; Liedtke, L.
1998-01-01
(The full text of the contribution follows:) Gas generated from radioactive waste may influence the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the man-made barriers and the immediate surroundings of the repository. Prediction of alteration in fractured crystalline rock is difficult. There is a lack of experimental data, and calibrated models are not yet available. Because of the general importance of this matter the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology decided to conduct a two-phase flow study at HRL Aespoe within the scope of the co-operation agreement with SKB. Within the presentation an overview of field experiments and modelling studies scheduled until end of '99 are given. Conceptual models for one- and two-phase flow, methodologies and with respect to numerical calculations necessary parameter set-ups are discussed. Common objective of in-situ experiments is to calibrate flow models to improve the reliability of predictions for gas migration through fractured rock mass. Hence, in a defined dipole flow field in niche 2/715 at HRL Aespoe effective hydraulic parameters are evaluated. Numerical modelling of non-isothermal, two-phase, two-component processes is feasible only for two-dimensional representation of a porous medium. To overcome this restriction a computer program will be developed to model three-dimensional, fractured, porous media. Rational aspects of two-phase flow studies are for the designing of geotechnical barriers and for the long-term safety analysis of potential radionuclide transport in a future repository required for the licensing process
Steam content of the two-phase flow in the Vk-50 boiling water cooled reactor draught section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedulin, V.N.; Shmelev, V.E.; Solodkij, V.A.; Bartolomej, G.G.
1983-01-01
Results are presented of experimental investigation of the two-phase steam-water coolant flow hydrodynamics within the VK-50 reactor draught section. On the basis of the analysis of the obtained data a two-phase coolant flow model in a large diameter channel is proposed. It is shown that the steam-content distribution in the volume of the draught section has a pronounced non-equilibrium character manifested in the steam migration from the periphery to the central region. A minimum value of the steam content at the periphery is attained at the 0.7-1.0 m height; it is followed by a partial steam content levelling over the section. However the total steam content levelling over the cross section of the draught section does not take place. The steam distribution in the water layer over the draught section (overflow zone) is also nonuniform over the reactor section. The non-uniform steam distribution enchances with reduction nn pressure
Immiscible two-phase fluid flows in deformable porous media
Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Majer, Ernest
Macroscopic differential equations of mass and momentum balance for two immiscible fluids in a deformable porous medium are derived in an Eulerian framework using the continuum theory of mixtures. After inclusion of constitutive relationships, the resulting momentum balance equations feature terms characterizing the coupling among the fluid phases and the solid matrix caused by their relative accelerations. These terms, which imply a number of interesting phenomena, do not appear in current hydrologic models of subsurface multiphase flow. Our equations of momentum balance are shown to reduce to the Berryman-Thigpen-Chen model of bulk elastic wave propagation through unsaturated porous media after simplification (e.g., isothermal conditions, neglect of gravity, etc.) and under the assumption of constant volume fractions and material densities. When specialized to the case of a porous medium containing a single fluid and an elastic solid, our momentum balance equations reduce to the well-known Biot model of poroelasticity. We also show that mass balance alone is sufficient to derive the Biot model stress-strain relations, provided that a closure condition for porosity change suggested by de la Cruz and Spanos is invoked. Finally, a relation between elastic parameters and inertial coupling coefficients is derived that permits the partial differential equations of the Biot model to be decoupled into a telegraph equation and a wave equation whose respective dependent variables are two different linear combinations of the dilatations of the solid and the fluid.
Pressure distribution over tube surfaces of tube bundle subjected to two phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sim, Woo Gun
2013-01-01
Two phase vapor liquid flows exist in many shell and tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators and nuclear steam generators. To understand the fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to a two phase flow, it is essential to obtain detailed information about the characteristics of a two phase flow. The characteristics of a two phase flow and the flow parameters were introduced, and then, an experiment was performed to evaluate the pressure loss in the tube bundles and the fluid dynamic force acting on the cylinder owing to the pressure distribution. A two phase flow was pre mixed at the entrance of the test section, and the experiments were undertaken using a normal triangular array of cylinders subjected to a two phase cross flow. The pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles was measured to calculate the two phase friction multiplier, and the multiplier was compared with the analytical value. Furthermore, the circular distributions of the pressure on the cylinders were measured. Based on the distribution and the fundamental theory of two phase flow, the effects of the void fraction and mass flux per unit area on the pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure on the tube by a numerical method. It was found that for low mass fluxes, the measured two phase friction multipliers agree well with the analytical results, and good agreement for the effect of the void fraction on the drag coefficients, as calculated by the measured pressure distributions, is shown qualitatively, as compared to the existing experimental results
Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kielpinski, A.L.
1992-01-01
Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 x l0 -4 m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble
Measurement of Liquid-Metal Two-Phase Flow with a Dynamic Neutron Radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cha, J. E.; Lim, I. C.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, C. M.; Nam, H. Y.; Saito, Y.
2005-01-01
The dynamic neutron radiography(DNR) has complementary characteristics to X-ray radiography and is suitable to visualization and measurement of a multi-phase flow research in a metallic duct and liquid metal flow. The flow-field information of liquid metal system is very important for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactor and the design of the spallation target of accelerator driven system. A DNR technique was applied to visualize the flow field in the gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with the HANARO-beam facility. The lead bismuth eutectic and the nitrogen gas were used to construct the two-phase flow field in the natural circulation U-channel. The two-phase flow images in the riser were taken at various combinations of the liquid flow and gas flow with high frame-rate neutron radiography at 1000 fps
Two phase flow measurement and visualization using Wire Mesh Sensors (WMS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajalakshmi, R.; Robin, Roshini; Rama Rao, A.
2016-01-01
Two phase flow behavior studies have gained importance in nuclear power plants to enhance fuel performance and safety. In this paper, taking into consideration low cost, high space-time resolution and instantaneous mapping, electrical sensors such as wire mesh sensors (WMS) is proposed for measurement of void distribution and its visualization. The sensor works on the conductivity principle and by measuring the variations in conductivity values of the two phases, the flow distributions can be identified. This paper describes the conceptual design of the WMS for two phase void measurements, Mathematical modeling of the sensor for data evaluation, modeling of the sensor geometry and FEM simulation studies for optimizing sensor geometry and excitation parameters, CFD two phase flows simulations, development of suitable algorithm and programming for two phase visualization and void distribution studies, prototype sensor fabrication and testing
Two-phase flow and cross-mixing measurements in a rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yloenen, A.; Prasser, H.-M.
2011-01-01
The wire-mesh sensor technique has been used for the first time to study two-phase flow and liquid mixing in a rod bundle. A dedicated test facility (SUBFLOW) was constructed at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in a co-operation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich). Simultaneous injection of salt water as tracer and air bubbles can be used to quantify the enhancement of liquid mixing in two-phase flow when the results are compared with the single-phase mixing experiment with the same test parameters. The second aspect in the current experiments is the two-phase flow in bundle geometry. (author)
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)
2009-02-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong
2009-01-01
With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.
Development of Sodium Two Phase Flow Model for Kalimer Core Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, W.P.; Hahn, Dohee
2002-01-01
An algorithm for sodium boiling is developed in order to extend the applicability of SSC-K, which is a main system analysis code for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) conceptual design. As the capability of the current SSC-K version is limited to simulation of only a single-phase sodium flow, its applicable range should not be enough to assess the fuel integrity under some of HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) initiating events where sodium boiling is anticipated. The two-phase flow model similar to that used for the light water system is known to be no more effective directly to liquid metal reactors, because the phenomena observed between two reactor coolant systems are definitely different. The developing algorithm is based on a multiple-bubble slug ejection model, which allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. The present work is a continuous effort following the former study to confirm a qualitative acceptance on the model. Since the model has been applied only to the active fuel region in the former study, a part of its qualification seems to have already been demonstrated. For its application to the whole KALIMER core channel, however, the model needs to be examined the applicability to the fuel regions other than the active fuel. The present study primarily focuses on that point. In a result, although the model may be improved in a sense through the present study over the previous modeling, a clear limitation is also confirmed with the validity of the model. The further development, therefore, is required for this model to achieve its goal by resolving such limitations. (authors)
Strong enhancement of streaming current power by application of two phase flow
Xie, Yanbo; Sherwood, John D.; Shui, Lingling; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.
2011-01-01
We show that the performance of a streaming-potential based microfluidic energy conversion system can be strongly en-hanced by the use of two phase flow. In single-phase systems, the internal conduction current induced by the streaming poten-tial limits the output power, while in a two-phase system
Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows
Sihao, L. V.; Yang, Weihua; Li, Xiangli; Li, Guohui
2013-01-01
A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent
Inlet effects on vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiao, Shouxu; Mena, Daniel; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Inlet effects on two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward flow are studied. • Flow regimes in the vertical-downward two-phase flow are defined. • Vertical-downward flow regime maps for three inlet configurations are developed. • Frictional pressure loss analysis for three different inlets is performed. • Database of local two-phase flow parameters for each inlet configuration. - Abstract: This paper focuses on investigating the geometric effects of inlets on global and local two-phase flow parameters in vertical-downward air–water two-phase flow. Flow visualization, frictional pressure loss analysis, and local experiments are performed in a test facility constructed from 50.8 mm inner diameter acrylic pipes. Three types of inlets of interest are studied: (1) two-phase flow injector without a flow straightener (Type A), (2) two-phase flow injector with a flow straightener (Type B), and (3) injection through a horizontal-to-vertical-downward 90° vertical elbow (Type C). A detailed flow visualization study is performed to characterize flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flow. Flow regime maps for each inlet are developed and compared to identify the effects of each inlet. Frictional pressure loss analysis shows that the Lockhart–Martinelli method is capable of correlating the frictional loss data acquired for Type B and Type C inlets with a coefficient value of C = 25, but additional data may be needed to model the Type A inlet. Local two-phase flow parameters measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in four bubbly and near bubbly flow conditions are analyzed. It is observed that vertical-downward two-phase flow has a characteristic center-peaked void profile as opposed to a wall-peaked profile as seen in vertical-upward flow. Furthermore, it is shown that the Type A inlet results in the most pronounced center-peaked void fraction profile, due to the coring phenomenon. Type B and Type C inlets
Identification of two-phase flow regimes by time-series modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, C.H.; Ouyang, M.S.; Pei, B.S.
1987-01-01
The identification of two-phase flow patterns in pipes or ducts is important to the design and operation of thermal-hydraulic systems, especially in the nuclear reactor cores of boiling water reactors or in the steam generators of pressurized water reactors. Basically, two-phase flow shows some fluctuating characteristics even at steady-state conditions. These fluctuating characteristics can be analyzed by statistical methods for obtaining flow signatures. There have been a number of experimental studies conducted that are concerned with the statistical properties of void fraction or pressure pulsation in two-phase flow. In this study, the authors propose a new technique of identifying the patterns of air-water two-phase flow in a vertical pipe. This technique is based on analyzing the statistic characteristics of the pressure signals of the test loop by time-series modeling
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-01
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-15
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.
Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B. [Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment (Italy)
1995-09-01
This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong
1992-11-01
It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given
Numerical analysis of critical two-phase flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romstedt, P.; Werner, W.
1985-01-01
The numerical calculation of critical two-phase flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle is complicated by a singularity of the fluid flow equations at the unknown critical point. This paper describes a method which is able to calculate critical state and its location without any additional assumptions. The critical state is identified by its mathematical properties: characteristics and solvability of linear systems with singular matrix. Because the numerically evaluable mathematical properties are only necessary conditions for the existence of critical flow, some physical ''compatibility-criteria'' (flow velocity equals two-phase sonic velocity, critical flow is independent of downstream flow state variations) are used as a substitute for mathematically sufficient conditions. Numerical results are shown for the critical flow in a LOBI nozzle; the two-phase flow is described by a model with equal phase velocities and thermodynamic non-equilibrium
Three layer model analysis on two-phase critical flow through a converging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ochi, J.; Ayukawa, K.
1991-01-01
A three layer model is proposed for a two-phase critical flow through a converging nozzle in this paper. Most previous analyses of the two phase flow have been based on a homogeneous or a separated flow model as the conservation equations. These results were found to have large deviations from the actual measurements for two phase critical flows. The presented model is based on the assumption that a flow consists of three layers with a mixing region between gas and liquid phase layers. The effect of gas and liquid fraction occupied in the mixing layer was made clear from the numerical results. The measurements of the critical flow rate and the pressure profiles through a converging nozzle were made with air-water flow. The calculated results of these models are discussed in comparison with the experimental data for the flow rates and the pressure distributions under critical conditions
Void fraction fluctuations in two-phase gas-liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulbrich, R.
1987-01-01
Designs of the apparatus in which two-phase gas-liquid flow occurs are usually based on the mean value of parameters such as pressure drop and void fraction. The flow of two-phase mixtures generally presents a very complicated flow structure, both in terms of the unsteady formation on the interfacial area and in terms of the fluctuations of the velocity, pressure and other variables within the flow. When the gas void fraction is near 0 or 1 / bubble or dispersed flow regimes / then oscillations of void fraction are very small. The intermittent flow such as plug and slug/ froth is characterized by alternately flow portions of liquid and gas. It influences the change of void fractions in time. The results of experimental research of gas void fraction fluctuations in two-phase adiabatic gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe are presented
Two-phase flow in the upper plenum of a boiling water nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tinoco, Hernan
2003-01-01
The end part of the Emergency Core Spray System (ECSS) of the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is situated in the Upper Plenum. It consists of a pipe network equipped with water injection nozzles. In case of Lost-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs), the ECSS should maintain the core covered by water and, at the same time, rapidly cool and decompress the reactor by means of cold water injection. In similar reactors, some welds belonging to the ECSS support have, after a period of time, shown crack indications. Inspection, repair or replacement of these welds is time consuming and expensive. For this reason, it has now been decided to permanently remove the end part of the ECSS and to replace it by water injection in the Downcomer. However, this removal should not be accompanied by undesirable effects like an increase in the moisture of the steam used for operating the turbines. To investigate the effect of this removal on the steam moisture, a CFD analysis of the two-phase flow in the Upper Plenum of Unit 3, with and without ECSS, has been carried out by means of a two-phase Euler model in FLUENT 6.0. The inlet conditions are given by an analysis of the core kinetics and thermal hydraulics by mean of the POLCA-code. The outlet conditions, i. e. the steam separator pressure drops, are given by empirical correlations from the experiments carried out at the SNORRE facility. The predicted the mass flow-rates to each separator, together with empirical correlations for the moisture content of the steam leaving the separators and the steam dryer, indicate a slight decrease in the steam moisture when the ECSS is removed. Also, a minor decrease in pressure losses over the Upper Plenum is achieved with this removal. On the other hand, rounding the sharp edges of the inlet openings to the steam separators at the shroud cover may give a large reduction in pressure losses
Upper internals of PWR with coolant flow separator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevereau, G.; Heuze, A.
1989-01-01
The upper internals for a PWR has a collecting volume for the coolant merging from the core and an apparatus for separating the flow of coolant. This apparatus has a guide for the control rods, a lower plate perforated to allow the coolant through from the core, an upper plate also perforated to allow the coolant through to the collecting volume and a peripheral binding ring joining the two plates. Each guide comprises an envelope without holes and joined perceptibly tight to the plates [fr
An advanced ultrasonic technique for slow and void fraction measurements of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, J.L.H.; Su, J.; Harvel, G.D.; Chang, J.S.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present a hybrid type counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic technique (CPTU) for flow and time averaging ultrasonic transmission intensity void fraction measurements (TATIU) of air-water two-phase flow, which is tested in the new two-phase flow test section mounted recently onto an existing single phase flow rig. The circular pipe test section is made of 51.2 mm stainless steel, followed by a transparent extruded acrylic pipe aimed at flow visualization. The two-phase flow rig operates in several flow regimes: bubbly, smooth stratified, wavy stratified and slug flow. The observed flow patterns are compared with previous experimental and numerical flow regime map for horizontal two phase flows. These flow patterns will be identified by time averaging transmission intensity ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. A counterpropagating transmission ultrasonic flowmeter is used to measure the flow rate of liquid phase. A pulse-echo TATIU ultrasonic technique used to measure the void fraction of the horizontal test section is presented. We can draw the following conclusions: 1) the ultrasonic system was able to characterize the 2 flow patterns simulated (stratified and plug flow); 2) the results obtained for water volumetric fraction require more experimental work to determine exactly the technique uncertainties but, a priori, they are consistent with earlier work; and 3) the experimental uncertainties can be reduced by improving the data acquisition system, changing the acquisition time interval from seconds to milliseconds
Two-phase flow operational maps for multi-microchannel evaporators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szczukiewicz, Sylwia; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John Richard
2013-01-01
Highlights: • New operational maps for several different micro-evaporators are presented. • Inlet micro-orifices prevented flow instability, back flow, and flow maldistribution. • Eight different operating regimes were distinguished. • The flashing two-phase flow without back flow operating regime is preferred. -- Abstract: The current paper presents new operational maps for several different multi-microchannel evaporators, with and without any inlet restrictions (micro-orifices), for the two-phase flow of refrigerants R245fa, R236fa, and R1234ze(E). The test fluids flowed in 67 parallel channels, each having a cross-sectional area of 100 × 100 μm 2 . In order to emulate the power dissipated by active components in a 3D CMOS CPU chip, two aluminium microheaters were sputtered onto the back-side of the test section providing a 0.5 cm 2 each. Without any inlet restrictions in the micro-evaporator, significant parallel channel flow instabilities, vapor back flow, and flow maldistribution led to high-amplitude and high-frequency temperature and pressure oscillations. Such undesired phenomena were then prevented by placing restrictions at the inlet of each channel. High-speed flow visualization distinguished eight different operating regimes of the two-phase flow depending on the tested operating conditions. Therefore, the preferred operating regimes can be easily traced. In particular, flashing two-phase flow without back flow appeared to be the best operating regime without any flow and temperature instabilities
Fluid-elastic force measurements acting on a tube bundle in two-phase cross flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Kawamura, Koji; Yasuo, Akira
1996-01-01
Fluid-elastic force acting on a square tube bundle of P/D = 1.47 in air-water two-phase cross flow was measured to investigate the characteristics and to clarify whether the fluid elastic vibration characteristics could be expressed using two-phase mixture characteristics. Measured fluid elastic forces were separated into fluid-elastic force coefficients such as added mass, added stiffness, and added damping coefficient. The added damping coefficient was separated into a two-phase damping and a flow-dependent component as in previous research (Carlucci, 1981 and 1983; Pettigrew, 1994). These coefficients were nondimensionalized with two-phase mixture characteristics such as void fraction, mixture density and mixture velocity, which were obtained using the drift-flux model with consideration given to the model. The result was compared with the result obtained with the homogeneous model. It was found that fluid-elastic force coefficients could be expressed with two-phase flow mixture characteristics very well in the experimental result, and that better result can be derived using the slip model as compared to the homogeneous model. Added two-phase flow, which could be expressed as a function of void fraction, where two-phase damping was nondimensionalized with the relative velocity between the gas and liquid phases used as a reference velocity. Using these, the added stiffness coefficient and flow-dependent component of damping could be expressed very well as a function of nondimensional mixture velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chunwei; Qiu Suizheng; Yan Mingyu; Wang Bulei; Nie Changhua
2005-01-01
The flow regime transition criteria for the boiling water two-phase flow in horizontal rectangular narrow channels (1 x 20 mm, 2 x 20 mm) were theoretically explored. The discernible flow patterns were bubble, intermittent slug, churn, annular and steam-water separation flow. By using two-fluid model, equations of conservation of momentum were established for the two-phase flow. New flow-regime criteria were obtained and agreed well with the experiment data. (authors)
Numerical study for two phase flow in the near nozzle region of turbine combustors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pervez, K.; Mushtaq, S.
