Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We introduce the coordinate-dependent one- and two-mode squeezing transformations and discuss the properties of the corresponding one-and two-mode squeezed states. We show that the coordinate-dependent one-and two-mode squeezing transformations can be constructed by the combination of two transformations, a coordinate-dependent displacement followed by the standard squeezed transformation. Such a decomposition turns a nonlinear problem into a linear one because all the calculations involving the nonlinear one- and two-mode squeezed transformation have been shown to be able to reduce to those only concerning the standard one- and two-mode squeezed states.
Distillation of the two-mode squeezed state.
Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S; Lvovsky, A I
2014-02-21
We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Li-Yun; FAN Hong-Yi
2008-01-01
We find that the squeezed two-mode number state is just a two-variable Hermite polynomial excitation of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state (THPES). We find that the Wigner function of THPES and its marginal distributions are just related to two-variable Hermite polynomials (or Laguerre polynomials) and that the tomogram of THPES can be expressed by one-mode Hermite polynomial.
Quantum memory for entangled two-mode squeezed states
Jensen, K; Krauter, H; Fernholz, T; Nielsen, B M; Serafini, A; Owari, M; Plenio, M B; Wolf, M M; Polzik, E S
2010-01-01
A quantum memory for light is a key element for the realization of future quantum information networks. Requirements for a good quantum memory are (i) versatility (allowing a wide range of inputs) and (ii) true quantum coherence (preserving quantum information). Here we demonstrate such a quantum memory for states possessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement. These multi-photon states are two-mode squeezed by 6.0 dB with a variable orientation of squeezing and displaced by a few vacuum units. This range encompasses typical input alphabets for a continuous variable quantum information protocol. The memory consists of two cells, one for each mode, filled with cesium atoms at room temperature with a memory time of about 1msec. The preservation of quantum coherence is rigorously proven by showing that the experimental memory fidelity 0.52(2) significantly exceeds the benchmark of 0.45 for the best possible classical memory for a range of displacements.
Symplectic Group Representation of the Two-Mode Squeezing Operator in the Coherent State Basis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua
2003-01-01
We find that the coherent state projection operator representation of the two-mode squeezing operator constitutes a loyal group representation of symplectic group, which is a remarkable property of the coherent state. As a consequence, the resultant effect of successively applying two-mode squeezing operators are equivalent to a single squeezing in the two-mode Fock space. Generalization of this property to the 2n-mode case is also discussed.
Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia
1994-01-01
It is found that two-mode output quantum electromagnetic field in two-mode squeezed states exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations are also presented for the first time. The concept of higher-order squeezing of the single-mode quantum electromagnetic field was first introduced and applied to several processes by Hong and Mandel in 1985. Lately Li Xizeng and Shan Ying have calculated the higher-order squeezing in the process of degenerate four-wave mixing and presented the higher-order uncertainty relations of the fields in single-mode squeezed states. In this paper we generalize the above work to the higher-order squeezing in two-mode squeezed states. The generalized uncertainty relations are also presented for the first time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Guang-Qiang; Zhu Si-Wei; Guo Hong-Bin; Zeng Gui-Hua
2008-01-01
For the beam splitter attack strategy against quantum key distribution using two-mode squeezed states, the analytical expression of the optimal beam splitter parameter is provided in this paper by applying the Shannon information theory. The theoretical secret information rate after error correction and privacy amplification is given in terms of the squeezed parameter and channel parameters. The results show that the two-mode squeezed state quantum key distribution is secure against an optimal beam splitter attack.
Bounds for entanglement of formation of two mode squeezed thermal states
Chen, X Y; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Pei-liang
2003-01-01
The upper and lower bounds of entanglement of formation are given for two mode squeezed thermal state. The bounds are compared with other entanglement measure or bounds. The entanglement distillation and the relative entropy of entanglement of infinitive squeezed state are obtained at the postulation of hashing inequality.
Analytical Study of Two-Mode Thermal Squeezed States and Black Holes
Venkataratnam, K. K.
2017-02-01
We study the two-mode thermal squeezed states formalism to examine the particle creation by black holes.We also study the entropy generation and derive an equation for Hawking temperature in terms of squeezed parameter and an associated temperature dependent parameters.
