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Sample records for two-particle-irreducible 2pi effective

  1. Soft symmetry improvement of two particle irreducible effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Two particle irreducible effective actions (2PIEAs) are valuable non-perturbative techniques in quantum field theory; however, finite truncations of them violate the Ward identities (WIs) of theories with spontaneously broken symmetries. The symmetry improvement (SI) method of Pilaftsis and Teresi attempts to overcome this by imposing the WIs as constraints on the solution; however the method suffers from the non-existence of solutions in linear response theory and in certain truncations in equilibrium. Motivated by this, we introduce a new method called soft symmetry improvement (SSI) which relaxes the constraint. Violations of WIs are allowed but punished in a least-squares implementation of the symmetry improvement idea. A new parameter $\\xi$ controls the strength of the constraint. The method interpolates between the unimproved ($\\xi \\to \\infty$) and SI ($\\xi \\to 0$) cases and the hope is that practically useful solutions can be found for finite $\\xi$. We study the SSI-2PIEA for a scalar O(N) model in the...

  2. Soft symmetry improvement of two particle irreducible effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.

    2017-01-01

    Two particle irreducible effective actions (2PIEAs) are valuable nonperturbative techniques in quantum field theory; however, finite truncations of them violate the Ward identities (WIs) of theories with spontaneously broken symmetries. The symmetry improvement (SI) method of Pilaftsis and Teresi attempts to overcome this by imposing the WIs as constraints on the solution; however, the method suffers from the nonexistence of solutions in linear response theory and in certain truncations in equilibrium. Motivated by this, we introduce a new method called soft-symmetry improvement (SSI) which relaxes the constraint. Violations of WIs are allowed but punished in a least-squares implementation of the symmetry improvement idea. A new parameter ξ controls the strength of the constraint. The method interpolates between the unimproved (ξ →∞ ) and SI (ξ →0 ) cases, and the hope is that practically useful solutions can be found for finite ξ . We study the SSI 2PIEA for a scalar O (N ) model in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We find that the method is IR sensitive; the system must be formulated in finite volume V and temperature T =β-1 , and the V β →∞ limit must be taken carefully. Three distinct limits exist. Two are equivalent to the unimproved 2PIEA and SI 2PIEA respectively, and the third is a new limit where the WI is satisfied but the phase transition is strongly first order and solutions can fail to exist depending on ξ . Further, these limits are disconnected from each other; there is no smooth way to interpolate from one to another. These results suggest that any potential advantages of SSI methods, and indeed any application of (S)SI methods out of equilibrium, must occur in finite volume.

  3. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: analytic properties and self-consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective actions (also known as $\\Phi$-derivable, Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis or Luttinger-Ward functionals depending on context) have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can t...

  4. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: Analytic properties and self-consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Michael, E-mail: michael.brown6@my.jcu.edu.au; Whittingham, Ian, E-mail: ian.whittingham@jcu.edu.au

    2015-11-15

    Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective actions (also known as Φ-derivable, Cornwall–Jackiw–Tomboulis or Luttinger–Ward functionals depending on context) have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can trigger an instability of the vacuum. This, in effect, turns Dyson's argument for the failure of perturbation theory on its head. As a result we find that 2PI approximations perform better than Padé approximation and are competitive with Borel–Padé resummation. Finally, we introduce a hybrid 2PI–Padé method.

  5. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: Analytic properties and self-consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI effective actions (also known as Φ-derivable, Cornwall–Jackiw–Tomboulis or Luttinger–Ward functionals depending on context have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can trigger an instability of the vacuum. This, in effect, turns Dyson's argument for the failure of perturbation theory on its head. As a result we find that 2PI approximations perform better than Padé approximation and are competitive with Borel–Padé resummation. Finally, we introduce a hybrid 2PI–Padé method.

  6. Linear response theory for symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.; Kosov, Daniel S.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O (N ) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry-improved two-particle irreducible effective action (SI-2PIEA) formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are overdetermined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the overdetermining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O (N ) covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear response approximation and possible ways forward.

  7. Linear Response Theory for Symmetry Improved Two Particle Irreducible Effective Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J; Kosov, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the linear response of an O(N) scalar quantum field theory subject to external perturbations using the symmetry improved two particle irreducible effective action formalism [A. Pilaftsis and D. Teresi, Nucl. Phys. B874, 594 (2013)]. Despite satisfactory equilibrium behavior, we find a number of unphysical effects at the linear response level. Goldstone boson field fluctuations are over-determined, with the only consistent solution being to set the fluctuations and their driving sources to zero, except for momentum modes where the Higgs and Goldstone self-energies obey a particular relationship. Also Higgs field fluctuations propagate masslessly, despite the Higgs propagator having the correct mass. These pathologies are independent of any truncation of the effective action and still exist even if we relax the over-determining Ward identities, so long as the constraint is formulated O(N)-covariantly. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent incompatibility of the constraints and linear respo...

  8. 2PI effective action and gauge invariance problems

    OpenAIRE

    Carrington, M. E.; Kunstatter, G.; Zaraket, H.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of maintaining gauge invariance when truncating the two particle irreducible (2PI) effective action has been studied recently by several authors. Here we give a simple and very general derivation of the gauge dependence identities for the off-shell 2PI effective action. We consider the case where the gauge is fixed by an arbitrary function of the quantum gauge field, subject only to the restriction that the Faddeev-Popov matrix is invertable. We also study the background field gau...

  9. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree–Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O(2 theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  10. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI) formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG) properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree-Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI) perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O (2) theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  11. Scalar O(N) Model at Finite Temperature -- 2PI Effective Potential in Different Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Baacke, J; Baacke, Jurgen; Michalski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective potential of the O(N) linear sigma model in 1+1 dimensions. The approximations we use are the next-to-leading order of a 1/N expansion (for arbitrary N) and a kind of "resummed loop approximation" for N=1. We show that the effective potential of the 1/N expansion is convex for N=4 and N=10 whereas it is not for the "loop" expansion and the case N=1 of the 1/N expansion.

  12. The 2PI effective action at four loop order in $\\varphi^4$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carrington, M E; Pickering, D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that perturbative pressure calculations show poor convergence. Calculations using a two particle irreducible (2PI) effective action show improved convergence at the 3 loop level, but no calculations have been done at 4 loops. We consider the 2PI effective theory for a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in 4-dimensions. We calculate the pressure and two different non-perturbative vertices as functions of coupling and temperature. Our results show that the 4 loop contribution can become larger than the 3 loop term when the coupling is large. This indicates a breakdown of the 2PI approach, and the need for higher order $n$PI approximations. In addition, our results demonstrate the renormalizability of 2PI calculations at the 4 loop level. This is interesting because the counterterm structure of the 2PI theory at 4 loops is different from the structure at $n\\le 3$ loops. Two vertex counterterms are required at the 4 loop level, but not at lower loop order. This unique feature of the 2P...

  13. Symmetry-improved 2PI approach to the Goldstone-boson IR problem of the SM effective potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos; Teresi, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM), from three loop order and higher, suffers from infrared (IR) divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W± and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain an IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI) effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless limit of the theory. In the same limit, we evaluate the IR-safe symmetry-improved 2PI effective potential, after taking into account quantum loops of chiral fermions, as well as the renormalization of spurious custodially breaking effects triggered by fermionic Yukawa interactions. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained with other methods presented in the literature.

  14. Symmetry-improved 2PI approach to the Goldstone-boson IR problem of the SM effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM, from three loop order and higher, suffers from infrared (IR divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W± and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain an IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless limit of the theory. In the same limit, we evaluate the IR-safe symmetry-improved 2PI effective potential, after taking into account quantum loops of chiral fermions, as well as the renormalization of spurious custodially breaking effects triggered by fermionic Yukawa interactions. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained with other methods presented in the literature.

  15. Symmetry-Improved 2PI Approach to the Goldstone-Boson IR Problem of the SM Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM), from three loop order and higher, suffers from infra-red (IR) divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain a IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI) effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless...

  16. 2PI Effective Action and Evolution Equations of N = 4 super Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Smolic, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    We employ nPI effective action techniques to study N = 4 super Yang-Mills, and write down the 2PI effective action of the theory. We also supply the evolution equations of two-point correlators within the theory.

  17. 2PI effective action and evolution equations of N=4 super Yang-Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    We employ nPI effective action techniques to study N=4 super Yang-Mills, and write down the 2PI effective action of the theory to two-loop order in the symmetric phase. We also supply the evolution equations of two-point correlators within the theory. (orig.)

  18. The effect of memory on relaxation in a scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, T

    2004-01-01

    We derive a kinetic equation with a non-Markovian collision term which includes a memory effect, from Kadanoff-Baym equations in $\\phi^4$ theory within the three-loop level for the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action. The memory effect is incorporated into the kinetic equation by a generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz.Based on the kinetic equations with and without the memory effect, we investigate an influence of this effect on decay of a single particle excitation with zero momentum in 3+1 dimensions and the spatially homogeneous case. Numerical results show that, while the time evolution of the zero mode is completely unaffected by the memory effect due to a separation of scales in the weak coupling regime, this effect leads first to faster relaxation than the case without it and then to slower relaxation as the coupling constant increases.

  19. Beyond the Coleman–Weinberg Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI) formalism as introduced by Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis provides a systematic analytic approach to consistently describing non-perturbative phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. In spite of its great success, one major problem of the 2PI approach is that its loopwise expansion gives rise to residual violations of symmetries and hence to massive Goldstone bosons in the spontaneously broken phase of the theory. In my talk I will present a novel symmetry-improved 2PI formalism which consistently encodes global symmetries in a loopwise expansion. Unlike other methods, I will illustrate how the symmetry-improved 2PI effective action satisfies a number of important field-theoretic properties, such as the masslessness of the Goldstone boson and the fact that the phase transition is of second order in O(N) theories, already in the Hartree-Fock approximation. After taking the sunset diagrams into account, I show how the symmetry-improved 2PI approach properly describe...

  20. The reaction pp to 2 pi /sup -/2 pi /sup +/ at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Everett, D; Mason, P; Muirhead, William Hugh

    1974-01-01

    Systematic features of the channel pp to 2 pi /sup -/2 pi /sup +/ are examined in the antiproton momentum range 2.5 to 4.6 GeV/c. It is found that as the antiproton momentum increases, exchange effects become increasingly important and a 'leading pion' emerges. This pion leaves a 'cluster' of three pions which preferentially decays to a pion plus a two-pion resonance ( rho , f, g mesons). The cluster is found to possess relatively weak internal directional properties. Both the leading pion and the pions in the cluster possess high transverse momenta. (0 refs).

  1. The 2PI finite temperature effective potential of the O(N) linear sigma model in 1+1 dimensions, at next-to-leading order in 1/N

    CERN Document Server

    Baacke, J; Baacke, Jurgen; Michalski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We study the O(N) linear sigma model in 1+1 dimensions. We use the 2PI formalism of Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis in order to evaluate the effective potential at finite temperature. At next-to-leading order in a 1/N expansion one has to include the sums over "necklace" and generalized "sunset" diagrams. We find that - in contrast to the Hartree approximation - there is no spontaneous symmetry breaking in this approximation, as to be expected for the exact theory. The effective potential becomes convex throughout for all parameter sets which include N=4 and N=10, couplings lambda=0.1 and 0.5 and temperatures between 0.2 and 1. The Green's functions obtained by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations are enhanced in the infrared region. We also compare the effective potential as function of the external field phi with those obtained in various other approximations.

  2. Search for the Decay tau- --> 3pi- 2pi+ 2pi0 nu_tau

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Re, D; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    A search for the decay of the tau lepton to five charged and two neutral pions is performed using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The analysis uses 232 fb-1 of data at center-of-mass energies on or near the Y(4S) resonance. We observe 10 events with an expected background of 6.5^{+2.0}_{-1.4} events. In the absence of a signal, we set the limit on the branching ratio B(tau- --> 3pi- 2pi+ 2pi0 nu_tau) 2omega pi- nu_tau. We observe 1 event with an expected background of 0.4^{+1.0}_{-0.4} events and calculate the upper limit B(tau- --> 2omega pi- nu_tau) < 5.4x10^{-7} at the 90% confidence level. This is the first upper limit for this mode.

  3. Schwinger multichannel study of the 2Pi(g) shape resonance in N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Gibson, Thomas L.; Lima, Marco A. P.; Mckoy, Vincent

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study on electron-target correlations in the 2Pi(g) shape resonance of elastic e-N2 scattering, using the Schwinger multichannel formulation, are reported. The effects of basis set, orbital representation, and closed-channel-configurations are delineated. The different roles of radial and angular correlations are compared.

  4. $2\\pi$ production in the Giessen coupled-channel model

    CERN Document Server

    Shklyar, V; Mosel, U

    2014-01-01

    We present a coupled-channel Lagrangian approach (GiM) to describe the $\\pi N \\to \\pi N$, $2\\pi N$ scattering in the resonance energy region. The $2\\pi N$ production has been significantly improved by using the isobar approximation with $\\sigma N$ and $\\pi \\DDelta$ in the intermediate state. The three-body unitarity is maintained up to interference pattern between the isobar subchannels. The scattering amplitudes are obtained as a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the $K$ matrix approximation. As a first application we perform a partial wave analysis of the $\\pi N \\to \\pi N$, $\\pi^0\\pi^0 N$ reactions in the Roper resonance region. We obtain $R_{\\sigma N}(1440)=27^{+4}_{-9}$\\,\\% and $R_{\\sigma N}(1440)=12^{+5}_{-3}$\\,\\% for the $\\sigma N$ and $\\pi \\DDelta$ decay branching ratios of $\\NN(1440)$ respectively. The extracted $\\pi N$ inelasticities and reaction amplitudes are consistent with the results from other groups.

  5. Sunlight-induced Regio-and Stereo-specific (2{pi} + 2{pi}) Cycloaddition of Arylethenes to 2-Subsitituted-1,4-napthoquinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, C.D.; Gilbert, A.; Richter, C.

    1999-07-01

    2-Acetoxy-1,4-napthoquinone undergoes photochemical regio- and stereo-specific (2{pi} + 2{pi}) addition to styrene and 1,1-diphenylethene in high yield, whereas the stilbenes yield mainly spirooxetanes: the cyclobutane formation occurs essentially quantitatively in sunlight. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Optimal targeting of HER2-PI3K signaling in breast cancer: mechanistic insights and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexer, Brent N; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a PI3K inhibitor with trastuzumab has been shown to be effective at overcoming trastuzumab resistance in models of HER2(+) breast cancer by inhibiting HER2-PI3K-FOXO-survivin signaling. In this review the potential clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Cancer Therapy Targeting the HER2-PI3K Pathway: Potential Impact on the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoula Lakka Klement

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The HER2-PI3K pathway is the one of the most mutated pathways in cancer. Several drugs targeting the major kinases of this pathway have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and many are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. However, the HER2-PI3K pathway is also pivotal for maintaining the physiological function of the heart, especially in the presence of cardiac stress. Clinical studies have shown that in patients treated with doxorubicin concurrently with Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the HER2 receptor, the New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure was significantly increased compared to those who were treated with doxorubicin alone (16 vs. 3%. Studies in transgenic mice have also shown that other key kinases of this pathway, such as PI3Kα, PDK1, Akt and mTOR, are important for protecting the heart from ischemia-reperfusion and aortic stenosis induced cardiac dysfunction. Studies, however, have also shown that inhibition of PI3Kγ improve cardiac function of a failing heart. In addition, results from transgenic mouse models are not always consistent with the outcome of the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway. Here, we will review these findings and discuss how we can address the cardiac side-effects caused by inhibition of this important pathway in both cancer and cardiac biology.

  8. The $e^+ e^-\\to 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\pi^0$, 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\eta$, $K^+ K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $K^+ K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\\eta$ Cross Sections Measured with Initial-State Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Graugès-Pous, E; López, L; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Osipenkov, I L; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Tanabé, T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schröder, T; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Foulkes, C; Buchanan S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Vitug, G M; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Watson, J E; Xie, Y; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Bquilleux, J; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Bailey, D; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L

    2007-01-01

    We study the processes $e^+ e^-\\to 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\pi^0\\gamma$, $2(\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\eta\\gamma$, $K^+ K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0\\gamma$ and $K^+ K^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\\eta\\gamma$ with the hard photon radiated from the initial state. About 20000, 4300, 5500 and 375 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 232 fb$^{-1}$ of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective $e^+ e^-$ center-of-mass energy, so that the obtained cross sections from the threshold to about 5 GeV can be compared with corresponding direct \\epem measurements, currently available only for the $\\eta\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\omega\\pi^+\\pi^-$ submodes of the $e^+ e^-\\to 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\pi^0$ channel. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and we extract their cross sections where possible. In particular, we isolate the contribution from $e^+ e^-\\to\\omega(782)\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and study the $\\omega(1420)$ and $\\omega(1650)$ resonances. In the charmonium region, we observe ...

  9. The e+ e- --> 3(pi+pi-), 2(pi+pi-pi0) and K+K- 2(pi+pi-) Cross Sections at Center-of-Mass Energies from Production Threshold to 4.5 GeV Measured with Initial-State Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Best, D S; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Y; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Potter, C T; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martínez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-01-01

    We study the processes e+ e- --> 3(pi+pi-)gamma, 2(pi+pi-pi0)gamma and K+ K- 2(pi+pi-)gamma, with the photon radiated from the initial state. About 20,000, 33,000 and 4,000 fully reconstructed events, respectively, have been selected from 232 fb-1 of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e+e- center-of-mass energy, so that these data can be compared with the corresponding direct e+e- measurements. From the 3(pi+pi-), 2(pi+pi-pi0) and K+ K- 2(pi+pi-) mass spectra, the cross sections for the processes e+ e- --> 3(pi+pi-), e+ e- --> 2(pi+pi-pi0) and e+ e- --> K+ K- 2(pi+pi-) are measured for center-of-mass energies from production threshold to 4.5 GeV. The uncertainty in the cross section measurement is typically 6-15%. We observe the J/psi in all these final states and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  10. Effective potential and Goldstone bosons in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate nonperturbative infrared effects for the O(N) linear sigma model in de Sitter space using the two-particle irreducible effective action at the Hartree truncation level. This approximation resums the infinite series of so-called superdaisy diagrams. For the proper treatment of ultraviolet divergences, we first study the renormalization of this approximation on a general curved background. Then, we calculate radiatively corrected masses and the effective potential. As a result, spontaneous symmetry breaking is possible, on the other hand, the Goldstone modes acquire a positive definite mass term due to the screening effects of interaction. Possible infrared divergence is self-regulated by the mass term. Furthermore, there is a symmetry restoring phase transition as a function of the Hubble parameter. In our approximation, the phase transition is of first order.

  11. Theoretical study of the dipole moment function of OH(X2Pi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical study of the sensitivity of the dipole moment function (DMF) of the X2Pi ground state of OH to basis-set saturation and to refinements in the correlation treatment is presented. Emphasis is placed on determining the slope of the DMF at r(e) and the r value at which the maximum occurs. Consideration is given to the effect of oxygen polarization functions up through h type, expansion of the active orbital space to include the O 3d-delta orbital, the effect of higher excitations using the averaged coupled-pair functional method, and the effect of evaluating the dipole moment as an energy derivative rather than as an expectation value. The theoretical DMFs obtained here, which should be the most accurate to date, differ markedly from an empirical DMF of Turnbull and Lowe that is based on experimentally derived intensity ratios. The theoretical DMFs agree better with a recently published DMF of Nelson et al., but suggest that this empirical DMF is also inaccurate for r greater than 2.3 a0.

  12. Evidence for the decay $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Caponio, Francesco; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Esen, Sevda; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Giani', Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jezabek, Marek; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manzali, Matteo; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Sabatino, Giovanni; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sapunov, Matvey; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Senderowska, Katarzyna; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Oksana; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Sidorov, Fedor; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spinella, Franco; Spradlin, Patrick; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wu, Suzhi; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the decay $B_c+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+2\\pi^-$ using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3fb$^{-1}$, collected with the LHCb detector. A signal yield of $32\\pm8$ decays is found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of the $B_c^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ decay to that of the $B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+$ decay is measured to be $$ \\frac{Br (B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+2\\pi^)}{Br (B_c^+ \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\pi^+)} = 1.74\\pm0.44\\pm0.24, $$ where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  13. Blind Carrier Phase Recovery for General 2{\\pi}/M-rotationally Symmetric Constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Slimane, Emna Ben; Bouallègue, Ammar; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4104

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel blind carrier phase recovery estimator for general 2{\\Pi}/M-rotationally symmetric constellations. This estimation method is a generalization of the non-data-aided (NDA) nonlinear Phase Metric Method (PMM) estimator already designed for general quadrature amplitude constellations. This unbiased estimator is seen here as a fourth order PMM then generalized to Mth order (Mth PMM) in such manner that it covers general 2{\\Pi}/M-rotationally symmetric constellations such as PAM, QAM, PSK. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of this Mth PMM estimation algorithm against competitive blind phase estimators already published for various modulation systems of practical interest.

  14. The e^+e^- -> 3(\\pi^+\\pi^-), 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) and K^+K^-2(\\pi^+\\pi^-) Cross Sections at Center-of-Mass Energies 0.5--4.5 GeV Measured with Initial-State Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-02-08

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){gamma}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}){gamma} and K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +} {sup -}){gamma}, with the photon radiated from the initial state. About 20,000, 33,000 and 4,000 fully reconstructed events, respectively, have been selected from 232 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that these data can be compared with the corresponding direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. From the 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) and K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) mass spectra, the cross sections for the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 3({pi}{sup +}{sup -}), e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) are measured for center-of-mass energies from production threshold to 4.5 GeV. The uncertainty in the cross section measurement is typically 6-15%. We observe the J/{psi} in all these final states and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  15. The e^+e^- -> 3(\\pi^+\\pi^-), 2(\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) and K^+K^-2(\\pi^+\\pi^-) Cross Sections at Center-of-Mass Energies 0.5--4.5 GeV Measured with Initial-State Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-02-08

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){gamma}, 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}){gamma} and K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +} {sup -}){gamma}, with the photon radiated from the initial state. About 20,000, 33,000 and 4,000 fully reconstructed events, respectively, have been selected from 232 fb{sup -1} of BABAR data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energy, so that these data can be compared with the corresponding direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. From the 3({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) and K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) mass spectra, the cross sections for the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 3({pi}{sup +}{sup -}), e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}) and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} 2({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) are measured for center-of-mass energies from production threshold to 4.5 GeV. The uncertainty in the cross section measurement is typically 6-15%. We observe the J/{psi} in all these final states and measure the corresponding branching fractions.

  16. High statistics study of the reaction $\\gamma p\\to p\\;2\\pi^0$

    CERN Document Server

    Sokhoyan, V; Crede, V; van Pee, H; Anisovich, A V; Bacelar, J C S; Bantes, B; Bartholomy, O; Bayadilov, D; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Y A; Castelijns, R; Dutz, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Frommberger, F; Fuchs, M; Funke, Ch; Gregor, R; Gridnev, A B; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, Ph; Horn, I; Jaegle, I; Junkersfeld, J; Kalinowsky, H; Kammer, S; Kleber, V; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E; Kotulla, M; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Löhner, H; Lopatin, I V; Lugert, S; Mertens, T; Messchendorp, J G; Metag, V; Metsch, B; Nanova, M; Nikonov, V A; Novinsky, D; Novotny, R; Ostrick, M; Pant, L; Pfeiffer, M; Piontek, D; Roy, A; Sarantsev, A V; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Seifen, T; Shende, S; Süle, A; Sumachev, V V; Szczepanek, T; Thiel, A; Thoma, U; Trnka, D; Varma, R; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wilson, A

    2015-01-01

    The photoproduction of 2$\\pi^0$ mesons off protons was studied with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn. The energy of photons produced in a radiator was tagged in the energy range from 600\\,MeV to 2.5\\,GeV. Differential and total cross sections and $p\\pi^0\\pi^0$ Dalitz plots are presented. Part of the data was taken with a diamond radiator producing linearly polarized photons, and beam asymmetries were derived. Properties of nucleon and $\\Delta$ resonances contributing to the $p\\pi^0\\pi^0$ final state were determined within the BnGa partial wave analysis. The data presented here allow us to determine branching ratios of nucleon and $\\Delta$ resonances for their decays into $p\\pi^0\\pi^0$ via several intermediate states. Most prominent are decays proceeding via $\\Delta(1232)\\pi$, $N(1440)1/2^+\\pi$, $N(1520)3/2^-\\pi$, $N(1680)5/2^+\\pi$, but also $pf_0(500)$, $pf_0(980)$, and $pf_2(1270)$ contribute to the reaction.

  17. 2$\\pi$ proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DESAI SHRADDHA S

    2016-06-01

    Detection system for measuring absolute emission rate from large-area-coated $\\beta$ sources has been indigenously developed. The system consists of a multiwire-based proportional counter with gas flow and a source mounted within the sensitive volume of the detector. Design of the counter enables efficient counting of emissions in $2\\pi$ solid angle.A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological facilities. Sensitive area of the detector covers 165◦ solid angle nearing $2\\pi$ of emission from the source of size $100 \\times 150$ mm. Performance of the chamber is tested using collimated $^{55}$Fe X-ray source and $^{90}$Sr / $^{90}$Y coated $\\beta$ sources of various activities. The activity measurement system is established as a national primary standard for calibration of coated $\\beta$ sources at Radiological Laboratory at BARC. Design and performanceof the chamber are presented.

  18. I=2 pi-pi Scattering from Fully-Dynamical Mixed-Action Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, S R; Orginos, K; Savage, M J; Beane, Silas R.; Bedaque, Paulo F.; Orginos, Kostas; Savage, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    We compute the I=2 pi-pi scattering length at pion masses of m_pi= 294, 348 and 484 MeV in fully-dynamical lattice QCD using Luscher's finite-volume method. The calculation is performed with domain-wall valence-quark propagators on asqtad-improved MILC configurations with staggered sea quarks. Chiral perturbation theory is used to perform the extrapolation of the scattering length from lattice quark masses down to the physical value, and we find m_pi a_2 = -0.0426 +- 0.0006 +- 0.0003 +- 0.0018, in good agreement with experiment. The I=2 pi-pi scattering phase shift is calculated to be delta ~ -43 +- 10 +- 5 degrees at |p| ~ 544 MeV for m_pi ~ 484 MeV.

  19. I=2 $\\pi\\pi$ scattering using G-parity boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Changhoan

    2003-01-01

    To make the $\\pi\\pi$ state with non-zero relative momentum as the leading exponential, we impose anti-periodic boundary condition on the pion, which is implemented by imposing G-parity or H-parity on the quark fields at the boundary. With this, we calculate the I=2 $\\pi\\pi$ phase shift from lattice simulation by using L\\"uscher's formula.

  20. Harmonic Maps into Conic Surfaces With Cone Angles Less Than $2\\pi$

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Redman, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    We prove the existence and uniqueness of harmonic maps in degree one homotopy classes of closed, orientable surfaces of positive genus, when the target has conic points with cone angles less than $2\\pi$. For a cone point $p$ of cone angle less than $\\pi$ we show that one can minimize with respect to the condition that a fixed point $q$ in the domain maps to $p$.

  1. Chlorogenic Acid Prevents Osteoporosis by Shp2/PI3K/Akt Pathway in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui Ling; Yao, Fen Fen; Ruan, Hui Bing; Xu, Jin; Song, Wei; Zhou, Yi Cheng; Wen, Shi Yao; Dai, Jiang Hua; Zhu, Mei Lan; Luo, Jun

    2016-01-01

    differentiation by decreasing Shp2, p-Akt, and cyclin D1. This study found that CGA improved the BMD and trabecular micro-architecture for the OVX-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, CGA might be an effective alternative treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. CGA promoted proliferation of osteoblast precursors and osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs via the Shp2/PI3K/Akt/cyclin D1 pathway. PMID:28033335

  2. Ab initio potential curves for the X $^2\\Sigma_u^+$, A $^2\\Pi_u$ and B $^2\\Sigma_g^+$ states of Ca$_{2}^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sandipan; Byrd, Jason N; Michels, H Harvey; Côté, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We report \\textit{ab initio} calculations of the X $^2 \\Sigma_{u}^+$, A $^2\\Pi_u$ and B $^2 \\Sigma_{g}^+$ states of the Ca$_{2}^+$ dimer. All electron CAS+MRCI calculations are performed for the X $^2 \\Sigma_{u}^+$ and B $^2 \\Sigma_{g}^+$ states, while valence CAS+MRCI calculations using an effective core potential are used to describe the A $^2\\Pi_u$ state. A double well is found in the B $^2 \\Sigma_{g}^+$ state. Spectroscopic constants, vibrational levels, transition moments and radiative lifetimes are calculated for the most abundant isotope of calcium ($^{40}$Ca). The static dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities, and the leading order van der Waals coefficients are also calculated for all three states.

  3. Wave propagation in non-Gaussian random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariano; Calzetta, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    We develop a compact perturbative series for acoustic wave propagation in a medium with a non-Gaussian stochastic speed of sound. We use Martin-Siggia and Rose auxiliary field techniques to render the classical wave propagation problem into a ‘quantum’ field theory one, and then frame this problem within the so-called Schwinger-Keldysh of closed time-path (CTP) formalism. Variation of the so-called two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action (EA), whose arguments are both the mean fields and the irreducible two point correlations, yields the Schwinger-Dyson and the Bethe-Salpeter equations. We work out the loop expansion of the 2PI CTP EA and show that, in the paradigmatic problem of overlapping spherical intrusions in an otherwise homogeneous medium, non-Gaussian corrections might be much larger than Gaussian ones at the same order of loops.

  4. Resonances in rotationally inelastic scattering of OH($X^2\\Pi$) with helium and neon

    CERN Document Server

    Gubbels, Koos B; Alexander, Millard H; Dagdigian, Paul; Tanis, Dick; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y T

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed calculations on resonances in rotationally and spin-orbit inelastic scattering of OH ($X\\,^2\\Pi, j=3/2, F_1, f$) radicals with He and Ne atoms. We calculate new \\emph{ab initio} potential energy surfaces for OH-He, and the cross sections derived from these surfaces compare favorably with the recent crossed beam scattering experiment of Kirste \\emph{et al.} [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{82}, 042717 (2010)]. We identify both shape and Feshbach resonances in the integral and differential state-to-state scattering cross sections, and we discuss the prospects for experimentally observing scattering resonances using Stark decelerated beams of OH radicals.

  5. Dijet azimuthal decorrelations for $\\Delta \\phi_{\\rm dijet} < 2\\pi/3$ in perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wobisch, M

    2015-01-01

    We point out an inconsistency in perturbative QCD predictions previously used for dijet azimuthal decorrelations for azimuthal angles of $\\Delta\\phi_{\\rm dijet} < 2\\pi/3$ between the two jets. We show how the inconsistency arises and how the calculations can be modified to provide more accurate results that exhibit a smaller scale dependence and give a better description of the data than the inconsistent results. We also explain how the quality of the predictions strongly depends on a perceivedly minor detail in the definition of the dijet phase space and give recommendations for future measurements.

  6. I=2 pi-pi Scattering from Fully-Dynamical Mixed-Action Lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Beane, Silas R.; Bedaque, Paulo F.; Orginos, Kostas; Savage, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    We compute the I=2 pi-pi scattering length at pion masses of m_pi ~ 294, 348 and 484 MeV in fully-dynamical lattice QCD using Luscher's finite-volume method. The calculation is performed with domain-wall valence-quark propagators on asqtad-improved MILC configurations with staggered sea quarks at a single lattice spacing, b ~ 0.125 fm. Chiral perturbation theory is used to perform the extrapolation of the scattering length from lattice quark masses down to the physical value, and we find m_pi...