1999-01-01
In the present study flow conditions in the near nozzle region of the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion chamber have been investigated. There exists two-phase flow in this region. The overall performance and pollutant formation in the combustion zone largely depends on the spray field in the near nozzle region the studies are conducted to determined the effects of multi jets on the flow pattern in the near nozzle region The phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) has been used to measure the velocities and sizes of the droplets. The flow field of two-phase liquid drop-air jets is formed from three injectors arranged in t line. Furthermore the two-phase flow field has been analyzed numerically also. The numerical analysis consists of two computational models, namely (i) 3 non-evaporating two-phase jets, (II) 3 evaporating two phase jets. The Eulerian-Eulerian approach in incorporated in both the numerical models. Since the flow is turbulent, a two-equation model (k-Epsilon) is implemented in the numerical analysis. Numerical solution of the conservation equation is obtained using PHOENICS computer code. Boundary conditions are provided from the experimental measurements. Numerical domain for the two models of the analysis starts at some distance (about 10 diameters of the injector orifice) where the atomization process is complete and droplet size and velocity could be measured experimentally. (author)
Flow Regime Identification of Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow With Neural Network Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiroshi Goda; Seungjin Kim; Ye Mi; Finch, Joshua P.; Mamoru Ishii; Jennifer Uhle
2002-01-01
Flow regime identification for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in the 25.4 mm ID and the 50.8 mm ID round tubes was performed by employing an impedance void meter coupled with the neural network classification approach. This approach minimizes the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. The signals obtained by an impedance void meter were applied to train the self-organizing neural network to categorize these impedance signals into a certain number of groups. The characteristic parameters set into the neural network classification included the mean, standard deviation and skewness of impedance signals in the present experiment. The classification categories adopted in the present investigation were four widely accepted flow regimes, viz. bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flows. These four flow regimes were recognized based upon the conventional flow visualization approach by a high-speed motion analyzer. The resulting flow regime maps classified by the neural network were compared with the results obtained through the flow visualization method, and consequently the efficiency of the neural network classification for flow regime identification was demonstrated. (authors)
Application of two-phase flow for cooling of hybrid microchannel PV cells: A comparative study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeh-e-Sheyda, Peyvand; Rahimi, Masoud; Karimi, Ebrahim; Asadi, Masomeh
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Showing cooling potential of gas–liquid two-phase flow in microchannels for PV cell. ► Introducing the concept of using slug flow in microchannels for cooling of PV cells. ► In single-phase flow, increasing the liquid flow rate enhances the PV power. ► Showing that in two-phase flow the output power related the fluid flow regime. ► By coupling PV and microchannel an increase up to 38% in output power was observed. - Abstract: This paper reports the experimental data from performance of two-phase flows in a small hybrid microchannel solar cell. Using air and water as two-phase fluid, the experiments were conducted at indoor condition in an array of rectangular microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 0.667 mm. The gas superficial velocity ranges were between 0 and 3.27 m s −1 while liquid flow rate was 0.04 m s −1 . The performance analysis of the PV cell at slug and transitional slug/annular flow regimes are the focus of this study. The influence of two-phase working fluid on PV cell cooling was compared with single-phase. In addition, the great potential of slug flow for heat removal enhancement in PV/T panel was investigated. The obtained data showed the proposed hybrid system could substantially increases the output power of PV solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauter, H.; Meyder, R.; Philipp, P.; Samstag, M.
1995-01-01
The NOVA program was continued with turbulent, vertical, upward two-phase flow experiments. The development of a local gas distribution along the test section was visualized by X-ray tomography. (orig.)
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A.
2015-09-01
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...... possibility of modeling two-phase flow through energy balance. The saturation profile generated through the suggested approach is different from those through other approaches....
A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces
Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng
2012-01-01
We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2015-09-15
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
Two-phase flow boiling in small channels: A brief review
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
fer coefficients, reduced inventory requirements, low capital cost etc. ... lot of work has been done to understand the fundamental aspects of two-phase flow and ... occurrence would facilitate optimal and safe operation of the involved systems.
A new treatment of capillarity to improve the stability of IMPES two-phase flow formulation
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present an efficient numerical method for two-phase immiscible flow in porous media with different capillarity pressures. In highly heterogeneous permeable media, the saturation is discontinuous due to different capillary pressure
Two-phase flow through small branches in a horizontal pipe with stratified flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smoglie, C.
1985-02-01
In the field of reactor safety the occurrence of a small break in a horizontal primary coolant pipe is of great importance. This report presents the description and results of experiments designed to determine the mass flow rate and quality through a small break at the bottom, the top or the side of a main pipe with stratified gas-liquid flow. If the interface level is far below (above) the branch, only single-phase gas (liquid) flow enters the branch. For smaller distances the interface is locally deformed because of the pressure decrease due to the fluid acceleration near the branch inlet (Bernoulli effect) and liquid (gas) can be entrained. This report contains photographs illustrating the flow phenomena as well as a general correlation to determine the beginning of entrainment. Results are presented on the branch mass flow rate and quality as a function of a normalized distance between the interface and the branch inlet. A model was developed which enables to predict the branch quality and mass flux. Results from air-water flow through horizontal branches, were extrapolated for steam water flow at high pressure with critical branch mass flux. (orig./HS) [de
Experimental study on downward two-phase flow in narrow rectangular channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, T.H.; Jeong, J.H. [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-07-01
Adiabatic vertical two-phase flow of air and water through narrow rectangular channels was investigated. This study involved the observation of flow using a high speed camera and flow regimes were determined by image processing program using a MATLAB. The flows regimes in channel with downward flow are similar to those found by previous studies with upward flow. The flow regimes in downward flow at low liquid velocity are different from the previous studies in upward flow. The flow regimes can be classified into bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug and churn flow. (author)
Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Xin-Wang; Jin, Ning-De; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen
2013-09-01
Characterizing complex patterns arising from horizontal oil-water two-phase flows is a contemporary and challenging problem of paramount importance. We design a new multisector conductance sensor and systematically carry out horizontal oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring multivariate signals of different flow patterns. We then infer multivariate recurrence networks from these experimental data and investigate local cross-network properties for each constructed network. Our results demonstrate that a cross-clustering coefficient from a multivariate recurrence network is very sensitive to transitions among different flow patterns and recovers quantitative insights into the flow behavior underlying horizontal oil-water flows. These properties render multivariate recurrence networks particularly powerful for investigating a horizontal oil-water two-phase flow system and its complex interacting components from a network perspective.
Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi
2014-01-01
In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200μs. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable
Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Y; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Fan, H G; Zhuge, W L
2013-01-01
The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k–ε turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling
Personal view of educating two-phase flow and human resource development as a nuclear engineer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, Akitoshi
2010-01-01
As an engineer who has devoted himself in the nuclear industry for almost three decades, the author gave a personal view on educating two-phase flow and developing human resources. An expected role of universities in on-going discussions of collaboration among industry-government-academia is introduced. Reformation of two-phase flow education is discussed from two extreme viewpoints, the basic structure of physics and the practical system analysis. (author)
Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austregesilo Filho, H.
1986-01-01
A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt
Two-phase flow void fraction measurement using gamma ray attenuation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, R.D. da.
1985-01-01
The present work deals with experimental void fraction measurements in two-phase water-nitrogen flow, by using a gamma ray attenuation technique. Several upward two-phase flow regimes in a vertical tube were simulated. The water flow was varied from 0.13 to 0.44 m 3 /h while the nitrogen flow was varied between 0.01 and 0.1 m 3 /h. The mean volumetric void fraction was determined based on the measured linear void fraction for each flow condition. The results were compared with other authors data and showed a good agreement. (author) [pt
Complex network analysis in inclined oil–water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong-Ke, Gao; Ning-De, Jin
2009-01-01
Complex networks have established themselves in recent years as being particularly suitable and flexible for representing and modelling many complex natural and artificial systems. Oil–water two-phase flow is one of the most complex systems. In this paper, we use complex networks to study the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. Two different complex network construction methods are proposed to build two types of networks, i.e. the flow pattern complex network (FPCN) and fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K-means clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying three inclined oil–water flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow, we construct 48 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of the inclined oil–water two-phase flow. In this paper, from a new perspective, we not only introduce a complex network theory into the study of the oil–water two-phase flow but also indicate that the complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice. (general)
DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling [College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)
2014-12-09
Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.
DSMC simulation of two-phase plume flow with UV radiation
Li, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wang, Ning; Jin, Ling
2014-12-01
Rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume in which the phase of particles is liquid or solid flows from a solid propellant rocket of hypersonic vehicle flying at high altitudes, the aluminum oxide particulates not only impact the rarefied gas flow properties, but also make a great difference to plume radiation signature, so the radiation prediction of the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow is very important for space target detection of hypersonic vehicles. Accordingly, this project aims to study the rarefied gas-particle two-phase flow and ultraviolet radiation (UV) characteristics. Considering a two-way interphase coupling of momentum and energy, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is developed for particle phase change and the particle flow, including particulate collision, coalescence as well as separation, and a Monte Carlo ray trace model is implemented for the particulate UV radiation. A program for the numerical simulation of the gas-particle two-phase flow and radiation in which the gas flow nonequilibrium is strong is implemented as well. Ultraviolet radiation characteristics of the particle phase is studied based on the calculation of the flow field coupled with the radiation calculation, the radiation model for different size particles is analyzed, focusing on the effects of particle emission, absorption, scattering as well as the searchlight emission of the nozzle. A new approach may be proposed to describe the rarefied gas-particle two-phase plume flow and radiation transfer characteristics in this project.
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.
1995-01-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop
Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)
1995-09-01
The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.
Flow rate control systems for coolants for BWR type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarashi, Yoko; Kato, Naoyoshi.
1981-01-01
Purpose: To increase spontaneous recycling flow rate of coolants in BWR type reactors when the water level in the reactor decreases, by communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum. Constitution: An opening is provided to the back plate disposed at the lower end of a reactor core shroud for communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum, and an ON-OFF valve actuated by an operation rod is provided to the opening. When abnormal water level or pressure in the reactor is detected by a level metal or pressure meter, the operation rod is driven to open the ON-OFF valve, whereby coolants fed from a jet pump partially flows through the opening to increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants. This can increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants upon spontaneous recycling operation, thereby maintaining the reactor safety and the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De
2013-01-01
We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)
Present status of numerical analysis on transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimoto, Masayuki; Hirano, Masashi; Nariai, Hideki.
1987-01-01
The Special Committee for Numerical Analysis of Thermal Flow has recently been established under the Japan Atomic Energy Association. Here, some methods currently used for numerical analysis of transient two-phase flow are described citing some information given in the first report of the above-mentioned committee. Many analytical models for transient two-phase flow have been proposed, each of which is designed to describe a flow by using differential equations associated with conservation of mass, momentum and energy in a continuous two-phase flow system together with constructive equations that represent transportation of mass, momentum and energy though a gas-liquid interface or between a liquid flow and the channel wall. The author has developed an analysis code, called MINCS, that serves for systematic examination of conservation equation and constructive equations for two-phase flow models. A one-dimensional, non-equilibrium two-liquid flow model that is used as the basic model for the code is described. Actual procedures for numerical analysis is shown and some problems concerning transient two-phase analysis are described. (Nogami, K.)
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G R; Bullock, D E [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1999-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Single and two-phase flow pressure drop for CANFLEX bundle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)
1998-12-31
Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier for a CANFLEX bundle are newly developed and presented in this paper. CANFLEX as a 43-element fuel bundle has been developed jointly by AECL/KAERI to provide greater operational flexibility for CANDU reactor operators and designers. Friction factor and two-phase flow frictional multiplier have been developed by using the experimental data of pressure drops obtained from two series of Freon-134a (R-134a) CHF tests with a string of simulated CANFLEX bundles in a single phase and a two-phase flow conditions. The friction factor for a CANFLEX bundle is found to be about 20% higher than that of Blasius for a smooth circular pipe. The pressure drop predicted by using the new correlations of friction factor and two-phase frictional multiplier are well agreed with the experimental pressure drop data of CANFLEX bundle within {+-} 5% error. 11 refs., 5 figs. (Author)
Forced convection flow boiling and two-phase flow phenomena in a microchannel
Na, Yun Whan
2008-07-01
The present study was performed to numerically analyze the evaporation phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface and to investigate bubble dynamics and heat transfer behavior during forced convective flow boiling in a microchannel. Flow instabilities of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel were studied as well. The main objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of two-phase flow boiling in a microchannel and provide predictive tools to design thermal management systems, for example, microchannel heat sinks. The numerical results obtained from this study were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with experimental results in the open literature. Physical and mathematical models, accounting for evaporating phenomena through the liquid-vapor interface in a microchannel at constant heat flux and constant wall temperature, have been developed, respectively. The heat transfer mechanism is affected by the dominant heat conduction through the thin liquid film and vaporization at the liquid-vapor interface. The thickness of the liquid film and the pressure of the liquid and vapor phases were simultaneously solved by the governing differential equations. The developed semi-analytical evaporation model that takes into account of the interfacial phenomena and surface tension effects was used to obtain solutions numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of heat flux 19 and wall temperature on the liquid film were evaluated. The obtained pressure drops in a microchannel were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results of Qu and Mudawar (2004). Forced convective flow boiling in a single microchannel with different channel heights was studied through a numerical simulation to investigate bubble dynamics, flow patterns, and heat transfer. The momentum and energy equations were solved using the finite volume method while the liquid-vapor interface of a bubble is captured using the VOF (Volume of Fluid
Two-phase flow patterns in adiabatic and diabatic corrugated plate gaps
Polzin, A.-E.; Kabelac, S.; de Vries, B.
2016-09-01
Correlations for two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop can be improved considerably, when they are adapted to specific flow patterns. As plate heat exchangers find increasing application as evaporators and condensers, there is a need for flow pattern maps for corrugated plate gaps. This contribution presents experimental results on flow pattern investigations for such a plate heat exchanger background, using an adiabatic visualisation setup as well as a diabatic setup. Three characteristic flow patterns were observed in the considered range of two-phase flow: bubbly flow, film flow and slug flow. The occurrence of these flow patterns is a function of mass flux, void fraction, fluid properties and plate geometry. Two different plate geometries having a corrugation angle of 27° and 63°, respectively and two different fluids (water/air and R365mfc liquid/vapor) have been analysed. A flow pattern map using the momentum flux is presented.
Interfacial structures and area transport in upward and downward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, S. S.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Kelly, J.