Statistical Properties of Photon-Added Two-Mode Squeezed Coherent States
Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wan, Zhi-Long; Meng, Xiang-Guo
2016-12-01
The nonclassical and non-Gaussian quantum states—photon-added two-mode squeezed coherent states have been theoretically introduced by adding multiple photons to each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. Starting from the new expression of two-mode squeezing operator in entangled states representation, the normalization factor is obtained, which is directly related to bivariate Hermite polynomials. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, cross-correlation between two modes, partial negative Wigner function are observed, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the target states. The negative Wigner function often display non-Gaussian distribution meanwhile. The investigations may provide experimentalists with some better references in quantum engineering.
Engineering of Two Quantum States via Conditional Measurement on Two-Mode Squeezed State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIAN Yi-Min; ZHANG Jun-Xiang; XIE Chang-De; PENG Kun-Chi
2008-01-01
@@ We propose a scheme for the simultaneously preparation radiation-field modes of a single photon and a superposition of zero-and one-photon states,based on the coherent quantum state displacement and photon subtraction from two-mode squeezed state.It is shown that the single-photon and the superposition states can be obtained by only choosing the suitable parameter of displacements.The experimental feasibility to accomplish this scheme is also discussed.
The q-analogues of two-mode squeezed states constructed by virtue of the IWOP technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Meng Xiang-Guo; Wang Ji-Suo; Li Hong-Qi
2008-01-01
The q-analogues of two-mode squeezed states are introduced by virtue of deformation quantization methods and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators. Some new completeness relations about these squeezed states composed of the bra and ket which are not mutually Hermitian conjugates are obtained. Furthermore,the antibunching effects of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state S'2(r) |00> are investigated. It is found that, in different ranges of the squeezed parameter r, both modes of the state exhibit the antibunching effects and the two modes of the state are always nonclassical correlation.
Comment on ''Teleportation of two-mode squeezed states''
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao [State Key Lab of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)
2011-10-15
We investigate the teleportation scheme of two-mode squeezed states proposed by Adhikari et al.[S. Adhikari et al., Phys. Rev. A 77, 012337 (2008)]. It uses four-mode entangled states to teleport two-mode squeezed states. The fidelity between the original two-mode squeezed states and teleported ones is calculated. The maximal fidelity value of Adhikari's protocol is 0.38, which is incompatible with the fidelity definition with the maximal value 1. In our opinion, one reason is that they calculate the fidelity for multimodes Gaussian states using the fidelity formula for single-mode ones. Another reason is that the covariance matrix of output states should be what is obtained after applying the linear unitary Bogoliubov operations (two cascaded Fourier transformations) on the covariance matrix given in Eq. (12) in their paper. These two reasons result in the incomparable results. In addition, Adhikari's protocol can be simplified to be easily implemented.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Shao-Hua; SONG Ke-Hui; WEN Wei; SHI Zhen-Gang
2011-01-01
We study a system consisting of two identical non-interacting single-mode cavity fields coupled to a common vacuum environment and provide general, explicit, and exact solutions to its master equation by means of the characteristic function method. We analyze the entanglement dynamics of two-mode squeezed thermal state in this model and show that its entanglement dynamics is strongly determined by the two-mode squeezing parameter and the purity. In particular, we find that two-mode squeezed thermal state with the squeezing parameter r ≤ -(1/2) In (V)u is extremely fragile and almost does not survive in a common vacuum environment. We investigate the time evolution of nonlocality for two-mode squeezed thermal state in such an environment. It is found that the evolved state loses its nonlocality in the beginning of the evolution, but after a time, the revival of nonlocality can occur.
Wang, Zhen; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun
2016-10-01
We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., photon-subtracted two-mode squeezed coherent states (PSTMSCS), by successively subtracting photons from each mode of the two-mode squeezed coherent states. The normalization factor which is related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained by virtue of the two-mode squeezing operator in entangled-states representation. The sub-Poissonian photon statistics, antibunching effects, and partial negative Wigner function, respectively, are observed numerically, which fully reflect the nonclassicality of the resultant states. Finally, employing the SV criteria and the EPR correlation, respectively, the entangled property of PSTMSCS is analyzed. It is shown that the photon subtraction operation can effectively enhance the inseparability between the two modes.