  7. Hadron-Hadron Interactions from $N_f=2+1+1$ Lattice QCD: isospin-2 $\\pi\\pi$ scattering length

    CERN Document Server

    Helmes, C; Knippschild, B; Liu, C; Liu, J; Liu, L; Urbach, C; Ueding, M; Wang, Z; Werner, M

    2015-01-01

    We present results for the $I=2$ $\\pi\\pi$ scattering length using $N_f=2+1+1$ twisted mass lattice QCD for three values of the lattice spacing and a range of pion mass values. Due to the use of Laplacian Heaviside smearing our statistical errors are reduced compared to previous lattice studies. A detailed investigation of systematic effects such as discretisation effects, volume effects, and pollution of excited and thermal states is performed. After extrapolation to the physical point using chiral perturbation theory at NLO we obtain $M_\\pi a_0=-0.0442(2)_\\mathrm{stat}(^{+4}_{-0})_\\mathrm{sys}$.

  8. On the high rank $\\pi/3$ and $2\\pi/3$-congruent number elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Janfada, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we try to find high rank elliptic curves in the family $E_{n,\\theta}$ defined over $\\mathbb Q$ by the equation $y^2=x^3+2snx-(r^2-s^2)n^2x$, where $0 < \\theta < \\pi$, $\\cos(\\theta) = s/r$ is rational with $0\\leq |s| 2\\pi/3$. Then by searching in a certain known family of $\\theta$-congruent numbers and using Mestre-Nagao sum as a sieving tool, we find some square free integers $n$ such that $E_{n, \\theta}(\\mathbb Q)$ has Mordell-Weil rank up to 7 in the first case and 6 in the second case.

  9. High-resolution absorption spectroscopy of the OH 2Pi 3/2 ground state line

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Heyminck, Stefan; Karl, Jacobs; Menten, Karl; Neufeld, David; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Stutzki, Jürgen; 10.1051/0004-6361/201218915

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the interstellar medium is determined by gas phase chemistry, assisted by grain surface reactions, and by shock chemistry. The aim of this study is to measure the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in diffuse spiral arm clouds as a contribution to our understanding of the underlying network of chemical reactions. Owing to their high critical density, the ground states of light hydrides provide a tool to directly estimate column densities by means of absorption spectroscopy against bright background sources. We observed onboard the SOFIA observatory the 2Pi3/2, J = 5/2 3/2 2.5 THz line of ground-state OH in the diffuse clouds of the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. OH column densities in the spiral arm clouds along the sightlines to W49N, W51 and G34.26+0.15 were found to be of the order of 10^14 cm^-2, which corresponds to a fractional abundance of 10^-7 to 10^-8, which is comparable to that of H_2O. The absorption spectra of both species have similar velocity components, and the...

  10. Phase shifts in I=2 {\\pi}{\\pi}-scattering from two lattice approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, T; Doi, T; Aoki, S; Hatsuda, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a lattice QCD study of the phase shift of I=2 {\\pi}{\\pi}-scattering on the basis of two different approaches: the standard finite volume approach by Luscher and the recently introduced HAL QCD potential method. Quenched QCD simulations are performed on a 32^3x128 lattice with lattice spacing a 0.115 fm using a heavy pion mass of m_{\\pi} 940 MeV. Results of the phase shift and the scattering length are shown to agree quite well between these two methods. In case of the potential method, the error is dominated by the systematic uncertainty associated with the violation of rotational symmetry due to finite lattice spacing. In Luscher's approach, such systematic uncertainty is difficult to be evaluated and thus not included in this work. In case of the potential method, the phase shift can be calculated for arbitrary energies below the inelastic threshold. In that context, the phase shift obtained from the nonrest-frame extension of Luscher's method obtained at a particular center-of-mass momentum lies...

  11. Observation of B+ -> J/psi 3 pi(+)2 pi(-) and B+ -> psi (2S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M. H.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A. Jr; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; BEACH, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Romeu, J. Arnau; Artamonov, AY; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S; Back, Jaap Willem; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, MG; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, D.E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, R. J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, J. R.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. H. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, T.F.S.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; COOK, AM; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Sobral, C. M. Costa; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Marinho, F. Da Cunha; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; Francisco, O. De Aguiar; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, Paolo; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suarez, A. Dosil; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Deleage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, Martin A.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, SIdi Ould; Esen, S.; Evans, Helen M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Fazzini, D.; FERGUSON, D; Prieto, A. Fernandez; Ferrari, F; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Lima, V. Franco; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Farber, CR; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Martin, L. M. Garcia; Pardinas, J. Garcia; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E. G; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Cazon, B. R. Gruberg; Grunberg, O.; Gushchin, EM; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Gobel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, D.B.; Han, Xiaoyan; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, Christine J.; Hatch, M.; He, J. J.; Head, T.; Heister, J. A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, Lee; Morata, J. A. Hernando; Van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; HILL, D; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, Sabah N. A.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, Fuman; John, Jestinah M. Mahachie; Johnson, D; Jones, Jonathan C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.

    2017-01-01

    The decays B+-> J/psi 3 pi(+)2 pi(-) and B+ -> psi(2S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-) are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1), collected by the LHCb experiment in proton- proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The

  12. Propensities toward C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}) in acetylene photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Riehn, C.W.; Dulligan, M.; Wittig, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (United States)

    1995-10-15

    When expansion-cooled acetylene is excited to the {nu}{sup {double_prime}}{sub 1}+3{nu}{sup {double_prime}}{sub 3} vibrational level (4 quanta of CH-stretch) and then photodissociated at 248.3 nm, the dominant product channel is C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}). This differs markedly from one-photon 193.3 nm photodissociation, which provides 1200 cm{sup {minus}1} less energy and yields C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde X}} {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) as the primary product. Photodissociation at 121.6 nm yields C{sub 2}H({ital {tilde A}} {sup 2}{Pi}) exclusively. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Analysis of the annihilation reaction pp to 2 pi /sup +/2 pi /sup -/ at 36 GeV/c in terms of a multi-peripheral model including resonances

    CERN Document Server

    La Vaissière, C de

    1972-01-01

    Abstract only given. The annihilation reaction pp to 2 pi /sup +/2 pi /sup -/ at 3.6 GeV/c appears to proceed through 9 intermediate channels involving meson resonances rho /sup 0/, f/sup 0/, g/sup 0/. The multi Regge pole of Chan-Loskiewicz and Allison (CLA), which is found to give a good description of pion distributions, such as c.m.s. angles and momenta, is inadequate for resonance formation. The introduction of resonances in the CLA model made by Plathe and Roberts leads to a rather poor description of the data and gives no information on the branching ratios of the intermediate states. So the author attempts to introduce the resonances in the CLA model by considering that they can be coupled to the nucleon Regge trajectory in the same way as pions through phenomenological coupling constants. Then, the amplitudes of all the multiperipheral graphs that can be drawn are added incoherently. This phenomenological model introduces one extra parameter/resonance relative to the original CLA model. It may be ext...

  14. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses U-2 OS cell invasion and migration via downregulating the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao Fang; Wang, Heng [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Peng, Ai Fen [Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangxi (China); Luo, Qing Feng [Department of Pathology, Cancer Hospital of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi (China); Liu, Zhi Li, E-mail: zgm7977@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Zhou, Rong Ping [Department of Orthopedics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China); Gao, Song; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Wen Zhao [Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi (China)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •We investigate the relationship between FASN and HER2 or p-HER2 by IHC in OS tissues. •We construct FASN-specific RNAi plasmid. •Inhibiting FASN down-regulates HER2/PI3K/AKT cell signaling in U-2 OS. •Inhibiting FASN blocks U-2 OS cell invasion and migration. -- Abstract: FASN plays an important role in the malignant phenotype of various tumors. Our previous studies show that inhibition FASN could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in human osteosarcoma (OS) cell in vivo and vitro. The aim in this study was to investigate the effect of inhibition FASN on the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT axis and invasion and migration of OS cell. The expression of FASN, HER2 and p-HER2(Y1248) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between FASN and p-HER2 as well as HER2 was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between FASN and HER2 as well as p-HER2 protein expression. The U-2 OS cells were transfected with either the FASN specific RNAi plasmid or the negative control RNAi plasmid. FASN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot assays was performed to examine the protein expression of FASN, HER2, p-HER2(Y1248), PI3K, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. The results showed that the activity of HER2/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was suppressed by inhibiting FASN. Meanwhile, the U-2OS cells migration and invasion were also impaired by inhibiting the activity of FASN/HER2/PI3K/AKT. Our results indicated that inhibition of FASN suppresses OS cell invasion and migration via down-regulation of the “HER2/PI3K/AKT” axis in vitro. FASN blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.

  15. Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Peng Kuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT, one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2.

  16. The $2\\pi$ Subsystem in Diffractively Produced $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN has collected a large dataset of $50$ million $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ events produced diffractively from a proton target using a $190\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ pion beam. The partial-wave analysis (PWA) of these high-precision data reveals previously unseen details but is limited in parts by systematic effects. The PWA is based on the isobar model, in which multi-particle decays are described as a chain of subsequent two-body decays. Here, fixed mass distributions for the appearing intermediate resonances, the so-called isobars, are assumed. These shapes, which e.g. may be parametrized by Breit-Wigner amplitudes, represent prior knowledge that has to be put into the analysis model and may therefore introduce a model dependence, thus increasing systematic uncertainties. We present a novel method, which allows to extract isobar amplitudes directly from the data in a more model-independent way. As a first application, diffractively produced $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ events are analyzed. Here, the focus l...

  17. Photoacoustic measurement of differential broadening of the Lambda doublets in NO(X 2Pi 1/2,v = 2-0) by Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    A differential broadening of the Lambda doublets in the v = 2-0 overtone band of the 2pi1/2 ground electronic state of NO in an Ar buffer gas has been observed by photoacoustic spectroscopy using a tunable color-center laser. The broadening coefficients for the f symmetry components are larger than for the e symmetry components by up to about 6 percent for J of about 16.5. This differential depends on J and vanishes at low J, implicating the anisotropy of the unpaired electron Pi orbital in the plane of rotation. The 2Pi3/2 transitions are slightly broader than the 2Pi1/2 as a result of spin-flipping collisional relaxation. The observed line shapes also exhibit collisional or Dicke narrowing due to velocity-changing collisions.

  18. Protein kinase A-mediated cell proliferation in brown preadipocytes is independent of Erk1/2, PI{sub 3}K and mTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanling; Sato, Masaaki; Guo, Yuan; Bengtsson, Tore; Nedergaard, Jan, E-mail: jan@metabol.su.se

    2014-10-15

    The physiological agonist norepinephrine promotes cell proliferation of brown preadipocytes during the process of tissue recruitment. In a primary culture system, cAMP mediates these adrenergic effects. In the present study, we demonstrated that, in contrast to other systems where the mitogenic effect of cAMP requires the synergistic action of (serum) growth factors, especially insulin/IGF, the cAMP effect in brown preadipocytes was independent of serum and insulin. Protein kinase A, rather than Epac, mediated the cAMP mitogenic effect. The Erk 1/2 family of MAPK, the PI{sub 3}K system and the mTOR complexes were all activated by cAMP, but these activations were not necessary for cAMP-induced cell proliferation; a protein kinase C isoform may be involved in mediating cAMP-activated cell proliferation. We conclude that the generally acknowledged cellular mediators for induction of cell proliferation are not involved in this process in the brown preadipocyte system; this conclusion may be of relevance both for examination of mechanisms for induction of brown adipose tissue recruitment but also for understanding the mechanism behind e.g. certain endocrine neoplasias. - Highlights: • cAMP can mimick norepinephrine-induced proliferation of brown preadipocytes. • The cAMP-induced proliferation can occur in the absence of serum, of any other growth factors, and of insulin. • Erk1/2, PI{sub 3}K and mTOR are cAMP activated but not involved in induction of proliferation. • A Protein Kinase C member may be in the signalling cascade. • This pathway analysis may also be of importance for certain endocrine hyper- and neoplasias.

  19. Lack of SIRPα phosphorylation and concomitantly reduced SHP-2-PI3K-Akt2 signaling decrease osteoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Engman, Sara; Sulniute, Rima; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2016-09-09

    Normal differentiation of bone forming osteoblasts is a prerequisite for maintenance of skeletal health and is dependent on intricate cellular signaling pathways, including the essential transcription factor Runx2. The cell surface glycoprotein CD47 and its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) have both been suggested to regulate bone cell differentiation. Here we investigated osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells from SIRPα mutant mice lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain of SIRPα. An impaired osteoblastogenesis in SIRPα-mutant cell cultures was demonstrated by lower alkaline phosphatase activity and less mineral formation compared to wild-type cultures. This reduced osteoblastic differentiation potential in SIRPα-mutant stromal cells was associated with a significantly reduced expression of Runx2, osterix, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase mRNA, as well as a reduced phosphorylation of SHP-2 and Akt2, as compared with that in wild-type stromal cells. Addition of a PI3K-inhibitor to wild-type stromal cells could mimic the impaired osteoblastogenesis seen in SIRPα-mutant cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that SIRPα signaling through SHP-2-PI3K-Akt2 strongly influences osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells.

  20. First Measurements of eta_c Decaying into K^+K^-2(pi^+pi^-) and 3(pi^+pi^-)

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ban, Y; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen Jin; Chen Jun; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, Q F; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X P; Huang, X T; Ji, X B; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Yi Jin; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, Y L; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Fang Liu; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, F; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, L X; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, X B; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Sun, H S; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, K; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wand, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C L; Wei, D H; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Yu; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X M; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zahng, Yiyun; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, M G; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zhuang, X A; Zou, B S

    2006-01-01

    The decays of eta_c to K^+K^-2(pi^+pi^-) and 3(pi^+pi^-) are observed for the first time using a sample of 5.8X10^7 J/\\psi events collected by the BESII detector. The product branching fractions are determined to be B(J/\\psi-->gamma eta_c)*B(eta_c-->K^+K^-pi^+pi^-pi^+pi^-)=(1.21+-0.32+- 0.23)X10^{-4}$,B(J/\\psi-->gamma eta_c)*B(eta_c-->K^{*0}\\bar{K}^{*0}pi^+pi^-)= (1.29+-0.43+-0.32)X10^{-4}$, and (J/\\psi-->gamma eta_c)* B(eta_c-->pi^+pi^-pi^+pi^-pi^+pi^-)= (2.59+-0.32+-0.48)X10^{-4}. The upper limit for eta_c-->phi pi^+pi^-pi^+pi^- is also obtained as B(J/\\psi-->gamma eta_c)*B(eta_c--> phi pi^+pi^-pi^+pi^-)< 6.03 X10^{-5} at the 90% confidence level.

  1. Rotational analysis of the A(2)Sigma(+)((nu=1,2))-X-2 Pi((nu=0)) electronic bands of (NO)-N-15-O-18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ityaksov, D.; Stolte, S.; Linnartz, H.V.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-UV spectra of (NO)-N-15-O-18 have been recorded using cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 205-216 nm egion. The rotationally resolved spectra have been assigned for a first time as originating from the nu '' = 0 X-2 Pi(r) states toward nu' = 1 and 2 vibrationally excited levels in the upper A(

  2. Steric asymmetry and lambda-doublet propensities in state-to-state rotationally inelastic scattering of NO (2 pi 1/2) with He.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskerke, Arjan E. (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands); de Lange, Marc J.L. (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Stolte, Steven (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Taatjes, Craig A.; van der Avoird, Ad (University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands); Klos, Jacek (University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands)

    2004-08-01

    Relative integrated cross sections are measured for rotationally inelastic scattering of NO({sup 2}{pi}{sub 1/2}), hexapole selected in the upper {Lambda}-doublet level of the ground rotational state (j = 0.5), in collisions with He at a nominal energy of 514 cm{sup -1}. Application of a static electric field E in the scattering region, directed parallel or antiparallel to the relative velocity vector v, allows the state-selected NO molecule to be oriented with either the N end or the O end towards the incoming He atom. Laser-induced fluorescence detection of the final state of the NO molecule is used to determine the experimental steric asymmetry, SA {triple_bond} ({sigma}{sub v}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}{sub E}-{sigma}{sub v}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{sub E})/({sigma}{sub v}{up_arrow}{down_arrow}{sub E} + {sigma}{sub v}{up_arrow}{up_arrow}{sub E}), which is equal to within a factor of (-1) to the molecular steric effect, S{sub i {yields} f} {triple_bond} ({sigma}{sub He {yields} NO} - {sigma}{sub He {yields} ON})/({sigma}{sub He {yields} NO} + {sigma}{sub He {yields} ON}). The dependence of the integral inelastic cross section on the incoming {lambda}-doublet component is also observed as a function of the final rotational (j{prime}), spin-orbit ({Omega}{prime}), and {Lambda}-doublet ({epsilon}{prime}) state. The measured steric asymmetries are significantly larger than previously observed for NO-Ar scattering, supporting earlier proposals that the repulsive part of the interaction potential is responsible for the steric asymmetry. In contrast to the case of scattering with Ar, the steric asymmetry of NO-He collisions is not very sensitive to the value of {Omega}{prime} . However, the {Lambda}-doublet propensities are very different for [{Omega} = 0.5(F{sub 1}) {yields} {Omega}{prime} = 0.5(F{sub 1})] transitions. Spin-orbit manifold conserving collisions exhibit a propensity for parity conservation at low {Delta}{sub j}, but spin-orbit manifold changing collisions do not

  3. Einstein coefficients for rotational lines of the (0,0) band of the NO A2sigma(+)-X2Pi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisel, John R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the spectroscopic equations necessary for prediction of the molecular transition energies and the Einstein A and B coefficients for rovibronic lines of the gamma(0,0) band of nitric oxide (NO) is presented. The calculated molecular transition energies are all within 0.57/cm of published experimental values; in addition, over 95 percent of the calculated energies give agreement with measured results within 0.25/cm. Einstein coefficients are calculated from the band A00 value and the known Hoenl-London factors and are tabulated for individual rovibronic transitions in the NO A2sigma(+)-X2Pi(0,0) band.

  4. Observation of $B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ and $B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara

    2017-02-06

    The decays $B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ and $B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0fb^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The branching fractions relative to that of $B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+$ are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\frac {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^- \\right)} {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+ \\right)} & = & \\left( 1.88\\pm0.17\\pm0.09\\right)\\times10^{-2}, \\\\ \\frac {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^- \\right)} {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+ \\right) } & = & \\left( 3.04\\pm0.50\\pm0.26\\right)\\times10^{-2}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  5. Observation of $B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ and $B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Govorkova, Ekaterina; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The decays $B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^-$ and $B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0fb^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The branching fractions relative to that of $B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+$ are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\frac {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+\\rightarrow J/\\psi 3\\pi^+ 2\\pi^- \\right)} {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+ \\right)} & = & \\left( 1.88\\pm0.17\\pm0.09\\right)\\times10^{-2}, \\\\ \\frac {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+\\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^- \\right)} {\\mathcal{B}\\left( B^+ \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)K^+ \\right) } & = & \\left( 3.04\\pm0.50\\pm0.26\\right)\\times10^{-2}, \\end{eqnarray*} where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  6. Molecular-beam optical Stark and Zeeman study of the A {sup 2}{Pi}--X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} (0,0) band system of BaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, Timothy C.; Frey, Sarah; Le, Anh; DeMille, David; Rahmlow, David A.; Linton, Colan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Centre for Laser Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Physics Department, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    The A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} (0,0) band system of barium monofluoride (BaF) has been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy both field-free and in the presence of static magnetic and electric fields. The field-free spectra for the {sup 135}BaF, {sup 137}BaF, and {sup 138}BaF isotopologues were modeled to generate an improved set of spectroscopic constants for the A {sup 2}{Pi}({upsilon} = 0) and X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({upsilon} = 0) states. The observed optical Stark shifts for the {sup 138}BaF isotopologue were analyzed to produce the permanent electric dipole moments of 1.50(2) and 1.31(2) D for the A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub 1/2}({upsilon} = 0) and A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub 3/2} ({upsilon} = 0) states, respectively. The observed optical Zeeman shifts for the {sup 138}BaF isotopologue were analyzed to produce a set of magnetic g factors for the A {sup 2}{Pi}({upsilon} = 0) and X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}({upsilon} = 0) states.

  7. Hydrodynamic transport functions from quantum kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetta, E A; Ramsey, S

    2000-01-01

    Starting from the quantum kinetic field theory [E. Calzetta and B. L. Hu, Phys. Rev. D37, 2878 (1988)] constructed from the closed-time-path (CTP), two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action we show how to compute from first principles the shear and bulk viscosity functions in the hydrodynamic-thermodynamic regime. For a real scalar field with $\\lambda \\Phi ^{4}$ self-interaction we need to include 4 loop graphs in the equation of motion. This work provides a microscopic field-theoretical basis to the ``effective kinetic theory'' proposed by Jeon and Yaffe [S. Jeon and L. G. Yaffe, Phys. Rev. D53, 5799 (1996)], while our result for the bulk viscosity reproduces their expression derived from linear response theory and the imaginary-time formalism of thermal field theory. Though unavoidably involved in calculations of this sort, we feel that the approach using fundamental quantum kinetic field theory is conceptually clearer and methodically simpler than the effective kinetic theory approach, as the success...

  8. Observation of CH A (sup 2)Delta approaches X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) and B (sup 2)Sigma(sup -) approaches X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) emissions in gas-phase collisions of fast O((sup 3)P) atoms with acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Optical emissions in single-collision, beam-beam reactions of fast (3-22 eV translational energy) O(P-3) atoms with C2H2 have been measured in the wavelength range 300-850 nm. Two features were observed, one with a peak wavelength at 431 nm, corresponding to the CH A (sup 2)Delta yields X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) transition, and a second weaker emission in the range 380-400 nm corresponding to the B (sup 2)Sigma(sup -) yields X (sup 2)Pi(sub r) transition. Both the A yields X and B yields X emissions were fit to a synthetic spectrum of CH(A) at a vibrational temperature T(sub v) of 10,000 K (0.86 eV) and a rotational temperature T(r) of approximately 5000 K (0.43 eV); and CH(B) to T(sub v) = 2500 K (0.22 eV) and T(sub r) = 1000 K (0.09 eV). The energy threshold for the A yields X emission was measured to be 7.3 +/- 0.4 eV (lab) or 4.5 +/- 0.2 eV (c.m.). This agrees with the energy threshold of 7.36 eV (lab) for the reaction O(P-3) + C2H2 yields CH(A) + HCO.

  9. Search for the OH (X(2)Pi) Meinel band emission in meteors as a tracer of mineral water in comets: detection of N(2)(+) (A-X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of the N(2)(+) A-X Meinel band in the 780-840 nm meteor emission from two Leonid meteoroids that were ejected less than 1000 years ago by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. Our analysis indicates that the N(2)(+) molecule is at least an order of magnitude less abundant than expected, possibly as a result of charge transfer reactions with meteoric metal atoms. This new band was found while searching for rovibrational transitions in the X(2)Pi electronic ground state of OH (the OH Meinel band), a potential tracer of water bound to minerals in cometary matter. The electronic A-X transition of OH has been identified in other Leonid meteors. We did not detect this OH Meinel band, which implies that the excited A state is not populated by thermal excitation but by a mechanism that directly produces OH in low vibrational levels of the excited A(2)Sigma state. Ultraviolet dissociation of atmospheric or meteoric water vapor is such a mechanism, as is the possible combustion of meteoric organics.

  10. Theory of laser enhancement and suppression of cold reactions: the fermion-boson 6Li+7Li2(variant Planck's over 2pi omega0) 6Li7Li+7Li radiative collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Parker, Gregory A; Brumer, Paul; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2008-03-28

    We present a nonperturbative time-dependent quantum mechanical theory of the laser catalysis and control of a bifurcating A+BC(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))ABC*(v)(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0) )AB+C reaction, with ABC*(v) denoting an intermediate, electronically excited, complex of ABC in the vth vibrational state. We apply this theory to the low collision energy fermion-boson light-induced exchange reaction, (6)Li((2)S)+(7)Li(2)((3)Sigma(u)(+))(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))((6)Li(7)Li(7)Li)*(variant Planck's over 2pi omega(0))(6)Li(7)Li((3)Sigma(+))+(7)Li((2)S). We show that at very low collision energies and energetically narrow (approximately 0.01 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets, it is possible to tune the yield of the exchange reaction from 0 to near-unity (yield >or=99%) values. Controllability is somewhat reduced at collisions involving energetically wider (approximately 1 cm(-1)) initial reactant wave packets. At these energetic bandwidths, the radiative reactive control, although still impressive, is limited to the 0%-76% reactive-probabilities range.

  11. Potential energy hypersurface for the 1 /sup 2/Pi(1 /sup 2/B/sub 1/,1 /sup 2/A'') Rydberg state of the HeH/sub 2//sup +/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, D.G.

    1980-11-01

    The 1 /sup 2/Pi(1 /sup 2/B/sub 1/,1 /sup 2/A'') state of the helium dihydride ion HeH/sub 2//sup +/ has been examined with ab initio electronic structure calculations. In particular, the potential energy hypersurface for this Rydberg state has been surveyed with an MCSCF/CI wavefunction involving orbital expansions in a double-zeta plus double polarization plus diffuse one-electron basis. The surface is essentially a trough falling monotonically from the atom--diatomic asymptote He(X /sup 1/S) +H/sub 2//sup +/(C /sup 2/Pi/sub u/), through the triatomic region, to the asymptote HeH(1 /sup 2/Pi)+H/sup +/. At some triatomic geometries the 1 /sup 2/Pi state is one of the lowest excited electronic states of this molecular ion system. The results obtained here are the first reported explicit treatment of HeH/sub 2//sup +/ Rydberg states, and will contribute towards the elucidation of the manifolds of the lowest two Rydberg series arising from the (HeH,H)/sup +/ excited asymptotes.

  12. A spectroscopic study of nicotine analogue 2-phenylpyrrolidine (PPD) using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), microwave, and 2D NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Danielle E; Robertson, Evan G; MacLellan, Jonathan G; Godfrey, Peter D; Thompson, Christopher D; Morrison, Richard J S

    2009-02-25

    Conformational preferences of the nicotine analogue 2-phenylpyrrolidine (PPD) have been studied in both gaseous and solution phases. Theoretical calculations at the MP2 and B3LYP levels point to 5-6 stable conformers which differ in three degrees of conformational freedom; torsion between the two rings, inversion at the pyrrolidine (PY) amine, and PY ring puckering, characterized using the Cremer-Pople definition for pseudorotation. Only one conformer has a trans arrangement between the amino hydrogen and the phenyl substituent. It is 6-8 kJ mol(-1) more stable than the cis conformers, has a perpendicular ring arrangement, and puckers at the nitrogen atom--similar to structures reported for nicotine. Resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) data, including hole burn spectra, indicate only one conformer is present in the free jet expansion, and band contour analysis suggests assignment to the trans conformer. Confirmation was provided by microwave spectroscopy. Fifty-seven lines measured in the 48-72 GHz region were assigned to 206 b-type transitions and fitted to yield rotational constants within 2 MHz of MP2 values predicted for the trans conformer. The solution-phase conformers of PPD were studied using 1D and 2D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and solvent-based theoretical calculations. In marked contrast to the gas phase, NMR data reveals only cis conformers present in solution. Calculations confirm increased stability for these conformers when placed in simulated chloroform or water environments. Solvent molecules are believed to disrupt a crucial N...H(ortho) stabilizing interaction present within the trans conformer.

  13. [Investigation on spectrum of B 2sigma(+)-X 2sigma+ and C 2pi(r)-X 2sigma+ bands of AlO radical in shock tube].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi-Min; Yang, Qian-Suo; Liu, Chun; Zhu, Nai-Yi; Jiang, Zong-Lin

    2010-04-01

    There are some impurities such as aluminum dioxide adhering on the shock tube wall due to the ablating and heating of the aluminum diaphragm by high temperature gas. Under high temperature, the collision of AlO radicals with the gaseous molecules leads to transition of the electronic states and production of strong radiation, which disturb the analysis of radiation spectrum of heated gases in shock tube. In the authors' experiments, the air in the test section with adhering aluminum dioxide was heated to some 4 000-7 000 K, the spectrum of AlO radical was obvious in the range of 460-530 nm, which corresponds to B 2sigma(+)-X 2sigma+ (T00 = 20 689 cm(-1) band. There were several band heads for this band, the interval of neighbor heads was some 2 nm, and all the band heads were with the shortest wavelength. The characteristics of B 2sigma(+)-X 2sigma+ band were explored in experiment and by theory. In addition, the spectrum of C 2pi(r)-X 2sigma+ (T00 = 33 047 cm(-1)) band was also investigated. The corresponding strength was lower than that of B 2sigma(+) -X 2sigma+ band, and the wavelength range of this band was some 270-335 nm where the radiation of A 2sigma(+) -X 2pi (T00 = 32 682 cm(-1)) band of OH radical also existed. This occurrence of the two bands in the same wavelength range is disadvantageous for the spectrum analysis.

  14. Nonequilibrium formulation of abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    This work is about a formulation of abelian gauge theories out-of-equilibrium. In contrast to thermal equilibrium, systems out-of-equilibrium are not constant in time, and the interesting questions in such systems refer to time evolution problems. After a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics (QED), the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action is introduced as an essential technique for the study of quantum field theories out-of-equilibrium. The equations of motion (EOMs) for the propagators of the theory are then derived from it. It follows a discussion of the physical degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the theory, in particular with respect to the photons, since in covariant formulations of gauge theories unphysical DOFs are necessarily contained. After that the EOMs for the photon propagator are examined more closely. It turns out that they are structurally complicated, and a reformulation of the equations is presented which for the untruncated theory leads to an essential structural simplification of the EOMs. After providing the initial conditions which are necessary in order to solve the EOMs, the free photon EOMs are solved with the help of the reformulated equations. It turns out that the solutions diverge in time, i.e. they are secular. This is a manifestation of the fact that gauge theories contain unphysical DOFs. It is reasoned that these secularities exist only in the free case and are therefore ''artificial''. It is however emphasized that they may not be a problem in principle, but certainly are in practice, in particular for the numerical solution of the EOMs. Further, the origin of the secularities, for which there exists an illustrative explanation, is discussed in more detail. Another characteristic feature of 2PI formulations of gauge theories is the fact that quantities calculated from approximations of the 2PI effective action, which are gauge invariant in the exact theory as well as in an approximated theory at

  15. Towards a spectroscopically accurate set of potentials for heavy hydride molecules: non-relativistic calculations of BaH X$^2\\Sigma^+$ and A$^2\\Pi$

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Keith; Lane, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    BaH is an attractive molecular candidate for laser cooling to ultracold temperatures and a potential precursor for the production of ultracold gases of hydrogen and deuterium. The theoretical challenge is to simulate the laser cooling cycle as reliably as possible and this paper addresses the generation of highly accurate ab initio potentials for such studies. The performance of various basis sets within the multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation with the Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) is tested and taken to the complete basis set limit. It is shown that the calculated molecular constants using a 46 electron Effective Core-Potential (ECP), the augmented polarized core-valence quintuplet basis set (aug-pCV5Z-PP) but only including three active electrons in the MRCI calculation are in close agreement with the available experimental values. The predicted dissociation energy D$_e$ for the X$^2\\Sigma^+$ state (extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit) is 16975.14 cm$^{-1}$ (2.099 eV...

  16. Decoherence and thermalization of a pure quantum state in quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Alexandre; Serreau, Julien

    2010-06-11

    We study the real-time evolution of a self-interacting O(N) scalar field initially prepared in a pure, coherent quantum state. We present a complete solution of the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics from a 1/N expansion of the two-particle-irreducible effective action at next-to-leading order, which includes scattering and memory effects. We demonstrate that, restricting one's attention (or ability to measure) to a subset of the infinite hierarchy of correlation functions, one observes an effective loss of purity or coherence and, on longer time scales, thermalization. We point out that the physics of decoherence is well described by classical statistical field theory.