2003-01-01
An experimental study has been carried out for upward and downward two-phase flow to study local interfacial structures and interfacial area transport. The flow studied, is an adiabatic, air-water, co-current, two-phase flow, in 25.4 mm and 50.8 mm ID test sections. Flow regime map is obtained using the characteristic signals obtained from an impedance void meter, employing neural network based identification methodology. A four sensor conductivity probe is used to measure the local two phase flow parameters, in bubbly flow regime. The local profiles of these parameters as well as their axial development reveal the nature of the interfacial structures and the bubble interaction mechanisms occurring in the flow. Furthermore, this study provides a good database for the development of the interfacial area transport equation, which dynamically models the changes in the interfacial area along a flow field. An interfacial area transport equation is used for downward flow based on that developed for the upward flow, with certain modifications in the bubble interaction terms. The area averaged values of the interfacial area concentration are compared with those predicted by the interfacial area transport model. The differences in the interfacial structures and interfacial area transport in co-current downward and upward two-phase flows are studied
Two-phase flow regimes and mechanisms of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Corre, Jean-Marie; Yao, Shi-Chune; Amon, Cristina H.
2010-01-01
A literature review of critical heat flux (CHF) experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available experimental information. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. Even though the selected concept has not received much attention (in term or theoretical developments and applications) as compared to other more popular DNB models, its basis have often been cited by experimental investigators and is considered by the authors as the 'most-likely' mechanism based on the literature review and analysis performed in this work. The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow and has been numerically implemented and validated in bubbly flow and coupled with one- and three-dimensional (CFD) two-phase flow codes, in a companion paper. [Le Corre, J.M., Yao, S.C., Amon, C.H., in this issue. A mechanistic model of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions for application to one and three-dimensional computer codes. Nucl. Eng. Des.].
Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.
Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex
2011-09-01
We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.
Two-phase cross-flow-induced forces acting on a circular cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, F.
1982-01-01
This paper clarifies the characteristics of unsteady flow-induced lift and drag forces acting on a circular cylinder immersed perpendicular to a two-phase bubbly air-water flow, in conjunction with Karman vortex shedding and pressure fluctuations. Experimental results presented show that Karman vortex shedding disappears over a certain value of air concentration in the two-phase flow. Related to this disappearance, flow-induced forces are rather small and periodical in low air concentration but become very large and random in higher air concentration. 7 refs
Experimental investigations of two-phase flow measurement using ultrasonic sensors
Abbagoni, Baba Musa
2016-01-01
This thesis presents the investigations conducted in the use of ultrasonic technology to measure two-phase flow in both horizontal and vertical pipe flows which is important for the petroleum industry. However, there are still key challenges to measure parameters of the multiphase flow accurately. Four methods of ultrasonic technologies were explored. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) was first applied to the ultrasound signals of air-water flow on horizontal flow for measur...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, A-Reum; Song, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon
2015-01-01
During a severe accident, corium is relocated to the lower head of the nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Design concept of retaining the corium inside a nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) through external cooling under hypothetical core melting accidents is called external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC). In this respect, validated two-phase natural circulation flow (TPNC) model is necessary to determine the adequacy of the ERVC design and operating conditions such as inlet area, form losses, gap distance, riser length and coolant conditions. The most important model generally characterizing the TPNC are void fraction and two-phase friction factors. Typical experimental and analytical studies to be referred to on two-phase circulation flow characteristics are those by Reyes, Gartia et al. based on Vijayan et al., Nayak et al. and Dubey et al. In the present paper, two-phase natural circulation (TPNC) flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) conditions are studied using two existing TPNC flow models of Reyes and Gartia et al. incorporating more improved void fraction and two-phase friction models. These models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, which can handle candidate ERVC design parameters, such as inlet, riser and downcomer flow lengths and areas, gap size between reactor vessel and surrounding insulations, minor loss factors and operating parameters of decay power, pressure and subcooling. Accuracy of the TPNCIRC program is investigated with respect to the flow rate and void fractions for existing measured data from a general experiment and ULPU specifically designed for the AP1000 in-vessel retention. Also, the effect of some important design parameters are examined for the experimental and plant conditions. Using the flow models and correlations are integrated into a computer program, TPNCIRC, a number of correlations have been examined. This seems coming from the differences of void fractions
Design and development of drag-disc flow meter for measurement of transient two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivas Rao, G.; Kukreja, V.; Dolas, P.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
1989-01-01
Experiments have been carried out to test the suitability of drag-disc flowmeter for measuring two-phase flow. Calibration tests carried out under single-phase and two-phase flow conditions have confirmed the suitability of the drag-disc flowmeter. The experimental work and the results obtained are presented and discussed in the paper. (author). 6 figs
Magnitude and sign correlations in conductance fluctuations of horizontal oil water two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, L; Jin, N D; Gao, Z K; Zong, Y B; Zhai, L S; Wang, Z Y
2012-01-01
In experiment we firstly define five typical horizontal oil-water flow patterns. Then we introduce an approach for analyzing signals by decomposing the original signals increment into magnitude and sign series and exploring their scaling properties. We characterize the nonlinear and linear properties of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow, which relate to magnitude and sign series respectively. We find that the joint distribution of different scaling exponents can effectively identify flow patterns, and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on magnitude and sign series can represent typical horizontal oil-water two-phase flow dynamics characteristics. The results indicate that the magnitude and sign decomposition method can be a helpful tool for characterizing complex dynamics of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow.
Film boiling from spheres in single- and two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.
1992-01-01
Experimental data on film boiling heat transfer from single, inductively heated, spheres in single- and two-phase flow (saturated water and steam, respectively) are presented. In the single-phase-flow experiments water velocities ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 m/s; in the two-phase-flow experiments superficial water and steam velocities covered 0.1 to 0.6 m/s and 4 to 10 m/s, respectively. All experiments were run at atmospheric pressure and with sphere temperatures from 900C down to quenching. Limited interpretations of the single-phase- flow data are possible, but the two-phase-flow data are new and unique
Analysis of forced convective transient boiling by homogeneous model of two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao
1985-01-01
Transient forced convective boiling is of practical importance in relation to the accident analysis of nuclear reactor etc. For large length-to-diameter ratio, the transient boiling characteristics are predicted by transient two-phase flow calculations. Based on homogeneous model of two-phase flow, the transient forced convective boiling for power and flow transients are analysed. Analytical expressions of various parameters of transient two-phase flow have been obtained for several simple cases of power and flow transients. Based on these results, heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition are predicted analytically for step and exponential power increases, and step, exponential and linear velocity decreases. The effects of various parameters on heat flux, velocity and time at transient CHF condition have been clarified. Numerical approach combined with analytical method is proposed for more complicated cases. Solution method for pressure transient are also described. (author)
Measurement of local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using conductivity double-sensor probe.
Park, Yu Sun; Chang, Soon Heung
2011-04-04
A two-phase flow experiment using air and water-based γ-Al2O3 nanofluid was conducted to observe the basic hydraulic phenomenon of nanofluids. The local two-phase flow parameters were measured with a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. The void fraction, interfacial velocity, interfacial area concentration, and mean bubble diameter were evaluated, and all of those results using the nanofluid were compared with the corresponding results for pure water. The void fraction distribution was flattened in the nanofluid case more than it was in the pure water case. The higher interfacial area concentration resulted in a smaller mean bubble diameter in the case of the nanofluid. This was the first attempt to measure the local two-phase flow parameters of nanofluids using a conductivity double-sensor two-phase void meter. Throughout this experimental study, the differences in the internal two-phase flow structure of the nanofluid were identified. In addition, the heat transfer enhancement of the nanofluid can be resulted from the increase of the interfacial area concentration which means the available area of the heat and mass transfer.
Application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to two-phase flows with a change of phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delhaye, J.M.
1969-01-01
In this report we use the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in two-phase flows. This paper follows a prior one in which we have studied the conservation laws and derived the general equations of two-phase flow. In the first part the basic ideas of thermodynamics of irreversible systems are given. We follow the classical point of view. The second part is concerned with the derivation of a closed set of equations for the two phase elementary volume model. In this model we assume that the elementary volume contains two phases and that it is possible to define a volumetric local concentration. To obtain the entropy balance we can choose either the reversibility of the barycentric motion or the reversibility of each phase. We adopt the last assumption and our derivation is the same as this of I.Prigogine and P. Mazur about the hydrodynamics of liquid helium. The scope of this work is not to find a general solution to the problems of two phase flows but to obtain a new set of equations which may be used to explain some characteristic phenomena of two-phase flow such as wave propagation or critical states. (author) [fr
Interaction between local parameters of two-phase flow and random forces on a cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sylviane Pascal-Ribot; Yves Blanchet; Franck Baj; Phillippe Piteau
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: In the frame of assessments of steam generator tube bundle vibrations, a study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of an air/water flow on turbulent buffeting forces induced on a cylinder. The main purpose is to relate the physical parameters characterizing an air/water two-phase crossflow with the structural loading of a fixed cylindrical tube. In this first approach, the experiments are carried out in a rectangular acrylic test section supplied with a vertical upward bubbly flow. This flow is transversally impeded by a fixed rigid 12,15 mm diameter cylinder. Different turbulence grids are used in order to modify two-phase characteristics such as bubble diameter, void fraction profile, fluctuation parameters. Preliminarily, a dimensional analysis of fluid-structure interaction under two-phase turbulent solicitations has enabled to identify a list of physically relevant variables which must be measured to evaluate the random forces. The meaning of these relevant parameters as well as the effect of flow patterns are discussed. Direct measurements of two-phase flow parameters are performed simultaneously with measurements of forces exerted on the cylinder. The main descriptive parameters of a two-phase flow are measured using a bi-optical probe, in particular void fraction profiles, interfacial velocities, bubble diameters, void fraction fluctuations. In the same time, the magnitude of random forces caused by two-phase flow is measured with a force transducer. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is then undertaken in order to correlate physical two-phase mechanisms with the random forces exerted on the cylinder. The hypotheses made while applying the dimensional analysis are verified and their pertinence is discussed. Finally, physical parameters involved in random buffeting forces applied on a transverse tube are proposed to scale the spectral magnitude of these forces and comparisons with other authors
Bubble Generation in a Flowing Liquid Medium and Resulting Two-Phase Flow in Microgravity
Pais, S. C.; Kamotani, Y.; Bhunia, A.; Ostrach, S.
1999-01-01
The present investigation reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions, using both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. This study may be used in the conceptual design of a space-based thermal management system. Ensuing two-phase flow void fraction can be accurately monitored using a single nozzle gas injection system within a continuous liquid flow conduit, as utilized in the present investigation. Accurate monitoring of void fraction leads to precise control of heat and mass transfer coefficients related to a thermal management system; hence providing an efficient and highly effective means of removing heat aboard spacecraft or space stations. Our experiments are performed in parabolic flight aboard the modified DC-9 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft at NASA Lewis Research Center, using an air-water system. For the purpose of bubble dispersion in a flowing liquid, we use both a co-flow and a cross-flow configuration. In the co-flow geometry, air is introduced through a nozzle in the same direction with the liquid flow. On the other hand, in the cross-flow configuration, air is injected perpendicular to the direction of water flow, via a nozzle protruding inside the two-phase flow conduit. Three different flow conduit (pipe) diameters are used, namely, 1.27 cm, 1.9 cm and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of nozzle to pipe diameter (D(sub N))sup * are considered, namely (D(sub N))sup * = 0.1 and 0.2, while superficial liquid velocities are varied from 8 to 70 cm/s depending on flow conduit diameter. It is experimentally observed that by holding all other flow conditions and geometry constant, generated bubbles decrease in size with increase in superficial liquid velocity. Detached bubble diameter is shown to increase with air injection nozzle diameter. Likewise, generated bubbles grow in size with increasing pipe diameter. Along the same lines, it is shown that bubble frequency of formation increases and hence the time to detachment of a
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1997-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)
Fast X-ray imaging of two-phase flows: Application to cavitating flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlifa, Ilyass
2014-01-01
A promising method based on fast X-ray imaging has been developed to investigate the dynamics and the structure of complex two-phase flows. It has been applied in this work on cavitating flows created inside a Venturi-type test section and helped therefore to better understand flows inside cavitation pockets. Seeding particles were injected into the flow to trace the liquid phase. Thanks to the characteristics of the beam provided by the APS synchrotron (Advance Photon Source, USA), high definition X-ray images of the flow containing simultaneously information for both liquid and vapour were obtained. Velocity fields of both phases were thus calculated using image cross-correlation algorithms. Local volume fractions of vapour have also been obtained using local intensities of the images. Beforehand however, image processing is required to separate phases for velocity measurements. Validation methods of all applied treatments were developed, they allowed to characterise the measurement accuracy. This experimental technique helped us to have more insight into the dynamic of cavitating flows and especially demonstrates the presence of significant slip velocities between phases. (author)
On the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize vertical two-phase bubbly flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemonnier, H.; Jullien, P.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We provide a complete theory of the PGSE measurement in single and two-phase flow. → Friction velocity can be directly determinated from measured velocity distributions. → Fast determination of moments shorten PGSE process with small loss of accuracy. → Turbulent diffusion measurements agree well with known trends and existing models. → We think NMR can be a tool to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flow. - Abstract: Since the pioneering work of who showed that NMR can be used to measure accurately the mean liquid velocity and void fraction in two-phase pipe flow, it has been shown that NMR signal can also characterize the turbulent eddy diffusivity and velocity fluctuations. In this paper we provide an in depth validation of these statements together with a clarification of the nature of the mean velocity that is actually measured by NMR PFGSE sequence. The analysis shows that the velocity gradient at the wall is finely space-resolved and allows the determination of the friction velocity in single-phase flows. Next turbulent diffusion measurements in two-phase flows are presented, analyzed and compared to existing data and models. It is believed that NMR velocity measurement is sufficiently understood that it can be utilized to benchmark thermal anemometry in two-phase flows. Theoretical results presented in this paper also show how this can be undertaken.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnikov, V.I.; Khokhlov, V.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kontelev, V.V.; Zoi, V.R.; Zavinov, A.A.
2003-01-01
A novel device for fast visualisation of gas-liquid two-phase flows was developed and tested during loss-off-coolant accident simulations at the thermal hydraulic test facility PSB-VVER, a 1:300 integral model of the VVER-1000. The device is an ultrasonic mesh sensor. It consists of a metallic frame where transmitter and receiver wave-guides are fixed, that form two grids inside the measurement cross section. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted into the fluid by the 8 wave-guides of the first plane. A second plane of another 8 wave-guides, that cross the ones of the first plane under an angle of 90 deg, serves as receives. The measurement is based on the acoustic conductivity of the two-phase mixture at the locations where the wave-guides cross. The sampling frequency is 250 frames per second. This allows both void fraction measurements and a fast flow visualisation. The sensor is applicable to high pressures and temperatures. All parts and surfaces that are in contact with the fluid are manufactured from stainless steel. During the tests at PSB-VVER the flow pattern in the hot leg of the primary circuit model was visualised for the first time. (orig.)
Two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer flow along vertical and inclined surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Epstein, M.
1985-01-01
The behavior of a two-phase gas bubble-liquid boundary layer along vertical and inclined porous surfaces with uniform gas injection is investigated experimentally and analytically. Using argon gas and water as the working fluids, a photographical study of the two-phase boundary layer flow has been performed for various angles of inclination ranging from 45 0 to 135 0 and gas injection rates ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m/s. An integral method has been employed to solve the system of equations governing the two-phase motion. The effects of the gas injection rate and the angle of inclination on the growth of the boundary layer have been determined. The predicted boundary layer thickness is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculated axial liquid velocity and the void fraction in the two-phase region are also presented along with the observed flow behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, R.N. de; Masotti, P.H.F.; Penha, R.M.L.; Andrade, D.A.; Sabundjian, G.; Torres, W.M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A fuzzy classification system for two-phase flow instability patterns is developed. ► Flow patterns are classified based on images of natural circulation experiments. ► Fuzzy inference is optimized to use single grayscale profiles as input. - Abstract: Two-phase flow on natural circulation phenomenon has been an important theme on recent studies related to nuclear reactor designs. The accuracy of heat transfer estimation has been improved with new models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. In this work, visualization of natural circulation cycles is used to study two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. A Fuzzy Flow-type Classification System (FFCS) was developed to classify these patterns based only on image extracted features. Image acquisition and temperature measurements were simultaneously done. Experiments in natural circulation facility were adjusted to generate a series of characteristic two-phase flow instability periodic cycles. The facility is composed of a loop of glass tubes, a heat source using electrical heaters, a cold source using a helicoidal heat exchanger, a visualization section and thermocouples positioned over different loop sections. The instability cyclic period is estimated based on temperature measurements associated with the detection of a flow transition image pattern. FFCS shows good results provided that adequate image acquisition parameters and pre-processing adjustments are used.
Two-phase flow measurements using a photochromic dye activation technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaji, M.
1998-01-01
A novel flow visualization method called photochromic dye activation (PDA) technique has been used to investigate flow structures and mechanisms in various two-phase flow regimes. This non-intrusive flow visualization technique utilizes light activation of a photochromic dye material dissolved in a clear liquid and is a molecular tagging technique, requiring no seed particles. It has been used to yield both quantitative and qualitative flow data in the liquid phase in annular flow, slug flow and stratified-wavy flows. (author)
A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.
2002-01-01
In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)
Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces and local conductivity probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnage, K.G.; Davis, C.E.
1979-01-01
A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented spool pieces and with conductivity probes obtained from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data is made and preliminary results are shown. Velocity and void fraction information derived from the conductivity probes is presented and compared to velocities and void fractions obtained using the spool piece instrumentation
Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.
2018-04-01
Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohk, Seung-Min; Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation.