Quantum metrology with two-mode squeezed thermal state: Parity detection and phase sensitivity
Li, Heng-Mei; Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Zhen
2016-10-01
Based on the Wigner-function method, we investigate the parity detection and phase sensitivity in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with two-mode squeezed thermal state (TMSTS). Using the classical transformation relation of the MZI, we derive the input-output Wigner functions and then obtain the explicit expressions of parity and phase sensitivity. The results from the numerical calculation show that supersensitivity can be reached only if the input TMSTS have a large number photons. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447002), the Research Foundation of the Education Department of Jiangxi Province of China (Grant No. GJJ150338), and the Research Foundation for Changzhou Institute of Modern Optoelectronic Technology (Grant No. CZGY15).
Ge, Wenchao; Bhattacharya, M.
2016-10-01
Nonclassical states of macroscopic objects are promising for ultrasensitive metrology as well as testing quantum mechanics. In this work, we investigate dissipative mechanical quantum state engineering in an optically levitated nanodiamond. First, we study single-mode mechanical squeezed states by magnetically coupling the mechanical motion to a dressed three-level system provided by a nitrogen-vacancy center in the nanoparticle. Quantum coherence between the dressed levels is created via microwave fields to induce a two-phonon transition, which results in mechanical squeezing. Remarkably, we find that in ultrahigh vacuum quantum squeezing is achievable at room temperature with feedback cooling. For moderate vacuum, quantum squeezing is possible with cryogenic temperature. Second, we present a setup for two mechanical modes coupled to the dressed three levels, which results in two-mode squeezing analogous to the mechanism of the single-mode case. In contrast to previous works, our study provides a deterministic method for engineering macroscopic squeezed states without the requirement for a cavity.
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with two-mode squeezed states
Madsen, Lars S; Lassen, Mikael; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L
2011-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables two remote parties to grow a shared key which they can use for unconditionally secure communication [1]. The applicable distance of a QKD protocol depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel [2-10]. Several QKD schemes based on coherent states and continuous variable (CV) measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise [2-6]. Here we propose and experimentally address a CV QKD protocol which uses fragile squeezed states combined with a large coherent modulation to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. As a proof of principle we experimentally demonstrate that the resulting QKD protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal CV coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising avenue for extending the distance for which secure communication is possible.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement in a Vacuum-Class Two-Mode Squeezed State
Eberle, Tobias; Duhme, Jörg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman
2011-01-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement is a criterion that is more demanding than just certifying entanglement. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the low resource generation of bi-partite continuous variable entanglement, as realized by mixing a squeezed mode with a vacuum mode at a balanced beam splitter, i.e. the generation of so-called vacuum-class entanglement. We find that in order to observe EPR entanglement the total optical loss must be smaller than 33.3 %. However, arbitrary strong EPR entanglement is generally possible with this scheme. We realize continuous wave squeezed light at 1550 nm with up to 9.9 dB of non-classical noise reduction, which is the highest value at a telecom wavelength so far. Using two phase controlled balanced homodyne detectors we observe an EPR co-variance product of 0.502 \\pm 0.006 < 1, where 1 is the critical value. We discuss the feasibility of strong Gaussian entanglement and its application for quantum key distribution in a short-distance fiber network.
Unconditional two-mode squeezing of separated atomic ensembles
Parkins, A S; Solano, E
2005-01-01
We propose schemes for the unconditional preparation of a two-mode squeezed state of effective bosonic modes realized in a pair of atomic ensembles interacting collectively with optical cavity and laser fields. The scheme uses Raman transitions between stable atomic ground states and under ideal conditions produces pure entangled states in the steady state. The scheme works both for ensembles confined within a single cavity and for ensembles confined in separate, cascaded cavities.
Evolution of a two-mode squeezed vacuum in the amplitude dissipative channel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Nian-Quan; Fan Hong-Yi; Xi Liu-Sheng; Tang Long-Ying; Yuan Xian-Zhang
2011-01-01
For the first time we derive the dissipating result of an initial two-mode squeezed pure vacuum state passing through a two-mode amplitude dissipative channel described by the direct product of two independent single-mode master equations.Although these two master equations do not mix the two modes (there is no coupling between them),since the two-mode squeezed state is simultaneously an entangled state,the final state which emerges from passing this channel is a two-mode mixed density operator.The compact expression of the outcoming state is obtained,which manifestly shows that as time evolves,the squeezing effect decreases.