  17. Techniques for calculations with nPI effective actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a symmetric scalar theory with quartic coupling in 2- and 3- dimensions and compare the self-consistent 4-point vertex obtained from the 4PI effective action with the Bethe-Salpeter 4-vertex from 2PI effective action. We show that when the coupling is large the contributions from the higher order effective action are large. We also show that one can solve the 2PI equations of motion in 4-dimensions, without introducing counter-terms, using a renormalization group method. This method provides a promising starting point to study the renormalization of higher order nPI theories.

  18. Formation of the 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radical (C6H(X(2)Pi)) via the crossed beams reaction of dicarbon (C2(X(1)Sigma(g)+/a(3)Pi(u))), with diacetylene (C4H2(X(1)Sigma(g)+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I; Mebel, Alexander M

    2009-02-19

    Crossed molecular beams experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical dynamics of the reaction of dicarbon molecules, C(2)(X(1)Sigma(g)(+)/a(3)Pi(u)), with diacetylene, C(4)H(2)(X(1)Sigma(g)(+)) at two collision energies of 12.1 and 32.8 kJ mol(-1). The dynamics were found to be indirect, involved C(6)H(2) intermediates, and were dictated by an initial addition of the dicarbon molecule to the carbon-carbon triple bond of diacetylene. The initial collision complexes could isomerize. On the singlet surface, the resulting linear triacetylene molecule (C(6)H(2)(X(1)Sigma(g)(+))) decomposed without an exit barrier to form the linear 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radical (C(6)H(X(2)Pi)). On the triplet surface, the dynamics suggested at least a tight exit transition state involved in the fragmentation of a triplet C(6)H(2) intermediate to yield the 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radical (C(6)H(X(2)Pi)) plus atomic hydrogen. On the basis of the experimental data, we recommend an experimentally determined enthalpy of formation of the 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radical of 1014 +/- 27 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K. Our experimental results and the derived reaction mechanisms gain full support from electronic structure calculations on the singlet and triplet C(6)H(2) potential-energy surfaces. The identification of the 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radical under single collision conditions implies that the neutral-neutral reaction of dicarbon with diacetylene can lead to the formation of 1,3,5-hexatriynyl radicals in the interstellar medium and possibly in the hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons such as Saturn's satellite Titan.

  19. Acoustoelectric effect in semiconductor superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, S. Y.; Allotey, F. K. A.; Adjepong, S. K.

    1993-10-01

    Acoustoelectric effect in semiconductor superlattice has been studied for acoustic wave whose wavelength lambda = 2pi/q is smaller than the mean free path of the electrons l (where ql approaches 1). Unlike the homogeneous bulk material where Weinreich relation is independent of the wave number q in the superlattice we observe a dependence on q i.e. spatial dispersion. In the presence of applied constant field E a threshold value was obtained where the acoustoelectric current changes direction.

  20. 2 pi-Steradian, Energetic-Ion Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Because energetic particles populate both planetary magnetospheres and interplanetary space in significant quantities, energetic-ion sensors have been flown since the beginning of the space age. Early sensors were solid-state detector (SSD) telescopes, with conical fields of view, often swept through a circle by virtue of the spin motion of the spacecraft (e.g., IMP 7 and 8, ISEE 1 and 2). In the 1980s and 1990s, foil/microchannel plate (MCP) time-of-flight (TOF) measurements were added to the energy measurement provided by the SSD (eg, AMPTE/CCE MEPA, Geotail EPIC/ICS, Galileo EPD). The resulting energy and velocity uniquely identified ion mass. More recently, we have developed a 2-D fan acceptance angle sensor that includes both energy and TOF. When mounted on a spinning spacecraft, this 160^\\circ x 12^\\circ FOV sweeps out nearly 4\\pi steradians in one spin. This sensor, dubbed the "hockey puck" for its shape, is currently in flight on MESSENGER (EPS) and New Horizons Pluto (PEPPSI).Increasingly, energetic-...

  1. Effect of Macromolecular Architecture on the Morphology of Polystyrene Polyisoprene Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sides, Scott [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Dyer, Caleb W [ORNL; Driva, Paraskevi [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The impact of block connectivity on the morphologies of four block copolymers of varying architecture containing polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) has been studied. The volume fraction of PS and molecular weight are held constant while varying the architecture from a linear PS-PI diblock copolymer to three different miktoarm star architectures: PS2PI, PSPI2, and PS2PI2. Morphologies of the PS2PI and PSPI2 miktoarm stars are different from those observed for the linear copolymer and dependent on the connectivity of the copolymer blocks. The change in morphology with connectivity indicates that combining two chains at a junction point leads to chain crowding, where subsequent excluded volume effects drive the change in morphology for each sample. The PS2PI2 miktoarm star exhibits the same morphology as the linear diblock but with a reduction in the size of the domains. The extent of the decrease in domain size indicates that chain stretching impacts the formation of this morphology. Experimentally observed morphologies for different chain architectures are generally consistent with three-dimensional self-consistent field theory simulations, taking into account conformational asymmetry and experimental uncertainty in the copolymer composition. Furthermore, these results generally agree with analytical theory predictions that account for architectural and conformational asymmetry.

  2. Thrombomodulin-dependent effect of factor V Leiden mutation on the cross-linking of α2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin and its consequences on fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncz, Zsuzsa; Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Haramura, Gizella; Mezei, Zoltán A; Muszbek, László

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that thrombomodulin (TM) considerably delays factor XIII (FXIII) activation and this effect is abrogated by Factor V Leiden (FV(Leiden)) mutation. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of TM on the cross-linking of α(2)-plasmin inhibitor (α(2)-PI) to fibrin in plasma samples of different FV genotypes and how this effect is related to the impaired fibrinolysis of FV(Leiden) carriers. In the plasma samples of fifteen individuals with different FV genotypes and in FV deficient plasma supplemented with wild type FV or FV(Leiden) coagulation was initiated by recombinant human tissue factor and phospholipids with or without recombinant human TM (rhTM). In the recovered clots the extent of α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking was evaluated by Western blotting and quantitative densitometry. The effect of rhTM on tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) induced clot lysis was measured by turbidimetric method. rhTM significantly delayed the formation of α(2)-PI-fibrin α-chain heterodimers/oligomers in plasma samples containing wild type FV. This effect of rhTM was impaired in the presence of FV(Leiden). rhTM delayed tPA-induced clot lysis and this effect of rhTM was more pronounced in plasma containing FV(Leiden). When TAFIa was inhibited by potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor, rhTM accelerated clot lysis in the presence of wild type FV, which is explained by the delayed α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking. This effect of rhTM did not prevail in the presence of FV(Leiden). FV(Leiden) abrogates the delaying effect of rhTM on α(2)-PI-fibrin cross-linking, which contributes to the impaired fibrinolysis observed in FV(Leiden) carriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum dots with even number of electrons: kondo effect in a finite magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik; Avishai; Kikoin

    2000-02-21

    We show that the Kondo effect can be induced by an external magnetic field in quantum dots with an even number of electrons. If the Zeeman energy B is close to the single-particle level spacing Delta in the dot, the scattering of the conduction electrons from the dot is dominated by an anisotropic exchange interaction. A Kondo resonance then occurs despite the fact that B exceeds by far the Kondo temperature T(K). As a result, at low temperatures T2)/piPlanck's over 2pi. A possible experimental realization of this effect is discussed.

  4. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by $D_c = C v_B^2/ (2 \\pi T)$ where $v_B$ is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality, $C$, depends only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  5. Line Strengths of Rovibrational and Rotational Transitions in the X$^2\\Pi$ Ground State of OH

    CERN Document Server

    Brooke, James S A; Western, Colin M; Sneden, Christopher; Afşar, Melike; Li, Gang; Gordon, Iouli E

    2015-01-01

    A new line list including positions and absolute intensities (in the form of Einstein $A$ values and oscillator strengths) has been produced for the OH ground X\\DP\\ state rovibrational (Meinel system) and pure rotational transitions. All possible transitions are included with v$\\primed$ and v$\\Dprimed$ up to 13, and $J$ up to between 9.5 and 59.5, depending on the band. An updated fit to determine molecular constants has been performed, which includes some new rotational data and a simultaneous fitting of all molecular constants. The absolute line intensities are based on a new dipole moment function, which is a combination of two high level ab initio calculations. The calculations show good agreement with an experimental v=1 lifetime, experimental $\\mu_\\mathrm{v}$ values, and $\\Delta$v=2 line intensity ratios from an observed spectrum. To achieve this good agreement, an alteration in the method of converting matrix elements from Hund's case (b) to (a) was made. Partitions sums have been calculated using the ...

  6. Sine-Gordon 2-pi-kink dynamics in the presence of small perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1983-01-01

    The influence of external driving forces on the 2π-kink solution to the sine-Gordon equation is examined. The analysis is based on the approach that the solution to the problem can be divided into a 2π-kink part and a background or vacuum part. The behavior of the 2π kink depends strongly...

  7. Low-energy pions in nuclear matter and 2pi photoproduction within a BUU transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, O; Mosel, U; Mühlich, P; Alvarez-Ruso, Luis; Buss, Oliver; Mosel, Ulrich; Muehlich, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    A description of low-energy scattering of pions and nuclei within a BUU transport model is presented. Implementing different scenarios of medium modifications, the mean free path of pions in nuclear matter at low momenta and pion absorption reactions on nuclei have been studied and compared to data and to results obtained via quantum mechanical scattering theory. We show that even in a regime of a long pionic wave length the semi-classical transport model is still a reliable framework for pion kinetic energies greater than ~20-30 MeV. Results are presented on pion-absorption cross sections in the regime of 10 MeV < E(kin) < 130 MeV and on photon-induced double-pion production at incident beam energies of 400-500 MeV.

  8. Recent Results from 2 pi-zero Photoproduction off the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Kotulla, M

    2003-01-01

    The reaction $\\gamma p \\to \\pi^0 \\pi^0 p$ has been measured using the TAPS BaF$_2$ calorimeter at the tagged photon facility of the Mainz Microtron accelerator in the beam energy range from threshold up to 820 MeV. Close to threshold, chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) predicts that this channel is significantly enhanced compared to double pion final states with charged pions. The strength is attributed dominantly to pion loops in the 2\\Piz{} channel - a finding that opens new prospects for the test of ChPT. Our measurement is the first which is sensitive enough for a conclusive comparison with the ChPT calculation and is in agreement with its prediction. The data are also in agreement with a calculation in the unitary chiral approach. In the second resonance region, a recent model interpretation of new GRAAL data claimed a dominance of the $\\Roper \\to \\sigma N$ reaction process. We present very accurate invariant mass distributions of ${\\Piz \\Piz}$ and ${\\Piz p}$ systems, which are in contrast to the $\\sigma ...

  9. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2009-07-01

    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  10. The phase-shift of isospin-2 pi-pi scattering from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef J. Dudek, Robert G. Edwards, Michael J. Peardon, David G. Richards, Christopher E. Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Finite-volume lattice QCD calculations offer the possibility of extracting resonance parameters from the energy-dependent elastic phase-shift computed using the L\\"uscher technique. In this letter, as a trial of the method, we report on the extraction of the non-resonant phase-shift for $S$ and $D$-wave $\\pi\\pi$ isospin-2 scattering from dynamical lattice QCD computations. We define a variational basis of operators resembling pairs of pions of definite relative momentum and extract a spectrum of excited states that maps to phase-shifts at a set of discrete scattering momenta. Computations are performed with pion masses between $400$ and $520$ MeV on multiple spatial volumes. We observe no significant quark mass dependence in the phase-shifts extracted which are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data at low momentum.

  11. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  12. Holographic Butterfly Effect at Quantum Critical Points

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-01-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L$ in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound $\\lambda_L\\leqslant 2\\pi k_BT$, it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this letter we propose that the butterfly velocity $v_B$ can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with two holographic models exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the second derivative of $v_B$ with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  13. Effects of spacetime anisotropy on the galaxy rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai

    2013-01-01

    The observations on galaxy rotation curves show significant discrepancies from the Newtonian theory. This issue could be explained by the effect of the anisotropy of the spacetime. Conversely, the spacetime anisotropy could also be constrained by the galaxy rotation curves. Finsler geometry is a kind of intrinsically anisotropic geometry. In this paper, we study the effect of the spacetime anisotropy at the galactic scales in the Finsler spacetime. It is found that the Finslerian model has close relations with the Milgrom's MOND. By performing the best-fit procedure to the galaxy rotation curves, we find that the anisotropic effects of the spacetime become significant when the Newtonian acceleration \\(GM/r^2\\) is smaller than the critical acceleration \\(a_0\\). Interestingly, the critical acceleration \\(a_0\\), although varies between different galaxies, is in the order of magnitude \\(cH_0/2\\pi\\sim 10^{-10} \\rm{m\\,\\, s^{-2}}\\).

  14. A generalized gravitomagnetic clock effect

    CERN Document Server

    Hackmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In General Relativity the rotation of a gravitating body like the Earth influences the motion of orbiting test particles or satellites in a non-Newtonian way. This causes e.g. a precession of the orbital plane, known as the Lense-Thirring effect, and a precession of the spin of a gyroscope, known as the Schiff effect. Here we discuss a third effect, first introduced by Cohen and Mashhoon, called the gravitomagnetic clock effect. It describes the difference in proper time of counter revolving clocks after a revolution of $2\\pi$. For two clocks on counter rotating equatorial circular orbits around the Earth the effect is about $10^{-7}$ seconds per revolution, which is quite large. We introduce a general relativistic definition of the gravitomagnetic clock effect which is valid for arbitrary pairs of orbits. This includes rotations in the same direction and different initial conditions, which is crucial if the effect can be detected with existing satellites or with payloads on non-dedicated missions. We also de...

  15. Dilepton production by dynamical quasiparticles in the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Linnyk, O

    2010-01-01

    The dilepton production by the constituents of the strongly interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP) is addressed. In order to make quantitative predictions at realistically low plasma temperatures (O(T_c)), experimentally relevant low dilepton mass (O(1 GeV)) and strong coupling (alphaS=0.5-1), we take into account not only the higher order pQCD reaction mechanisms, but also the non-perturbative spectral functions (off-shellness) and self-energies of the quarks, anti-quarks and gluons thus going beyond the leading twist. For this purpose, our calculations utilize parametrizations of the non-perturbative propagators for quarks and gluons provided by the dynamical quasi-particle model (DQPM) matched to reproduce lattice data. The DQPM describes QCD properties in terms of single-particle Green's functions (in the sense of a two-particle irreducible approach) and leads to the notion of the constituents of the sQGP being effective quasiparticles, which are massive and have broad spectral functions (due to large inte...

  16. The catalytic role of beta effect in barotropization processes

    CERN Document Server

    Venaille, Antoine; Griffies, S M

    2012-01-01

    The vertical structure of freely evolving, continuously stratified, quasi-geostrophic flow is investigated. We predict the final state organization, and in particular its vertical structure, using statistical mechanics and these predictions are tested against numerical simulations. The key role played by conservation laws in each layer, including the fine-grained enstrophy, is discussed. In general, the conservation laws, and in particular that enstrophy is conserved layer-wise, prevent complete barotropization, i.e., the tendency to reach the gravest vertical mode. The peculiar role of the $\\beta$-effect, i.e. of the existence of planetary vorticity gradients, is discussed. In particular, it is shown that increasing $\\beta$ increases the tendency toward barotropization through turbulent stirring. The effectiveness of barotropisation may be partly parameterized using the Rhines scale $2\\pi E_{0}^{1/4}/\\beta^{1/2}$. As this parameter decreases (beta increases) then barotropization can progress further, because...

  17. [Effects of cholesterol rich diet on blood coagulative and fibrinolytic activities in male rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan-jin; Li, Xiao-ying

    2005-05-01

    To explore the effects of cholesterol rich diet on the activities of blood coagulative and fibrinolytic systems in male rabbits. 14 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to cholesterol rich diet(CRD) group and common diet (control) group. Rabbits in CRD group were fed with 1% cholesterol embedded diet and those in the control group were fed with common diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers and FDP, PT and APTT, activity of ADP, AT-III, PLG and alpha2-PI were tested in all rabbits before given cholesterol rich diet and after 12 weeks' feeding with different kinds of diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers in CRD group were all elevated significantly compared with those in the control group and the baseline levels. PT and APTT were shortened, ADP, PLG and alpha2-PI activity were increased in CRD group. Cholesterol rich diet not only is the direct cause of hyperlipidemia but also can increase the coagulative activity and inhibit the fibrinolytic activity and promoting the evolution of arteriosclerosis.

  18. Effects of pruning intensity on jujube transpiration and soil moisture of plantation in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhenyi; Wang, Xing; Wang, Youke; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Xinguang; Chen, Dianyu

    2017-01-01

    In order to ease soil desiccation and prevent ecological deterioration in the Loess Plateau, where jujube (Zizyphus jujube MIll) is widely cultivated as a drought tolerant plant, four pruning intensities (PI), from PI-1 (light) to PI-4 (heavy) were set up based on total length of secondary branches to study the effects of pruning on transpiration and soil moisture in jujube plantations. Furthermore, growth indexes were regularly monitored to estimate jujubes biomass. Sap flow, meteorological and soil moisture conditions were monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP), weather station (RR-9100) and the combination of time domain transmission (TDT) technology and neutron moisture gauges (CNC503B), respectively. The results showed that daily actual transpiration of jujube was positively correlated with leaf biomass. Compared with PI-1, jujube transpiration during growth period under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 dropped by 11.1%, 29.2%, and 47.9%, respectively. On the contrary, annual water storage under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 increased by 6.29 mm, 25.78 mm and 34.74 mm while water use efficiency increased by 5.1%, 15.7% and 24.2%, respectively. Overall, increase in pruning intensity could significantly reduce water consumption of jujube and improve soil moisture in jujube plantations.

  19. The tennis racket effect in a three-dimensional rigid body

    CERN Document Server

    Van Damme, L; Sugny, D

    2016-01-01

    We propose a complete theoretical description of the tennis racket effect, which occurs in the free rotation of a three-dimensional rigid body. This effect is characterized by a flip ($\\pi$- rotation) of the head of the racket when a full ($2\\pi$) rotation around the unstable inertia axis is considered. We describe the asymptotics of the phenomenon and conclude about the robustness of this effect with respect to the values of the moments of inertia and the initial conditions of the dynamics. This shows the generality of this geometric property which can be found in a variety of rigid bodies. A simple analytical formula is derived to estimate the twisting effect in the general case. Different examples are discussed.

  20. Nightglow emissions of OH/X 2 pi/ - Comparison of theory and measurements in the /9-3/ band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, J. E.; Rusch, D. W.; Liu, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    The visible airglow experiments on the Atmosphere Explorer C and E satellites have viewed the (9-3) band nightglow emission of the excited hydroxyl radical in the lower thermosphere at tropical latitudes. The surface brightnesses observed at similar local times vary by approximately a factor of 2. Comparison of the measurements with time-dependent photochemical calculations shows reasonable agreement and indicates that temporal changes in atmospheric transport processes are the most likely explanation of the nightglow variations.

  1. A Precision Measurement of $\\epsilon^{\\prime}$/$\\epsilon$ in CP Violating K$^{0}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$\\pi$ Decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Kalmus, G E; Munday, D J; Wotton, S; Monnier, E; Winston, R; Gudzovskiy, E; Gurev, D; Hristov, P Z; Kuz'Min, N; Madigozhin, D; Pis'Mennyy, R; Potrebenikov, Y; Slepnev, I; Rubin, P D; Szleper, M; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Gianoli, A; Savrie, M; Wahl, H; Calvetti, M; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Bocquet, G; Bremer, J; Cattai, A; Ceccucci, A; Formenti, F; Gatignon, L; Osmic, F; Panzer-Steindel, B; Piccini, M; Ruggiero, G; Unal, G P; Bloch-Devaux, B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Derre, J; Gouge, G; Legou, P; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Renk, B; Wanke, R; Cornebise, P; Martin-Chassard, G; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Nappi, A; Papi, A; Pepe, M S; Petrucci, M C; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Ferrini, F; Mannelli, I; Raffaelli, G; Sozzi, M; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Cundy, D; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A

    2002-01-01

    The prime goal of the experiment is to measure the CP violating parameter Re($\\epsilon^{\\prime}/\\epsilon$) with an accuracy of 2 10$ ^- ^{4} $. The experiment uses two nearly collinear $ K _{S} $ and $ K _{L} $ beams produced concurrently and distinguished by tagging the protons producing the $ K _{S} $ component. In this way the double ratio R of decay rates of the $K_{L}$ and $K_{S}$ into two pions, \

  2. MRT letter: Two-photon excitation-based 2pi light-sheet system for nano-lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2015-01-01

    We propose two-photon excitation-based light-sheet technique for nano-lithography. The system consists of 2π-configured cylindrical lens system with a common geometrical focus. Upon superposition, the phase-matched counter-propagating light-sheets result in the generation of identical and equi spaced nano-bump pattern. Study shows a feature size of as small as few tens of nanometers with a inter-bump distance of few hundred nanometers. This technique overcomes some of the limitations of existing nano-lithography techniques, thereby, may pave the way for mass-production of nano-structures. Potential applications can also be found in optical microscopy, plasmonics, and nano-electronics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Computational Study of Collisions Between O(3P) and NO(2Pi) at Temperatures Relevant to the Hypersonic Flight Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-29

    NO2 formation and dissociation (cir- cles), oxygen exchange channel (up-oriented triangles), and oxygen produc- tion channel ( diamonds ). FIG. 8...Massachusetts, 2003). 43R. N. Porter , L. M. Raff, and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 2214–2218 (1975). 44R. D. Levine, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Cambridge

  4. Using vibrational branching ratios to probe initial and final state effects in molecular photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchese, Robert R [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3255 (United States); Bozek, John D [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Das, Aloke [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, Maharashtra 411008 (India); Poliakoff, E D, E-mail: lucchese@mail.chem.tamu.ed [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Recent computed and experimental results for ICN, BF{sub 3} and C{sub 6}F{sub 6} will be presented. In ICN we consider the ionization leading to the X{sup 2} {Pi}{sub 1/2,3/2} states of ICN{sup +}. We show how the geometry dependence of the initial state orbital can be studied using vibrational branching ratios. In C{sub 6}F{sub 6}, we consider the excitation of the effects of two prominent shape resonances on the symmetric stretching modes in the photoionization leading to the C {sup 3}B{sub 2u} state of the ion. In BF{sub 3}, the excitation of both the symmetric stretching and the degenerate asymmetric stretching modes are considered in the photoionization leading to the E{sup 2}A{sub 1}' state of the ion.

  5. Effect

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Sabry; M.R. Hamed; El Sayed, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Stress alters psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression. Protein malnutrition (PM) contributes to psychological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) on anxiety of psychologically stressed protein malnourished mice as compared to its effect in normally-fed mice. Fluoxetine (FLX) was used as reference standard. Animals were randomly divided into two major groups, normally-fed group provided with 20% casein diet and a p...

  6. Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Abdou Seleem; Fakhr El-Din M. Lashein

    2016-01-01

    Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker that belongs to the phenylalkylamine group. It has been clinically used for various diseases such as combating hypertension, ischemic heart diseases, supraventricular antiarrhythmic and tycolysis. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of verapamil on selected pro- and apoptotic factors during prenatal retinal differentiation of mice at E14 and E17 of gestation. The pregnant females were classified into two groups, the first is the control and...

  7. Hole-hole interaction effect in the conductance of the two-dimensional hole gas in the ballistic regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, Y Y; Savchenko, A K; Safonov, S S; Pepper, M; Simmons, M Y; Ritchie, D A

    2002-08-12

    On a high-mobility two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure we study the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in the ballistic regime, k(B)Ttau/ variant Planck's over 2pi >1. It is shown that the "metallic" behavior of the resistivity (drho/dT>0) of the low-density 2DHG is caused by the hole-hole interaction effect in this regime. We find that the temperature dependence of the conductivity and the parallel-field magnetoresistance are in agreement with this description, and determine the Fermi-liquid interaction constant Fsigma0 which controls the sign of drho/dT.

  8. Constraining the effective action by a method of external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel method of evaluating the effective action, wherein the physical one- and two-point functions are obtained in the limit of non-vanishing external sources. We illustrate the self-consistency of this method by recovering the usual 2PI effective action due to Cornwall, Jackiw and Tomboulis, differing only by the fact that the saddle-point evaluation of the path integral is performed along the extremal quantum, rather than classical, path. As such, this approach is of particular relevance to situations where the dominant quantum and classical paths are non-perturbatively far away from one-another. A pertinent example is the decay of false vacua in radiatively-generated potentials, as may occur for the electroweak vacuum of the Standard Model. In addition, we describe how the external sources may instead be chosen so as to yield the two-particle-point-irreducible (2PPI) effective action of Coppens and Verschelde. Finally, in the spirit of the symmetry-improved effective action of Pilaftsis and Te...

  9. The Effect of Tianmai Xiaoke Pian on Insulin Resistance through PI3-K/AKT Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical setting, given the potential adverse effects of thiazolidinediones and biguanides, we often have difficulty in treatment that no other insulin sensitizers are available for use in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM patients. Tianmai Xiaoke Pian (TMXKP is a traditional Chinese medicine tablet, which is comprised of chromium picolinate, Tianhuafen, Maidong, and Wuweizi. To understand its mechanism of action on insulin resistance, TMXKP (50 mg/kg orally was tested in T2DM rats (induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed. Area under the curve (AUC and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated, and PI3-K/AKT signal pathway-related genes and proteins were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot analysis in muscle, adipose, and liver tissues, respectively. TMXKP significantly reduced FBG, OGTT, AUC, and HOMA-IR in diabetic rats P<0.05. Furthermore, we also observed that TMXKP could significantly decrease IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K p85α, and AKT2 gene expression and also IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3-K, AKT2, and p-AKT2 protein expression levels P<0.05 in diabetic rats. These findings confirm that TMXKP can alleviate insulin resistance in T2DM rats through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus TMXKP appears to be a promising insulin sensitizer.

  10. Two-dimensional conformal field theory and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    We study chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional conformal field theory through out-of-time order thermal correlators of the form $\\langle W(t)VW(t)V\\rangle$. We reproduce bulk calculations similar to those of [1], by studying the large $c$ Virasoro identity block. The contribution of this block to the above correlation function begins to decrease exponentially after a delay of $\\sim t_* - \\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log \\beta^2E_w E_v$, where $t_*$ is the scrambling time $\\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log c$, and $E_w,E_v$ are the energy scales of the $W,V$ operators.

  11. Evidence for a 4th state related to the three JPC = 2++, pi- p -> phi phi n states explainable by 2++ Glueball production

    CERN Document Server

    Longacre, R S; Bugg, D V

    2004-01-01

    Four separate experiments, observing the OZI forbidden disconnected reaction pi- p -> phi phi n with increasing statistics were consistent. These experiments very selectively completely broke down the OZI suppression by 3 phi phi resonances with IG JPC = 0+ 2++ in the observed mass region 2.038 to 2.600 GeV. The only viable proposed explanation has been that the IG JPC = 0+ 2++ Glueball expected in this mass region caused the hard glue in the disconnection to resonate and very selectively breakdown the OZI suppression for its quantum numbers only. Recently a p p central production spin analysis found the f2(1950) had a dominant decay mode f2(1270) pi pi. We consider if it is related to the phi phi resonances, and find that it likely is.

  12. Evolution of the $\\bar K N - \\pi \\Sigma$ system with $M^2_\\pi$ in a box from U$\\chi$PT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Raquel [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Doring, Michael [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The L ( 1405 ) baryon is difficult to detect in experiment, absent in many quark model calculations, and supposedly manifested through a two-pole structure. Its uncommon properties made it subject to numerous experimental and theoretical studies in recent years. Finite-volume Lattice-QCD eigenvalues for different quark masses were recently reported by the Adelaide group. We compare these eigenvalues to predictions of a model based on Unitary Chiral Perturbation Theory. The UCHPT calculation predicts the quark mass dependence remarkably well. It also explains the overlap pattern with different meson-baryon components, mainly p S and KN , at different quark masses. More accurate Lattice QCD data are required to draw definite conclusions on the nature of the L ( 1405 ) .

  13. Cosmological variation of the MOND constant: secular effects on galactic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2014-01-01

    The proximity of the MOND acceleration constant with cosmological accelerations -- for example, a0~ cH0/2pi -- points to its possibly decreasing with cosmic time. I begin to consider the secular changes induced in galactic systems by such presumed variations, assumed adiabatic. It is important to understand these effects, in isolation from other evolutionary influences, in order to identify or constrain a0 variations by detection of induced effects, or lack thereof. I find that as long as the system is fully in the deep-MOND regime -- as applies to many galactic systems -- the adiabatic response of the system obeys simple scaling laws. For example, in a system that would be stationary for fixed a0, the system expands homologously as a0^{-1/4}, while internal velocities decrease uniformly as a0^{1/4}. If a0 is proportional to cH at all relevant times, this change amounts to a factor of ~ 2.5 since redshift 10. For a system stationary in a rotating frame, the angular frequency decreases as a0^{1/2}. The acceler...

  14. Effective action for stochastic partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, David [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Carratera Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850 Torrejon, Madrid, (Spain); Molina-Paris, Carmen [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Perez-Mercader, Juan [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Espacial y Fisica Fundamental, Apartado 50727, 28080 Madrid, (Spain); Visser, Matt [Physics Department, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63130-4899 (United States)

    1999-12-01

    QFT to the case of SPDEs. An important result is that the amplitude of the two-point function governing the noise acts as the loop-counting parameter and is the analog of Planck's constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) in this SPDE context. We derive a general expression for the one-loop effective potential of an arbitrary SPDE subject to translation-invariant Gaussian noise, and compare this with the one-loop potential for QFT. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  15. Isospin breaking, Coupled-channel effects and Diagnosis of X(3872)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ning

    2012-01-01

    We re-investigate the possibility of X(3872) as a $D\\bar{D}^*$ molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ within the framework of both the one-pion-exchange (OPE) model and the one-boson-exchange (OBE) model. After careful treatment of the S-D wave mixing, the mass difference between the neutral and charged $D(D^*)$ mesons and the coupling of the $D(D^*)$ pair to $D^*\\bar{D}^*$, a loosely bound molecular state X(3872) emerges quite naturally with large isospin violation in its flavor wave function. For example, the isovector component is 26.24% if the binding energy is 0.30 MeV, where the isospin breaking effect is amplified by the tiny binding energy. After taking into account the phase space difference and assuming the $3\\pi$ and $2\\pi$ come from a virtual omega and rho meson respectively, we obtain the ratio of these two hidden-charm decay modes: $\\mathcal{B}(X(3872)\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0 J/\\psi)/\\mathcal{B}(X(3872)\\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^- J/\\psi)=0.42$ for the binding energy being 0.3 MeV, which is consistent with ...

  16. Proton flux effects and prediction on the free radicals behavior of polyimide in vacuum using EPR measurements in ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengyue; Wu, Yiyong; Xiao, Jingdong; Yu, Sui; Yi, Zhong; Shen, Zicai; Wang, Li; Wang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Irradiation flux is an important parameter to the material irradiation damage investigation, for space material irradiation damage evaluation and the accelerated ground-based test, the irradiation flux effects cannot be ignored. In this paper, the polyimide was set as the research object, the irradiation flux effect and mechanism are investigated by the means of electron paramagnetic resonance test, and based on the free radical dynamic analysis, the dynamics mode of free radical population in vacumm can be established as a function of irradiation time (or proton irradiation flux). The results show that the free radical anneal process in vacuum follows the exponential mode, and the characteristic time constant τradical-vacuum is about 1.9 h. Furthermore, a simplified method is proposed with the investigation of the free radical behavior of the irradiated surface modification polyimide (TiO2/PI), and the characteristic time constant τbulk is 1.9 h, which is almost the same to the value of τradical-vacuum.