Analysis of phase dynamics in two-phase flow using latticegas automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohashi, H.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsumaya, A.; Chen, Y.; Akiyama, M.
1998-01-01
In this paper, we describe lattice gas automaton models appropriate for two-phase flow simulation and their applications to study various phase dynamics of two-fluid mixtures. Several algorithms are added to the original immiscible Lattice Gas model to adjust surface tension and to introduce density difference between two fluids. Surface tension is controlled by the collision rules an difference in density is due to nonlocal forces between automaton particles. We simulate the relative motion of the dispersed phase in another continuous fluid. Deformation and disintegration of rising drops are reproduced. The interaction between multiple drops is also observed in calculations. Furutre, we obtain the transition of the two-phase flow pattern from bubbly, slug to annular flow. Density difference of two phase is one of the key ingredients to generate the annular flow pattern
Magnetic liquid metal two-phase flow research. Phase 1. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graves, R.D.
1983-04-01
The Phase I research demonstrates the feasibility of the magnetic liquid metal (MLM) two-phase flow concept. A dispersion analysis is presented based on a complete set of two-phase-flow equations augmented to include stresses due to magnetic polarization of the fluid. The analysis shows that the stability of the MLM two-phase flow is determined by the magnetic Mach number, the slip ratio, geometry of the flow relative to the applied magnetic field, and by the voidage dependence of the interfacial forces. Results of a set of experiments concerned with magnetic effects on the dynamics of single bubble motion in an aqueous-based, viscous, conducting magnetic fluid are presented. Predictions in the theoretical literature are qualitatively verified using a bench-top experimental apparatus. In particular, applied magnetic fields are seen to lead to reduced bubble size at fixed generating orifice pressure
The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martsiniouk, D.Ye.; Sorokin, A.P.
2000-01-01
The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)
Investigation of Two-Phase Flow in Short Horizontal Mini Channel Height of 1 MM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ron’shin Fedor
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The experiments with two-phase flow in the short horizontal rectangular minichannel with the height of 1 mm and width of 29 mm have been carried out using water and gas nitrogen. The five two-phase flow patterns have been recognized in the minichannel: churn, stratified, annular, bubble, and jet. These regimes are plotted on a graph and the boundaries between them determine precisely. The height of a horizontal minichannels has a significant role on boundaries between the flow regimes.
Analyses of liquid-gas two-phase flow in fermentation tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, Takashi; Serizawa, Akimi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawara, Zensaku; Gofuku, Akio; Kataoka, Isao.
1993-01-01
The understanding of two-phase flow is one of the important problems for both design and safety analyses of various engineering systems. For example, the flow conditions in beer fermentation tanks have an influence on the quality of production and productivity of tank. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical calculation code based on the one-pressure two-fluid model is developed to understand the circulation structure of low quality liquid-gas two-phase flows induced by bubble plume in a tank. (author)
On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles
Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.
2016-10-01
Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.
A facility for the experimental investigation of single substance two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeder, P.F.; Dickinson, D.A.; Nikitopoulos, D.E.; DiPippo, R.
1985-01-01
The paper describes a research facility dedicated to single-substance two-phase flow. The working fluid is dichlorotetrafluoroethane (or refrigerant R-114), allowing both operation at manageable pressures, temperatures and flowrates, and application of results to practical situations through similarity. Operation is in the blowdown mode. The control and data acquisition systems are fully automated and computer controlled. A range of flow conditions from predominantly liquid flow to high velocity, high void fraction choked flow can be attained
Investigation of vertical slug flow with advanced two-phase flow instrumentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mi, Y.; Ishii, M.; Tsoukalas, L.H.
2001-01-01
Extensive experiments of vertical slug flow were carried out with an electromagnetic flowmeter and an impedance void-meter in an air-water two-phase experimental loop. The basic principles of these instruments in vertical slug flow measurements are discussed. Time series of the liquid velocity and the impedance were separated into two parts corresponding to the Taylor bubble and the liquid slug. Characteristics of slug flow, such as the void fractions, probabilities and lengths of the Taylor bubble and liquid slug, slug unit velocity, area-averaged liquid velocity, and liquid film velocity of the Taylor bubble tail, etc., were obtained. For the first time, the area-averaged liquid velocity of slug flow was revealed by the electromagnetic flowmeter. It is realized that the void fraction of the liquid slug is determined by the turbulent intensity due to the relative liquid motion between the Taylor bubble tail region and its wake region. A correlation of the void fraction of the liquid slug is developed based on experimental results obtained from a test section with 50.8 mm i.d. The results of this study suggest a promising improvement in understanding of vertical slug flow
A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying
1992-08-01
A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%
A contribution to the study of two-phase steam-water critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reocreux, M.
1975-06-01
Conservation equations were derived to describe two phase flow systems and conditions were established in order to satisfy critical flow. The theoretical analysis performed to establish the above condition has demonstrated the important part played by transfer terms. Experimental studies on glass and metal channels showed the importance of the way evaporation was initiated. (R.L.)
Experimental study on local resistance of two-phase flow through spacer grid with rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Chaoxing; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Tian Qiwei
2015-01-01
The experimental study on local resistance of single-phase and two-phase flows through a spacer grid in a vertical channel with 3 × 3 rod bundle was carried out under the normal temperature and pressure. For the case of single-phase flow, the liquid Reynolds number covered the range of 290-18 007. For the case of two-phase flow, the ranges of gas and liquid superficial velocities were 0.013-3.763 m/s and 0.076-1.792 m/s, respectively. A correlation for predicting local resistance of single-phase flow was given based on experimental results. Eight classical two-phase viscosity formulae for homogeneous model were evaluated against the experimental data of two-phase flow. The results show that Dukler model predicts the experimental data well in the range of Re 1 < 9000 while McAdams correlation is the best one for Re 1 ≥ 9000. For all experimental data, Dukler model provides the best prediction with the mean relative error of 29.03%. A new correlation is fitted for the range of Re 1 < 9000 by considering mass quality, two- phase Reynolds number and liquid and gas densities, resulting in a good agreement with the experimental data. (authors)
Measurement of void fraction and bubble size distribution in two-phase flow system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huahun, G.
1987-01-01
The importance of study two phase flow parameter and microstructure has appeared increasingly, with the development of two-phase flow discipline. In the paper, the measurement methods of several important microstructure parameter in a two phase flow vertical channel have been studied. Using conductance probe the two phase flow pattern and the average void fraction have been measured previously by the authors. This paper concerns microstructure of the bubble size distribution and local void fraction. The authors studied the methods of measuring bubble velocity, size distribution and local void fraction using double conductance probes and a set of apparatus. Based on our experiments and Yoshihiro work, a formula of calculated local void fraction has been deduced by using the statistical characteristics of bubbles in two phase flow and the relation between calculated bubble size and voltage has been determined. Finally the authors checked by using photograph and fast valve, which is classical but reliable. The results are the same with what has been studied before
Two-phase flow instabilities in a silicon microchannels heat sink
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogojevic, D.; Sefiane, K.; Walton, A.J.; Lin, H.; Cummins, G.
2009-01-01
Two-phase flow instabilities are highly undesirable in microchannels-based heat sinks as they can lead to temperature oscillations with high amplitudes, premature critical heat flux and mechanical vibrations. This work is an experimental study of boiling instabilities in a microchannel silicon heat sink with 40 parallel rectangular microchannels, having a length of 15 mm and a hydraulic diameter of 194 μm. A series of experiments have been carried out to investigate pressure and temperature oscillations during the flow boiling instabilities under uniform heating, using water as a cooling liquid. Thin nickel film thermometers, integrated on the back side of a heat sink with microchannels, were used in order to obtain a better insight related to temperature fluctuations caused by two-phase flow instabilities. Flow regime maps are presented for two inlet water temperatures, showing stable and unstable flow regimes. It was observed that boiling leads to asymmetrical flow distribution within microchannels that result in high temperature non-uniformity and the simultaneously existence of different flow regimes along the transverse direction. Two types of two-phase flow instabilities with appreciable pressure and temperature fluctuations were observed, that depended on the heat to mass flux ratio and inlet water temperature. These were high amplitude/low frequency and low amplitude/high frequency instabilities. High speed camera imaging, performed simultaneously with pressure and temperature measurements, showed that inlet/outlet pressure and the temperature fluctuations existed due to alternation between liquid/two-phase/vapour flows. It was also determined that the inlet water subcooling condition affects the magnitudes of the temperature oscillations in two-phase flow instabilities and flow distribution within the microchannels.
Study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendes de Moura, L.F.
1989-04-01
The object of the present thesis deals with the study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger. Mass flow rate measurements of each component performed at each channel outlet of the second pass allowed us to determine the influence of mass flow, gas quality, flow direction (upward or downward) and common header geometry upon flow redistribution. Local void fraction inside common header was measured with an optical probe. A two-dimensional two-phase flow computational code was developed from a two-fluid model. Modelling of interfacial momentum transfer was used in order to take into account twp-phase flow patterns in common headers. Numerical simulation results show qualitative agreement with experimental results. Present theoretical model limitations are analysed and future improvements are proposed [fr
Impedance void-meter and neural networks for vertical two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mi, Y.; Li, M.; Xiao, Z.; Tsoukalas, L.H.; Ishii, M.
1998-01-01
Most two-phase flow measurements, including void fraction measurements, depend on correct flow regime identification. There are two steps towards successful identification of flow regimes: one is to develop a non-intrusive instrument to demonstrate area-averaged void fluctuations, the other to develop a non-linear mapping approach to perform objective identification of flow regimes. A non-intrusive impedance void-meter provides input signals to a neural mapping approach used to identify flow regimes. After training, both supervised and self-organizing neural network learning paradigms performed flow regime identification successfully. The methodology presented holds considerable promise for multiphase flow diagnostic and measurement applications. (author)
Two-phase wall function for modeling of turbulent boundary layer in subcooled boiling flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostjan Koncar; Borut Mavko; Yassin A Hassan
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: The heat transfer and phase-change mechanisms in the subcooled flow boiling are governed mainly by local multidimensional mechanisms near the heated wall, where bubbles are generated. The structure of such 'wall boiling flow' is inherently non-homogeneous and is further influenced by the two-phase flow turbulence, phase-change effects in the bulk, interfacial forces and bubble interactions (collisions, coalescence, break-up). In this work the effect of two-phase flow turbulence on the development of subcooled boiling flow is considered. Recently, the modeling of two-phase flow turbulence has been extensively investigated. A notable progress has been made towards deriving reliable models for description of turbulent behaviour of continuous (liquid) and dispersed phase (bubbles) in the bulk flow. However, there is a lack of investigation considering the modeling of two-phase flow boundary layer. In most Eulerian two-fluid models standard single-phase wall functions are used for description of turbulent boundary layer of continuous phase. That might be a good approximation at adiabatic flows, but their use for boundary layers with high concentration of dispersed phase is questionable. In this work, the turbulent boundary layer near the heated wall will be modeled with the so-called 'two-phase' wall function, which is based on the assumption of additional turbulence due to bubble-induced stirring in the boundary layer. In the two-phase turbulent boundary layer the wall function coefficients strongly depend on the void fraction. Moreover, in the turbulent boundary layer with nucleating bubbles, the bubble size variation also has a significant impact on the liquid phase. As a basis, the wall function of Troshko and Hassan (2001), developed for adiabatic bubbly flows will be used. The simulations will be performed by a general-purpose CFD code CFX-4.4 using additional models provided by authors. The results will be compared to the boiling
Pressure loss in two-phase flow through a microchannel rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.C.; Hamm, L.L.; Qureshi, Z.; Steeper, T.J.
1998-01-01
The purpose of the microchannel rod bundle two-phase flow test described here was to provide data for benchmarking safety analyses for the accelerator production of tritium (APT). The objective was to obtain pressure loss data for a typical accelerator target rod bundle over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The test rod bundle assembly was fabricated for single-phase pressure drop tests conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and subsequently used for the two-phase flow testing described here. The results for a typical case are given. These results fall generally in the slug flow regime for the horizontal flow results of Fukano and Kariyasaki for a 1.0-mm circular channel. Fukano and Kariyasaki found that surface tension effects were dominant in the 1-mm channel and report no churn regime. The results were also compared with the flow regime maps given by Triplett et al. for flow in discrete microchannels. Triplett employed both circular and trapezoidal channels, the latter to approximate the rod bundle interstitial flow channel shape. It was found that the rod bundle flow fell across the slug-to-churn flow regime transition reported by Triplett. This is consistent with the expectation that cross flow among channels would result in turbulent mixing and would suppress the formation of large discrete bubbles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jeong Seong; Malik, Nauman Muhammad; Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Rashid, Ahmar; Kim, Sin; Kim, Kyung Youn
2008-01-01
For the visualization of the phase distribution in two phase flows, the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) technique is introduced. In ERT, the internal resistivity distribution is reconstructed based on the known sets of the injected currents and measured voltages on the surface of the object. The physical relationship between the internal resistivity and the surface voltages is governed by a partial differential equation with appropriate boundary conditions. This paper considers the estimation of the phase distribution with ERT in two phase flow in a horizontal flow using extended Kalman filter. To evaluate the reconstruction performance of the proposed algorithm, the experiments simulated two phase flows in a horizontal flow were carried out. The experiments with two phase flow phantom were done to suggest a practical implication of this research in detecting gas bubble in a feed water pipe of heat transfer systems
Identification of two-phase flow regimes under variable gravity conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamiel S Gabriel; Huawei Han
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Two-phase flow is becoming increasingly important as we move into new and more aggressive technologies in the twenty-first century. Some of its many applications include the design of efficient heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers and energy transport systems. Two-phase flow has many applications in reduced gravity environments experienced in orbiting spacecraft and earth observation satellites. Examples are heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers. A concave parallel plate capacitance sensor has been developed to measure void fraction for the purpose of objectively identifying flow regimes. The sensor has been used to collect void-fraction data at microgravity conditions aboard the NASA and ESA zero-gravity aircraft. It is shown that the flow regimes can be objectively determined from the probability density functions of the void fraction signals. It was shown that under microgravity conditions four flow regimes exist: bubbly flow, characterized by discrete gas bubbles flowing in the liquid; slug flow, consisting of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs which may or may not contain several small gas bubbles; transitional flow, characterized by the liquid flowing as a film at the tube wall, and the gas phase flowing in the center with the frequent appearance of chaotic, unstable slugs; and annular flow in which the liquid flows as a film along the tube wall and the gas flows uninterrupted through the center. Since many two-phase flow models are flow regime dependent, a method that can accurately and objectively determine flow regimes is required. (authors)
Identification of two-phase flow regimes under variable gravity conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamiel S Gabriel [University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Huawei Han [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Saskatchewan 57 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A9 (Canada)
2005-07-01
Full text of publication follows: Two-phase flow is becoming increasingly important as we move into new and more aggressive technologies in the twenty-first century. Some of its many applications include the design of efficient heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers and energy transport systems. Two-phase flow has many applications in reduced gravity environments experienced in orbiting spacecraft and earth observation satellites. Examples are heat transport systems, the transfer and storage of cryogenic fluids, and condensation and flow boiling processes in heat exchangers. A concave parallel plate capacitance sensor has been developed to measure void fraction for the purpose of objectively identifying flow regimes. The sensor has been used to collect void-fraction data at microgravity conditions aboard the NASA and ESA zero-gravity aircraft. It is shown that the flow regimes can be objectively determined from the probability density functions of the void fraction signals. It was shown that under microgravity conditions four flow regimes exist: bubbly flow, characterized by discrete gas bubbles flowing in the liquid; slug flow, consisting of Taylor bubbles separated by liquid slugs which may or may not contain several small gas bubbles; transitional flow, characterized by the liquid flowing as a film at the tube wall, and the gas phase flowing in the center with the frequent appearance of chaotic, unstable slugs; and annular flow in which the liquid flows as a film along the tube wall and the gas flows uninterrupted through the center. Since many two-phase flow models are flow regime dependent, a method that can accurately and objectively determine flow regimes is required. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cacuci, D.G.
1984-07-01
This report presents a self-contained mathematical formalism for deterministic sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow systems, a detailed application to sensitivity analysis of the homogeneous equilibrium model of two-phase flow, and a representative application to sensitivity analysis of a model (simulating pump-trip-type accidents in BWRs) where a transition between single phase and two phase occurs. The rigor and generality of this sensitivity analysis formalism stem from the use of Gateaux (G-) differentials. This report highlights the major aspects of deterministic (forward and adjoint) sensitivity analysis, including derivation of the forward sensitivity equations, derivation of sensitivity expressions in terms of adjoint functions, explicit construction of the adjoint system satisfied by these adjoint functions, determination of the characteristics of this adjoint system, and demonstration that these characteristics are the same as those of the original quasilinear two-phase flow equations. This proves that whenever the original two-phase flow problem is solvable, the adjoint system is also solvable and, in principle, the same numerical methods can be used to solve both the original and adjoint equations
Encyclopedia of two-phase heat transfer and flow II special topics and applications
Kim, Jungho
2015-01-01
The aim of the two–set series is to present a very detailed and up–to–date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods. Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condens...
Encyclopedia of two-phase heat transfer and flow I fundamentals and methods
2015-01-01
The aim of the two–set series is to present a very detailed and up–to–date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods. Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condens...
Visualization of two-phase flow in metallic pipes using neutron radiographic technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luiz, L.C.; Crispim, V.R.