Aragone, C.
1993-01-01
We introduce a new set of squeezed states through the coupled two-mode squeezed operator. It is shown that their behavior is simpler than the correlated coherent states introduced by Dodonov, Kurmyshev, and Man'ko in order to quantum mechanically describe the Landau system, i.e., a planar charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. We compare results for both sets of squeezed states.
Phase Properties of Two-Mode Squeezing-Rotating Entangled Representation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Hong-Chun; LI Heng-Mei; QI Kai-Guo
2006-01-01
By virtue of the squeezing-rotating entangled representation, we mainly establish thc new two-mode phase operator and phase angle operator, which is a general form including the foregoing formalist in two-mode Fock space.In addition, the corresponding phase distribution function is given in the entangled representation. In terms of this definition, we also analyze the phase behavior of some simple two-mode states such as squeezing-rotating coherent state,squeezing-rotating vacuum state, and so on. It is found that the results exactly agree with the foregoing phase theory.
Information Entropy Squeezing of a Two-Level Atom Interacting with Two-Mode Coherent Fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiao-Juan; FANG Mao-Fa
2004-01-01
From a quantum information point of view we investigate the entropy squeezing properties for a two-level atom interacting with the two-mode coherent fields via the two-photon transition. We discuss the influences of the initial state of the system on the atomic information entropy squeezing. Our results show that the squeezed component number,squeezed direction, and time of the information entropy squeezing can be controlled by choosing atomic distribution angle,the relative phase between the atom and the two-mode field, and the difference of the average photon number of the two field modes, respectively. Quantum information entropy is a remarkable precision measure for the atomic squeezing.
Atomic Dipole Squeezing in the Correlated Two-Mode Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model
Dong, Zhengchao; Zhao, Yonglin
1996-01-01
In this paper, we study the atomic dipole squeezing in the correlated two-mode two-photon JC model with the field initially in the correlated two-mode SU(1,1) coherent state. The effects of detuning, field intensity and number difference between the two field modes are investigated through numerical calculation.
Entropy squeezing for a two-level atom in two-mode Raman coupled model with intrinsic decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jian; Shao Bin; Zou Jian
2009-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the entropy squeezing for a two-level atom interacting with two quantized fields through Raman coupling.We obtain the dynamical evolution of the total system under the influence of intrinsic decoherence when the two quantized fields are prepared in a two-mode squeezing vacuum state initially.The effects of the field squeezing factor,the two-level atomic transition frequency,the second field frequency and the intrinsic decoherence on the entropy squeezing are discussed.Without intrinsic decoherence,the increase of field squeezing factor can break the entropy squeezing.The two-level atomic transition frequency changes only the period of oscillation but not the strength of entropy squeezing.The influence of the second field frequency is complicated.With the intrinsic decoherence taken into consideration,the results show that the stronger the intrinsic decoherence is,the more quickly the entropy squeezing will disappear.The increase of the atomic transition frequency can hasten the disappearance of entropy squeezing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jing-Tao; He Guang-Qiang; Ren Li-Jie; Zeng Gui-Hua
2011-01-01
This paper investigates an analytical expression of teleportation fidelity in the teleportation scheme of a single mode of electromagnetic field. The fidelity between the original squeezed coherent state and the teleported one is expressed in terms of the squeezing parameter r and the quantum channel parameter (two-mode squeezed state) p. The results of analysis show that the fidelity increases with the increase of the quantum channel parameter p, while the fidelity decreases with the increase of the squeezing parameter r of the squeezed state. Thus the coherent state (r = 0)is the best quantum signal for continuous variable quantum teleportation once the quantum channel is built.
Higher-Order Squeezing in a Boson Coupled Two-Mode System
Chizhov, A. V.; Haus, J. W.; Yeong, K. C.
1996-01-01
We consider a model for nondegenerate cavity fields interacting through an intervening Boson field. The quantum correlations introduced in this manner are manifest through their higher-order correlation functions where a type of squeezed state is identified.