  17. Length Scale and Gravity Effects on Microgravity Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; McQuillen, John; Balombin, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Boiling is a complex phenomenon where hydrodynamics, heat transfer, mass transfer, and interfacial phenomena are tightly interwoven. An understanding of boiling and critical heat flux in microgravity environments is of importance to space based hardware and processes such as heat exchange, cryogenic fuel storage and transportation, electronic cooling, and material processing due to the large amounts of heat that can be removed with relatively little increase in temperature. Although research in this area has been performed in the past four decades, the mechanisms by which heat is removed from surfaces in microgravity are still unclear. In earth gravity, buoyancy is an important parameter that affects boiling heat transfer through the rate at which bubbles are removed from the surface. A simple model describing the bubble departure size based on a quasistatic force balance between buoyancy and surface tension is given by the Fritz [I] relation: Bo(exp 1/2) = 0.0208 theta where Bo is the ratio between buoyancy and surface tension forces. For small, rapidly growing bubbles, inertia associated with the induced liquid motion can also cause bubble departure. In microgravity, the magnitude of effects related to natural convection and buoyancy are small and physical mechanisms normally masked by natural convection in earth gravity such as Marangoni convection can substantially influence the boiling and vapor bubble dynamics. CHF (critical heat transfer) is also substantially affected by microgravity. In 1 g environments, Bo has been used as a correlating parameter for CHF. Zuber's CHF model for an infinite horizontal surface assumes that vapor columns formed by the merger of bubbles become unstable due to a Helmholtz instability blocking the supply of liquid to the surface. The jets are spaced lambda(sub D) apart, where lambda(sub D) = 2pi square root of 3[(sigma)/(g(rho(sub l) - rho(sub v)](exp 1/2) = 2pi square root of 3 L Bo(exp -1/2) = square root of 3 lambda(sub c

  18. Effects of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection on Sperm Viability in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of testicular infection of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) on mature sperm viability at different periods following MCMV inoculation in mice, 91 BALB/c mice without MCMV infection were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n=56) and a control group (n= 35). The mice in the experimental group were treated by inoculating MCMV intratesticularly, while those in the controlled group were directly inoculated with DMEM without MCMV. The mice in both groups were sacrificed separately on the day 1,1.5, 2, 4, 6, 9 and 14 post-inoculation (D1, 1.5,2, 4, 6, 9 and 14 PI). The MCMV M83 mRNA gene was detected in the testis by in situ hybridization (ISH) with MCMV late-mRNA probe labeled with digoxin.Sperm viability of mature sperm in the epididymis cauda was measured. The results demonstrated the positive signal of ISH of MCMV was found mainly in the cytoplasm of the testicular interstitial cells and spermatogenic cells in the experimental group. Compared with that in the controlled group, the sperm viability in the experimental group was decreased significantly on D1 PI and D1.5PI (P< 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the sperm viability was found after D2 PI between two groups (P>0.05). This suggested that sperm viability in mice might be descended significantly shortly after MCMV infection and might return to normal with time, indicating that MCMV acute infection might temporarily degrade sperm quality and influence procreation transiently.

  19. Differential effects of zinc and magnesium ions on mineralization activity of phosphatidylserine calcium phosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Licia N Y; Genge, Brian R; Wuthier, Roy E

    2009-07-01

    Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) are present in the mineral of matrix vesicles (MVs) and biological apatites, and are known to influence the onset and progression of mineral formation by amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP). However, neither has been studied systematically for its effect on mineral formation by phosphatidylserine-Ca(2+)-Pi complexes (PS-CPLX), an important constituent of the MV nucleation core. Presented here are studies on the effects of increasing levels of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) on the process of mineral formation, either when present in synthetic cartilage lymph (SCL), or when incorporated during the formation of PS-CPLX. Pure HAP and PS-CPLX proved to be powerful nucleators, but ACP took much longer to induce mineral formation. In SCL, Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) had significantly different inhibitory effects on the onset and amount of mineral formation; HAP and PS-CPLX were less affected than ACP. Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) caused similar reductions in the rate and length of rapid mineral formation, but Zn(2+) was a more potent inhibitor on a molar basis. When incorporated into PS-CPLX, Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) caused significantly different effects than when present in SCL. Even low, subphysiological levels of Mg(2+) altered the inherent structure of PS-CPLX and markedly reduced its ability to induce and propagate mineral formation. Incorporated Zn(2+) caused significantly less effect, low (<20 microM) levels causing almost no inhibition. Levels of Zn(2+) present in MVs do not appear to inhibit their nucleational activity.

  20. Plasma instabilities and turbulence in non-Abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, Sebastian Herwig Juergen

    2010-02-17

    Several aspects of the thermalisation process in non-Abelian gauge theories are investigated. Both numerical simulations in the classical statistical approximation and analytical computations in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible effective action are carried out and their results are compared to each other. The physical quantities of central importance are the correlation functions of the gauge field in Coulomb and temporal axial gauge as well as the gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor. Following a general introduction, the theoretical framework of the ensuing investigations is outlined. In doing so, the range of validity of the employed approximation schemes is discussed as well. The first main part of the thesis is concerned with the early stage of the thermalisation process where particular emphasis is on the role of plasma instabilities. These investigations are relevant to the phenomenological understanding of present heavy ion collision experiments. First, an ensemble of initial conditions motivated by the ''colour glass condensate'' is developed which captures characteristic properties of the plasma created in heavy ion collisions. Here, the strong anisotropy and the large occupation numbers of low-momentum degrees of freedom are to be highlighted. Numerical calculations demonstrate the occurrence of two kinds of instabilities. Primary instabilities result from the specific initial conditions. Secondary instabilities are caused by nonlinear fluctuation effects of the preceding primary instabilities. The time scale associated with the instabilities is of order 1 fm/c. It is shown that the plasma instabilities isotropize the initially strongly anisotropic ensemble in the domain of low momenta (

  1. Q-balls of Quasi-particles in a (2,0)-theory model of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ganor, Ori J; Moore, Nathan; Sun, Hao-Yu; Tan, H S; Torres-Chicon, Nesty R

    2014-01-01

    A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the $A_1$ (2,0)-theory formulated on $(S^1\\times R^2)/Z_k$, where the generator of $Z_k$ acts as a combination of translation on $S^1$ and rotation by $2\\pi/k$ on $R^2$. At low-energy the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D Super-Yang-Mills theory on a cone ($R^2/Z_k$) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged quasi-particles are BPS strings of the (2,0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. We analyze the large $k$ limit, where a smooth cigar-geometry provides an alternative description. In this framework a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of $k$ quasi-particles. The W-boson becomes a Q-ball, and it can be described as a soliton solution of Bogomolnyi monopole equations on a certain auxiliary curved space. We show that axisymmetric solutions of these equations correspond to singular maps...

  2. Mechanism of cardioprotective effect of erythropoietin-induced preconditioning in rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The cardioprotective potential of human recombinant erythropoietin (alpha (Epo against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury is well known. But, the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism involved in the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods : The heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. After 10 min of stabilization, four cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC were given followed by 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Epo preconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5-min perfusion of K-H solution containing Epo (1.0 U/ml followed by 5 min perfusion with K-H solution. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using the triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining technique. The extent of myocardial injury was measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB in the coronary effluent. Results : The present study demonstrates that Epo preconditioning was almost as effective as IPC. Administration of Wortmannin (100 nM, a PI-3K inhibitor, or Chelerythrine (1 μM, a protein kinase-C (PKC inhibitor, or AG490 (5 μM, a JAK-2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects of Epo-induced preconditioning. Conclusion : Our result suggest that the cardioprotective potential of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart was due to an interplay of the JAK-2, PI-3K and PKC pathways. Inhibition of any one of the three pathways was sufficient to block the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart.

  3. Effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus on feedlot performance of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, N A; Thomson, D U; Gleghorn, J F

    2008-08-01

    A single experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (PI-BVD) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers. Two hundred eighty-eight heifers that had been vaccinated for BVD before weaning and transport were processed and given a metaphylactic antibiotic treatment at arrival and were fed common receiving, growing, and finishing diets for a 215-d period. Treatments were designed to directly or adjacently expose the cattle to a PI-BVD heifer. Directly exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for 60 h and then removed (short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for the duration of the study (long-term exposure); and spatially exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (adjacent pen control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for 60 h and then removed (adjacent pen short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for the duration of the study (adjacent pen long-term exposure). Exposure to a PI calf transiently (60 h) or for the duration of the feeding period (215 d) did not affect (P > or = 0.25) final BW compared with heifers that were not exposed. Neither period nor overall DMI was affected (P > or = 0.37) by PI-BVD calf exposure, and no differences (P > or = 0.44) were observed between short- and long-term exposed heifers in the direct or spatially exposed groups. Likewise, total trial ADG was not affected (P > or = 0.36) and overall efficiency of gain (P > or = 0.19) was unaffected by PI-BVD calf exposure in the direct or spatially exposed groups. The results from this study suggest that exposing previously vaccinated, freshly weaned, transport- stressed beef calves to a calf that is persistently

  4. A Fully it ab initio Potential Curve of Near-Spectroscopic Quality for the $OH^{-}$ Anion Importance of Connected Quadruple Excitations and Scalar Relativistic Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, J M L

    2001-01-01

    A benchmark study has been carried out on the ground-state potential curve of the hydroxyl anion, OH^{-}, including detailed calibration of both the 1-particle and n-particle basis sets. The CCSD(T) basis set limit overestimates $\\omega_e$ by about 10 cm^{-1}, which is only remedied by inclusion of connected quadruple excitations in the coupled cluster expansion --- or, equivalently, the inclusion of the $2\\pi$ orbitals in the active space of a multireference calculation. Upon inclusion of scalar relativistic effects (-3 cm^{-1} on $\\omega_e$), a potential curve of spectroscopic quality (sub-cm^{-1} accuracy) is obtained. Our best computed EA(OH), 1.828 eV, agrees to three decimal places with the best available experimental value. Our best computed dissociation energies, D_0(OH^-)=4.7796 eV and D_0(OH)=4.4124 eV, suggest that the experimental D_0(OH)=4.392 eV may possibly be about 0.02 eV too low.

  5. Effect of preparation method on the surface characteristics and activity of the Pd/OMS-2 catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide, toluene, and ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha; Song, Yong; Fu, Zhidan; Ye, Qing; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Kang, Tianfang; Dai, Hongxing

    2017-02-01

    The cryptomelane-type manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2)-supported Pd (0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP, 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-PI, and 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-EX) catalysts were prepared by the deposition-precipitation, pre-incorporation, and ion-exchanging strategies, respectively. It is shown that the preparation method exerted an important effect on the physicochemical property of the sample. Among the OMS-2-supported Pd catalysts, 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP possessed the highest surface (Mn2+ + Mn3+)/Mn4+ atomic ratio and the highest surface Pd loading and acid sites. The 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2 catalysts outperformed the Pd-free counterpart, among which 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP presented the best catalytic activity (T50% and T90% were 25 and 55 °C for CO oxidation, 240 and 285 °C for toluene oxidation, and 160 and 200 °C for ethyl acetate oxidation, respectively). We believe that the high Pd surface loading, high surface atomic ratio of (Mn2+ + Mn3+)/Mn4+, and good low-temperature reducibility, good oxygen mobility, and high acidity were responsible for the excellent performance of the 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP catalyst.

  6. Mechanisms mediating the synergistic anticancer effects of combined γ-tocotrienol and sesamin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Sylvester, Paul W

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have highlighted the ability of phytochemicals to reduce the risk of breast cancer by attenuating specific intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation and survival. γ-Tocotrienol is a natural form of vitamin E that displays potent anticancer activity at doses that have no discernible toxicity toward normal cells. Sesamin is an abundant phytochemical found in sesame seed oil that also shows antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity against human breast cancer cells. In this study, the combined treatment of subeffective doses of γ-tocotrienol and sesamin caused a synergistic inhibition of murine +SA mammary epithelial cell growth, as determined by the MTT assay and immunofluorescent Ki-67 staining. Western blot studies revealed that combined low-dose treatment of γ-tocotrienol and sesamin caused a marked reduction in EGF-induced ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors phosphorylation (activation) and a relatively large decrease in intracellular levels of total and/or phosphorylated c-Raf, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, PI3K, PDK1, Akt, p-NFκB, Jak1, Jak2, and Stat1, as compared to cells treated with only one compound or in the vehicle-treated control group. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic growth inhibitory effects of γ-tocotrienol and sesamin treatment are associated with suppression of EGF-dependent mitogenic signaling in mammary tumor cells and suggest that dietary supplementation with these phytochemicals may provide some benefits in the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.

  7. Higher-Twist Contribution to Pion Structure Function 4-Fermi Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Capitani, S; Horsley, R; Klaus, B; Linke, V; Rakow, P E L; Schäfer, A; Schierholz, G

    2000-01-01

    We present quenched lattice QCD results for the contribution of higher-twist operators to the lowest non-trivial moment of the pion structure function. To be specific, we consider the combination $F_2^{\\pi^+} + F_2^{\\pi^-} - 2 F_2^{\\pi^0}$ which has $I = 2$ and receives contributions from 4-Fermi operators only. We introduce the basis of lattice operators. The renormalization of the operators is done perturbatively in the $\\bar{\\rm{MS}}$ scheme using the 't Hooft-Veltman prescription for $\\gamma_5$, taking particular care of mixing effects. The contribution is found to be of $O(f_\\pi^2/Q^2)$, relative to the leading contribution to the moment of $F_2^{\\pi^+}$.

  8. Analysis of gene expression pattern and neuroanatomical correlates for SLC20A2 (PiT-2) shows a molecular network with potential impact in idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ("Fahr's disease").

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R J Galdino; Pereira, I C L; Oliveira, J R M

    2013-06-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC), also known as "Fahr's disease," is a neuropsychiatric disorder with motor and cognitive symptoms. It is characterized pathologically by bilateral calcification most commonly in the basal ganglia and also in other brain regions such as the thalamus and cerebellum. A recent report by Wang et al. (2012) discovered multiple families with FIBGC carrying mutations in the SLC20A2 gene, encoding the inorganic phosphate transporter PiT-2, which segregated in an autosomal dominant pattern. To understand further the role of SLC20A2 in FIBGC brain pathology, here we described the gene expression pattern across the whole brain for SLC20A2, using the Allen Institute Human Brain Atlas database. Microarray analysis provided evidence that the neuroanatomical pattern of expression for SLC20A2 is highest in the regions most commonly affected in FIBGC. Neuroanatomical regions that demonstrated high correlation or anti-correlation with SLC20A2 expression also showed a molecular network with potential to explain the limited neuroanatomical distribution of calcifications in IBGC. Lastly, these co-expression networks suggest additional further candidate genes for FIBGC.

  9. Effects of leptin on human breast cancer cell lines in relationship to estrogen receptor and HER2 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Amitabha; Nkhata, Katai J; Cleary, Margot P

    2007-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Leptin, a cytokine synthesized in adipose tissue, has been implicated as a link between obesity and breast cancer. In the present study, the effects of leptin on cell proliferation and proteins associated with leptin signaling and/or breast cell growth were investigated in ER-positive, MCF-7, T47-D and MDA-MB-361, and ER-negative, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3, breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-361 and SK-BR-3 also overexpress HER2/neu. For proliferation assays, 96-well plates were used and for protein determinations cells were synchronized in 6-well plates for 18-24 h in serum-free medium. Leptin was added at 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 ng/ml for 24 and 48 h. For Western blot analyses, protein extracts were probed for Ob-Rb, Ob-R, leptin, Jak2, PI3K, Stat3, p-Stat3, PCNA, cyclin D1, Cox-2, VEGF, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP3, IGF-IRalpha, aromatase, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Overall, except for MCF-7 cells, leptin stimulated proliferation in all lines. MCF-7 cells expressed higher levels of Ob-Rb, Jak2, PI3K, Stat3 and p-Stat3 in a dose-dependent manner to 50 ng/ml at 24 h; and IGF-IRalpha increased at 24 h. Cyclin D1 and Cox-2 levels increased with leptin treatment. Higher CYP1B1 expression was observed at both 24 and 48 h. In MDA-MB-231 cells, p-Stat3 and Bcl-xL were increased at 48 h; whereas PCNA and cyclin D1 expression increased in leptin-treated cells at 24 and 48 h. In T47-D cells, Jak2 and Stat3 were elevated at higher leptin concentrations at 24 and 48 h. However, p-Stat3 and PCNA demonstrated an increase only in 48-h leptin-treated cells. Furthermore, cyclin D1 exhibited higher expression at both 24 and 48 h, while Bcl-xL expression was lower with increasing concentrations of leptin at 48 h. In MDA-MB-361 cells, Ob-Rb and VEGF increased at 24 and 48 h; whereas PI3K, Stat3, PCNA and insulin levels increased in leptin-treated MDA-MB-361 cells after 48 h. Bcl-2 and

  10. Quantum spin Hall effect and spin-charge separation in a kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhigang; Zhang Ping, E-mail: zhang_ping@iapcm.ac.c [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A two-dimensional kagome lattice is theoretically investigated within a simple tight-binding model, which includes the nearest-neighbor hopping term and the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction between the next nearest neighbors. By using the topological winding properties of the spin-edge states on the complex-energy Riemann surface, the spin Hall conductance is obtained to be quantized as -e/2{pi} (e/2{pi}) in insulating phases. This result is consistent with the numerical linear-response calculation and the Z{sub 2} topological invariance analysis. When the sample boundaries are connected in twist, by which two defects with {pi} flux are introduced, we obtain the spin-charge separated solitons at 1/3 (or 2/3) filling.

  11. Short-range interactions within molecular complexes formed in supersonic beams: structural effects and chiral discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini; Satta; Guidoni; Piccirillo; Speranza

    2000-03-17

    One- and two-color, mass-selected R2PI spectra of the S13-pentanol, were recorded after a supersonic molecular beam expansion. Spectral analysis, coupled with theoretical calculations, indicate that several hydrogen-bonded [R.solv] conformers are present in the beam. The R2PI excitation spectra of [R.solv] are characterized by significant shifts of their band origin relative to that of bare R. The extent and direction of these spectral shifts depend on the structure and configuration of solv and are attributed to different short-range interactions in the ground and excited [R.solv] complexes. Measurement of the binding energies of [R.solv] in their neutral and ionic states points to a subtle balance between attractive (electrostatic and dispersive) and repulsive (steric) forces, which control the spectral features of the complexes and allow enantiomeric discrimination of chiral solv molecules.

  12. Effect of endocannabinoids on IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-09-01

    Recently, some endocannabinoids were reported to show anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities. In this respect, various arachidonoyl endocannabinoids were screened for the inhibition of allergic response in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells. Among arachidonoyl endocannabinoids with a low cytotoxicity, only NA-5HT remarkably inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC(50), 13.58 μM), a marker of degranulation, and tumor necrosis factor-α (IC(50), 12.52 μM), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in IgE-activated RBL-2H3 cells. Additionally, NA-5HT markedly suppressed the formation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) with IC(50) value of 1.27 μM and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) with IC(50) value of 1.20 μM, and slightly LTC4. When effect of NA-5HT on early stage of FcεRI cascade was investigated, it significantly inhibited phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, NA-5HT suppressed phosphorylation of PLCγ1/2 and PKCδ, related to degranulation process, as well as phosphorylation of LAT, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, Gab2, PI3K and Akt, implicated in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Relative to its effect on the late stage, NA-5HT slightly reduced phosphorylation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, NA-5HT significantly reduced the level of p40(phox), and partially inhibited the expression of p47(phox) and p67(phox). From these results, it is suggested that NA-5HT expresses anti-allergic action by suppressing the activation of Syk, LAT, p38, JNK, PI3K and Akt, as well as the expression of ERK1/2 and NADPH oxidase subunits. Further, a strong inhibition of PGD(2) or LTB(4) biosynthesis by NA-5HT may be an additional mechanism for its anti-allergic action. Such anti-allergic actions of NA-5HT may contribute to further information about its biological functions.

  13. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD The placebo effect Joseph H. Friedman, MD Richard Dubinsky, MD WHAT ... placebo: a “dummy” medication that should have no effect on the condition. Placebos are not only drugs. ...

  14. Equilibration in phi^4 theory in 3+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Arrizabalaga, A; Tranberg, A; Arrizabalaga, Alejandro; Smit, Jan; Tranberg, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The process of equilibration in phi^4 theory is investigated for a homogeneous system in 3+1 dimensions and a variety of out-of-equilibrium initial conditions, both in the symmetric and broken phase, by means of the 2PI effective action. Two Phi-derivable approximations including scattering effects are used: the two-loop and the ``basketball'', the latter corresponding to the truncation of the 2PI effective action at O(lambda^2). The approach to equilibrium, as well as the kinetic and chemical equilibration is investigated.

  15. Meson-Baryon Interactions in Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    García-Recio, C; Ruiz-Arriola, E; Vacas, M J V

    2003-01-01

    Meson-Baryon Interactions can be successfully described using both Chiral Symmetry and Unitarity. The $s-$wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry in the potential. Two body coupled channel unitarity is exactly preserved. The needed two particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behavior is parameterized in terms of low energy constants. The relation to the heavy baryon limit is discussed. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determine masses and widths baryonic resonances of the N(1535), N(1670), $\\Lambda (1405)$ and $\\Lambda(1670)$ resonances which compare well with accepted numbers.

  16. S=--1 Meson-Baryon Scattering in Coupled Channel Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    García-Recio, C; Ruiz-Arriola, E; Vacas, M J V

    2003-01-01

    The $s-$wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed for the strangeness $S=-1$ and isospin I=0 sector in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry. Four two-body channels have been considered: $\\bar K N$, $\\pi \\Sigma $, $\\eta \\Lambda $, $ K \\Xi$. The needed two particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behaviour is parameterized in terms of low energy constants, which outnumber those assumed in previous works and provide a better fit to the data. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determine masses and widths of the $\\Lambda (1405)$ and $\\Lambda(1670)$ resonances which compare well with accepted numbers.

  17. S=-1 meson-baryon scattering in coupled-channel unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Ruiz Arriola, E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071, Granada (Spain); Vicente Vacas, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Ap. Correos 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2003-11-01

    The s-wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed for the strangeness S=-1 and isospin I=0 sector in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled-channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry. Four two-body channels have been considered: anti K N, {pi}{sigma}, {eta}{lambda}, K {xi}. The needed two-particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest-order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behaviour is parameterized in terms of low-energy constants, which outnumber those assumed in previous works and provide a better fit to the data. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determines masses and widths of the {lambda}(1405) and {lambda}(1670) resonances which compare well with accepted numbers. (orig.)

  18. Renormalization Group Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kneur, J -L

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed variant of the so-called optimized perturbation theory (OPT), making it perturbatively consistent with renormalization group (RG) properties, RGOPT, was shown to drastically improve its convergence for zero temperature theories. Here the RGOPT adapted to finite temperature is illustrated with a detailed evaluation of the two-loop pressure for the thermal scalar $ \\lambda\\phi^4$ field theory. We show that already at the simple one-loop level this quantity is exactly scale-invariant by construction and turns out to qualitatively reproduce, with a rather simple procedure, results from more sophisticated resummation methods at two-loop order, such as the two-particle irreducible approach typically. This lowest order also reproduces the exact large-$N$ results of the $O(N)$ model. Although very close in spirit, our RGOPT method and corresponding results differ drastically from similar variational approaches, such as the screened perturbation theory or its QCD-version, the (resummed) hard therm...

  19. A new IRAK-M-mediated mechanism implicated in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine via α7 nicotinic receptors in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldifassi, Maria C; Atienza, Gema; Arnalich, Francisco; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Cedillo, Jose L; Martín-Sánchez, Carolina; Bordas, Anna; Renart, Jaime; Montiel, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) powerfully inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and in experimental models of endotoxemia. A signaling pathway downstream from the α7 nAChRs, which involves the collaboration of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB to interfere with signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), has been implicated in this anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine. Here, we identifiy an alternative mechanism involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M), a negative regulator of innate TLR-mediated immune responses. Our data show that nicotine up-regulates IRAK-M expression at the mRNA and protein level in human macrophages, and that this effect is secondary to α7 nAChR activation. By using selective inhibitors of different signaling molecules downstream from the receptor, we provide evidence that activation of STAT3, via either JAK2 and/or PI3K, through a single (JAK2/PI3K/STAT3) or two convergent cascades (JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/STAT3), is necessary for nicotine-induced IRAK-M expression. Moreover, down-regulation of this expression by small interfering RNAs specific to the IRAK-M gene significantly reverses the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Interestingly, macrophages pre-exposed to nicotine exhibit higher IRAK-M levels and reduced TNF-α response to an additional LPS challenge, a behavior reminiscent of the 'endotoxin tolerant' phenotype identified in monocytes either pre-exposed to LPS or from immunocompromised septic patients. Since nicotine is a major component of tobacco smoke and increased IRAK-M expression has been considered one of the molecular determinants for the induction of the tolerant phenotype, our findings showing IRAK-M overexpression could partially explain the known influence of smoking on the onset and progression of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  20. A new IRAK-M-mediated mechanism implicated in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine via α7 nicotinic receptors in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Maldifassi

    Full Text Available Nicotine stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR powerfully inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages and in experimental models of endotoxemia. A signaling pathway downstream from the α7 nAChRs, which involves the collaboration of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB to interfere with signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs, has been implicated in this anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine. Here, we identifiy an alternative mechanism involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M, a negative regulator of innate TLR-mediated immune responses. Our data show that nicotine up-regulates IRAK-M expression at the mRNA and protein level in human macrophages, and that this effect is secondary to α7 nAChR activation. By using selective inhibitors of different signaling molecules downstream from the receptor, we provide evidence that activation of STAT3, via either JAK2 and/or PI3K, through a single (JAK2/PI3K/STAT3 or two convergent cascades (JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/STAT3, is necessary for nicotine-induced IRAK-M expression. Moreover, down-regulation of this expression by small interfering RNAs specific to the IRAK-M gene significantly reverses the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Interestingly, macrophages pre-exposed to nicotine exhibit higher IRAK-M levels and reduced TNF-α response to an additional LPS challenge, a behavior reminiscent of the 'endotoxin tolerant' phenotype identified in monocytes either pre-exposed to LPS or from immunocompromised septic patients. Since nicotine is a major component of tobacco smoke and increased IRAK-M expression has been considered one of the molecular determinants for the induction of the tolerant phenotype, our findings showing IRAK-M overexpression could partially explain the known influence of smoking on the onset and progression of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  1. Nonleptonic kaon decays and nonperturbative QCD effects in chiral-bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Tadic, D.

    1988-05-01

    The instanton induced-term, proposed by Konishi and Ranfone (1985) was introduced in the chiral-bag model based analysis of K -> 2..pi.. decays. Almost perfect fit of the experimental data was possible with the induced-term coefficient C/sub 1/ tilde approx. = 1,4. However, this conclusion, which is appreciably larger than the rough theoretical estimate (which was C/sub 1/ tilde = 0.15 m/sub s/..mu..) depends on the approximation used in the theoretical approach. (orig.HSI)

  2. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  3. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  4. Casimir effect at nonzero temperature for wedges and cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å; Milton, Kimball A

    2010-01-01

    We consider the Casimir-Helmholtz free energy at nonzero temperature $T$ for a circular cylinder and perfectly conducting wedge closed by a cylindrical arc, either perfectly conducting or isorefractive. The energy expression at nonzero temperature may be regularized to obtain a finite value, except for a singular corner term in the case of the wedge which is present also at zero temperature. Assuming the medium in the interior of the cylinder or wedge be nondispersive with refractive index $n$, the temperature dependence enters only through the non-dimensional parameter $2\\pi naT$, $a$ being the radius of the cylinder or cylindrical arc. We show explicitly that the known zero temperature result is regained in the limit $aT\\to 0$ and that previously derived high temperature asymptotics for the cylindrical shell are reproduced exactly.

  5. Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Policy Partners Climate Effects on Health Air Pollution Allergens Wildfires Temperature Extremes Precipitation Extremes Diseases Carried by Vectors Food and Waterborne Diarrheal Disease Food Security Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders Climate-Ready States and ...

  6. Effects of

    OpenAIRE

    Gowthaman, S.; A. P. Sathiyagnanam

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI) fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure ...

  7. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  8. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  9. Effects of ractopamine administration and castration method on the response to preslaughter stress and carcass and meat quality in pigs of two Piétrain genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L M; Bridi, A M; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Weschenfelder, A V; Devillers, N; Bertoloni, W; Faucitano, L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine supplementation, castration method, and their interaction on the behavioral and physiological response to preslaughter stress and carcass and meat quality of 2 Piétrain genotypes. A total of 1,488 male pigs (115 ± 5 kg BW) were distributed according to a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was ractopamine supplementation with 2 groups of pigs (376 and 380 pigs each) receiving 7.5 mg/kg of ractopamine (RAC) or not (NRAC) in their diet during the last 28 d of the finishing period. The second factor was castration method, with 744 surgical castrates (SC) and 744 immunized males (IM), and the third factor was the genotype with 2 crossbreeds containing 50% (genotype A, GA; n = 744) or 25% (genotype B, GB; n = 744) Piétrain genetics. Surgical castration took place at 2 d of age, whereas immunization against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) was performed through 2 subcutaneous injections of GnRF analog (Improvest, 2 mL) at 10 and 4 wk before slaughter. At loading more vocal stimulation was needed by the handler to drive GB pigs forward through the farm alley (P = 0.01) and RAC-fed GB pigs through the ramp (P = 0.02). Feeding RAC to IM increased the number of fights in lairage compared with SC (P = 0.03). Feeding RAC shortened fighting bouts compared with NRAC pigs (P = 0.05). The SC-GA pigs showed a greater gastrointestinal tract temperature during unloading (P = 0.05) and lairage time (P = 0.03). Blood creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) in SC compared with IM, and no difference was found in the concentrations of stress hormones in urine collected postmortem. Dressing yield was greater (P = 0.01) in RAC and SC-GB pigs. Carcasses from RAC pigs and IM were leaner than those from NRAC and SC pigs (P pigs and from IM compared with SC (P = 0.01 and P pigs (P = 0.006). In conclusion, immunization against GnRF more than the use of Pi

  10. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  11. Monday effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vicent Almela, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Economia. Codi: EC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 Monday effect consists of fuel price falling between Monday and Sunday, followed by price increases during the following days. It is coincidentally on Monday when the European Commission collects fuel prices data to be able to elaborate statistics. In this essay we have firstly studied which has been the recent evolution of the Monday effect in our country. After that we have analysed the magnitude and the...

  12. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  13. EFFECTS OF MUTATIONS IN THE POLYMERASE GENE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOME ON LAMIVUDINE THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维莅; 王学锋; 璩斌; 胡炯; 沈志祥; 王鸿利

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the hernostatic disorders in acute leukemia (AL) and their relations to FAB classification and bleeding symptom. Methods A series of hemostatic parameters were measured among 93 cases of AL using ELISA or chromogenic substrate assay. Results Plasma level of thrombomodulin (TM), platelet a-granular membrane protein ( GMP-140 ), soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), tissue plasminogen activator activity, D-dimer (D-D) elevated significantly at diagnosis, while the antigen level of protein C (PC: Ag), plasminogen activity ( PLG : A ), a2-plasmin inhibitor ( a2-PI : A ) and plasminogen activator inhibitor activity decreased , and the activity of PC (PC:A) and PS remained unchanged. All the above variables returned to normal after complete remission except that PC: A and PC: Ag remained increasing. Platelet counts, fibrinogen ( Fg ) , SFMC , PLG : A , α2-PI : A and D-D were related to hemorrhagic manifestation. Conclusion There existed injury of vascular endothelium , consumption of platelets as well as activation of coagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic system in AL, which can be greatly improved after complete remission. The hemostatic abnormality varied with different types. Fg, SFMC and D-D sont les plus variables suivantl'intensite hemorragique.