2007-01-01
The study of two-phase flow is a matter of great interest both for the engineering and oil industries. The production of oil and natural gas involves the transportation of fluids in their liquid and gaseous states, respectively, to the processing plant for refinement. The forecasting of two-phase flow in oil pipes is of the utmost important yet an extremely difficult task. With the development of the electronic imaging system, installed in J-9 irradiation channel of the IEN/CNEN Argonauta Reactor, it is possible to visualize the different types of two phase air-water flows in small-diameter metallic pipes. After developing the captured image the liquid-gas drift flux correlation as well as the void fraction in relation to the injected air outflow for a fixed water outflow can be obtained. (author)
Phase separation and pressure drop of two-phase flow in vertical manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zetzmann, K.
1982-01-01
The splitting of a two-phase mass flow in a tube manifold results in a separation between liquid and gas phase. A study is presented of the phase distribution and the related two-phase pressure drop for vertical manifolds in the technically relevant geometry and flow parameter region of an air-water-flow. At the outlet changes in the gas/fluid-radio are observed which are proportional to this ratio at the inlet. The separation characteristic strongly depends on the massflow through the junction. Empirical equations are given to calculate the separation. Measuring the pressure drop at main- and secondary tube of the manifold the additional pressure drop can be obtained. If these results are related with the dynamic pressure at the inlet, two-phase resistance coefficients can be deduced, which may be tested by empirical relations. (orig.) [de
Analysis of data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Currie, T.C.
1986-06-01
This report analyzes data obtained in two-phase flow tests of primary heat transport pumps performed during the period 1980-1983. Phenomena which have been known to cause pump-induced flow oscillations in pressurized piping systems under two-phase conditions are reviewed and the data analyzed to determine whether any of the identified phenomena could have been responsible for the instabilities observed in those tests. Tentative explanations for the most severe instabilities are given based on those analyses. It is shown that suction pipe geometry probably plays an important role in promoting instabilities, so additional experiments to investigate the effect of suction pipe geometry on the stability of flow in a closed pipe loop under two-phase conditions are recommended
Moving Boudary Models for Dynamic Simulations of Two-phase Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Munch; Tummelscheit, H.
2002-01-01
. The Dymola Modelica translator can automatically reduce the DAE index and thus makes efficient simulation possible. Usually the flow entering a dry-expansion evaporator in a refrigeration system is two-phase, and there is thus no liquid region. The general MB model has a number of special cases where only...... model is used. The overall robustness and the simplicity of the MB model, makes it well suited for open loop as well as closed loop simulations of two-phase flows. Simulation results for an evaporator in a refrigeration system are shown. The open loop system is simulated both with the reduced MB...... but is less complex. The reduced MB-model is well suited for control purposes both for determining control parameters and for model based control strategies and examples of a controlled refrigeration system are shown. The general MB model divides the flow into three regions (liquid, two-phase and vapor...
Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on local two-phase flow parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yadav, M.; Worosz, T.; Kim, S.
2011-01-01
This study presents the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on the development of the local two-phase flow parameters. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters. It is found that immediately downstream of the vertical-upward elbow, the bubbles have a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the pipe cross-section causing a dual-peak in the profiles of local void fraction and local interfacial area concentration. Immediately downstream of the vertical-downward elbow it is observed that the bubbles tend to migrate towards the inside of the elbow's curvature. The axial transport of void fraction and interfacial area concentration indicates that the elbows promote bubble disintegration. Preliminary predictions are obtained from group-one interfacial area transport equation (IATE) model for vertical-upward and vertical-downward two-phase flow. (author)
Development of a Laser Dopper Anemometer technique for the measurement of two phase dispersed flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasan, J.
1978-05-01
A new optical technique using Laser-Doppler Anemometry is presented for the measurement of the local number densities and two-dimensional velocity probability densities of a turbulent dilute two-phase dispersion which has a distribution of particle size and a predominant direction of flow. This technique establishes that by a suitable scheme of discrimination on the signal amplitude, residence time and frequency of the Doppler signals caused by the scattered light from individual particles in the probing volume, the size distribution of moderately large particles in a dilute dispersed flow can be determined. The newly developed Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) technique was applied to a solid particle-water two-phase flow and a water droplet-air two-phase flow. Particular emphasis was placed on turbulent two-phase water droplet-air flow inside a vertical rectangular channel. At each of nine different measuring locations along the transverse axis (starting at 250μ from the channel wall), over 20,000 Doppler signals were individually examined. The particle size and number density distributions, and the axial and lateral velocity distributions of both phases are reported. The analysis reveals some interesting features of two-phase dispersed flow. A film of water on the channel wall was formed due to the deposition of droplets from the flow. The water droplet entrainment from the wall film and the subsequent breakup of some of these into the flow are discussed. A discussion of the relationship between the particle distributions and turbulent flow characteristics is presented
Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Two-Phase Flows in a Porous Micro-Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dustin Crandall
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Characterizing two-phase flow in porous media is important to provide estimates of sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery and storage estimates in potential geological CO2 sequestration repositories. To further the current understanding of two-phase flow in porous media a micro-model of interconnected channels was designed and fabricated using stereolithography to experimentally study gas-liquid flows. This flowcell was created with a wide variability of throat dimensions to represent naturally occurring porous media. Low flow rate experiments of immiscible two-phase drainage were performed within this cell. Additionally, a computational model for analyzing two-phase flows in the same flowcell was developed and used to simulate conditions not possible with our laboratory settings. The computational model was first tested for the identical conditions used in the experimental studies, and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined fractal dimension of the invading gas structure, time until breakthrough, and fluid saturation. The numerical model was then used to study two-phase air-water flows in flowcells with the same geometry and different gas-liquid-solid contact angles. The percent saturation of air and the motion of the fluids through the cell were found to vary with changes in these parameters. Finally, to simulate flows expected during geologic carbon sequestration, the fluid properties and interface conditions were set to model the flow of CO2 into a brine-saturated porous medium at representative subsurface conditions. The CO2 flows were shown to have larger gas saturations than the previous air into water studies. Thus the accuracy of the computational model was supported by the flowcell experiments, and the computational model extended the laboratory results to conditions not possible with the apparatus used in the experiments.
Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structure Characteristics under Periodic Cross Forces Action
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Perevezentsev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a study of two-phase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces. The work objective is to obtain experimental data for further analysis and have structure characteristics of the two-phase flow movement. For research, to obtain data without disturbing effect on the flow were used optic PIV (Particle Image Visualization methods because of their noninvasiveness. The cross forces influence was provided by an experimental stand design to change the angular amplitudes and the periods of channel movement cycle with two-phase flow. In the range of volume gas rates was shown a water flow rate versus the inclination angle of immovable riser section and the characteristic angular amplitudes and periods of riser section inclination cycle under periodic cross forces. Data on distribution of average water velocity in twophase flow in abovementioned cases were also obtained. These data allowed us to draw a conclusion that a velocity distribution depends on the angular amplitude and on the period of the riser section roll cycle. This article belongs to publications, which study two-phase flows with no disturbing effect on them. Obtained data give an insight into understanding a pattern of twophase gas-liquid flow under the action of periodic cross forces and can be used to verify the mathematical models of the CFD thermo-hydraulic codes. In the future, the work development expects taking measurements with more frequent interval in the ranges of angular amplitudes and periods of the channel movement cycle and create a mathematical model to show the action of periodic cross forces on two-phase gas-liquid flow.
Heat transfer to air-water two-phase flow in slug/churn region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadekar, V.V.; Tuzla, K.; Chen, J.C.
1996-01-01
Measured heat transfer data for air-water two-phase flow in the slug/churn flow region are reported. The measurements were obtained from a 1.3 m tall, 15.7 mm diameter vertical tube test-section. It is observed that the data exhibit different heat transfer characteristics to those predicted by the standard correlations for the convective component of flow boiling heat transfer. Comparison with the predictions of a slug flow model for evaporation shows a significant overprediction of the data. The reason for the overprediction is attributed to the sensible heating requirement of the gas phase. The slug flow model is therefore suitably modified for non-evaporating two-phase flow. This specially adapted model is found to give reasonably good predictions of the measured data
Non-equilibrium effects on the two-phase flow critical phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sami, S.M.
1988-01-01
In the present study, the choking criterion for nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two phase flow is obtained by solving the two-fluid model conservation equations. The method of characteristics is employed to predict the critical flow conditions. Critical flow is established after the magnitude of the characteristic slopes (velocities). Critical flow conditions are reached when the smallest characteristic slope becomes equal to zero. Several expression are developed to determine the nonequilibrium mass and heat exchanges in terms of the system dependent parameters derivatives. In addition, comprehensive transition flow regime maps are employed in the calculation of interfacial heat and momentum transfer rates. Numerical results reveal that the proposed model reliably predicts the critical two-phase flow phenomenon under different inlet conditions and compares well with other existing models
2018-01-01
Set III of this encyclopedia is a new addition to the previous Sets I and II. It contains 26 invited chapters from international specialists on the topics of numerical modeling of two-phase flows and evaporation, fundamentals of evaporation and condensation in microchannels and macrochannels, development and testing of micro two-phase cooling systems for electronics, and various special topics (surface wetting effects, microfin tubes, two-phase flow vibration across tube bundles). The chapters are written both by renowned university researchers and by well-known engineers from leading corporate research laboratories. Numerous "must read" chapters cover the fundamentals of research and engineering practice on boiling, condensation and two-phase flows, two-phase heat transfer equipment, electronics cooling systems, case studies and so forth. Set III constitutes a "must have" reference together with Sets I and II for thermal engineering researchers and practitioners.
Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Abbasi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.
Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tube with 90 deg elbow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tselishcheva, E.A.; Antal, St.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Marshall, S.
2007-01-01
The development of modeling and simulation capabilities of two-phase flow and heat transfer is very important for the design, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Whereas a significant progress in this field has been made over the recent years, further advancements are clearly needed for new concepts of advanced (Generation-IV in particular) reactors. Difficulties in analyzing gas/liquid flows are due to the fact that such two-phase mixtures can assume several different flow patterns, each characterized by flow-regime specific interfacial phenomena of mass, momentum and energy transfer. The level of difficulty increases even further in the case of a complex tube geometries and spatial orientations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the analysis of a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with a 90-degree elbow. The overall objective of the present work is the development of a 3-dimensional computational model of a two-phase high-Reynolds number turbulent flow. The overall new model has been encoded in the next-generation Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The model has been tested parametrically and the results of NPHASE calculations have been compared against experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent both physically and numerically, the predictions are in a reasonable agreement with the measurements
Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howarth, S.M.
1993-07-01
The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia's Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93
Investigation on two-phase flow instability in steam generator of integrated nuclear reactor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1996-01-01
In the pressure range of 3-18MPa,high pressure steam-water two-phase flow density wave instability in vertical upward parallel pipes with inner diameter of 12mm is studied experimentally.The oscillation curves of two-phase flow instability and the effects of several parameters on the oscillation threshold of the system are obtained.Based on the small pertubation linearization method and the stability principles of automatic control system,a mathematical model is developed to predict the characteristics of density wave instability threshold.The predictions of the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Two-phase flow stability structure in a natural circulation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Zhiwei [Nuclear Engineering Laboratory Zurich (Switzerland)
1995-09-01
The present study reports a numerical analysis of two-phase flow stability structures in a natural circulation system with two parallel, heated channels. The numerical model is derived, based on the Galerkin moving nodal method. This analysis is related to some design options applicable to integral heating reactors with a slightly-boiling operation mode, and is also of general interest to similar facilities. The options include: (1) Symmetric heating and throttling; (2) Asymmetric heating and symmetric throttling; (3) Asymmetric heating and throttling. The oscillation modes for these variants are discussed. Comparisons with the data from the INET two-phase flow stability experiment have qualitatively validated the present analysis.
Investigation of the propagation characteristics in turbulent dispersed two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sami, S.M.
1980-01-01
The propagation characteristics of turbulent dispersed two-phase flows have been studied experimentally using the Pitot tube associated with a conical hot-film anemometer. It is found that the mixture velocity increases with decreasing volumetric mixing ratio of the air and water. The void fraction distribution shows homogeneity across the test section in the special case of fully developed boundary layer two-phase flow. An expression is obtained which relates the local mixture velocity to the local void fraction, gas and liquid densities, and volumetric gas-liquid ratio
Analysis of two-phase flow induced vibrations in perpendiculary supported U-type piping systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiramatsu, Tsutomu; Komura, Yoshiaki; Ito, Atsushi.
1984-01-01
The perpose of this analysis is to predict the vibration level of a pipe conveying a two-phase flowing fluid. Experiments were carried out with a perpendiculary supported U-type piping system, conveying an air-water two-phase flow in a steady state condition. Fluctuation signals are observed by a void signal sensor, and power spectral densities and probability density functions are obtained from the void signals. Theoretical studies using FEM and an estimation of the exciting forces from the PSD of void signals, provided a good predictional estimation of vibration responses of the piping system. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Schuetz, H.; Pietruske, H.; Lenk, S.
2004-07-01
The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (FZR) e. V. is constructing a new large-scale test facility, TOPFLOW, for thermalhydraulic single effect tests. The acronym stands for transient two phase flow test facility. It will mainly be used for the investigation of generic and applied steady state and transient two phase flow phenomena and the development and validation of models of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes. The manual of the test facility must always be available for the staff in the control room and is restricted condition during operation of personnel and also reconstruction of the facility. (orig./GL)
Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke
2001-01-01
A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)
Raman scattering temperature measurements for water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastasia, C.M.; Neti, S.; Smith, W.R.; Chen, J.C.
1982-09-01
The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using Raman scattering as a nonintrusive technique to measure vapor temperatures in dispersed two-phase flow. The Raman system developed for this investigation is described, including alignment of optics and optimization of the photodetector for photon pulse counting. Experimentally obtained Raman spectra are presented for the following single- and two-phase samples: liquid water, atmospheric nitrogen, superheated steam, nitrogen and water droplets in a high void fraction air/water mist, and superheated water vapor in nonequilibrium dispersed flow
Instrumentation for two-phase flow measurements in code verification experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Arave, A.E.; Deason, V.A.; Lassahn, G.D.; Goodrich, L.D.; Colson, J.B.; Fickas, E.T.
1981-01-01
The development of instrumentation and techniques for the measurement of mass flow rate in two-phase flows conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during the past year is briefly described. Instruments discussed are the modular drag-disc turbine transducer, the gamma densitometers, the ultrasonic densitometer, Pitot tubes, and full-flow drag screens. Steady state air-water and transient steam-water data are presented
Two-phase fluid flow measurements in small diameter channels using real-time neutron radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlisle, B.S.; Johns, R.C.; Hassan, Y.A.
2004-01-01
A series of real-time, neutron radiography, experiments are ongoing at the Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). These tests determine the resolving capabilities for radiographic imaging of two phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter flow channels. Though both film and video radiographic imaging is available, the real-time video imaging was selected to capture the dynamic flow patterns with results that continue to improve. (author)
Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.
2003-07-01
This document gathers the abstracts of the Euromech 421 colloquium about strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows. Behaviors specifically due to the two-phase character of the flow have been categorized as: suspensions, particle-induced agitation, microstructure and screening mechanisms; hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution; turbulence modulation by particles, droplets or bubbles in dense systems; collective effects in dispersed two-phase flows, clustering and phase distribution; large-scale instabilities and gravity driven dispersed flows; strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows or phase change. Topic l: suspensions particle-induced agitation microstructure and screening mechanisms hydrodynamic interactions between two very close spheres; normal stresses in sheared suspensions; a critical look at the rheological experiments of R.A. Bagnold; non-equilibrium particle configuration in sedimentation; unsteady screening of the long-range hydrodynamic interactions of settling particles; computer simulations of hydrodynamic interactions among a large collection of sedimenting poly-disperse particles; velocity fluctuations in a dilute suspension of rigid spheres sedimenting between vertical plates: the role of boundaries; screening and induced-agitation in dilute uniform bubbly flows at small and moderate particle Reynolds numbers: some experimental results. Topic 2: hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution: hydrodynamic interactions in a bubble array; A 'NMR scattering technique' for the determination of the structure in a dispersion of non-brownian settling particles; segregation and clustering during thermo-capillary migration of bubbles; kinetic modelling of bubbly flows; velocity fluctuations in a homogeneous dilute dispersion of high-Reynolds-number rising bubbles; an attempt to simulate screening effects at moderate particle Reynolds numbers using an hybrid formulation; modelling the two-phase
Propagation characteristics of pulverized coal and gas two-phase flow during an outburst.
Zhou, Aitao; Wang, Kai; Fan, Lingpeng; Tao, Bo
2017-01-01
Coal and gas outbursts are dynamic failures that can involve the ejection of thousands tons of pulverized coal, as well as considerable volumes of gas, into a limited working space within a short period. The two-phase flow of gas and pulverized coal that occurs during an outburst can lead to fatalities and destroy underground equipment. This article examines the interaction mechanism between pulverized coal and gas flow. Based on the role of gas expansion energy in the development stage of outbursts, a numerical simulation method is proposed for investigating the propagation characteristics of the two-phase flow. This simulation method was verified by a shock tube experiment involving pulverized coal and gas flow. The experimental and simulated results both demonstrate that the instantaneous ejection of pulverized coal and gas flow can form outburst shock waves. These are attenuated along the propagation direction, and the volume fraction of pulverized coal in the two-phase flow has significant influence on attenuation of the outburst shock wave. As a whole, pulverized coal flow has a negative impact on gas flow, which makes a great loss of large amounts of initial energy, blocking the propagation of gas flow. According to comparison of numerical results for different roadway types, the attenuation effect of T-type roadways is best. In the propagation of shock wave, reflection and diffraction of shock wave interact through the complex roadway types.