Squeezing Properties of the Generalized Multimode Squeezed States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONGTong－Qiang
2001-01-01
By means of the invariance of Weyl ordering under similar transformations we derive the explicit form of the generalized multimode squeezed states.Moreover,the completeness relation and the squeezing properties of the generalized multimode squeezed states are discussed.
Squeezing Properties of the Generalized Multimode Squeezed States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Tong-Qiang
2001-01-01
By means of the invariance of Weyl ordering under similar transformations we derive the explicit form of the generalized multimode squeezed states. Moreover, the completeness relation and the squeezing properties of the generalized multimode squeezed states are discussed.
Heisenberg-Limited Qubit Read-Out with Two-Mode Squeezed Light.
Didier, Nicolas; Kamal, Archana; Oliver, William D; Blais, Alexandre; Clerk, Aashish A
2015-08-28
We show how to use two-mode squeezed light to exponentially enhance cavity-based dispersive qubit measurement. Our scheme enables true Heisenberg-limited scaling of the measurement, and crucially, it is not restricted to small dispersive couplings or unrealistically long measurement times. It involves coupling a qubit dispersively to two cavities and making use of a symmetry in the dynamics of joint cavity quadratures (a so-called quantum-mechanics-free subsystem). We discuss the basic scaling of the scheme and its robustness against imperfections, as well as a realistic implementation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Displacement of squeezed propagating microwave states
Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, Ling; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Friedrich; Xie, Edwar; Menzel, Edwin; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf
Displacement of propagating squeezed states is a fundamental operation for quantum communications. It can be applied to fundamental studies of macroscopic quantum coherence and has an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with propagating microwaves. We generate propagating squeezed states using a Josephson parametric amplifier and implement displacement using a cryogenic directional coupler. We study single- and two-mode displacement regimes. For the single-mode displacement we find that the squeezing level of the displaced squeezed state does not depend on the displacement amplitude. Also, we observe that quantum entanglement between two spatially separated channels stays constant across 4 orders of displacement power. We acknowledge support by the German Research Foundation through SFB 631 and FE 1564/1-1, the EU project PROMISCE, and Elite Network of Bavaria through the program ExQM.
Relationship between squeezing and entangled state transformations
Fan Hong Yi
2003-01-01
We show that c-number dilation transform in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled state, i.e. vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2) -> vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2 /mu) (or vertical bar eta sub 1 , eta sub 2) -> vertical bar eta sub 1 /mu, eta sub 2)), maps onto a kind of one-sided two-mode squeezing operator exp left brace i lambda/2(P sub 1 + P sub 2)(Q sub 1 + Q sub 2) - lambda/2 right brace, (or exp left brace i lambda/2(P sub 1 - P sub 2)(Q sub 1 - Q sub 2) - lambda/2 right brace). Using the IWOP technique, we derive their normally ordered form and construct the corresponding squeezed states. In doing so, some new relationship between squeezing and entangled state transformation is revealed. The dynamic Hamiltonian for such a kind of squeezing evolution is derived. The properties and application of the one-sided squeezed state are briefly discussed. These states can also be obtained with the use of a beam splitter.
Generalized two-mode coherent-entangled state with real parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The coherent-entangled state |α, x; λ> with real parameters λ is proposed in the two-mode Fock space, which exhibits the properties of both the coherent and entangled states. The completeness relation of |α, x; λ> is proved by virtue of the technique of integral within an ordered product of operators. The corresponding squeezing operator is derived, with its own squeezing properties. Furthermore, generalized P-representation in the coherent-entangled state is constructed. Finally, it is revealed that superposition of the coherent-entangled states may produce the EPR entangled state.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Xiao-Juan; Zhou Yuan-Jun; Fang Mao-Fa
2009-01-01
From the viewpoint of quantum information, this paper proposes a concept and a definition of the atomic optimal entropy squeezing sudden generation (AOESSG) for the system of an effective two-level moving atom which entangles with the two-mode coherent fields. It also researches the relationship between the AOESSG and entanglement sudden death of the atom-fields, and discusses the influences of atomic initial state on the AOESSG and obtains the system parameter which controls the AOESSG.