  14. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.;

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy...

  15. and Effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes and Effects. Viljoen 1/W, PhD, Panzer/l, MBChB, PhD. Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Faculty .... transducer, while a type II IL-1 receptor ... and indirectly cause all symptoms of .... e.g. the fear motivational state may take.

  16. Tectonomagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the actual stress within the Earth and its changes with time are very difficult. It is much easier to monitor the direct effects of this stress, such as ground strain, or the indirect effects, such as changes in resistivity, strain, changes in seismic velocity or changes in magnetic field, and so forth. The latter technique is one of the more promising methods for monitoring substantial volumes of the Earth's crust near active faults with only a few instruments. It derives from the piezomagnetic properties of rocks (that is, the change in rock magnetization and, therefore, local magnetic field due to a change in applied stress). AS stress and strain fields along active faults vary, these variations should be reflected in changing local magnetic fields. In particular, rapidly changing fields might be expected to occur just before a large earthquake.

  17. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  18. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  19. AFTER EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    创建物体动画最快速的方法是使用运动捕捉,这是一种以真实世界物体为动画而提供的运动。现在打开光盘After Effects Shortcut文件夹中的文件,依照我们循序渐进的技巧教程来学习如何使用这种方法。

  20. Effects of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gowthaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure in the port fuel injector is varied from 3 bar to 5 bar respectively. From the results, the optimum inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure for efficient HCCI engine operation are identified. The result shows that, brake thermal efficiency of HCCI is nearer to the value of conventional diesel engine, and can be obtained if HCCI engine operates with 5 bar injection pressure and 60 °C air temperature and a simultaneous reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx and smoke emissions compared to conventional diesel engine. However, when inlet air is heated for improvement of vaporisation of diesel fuel, the higher inlet air temperature limits the operation range of HCCI engine, due to high knocking intensity, high NOx emissions and misfire of charge. The fuel injection pressure is also limited due to high level of HC and NOx emissions.

  1. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  2. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  3. CP violation in kaon decays

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, G

    1996-01-01

    We review the Standard Model predictions of CP violation in kaon decays. We present an elementary introduction to Chiral Perturbation Theory, four--quark effective hamiltonians and the relation among them. Particular attention is devoted to $K\\to 3\\pi$, $K\\to 2\\pi \\gamma$ and $K\\to \\pi \\bar{f} f$ decays.

  4. The ZpiM algorithm: a method for interferometric image reconstruction in SAR/SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, José M B; Leitao, José M N

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an effective algorithm for absolute phase (not simply modulo-2-pi) estimation from incomplete, noisy and modulo-2pi observations in interferometric aperture radar and sonar (InSAR/InSAS). The adopted framework is also representative of other applications such as optical interferometry, magnetic resonance imaging and diffraction tomography. The Bayesian viewpoint is adopted; the observation density is 2-pi-periodic and accounts for the interferometric pair decorrelation and system noise; the a priori probability of the absolute phase is modeled by a compound Gauss-Markov random field (CGMRF) tailored to piecewise smooth absolute phase images. We propose an iterative scheme for the computation of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) absolute phase estimate. Each iteration embodies a discrete optimization step (Z-step), implemented by network programming techniques and an iterative conditional modes (ICM) step (pi-step). Accordingly, the algorithm is termed ZpiM, where the letter M stands for maximization. An important contribution of the paper is the simultaneous implementation of phase unwrapping (inference of the 2pi-multiples) and smoothing (denoising of the observations). This improves considerably the accuracy of the absolute phase estimates compared to methods in which the data is low-pass filtered prior to unwrapping. A set of experimental results, comparing the proposed algorithm with alternative methods, illustrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Influence of collision energy on cross section and stereodynamical properties for the reaction H + OCl {yields} OH + Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Shengwen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116021 (China); Wang Yunhui [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu Ruifeng, E-mail: rflu@mail.njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2012-06-19

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first QCT investigation for the reaction H + OCl {yields} OH + Cl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of collision energy on scalar properties including reaction probability and the integral cross-section. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full information about stereodynamics of product alignment and orientation. - Abstract: The quasi-classical trajectory calculations are carried out for the reaction H + OCl {yields} OH + Cl on the singlet ground state potential energy surface. The reaction probability for total angular momentum J = 0 and the integral cross section as a function of collision energy are presented. Furthermore, the product rotational alignment has been obtained, and the value tends to decrease with the increasing of collision energy with fluctuations. To investigate the collision-energy-dependent effects on chemical stereodynamics, the four generalized polarization-dependent differential cross sections (2{pi}/{sigma})(d{sigma}{sub 00}/d{omega}{sub t}), (2{pi}/{sigma})(d{sigma}{sub 20}/d{omega}{sub t}), (2{pi}/{sigma})(d{sigma}{sub 22+}/d{omega}{sub t}) and (2{pi}/{sigma})(d{sigma}{sub 21-}/d{omega}{sub t}), the distribution P({theta}{sub r}) of the angle between j Prime -k and the angle distribution P({phi}{sub r}) in terms of k-k Prime -j Prime correlation have also been calculated.

  6. NO( X sup 2. Pi. ) product state distributions in molecule--surface collision-induced dissociation: Direct inelastic scattering of n , i -C sub 3 F sub 7 NO from MgO(100) at E sub incident le 7. 0 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodney, E.; Powers, P.S.; Hodgson, L.; Reisler, H.; Wittig, C. (Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (US))

    1991-02-01

    Molecule--surface collision-induced dissociation (CID) has been studied for {ital n}-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}NO and {ital i}-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}NO molecular beams scattered from MgO(100) at incident kinetic energies ({ital E}{sub incident}) up to 7 eV. The NO fragment was detected state selectively using two-photon, two-frequency ionization, and rotational and spin--orbit distributions are reported for several {ital E}{sub incident} values. State and angle-resolved signals were integrated to give CID yields, which increased sharply with {ital E}{sub incident} . In most cases, rotational excitation could be described by separate temperatures for each spin--orbit state. The upper {sup 2}{product}{sub 3/2} state was underpopulated relative to statistical predictions (e.g., for {ital n}-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}NO at {ital E}{sub incident} =5.0 eV, the spin--orbit temperature was {similar to}170 K, while {ital T}{sub rot} was {similar to}500 K). The CID results are compared to NO state distributions derived from the photodissociation of expansion-cooled molecules under collision-free conditions, at different energies ({ital E}{sup {dagger}}) above {ital D}{sub 0}. These distributions were measured for both {ital n}-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}NO and {ital i}-C{sub 3}F{sub 7}NO up to {ital E}{sup {dagger}}{similar to}4500 cm{sup {minus}1}, and rotational excitation within each spin--orbit state was statistical, except at {ital E}{sup {dagger}}{ge}3000 cm{sup {minus}1}. As with CID, a low ({sup 2}{product}{sub 3/2})/({sup 2}{product}{sub 1/2}) ratio was observed, and the reaction mechanism is probably unimolecular decomposition via the lowest triplet surface {ital T}{sub 1} with little or no exit channel barrier. The pronounced similarities between the CID and photodissociation results suggest that common reaction mechanisms {ital may} be operative.

  7. Close relation between antinodal Fermi-surface effect and superconductivity in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hisatoshi, E-mail: yoko@cmpt.phys.tohoku.ac.j [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ogata, Masao [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kenji [Department of Natural Sciences, Chiba Institute of Technology, Shibazono, Narashino 275-0023 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    A strongly correlated Hubbard (t-t{sup '}-U) model is studied using a variational Monte Carlo method. The magnitude of momentum distribution function n(k) varies slightly near the nodal quasi-Fermi surface [{approx}({pi}/2,{pi}/2)], but varies outstandingly in an antinodal part [near ({pi},0)], as the value of t{sup '}/t varies, which is sensitive to the strength of superconductivity. Furthermore, the behavior of the slope of n(k) around ({pi},0) coincides well with that of the d-wave superconducting correlation function. It follows the electrons near the antinode play a leading role to control the strength of superconductivity.

  8. Possible resonance effect of axionic dark matter in S/N/S Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We provide theoretical arguments that dark matter axions from the galactic halo that pass through the earth may generate a small observable signal in resonant S/N/S Josephson junctions. The corresponding interaction process is based on uniqueness of the gauge-invariant axion Josephson phase angle modulo 2 pi and is predicted to produce a small Shapiro step-like feature without externally applied microwave radiation when the Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass. A resonance signal of so far unknown origin observed in [C. Hoffmann et al. PRB 70, 180503(R) (2004)] is consistent with our theory and can be interpreted in terms of an axion mass of 0.11 meV and a local galactic axionic dark matter density of 0.05 GeV/cm^3. We discuss future experimental checks to confirm the dark-matter nature of the observed signal.

  9. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  10. Effects of strong stratification on equatorward dynamo wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Käpylä, Petri J; Cole, Elizabeth; Warnecke, Jörn; Brandenburg, Axel

    2013-01-01

    We present results from simulations of rotating magnetized turbulent convection in spherical wedge geometry representing parts of the latitudinal and longitudinal extents of a star. Here we consider a set of runs for which the density stratification is varied, keeping the Reynolds and Coriolis numbers at similar values. In the case of weak stratification we find quasi-steady solutions for moderate rotation and oscillatory dynamos with poleward migration of activity belts for more rapid rotation. For stronger stratification a similar transition as a function of the Coriolis number is found, but with an equatorward migrating branch near the equator. We test the domain size dependence of our results for a rapidly rotating run with equatorward migration by varying the longitudinal extent of our wedge. The energy of the axisymmetric mean magnetic field decreases as the domain size increases and we find that an m=1 mode is excited for a full 2pi phi-extent, reminiscent of the field configurations deduced from obser...

  11. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  12. On Effect Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  13. On Effect Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ken; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The call for researchers to report and interpret effect sizes and their corresponding confidence intervals has never been stronger. However, there is confusion in the literature on the definition of effect size, and consequently the term is used inconsistently. We propose a definition for effect size, discuss 3 facets of effect size (dimension,…

  14. Decomposable Effectivity Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Decomposable effectivity functions are introduced as an extension of additive effectivity functions. Whereas additive effectivity functions are determined by pairs of additive TU-games, decomposable effectivity functions are generated by pairs of TU-games that need not be additive. It turns out that

  15. Hall effect accompanying a static skin effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkenshtein, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Startsev, V.E.; Cherepanov, A.N.; Glin' skii, M.

    1985-05-10

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of tungsten single crystals with rho/sub 293K//rho/sub 4.2K/ = 80 000 have been measured at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The results reveal that a static skin effect gives rise to an anomalously pronounced increase in the Hall coefficient.

  16. 双水平无创正压通气对艾滋病合并肺孢子菌肺炎的治疗分析%Clinical analysis of non-invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the treatment of AIDS patients complicated with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅; 曹培明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨双水平无创正压通气(BiPAP)对艾滋病合并肺孢子菌肺炎所致氧合指数(PaO2/PiO2)<300mmHg 的患者的治疗效果。方法将明确诊断 AIDS 合并 PCP,PaO2/ PiO2<300mmHg 的患者99例,以是否接受 BiPAP 治疗分为对照组和观察组,观察 PaO2、PaO2/ PiO2、R 的改善程度和时间;对呼吸困难改善时间、使用有创呼吸机率、住院时间和病死率进行比较。结果观察组与对照组相比,在 PaO2、PaO2/ PiO2、R、住院时间、病死率、有创呼吸机使用率上进行统计学对比分析,P <0.05,有统计学意义。结论 BiPAP 在AIDS 合并 PCP 中的运用能及时有效提高 PaO2/ PiO2,改善症状,降低病死率,可积极推广。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of bi-level positive airway pressure ( BiPAP) in the treatment of AIDS patients complicated with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Methods 99 AIDS patients complicated with PCP (PaO2 / PiO2 < 300mmHg) were divided into 2 groups based on the use of NIPPV or not. The improvement of PaO2 , PaO2 / PiO2 and R was observed, and the improvement time of dyspnea, the time of using inva-sive ventilator, and the duation of hospital stay and mortality were compared between the two groups. Results The improvement of PaO2 , PaO2 / PiO2 , R, duration of hospital stay and mortality was more pronounced in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0. 05). Conclusion It is an effective method to use BiPAP in the treatment AIDS patients complicated with PCP, which can effectively improve PaO2 / PiO2 , and decline mortality.

  17. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effects-specification process from a project that was conducted during the fall 2010 and spring of 2011 in this chapter. The project configured and implemented an electronic patient record system at a maternity ward at a hospital located in a European region. The process comprised...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....... workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...

  18. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  19. TREATMENT EFFECTS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma J. Mielenz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy researchers are interested in how beneficial an intervention is or the “treatment effect.” There are many measures of treatment effect that are applicable for understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. Given that each treatment effect has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, understanding these characteristics can help guide which measure is most appropriate for a specific study. This article presents the more common treatment effects for both dichotomous and continues outcomes. The overall aim is to serve as a guide to newer physical therapy researchers on using and interpreting treatment effects.

  20. [Placebo and placebo effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulas, J-J

    2005-11-01

    The word placebo appeared for the first time in an English medical dictionary in 1785. In French, it appeared much latter in 1958. This word defines an experimental tool used for rigourous evaluation of a specific effect of pharmacological treatment and the non specific effect of any therapy. The placebo effect is the strictly psychological or psychophysiological effect of a placebo. The two principal components of placebo effect as a pain killer, which has been extensively studied in this field, are positive expectancies of both the patient and the physician. Although the mechanisms of action of placebo effect are not well understood, results of several recent works are particularly interesting.

  1. Effective Business Communication requires effective practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨福明

    2011-01-01

    @@ The topic of this essay is that effective businees communication requires effective practices.This essay will focus on communication practices that can assist an organi- zation in reaching its strategic goals and objectives.This article will present this topic by analyzing the communication theory, writing process and business writing style, team building and interpersonal communication, negotiation and persuasion tech- niques and intercultural communication.

  2. Memory effects in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  3. Characteristics of Effective Argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frana, Adrian W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how the 1988 Presidential Debates provide a resource for effective instruction in public argument. Provides several examples of effective (and ineffective) argumentative speaking taken from the debates. (MM)

  4. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  5. Gravitomagnetic Effect in Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Bandyopadhyay, Debades

    2016-01-01

    Rotating bodies in General Relativity produce frame dragging (or Lense-Thirring effect), also known as the {\\it Gravitomagnetic effect} in analogy with Classical Electromagnetism. In this work, we study the effect of strong magnetic fields in neutron stars on the Gravitomagnetic effect, which is produced as a result of its rotation. We show that the magnetic field has a non-negligible impact on frame dragging. The maximum effect of the magnetic field appears along the polar direction, where the Lense-Thirring frequency decreases with increase in magnetic field, and along the equatorial direction, where its magnitude increases. For intermediate angles, the effect of the magnetic field decreases, and goes through a minimum for a particular angular value at which magnetic field has no effect on Gravitomagnetism. Beyond that particular angle Gravitomagnetic effect increases with increasing magnetic field. We try to identify this "Null Region" for the case of magnetars, both inside and outside, as a function of th...

  6. Multipollutant health effect simulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Resulting betas (health effects) from a variety of copollutant epidemiologic models used to analyze the impact of exposure measurement error on health effect...

  7. Prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, O O; Pokrovskii, M V; Konovalenko, A B

    2002-08-01

    We studied the possibility of using prooxidant effects of nitrofurantoin (furadonin) for stimulation of the natural antioxidant systems for preventing myocardial damage after coronary occlusion. A pronounced cardioprotective effect of the drug was observed.

  8. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  9. Effects of teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning.......The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....

  10. Effective graph resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Spieksma, F.M.; Mieghem, P. van; Jamakovic, A.; Kooij, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies an interesting graph measure that we call the effective graph resistance. The notion of effective graph resistance is derived from the field of electric circuit analysis where it is defined as the accumulated effective resistance between all pairs of vertices. The objective of the

  11. Photon thermal Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e.Righi-Leduc effect) in lattices of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This effect is related to a symetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat-transport by photon tunneling thanks to the particles anisotropy tuning.

  12. Magnetic effects in electrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of imposed magnetic fields onto the electrodeposition of magnetic (nickel and non – magnetic (copper metals was analysed. Also, magnetic properties of electrochemically obtained nanocontacts were examined. An effort to establish a possible correlation between the morphologies of the nanocontacts and the effect of the very large ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR effect was made.

  13. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  14. Nonlinear optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Barclay, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    A photonic crystal optomechanical system combining strong nonlinear optomechanical coupling, low effective mass and large optical mode spacing is introduced. This nanoscale "paddle nanocavity" device supports mechanical resonances with effective mass of 300--600 fg which couple nonlinearly to co-localized optical modes with a quadratic optomechanical coupling coefficient $g^{(2)} > 2\\pi\\times400$ MHz/nm$^2$, and a two phonon to single photon optomechanical coupling rate $\\Delta \\omega_0 > 2\\pi\\times 16$ Hz. This coupling relies on strong phonon-photon interactions in a structure whose optical mode spectrum is highly non--degenerate. Simulations indicate that nonlinear optomechanical readout of thermally driven motion in these devices should be observable for T $> 50 $ mK, and that measurement of phonon shot noise is achievable.

  15. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  16. EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.

  17. The Hubble effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T.M.; Miao, S.P.; Prokopec, T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R.P., E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We generalize the effective potential to scalar field configurations which are proportional to the Hubble parameter of a homogeneous and isotropic background geometry. This may be useful in situations for which curvature effects are significant. We evaluate the one loop contribution to the Hubble Effective Potential for a massless scalar with arbitrary conformal and quartic couplings, on a background for which the deceleration parameter is constant. Among other things, we find that inflationary particle production leads to symmetry restoration at late times.

  18. Effective School Counseling Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Lilley, Stacey Custer

    2007-01-01

    Despite much attention given to effective teams in the workplace, school counseling teams have been neglected in the research. The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn what characteristics secondary counselors perceive contribute to an effective school counseling team. The first research phase conducted six team interviews; themes emerging from the interviews yielded the development of the Effective School Counseling Team Questionnaire (ESCTQ). The following research quest...

  19. Educational effectiveness: Key findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent and advanced studies on educational effectiveness. Section on integrated school effectiveness research is followed by a section on conceptually integrated models. The subsequent two sections focus on more methodological limitations of past research: the failure to accommodate the hierarchical nature of schooling and the inability to capture teacher effects. Finally, the last section sums up all relevant facts and research strands.

  20. Atomic lighthouse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, C E; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease in magnetic field efficiency.

  1. The Atomic Lighthouse Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Máximo, C E; Courteille, Ph W; Bachelard, R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the deflection of light by a cold atomic cloud when the light-matter interaction is locally tuned via the Zeeman effect using magnetic field gradients. This "lighthouse" effect is strongest in the single-scattering regime, where deviation of the incident field is largest. For optically dense samples, the deviation is reduced by collective effects, as the increase in linewidth leads to a decrease of the magnetic field efficiency.

  2. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  3. Multicaloric effect: An outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopson, Melvin M.

    2017-05-01

    In 2017 the scientific community celebrates 100 years since Weiss and Piccard made the first observation of a caloric effect in magnetic materials, when studying temperature changes in Nickel subjected to applied magnetic fields near the Curie transition temperature [1]. The effect was called the magneto-caloric effect. A thermodynamic formulation of the adiabatic magneto-caloric refrigeration was given independently by Debye [2] and Giauque [3] in 1920s, followed by the first experimental confirmation of adiabatic refrigeration in 1933 [4]. Since then, the research field has expanded considerably and other interesting caloric effects have been discovered in materials displaying different forms of ferroic order.

  4. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  5. Effective lecture presentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelula, M H

    1997-02-01

    Lectures are the most popular form of teaching in medical education. As much as preparation and organization are key to the lecture's success, the actual presentation also depends upon the presenter's ability to reach the audience. Teaching is a lively activity. It calls for more than just offering ideas and data to an audience. It calls for direct contact with the audience, effective use of language, capability to use limited time effectively, and the ability to be entertaining. This article offers a structure to effective lecturing by highlighting the importance of voice clarity and speaking speed, approaches to using audiovisual aids, effectively using the audience to the lecture, and ways to be entertaining.

  6. Casimir effects for a flat plasma sheet: I. Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    We study a fluid model of an infinitesimally thin plasma sheet occupying the xy plane, loosely imitating a single base plane from graphite. In terms of the fluid charge e/a{sup 2} and mass m/a{sup 2} per unit area, the crucial parameters are q nsce 2{pi}e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}a{sup 2}, a Debye-type cutoff K{identical_to}{radical}(4{pi})/a on surface-parallel normal-mode wavenumbers k, and X nsce K/q. The cohesive energy {beta} per unit area is determined from the zero-point energies of the exact normal modes of the plasma coupled to the Maxwell field, namely TE and TM photon modes, plus bound modes decaying exponentially with vertical bar zvertical bar. Odd-parity modes (with E{sub x,y}(z = 0) = 0) are unaffected by the sheet except for their overall phases, and are irrelevant to {beta}, although the following paper shows that they are essential to the fields (e.g. to their vacuum expectation values), and to the stresses on the sheet. Realistically one has X >> 1, the result {beta} {approx} {Dirac_h}cq{sup 1/2}K{sup 5/2} is nonrelativistic, and it comes from the surface modes. By contrast, X << 1 (nearing the limit of perfect reflection) would entail {beta} {approx} -{Dirac_h}cqK{sup 2}log(1/X): contrary to folklore, the surface energy of perfect reflectors is divergent rather than zero. An appendix spells out the relation, for given k, between bound modes and photon phase-shifts. It is very different from Levinson's theorem for 1D potential theory: cursory analogies between TM and potential scattering are apt to mislead.

  7. Dropping Sigma-Meson Mass and In-Medium S-Wave pion-pion Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Aouissat, Z; Schuck, P; Wambach, J

    1999-01-01

    The influence of a dropping sigma-meson mass on previously calculated in-medium pion-pion correlations in the J=I=0 (sigma-meson) channel is investigated. It is found that the invariant-mass distribution around the vacuum threshold experiences a further strong enhancement with respect to standard many-body effects. The relevance of this result for the explanation of recent $A(\\pi,2\\pi)X$ data is pointed out.

  8. CCTV Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuijsen, G.P. van; Hoof, H.A.J.M. van; Klima, M.; Roubik, K.; Bernas, M.; Pata, P.

    2006-01-01

    The field of CCTV surveillance is topical and widely used in many different applications. The fundamental part of the CCTV system is a reliable image evaluation by a human observer, whose effectiveness is influenced by many variables. Optimization of the effectiveness is a multidimensional problem r

  9. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  10. The Chelate Effect Redefined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. J. R. Frausto

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ambiguities of the accepted definition of the chelate effect, suggesting that it be defined in terms of experimental observation rather than mathematical abstraction. Indicates that the effect depends on free energy change in reaction, ligand basicity, pH of medium, type of chelates formed, and concentration of ligands in solution. (JN)

  11. Defining Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at the meaning of specific terminology commonly used in student surveys: "effective teaching." The research seeks to determine if there is a difference in how "effective teaching" is defined by those taking student surveys and those interpreting the results. To investigate this difference, a sample group of professors and students…

  12. PLEYOTROPIC EFFECTS OF METFORMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ju. Morgunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin, traditionally used for the therapy of diabetes mellitus, possesses a number of diverse pleyotropic effects. The drug, in addition to the glucose-lowering actions, has a beneficial effect on components of the metabolic syndrome, significantly reduces body weight.

  13. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  14. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  15. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross...

  16. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  17. School effectiveness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, J.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    School effectiveness research is described as the scientific approach to determine the causal influence of malleable conditions of schooling. The article describes how different strands of school effectiveness have developed and are now increasingly combined into more integrative approaches. The kno

  18. Occlusion effects, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    The present report studies the mechanism of the occlusion effect by means of literature studies, experiments and model estimates. A mathematical model of the occlusion effect is developed. The model includes the mechanical properties of the earmould and the airborne sound as well as the body...

  19. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.

  20. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  1. Correlational effect size benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Frank A; Aguinis, Herman; Singh, Kulraj; Field, James G; Pierce, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Effect size information is essential for the scientific enterprise and plays an increasingly central role in the scientific process. We extracted 147,328 correlations and developed a hierarchical taxonomy of variables reported in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology from 1980 to 2010 to produce empirical effect size benchmarks at the omnibus level, for 20 common research domains, and for an even finer grained level of generality. Results indicate that the usual interpretation and classification of effect sizes as small, medium, and large bear almost no resemblance to findings in the field, because distributions of effect sizes exhibit tertile partitions at values approximately one-half to one-third those intuited by Cohen (1988). Our results offer information that can be used for research planning and design purposes, such as producing better informed non-nil hypotheses and estimating statistical power and planning sample size accordingly. We also offer information useful for understanding the relative importance of the effect sizes found in a particular study in relationship to others and which research domains have advanced more or less, given that larger effect sizes indicate a better understanding of a phenomenon. Also, our study offers information about research domains for which the investigation of moderating effects may be more fruitful and provide information that is likely to facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analysis. Finally, our study offers information that practitioners can use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various types of interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  3. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  4. Nocebo effect in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Sonthalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocebo effect, originally denoting the negative counterpart of the placebo phenomenon, is now better defined as the occurrence of adverse effects to a therapeutic intervention because the patient expects them to develop. More commonly encountered in patients with a past negative experience, this effect stems from highly active processes in the central nervous system, mediated by specific neurotransmitters and modulated by psychological mechanisms such as expectation and conditioning. The magnitude of nocebo effect in clinical medicine is being increasingly appreciated and its relevance encompasses clinical trials as well as clinical practice. Although there is hardly any reference to the term nocebo in dermatology articles, the phenomenon is encountered routinely by dermatologists. Dermatology patients are more susceptible to nocebo responses owing to the psychological concern from visibility of skin lesions and the chronicity, unpredictable course, lack of ′permanent cure′ and frequent relapses of skin disorders. While finasteride remains the prototypical drug that displays a prominent nocebo effect in dermatologic therapeutics, other drugs such as isotretinoin are also likely inducers. This peculiar phenomenon has recently been appreciated in the modulation of itch perception and in controlled drug provocation tests in patients with a history of adverse drug reactions. Considering the conflict between patients′ right to information about treatment related adverse effects and the likelihood of nocebo effect stemming from information disclosure, the prospect of ethically minimizing nocebo effect remains daunting. In this article, we review the concept of nocebo effect, its postulated mechanism, relevance in clinical dermatology and techniques to prevent it from becoming a barrier to effective patient management.

  5. Observation of Single-Photon Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y F; Liu, Y C; Yu, I A; Chen, Yong-Fan; Tsai, Zen-Hsiang; Liu, Yu-Chen; Yu, Ite A.

    2005-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of single-photon switching in laser-cooled $^{87}$Rb atoms. A resonant probe pulse with an energy per unit area of one photon per $\\lambda^2/2\\pi$ propagates through the optically thick atoms. Its energy transmittance is greater than 63% or loss is less than $e^{-1}$ due to the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. In the presence of a switching pulse with an energy per unit area of 1.4 photons per $\\lambda^2/2\\pi$, the energy transmittance of the same probe pulse becomes less than 37% or $e^{-1}$. This substantial reduction of the probe transmittance caused by single switching photons has potential applications in single-photon-level nonlinear optics and the manipulation of quantum information.

  6. Parametric Optomechanical Oscillations in Two-dimensional Slot-type High-Q Photonic Crystal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng J.; Stein A.; Li, Y.; Aras, M.S.; Shepard, K.L.; Wong, C.W.

    2012-05-22

    We experimentally demonstrate an optomechanical cavity based on an air-slot photonic crystal cavity with optical quality factor Q{sub o} = 4.2 x 10{sup 4} and a small modal volume of 0.05 cubic wavelengths. The optical mode is coupled with the in-plane mechanical modes with frequencies up to hundreds of MHz. The fundamental mechanical mode shows a frequency of 65 MHz and a mechanical quality factor of 376. The optical spring effect, optical damping, and amplification are observed with a large experimental optomechanical coupling rate g{sub om}/2{pi} of 154 GHz/nm, corresponding to a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g*/2{pi} of 707 kHz. With sub-mW or less input power levels, the cavity exhibits strong parametric oscillations. The phase noise of the photonic crystal optomechanical oscillator is also measured.

  7. Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.

    2016-05-01

    Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one-and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, Gamma(alpha)(mu), as fundamental. We use a novel representation of Gamma(alpha)(mu), in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, K, that is symmetry consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalize on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of H-diagrams in K, which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of Gamma(alpha)(mu) in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class of crossed-box diagrams. Thus, there are no general circumstances under which the WGT identities essential for a valid description of mesons can be preserved by a Bethe-Salpeter kernel obtained simply by dressing both gluon-quark vertices in a ladderlike truncation; and, moreover, adding any number of similarly dressed crossed-box diagrams cannot improve the situation.

  8. Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D

    2016-01-01

    Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one- and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound-states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$, as fundamental. We use a novel representation of $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$, in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, $K$, that is symmetry-consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalise on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of $H$-diagrams in $K$, which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$ in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class...

  9. Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.

    2016-05-01

    Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one- and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, Γμa , as fundamental. We use a novel representation of Γμa , in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, K , that is symmetry consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalize on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of H -diagrams in K , which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of Γμa in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class of crossed-box diagrams. Thus, there are no general circumstances under which the WGT identities essential for a valid description of mesons can be preserved by a Bethe-Salpeter kernel obtained simply by dressing both gluon-quark vertices in a ladderlike truncation; and, moreover, adding any number of similarly dressed crossed-box diagrams cannot improve the situation.

  10. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  11. Bystander effects and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy.

  12. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    in a questionnaire based on their daily experience with their personal hearing aid. It turned out that 73% of these persons experienced a change in own voice, but both occlusion effects of acoustic, mechanical and biological origin were experienced. The same persons came into Oticon's clinic, where their hearing aid...... fitting and occlusion effect were evaluated. Occlusion effect was measured as the difference in real ear sound pressure level with and without hearing aid while the person was speaking. It was done both with the hearing aid turned off and with the hearing aid turned on. Relations between their experienced...

  13. Creating more effective graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Naomi B

    2012-01-01

    A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

  14. Seebeck effect in electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I; Shikin, V; Varlamov, A A

    2012-07-01

    We study Seebeck effect in liquid electrolytes, starting from its simple neutral analog--thermodiffusion (so-called Ludwig-Soret or Soret effect). It is observed that when two or more subsystems of mobile particles are subjected to the temperature gradient, various types of them respond to it differently. In the case when these fractions, with different mobility parameters (Soret coefficients), are oppositely charged (a case typical for electrolytes), the nonhomogeneous internal electric field is generated. The latter field prevents these fractions from space separation and determines the intensity of the appearing Seebeck effect.

  15. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  16. Complex Effective Action and Schwinger Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous pair production from background fields or spacetimes is one of the most prominent phenomena predicted by quantum field theory. The Schwinger mechanism of production of charged pairs by a strong electric field and the Hawking radiation of all species of particles from a black hole are the consequence of nonperturbative quantum effects. In this review article, the vacuum structure and pair production is reviewed in the in-out formalism, which provides a consistent framework for quantum field theory in the sense that the complex action explains not only the vacuum persistence but also pair production. The current technology of intense lasers is still lower by a few order than the Schwinger limit for electron-positron pair production, while magnetic fields of magnetars on the surface are higher than the Schwinger limit and even higher at the core. On the other hand, the zero effective mass of electron and hole in graphene and Dirac or Weyl semimetals will open a window for experimental test of quantum...