Nonlinear analysis of gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow in complex networks
Gao, Zhong-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xu
2014-01-01
Understanding the dynamics of multi-phase flows has been a challenge in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. This chapter reviews our work on two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. We systematically carried out gas-water/oil-water two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals which is studied in terms of the mapping from time series to complex networks. Three network mapping methods were proposed for the analysis and identification of flow patterns, i.e. Flow Pattern Complex Network (FPCN), Fluid Dynamic Complex Network (FDCN) and Fluid Structure Complex Network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN based on K-means clustering, distinct flow patterns can be successfully distinguished and identified. A number of FDCN’s under different flow conditions were constructed in order to reveal the dynamical characteristics of two-phase flows. The FDCNs exhibit universal power-law degree distributions. The power-law exponent ...
Comparison of differential pressure model based on flow regime for gas/liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, F; Zhang, F S; Li, W; Tan, C
2009-01-01
Gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe is very common in many industry processes, because of the complexity and variability, the real-time parameter measurement of two-phase flow, such as the measurement of flow regime and flow rate, becomes a difficult issue in the field of engineering and science. The flow regime recognition plays a fundamental role in gas/liquid two-phase flow measurement, other parameters of two-phase flow can be measured more easily and correctly based on the correct flow regime recognition result. A multi-sensor system is introduced to make the flow regime recognition and the mass flow rate measurement. The fusion system is consisted of temperature sensor, pressure sensor, cross-section information system and v-cone flow meter. After the flow regime recognition by cross-section information system, comparison of four typical differential pressure (DP) models is discussed based on the DP signal of v-cone flow meter. Eventually, an optimum DP model has been chosen for each flow regime. The experiment result of mass flow rate measurement shows it is efficient to classify the DP models by flow regime.
Two-Phase Flow Effect on the Ex-Vessel Corium Debris Bed Formation in Severe Accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Hyun Sun; Ma, Weimin; Bechta, Sevostian V.
2014-01-01
In Korean IVR-ERVC(In-Vessel Retention of molten corium through External Reactor Vessel Cooling) strategy, if the situation degenerates into insufficient external vessel cooling, the molten core mixture can directly erupt into the flooded cavity pool from the weakest point of the vessel. Then, FCI (molten Fuel Coolant Interaction) will fragment the corium jet into small particulates settling down to make porous debris bed on the cavity basemat. To secure the containment integrity against the MCCI (Molten Core - Concrete Interaction), cooling of the heat generating porous corium debris bed is essential and it depends on the characteristics of the bed itself. For the characteristics of corium debris bed, many previous experimental studies with simulant melts reported the heap-like shape mostly. There were also following experiments to develop the correlation for the heap-like shaped debris bed. However, recent studies started to consider the effect of the decay heat and reported some noticeable results with the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation. The Kyushu University and JAEA group reported the experimental studies on the 'self-leveling' effect which is the flattening effect of the particulate bed by the inside gas generation. The DECOSIM simulation study of RIT (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden) with Russian researchers showed the 'large cavity pool convection' effect, which is driven by the up-rising gas bubble flow from the pre-settled debris bed, on the particle settling trajectories and ultimately final bed shape. The objective of this study is verification of the two-phase flow effect on the ex-vessel corium debris bed formation in the severe accident. From the analysis on the test movie and resultant particle beds, the two-phase flow effect on the debris bed formation, which has been reported in the previous studies, was verified and the additional findings were also suggested. For the first, in quiescent pool the
Numerical experimentation on convective coolant flow in Ghana ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Numerical experiments on one dimensional convective coolant flow during steady state operation of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-I) were performed to determine the thermal hydraulic parameters of temperature, density and flow rate. The computational domain was the reactor vessel, including the reactor core.
Two-phase flow phenomena in broken recirculation line of BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Masami; Arai, Kenji; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Amano, Osamu.
1986-01-01
When a primary recirculation line of BWR is ruptured, a primary recirculation pump may be subjected to very high velocity two-phase flow and its speed may be accelerated by this flow. It is important for safety evaluation to estimate the pump behavior during blowdown. There are two problems involved in analyzing this behavior. One problem concerns the pump characteristics under two-phase flow. The other involves the two-phase conditions at the pump inlet. If the rupture occurs at a suction side of the pump, choking is considered to occur at a broken jet pump nozzle. Then, a void fraction becomes larger downstream from the jet pump nozzle and volumetric flow through the pump will be very high. However, there is little experimental data available on two-phase flow downstream from a choking plane. Blowdown tests were performed using a simulated broken recirculation line and measured data were analyzed by TRAC-PlA. Analytical results agreed with measured data. (author)
Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Rough-Walled Fracture Using Level Set Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfeng Dai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To describe accurately the flow characteristic of fracture scale displacements of immiscible fluids, an incompressible two-phase (crude oil and water flow model incorporating interfacial forces and nonzero contact angles is developed. The roughness of the two-dimensional synthetic rough-walled fractures is controlled with different fractal dimension parameters. Described by the Navier–Stokes equations, the moving interface between crude oil and water is tracked using level set method. The method accounts for differences in densities and viscosities of crude oil and water and includes the effect of interfacial force. The wettability of the rough fracture wall is taken into account by defining the contact angle and slip length. The curve of the invasion pressure-water volume fraction is generated by modeling two-phase flow during a sudden drainage. The volume fraction of water restricted in the rough-walled fracture is calculated by integrating the water volume and dividing by the total cavity volume of the fracture while the two-phase flow is quasistatic. The effect of invasion pressure of crude oil, roughness of fracture wall, and wettability of the wall on two-phase flow in rough-walled fracture is evaluated.
Pigging analysis for gas-liquid two phase flow in pipelines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohda, K.; Suzukawa, Y.; Furukawa, H.
1988-01-01
A new method to analyze transient phenomena caused by pigging in gas-liquid two-phase flow is developed. During pigging, a pipeline is divided into three sections by two moving boundaries, namely the pig and the leading edge of the liquid slug in front of the pig. The basic equations are mass, momentum and energy conservation equations. The boundary conditions at the moving boundaries are determined from the mass conservation across the boundaries, etc. A finite difference method is used to solve the equations numerically. The method described above is also capable of analyzing transient two-phase flow caused by pressure and flow rate changes. Thus the over-all analysis of transient two-phase flow in pipelines becomes possible. A series of air-water two-phase flow pigging experiments was conducted using 105.3 mm diameter and 1436.5 m long test pipeline. The agreement between the measured and the calculated results is very good
Void fraction prediction in two-phase flows independent of the liquid phase density changes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazemi, E.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Roshani, G.H.
2014-01-01
Gamma-ray densitometry is a frequently used non-invasive method to determine void fraction in two-phase gas liquid pipe flows. Performance of flow meters using gamma-ray attenuation depends strongly on the fluid properties. Variations of the fluid properties such as density in situations where temperature and pressure fluctuate would cause significant errors in determination of the void fraction in two-phase flows. A conventional solution overcoming such an obstacle is periodical recalibration which is a difficult task. This paper presents a method based on dual modality densitometry using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which offers the advantage of measuring the void fraction independent of the liquid phase changes. An experimental setup was implemented to generate the required input data for training the network. ANNs were trained on the registered counts of the transmission and scattering detectors in different liquid phase densities and void fractions. Void fractions were predicted by ANNs with mean relative error of less than 0.45% in density variations range of 0.735 up to 0.98 gcm −3 . Applying this method would improve the performance of two-phase flow meters and eliminates the necessity of periodical recalibration. - Highlights: • Void fraction was predicted independent of density changes. • Recorded counts of detectors/void fraction were used as inputs/output of ANN. • ANN eliminated necessity of recalibration in changeable density of two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, J; Dong, F; Xu, Y Y
2009-01-01
This paper introduces the fundamental of cross-section measurement system based on Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The measured data of four flow regimes of the gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe flow are obtained by an ERT system. For the measured data, five entropies are extracted to analyze the experimental data according to the different flow regimes, and the analysis method is examined and compared in three different perspectives. The results indicate that three different perspectives of entropy-based feature extraction are sensitive to the flow pattern transition in gas/liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing the results of three different perspectives with the changes of gas/liquid two-phase flow parameters, the dynamic structures of gas/liquid two-phase flow is obtained, and they also provide an efficient supplementary to reveal the flow pattern transition mechanism of gas/liquid two-phase flow. Comparison of the three different methods of feature extraction shows that the appropriate entropy should be used for the identification and prediction of flow regimes.
Ultrafast X-ray tomography for two-phase flow analysis in centrifugal pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Thomas; Hampel, Uwe; Technische Univ. Dresden
2017-01-01
The unsteady behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a centrifugal pump impeller has been visualized, using ultrafast X-ray tomography. Based on the reconstructed tomographic images an evaluation and detailed analysis of the flow conditions has been done. Here, the high temporal resolution of the tomographic images offered the opportunity to get a deep insight into the flow to perform a detailed description of the transient gas-liquid phase distribution inside the impeller. Significant properties of the occurring two-phase flow and characteristic flow patterns have been disclosed. Furthermore, the effects of different air entrainment conditions have been investigated and typical phase distributions inside the impeller have been shown.
Visualization of large waves in churn and annular two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasgupta, Arnab; Chandraker, D.K.; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Kshirasagar, S.; Reddy, B.R.; Walker, S.P.
2015-01-01
The study of churn and annular two-phase flow regimes is important for boiling systems like nuclear reactors, U-tube steam generators etc. In this paper, visualization studies on air-water churn and annular two-phase flow regimes are reported. Though there are differences between air-water and boiling steam water systems, the major flow-pattern characteristics are similar (if not same).The specific object of study is the large waves which exist in both churn and annular regimes. These waves are responsible for majority of the momentum and mass dispersion across the phases. The differentiating characteristics of these waves in the chum and annular flow regimes are reported. The visualization also leads to a more quantitative representation of the transition from churn to annular flow. A new interpretation of the criterion for onset of entrainment is also evolved from the studies. (author)
Superplastic flow of two-phase ceramics containing rigid inclusions-zirconia/mullite composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, C.K.; Chen, I.W.
1990-01-01
A continuum theory for non-newtonian flow of a two-phase composite containing rigid inclusions is presented. It predicts flow suppression by a factor of (1 - V) q , where V is the volume fraction of the rigid inclusion and q depends on the stress exponent and the inclusion shape. Stress concentrations in the rigid inclusion have also been evaluated. As the stress exponent increases, flow suppression is more pronounced even though stress concentration is less severe. To test this theory, superplastic flow of zirconia/mullite composites, in which zirconia is a soft, non-Newtonian super-plastic matrix and mullite is a rigid phase of various size, shape, and amount, is studied. The continuum theory is found to describe the two-phase superplastic flow reasonably well
A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1993-09-01
This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user`s options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author).
A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo
1993-09-01
This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user's options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author)
Modeling and measurement of interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paranjape, Sidharth; Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, Takashi
2010-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling approaches in characterizing interfacial structures in gas-liquid two-phase flow. For the modeling of the interfacial structure characterization, the interfacial area transport equation proposed earlier has been studied to provide a dynamic and mechanistic prediction tool for two-phase flow analysis. A state-of-the-art four-sensor conductivity probe technique has been developed to obtain detailed local interfacial structure information in a wide range of flow regimes spanning from bubbly to churn-turbulent flows. Newly obtained interfacial area data in 8 x 8 rod-bundle test section are also presented. This paper also reviews available models of the interfacial area sink and source terms and existing databases. The interfacial area transport equation has been benchmarked using condensation bubbly flow data.
Ultrafast X-ray tomography for two-phase flow analysis in centrifugal pumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering
2017-07-15
The unsteady behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a centrifugal pump impeller has been visualized, using ultrafast X-ray tomography. Based on the reconstructed tomographic images an evaluation and detailed analysis of the flow conditions has been done. Here, the high temporal resolution of the tomographic images offered the opportunity to get a deep insight into the flow to perform a detailed description of the transient gas-liquid phase distribution inside the impeller. Significant properties of the occurring two-phase flow and characteristic flow patterns have been disclosed. Furthermore, the effects of different air entrainment conditions have been investigated and typical phase distributions inside the impeller have been shown.
Two-phase flow in the cooling circuit of a cryogenic rocket engine
Preclik, D.
1992-07-01
Transient two-phase flow was investigated for the hydrogen cooling circuit of the HM7 rocket engine. The nuclear reactor code ATHLET/THESEUS was adapted to cryogenics and applied to both principal and prototype experiments for validation and simulation purposes. The cooling circuit two-phase flow simulation focused on the hydrogen prechilling and pump transient phase prior to ignition. Both a single- and a multichannel model were designed and employed for a valve leakage flow, a nominal prechilling flow, and a prechilling with a subsequent pump-transient flow. The latter case was performed in order to evaluate the difference between a nominal and a delayed turbo-pump start-up. It was found that an extension of the nominal prechilling sequence in the order of 1 second is sufficient to finally provide for liquid injection conditions of hydrogen which, as commonly known, is undesirable for smooth ignition and engine starting transients.
Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi
2015-01-01
The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q.
1995-01-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships
High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.
1995-01-01
The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1995-09-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.
Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.
2003-01-01
Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions
Contribution to the study of helium two-phase vertical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augyrond, L.
1998-04-01
This work aims at a better understanding of the dynamics of helium two-phase flow in a vertical duct. The case of bubble flow is particularly investigated. The most descriptive parameter of two-phase flow is the void fraction. A sensor to measure this parameter was specially designed and calibrated, it is made of a radioactive source and a semiconductor detector. Sensors based on light attenuation were used to study the behaviour of this two-phase flow. The experimental set-up is described. The different flow types were photographed and video filmed. This visualization has allowed to measure the diameter of bubbles and to study their movements in the fluid. Bubble flow then churn and annular flows were observed but slug flow seems not to exist with helium. A modelling based on a Zuber model matches better the experimental results than a Levy type model. The detailed analysis of the signals given by the optical sensors has allowed to highlight a bubble appearance frequency directly linked to the flowrate. (A.C.)
Flow-pattern identification and nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in complex networks.
Gao, Zhongke; Jin, Ningde
2009-06-01
The identification of flow pattern is a basic and important issue in multiphase systems. Because of the complexity of phase interaction in gas-liquid two-phase flow, it is difficult to discern its flow pattern objectively. In this paper, we make a systematic study on the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow using complex network. Three unique network construction methods are proposed to build three types of networks, i.e., flow pattern complex network (FPCN), fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN), and fluid structure complex network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K -mean clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying five vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, we construct 50 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Furthermore, we construct FSCN and demonstrate how network statistic can be used to reveal the fluid structure of gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this paper, from a different perspective, we not only introduce complex network theory to the study of gas-liquid two-phase flow but also indicate that complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice.
Analysis of steady state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, T.J.
1983-01-01
A study of steady-state and transient two-phase flows in downwardly inclined lines is described. Steady-state flow patterns maps are presented using Freon-113 as the working fluid to provide new high density vapors. These flow maps with high density vapor serve to significantly extend the investigations of steady-state downward two-phase flow patterns. Physical models developed which successfully predicted the onset or location of various flow pattern transitions. A new simplified criterion that would be useful to designers and experimenters is offered for the onset of dispersed flow. A new empirical holdup correlation and a new bubble diameter/flow rate correlation are also proposed. Flow transients in vertical downward lines were studied to investigate the possible formation of intermediate or spurious flow patterns that would not be seen at steady-state conditions. Void fraction behavior during the transients was modeled by using the dynamic slip equation from the transient analysis code RETRAN. Physical models of interfacial area were developed and compared with models and data from literature. There was satisfactory agreement between the models of the present study and the literature models and data. The concentration parameter of the drift flux model was evaluated for vertical downward flow. These new values of the flow dependent parameter were different from those previously proposed in the literature for use in upward flows, and made the drift flux model suitable for use in upward or downward flow lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, X.; Schlegel, J.P.; Liu, Y.; Paranjape, S.; Hibiki, T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, M., E-mail: ishii@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)
2012-04-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grid spacers have a significant but not well understood effect on flow behavior and development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different length scales are present in rod bundles, which must be accounted for in modeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-to-implement empirical model has been developed for the two-phase friction multiplier. - Abstract: The behavior of reactor systems is predicted using advanced computational codes in order to determine the safety characteristics of the system during various accidents and to determine the performance characteristics of the reactor. These codes generally utilize the two-fluid model for predictions of two-phase flows, as this model is the most accurate and detailed model which is currently practical for predicting large-scale systems. One of the weaknesses of this approach however is the need to develop constitutive models for various quantities. Of specific interest are the models used in the prediction of void fraction and pressure drop across the rod bundle due to their importance in new Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor (NCBWR) designs, where these quantities determine the coolant flow rate through the core. To verify the performance of these models and expand the existing experimental database, data has been collected in an 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 rod bundle which is carefully scaled from actual BWR geometry and includes grid spacers to maintain rod spacing. While these spacer grids are 'generic', their inclusion does provide valuable data for analysis of the effect of grid spacers on the flow. In addition to pressure drop measurements the area-averaged void fraction has been measured by impedance void meters and local conductivity probes have been used to measure the local void fraction and interfacial area concentration in the bundle subchannels. Experimental conditions covered a wide range of flow rates and void fractions up to 80%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Keller, Eric; Talley, Justin; Srivastav, Abhishek; Ray, Asok; Kim, Seungjin
2009-01-01
This communication introduces a non-intrusive method for void fraction measurement and identification of two-phase flow regimes, based on ultrasonic sensing. The underlying algorithm is built upon the recently reported theory of a statistical pattern recognition method called symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF). The results of experimental validation, generated on a laboratory test apparatus, show a one-to-one correspondence between the flow measure derived from SDF and the void fraction measured by a conductivity probe. A sharp change in the slope of flow measure is found to be in agreement with a transition from fully bubbly flow to cap-bubbly flow. (rapid communication)
Prediction of pressure drop and CCFL breakdown in countercurrent two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ostrogorsky, A.G.; Gay, R.R.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.