Quantum cryptography with squeezed states
Hillery, M
1999-01-01
A quantum key distribution scheme based on the use of displaced squeezed vacuum states is presented. The states are squeezed in one of two field quadrature components, and the value of the squeezed component is used to encode a character from an alphabet. The uncertainty relation between quadrature components prevents an eavesdropper from determining both with enough precision to determine the character being sent. Losses degrade the performance of this scheme, but it is possible to use phase-sensitive amplifiers to boost the signal and partially compensate for their effect.
Entanglement and purity of two-mode Gaussian states in noisy channels
Serafini, A; Paris, M G A; De Siena, S; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Siena, Silvio De
2004-01-01
We study the evolution of purity, entanglement and total correlations of general two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems in arbitrary uncorrelated Gaussian environments. The time evolution of purity, Von Neumann entropy, logarithmic negativity and mutual information is analyzed for a wide range of initial conditions. In general, we find that a local squeezing of the bath leads to a faster degradation of purity and entanglement, while it can help to preserve the mutual information between the modes.
Poizat, J. Ph.; Collett, M. J.; Walls, D. F.
1992-04-01
We consider two modes of the electromagnetic field interacting via a three-level atom in a ladder configuration. We calculate the squeezing spectra of the sum and difference of the two output beams. The usefulness of this system as a quantum-nondemolition-measurement scheme is analyzed and a prediction is made using the parameters of a recent experiment by Grangier et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1418 (1991)]. We use a full three-level model in the most general case and in particular the influence of both the one-photon and the two-photon detunings are investigated.
Squeezed States and Helmholtz Spectra
Francisco Delgado, C; Reyes, M A; Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A
1997-01-01
The 'classical interpretation' of the wave function psi(x) reveals an interesting operational aspect of the Helmholtz spectra. It is shown that the traditional Sturm-Liouville problem contains the simplest key to predict the squeezing effect for charged particle states.
Teleportation of Squeezed Entangled State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Li-Yun; ZHOU Nan-Run
2007-01-01
Based on the coherent entangled state |α, x＞ we introduce the squeezed entangled state (SES). Then we propose a teleportation protocol for the SES by using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state |η＞as a quantum channel.The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both |α, x＞and |η＞. Any bipartite states that can be expanded in terms of |α, x＞may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of |α, x＞.
Spin squeezing in nonlinear spin coherent states
Wang, Xiaoguang
2001-01-01
We introduce the nonlinear spin coherent state via its ladder operator formalism and propose a type of nonlinear spin coherent state by the nonlinear time evolution of spin coherent states. By a new version of spectroscopic squeezing criteria we study the spin squeezing in both the spin coherent state and nonlinear spin coherent state. The results show that the spin coherent state is not squeezed in the x, y, and z directions, and the nonlinear spin coherent state may be squeezed in the x and...
Semiclassical Wigner distribution for two-mode entangled state
Dechoum, K; Vallejos, R O; Khoury, A Z; 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043834
2011-01-01
We derive the steady state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation that describes the dynamics of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator in the truncated Wigner representation of the density operator. We assume that the pump mode is strongly damped, which permits its adiabatic elimination. When the elimination is correctly executed, the resulting stochastic equations contain multiplicative noise terms, and do not admit a potential solution. However, we develop an heuristic scheme leading to a satisfactory steady-state solution. This provides a clear view of the intracavity two-mode entangled state valid in all operating regimes of the OPO. A nongaussian distribution is obtained for the above threshold solution.
Bell's Inequalities for Continuous-Variable Systems in Generic Squeezed States
Martin, Jerome
2016-01-01
Bell's inequality for continuous-variable bipartite systems is studied. The inequality is expressed in terms of pseudo-spin operators and quantum expectation values are calculated for generic two-mode squeezed states characterized by a squeezing parameter $r$ and a squeezing angle $\\varphi$. Allowing for generic values of the squeezing angle is especially relevant when $\\varphi$ is not under experimental control, such as in cosmic inflation, where small quantum fluctuations in the early Universe are responsible for structures formation. Compared to previous studies restricted to $\\varphi=0$ and to a fixed orientation of the pseudo-spin operators, allowing for $\\varphi\
Generating Squeezed States in Solid State Circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Xin-An; WEN Yi-Huo; ZHANG Li-You; LONG Gui-Lu
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme for generating squeezed states in solid state circuits which consist a superconducting transmission line resonator (STLR), a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB) and a nanoelectromechanical resonator (NMR). The nonlinear interaction between the STLR and the CPB can be implemented by setting the external biased flux of the CPB at some certain points. The interaction Hamiltonian between the STLR and the NMR is derived by performing Fr 5hlich transformation on the total Hamiltonian of the combined system. Just by adiabatically keeping the CPB at the ground state, we get the standard parametric down-conversion Hamiltonian, and the squeezed states of the STLR can be easily generated, which is similar to the three-wave mixing in quantum optics.