  17. Vaccine herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Vaccination ideally protects susceptible populations at high risk for complications of the infection. However, vaccines for these subgroups do not always provide sufficient effectiveness. The herd effect or herd immunity is an attractive way to extend vaccine benefits beyond the directly targeted population. It refers to the indirect protection of unvaccinated persons, whereby an increase in the prevalence of immunity by the vaccine prevents circulation of infectious agents in susceptible populations. The herd effect has had a major impact in the eradication of smallpox, has reduced transmission of pertussis, and protects against influenza and pneumococcal disease. A high uptake of vaccines is generally needed for success. In this paper we aim to provide an update review on the herd effect, focusing on the clinical benefit, by reviewing data for specific vaccines.

  18. Conditions for Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeannette T.

    1988-01-01

    The most effective college presidents are those whose leadership styles are dominant, decisive, and when appropriate, autocratic. The president has to believe profoundly in the intrinsic value of the college. (Author/MSE)

  19. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  20. The Effective Volunteer Teacher

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides information for volunteer teachers of adults and older youth on how to conduct an effective presentation. Topics include focus of presentation, characteristics of the learners, teaching methods, visual aides and evaluations.

  1. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  2. Developing Effective Working Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Roger, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two workshops are described in detail. One explores ways to increase the effectiveness of work groups and includes the workshop leader's personal observations. The second involves training transformational leaders, whose characteristics include idealized influence, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and inspirational…

  3. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it safely and effectively. By Mayo Clinic Staff Stretching may take a back seat to your exercise routine. The main concern is exercising, not stretching, right? Not so fast. Stretching may help you: ...

  4. Vascular Effects of Histamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    effects of histamine are mediated via H1 and H2 receptors and the actions are modulated by H3 receptor subtype ... Keywords: Histamine, Vascular smooth muscle, Endothelium .... responses to histamine, but not those to acetylcholine, were.

  5. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  6. Effects of New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Transnational implications of technological change and innovation in telecommunications are discussed, including impact on jobs and industrial relations, computer security, access to information, and effects of technological innovation on international economic systems. (SK)

  7. Dynamic Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model.

  8. the effects of Garlic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appetite and food selection. ... It is therefore recommended that garlic intake should be regulated to avoid some possible adverse effects ..... particularly reproductive hormones, on the peripheral ... the taste modulatory mechanism of raw garlic.

  9. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...

  10. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditions The Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for...

  11. Strategies for Effective Outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneta, Larry; Dillon, William L.

    2001-01-01

    Emphasizes strategies that can be employed for effective outsourcing in higher education settings. Several models of outsourcing are identified and described, and examples of institutions using each model are provided. (GCP)

  12. The Effects: Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  13. The Cosmological Memory Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to m...

  14. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow...... practices do not have direct effects on performance. Instead, standardized flow provided that foundation for companies to implement continuous improvement, which, in turn, directly affect performance positively. Another cause, in addition to flow practices, of continuous improvement was the delegation...

  15. Pharmacological Effects of Mangiferin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li

    2011-01-01

    Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.

  16. Radiative transfer dynamo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  17. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People's Bank of China,the country's central bank,published an article concerning China's managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank's website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China's macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.

  18. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  19. Extracardiac Effects of Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are one of the most commonly used drugs in the world. Although it plays a valuable role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, it has some extracardiac effects which are frequently ignored by physicians during routine practice. In this review we would like to summarise the potential beneficial or harmful extracardiac effects of statins which comprise a wide spectrum of systems and organs.

  20. SeD Radical: A probe for measurement of time variation of Fine Structure Constant($\\alpha$) and Proton to Electron Mass Ratio($\\mu$)

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, Gaurab; Mukherjee, Manas; Paul, Ankan

    2014-01-01

    Based on the spectroscopic constants derived from highly accurate potential energy surfaces, the SeD radical is identified as a spectroscopic probe for measuring spatial and temporal variation of fundamental physical constants such as the fine-structure constant (denoted as $\\alpha=\\frac{e^2}{\\hbar c}$) and the proton-to-electron mass ratio (denoted as $\\mu=\\frac{m_p}{m_e}$). The ground state of SeD ($X^2\\Pi$), due to spin-orbit coupling, splits into two fine structure multiplets $^2\\Pi_{\\frac{3}{2}}$ and $^2\\Pi_{\\frac{1}{2}}$. The potential energy surfaces of these spin-orbit components are derived from a state of the art electronic structure method, MRCI+Q inclusive of scalar relativistic effects with the spin-orbit effects accounted through the Breit-Pauli operator. The relevant spectroscopic data are evaluated using Murrel-Sorbie fit to the potential energy surfaces. The spin-orbit splitting($\\omega_f$) between the two multiplets is similar in magnitude with the harmonic frequency ($\\omega_e$) of the diat...

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  2. Pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasaraju Kavalipati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins or 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors not only prevents the synthesis of cholesterol biosynthesis but also inhibits the synthesis of essential isoprenoid intermediates such as farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, isopentanyl adenosine, dolichols and polyisoprenoid side chains of ubiquinone, heme A, and nuclear lamins. These isoprenoid intermediates are required for activation of various intracellular/signaling proteins- small guanosine triphosphate bound protein Ras and Ras-like proteins like Rho, Rab, Rac, Ral, or Rap which plays an indispensible role in multiple cellular processes. Reduction of circulating isoprenoids intermediates as a result of HMG CoA reductase inhibition by statins prevents activation of these signalling proteins. Hence, the multiple effects of statins such as antiinflammatory effects, antioxidant effects, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects, plaque stability, normalization of sympathetic outflow, and prevention of platelet aggregation are due to reduction of circulating isoprenoids and hence inactivation of signalling proteins. These multiple lipid-independent effects of statins termed as statin pleiotropy would potentially open floodgates for research in multiple treatment domains catching attentions of researchers and clinician across the globe.

  3. The Vampire Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erfgen, Carsten; Zenker, Sebastian; Sattler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus that fea......Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus...... that features a celebrity endorser versus the same stimulus with an unknown but equally attractive endorser. Because there is no agreement about whether this overshadowing really exists, this research analyzes the existence of the vampire effect and its moderators in a series of experiments with a total of 4......,970 respondents. The results provide important insights into how to avoid the vampire effect by creating appropriate conditions, such as high endorser–brand congruence or a strong cognitive link between the celebrity and the brand. Surprisingly, brand familiarity does not significantly moderate the effect....

  4. Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David L; Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa E; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine women's knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a contraceptive knowledge questionnaire that had been completed by 4144 women who were enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project before they received comprehensive contraceptive counseling and chose their method. For each contraceptive method, women were asked "what percentage would get pregnant in a year: 10%, don't know." Overall, 86% of subjects knew that the annual risk of pregnancy is >10% if no contraception is used. More than 45% of women overestimate the effectiveness of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, pills, the patch, the ring, and condoms. After adjustment for age, education, and contraceptive history, the data showed that women who chose the intrauterine device (adjusted relative risk, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.6-8.5) or implant (adjusted relative risk, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-7.3) were significantly more likely to identify the effectiveness of their method accurately compared with women who chose either the pill, patch, or ring. This cohort demonstrated significant knowledge gaps regarding contraceptive effectiveness and over-estimated the effectiveness of pills, the patch, the ring, depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, and condoms. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paramagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Pearson, John E.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, we generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. Using this technique at low temperatures (<20 K ), we resolve the paramagnetic spin Seebeck effect in the insulating paramagnets Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and DyScO3 (DSO), using either W or Pt as the spin detector layer. By taking advantage of the strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy of DSO, we eliminate contributions from the Nernst effect in W or Pt, which produces a phenomenologically similar signal.

  6. The Mozart Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R.

    2001-10-01

    This review deals with the Mozart Effect, an improvement of performance while listening to Mozart music. Previous studies have shown improved spatial temporal reasoning and improved IQ test results and neurophysiological changes, mainly increased coherence among different groups of subjects. This review emphasizes the effect on epileptiform patterns, both generalized and focal; provides an example of a chronic effect over a period of 1-2 days; addresses the distinctive aspects of the music to account for this phenomenon and shows that long-term periodicity in the power of the music is a special quality; and deals with the melodic line and shows that Mozart repeats the melodic line much more frequently than other well-known composers. It is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex resonates with great organization found in Mozart music.

  7. The quantum sweeper effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2015-07-01

    We show that during stochastic beam attenuation in double slit experiments, there appear unexpected new effects for transmission factors below a ≤ 10-4, which can eventually be observed with the aid of weak measurement techniques. These are denoted as quantum sweeper effects, which are characterized by the bunching together of low counting rate particles within very narrow spatial domains. We employ a “superclassical” modeling procedure which we have previously shown to produce predictions identical with those of standard quantum theory. Thus it is demonstrated that in reaching down to ever weaker channel intensities, the nonlinear nature of the probability density currents becomes ever more important. We finally show that the resulting unexpected effects nevertheless implicitly also exist in standard quantum mechanics.

  8. Cosmological memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  9. The Cosmological Memory Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Tolish, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of $(1 + z)$.

  10. Quantum Hamlet Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Panković, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    In this work, by use of a formalism similar to formalism of the quantum Zeno effect (decrease of the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurements) and quantum anti-Zeno effect (increase of the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurements), we introduce so-called quantum Hamlet effect. It represents a complete destruction of the quantum predictions on the decay probability of an unstable quantum system by frequent measurement. Precisely, by means of some especial, correctly defined, frequent measurements, decay probability of an unstable quantum system can behave as a divergent series without any definite value. In this way there is quantum mechanically completely unsolvable ``Hamlet dilemma'', to decay or not to decay.

  11. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Security effectiveness review (SER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouprianova, I. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ek, D.; Showalter, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bergman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    As part of the on-going DOE/Russian MPC and A activities at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) and in order to provide a basis for planning MPC and A enhancements, an expedient method to review the effectiveness of the MPC and A system has been adopted. These reviews involve the identification of appropriate and cost-effective enhancements of facilities at IPPE. This effort requires a process that is thorough but far less intensive than a traditional vulnerability assessment. The SER results in a quick assessment of current and needed enhancements. The process requires preparation and coordination between US and Russian analysts before, during, and after information gathering at the facilities in order that the analysis is accurate, effective, and mutually agreeable. The goal of this paper is to discuss the SER process, including the objectives, time scale, and lessons learned at IPPE.

  13. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  14. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  15. Picosecond Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T.; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G.

    2017-02-01

    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in normal metal /Y3Fe5 O12 bilayers driven by an interfacial temperature difference between electrons and magnons. The measured time evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across normal metal /Y3Fe5 O12 interfaces on a picosecond time scale, too short for contributions from a bulk temperature gradient in an yttrium iron garnet. The product of spin-mixing conductance and the interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is of the order of 108 A m-2 K-1 .

  16. Picosecond spin Seebeck effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kimling, Johannes; Choi, Gyung-Min; Brangham, Jack T.; Matalla-Wagner, Tristan; Huebner, Torsten; Kuschel, Timo; Yang, Fengyuan; Cahill, David G.

    2016-01-01

    We report time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect driven by an interfacial temperature difference between itinerant electrons and magnons. The measured time-evolution of spin accumulation induced by laser-excitation indicates transfer of angular momentum across Au/Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ and Cu/Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ interfaces on a picosecond time-scale. The product of spin-mixing conductance and interfacial spin Seebeck coefficient determined is...

  17. Casimir edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, H; Gies, Holger; Klingmuller, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We compute Casimir forces in open geometries with edges, involving parallel as well as perpendicular semi-infinite plates. We focus on Casimir configurations which are governed by a unique dimensional scaling law with a universal coefficient. With the aid of worldline numerics, we determine this coefficient for various geometries for the case of scalar-field fluctuations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Our results facilitate an estimate of the systematic error induced by the edges of finite plates, for instance, in a standard parallel-plate experiment. The Casimir edge effects for this case can be reformulated as an increase of the effective area of the configuration.

  18. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  19. Magnetic Nernst effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2015-09-01

    The thermodynamics of irreversible processes in continuous media predicts the existence of a magnetic Nernst effect that results from a magnetic analog to the Seebeck effect in a ferromagnet and magnetophoresis occurring in a paramagnetic electrode in contact with the ferromagnet. Thus, a voltage that has DC and AC components is expected across a Pt electrode as a response to the inhomogeneous magnetic induction field generated by magnetostatic waves of an adjacent YIG slab subject to a temperature gradient. The voltage frequency and dependence on the orientation of the applied magnetic induction field are quite distinct from that of spin pumping.

  20. Erythropoietin and Nonhematopoietic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoui, Alireza; Blaise, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red blood cell production. Since the 1990s, EPO has been used for the treatment of anemia associated with end-stage renal failure and chemotherapy. The erythropoietin receptors were found on other organs such as the brain, spinal cord, heart and skin. In addition, it has been shown that many tissues produce and locally release EPO in response to hypoxic, biochemical and physical stress. In cellular, animal and clinical studies, EPO protects tissues from ischemia and reperfusion injury, has antiapoptotic effects and improves regeneration after injury. In this article, we mainly review the nonhematopoietic effects and new possible clinical indications for EPO.

  1. The effect of Ad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小艳

    2010-01-01

    There is the trend that now people appreciate those who are slim and regard slim even thin people beautiful. The thinner a person is, the more beautiful. Women, born to pursuit beauty, try various means to follow the trend. We all watch TV, and find a lot of advertisements on diet. The effect of them is tremendous. We all know the fact that it is not at all the better mouse trap will catch mouse. The sales methods are more important. If an advertisement is very interesting and seemingly effective, people will be lured by the ad and then try some of the products.

  2. The Lazarus effect

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    Members of the RD39 collaboration stage a demonstration of the Lazarus effect in the CERN cryolab. At the LHC experiments, the front-line inner detectors - trackers - will be traversed by a mammoth thousand million million passing particles per square centimetre over the lifetimes of the experiments. After long exposure to passing particles, defects appear in the silicon and the signal is destroyed. A group of physicists at Bern University have found that at temperatures below 100 K, dead detectors apparently come back to life. They're calling their discovery the Lazarus effect after the Biblical character raised from the dead by Jesus after he had been entombed for four days.

  3. Level Width Broaden Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2004-01-01

    In fitting the double-differential measurements thelevelwidth broadening effect should be taken into account properly due to Heisenberg uncertainty.Besides level width broadening effect the energy resolution in the measurements is also needed in this procedure.In general,the traditional normal Gaussian expansion is employed.However,the research indicates that to do so in this way the energy balance could not hold.For this reason,the deformed Gaussian expansion functions with exponential form for both the single energy point and continuous spectrum are introduced,with which the normalization and energy balance conditions could hold exactly in the analytical form.

  4. Monetary Policy Proving Effective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Hu Xiaolian,Vice Governor of the People’s Bank of China,the country’s central bank, published an article concerning China’s managed floating exchange rate regime and the effectiveness of the monetary policy on the bank’s website on July 26.She pointed out monetary policy,as an important instrument of China’s macroeconomic control,has faced many challenges in recent years.A more flexible exchange rate regime will help improve the effectiveness of the policy.Edited excerpts follow

  5. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  6. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  7. Product spin-orbit state resolved dynamics of the H+H2O and H+D2O abstraction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, M; Burak, I; Marinakis, S; Rubio Lago, L; Tampkins, P; Vallance, C

    2004-12-01

    The product state-resolved dynamics of the reactions H+H(2)O/D(2)O-->OH/OD((2)Pi(Omega);v',N',f )+H(2)/HD have been explored at center-of-mass collision energies around 1.2, 1.4, and 2.5 eV. The experiments employ pulsed laser photolysis coupled with polarized Doppler-resolved laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH/OD radical products. The populations in the OH spin-orbit states at a collision energy of 1.2 eV have been determined for the H+H(2)O reaction, and for low rotational levels they are shown to deviate from the statistical limit. For the H+D(2)O reaction at the highest collision energy studied the OD((2)Pi(3/2),v'=0,N'=1,A') angular distributions show scattering over a wide range of angles with a preference towards the forward direction. The kinetic energy release distributions obtained at 2.5 eV also indicate that the HD coproducts are born with significantly more internal excitation than at 1.4 eV. The OD((2)Pi(3/2),v'=0,N'=1,A') angular and kinetic energy release distributions are almost identical to those of their spin-orbit excited OD((2)Pi(1/2),v'=0,N'=1,A') counterpart. The data are compared with previous experimental measurements at similar collision energies, and with the results of previously published quasiclassical trajectory and quantum mechanical calculations employing the most recently developed potential energy surface. Product OH/OD spin-orbit effects in the reaction are discussed with reference to simple models.

  8. An Ab Initio Study of the Low-Lying Doublet States of AgO and AgS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Spectroscopic constants (D(sub o), r(sub e), mu(sub e), T(sub e)) are determined for the doublet states of AgO and AgS below approx. = 30000/cm. Large valence basis sets are employed in conjunction with relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). Electron correlation is included using the modified coupled-pair functional (MCPF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods. The A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) - X(sup 2)Pi band system is found to occur in the near infrared (approx. = 9000/cm) and to be relatively weak with a radiative lifetime of 900 microns for A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) (upsilon = 0). The weakly bound C(sup 2)Pi state (our notation), the upper state of the blue system, is found to require high levels of theoretical treatment to determine a quantitatively accurate potential. The red system is assigned as a transition from the C(sup 2)Pi state to the previously unobserved A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) state. Several additional transitions are identified that should be detectable experimentally. A more limited study is performed for the vertical excitation spectrum of AgS. In addition, a detailed all-electron study of the X(sup 2)Pi and A(sup 2)Sigma(sup +) states of AgO is carried out using large atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets. Our best calculated D(sub o) value for AgO is significantly less than the experimental value, which suggests that there may be some systematic error in the experimental determination.

  9. Human insulin production from a novel mini-proinsulin which has high receptor-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S G; Kim, D Y; Choi, K D; Shin, J M; Shin, H C

    1998-02-01

    To increase the folding efficiency of the insulin precursor and the production yield of insulin, we have designed a mini-proinsulin (M2PI) having the central C-peptide region replaced with a sequence forming a reverse turn. The mini-proinsulin was fused at the N-terminus to a 21-residue fusion partner containing a His10 tag for affinity purification. The gene for the fusion protein was inserted downstream of the T7 promoter of the expression plasmid pET-3a, and the fusion proteins were produced as inclusion bodies in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm at levels up to 25% of the total cell protein. The protein was sulphonated, cleaved by CNBr and the M2PI mini-proinsulin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. The refolding yield of M2PI was 20-40% better than that of proinsulin studied at the same molar concentrations, indicating that the short turn-forming sequence is more effective in the refolding process than the much longer C-peptide. Native human insulin was successfully generated by subsequent enzymic conversion of mini-proinsulin. The mini-proinsulin exhibited high receptor-binding activity, about 50% as potent as insulin, suggesting that this single-chained mini-proinsulin may provide a foundation in understanding the receptor-bound structure of insulin as well as the role of C-peptide in the folding and activity of proinsulin.

  10. Imagineering the butterfly effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, Diane Elza Lea Winie

    2014-01-01

    Het is een ‘inconvenient truth’ zowel in de wetenschap als in de praktijk dat conventioneel verandermanagement dat gericht is op gedragsverandering slechts beperkt effectief is. Slechts 1 op de 3 verander-inspanningen zou enig positief effect hebben. Mensen laten zich namelijk niet veranderen. Als m

  11. What Effective Schools Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

  12. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    system and change its dynamic behavior and its dynamic characteristics. When predicting structural vibrations it is not common to account for the passive crowd, but the paper will illustrate effects of the presence of a passive croud on structural behavior. Numerical and experimental results...

  13. Matthew Effects for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hibel, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Which children are most at risk of experiencing a Matthew effect in reading? We investigated this question using population-based methodology. First, we identified children entering kindergarten on socio-demographic factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) known to index the relative risks and resources available to them as…

  14. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  15. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  16. The Last Line Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Karpov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-clones are tiny duplicated pieces of code; they typically comprise only a few statements or lines. In this paper, we expose the “last line effect,” the phenomenon that the last line or statement in a micro-clone is much more likely to contain an error than the previous lines or statements. We

  17. EFFECTIVE TEACHING PRACTICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    Before the cognitive shift in educational psychology research on teaching practices that bring about the desired learning outcomes on the part of the students was dominated by the process-product research program. The findings of this confirmative research approach show that an effective lesson may

  18. Cost-Effective Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlieb, S

    2001-01-01

    Small Beowulf clusters can effectively serve as personal or group supercomputers. In such an environment, a cluster can be optimally designed for a specific problem (or a small set of codes). We discuss how theoretical analysis of the code and benchmarking on similar hardware lead to optimal systems.

  19. Heavy quarkonium effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mannel, T

    1995-01-01

    We formulate a QCD-based effective theory approach to heavy quarkonia-like systems as \\bar{c} c and \\bar{b} b resonances and B_c states. We apply the method to inclusive decays, working out a few examples in detail.

  20. Pleiotropic effects of incretins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia. The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the "glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones" of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-1 7-37 and GLP1 7-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP. GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine, central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health.

  1. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  2. Challenges to effective protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Kimotho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With sexual violence now recognised as a weapon of war and a punishable violation of human rights, it is incumbent upon the international community, national governments and humanitarian organisations to provide more effective protection of women and girls.

  3. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  4. Drug effects on melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Elsje Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and its incidence among Caucasian populations has increased whereas mortality rates are stabilizing or decreasing. The total burden of melanoma is expected to be increasing. As effective treatment options for advanced melanoma are lackin

  5. [Pharmacological effects of hordenine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, H J; Strathmann, W

    1995-06-01

    Hordenine is an ingredient of some plants which are used as feed for animals, i.e. in sprouting barley. After ingestion of such feed hordenine may be detected in blood or urine of horses which in case of racing horses may be the facts of using prohibited compounds. Results of some experiments in pharmacological models show that hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine from stores. In isolated organs and those structures with reduced epinephrine contents the hordenine-effect is only very poor. Experiments in intact animals (rats, dogs) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behaviour of mice. All effects are short and only possible after high doses which are not to be expected after ingestion of hordenine containing feed for horses. A measurable increase of the performance of racing horses is quite improbable.

  6. Occlusion effects, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    annoyances and the objective measurements were analysed. Persons suffering from tinnitus behaved differently than person without tinnitus. The latter group showed significant relations between the measured occlusion effect, hearing loss and the personal of occlusion. The actual sensation level is also...

  7. Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  8. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  9. Damping Effect of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    system and change its dynamic behavior and its dynamic characteristics. When predicting structural vibrations it is not common to account for the passive crowd, but the paper will illustrate effects of the presence of a passive croud on structural behavior. Numerical and experimental results...

  10. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  11. Globalisation, Effectiveness and Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimore, Peter

    This paper reports principally on two studies, prompted by research on school effectiveness in the United States and England, which indicate globalization is beginning to affect school improvement. The first study cites case studies of two schools--from working-class, multi-ethnic, poorly educated areas of Singapore and London--to determine if…

  12. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  13. Analgesic effects of calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyritis, G P; Trovas, G

    2002-05-01

    The analgesic activity of salmon calcitonin (subcutaneous or intranasal) has been demonstrated in several prospective clinical trials, in patients suffering different painful skeletal conditions, including recent nontraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The mechanism of the analgesic effect of calcitonin is not clear. It is possible that specific binding sites for salmon calcitonin exist in the brain. Another explanation is that changes in descending serotonergic modification on the sensory transmission mediated by C afferents contribute to the analgesic effects of calcitonin on pain in osteoporotic patients. From the clinical point of use, the analgesic effect of calcitonin is beneficial throughout the whole period of medical treatment of osteoporotic patients. Salmon calcitonin in a daily dose of 100 IU subcutaneously or 200 IU intranasally reduces dramatically the back pain (p salmon calcitonin effectively controls severe pain in osteoporotic patients with a recent vertebral fracture, allowing them earlier mobility in combination with a reduction of the urinary hydroxyproline excretion, and a limitation of the considerable bone loss that may occur during prolonged bed rest, make this therapeutic scheme attractive.

  14. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  15. The Binggeli effect

    CERN Document Server

    Biernacka, Monika; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz; Bajan, Katarzyna; Flin, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We found the alignement of elongated clusters of BM type I and III (the excess of small values of the \\Delta\\theta angles is observed), having range till about 60Mpc/h. The first one is probably connected with the origin of supergiant galaxy, while the second one with environmental effects in clusters, originated on the long filament or plane.

  16. Drug effects on melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Elsje Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and its incidence among Caucasian populations has increased whereas mortality rates are stabilizing or decreasing. The total burden of melanoma is expected to be increasing. As effective treatment options for advanced melanoma are

  17. Cannabis its clinical effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be enhanced and short-term memory and judgement may be impaired. These effects ... realisation, a sense of loss of control, fear of dying, panic reactions and ... A mild withdrawal state from long-term use has been described. It consists ...

  18. Access to effective healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Access to effective healthcare is in particular challenging for vulnerable and socially disadvantaged patients. Patients with chronic conditions are over-represented in these lower socioeconomic (LSES) groups. No generic review integrating the evidence on Self-Management support interventions in ...

  19. The Kaye effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, J M; Landig, A J [Student Research Center Suedwuerttemberg, Gutenbergstrasse 18, 88348 Bad Saulgau (Germany)], E-mail: jan.binder@sfz-bw.de, E-mail: andreas.landig@sfz-bw.de

    2009-11-15

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur.

  20. Haemodynamic effects of eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høost, U; Kelbaek, H; Rasmusen, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fractional meal stimulation on postprandial haemodynamic changes, the possible correlation between these changes and the potential mediating role of circulating catecholamines and insulin. 2. Healthy young subjects were studied before...

  1. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, R. van den; Berg, H. van den

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, neither the precise pharmacological effect nor the toxicological profile is usually established for food components. Carotenoids are no exception in this regard. Only limited insight into the pharmacology and toxicology of carotenoids exists. It is known that the antioxidant action of

  2. Systemic effects in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.F.M.; Creutzberg, E.C.; Schols, A.M.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic effects in COPD. Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands. ewo@ms-azm-3.azm.nl The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COPD are not restricted to pulmonary inflammation an

  3. QCD Interconnection Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    1999-01-01

    Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

  4. Systemic effects in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, E.F.M.; Creutzberg, E.C.; Schols, A.M.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic effects in COPD. Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands. ewo@ms-azm-3.azm.nl The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of COPD are not restricted to pulmonary inflammation an

  5. Effective Free Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapalparvi, Ramesh; Protas, Bartosz

    2010-11-01

    In this investigation we introduce the concept of an "effective free surface" arising as a solution of time--averaged equations in the presence of free boundaries. This work is motivated by applications of optimization theory to problems involving free surfaces, such as droplets impinging on the weld pool surface in welding processes. In such problems the time--dependent governing equations lead to technical difficulties, many of which are alleviated when methods of optimization are applied to a steady problem with effective free surfaces. The corresponding equations are obtained by performing the Reynolds decomposition and averaging of the time--dependent free--boundary equations based on the volume--of--fluid (VoF) formalism. We identify the terms representing the average effect of fluctuating free boundaries which, in analogy with the Reynolds stresses in classical turbulence models, need to be modelled and propose some simple algebraic closures for these terms. We argue that effective free boundaries can be computed using methods of shape optimization and present some results.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  7. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  8. Open Access policy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the policy elements that are necessary for an effective open access policy, according to the findings of the analysis of the revamped ROARMAP tool for open access policies by PASTEUR4OA. It contains graphs, charts and numbers for evidence-based arguments

  9. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...

  10. Unconscious advertising effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; Belch, M.A.; Belch, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Most traditional advertising effect models are based on the premise that advertising is attended to and processed consciously. However, recent neuroscientific research shows that most information is unconsciously attended to, processed, and stored in memory. The concept of unconscious processing is

  11. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  12. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  13. The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

  14. Immunological effects of vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo, J R

    1982-06-01

    It is only recently that the adverse effects of vasectomy have become the subject of numerous scientific and at times speculative articles in medical and in lay periodicals. In this review of the literature on the immunological effects of vasectomy, attention is directed to the following: immunological response; cellular immunity; effects on testes and epididymis, and systemic effects of sperm autoantibodies. In 1970, 50% of vasectomized men were found to have circulating spermatozoal antibodies. A more recent survey provides confirmation for this finding and presents an incidence of only 2% of agglutinating antibodies and 0% of immobilizing antibodies in a fertile control population. Some recent and convincing studies have shown sperm agglutinating and immobilizing antibodies to remain either at the same titer level or actually to increase 5-12 years postoperatively. Titers range from 2 to 2048 among different patients. The highest incidence of titers is 1 year after vasectomy, but titers can be found as early as 6 months or as late as 20 years postoperatively. The wide range in titers can be explained in terms of technical problems in immune assays, since only immunoglobulins and not those antibodies part of immune complex systems can be measured. Since sperm antigens are in abundant supply in vasectomized men because of the continuous resorption of spermatozoa after vasectomy, possibly undetectable antibody titers actually reflect high levels of antisperm antibodies circulating in the form of immune complexes. Also it may be possible that the variety in measured titers of autoantibodies, as well as the nonuniversal (70%) antibody response in a vasectomized population, is a variable dependent on genetic content and, therefore, an individual characteristic. The fact that hormonal reponse takes place rather readily after vasectomy makes at least some degree of cellular response a necessary occurrence. Studies by Alexander and Anderson, which show delayed

  15. Regional Healthcare Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Kudelina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of healthcare systems effectiveness of the regions of the Russian Federation (federal districts was conducted using the Minmax method based on the data available at the United Interdepartmental Statistical Information System. Four groups of components (i.e. availability of resources; use of resources; access to resources and medical effectiveness decomposed into 17 items were analyzed. The resource availability was measured by four indicators, including the provision of doctors, nurses, hospital beds; agencies providing health care to the population. Use of resources was measured by seven indicators: the average hospital stay, days; the average bed occupancy, days; the number of operations per 1 physician surgical; the cost per unit volume of medical care: in outpatient clinics, day hospitals, inpatient and emergency care. Access to the resources was measured by three indicators: the satisfaction of the population by medical care; the capacity of outpatient clinics; the average number of visits to health facility. The medical effectiveness was also measured by three indicators: incidence with the "first-ever diagnosis of malignancy"; life expectancy at birth, years; the number of days of temporary disability. The study of the dynamics of the components and indexes for 2008–2012 allows to indicate a multidirectional influence on the regional healthcare system. In some federal districts (e.g. North Caucasian, the effectiveness decreases due to resource availability, in others (South, North Caucasian — due to the use of resources, in others (Far Eastern, Ural — due to access to resources. It is found that the effectiveness of the healthcare systems of the federal districts differs significantly. In addition, the built matrix proves the variability the of effectiveness (comparison of expenditures and results of healthcare systems of the federal districts of the Russian Federation: the high results can be obtained at high costs

  16. Separating Gender Composition Effects from Peer Effects in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of controlling for endogenous peer effects in estimating the influence of gender peer effects on educational outcomes. Using Manski's linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the estimation of gender peer effects is potentially biased in the presence of endogenous peer effect in education.…

  17. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  18. Integrating teacher education effectiveness research into educational effectiveness models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and to connect research about teacher education effectiveness and school effectiveness to arrive at an integrative conceptualization that has the potential of improving empirical research in both fields. Teacher education effectiveness addresses effects of te

  19. Integrating teacher education effectiveness research into educational effectiveness models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and to connect research about teacher education effectiveness and school effectiveness to arrive at an integrative conceptualization that has the potential of improving empirical research in both fields. Teacher education effectiveness addresses effects of

  20. 75 FR 10411 - Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 12 CFR Part 617 RIN 3052-AC45 Borrower Rights; Effective Interest Rates; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or... efficient manner. In accordance with 12 U.S.C. 2252, the effective date of the final rule is 30 days...

  1. Effective Vaccination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L; Spears, W; Billings, L; Maxim, P

    2010-10-01

    We present a framework for modeling the spread of pathogens throughout a population and generating policies that minimize the impact of those pathogens on the population. This framework is used to study the spread of human viruses between cities via airplane travel. It combines agent-based simulation, mathematical analysis, and an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) optimizer. The goal of this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation policies of uniform and proportional distribution, we compared their effectiveness to policies found by the EA. We then designed and tested a new, more effective policy which increased the importance of vaccinating smaller cities that are flown to more often. This "importance factor" was validated using U.S. influenza data from the last four years.