1983-01-01
A steady-state analytical has been developed to predict channel pressure drop as a function of inlet vapor flow rate and applied heat flux during conditions of countercurrent two-phase flow. The interfacial constitutive relations utilized are flow surface dependent and allow for the existence of either smooth or way liquid films. A computer code was developed to solve the analytical model. Predictions of Δp versus vapor flow rate were found to agree favorably with experimental data from adiabatic, air/water systems. In addition, the model was used to predict countercurrent flow conditions in heated channels characteristic of a BWR/4 nuclear reactor fuel assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaver, Dillon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tentner, Adrian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-09-30
The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy charges participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with the development of advanced modeling and simulation capabilities that can be used to address design, performance and safety challenges in the development and deployment of advanced reactor technology. The NEAMS has established a high impact problem (HIP) team to demonstrate the applicability of these tools to identification and mitigation of sources of steam generator flow induced vibration (SGFIV). The SGFIV HIP team is working to evaluate vibration sources in an advanced helical coil steam generator using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the turbulent primary coolant flow over the outside of the tubes and CFD simulations of the turbulent multiphase boiling secondary coolant flow inside the tubes integrated with high resolution finite element method assessments of the tubes and their associated structural supports. This report summarizes the demonstration of a methodology for the multiphase boiling flow analysis inside the helical coil steam generator tube. A helical coil steam generator configuration has been defined based on the experiments completed by Polytecnico di Milano in the SIET helical coil steam generator tube facility. Simulations of the defined problem have been completed using the Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modeling capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. Simulations suggest that the two phases will quickly stratify in the slightly inclined pipe of the helical coil steam generator. These results have been successfully benchmarked against both empirical correlations for pressure drop and simulations using an alternate CFD methodology, the dispersed phase mixture modeling capabilities of the open source CFD code Nek5000.
Investigation of the mixture flow rates of oil-water two-phase flow using the turbine flow meter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Donghui; Feng Feifei; Wu Yingxiang; Xu Jingyu
2009-01-01
In this work, the mixture flow rate of oil-water flows was studied using the turbine flow-meter. The research emphasis focuses on the effect of oil viscosity and input fluids flow rates on the precision of the meter. Experiments were conducted to measure the in-situ mixture flow rate in a horizontal pipe with 0.05m diameter using seven different viscosities of white oil and tap water as liquid phases. Results showed that both oil viscosity and input oil fraction exert a remarkable effect on measured results, especially when the viscosity of oil phase remained in the area of high value. In addition, for metering mixture flow rate using turbine flow-meter, the results are not sensitive to two-phase flow pattern according to the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.; Spasojevic, D.
1993-01-01
The paper presents results of the experimental and theoretical analyses of linear and nonlinear characteristics of adiabatic two-phase water-air flow in vertical parallel channels. Regime character changes and linear to nonlinear dynamic characteristics transfer conditions were defined. (author)
Dynamic simulation of dispersed gas-liquid two-phase flow using a discrete bubble model.
Delnoij, E.; Lammers, F.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria
1997-01-01
In this paper a detailed hydrodynamic model for gas-liquid two-phase flow will be presented. The model is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and describes the time-dependent two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a bubble column operating in the homogeneous regime. The
Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media at different scales
Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.
2011-01-01
A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two?phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments
Nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media at different scales
Bottero, S.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Heimovaara, T.J.
2011-01-01
A series of primary drainage experiments was carried out in order to investigate nonequilibrium capillarity effects in two-phase flow through porous media. Experiments were performed with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and water as immiscible fluids in a sand column 21 cm long. Four drainage experiments
Numerically induced pressure excursions in two-phase-flow calculations. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.
1983-01-01
Pressure spikes that cannot be traced to any physical origin sometimes are observed when standard Eulerian finite-difference methods are used to calculate two-phase-flow transients. This problem occurs with varying frequency in nuclear reactor safety codes such as RELAP, RETRAN, COBRA, and TRAC. These spikes usually result from numerical water packing or from interactions between spatial discretization and heat transfer
The development of two-phase flow instrumentation at PNC O-arai Engineering Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obata, T.; Kobori, T.; Hayamizu, Y.
1975-10-01
This paper reviews development works on the two-phase flow instrumentation carried out at PNC Oarai Engineering Center for FUGEN safety test. The paper describes heater surface temperature measurement, four types of void meters and two steam quality meters. (auth.)
Strong enhancement of straeming current power by application of two phase flow
Xie, Yanbo; Sherwood, John D.; Shui, Lingling; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.
2011-01-01
We show that the performance of a streaming-potential based microfluidic energy conversion system can be strongly enhanced by the use of two phase flow. Injection of gas bubbles into a liquid-filled channel increases both the maximum output power and the energy conversion efficiency. In single-phase
Cahn-Hilliard modeling of particles suspended in two-phase flows
Choi, Y.J.; Anderson, P.D.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a model for the dynamics of particles suspended in two-phase flows by coupling the CahnHilliard theory with the extended finite element method (XFEM). In the CahnHilliard model the interface is considered to have a small but finite thickness, which circumvents explicit
Scaling of two-phase flow transients using reduced pressure system and simulant fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Ishii, M.
1987-01-01
Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single-phase flow conditions are derived. Based on these criteria, practical applications for designing a scaled-down model are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on scaling a test model at reduced pressure levels compared to a prototype and on fluid-to-fluid scaling. The large number of similarty groups which are to be matched between modell and prototype makes the design of a scale model a challenging tasks. The present study demonstrates a new approach to this clasical problen using two-phase flow scaling parameters. It indicates that a real time scaling is not a practical solution and a scaled-down model should have an accelerated (shortened) time scale. An important result is the proposed new scaling methodology for simulating pressure transients. It is obtained by considerung the changes of the fluid property groups which appear within the two-phase similarity parameters and the single-phase to two-phase flow transition prameters. Sample calculations are performed for modeling two-phase flow transients of a high pressure water system by a low-pressure water system or a Freon system. It is shown that modeling is possible for both cases for simulation pressure transients. However, simulation of phase change transitions is not possible by a reduced pressure water system without distortion in either power or time. (orig.)
Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
A general diffuse interface model with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state) is proposed to describe the multi-component two-phase fluid flow based on the principles of the NVT-based framework which is an attractive
Quasistatic analysis on configuration of two-phase flow in Y-shaped tubes
Zhong, Hua; Wang, Xiaoping; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2014-01-01
We investigate the two-phase flow in a horizontally placed Y-shaped tube with different Young's angle and width in each branch. By using a quasistatic approach, we can determine the specific contact position and the equilibrium contact angle
Adaptive moving grid methods for two-phase flow in porous media
Dong, Hao; Qiao, Zhonghua; Sun, Shuyu; Tang, Tao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present an application of the moving mesh method for approximating numerical solutions of the two-phase flow model in porous media. The numerical schemes combine a mixed finite element method and a finite volume method, which can
Electric capacitance tomography and two-phase flow for the nuclear reactor safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jae Young
2008-01-01
Recently electric capacitance tomography has been developed to be used in the analysis of two-phase flow. Although its electric field is not focused as the hard ray tomography such as the X-ray or gamma ray, its convenience of easy access to the system and easy maintenance due to no requirement of radiation shielding benefits us in its application in the two-phase flow study, one of important area in the nuclear safety analysis. In the present paper, the practical technologies in the electric capacitance tomography are represented in both parts of hardware and software. In the software part, both forward problem and inverse problem are discussed and the method of regularization. In the hardware part, the brief discussion of the electronics circuits is made which provides femto farad resolution with a reasonable speed (150 frame/sec for 16 electrodes). Some representative ideal cases are studied to demonstrate its potential capability for the two-phase flow analysis. Also, some variations of the tomography such as axial tomography, and three dimensional tomography are discussed. It was found that the present ECT is expected to become a useful tool to understand the complicated three dimensional two-phase flow which may be an important feature to be equipped by the safety analysis codes. (author)
Comparison of Two-Phase Pipe Flow in OpenFOAM with a Mechanistic Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuard, Adrian M; Mahmud, Hisham B; King, Andrew J
2016-01-01
Two-phase pipe flow is a common occurrence in many industrial applications such as power generation and oil and gas transportation. Accurate prediction of liquid holdup and pressure drop is of vast importance to ensure effective design and operation of fluid transport systems. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of a two-phase flow of air and water is performed using OpenFOAM. The two-phase solver, interFoam is used to identify flow patterns and generate values of liquid holdup and pressure drop, which are compared to results obtained from a two-phase mechanistic model developed by Petalas and Aziz (2002). A total of 60 simulations have been performed at three separate pipe inclinations of 0°, +10° and -10° respectively. A three dimensional, 0.052m diameter pipe of 4m length is used with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k - ω turbulence model to solve the turbulent mixtures of air and water. Results show that the flow pattern behaviour and numerical values of liquid holdup and pressure drop compare reasonably well to the mechanistic model. (paper)
Comparison of Two-Phase Pipe Flow in OpenFOAM with a Mechanistic Model
Shuard, Adrian M.; Mahmud, Hisham B.; King, Andrew J.
2016-03-01
Two-phase pipe flow is a common occurrence in many industrial applications such as power generation and oil and gas transportation. Accurate prediction of liquid holdup and pressure drop is of vast importance to ensure effective design and operation of fluid transport systems. In this paper, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study of a two-phase flow of air and water is performed using OpenFOAM. The two-phase solver, interFoam is used to identify flow patterns and generate values of liquid holdup and pressure drop, which are compared to results obtained from a two-phase mechanistic model developed by Petalas and Aziz (2002). A total of 60 simulations have been performed at three separate pipe inclinations of 0°, +10° and -10° respectively. A three dimensional, 0.052m diameter pipe of 4m length is used with the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k - ɷ turbulence model to solve the turbulent mixtures of air and water. Results show that the flow pattern behaviour and numerical values of liquid holdup and pressure drop compare reasonably well to the mechanistic model.
2018-01-01
Set IV is a new addition to the previous Sets I, II and III. It contains 23 invited chapters from international specialists on the topics of numerical modeling of pulsating heat pipes and of slug flows with evaporation; lattice Boltzmann modeling of pool boiling; fundamentals of boiling in microchannels and microfin tubes, CO2 and nanofluids; testing and modeling of micro-two-phase cooling systems for electronics; and various special topics (flow separation in microfluidics, two-phase sensors, wetting of anisotropic surfaces, ultra-compact heat exchangers, etc.). The invited authors are leading university researchers and well-known engineers from leading corporate research laboratories (ABB, IBM, Nokia Bell Labs). Numerous "must read" chapters are also included here for the two-phase community. Set IV constitutes a "must have" engineering and research reference together with previous Sets I, II and III for thermal engineering researchers and practitioners.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, T.; Furuya, M.; Kanai, T.; Shirakawa, K.
2011-01-01
An accurate subchannel database is crucial for modeling the multidimensional two-phase flow in a rod bundle and for validating subchannel analysis codes. Based on available reference, it can be said that a point-measurement sensor for acquiring void fractions and bubble velocity distributions do not infer interactions of the subchannel flow dynamics, such as a cross flow and flow distribution, etc. In order to acquire multidimensional two-phase flow in a 10×10 rod bundle with an o.d. of 10 mm and 3110 mm length, a new sensor consisting of 11-wire by 11-wire and 10-rod by 10-rod electrodes was developed. Electric potential in the proximity region between two wires creates a void fraction in the center subchannel region, like a so-called wire mesh sensor. A unique aspect of the devised sensor is that the void fraction near the rod surface can be estimated from the electric potential in the proximity region between one wire and one rod. The additional 400 points of void fraction and phasic velocity in 10×10 bundle can therefore be acquired. The devised sensor exhibits the quasi three-dimensional flow structures, i.e. void fraction, phasic velocity and bubble chord length distributions. These quasi three-dimensional structures exhibit the complexity of two-phase flow dynamics, such as coalescence and the breakup of bubbles in transient phasic velocity distributions. (author)
Self-organizing maps applied to two-phase flow on natural circulation loop study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Leonardo Ferreira
2016-01-01
Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is found in many closed circuits using natural circulation for cooling purposes. Natural circulation phenomenon is important on recent nuclear power plant projects for decay heat removal. The Natural Circulation Facility (Circuito de Circulacao Natural CCN) installed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, is an experimental circuit designed to provide thermal hydraulic data related to single and two-phase flow under natural circulation conditions. This periodic flow oscillation behavior can be observed thoroughly in this facility due its glass-made tubes transparency. The heat transfer estimation has been improved based on models that require precise prediction of pattern transitions of flow. This work presents experiments realized at CCN to visualize natural circulation cycles in order to classify two-phase flow patterns associated with phase transients and static instabilities of flow. Images are compared and clustered using Kohonen Self-organizing Maps (SOM's) applied on different digital image features. The Full Frame Discret Cosine Transform (FFDCT) coefficients were used as input for the classification task, enabling good results. FFDCT prototypes obtained can be associated to each flow pattern, enabling a better comprehension of each observed instability. A systematic test methodology was used to verify classifier robustness.
Possible effects of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones
Goto, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Aichi, M.
2016-12-01
To investigate the influence of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones, laboratory experiments were conducted. In the experiment, air was injected from the bottom of the water-saturated Quaternary Umegase mudstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were monitored during the experiment. Numerical simulation of the experiment was tried by using a simulator which can solve coupled two-phase flow and poroelastic deformation assuming the extended-Darcian flow with relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of the wetting-phase fluid saturation. In the numerical simulation, the volumetric discharge of water was reproduced well while both strains were not. Three dimensionless numbers, i.e., the viscosity ratio, the Capillary number, and the Bond number, which characterize the two-phase flow pattern (Lenormand et al., 1988; Ewing and Berkowitz, 1998) were calculated to be 2×10-2, 2×10-11, and 7×10-11, respectively, in the experiment. Because the Bond number was quite small, it was possible to apply Lenormand et al. (1988)'s diagram to evaluate the flow regime, and the flow regime was considered to be capillary fingering. While, in the numerical simulation, air moved uniformly upward with quite low non-wetting phase saturation conditions because the fluid flow obeyed the two-phase Darcy's law. These different displacement patterns developed in the experiment and assumed in the numerical simulation were considered to be the reason why the deformation behavior observed in the experiment could not be reproduced by numerical simulation, suggesting that the two-phase flow pattern could affect the changes of internal fluid pressure patterns during displacement processes. For further studies, quantitative analysis of the experimental results by using a numerical simulator which can solve the coupled
Numerical approach of multi-field two-phase flow models in the OVAP code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anela Kumbaro
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: A significant progress has been made in modeling the complexity of vapor-liquid two-phase flow. Different three-dimensional models exist in order to simulate the evolution of parameters which characterize a two-phase model. These models can be classified into various groups depending on the inter-field coupling. A hierarchy of increasing physical complexity can be defined. The simplest group corresponds to the homogeneous mixture models where no interactions are taken into account. Another group is constituted by the two-fluid models employing physically important interfacial forces between two-phases, liquid, and water. The last group is multi-field modeling where inter-field couplings can be taken into account at different degrees, such as the MUltiple Size Group modeling [2], the consideration of separate equations for the transport and generation of mass and momentum for each field under the assumption of the same energy for all the fields of the same phase, and a full multi-field two-phase model [1]. The numerical approach of the general three-dimensional two-phase flow is by complexity of the phenomena a very challenging task; the ideal numerical method should be at the same time simple in order to apply to any model, from equilibrium to multi-field model and conservative in order to respect the fundamental conservation physical laws. The approximate Riemann solvers have the good properties of conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance and have been extended successfully to two-fluid models [3]- [5]. But, the up-winding of the flux is based on the Eigen-decomposition of the two-phase flow model and the computation of the Eigen-structure of a multi-field model can be a high cost procedure. Our contribution will present a short review of the above two-phase models, and show numerical results obtained for some of them with an approximate Riemann solver and with lower-complexity alternative numerical methods that do not
Hydrodynamics of single- and two-phase flow in inclined rod arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todreas, N.E.