Displacement of Propagating Squeezed Microwave States
Fedorov, Kirill G.; Zhong, L.; Pogorzalek, S.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Goetz, J.; Xie, E.; Wulschner, F.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Di Candia, R.; Las Heras, U.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.
2016-07-01
Displacement of propagating quantum states of light is a fundamental operation for quantum communication. It enables fundamental studies on macroscopic quantum coherence and plays an important role in quantum teleportation protocols with continuous variables. In our experiments, we have successfully implemented this operation for propagating squeezed microwave states. We demonstrate that, even for strong displacement amplitudes, there is no degradation of the squeezing level in the reconstructed quantum states. Furthermore, we confirm that path entanglement generated by using displaced squeezed states remains constant over a wide range of the displacement power.
Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; Anno, Fabio Dell'; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-01-01
Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper ``Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states'', we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing non degenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated to the canonical transformations, which generalize the non degenerate two--photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non Gaussian, highly non classical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonline...
Thermodynamics of squeezed states in mesoscopic circuits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ji Ying-Hua; Luo Hai-Mei; Liu Qing; Lei Min-Sheng
2005-01-01
Based on the information theory, we present a density matrix to discuss coherent and squeezed states in a mesoscopic LC circuit with time-dependent frequency. With the relevant operators included in the density matrix, a connection between the appearance of coherent and squeezed states is established, i.e., the quantum state evolution of the system is closely related to the initial state. Generally speaking, due to the effect of environment temperature, the mesoscopic LC circuit will evolve to a squeezed state when it initially lies in an excited state. In particular, at a low temperature, step changes of circuit parameters will result in a squeezed minimum uncertainty state if the resonance frequency remains the same after the change.
Squeezing States of Magnons in a Ferromagnet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, we conduct an investigation into magnon self-squeezing states in a ferromagnet. In these states, the quantum fluctuations of the spin components can be lower than the zero-point quantum fluctuations of the coherent states. Through calculating the expectation values of spin fluctuations we gain the condition of achieving magnon self-squeezing. We introduce the mean-field theory for dealing with the nonlinear interaction term of Hamiltonian of magnon system.
Dynamics of squeezing from generalized coherent states
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
1995-01-01
We extend the definition of generalized coherent states to include the case of time-dependent dispersion. We introduce a suitable operator providing displacement and dynamical rescaling from an arbitrary ground state. As a consequence, squeezing is naturally embedded in this framework, and its dynamics is ruled by the evolution equation for the dispersion. Our construction provides a displacement-operator method to obtain the squeezed states of arbitrary systems.
Coherent and squeezed states for the 3D harmonic oscillator
Mazouz, Amel; Bentaiba, Mustapha; Mahieddine, Ali
2017-01-01
A three-dimensional harmonic oscillator is studied in the context of generalized coherent states. We construct its squeezed states as eigenstates of linear contribution of ladder operators which are associated to the generalized Heisenberg algebra. We study the probability density to show the compression effect on the squeezed states. Our analysis reveals that squeezed states give us some freedom on the precise knowledge of position of the particle while maintaining the Heisenberg uncertainty relation minimum, squeezed states remains squeezed states over time.
Comparison of qubit and qutrit like entangled squeezed and coherent states of light
Najarbashi, G.; Mirzaei, S.
2016-10-01
Squeezed state of light is one of the important subjects in quantum optics which is generated by optical nonlinear interactions. In this paper, we especially focus on qubit like entangled squeezed states (ESS's) generated by beam splitters, phase-shifter and cross Kerr nonlinearity. Moreover the Wigner function of two-mode qubit and qutrit like ESS are investigated. We will show that the distances of peaks of Wigner functions for two-mode ESS are entanglement sensitive and can be a witness for entanglement. Like the qubit cases, monogamy inequality is fulfilled for qutrit like ESS. These trends are compared with those obtained for qubit and qutrit like entangled coherent states (ECS).