  2. Viscoelectric Effects in Nanochannels

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Davidson, Malcolm R; Dunstan, David E; Hwang, Junho; Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic transport behavior in nanochannels is different to that in larger sized channels. Specifically, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in nanochannels have demonstrated two barely understood phenomena which are not observed in microchannels, being: (i) the decrease of average electroosmotic mobility at high surface charge density, and (ii) the decrease of channel conductance at high salt concentrations, as the surface charge is increased. However, current electric double layer models do not capture these results. In this study we provide evidence that this inconsistency primarily arises from the neglect of the viscoelectric effect (being the increase of local viscosity near charged surfaces due to water molecule orientation) in conventional continuum models. It is shown that predictions of electroosmotic mobility in a slit nanochannel, derived from a viscoelectric-modified continuum model, are in quantitative agreement with previous MD simulation results. Furthermore, viscoelectric effects are fou...

  3. [Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto

    2013-06-01

    Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed.

  4. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, SM; W. Zhang; Kc, A; Borisov, P.; Pearson, JE; Jiang, JS; Lederman, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Bhattacharya, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30  nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop t...

  5. Context effects in games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  6. Being an effective speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R; Cosgray, R

    1991-08-01

    Communication in a group is an essential quality for success in nursing. Despite this, many nurses who must have communication skills to advance have little training in public speaking. Some nurses seek to correct such deficiencies in their education by taking courses in the evenings or on weekends to improve their understanding of the elements of effective speaking. Other nurses learn by self-reflection, study, and ongoing practice. This article has presented guidelines for speaking in a group that can offer assistance in mastering this important nursing skill. Elements of nonverbal communication are crucial for effective communication. However, despite the importance of non-verbal communication to the message, language is what makes communication possible. It is language that allows people to communicate new ideas and thoughts and to solve problems.

  7. The Uniform Rugosity Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnivard, Matthieu; Bucur, Dorin

    2012-06-01

    Relying on the effect of microscopic asperities, one can mathematically justify that viscous fluids adhere completely on the boundary of an impermeable domain. The rugosity effect accounts asymptotically for the transformation of complete slip boundary conditions on a rough surface in total adherence boundary conditions, as the amplitude of the rugosities vanishes. The decreasing rate (average velocity divided by the amplitude of the rugosities) computed on close flat layers is definitely influenced by the geometry. Recent results prove that this ratio has a uniform upper bound for certain geometries, like periodical and "almost Lipschitz" boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to prove that such a result holds for arbitrary (non-periodical) crystalline boundaries and general (non-smooth) periodical boundaries.

  8. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest that translating a design theory (DT) into practice (e.g. creating an instance design artifact (IDA)) is hardly straight-forward and requires substantial creativity. Specifically the authors suggest that adopting a DT embodies a creativity passdown...... effect in which the creative thinking of a team of design theorist(s) inherent in DT invokes a creative mind of a team of artifact instance designer(s) in creating an IDA. In this study, the authors empirically investigate the creativity passdown effect through an action case in which a DT (DT nexus...... designer team introducing a previously published DT as a basis for creating an IDA. Findings – The experience in the action case suggests that using a DT in creating an IDA may encourage design thinking, and in certain way increase its power and practical relevance by fostering the creative mind...

  9. Radiation effects in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrt, D.; Vogel, W. (Otto-Schott-Inst., Chemische Fakultaet, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany))

    1992-03-01

    Glass was produced by man about 4000 years ago. The scientific exploration of glass is very young and closely connected with Jena. Fraunhofer, Goethe, Dobereiner, Abbe, Zeiss and Schott are famous names on this field. Both crystals and glasses are solids. However, there are fundamental differences in their properties and behavior. Glass is a thermodynamically unstable state and has a defect structure compared to the crystal. Glass and its properties are subject to a variety of changes under the influence of high energy radiation. In general, effects extend from the reduction of specific ions to the collapse of the entire network. Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation effects on UV-transmitting glasses will be discussed. (orig.).

  10. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  11. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  12. Electricity Distribution Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Szpyra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the basic concepts of cost accounting in the power industry and selected ways of assessing the effectiveness of electricity distribution. The results of effectiveness analysis of MV/LV distribution transformer replacement are presented, and unit costs of energy transmission through various medium-voltage line types are compared. The calculation results confirm the viability of replacing transformers manufactured before 1975. Replacing transformers manufactured after 1975 – only to reduce energy losses – is not economically justified. Increasing use of a PAS type line for energy transmission in local distribution networks is reasonable. Cabling these networks under the current calculation rules of discounts for excessive power outages is not viable, even in areas particularly exposed to catastrophic wire icing.

  13. Renormalization and effective lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    There is a strong intuitive understanding of renormalization, due to Wilson, in terms of the scaling of effective lagrangians. We show that this can be made the basis for a proof of perturbative renormalization. We first study renormalizability in the language of renormalization group flows for a toy renormalization group equation. We then derive an exact renormalization group equation for a four-dimensional λø 4 theory with a momentum cutoff. We organize the cutoff dependence of the effective lagrangian into relevant and irrelevant parts, and derive a linear equation for the irrelevant part. A lengthy but straightforward argument establishes that the piece identified as irrelevant actually is so in perturbation theory. This implies renormalizability. The method extends immediately to any system in which a momentum-space cutoff can be used, but the principle is more general and should apply for any physical cutoff. Neither Weinberg's theorem nor arguments based on the topology of graphs are needed.

  14. Quantum Cosmology: Effective Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quantum cosmology has traditionally been studied at the level of symmetry-reduced minisuperspace models, analyzing the behavior of wave functions. However, in the absence of a complete full setting of quantum gravity and detailed knowledge of specific properties of quantum states, it remained difficult to make testable predictions. For quantum cosmology to be part of empirical science, it must allow for a systematic framework in which corrections to well-tested classical equations can be derived, with any ambiguities and ignorance sufficiently parameterized. As in particle and condensed-matter physics, a successful viewpoint is one of effective theories, adapted to specific issues one encounters in quantum cosmology. This review presents such an effective framework of quantum cosmology, taking into account, among other things, space-time structures, covariance, the problem of time and the anomaly issue.

  15. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  16. Magnetoviscous effects in ferrofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles or ferrofluids can be effectively controlled by magnetic fields, which opens up a fascinating field for basic research into fluid dynamics as well as a host of applications in engineering and medicine. The introductory chapter provides the reader with basic information on the structure, and magnetic and viscous properties of ferrofluids. The bulk of this monograph is based on the author's own research activity and deals with ferrohydrodynamics, especially with the magnetoviscous effects. In particular, the author studies in detail the interparticle interactions so far often neglected but of great importance in concentrated ferrofluids. The basic theory and the most recent experimental findings are presented, making the book interesting reading for physicists or engineers interested in smart materials.

  17. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  18. Developing Effective Clinical Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Khamarko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing education and training provides a means to improve performance among health care professionals (HCP. Research shows, however, that continuing professional education activities have inconsistent effects on HCP competence, performance, and patient health outcomes. Furthermore, the trainer’s role as a facilitator of knowledge translation (KT has been understudied. To understand how clinical trainers support their trainees in translating what they learned into practice, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with expert trainers. These interviews yielded a variety of KT-enhancing strategies, including tailoring training activities to their trainees’ needs. In addition, participants recommended trainers familiarize themselves with their trainees’ work environments, be able to identify their knowledge deficits, and devote time to provide trainees with post-training support. Creating an effective training, one that leads to transfer, requires active planning, communication, and command of the training topic by skilled trainers.

  19. The Blazhko Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Geza

    2009-01-01

    Current status of (the lack of) understanding Blazhko effect is reviewed. We focus mostly on the various components of the failure of the models and touch upon the observational issues only at a degree needed for the theoretical background. Attention is to be paid to models based on radial mode resonances, since they seem to be not fully explored yet, especially if we consider possible non-standard effects (e.g., heavy element enhancement). To aid further modeling efforts, we stress the need for accurate time-series spectral line analysis to reveal any possible non-radial component(s) and thereby let to include (or exclude) non-radial modes in explaining the Blazhko phenomenon.

  20. Coulomb Effects in Femtoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Maj, Radoslaw

    2009-01-01

    The correlation function of two identical particles - pions or kaons - interacting via Coulomb potential is computed. The particles are emitted from an anisotropic particle's source of finite lifetime. In the case of pions, the effect of halo is taken into account as an additional particle's source of large spatial extension. The relativistic effects are discussed in detail. The Bowler-Sinyukov procedure to remove the Coulomb interaction is carefully tested. In the absence of halo the procedure is shown to work very well even for an extremely anisotropic source. When the halo is taken into account the free correlation function, which is extracted by means of the Bowler-Sinyukov procedure, is distorted at small relative momenta but the source parameters are still correctly reproduced.

  1. Polarization effects. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of polarized proton beams in ISABELLE is important for several general reasons: (1) With a single longitudinally polarized proton beam, effects involving parity violation can be identified and hence processes involving weak interactions can be separated from those involving strong and electromagnetic interactions. (2) Spin effects are important in the strong interactions and can be useful for testing QCD. The technique for obtaining polarized proton beams in ISABELLE appears promising, particularly in view of the present development of a polarized proton beam for the AGS. Projections for the luminosity in ISABELLE for collisions of polarized protons - one or both beams polarized with longitudinal or transverse polarization - range from 1/100 to 1 times the luminosity for unpolarized protons.

  2. Phytoestrogens and their effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Harrath, Abdel Halim

    2014-10-15

    The chemical structure, classification, source, metabolism, physiological and health effects of plant phytoestrogens and mechanisms of their action are reviewed. The available knowledge suggests that phytoestrogens can affect a number of physiological and pathological processes related to reproduction, bone remodeling, skin, cardiovascular, nervous, immune systems and metabolism. Due to these effects, phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing diet can be useful for the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms, skin aging, osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, immune and metabolic diseases. Possible problems in understanding and application of phytoestrogens (multiple targets and multiple estrogen receptor -dependent and -independent mechanisms of action, the discrepancy between the results of experimental and clinical studies, adequate source of phytoestrogen) have been discussed.

  3. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  4. Relativistic Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, mechanical flywheel, and discuss various fundamental aspects of the phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.

  5. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  6. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    into the six musical elements of periodicity, melody, harmony, dynamics, timbre, and form. And about how these elements define emotion, evoke responses, alter physiological and mental function, and the manner in which they can be combined to effect profound emotional sensations and responses. As central......http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  7. Aerodynamic Leidenfrost effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Bird, James C.; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2016-12-01

    When deposited on a plate moving quickly enough, any liquid can levitate as it does when it is volatile on a very hot solid (Leidenfrost effect). In the aerodynamic Leidenfrost situation, air gets inserted between the liquid and the moving solid, a situation that we analyze. We observe two types of entrainment. (i) The thickness of the air gap is found to increase with the plate speed, which is interpreted in the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin frame: Air is dynamically dragged along the surface and its thickness results from a balance between capillary and viscous effects. (ii) Air set in motion by the plate exerts a force on the levitating liquid. We discuss the magnitude of this aerodynamic force and show that it can be exploited to control the liquid and even to drive it against gravity.

  8. Analgesic effects of melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Amirian, Ilda; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine, produced mainly by the pineal gland. Melatonin has been proven to have chronobiotic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anxiolytic and sedative properties. There are also experimental and clinical data supporting an analgesic role of melatonin. In experimental...... studies, melatonin shows potent analgesic effects in a dose-dependent manner. In clinical studies, melatonin has been shown to have analgesic benefits in patients with chronic pain (fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine). The physiologic mechanism underlying the analgesic actions of melatonin...... has not been clarified. The effects may be linked to G(i) -coupled melatonin receptors, to G(i) -coupled opioid μ-receptors or GABA-B receptors with unknown downstream changes with a consequential reduction in anxiety and pain. Also, the repeated administration of melatonin improves sleep and thereby...

  9. Effectively Emergent Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Exirifard, Qasem

    2008-01-01

    We consider non minimal coupling between matters and gravity in modified theories of gravity. In contrary to the current common sense, we report that quantum mechanics can effectively emerge when the space-time geometry is sufficiently flat. In other words, quantum mechanics might play no role when and where the space-time geometry is highly curved. We study the first two simple models of Effectively Emergent Quantum Mechanics(EEQM): R-dependent EEQM and G-dependent EEQM where R is the Ricci scalar and G is the Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian density. We discuss that these EEQM theories might be fine tuned to remain consistent with all the implemented experiments and performed observations. In particular, we observe that G-dependent EEQM softens the problem of quantum gravity.

  10. Effects for Funargs

    CERN Document Server

    Siek, Jeremy G; Turner, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    Stack allocation and first-class functions don't naturally mix together. In this paper we show that a type and effect system can be the detergent that helps these features form a nice emulsion. Our interest in this problem comes from our work on the Chapel language, but this problem is also relevant to lambda expressions in C++ and blocks in Objective C. The difficulty in mixing first-class functions and stack allocation is a tension between safety, efficiency, and simplicity. To preserve safety, one must worry about functions outliving the variables they reference: the classic upward funarg problem. There are systems which regain safety but lose programmer-predictable efficiency, and ones that provide both safety and efficiency, but give up simplicity by exposing regions to the programmer. In this paper we present a simple design that combines a type and effect system, for safety, with function-local storage, for control over efficiency.

  11. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  12. Planar Hall Effect MRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.

  13. Developmental effects of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Frøystad, Mona

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, typical measures of corruption have been broad, composite indices which are often meant to measure overall corruption level in a country. In this thesis I study how different types of corruption can have different effects on development, measured by GDP growth, GDP per capita growth and GDP per capita. Thereby, I wanted to see if some types of corruption could be concluded as more damaging than others. I have discussed and empirically tested the consequences of corruption in pu...

  14. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucia [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria,Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) CONICET, UNMDP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width. (orig.)

  15. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  16. Transgenerational effects of NMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are present in a number of commercially available products but there are uncertainties as to whether the unique properties that support their commercial use may also pose potential health risks. Information is missing concerning the influence of nanomaterials on the overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects in animals and plants. To obtain this information, long-term studies would be required using animal models phylogenetically close to humans and exposure conditions that reflect realistic scenarios with regard to dosages and admission. The nanoreprotoxicology literature published to date is largely descriptive in nature regarding the effects of nanoparticles. The mechanisms, which determine particle reproduction compatibility, are mostly elusive at the moment. Thus, it is recommended that future research explore the interactions between nanomaterials and transgenerational matter on a molecular level. It would, for instance, be of major importance to understand the behaviour of nanoparticles inside the cells but also their genotoxic and epigenetic effects. Recent studies have shown that intravenous and/or intra-abdominal administration of nanoparticles to mice results in their accumulation in the cells of many tissues, including the brain and the testis, suggesting that they easily pass through the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers. In parallel embryo development after exposure to nanoparticles should be comparatively investigated. The majority of studies on embryo toxicology have concentrated on piscine embryos, mostly derived from zebrafish. Plants for human food as an important component of the ecosystem need also to be taken into account when evaluating transgenerational effects of engineered nanomaterials in crops.

  17. Tasting edge effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bocquet, L

    2006-01-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  18. The Immersion Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These facts suggest that immersion for the purpose of learning language and culture should precede grammar teaching just as it does for children. That...support the execution of SOF core tasks based on learned and acquired language and cultural proficiency. MISO planning draws from multiple sciences...their native language effectively helps individuals cope with their culture , and learning to use it appropriately is an important part of

  19. Effectively calculable quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2015-01-01

    According to mathematical constructivism, a mathematical object can exist only if there is a way to compute (or "construct") it; so, what is non-computable is non-constructive. In the example of the quantum model, whose Fock states are associated with Fibonacci numbers, this paper shows that the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics is non-constructive since it permits an undecidable (or effectively impossible) subset of Hilbert space. On the other hand, as it is argued in the paper, if...

  20. Effects of 5-FU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmore, Peter M; Mustafa, Sarah; El-Beltagy, Maha; Lyons, Laura; Umka, Jariya; Bennett, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a chemotherapeutical agent used to treat cancers including breast and colorectal. Working as an antimetabolite to prevent cell proliferation, it primarily inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase blocking the thymidine formation required for DNA synthesis. Although having a relatively short half-life (fog" These accounts have come primarily from patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer who report symptoms including confusion and memory impairment, which can last for months to years. Psychometric studies of patients have suffered from confounding variables, which has led to the use of rodent models to assess the cognitive effects of this drug. Researchers have used behavioral and physiological tests including the Morris water maze, novel object location/recognition tests, shock motivated T-maze, sensory gating and conditioning, to investigate the effect of this drug on cognition. The variety of cognitive tests and the difference in dosing and administration of 5-FU has led to varied results, possibly due to the different brain regions associated with each test and the subtlety of the drug's effect, but overall these studies indicates that 5-FU has a negative effect on memory, executive function and sensory gating. 5-FU has also been demonstrated to have biochemical and structural changes on specific regions of the brain. Evidence shows it can induce apoptosis and depress cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain including the sub granular zone (SGZ) within the hippocampus and in oligodendrocyte precursor populations within white matter tracts. Furthermore, investigations indicate levels ofdoublecortin, a marker for newly formed neurons and brain derived neurotrophic factor, a cell survival modulator, are also reduced by 5-FU in the SGZ. Thus, 5-FU appears to have a lasting negative impact on cognition and to affect cellular and biochemical markers in various brain regions. Further work is needed to understand the

  1. Analysis of Celebrity Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高妙永

    2012-01-01

    With the development of market economy, brand has be- come an important means of marketing. The phenomenon that enter- prises hire stars as their spokespeople is increasingly common. Thus, the word celebrity effect came into being. At the same time, the nega- tive influence of celebrity effect also becomes a controversial topic. This paper plans to analyze celebrity effect, its universality in daily life, as well as the positive and negative aspects of this phnomenon and put forward in terms of law and moral standards, in order to achieve a comprehensive interpretation of celebrity effect.%随着市场经济的发展,品牌已成为市场营销的重要手段。企业聘请明星作为广告代言人的现象日益普遍,“明星效应”这个词应运而生。同时,明星效应带来的负面影响也成为颇受争议的话题。本文从明星效应现象的形成及其在日常生活中的普遍性展开分析,探讨了明星效应的积极作用及其存在的弊端,并从法律及道德层面为这些弊端提出相应的对策,以达到全面解读明星效应现象的目的。

  2. Causal Effect Estimation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between two popular modeling frameworks of causal inference from observational data, namely, causal graphical model and potential outcome causal model is discussed. How some popular causal effect estimators found in applications of the potential outcome causal model, such as inverse probability of treatment weighted estimator and doubly robust estimator can be obtained by using the causal graphical model is shown. We confine to the simple case of binary outcome and treatment vari...

  3. Effectively Measuring Student Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Z. Posner

    2012-01-01

    With a worldwide sample of students (N = 77, 387), this paper reviews and analyses the psychometric properties of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory [1]. Modest to strong internal reliability coefficients are found across a number of different dimensions. Predictive validity of the instrument is supported, with the instrument being able to differentiate between effective and ineffective leaders using both self-reported and observer (constituent) data. Few significant differences are f...

  4. Developing effective marketing brochure

    OpenAIRE

    Semenenko, Vitalii

    2013-01-01

    Following report is produced with a goal of developing effective marketing communication channel (brochure) for a case company. Report covers findings in the areas of − model of communication − influences during communication process − target audience identification − decision-making process − types of decision-making process − role of marketing communication in decision-making − channels of marketing communication − practical recommendations from field expert Rep...

  5. The Kaye effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J. M.; Landig, A. J.

    2009-11-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for secondary school students. This is our solution to problem number 10, The Kaye effect, as presented in the final round of the 21st IYPT in Trogir, Croatia. The Kaye effect occurs when a thin stream of shampoo or a different adequate non-Newtonian liquid is poured onto a surface. Suddenly, a jet leaves the heap that is formed by the shampoo and begins to 'dance' around the primary jet like a lasso. The phenomenon ends when the 'dancing' jet hits the primary jet and subsequently collapses. We started our investigations based on available literature (Kaye 1963 Nature 197 1001, Versluis et al 2006 J. Stat. Mech., Collyer and Fischer 1976 Nature 261 682). We made experiments with a similar experimental set-up in which we could determine the velocities of both shampoo streams as well as the angle of the 'dancing' stream. From there on, we developed a theoretical model for the energy loss of the jet in the heap. We discovered that the air layer between the jet and the heap is a necessity for the Kaye effect to occur. At this point, our observations differ from the aforementioned literature. This also accounts for the shampoo beam acting as a light guide. Further experiments concerning the viscoelasticity of the shampoo revealed that the elastic property of the shampoo is necessary for the effect to occur. This article is a written version of the oral contribution of the German team to the 21st IYPT competition, which was awarded first prize by an international jury. The article has been edited by European Journal of Physics.

  6. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  7. Measuring Cyber Operations Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    using network scanners and frameworks like the SANS Critical Security Controls. Finally, a network vulnerability penetration test can be performed to...effectiveness in network, defensive, and offensive operations is a difficult task. Measures may be static , automated, some combination of both or...by SANS identifies using port scanners as a way to verify the setup has been performed correctly and only needed ports and protocols are allowed

  8. Tasting edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Lydéric

    2007-02-01

    We show that the baking of potato wedges constitutes a crunchy example of edge effects, which are usually demonstrated in electrostatics. A simple model of the diffusive transport of water vapor around the potato wedges shows that the water vapor flux diverges at the sharp edges in analogy with its electrostatic counterpart. This increased evaporation at the edges leads to the crispy taste of these parts of the potatoes.

  9. 2012 Development Effectiveness Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    The Development Effectiveness Review 2012 Report is the sixth annual corporate performance review of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It assesses progress in implementing Strategy 2020, ADB’s long-term strategic framework, using the performance indicators, baselines, and targets in the ADB results framework. It analyzes performance trends, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and defines corrective actions. The review takes stock of progress since 2008 and shows whether ADB met its 2012 targ...

  10. Effective research communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, J.; Walkington, H.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins by outlining the nature of research, identifying the key steps that both comprise the research process and help you to plan the presentation of your research. It highlights the advantages that can be gained as a geography student if you complete the research process right through to communication of your findings. The chapter makes explicit the principles of effective research communication in a variety of oral, visual and written formats, including checklists that you mig...

  11. Understaning the "funding effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2016-12-01

    There is a long history of industry funding of scientific and engineering research in the USA. Much of this work has been of high quality. Research demonstrates, however, that corporate funding can represent a threat to scientific independence and integrity. Studies show that sponsors' interests can affect research results, particularly when sponsors have a strong interest in a particular research outcome. The effects may occur through the impact of subconscious bias on sampling, study design, data interpretation, and/or reporting of results. Corporate funding can also skew research toward investigating certain questions at the expense of others, downplaying the significance of adverse findings, and/or failing to report adverse results. Gifts can affect behavior, even when they are unrelated to research activities. These impacts that are so substantial that they have a name: "the funding effect."[i] Evidence shows that scientists who strive to be objective and fair-minded may nonetheless fall prey to the funding effect. In many cases, the challenges of corporate gifts and funding can be addressed through education and improved self-awareness, agreements that protect researchers' freedom to publish without sponsor approval, sensible disclosure policies, and reasonable sanctions for failures of disclosure. However, in some cases, it may be appropriate for researchers and scientific societies to decline funding.

  12. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  13. Effective communication with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evelyn R

    2005-09-01

    This brief article aims at heightening awareness about communication with various patients, including strategies to assist in improving communicative effectiveness. It assists us as health care professionals to go back to basics and reflect on how we communicate. Several researchers have provided insight into ways that communication may be enhanced. Walter, Bundy, and Donan (2005) suggested personally greeting the patient, introducing oneself, engaging in talk about clinical concerns, and then discussing next steps toward healthcare solutions. Schillinger (2003) implored that health related jargon be avoided and that all messages be clear and simple. Illustrations in the form of black-white line drawn pictures also tend to assist in patient comprehension. Lawton and Carroll (2005) suggested that effective communication requires assessing what the patient knows about their illness. Seidel's model (2004) stated that healthcare providers listen to the patient's story and elicit information through questioning with sufficient time allotted to provide answers. He also discussed the importance of providing a short summary of what the patient conveyed and giving additional information so they learn more about what is happening to them and can become an active participant in making decisions. It is important that patients understand what we as healthcare professionals say to them. Wisner (1999) further conveyed that it is not words alone that communicate. Body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice often provide additional clues influencing communicative effectiveness. Without a doubt, communication, directly impacts service delivery and quality of care in healthcare today. Listen to your patients, they have much to say.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng-Yan; Yang, Le; Tian, Zhen; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Liu, Shui-Bing; An, Jia-Ze

    2014-07-01

    In the central nervous system, Asiaticoside has been shown to attenuate in vitro neuronal damage caused by exposure to β-amyloid. In vivo studies demonstrated that Asiaticoside could attenuate neurobehavioral, neurochemical and histological changes in transient focal middle cerebral artery occlusion animals. In addition, Asiaticoside showed anxiolytic effects in acute and chronic stress animals. However, its potential neuroprotective properties in glutamate-induced excitotoxicity have not been fully studied. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons exposed to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity invoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate. Pretreatment with Asiaticoside decreased neuronal cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner and restored changes in expression of apoptotic-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax. Asiaticoside pretreatment also attenuated the upregulation of NR2B expression, a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but did not affect expression of NR2A subunits. Additionally, in cultured neurons, Asiaticoside significantly inhibited Ca(2+) influx induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate. These experimental findings provide preliminary evidence that during excitotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure in cultured cortical neurons, the neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside are mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Aside from its anti-oxidant activity, down-regulation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may be one of the underlying mechanisms in Asiaticoside neuroprotection.

  15. SAD effects on grantmanship

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, George A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a state of depression induced by a lack of sufficient sunlight that occurs at high latitudes during the fall and winter. One effect of SAD is that causes people to be more risk-adverse, an effect that should be considered by granting agencies of high latitude countries. Funding agencies often have programmes aimed at high-risk, innovative research. However, the time of the year during which these purposefully high-risk proposals are evaluated usually does not take into consideration the effects of SAD. In high-latitude countries (e.g., Canada, UK, Nordic and Baltic countries), evaluating proposals for high-risk programmes during the late fall might significantly detract from the very purpose of such programmes. At this time of the year, grant evaluators might be in a darkness-induced state of mild depression. As such, evaluators might be more likely to opt for safe investments, more of the same, the well established, which is the antithesis of innovative research.

  16. Stringy effects in scrambling

    CERN Document Server

    Shenker, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    In [1] we gave a precise holographic calculation of chaos at the scrambling time scale--the butterfly effect. We studied the influence of a small perturbation, long in the past, on a two-sided correlation function in the thermofield double state. A similar analysis applies to commutators and other out-of-time-order one-sided correlators [2,3]. The essential bulk physics is a high energy scattering problem near the horizon of an AdS black hole. These papers used Einstein gravity to study this problem; in the present paper we consider stringy and Planckian corrections. Elastic stringy corrections play an important role, effectively weakening and smearing out the development of chaos. We discuss their signature in the boundary field theory, commenting on the extension to weak coupling. Inelastic effects, although important for the evolution of the state, leave a parametrically small imprint on the correlators that we study. We briefly discuss ways to diagnose these small corrections, and we propose another corre...

  17. Effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  18. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  19. A Study on Effective Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦淑玲

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, effective teaching has become an important phrase in English language teaching, and causes great attention. As a result of the emergence of teacher-led initiatives, the need of teacher effectiveness has been given renewed focus. This essay outlines what roles teachers play in effective teaching, and what personal qualities teachers maintain that qualify them as effective teachers.

  20. Telepsychiatry: effectiveness and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajaria A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amy Gajaria,1 David K Conn,1,2 Robert Madan1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Baycrest Health Sciences, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Providing psychiatric services by real-time videoconferencing has been increasingly adopted as a method of reaching hard-to-serve populations since the early 1990s. As the field has expanded, a growing body of research has developed investigating both how telepsychiatry compares to in-person psychiatric care and how effectively telepsychiatry can be implemented in routine clinical care. A narrative review was performed to consider the evidence that telepsychiatry is feasible and effective across a variety of patient populations and clinical settings. There is a growing body of evidence investigating the efficacy of telepsychiatry when used for psychiatric assessment and treatment in the adult, child, and geriatric populations. Though studies vary in quality, they generally demonstrate that telepsychiatry is effective across multiple age groups and clinical settings. Telepsychiatry is generally well accepted by patients and clinicians and is feasible to implement, with the suggestion that some patients may actually prefer telepsychiatry to in-person treatment. Issues to consider in the implementation of telepsychiatry services include funding and reimbursement, medico-legal issues when provision crosses legislative boundaries, incorporation into existing health systems, and crosscultural considerations. Future directions for research and practice include a need for higher-quality efficacy studies, consideration of data security, increased attention to low- and middle-income countries, and the introduction of novel technological approaches. Keywords: efficacy, service delivery, telemental health, videoconferencing 

  1. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  2. Effectiveness of peritonaeal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last few years, an increasing number of patients suffering from terminal renal disease of various leading causes was treated with renal replacement therapy. Peritonaeal dialysis involves an exchange of water and solutes between blood in the peritonaeal capillaries and dialysate in the peritonaeal cavum throughout the peritonaeum. Effective dialysis treatment should provide good quality of life, decrease the number of physical complaints, and bring the incidence of morbidity and mortality closer to the incidence of morbidity and mortality in the healthy population. Aim. The aim of this study was the evaluation of peritonaeal transport characteristics and dialysis effectiveness in 58 patients affected by terminal renal disease who underwent peritonaeal dialysis treatment during August 2003 at the Clinic of Nephrology of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Method. We examined 30 male and 28 female patients, with an average age of 52 years (range 26 to 78 years. The average duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment was 20 months (ranging from 2 to 66 months, and the end-stage renal failure was caused by different leading disease in our patients. We applied different dialysis modalities: continuous ambulatory peritonaeal dialysis (CAPD with three to five 2- or 3-litre exchanges daily, cyclic peritonaeal dialysis (CCPD, intermittent peritonaeal dialysis (IPD, or automatic peritonaeal dialysis (APD, according to the transport characteristics of the peritonaeal membrane, the residual renal function (RRF, and the clinical status of the patients, in order to perform adequate depuration as suggested by the new international criteria. A peritonaeal equilibrium test (PET was performed according to the new international advice; urea and creatinine clearances (Kt/V and Ccr as well as RRF were calculated using the internationally suggested formulas. Results. Most of our patients received effective dialysis treatment, thanks to the modulation of

  3. The Malthus Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies and elucidates what it calls the Malthus Effect from two perspectives: a genealogical-theoretical one and an empirical-diagnostic one. The first concerns its implications for Michel Foucault's genealogy and conceptions of modern governmentality. The second suggests...... that Malthusian concerns have an enduring presence in recent and contemporary politics. In them we find a government of life that tethers the question of poverty to that of population, as both a national and international concern, links biopolitics to questions of national security and is a key source...

  4. Phosphorobacterin and Its Effectiveness,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-30

    was . .. ’ " S ] - -. 7. 7’ In~ DOC = 84143200 PAGE 4 obtained the reliable-addition of-crop. The All-Union institute -f oleaginous and essential oil ...cultures for the years 1952-1955 ran on the Ciscaucasian lixiviated black soil 27 tests, in which was studied the effect/action of phosphorobacterin...Mazepin [30] on lixiviated black soil obtained from * phosphorobacterin-addition of crop of sugar beet to 2.3-6*. In 1965 L. M. Dorosinskiy [9) published

  5. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  6. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  7. Higgs Effective Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this meeting is to present new theoretical advancements related to effective field theories, evaluate the impact of initial results from the LHC Run2, and discuss proposals for data interpretation/presentation during Run2. A crucial role of the meeting is to bring together theorists from different backgrounds and with different viewpoints and to extend bridges towards the experimental community. To this end, we would like to achieve a good balance between senior and junior speakers, enhancing the visibility of younger scientists while keeping some overview talks.