1984-01-01
Required inputs for thermal-hydraulic codes are constitutive relations for fluid-solid flow resistance, in single-phase flow, and interfacial momentum exchange (relative phase motion), in two-phase flow. An inclined rod array air-water experiment was constructed to study the hydrodynamics of multidimensional porous medium flow in rod arrays. Velocities, pressures, bubble distributions, and void fractions were measured in inline and rotational square rod arrays of P/d = 1.5, at 0, 30, 45, and 90 degree inclinations to the vertical flow direction. Constitutive models for single-phase flow resistance are reviewed, new comprehensive models developed, and an assessment with previously published and new data made. The principle of superimposing one-dimensional correlations proves successful for turbulent single-phase inclined flow. For bubbly two-phase yawed flow through incline rod arrays a new flow separation phenomena was observed and modeled. Bubbles of diameters significantly smaller than the rod diameter travel along the rod axis, while larger diameter bubbles move through the rod array gaps. The outcome is a flow separation not predictable with current interfacial momentum exchange models. This phenomenon was not observed in rotated square rod arrays. Current interfacial momentum exchange models were confirmed for this rod arrangement. Models for the two phase flow resistance multiplier for cross flow were reviewed and compared with data from cross and yawed flow rod arrays. Both drag and lift components of the multiplier were well predicted by the homogenous model. Other models reviewed overpredicted the data by a factor of two
Two-phase upward air water flow in a prismatic channel with rectangular base
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de
1984-01-01
Two-phase liquid-gas mixtures provide suitable means to simulate water-water vapor flows, which may occur in nuclear reactor cores. The mastery of physical transport phenomena is of great importance, as far as the analysis of such thermal systems is concerned. Within the framework of thermal-hydraulic programs, experiments have been carried out to investigate the two-phase upward air-water flow structure, in a rectangular test section, by using independent measuring techniques, which comprise direct viewing and photography, electrical probes and gamma-ray attenuation. In this paper, flow pattern maps and correlations for flow pattern transitions, void fraction profiles, liquid film thickness and superficial average void fraction are proposed and compared to available data. (Author) [pt
Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Porous Media: The Mesocopic Maxwell–Stefan Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander
2015-01-01
We develop an approach to coupling between viscous flows of the two phases in porous media, based on the Maxwell–Stefan formalism. Two versions of the formalism are presented: the general form, and the form based on the interaction of the flowing phases with the interface between them. The last...... of mixing” between the flowing phases. Comparison to the available experimental data on the steady-state two-phase relative permeabilities is presented....... approach is supported by the description of the flow on the mesoscopic level, as coupled boundary problems for the Brinkmann or Stokes equations. It becomes possible, in some simplifying geometric assumptions, to derive exact expressions for the phenomenological coefficients in the Maxwell–Stefan transport...
Synchrotron 4-dimensional imaging of two-phase flow through porous media.
Kim, F H; Penumadu, D; Patel, P; Xiao, X; Garboczi, E J; Moylan, S P; Donmez, M A
2016-01-01
Near real-time visualization of complex two-phase flow in a porous medium was demonstrated with dynamic 4-dimensional (4D) (3D + time) imaging at the 2-BM beam line of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Advancing fluid fronts through tortuous flow paths and their interactions with sand grains were clearly captured, and formations of air bubbles and capillary bridges were visualized. The intense X-ray photon flux of the synchrotron facility made 4D imaging possible, capturing the dynamic evolution of both solid and fluid phases. Computed Tomography (CT) scans were collected every 12 s with a pixel size of 3.25 µm. The experiment was carried out to improve understanding of the physics associated with two-phase flow. The results provide a source of validation data for numerical simulation codes such as Lattice-Boltzmann, which are used to model multi-phase flow through porous media.
Pressure drop of magnetohydrodynamic two-phase annular flow in rectangular channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Fujiwara, Yoshiki; Ogita, Kenji
1999-01-01
Numerical calculations have been performed on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) two-phase annular flow in a rectangular channel with a small aspect ratio, i.e.a small ratio of the channel side perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and the side parallel to the field. Results of the present calculation agree nearly with Inoue et al.'s experimental results in the region of large liquid Reynolds numbers and large Hartmann numbers. Calculation results also show that the pressure drop ratio, i.e. the ratio of pressure drop of two-phase flow to that of single-phase flow under the same liquid flow rate and applied magnetic field, becomes lower than ∼0.02 for conditions of a fusion reactor plant. (author)
Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fincke, J.R.
1982-01-01
The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow
Analyses of Decrease in Reactor Coolant Flow Rate in SMART
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, Suhn
2011-01-01
SMART is a small integral reactor, which is under development at KAERI to get the standard design approval by the end of 2011. SMART works like a pressurized light-water reactor in principle though it is more compact than large commercial reactors. SMART houses major components such as steam generators, a pressurizer, and reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. Due to its compact design, SMART adopts a canned-motor type reactor coolant pump which has much smaller rotational inertia than the ones used in commercial reactors. As a consequence, the reactor coolant pump has very short coastdown time and reactor coolant flow rate decreases more severely compared to commercial reactors. The transients initiated by reduction of reactor coolant flow rate have been analyzed to ensure that SMART can be safely shutdown on such transients. The design basis events in this category are complete loss of flow, single pump locked rotor with loss of offsite power, and single pump shaft break with loss of offsite power
Damping and fluidelastic instability in two-phase cross-flow heat exchanger tube arrays
Moran, Joaquin E.
An experimental study was conducted to investigate damping and fluidelastic instability in tube arrays subjected to two-phase cross-flow. The purpose of this research was to improve our understanding of these phenomena and how they are affected by void fraction and flow regime. The model tube bundle had 10 cantilevered tubes in a parallel-triangular configuration, with a pitch ratio of 1.49. The two-phase flow loop used in this research utilized Refrigerant 11 as the working fluid, which better models steam-water than air-water mixtures in terms of vapour-liquid mass ratio as well as permitting phase changes due to pressure fluctuations. The void fraction was measured using a gamma densitometer, introducing an improvement over the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) in terms of void fraction, density and velocity predictions. Three different damping measurement methodologies were implemented and compared in order to obtain a more reliable damping estimate. The methods were the traditionally used half-power bandwidth, the logarithmic decrement and an exponential fitting to the tube decay response. The decay trace was obtained by "plucking" the monitored tube from outside the test section using a novel technique, in which a pair of electromagnets changed their polarity at the natural frequency of the tube to produce resonance. The experiments showed that the half-power bandwidth produces higher damping values than the other two methods. The primary difference between the methods is caused by tube frequency shifting, triggered by fluctuations in the added mass and coupling between the tubes, which depend on void fraction and flow regime. The exponential fitting proved to be the more consistent and reliable approach to estimating damping. In order to examine the relationship between the damping ratio and mass flux, the former was plotted as a function of void fraction and pitch mass flux in an iso-contour plot. The results showed that damping is not independent of mass
Measurement of thickness of thin water film in two-phase flow by capacitance method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, R.K.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B.
1981-09-01
A technique has been developed for measuring water film thickness in a two-phase annular flow system by the capacitance method. An experimental model of the flow system with two types of electrodes mounted on the inner wall of a cylindrical tube has been constructed and evaluated. The apparatus and its ability to observe fluctuations and wave motions of the water film passing over the electrodes is described in some detail
Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warde, H.; Marzouk, E.; Ibrahim, S.
1989-01-01
The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow with front-capturing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzanos, C.P.; Weber, D.P.
2000-01-01
Because of the complexity of two-phase flow phenomena, two-phase flow codes rely heavily on empirical correlations. This approach has a number of serious shortcomings. Advances in parallel computing and continuing improvements in computer speed and memory have stimulated the development of numerical simulation tools that rely less on empirical correlations and more on fundamental physics. The objective of this work is to take advantage of developments in massively parallel computing, single-phase computational fluid dynamics of complex systems, and numerical methods for front capturing in two-phase flows to develop a computer code for direct numerical simulation of two-phase flow. This includes bubble/droplet transport, interface deformation and topology change, bubble-droplet interactions, interface mass, momentum, and energy transfer. In this work, the Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved by treating both phases as a single fluid with interfaces between the two phases, and a discontinuity in material properties across the moving interfaces. The evolution of the interfaces is simulated by using the front capturing technique of the level-set methods. In these methods, the boundary of a two-fluid interface is modeled as the zero level set of a smooth function φ. The level-set function φ is defined as the signed distance from the interface (φ is negative inside a droplet/bubble and positive outside). Compared to other front-capturing or front-tracking methods, the level-set approach is relatively easy to implement even in three-dimensional flows, and it has been shown to simulate well the coalescence and breakup of droplets/bubbles
An algebraic stress/flux model for two-phase turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, R.
1995-12-01
An algebraic stress model (ASM) for turbulent Reynolds stress and a flux model for turbulent heat flux are proposed for two-phase bubbly and slug flows. These mathematical models are derived from the two-phase transport equations for Reynolds stress and turbulent heat flux, and provide C μ , a turbulent constant which defines the level of eddy viscosity, as a function of the interfacial terms. These models also include the effect of heat transfer. When the interfacial drag terms and the interfacial momentum transfer terms are absent, the model reduces to a single-phase model used in the literature
Electrical Capacitance Probe Characterization in Vertical Annular Two-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grazia Monni
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental analysis and the characterization of an electrical capacitance probe (ECP that has been developed at the SIET Italian Company, for the measurement of two-phase flow parameters during the experimental simulation of nuclear accidents, as LOCA. The ECP is used to investigate a vertical air/water flow, characterized by void fraction higher than 95%, with mass flow rates ranging from 0.094 to 0.15 kg/s for air and from 0.002 to 0.021 kg/s for water, corresponding to an annular flow pattern. From the ECP signals, the electrode shape functions (i.e., the signals as a function of electrode distances in single- and two-phase flows are obtained. The dependence of the signal on the void fraction is derived and the liquid film thickness and the phase’s velocity are evaluated by means of rather simple models. The experimental analysis allows one to characterize the ECP, showing the advantages and the drawbacks of this technique for the two-phase flow characterization at high void fraction.
Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.
Generalized network modeling of capillary-dominated two-phase flow.
Raeini, Ali Q; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J
2018-02-01
We present a generalized network model for simulating capillary-dominated two-phase flow through porous media at the pore scale. Three-dimensional images of the pore space are discretized using a generalized network-described in a companion paper [A. Q. Raeini, B. Bijeljic, and M. J. Blunt, Phys. Rev. E 96, 013312 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.96.013312]-which comprises pores that are divided into smaller elements called half-throats and subsequently into corners. Half-throats define the connectivity of the network at the coarsest level, connecting each pore to half-throats of its neighboring pores from their narrower ends, while corners define the connectivity of pore crevices. The corners are discretized at different levels for accurate calculation of entry pressures, fluid volumes, and flow conductivities that are obtained using direct simulation of flow on the underlying image. This paper discusses the two-phase flow model that is used to compute the averaged flow properties of the generalized network, including relative permeability and capillary pressure. We validate the model using direct finite-volume two-phase flow simulations on synthetic geometries, and then present a comparison of the model predictions with a conventional pore-network model and experimental measurements of relative permeability in the literature.
Two-phase flow degradation on Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 2 RCIC turbine performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez, Hector; Erkan, Nejdet; Okamoto, Koji
2016-01-01
After the Fukushima accident, several investigation reports, including experiments and simulations have been done for each of the affected units to completely understand the accident progression and use their results to improve the knowledge of severe accident management and the severe codes performance. In Unit 2, the major uncertainties are related with the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system performance during the accident progression especially focused in the RCIC turbine, which is assumed to work in two-phase flow. The main objective of this study is to analyze the RCIC turbine performance under two-phase flow scenarios under the assumption that the power produced by the turbine is lower than expected due to the liquid phase in the flow. A degradation coefficient quantifying the turbine power reduction is developed as a function of the flow quality by using the sonic speed reduction at critical flow conditions principle obtained by applying the non-homogeneous equilibrium model (NHEM). The degradation coefficient was applied to RELAP/ScdapSIM severe accident code showing a drastic reduction of the turbine-generated power during two-phase flow and obtaining a RCIC system behavior closer to the Tokyo electric power company (TEPCO) investigation report conclusions. (author)
Generalized network modeling of capillary-dominated two-phase flow
Raeini, Ali Q.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.
2018-02-01
We present a generalized network model for simulating capillary-dominated two-phase flow through porous media at the pore scale. Three-dimensional images of the pore space are discretized using a generalized network—described in a companion paper [A. Q. Raeini, B. Bijeljic, and M. J. Blunt, Phys. Rev. E 96, 013312 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.013312]—which comprises pores that are divided into smaller elements called half-throats and subsequently into corners. Half-throats define the connectivity of the network at the coarsest level, connecting each pore to half-throats of its neighboring pores from their narrower ends, while corners define the connectivity of pore crevices. The corners are discretized at different levels for accurate calculation of entry pressures, fluid volumes, and flow conductivities that are obtained using direct simulation of flow on the underlying image. This paper discusses the two-phase flow model that is used to compute the averaged flow properties of the generalized network, including relative permeability and capillary pressure. We validate the model using direct finite-volume two-phase flow simulations on synthetic geometries, and then present a comparison of the model predictions with a conventional pore-network model and experimental measurements of relative permeability in the literature.
Two-phase flow dynamics in a model steam generator under vertical acceleration oscillation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishida, T.; Teshima, N.; Sakurai, S.
1992-01-01
The influence of periodically varying acceleration on hydrodynamic response has been studied experimentally using an experimental rig which models a marine reactor subject to vertical motion. The effect on the primary loop is small, but the effect on the secondary loop is large. The variables of the secondary loop, such as circulation flow rate and water level, oscillate with acceleration. The variation of gains in frequency response is analysed. The variations of flow in the secondary loop and in the downcome water level, increase in proportion to the acceleration. The effect of the flow resistance in the secondary loop on the two-phase flow dynamics is clarified. (7 figures) (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Huiping; Wu Hongtao; Ba Changxi; Yan Xiaoming; Huang Suyi
1995-12-01
In view of the need to determine void fraction and flow regime of vapor-liquid two-phase flow in the steam generator test model, domestic made optical probe was applied on a small-scale freon two-phase flow test rig. Optical probe signals were collected at a sampling rate up to 500 Hz and converted into digital form. Both the time signal, and the amplitude probability density function and FFT spectrum function calculated thereof were analysed in the time and frequency domains respectively. The threshold characterizing vapor or liquid contact with the probe tip was determined from the air-water two-phase flow pressure drop test results. Then, the boiling freon two-phase flow void fraction was determined by single threshold method, and compared with numerical heat transfer computation. Typical patterns which were revealed by the above-mentioned time signal and the functions were found corresponding to distinct flow regimes, as corroborated by visual observation. The experiment shows that the optical probe was a promising technique for two-phase flow void fraction measurement and flow regime identification (3 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.)
Uncertainty in RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations for interfacial drag in downward two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, Collin; Schlegel, Joshua P.; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kinoshita, Ikuo
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Uncertainty propagation is key for best estimate code reliability. • Uncertainty in drift flux correlations used to evaluate uncertainty in interfacial drag. • Bias and error have been compared for various models. - Abstract: RELAP5/MOD3.2 is a thermal-hydraulic system analysis code used to predict the response of nuclear reactor coolant systems in the event of certain accident scenarios. It is important that RELAP and other system analysis codes are able to accurately predict various two-phase flow phenomena, particularly the interfacial transfers between the liquid and gas phases. It is also important to understand how much uncertainty exists in these predictions due to uncertainties in the constitutive relations used to close the two-fluid model. In this paper, the uncertainty in the interfacial drag calculated by RELAP5/MOD3.2 due to errors in the drift-flux models used to close the model is evaluated and compared to the correlation developed by Goda et al. (2003). The case of downward flow is considered due to the importance of co-current and counter-current downward flow for predicting behavior in the downcomer of reactor systems during small-break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactor systems. The overall uncertainty in the interfacial force calculations due to error in the distribution parameter models were found to have a bias of +8.1% and error of 20.1% for the models used in RELAP5, and a bias of −30.8% and error of 23.1% for the correlation of Goda et al. (2003). However this analysis neglects the effects of compensating errors in the drift-flux parameters, as the drift velocity is assumed to be perfectly accurate. More physically meaningful results could be obtained if the distribution parameter and drift velocity were calculated directly from local phase concentration and velocity measurements, however no studies were available which included all of this information.
Single- and two-phase flow characterization using optical fiber bragg gratings.
Baroncini, Virgínia H V; Martelli, Cicero; da Silva, Marco José; Morales, Rigoberto E M
2015-03-17
Single- and two-phase flow characterization using optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented. The sensor unit consists of the optical fiber Bragg grating positioned transversely to the flow and fixed in the pipe walls. The hydrodynamic pressure applied by the liquid or air/liquid flow to the optical fiber induces deformation that can be detected by the FBG. Given that the applied pressure is directly related to the mass flow, it is possible to establish a relationship using the grating resonance wavelength shift to determine the mass flow when the flow velocity is well known. For two phase flows of air and liquid, there is a significant change in the force applied to the fiber that accounts for the very distinct densities of these substances. As a consequence, the optical fiber deformation and the correspondent grating wavelength shift as a function of the flow will be very different for an air bubble or a liquid slug, allowing their detection as they flow through the pipe. A quasi-distributed sensing tool with 18 sensors evenly spread along the pipe is developed and characterized, making possible the characterization of the flow, as well as the tracking of the bubbles over a large section of the test bed. Results show good agreement with standard measurement methods and open up plenty of opportunities to both laboratory measurement tools and field applications.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horiguchi, Naoki, E-mail: s1430215@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.
Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yutaka
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.
Modeling and numerical analysis of non-equilibrium two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rascle, P.; El Amine, K.
1997-01-01
We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English)