  8. Effective String Theory Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Hellerman, Simeon; Maltz, Jonathan; Swanson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In this set of notes we simplify the formulation of the Poincar\\'e invariant effective string theory in D dimensions by adding an intrinsic metric and embedding its dynamics into the Polyakov formalism. We apply this formalism to classify operators order by order in the inverse physical length of the string, in a fully gauge-invariant framework. We use this classification to discuss universality and nonuniversalty of observables up to and including next-to-next-to-leading order in the long string expansion.

  9. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2013-07-01

    The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  11. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

  12. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    attitudes have argued that this ‘policy design effect’ can be explained by a combination of self-interest patterns, public perceptions of the recipient group and whether eligibility under the policy is perceived as fair or arbitrary.The explanations, however, lack micro-level theory and testing as to why...... the design of a policy affects individual and public support. This article seeks to explain this policy design effect by theoretically outlining and testing how being proximate to recipients of a social benefit affects attitudes towards the benefit. A survey of attitudes towards spending on five social...

  13. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  14. The Microwave Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8 - 12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to ...

  15. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  16. Effectively Measuring Student Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Z. Posner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide sample of students (N = 77, 387, this paper reviews and analyses the psychometric properties of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory [1]. Modest to strong internal reliability coefficients are found across a number of different dimensions. Predictive validity of the instrument is supported, with the instrument being able to differentiate between effective and ineffective leaders using both self-reported and observer (constituent data. Few significant differences are found on the basis of respondent gender, ethnicity, nationality, or institutional level (high school versus college. Implications for developing student leaders and future research are offered.

  17. Effects of Longitudinal Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, C; Friberg, Christer; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    The description of longitudinal photons is far from trivial, and their phenomenological importance is largely unknown. While the cross section for direct interactions is calculable, an even more important contribution could come from resolved states. In the development of our model for the interactions of (real and) virtual photons, we have modeled resolved longitudinal effects by simple multiplicative factors on the resolved transverse-photon contributions. Recently, a first set of parton distributions for longitudinal virtual photons has been presented by Ch\\'yla. We therefore compare their impact on some representative distributions, relative to the simpler approaches.

  18. Hall Effect in Quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang; HU Cheng-zheng; GONG Ping; WANG Ai-jun

    2005-01-01

    The relations between Hall effect and symmetry are discussed for all 2- and 3 dimensional quasicrystals with crystallographically forbidden symmetries. The results show that the numbers of independent components of the Hall coefficient (RH) are one for 3-dimensional quasicrystals, two for those 2 dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is non-Abelian, and three for those 2-dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is Abelian, respectively. The quasicrystals with the same number of independent components have the same form of the components of RH.

  19. REDD: The Copenhagen Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feja Lesniewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An agreement on reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties 15 (COP 15 in Copenhagen December 2010 was not forthcoming. For a number of reasons this is a welcome outcome as several important outstanding legal and technical issues remain unresolved. This article examines the results from COP 15 including the Copenhagen Accord. It focuses on the key issues of principles, finance models, and environmental and social safeguards. It concludes with an assessment of the potential effect that the COP 15 will have on REDD negotiations this coming year prior to the UNFCCC COP 16 in Mexico December 2010.

  20. 2013 Development Effectiveness Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) is the seventh annual performance review of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the first to apply the revised corporate results framework. The DEfR uses the 89 performance indicators of the revised framework to assess progress in implementing Strategy 2020, ADB’s long-term strategic framework. It evaluates ADB’s strengths and identifies areas where performance needs to be improved. The findings of the 2013 DEfR will inform actions to improve ...

  1. Strategies for effective feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritek, Patricia A

    2015-04-01

    Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience.

  2. Ecotoxicological effects extrapolation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1996-09-01

    One of the central problems of ecological risk assessment is modeling the relationship between test endpoints (numerical summaries of the results of toxicity tests) and assessment endpoints (formal expressions of the properties of the environment that are to be protected). For example, one may wish to estimate the reduction in species richness of fishes in a stream reach exposed to an effluent and have only a fathead minnow 96 hr LC50 as an effects metric. The problem is to extrapolate from what is known (the fathead minnow LC50) to what matters to the decision maker, the loss of fish species. Models used for this purpose may be termed Effects Extrapolation Models (EEMs) or Activity-Activity Relationships (AARs), by analogy to Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs). These models have been previously reviewed in Ch. 7 and 9 of and by an OECD workshop. This paper updates those reviews and attempts to further clarify the issues involved in the development and use of EEMs. Although there is some overlap, this paper does not repeat those reviews and the reader is referred to the previous reviews for a more complete historical perspective, and for treatment of additional extrapolation issues.

  3. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  4. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  5. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  6. Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-01

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  7. Photoprotective effects of nicotinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2010-04-01

    Sun protective measures can reduce numbers of both precancerous actinic keratoses and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas within relatively short periods of time even in high-risk populations. Sunscreens, which tend to provide greater protection against shortwave UVB than against longer wavelength UVA radiation, can however provide only partial protection from the mutagenic and immune suppressive effects of sunlight. In large part, this reflects poor compliance with proper sunscreen application and reapplication. Skin cancer is by far the most common malignancy in Caucasian populations, and additional strategies to reduce the morbidity and economic burden of this disease are now urgently needed. Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, is an inexpensive agent which is used for a variety of dermatological applications with little or no toxicity even at high doses. Nicotinamide has photoprotective effects against carcinogenesis and immune suppression in mice, and is photoimmunoprotective in humans when used as a lotion or orally. UV irradiation depletes keratinocytes of cellular energy and nicotinamide, which is a precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, may act at least in part by providing energy repletion to irradiated cells.

  8. [Neuropsychic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, A S; Pellerin, J

    2001-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) are secreted primarily by the adrenal glands. DHEA could also be a neuroactive steroidal hormone. Because basal levels of DHEA and DHEA-S in humans decrease significantly with age, these hormones have been assumed to be involved in the aging process and in a number of pathologies which develop with aging: immunosenescence, increased mortality, increased incidence of cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. However, its role is still unknown. In humans, cross sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that DHEA might be associated with global measures of well-being and functioning, but positive effects on measures of memory and attention could not be found. Studies investigating DHEA and DHEA-S levels in dementia have produced controversial results. Short-term experimental studies have not shown significant improvement in global measures of well-being and functioning in healthy subjects but have revealed preliminary evidence for mood enhancing and antidepressant effects of DHEA. There is no evidence that DHEA could induce addiction in human beings.

  9. The Effective MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Kobakhidze, Archil

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an effective field theory framework to discuss deviations from the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) which is based on an alternative arrangement of the gauge-Higgs sector. In this effective MSSM (EffMSSM) nonlinearly realised $SU(2)\\times U(1)$ gauge sector is described by an $SU(2)\\times U(1)$-valued massive vector superfield, which contains a neutral CP-even and charged Higgs fields, while another neutral CP-even Higgs and the neutral CP-odd Higgs fields are residing in an $SU(2)\\times U(1)$-singlet chiral superfield. Although the new theory contains the same particle content as the conventional MSSM, the unconventional representation of superfields allows for new type of interactions, which may lead to a significant modification of the phenomenology. As an illustrative example we consider EffMSSM with modified Higgs and electroweak gauge sector augmented by gaugino soft supersymmetry breaking masses, $M_i~ (i=1,2,3)$ and the Standard Higgs soft-breaking masses, $m_{H_u}=m_{H_d}$ and ...

  10. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Dunbar, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  11. The Effective Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  12. VITAMIN D IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Radović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its antiproliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes. Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists.

  13. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  14. The Creative Stereotype Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Dumas

    Full Text Available Because of its fundamental relevance to scientific innovation, artistic expression, and human ingenuity, creativity has long been the subject of systematic psychological investigation. Concomitantly, the far-reaching effects of stereotypes on various cognitive and social processes have been widely researched. Bridging these two literatures, we show in a series of two studies that stereotypes related to creativity can both enhance and diminish individuals' performance on a divergent thinking task. Specifically, Study 1 demonstrated that participants asked to take on a stereotypically uninhibited perspective performed significantly better on a divergent thinking task than those participants who took on a stereotypically inhibited perspective, and a control group. Relatedly, Study 2 showed that the same effect is found within-subjects, with divergent thinking significantly improving when participants invoke an uninhibited stereotype. Moreover, we demonstrate the efficacy of Latent Semantic Analysis as an objective measure of the originality of ideas, and discuss implications of our findings for the nature of creativity. Namely, that creativity may not be best described as a stable individual trait, but as a malleable product of context and perspective.

  15. Effective elastic moduli and interface effects of nano- crystalline materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Many properties of nanocrystalline materials are associated with interface effects. Based on their microstructural features, the influence of interfaces on the effective elastic property of nanocrystalline materials is investigated. First, the Mori-Tanaka method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli by considering a nanocrystalline material as a binary composite solid consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. The effects of strain gradients are then examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Two interface mechanisms are elucidated that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and the other is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers near interfaces.

  16. Effects of Therapist's Nonverbal Communication on Rated Skill and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Mark; Rogers, Ronald W.

    1980-01-01

    Nonverbal cues of immediacy significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. A therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuineness, and effectiveness. (Author)

  17. The placebo effect and nothingness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine

    In this paper I shall discuss the placebo effect from a posthuman angle. The placebo effect is a medical conundrum, as it is a medical effect that is produced by “nothing”. Placebo literally means, ”I please”, and the placebo has, among other things, been defined as an inert substance, often...... trials. It has been studied as an effect of personality traits, as an expectational effect, and from a physiological point of departure. Still it remains a medical riddle how something that is “nothing” can cause a measurable effect? In this paper I shall address this issue from a posthuman angle...

  18. Effects-Driven IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the chasm between development and implementation through a sustained focus on the effects to be achieved by users through their adoption and use of a system. This involves iteratively (a) specifying the purpose of the system in terms of effects, (b) developing an IT system and associated organizational...... change that realize the specified effects, and (c) measuring the absence or presence of the specified effects during pilot use of the system while also remaining alert to the emergence of beneficial but hitherto unspecified effects. In this paper we explore effects-driven IT development and discuss...

  19. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  20. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  1. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  2. Quenched effective population size

    CERN Document Server

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  3. The Energy Diameter Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

    2007-07-10

    We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  4. The Energy Diameter Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

    2007-04-20

    Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  5. The Effective Ambidextrous Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    . Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous......There is general consensus that coordination and integration are needed to achieve efficient outcomes while distributed decision power and autonomous actions are essential to develop innovative responses. These dual requirements for operational optimization and ongoing business innovation capture...... the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making...

  6. Unparticle phase effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chuan-Hung

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles proposed by Georgi carry CP conserving phases in their propagators. We demonstrate that these peculiar phases have an important impact on CP violation. Without including the strong QCD phases, we study the unparticle phase effects on the direct CP asymmetries in the exclusive decays of $\\bar B_d\\to \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $B\\to \\pi K$, in which the flavor changing neutral currents are forbidden at tree level but induced by one-loop diagrams. Interesting and consistent results comparing to the data are obtained. In addition, we find that unparticles will significantly enhance the differential branching ratio of $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ at the small invariant mass of $\\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$. The forward-backward asymmetries for $b\\to s \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ due to unparticles are also explored.

  7. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  8. The effective bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; von Harling, Benedict; Serone, Marco

    2016-09-01

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method — advocated in ref. [1] but never implemented so far — where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and overline{z} are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z=overline{z}=1/2 , we can consistently "integrate out" higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this "effective" bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O( n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O( n) vector models, with n = 2, 3, 4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  9. Performance effect of Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    relevant to Denmark, but the approach is empirically more generalizable. We show that the effect of Lean standardized flow production practices on performance is mediated by analytical continuous improvement empowerment practices and by delegation of decision rights practices. Thus, standardized flow......To understand how the practices of Lean affect performance, we tested and validated a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model. We used a cross-sectional survey of 200 Danish companies that indicated that they used Lean. Thus, this study is especially...... of decision rights. The paper provides evidence that supports the view that middle managers’ actions further enhance performance in Lean companies. The right Lean behavior by middle managers increases the level of analytical continuous improvement empowerment. In total, high-performing Lean companies...

  10. Quantum Magellan Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2009-01-01

    In this work we consider remarkable experiment of the quantum dynamical interaction between a photon and fixed beam splitter with additional two optical fibers. Given fibers, having "circular", almost completely closed loop forms, admit that both superposition terms, corresponding to reflecting and passing photon, interact unlimitedly periodically with splitter. For increasing number of given interactions final state of the photon tends to superposition of reflecting and passing photon with equivalent superposition coefficients quite independently of their initial values. So, many time repeated unitary quantum dynamical evolution implies an unexpected degeneration. Feynman ingeniously observed that a time of the degeneration of the ideas will come, known to any great geographer-explorer (e.g. Magellan that first circumnavigate Earth), when he thinks about the army of the tourists that will come after him. For this reason mentioned dynamical degeneration will be called quantum Magellan effect. Also, we conside...

  11. Piezotronic and Piezophototronic Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2010-05-06

    Owing to the polarization of ions in a crystal that has noncentral symmetry, a piezoelectric potential (piezopotential) is created in the material by applying a stress. The creation of piezopotential together with the presence of Schottky contacts are the fundamental physics responsible for a few important nanotechnologies. The nanogenerator is based on the piezopotential-driven transient flow of electrons in the external load. On the basis of nanomaterials in the wurtzite semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, electronics fabricated by using a piezopotential as a gate voltage are called piezotronics, with applications in strain/force/pressure-triggered/controlled electronic devices, sensors, and logic gates. The piezophototronic effect is a result of three-way coupling among piezoelectricity, photonic excitation, and semiconductor transport, which allows tuning and controlling of electro-optical processes by a strain-induced piezopotential. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Fair and effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Nathan, Iben

    2014-01-01

    70) Pasgaard, M.a and Nathan, I. Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) is a proposed mechanism to mitigate global climate change without compromising biodiversity and local livelihoods. REDD+ initiatives are being introduced at a fast pace across the Global South. Many...... this question in the particular context of a REDD+ demonstration project in Oddar Meanchey district in Northern Cambodia. Based on a study of the actual drivers of deforestation in the locality and of the mechanisms presently determining how the participating communities share costs and benefits from forest...... governance, we conclude that the studied approach to reducing emissions from large scale deforestation is not effective in its present form, and is even likely to increase rather than decrease inequalities among rural people in the area. Factors such as high pressure on land, weak land- and forest tenure...

  13. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ have been studied for deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in iron nucleus by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions, target mass correction, shadowing and anti-shadowing corrections. The calculations have been performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Using these structure functions we have obtained the ratio $R_{F2,F3}^A(x,Q^2)= \\frac{2F_{2,3}^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2,3}^D(x,Q^2)}$, the differential scattering cross section $\\frac{1}{E}\\frac{d^2\\sigma}{dxdy}$ and the total scattering cross section $\\sigma$. The results of our numerical calculations in $^{56}Fe$ are compared with the experimental results of NuTeV and CDHSW collaborations.

  14. MEDIA EFFECTS THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MAFTEI-GOLOPENȚIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the world and the various existing points of view play sometimes the role of barriers to understanding the events that take place around us or in which we are directly involved, that we may find overwhelming sometimes. In this context, we have no choice but to find instruments that can help us find a meaning beyond ”raw” information. Frames and other media effects theories can be this instrument, that can help us understand ”the stories” about the surrounding world. Frames are useful to us because our mind can’t simply process each new situation from scratch. This paper aims mainly at analysing frames, their function, their types, their roles and the levels at which they manifest themselves. It also represents the theoretical background of a future case study about the way in which the academic world is symbolically seen by the press.

  15. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  16. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  17. Hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  18. [New effect biomarkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, G; Corradi, M; Mutti, A; Baccarelli, A; Pesatori, A; Bertazzi, P A

    2004-01-01

    The major research goals for researchers developing biomarkers of effect are the development and validation of biomarkers that permit the prediction of the risk of disease in individuals and groups. One important objective is to prevent human cancer. This article reviews the most recent analytical methodologies, validation studies and field trials together with auditing and quality assessment of the necessary data based on scientific grounds. Consideration is given to new developments in the relatively young field of toxicogenomics, possibly leading to the identification of early changes that may lead to both cancer and non-cancer end points. Although the creation and development of reliable databases integrating information from genomic and proteomic research programmes should offer a contribution to the prediction of risks and prevention of diseases related to chemical exposure, the most promising future application of these technologies lies in the molecular diagnosis of diseases whose nosography will probably be redefined.

  19. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking......Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team...... consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than...

  20. The Effective Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Serone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method - advocated in ref. [1] but never implemented so far - where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios $z$ and $\\bar z$ are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point $z=\\bar z =1/2$, we can consistently "integrate out" higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this "effective" bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and $O(n)$ vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the $O(n)$ vector models, with $n=2,3,4$, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  1. Effects of virtual monopoles;

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Electromagnetism would be a ``more unified'' theory if there were elementary magnetic monopoles and/or particles with both electric and magnetic charges (dyons). I discuss the simplest possibilities for the addition of these entities onto the Standard Model, and their empirical consequences. Lower limits on the masses of monopoles and dyons stemming from their quantum effects on current observables turn out to be much stronger than the existing limits from direct searches. Anomalies in the three-photon decay of the Z constitute good specific signatures for monopoles or dyons. T-odd observables in the e^+e^-\\!\\rightarrow\\! W^+W^- process are signatures for dyons, but they are severely constrained by existing data. The subjects of monopolium, monopole cosmology and non-elementary monopoles are also discussed.

  2. Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael (Yale University, New Haven, CT); Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.

  3. The Creativity Passdown Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Lee, Jong Seok; Baskerville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Design theory lies at the heart of information systems design science research. One concern in this area is the potential to limit the designer’s creativity by over-specifying the meta-design or the design process. This paper explains how design research encapsulates a two-person design team...... consisting of the design theorist and the artifact instance designer. Design theory embodies a creativity passdown effect in which the creative design thinking is partly executed by the design theorist and the completion of this thinking is deferred to the artifact instance designer. In fact, rather than...... limiting the instance designer’s creativity, the design theorist may create an opportunity for the instance designer to be creative by passing down a design theory. Further, the artifact instance designer operates within the problem domain defined by design theorist, and engages in design thinking...

  4. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  5. Psychobehavioral Effects of Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Suchorzynska, Anna

    2017-06-25

    Meditation is an increasingly popular psychobehavioral therapy. Various meditation techniques in use make it hard to objectively scrutinize the psychological benefits. Therefore, in this study we set out to examine the effects of two fundamentally different meditative techniques, Zazen, 'seated meditation', in which the body and mind are calmed, and Tai Chi, 'meditation in motion', based on energetic martial art performance. The aim was to compare the effects of both techniques on personality structure, emotional intelligence, mood, and coping with stress. The study was conducted in 48 healthy volunteers, aged 39-50, divided into those practicing Zazen, Tai Chi, and the non-meditating controls, each group consisting of 16 persons. The psychometric tools consisted of Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL), Emotional Intelligence Inventory (INTE), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that both Zazen and Tai Chi meditations significantly enhanced openness to experience, one of the personality dimensions of the Big Five Model. The enhanced openness was associated with improved strategies for coping with stress. The meditators had less avoidance-oriented approaches to perceived stress. They also had improved mood compared with non-meditating controls. The findings suggest that enhanced openness to experience could shape one's desire to hold onto the meditation regimen. We conclude that both, diametrically different types of meditation, are conducive to mental health by improving the general well-being, counteracting stress, and leading to a better vigor of spirit. Meditation may thus be considered a complimentary, albeit rather modestly acting, adjunct to psychotherapy.

  6. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYTOSTEROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Dhankhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foods and nutrients play a vital role in normal functioning of the body. They are helpful in maintaining the health of the individual and in reducing the risk of various diseases. Worldwide acceptance of this fact formed a recognition link between "nutrition" and "health" and the concept of "nutraceuticals" has evolved. More than any other disease, the etiology of cardiovascular disease reveals many risk factors that are amenable to nutraceutical intervention. The scientific literature shows that there are several bioactive ingredients that are present in small amounts in plants that can affect mammalian biological processes relevant to cardiovascular disease and other common human diseases. The ability of bioactive ingredients to positively influence cardiovascular risk factors should be recognized as an enormous opportunity in the treatment of a highly prevalent disease. Nutraceuticals hold promise in clinical therapy as they have the potential to significantly reduce the risk of side effects associated with drugs and pills along with reducing the global health care cost. Common ingredients that have been studied include soluble fiber (from oats and psyllium; long-chain omega-3 fatty acids; plant sterols or phytosterols; polyphenols (from dark chocolate, red wine, green tea, or extravirgin olive oil; isoflavones from soy; Chinese red-yeast rice; and probiotics from dairy products. Amongst this vast array of bioactives, there is emerging evidence indicating role of phytosterols in mitigating risk of cardiovascular disease and promoting general health and well-being. Phytosterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods. They are absorbed only in trace amounts but inhibit the absorption of intestinal cholesterol including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol, a key step in cholesterol elimination. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize some of the recent research findings on phytosterols that have beneficial

  7. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  8. Safer, More Effective Pain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Safer, More Effective Pain Management Living with chronic pain can be challenging. It ... providers’ ability to offer safer, more effective pain management and supports clinical decision making about prescribing opioids. ...

  9. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  10. Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Murphree, Tom; Frederickson, Paul A.; Guest, Arlene A.

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 4: Collaborative NWDC/NPS M&S Research; Moderator: Curtis Blais; Modeling and Simulating Environmental Effects; speakers: Peter Guest, Paul Frederickson & Tom Murphree Environmental Effects Group

  11. Effects of Medications on Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Effects of Medications on Voice Effects of Medications on Voice Patient Health Information ... entnet.org . Could Your Medication Be Affecting Your Voice? Some medications including prescription, over-the-counter, and ...

  12. Antidepressants: Can They Lose Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be having the same effect. Can antidepressants lose effectiveness? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  13. Further considerations of spallation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C.

    1973-01-01

    Trapped photon and cosmic ray effects on spallation in the UK-5 (hard X ray telescope) central crystal were measured. Both low dose and high dose effects were considered. Decay results are presented in tables.

  14. The effectiveness of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Rasche; Marcela M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    This analysis addresses changing views of the role and effectiveness of monetary policy, inflation targeting as an "effective monetary policy," monetary policy and short-run (output) stabilization, and problems in implementing a short-run stabilization policy.

  15. Hall Effect in a Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

  16. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  17. Inverse Gibbs-Thomson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershanov, V. Yu.; Garmashov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    We prove the existence of an effect inverse to the Gibbs-Thomson effect for mass transfer in systems consisting of a solid phase and the solution of the solid phase material in a certain solvent. The effect involves a change in the shape of the interface due to a variation of the equilibrium concentrations under it, which is induced by external conditions, and exists in the presence of a negative feedback for mass transfer associated with capillary effects.

  18. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public.

  19. Attention and the Testing Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  20. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  1. Summarizing primary and secondary effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    summary of primary and secondary effects across discrete class origins. Under the testable assumption that the pattern of effects of class origins on academic ability is proportional to the pattern of effects of class origins on educational choice net of academic ability, the method returns a single...

  2. Feedback, Incentives and Peer Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire

    effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly...

  3. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  4. Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharian, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the vacuum expectation value of the current density for a charged scalar field on a slice of anti-de Sitter (AdS) space with toroidally compact dimensions. Along the compact dimensions periodicity conditions are imposed on the field operator with general phases and the presence of a constant gauge field is assumed. The latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effects on the vacuum currents. The current density along compact dimensions is a periodic function of the gauge field flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. It vanishes on the AdS boundary and, near the horizon, to the leading order, it is conformally related to the corresponding quantity in Minkowski bulk for a massless field. For large values of the length of the compact dimension compared with the AdS curvature radius, the vacuum current decays as power-law for both massless and massive fields. This behavior is essentially different from the corresponding one in Minkowski background, where the currents for a massive field are suppressed exponentially.

  5. Avalanche effects near nanojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandigana, Vishal V. R.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we perform a computational investigation of a nanopore connected to external fluidic reservoirs of asymmetric geometries. The asymmetry between the reservoirs is achieved by changing the cross-sectional areas, and the reservoirs are designated as the micropore reservoir and macropore reservoir. When an electric field is applied, which is directed from the macropore towards the micropore reservoir, we observe local nonequilibrium chaotic current oscillations. The current oscillations originate at the micropore-nanopore interface owing to the local cascade of ions; we refer to this phenomenon as the "avalanche effects." We mathematically quantify chaos in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The maximum Lyapunov exponent exhibits a monotonic increase with the applied voltage and the macropore reservoir diameter. The temporal power spectra maps of the chaotic currents depict a low-frequency "1 /f "-type dynamics for the voltage chaos and "1 /f2 "-type dynamics for the macropore reservoir chaos. The results presented here offer avenues to manipulate ionic diodes and fluidic pumps.

  6. Harmful effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aseem; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Datta, Sourav; Sinukumar, Snita; Joshi, Poonam; Garg, Apurva

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel.

  7. Testing the Perey Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Titus, L J

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects of non-local potentials have historically been approximately included by applying a correction factor to the solution of the corresponding equation for the local equivalent interaction. This is usually referred to as the Perey correction factor. Purpose: In this work we investigate the validity of the Perey correction factor for single-channel bound and scattering states, as well as in transfer (p,d) cross sections. Method: We solve the scattering and bound state equations for non-local interactions of the Perey-Buck type, through an iterative method. Using the distorted wave Born approximation, we construct the T-matrix for (p,d) on 17O, 41Ca, 49Ca, 127Sn, 133Sn, and 209Pb at 20 and 50 MeV. Results: We found that for bound states, the Perey corrected wave function resulting from the local equation agreed well with that from the non-local equation in the interior region, but discrepancies were found in the surface and peripheral regions. Overall, the Perey correction factor was adequat...

  8. Cost effective solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarathna M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy the most efficient, eco-friendly and abundantly available energy source in the nature. It can be converted into electrical energy in cost effective manner. In recent years, the interest in solar energy has risen due to surging oil prices and environmental concern. In many remote or underdeveloped areas, direct access to an electric grid is impossible and a photovoltaic inverter system would make life much simpler and more convenient. With this in mind, it is aimed to design, build, and test a solar panel inverter. This inverter system could be used as backup power during outages, battery charging, or for typical household applications. The main components of this solar system are solar cell, dc to dc boost converters, and inverter. Sine wave push pull inverter topology is used for inverter. In this topology only two MOSFETs are used and isolation requirement between control circuit and power circuit is also less which helps to decrease the cost of solar inverter.

  9. Harmful effects of nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel.

  10. Cytotoxicity effects of alkoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan M. Khairul

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effort was to design and synthesize five new members of alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives (3a–3e featuring general formula of A-ArC(ONHC(SNHAr-D in which A represents the methoxy group and D as –OCnH2n+1 (alkoxyl group, where n = 6,7,8,9, and 10 have been successfully designed, prepared, characterized, and evaluated for anti-amoebic activities. They were spectroscopically characterized by 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis spectroscopy analysis. In turn, they were used to investigate the cytotoxicity effect on Acanthamoeba sp. at their IC50 values and membrane permeability. Compounds 3a and 3b revealed to have good activity towards Acanthamoeba sp. compared to other compounds of 3c, 3d, and 3e. The observation under fluorescence microscopy by AOPI (Acridine-orange/Propidium iodide staining indicated that treated amoeba cells by 3a–3e show loss of their membrane permeability.

  11. The Covariant Stark Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Land, M C

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Stark effect, as a first order perturbation of manifestly covariant hydrogen-like bound states. These bound states are solutions to a relativistic Schr\\"odinger equation with invariant evolution parameter, and represent mass eigenstates whose eigenvalues correspond to the well-known energy spectrum of the non-relativistic theory. In analogy to the nonrelativistic case, the off-diagonal perturbation leads to a lifting of the degeneracy in the mass spectrum. In the covariant case, not only do the spectral lines split, but they acquire an imaginary part which is lnear in the applied electric field, thus revealing induced bound state decay in first order perturbation theory. This imaginary part results from the coupling of the external field to the non-compact boost generator. In order to recover the conventional first order Stark splitting, we must include a scalar potential term. This term may be understood as a fifth gauge potential, which compensates for dependence of gauge transformat...

  12. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  13. A clear catalyst effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, C

    1994-06-01

    A member of the International Council on Management of Population Programs (ICOMP) says that training women to manage and harbor employable skills has a very large multiplier effect. An international nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Kuala Lumpur and established in 1973 to improve the performance of family planning programs in Asian developing countries through better management techniques, ICOMP boasts 35 developing countries as members. The organization's mandate has expanded over the years such that they now provide management and skills training programs through local NGOs in developing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been assisting ICOMP's training programs in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, and the Philippines since 1989 with two technical assistance grants totalling $681,000. This is the first time that the Bank has supported training exclusively for women. Although the ADB planned to reach only 940 women under the first technical assistance, it eventually helped train more than 1200; an additional 1300 women have attended the courses offered under the Bank's second grant. Training courses are aimed at disadvantaged women who need training in employment skills, women engaged in community development or income-generating projects who need to develop basic management skills, and officials of the participating women NGOs who need training in organizing, developing, and implementing income-generating projects. The author discusses other elements of training aimed at improving the social and economic status of women, along with experiences of the Bangladesh Association for Community Education and the MELATI Foundation of Jakarta, Indonesia.

  14. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  15. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  16. Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Di Bella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MLT, the main hormone produced by the pineal gland, not only regulates circadian rhythm, but also has antioxidant, anti-ageing and immunomodulatory properties. MLT plays an important role in blood composition, medullary dynamics, platelet genesis, vessel endothelia, and in platelet aggregation, leukocyte formula regulation and hemoglobin synthesis. Its significant atoxic, apoptotic, oncostatic, angiogenetic, differentiating and antiproliferative properties against all solid and liquid tumors have also been documented. Thanks, in fact, to its considerable functional versatility, MLT can exert both direct and indirect anticancer effects in factorial synergy with other differentiating, antiproliferative, immunomodulating and trophic molecules that form part of the anticancer treatment formulated by Luigi Di Bella (Di Bella Method, DBM: somatostatin, retinoids, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, prolactin inhibitors, chondroitin-sulfate. The interaction between MLT and the DBM molecules counters the multiple processes that characterize the neoplastic phenotype (induction, promotion, progression and/or dissemination, tumoral mutation. All these particular characteristics suggest the use of MLT in oncological diseases.

  17. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  18. Effect sizes in memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter E; Fritz, Catherine O

    2013-01-01

    Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly onto the observed distributions, but his values for partial eta squared were considerably lower than those observed in current memory research. We recommend interpreting effect sizes in the context of either domain-specific guideline values agreed for an area of research or the distribution of effect size estimates from published research in the domain. We provide cumulative frequency tables for both partial eta squared and d enabling authors to report and consider not only the absolute size of observed effects but also the percentage of reported effects that are larger or smaller than those observed.

  19. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  20. The placebo effect and nothingness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine

    In this paper I shall discuss the placebo effect from a posthuman angle. The placebo effect is a medical conundrum, as it is a medical effect that is produced by “nothing”. Placebo literally means, ”I please”, and the placebo has, among other things, been defined as an inert substance, often...... a calcium pill. Placebos are being used in medical trials to determine how much of the medical effect is caused by other factors than medical. There is a vast amount of literature on the placebo effect and it has been studied since the late 1940’ies, mainly for the purpose of pre-elimination from medical......, applying Karen Barad’s concept of agential realism to the problem. I argue that the placebo effect is a cuttingtogether- apart that produces specific agencies in the placebo phenomenon – that is, both the subject under treatment and the placebo emerge in the placebo effect. Through quantum physics, Barad...