Two-Mode Excited Entangled Coherent State: Nonclassicality and Entanglement
Zhang, Hao-Liang; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liu, Cun-Jin; Hu, Yin-Quan; Hu, Li-Yun
2017-03-01
Two-mode excited entangled coherent states (TME-ECSs) are introduced by operating repeatedly the photon-excited operator on the ECSs. It is shown that the normalization constant is related to the product of two Laguerre polynomials. The influence of the operation on nonclassical behaviour of the ECSs is investigated in terms of cross-correlation function, anti-bunching effect and the negativity of Wigner function, which show that nonclassical properties can be enhanced. In addition, inseparability properties of the TME-ECSs are discussed by using Bell inequality and concurrence. It is found that the degree of quantum entanglement of even ECSs increases with the increase of the total excited photon number, and the violation of Bell inequality can be present for both even and odd case only when the total excited photon numbers are even and odd, respectively.
Effective thermodynamics of isolated entangled squeezed and coherent states
Seroje, King Karl R; Paraan, Francis N C
2015-01-01
The R\\'enyi entanglement entropy is calculated exactly for mode-partitioned isolated systems such as the two-mode squeezed state and the multi-mode Silbey-Harris polaron ansatz state. Effective thermodynamic descriptions of the correlated partitions are constructed to present quantum information theory concepts in the language of thermodynamics. Boltzmann weights are obtained from the entanglement spectrum by deriving the exact relationship between an effective temperature and the physical entanglement parameters. The partition function of the resulting effective thermal theory can be obtained directly from the single-copy entanglement.
dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
Extending the scheme developed for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in the preceding paper [F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 69, 033812 (2004)], we introduce two-mode nonlinear canonical transformations depending on two heterodyne mixing angles. They are defined in terms of Hermitian nonlinear functions that realize heterodyne superpositions of conjugate quadratures of bipartite systems. The canonical transformations diagonalize a class of Hamiltonians describing nondegenerate and degenerate multiphoton processes. We determine the coherent states associated with the canonical transformations, which generalize the nondegenerate two-photon squeezed states. Such heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states are defined as the simultaneous eigenstates of the transformed, coupled annihilation operators. They are generated by nonlinear unitary evolutions acting on two-mode squeezed states. They are non-Gaussian, highly nonclassical, entangled states. For a quadratic nonlinearity the heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states define two-mode cubic phase states. The statistical properties of these states can be widely adjusted by tuning the heterodyne mixing angles, the phases of the nonlinear couplings, as well as the strength of the nonlinearity. For quadratic nonlinearity, we study the higher-order contributions to the susceptibility in nonlinear media and we suggest possible experimental realizations of multiphoton conversion processes generating the cubic-phase heterodyne squeezed states.
Shukla, Namrata
2016-01-01
We study polarization squeezing of a pure photon number state which is obviously polarized but the mere change in the basis of polarization leads to simultaneous polarization squeezing in all the components of Stokes operator vector except those falling along or perpendicular to the direction of polarization state, is observed. We use the most general definition of polarization squeezing and discuss the experimental feasibility of the result. We also observe that a squeezing operation like non-degenerate parametric amplification of the state does not reveal simultaneous squeezing in all Stokes operator vectors and decreases in this sense.
The Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.; Manko, V. I.
1993-01-01
This conference publication contains the proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Moscow, Russia, on 25-29 May 1992. The purpose of this workshop was to study possible applications of squeezed states of light. The Workshop brought together many active researchers in squeezed states of light and those who may find the concept of squeezed states useful in their research, particularly in understanding the uncertainty relations. It was found at this workshop that the squeezed state has a much broader implication than the two-photon coherent states in quantum optics, since the squeeze transformation is one of the most fundamental transformations in physics.
Generation and detection of squeezed state
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHANG Xu-dong; YU Li; FENG Xue-dong; YANG Bo-jun
2008-01-01
Soliton amplitude squeezed state is obtained and dctected by using asymmetric Sagnac interferometer and balanced homodyne detecting system.An improved photo detector circuit for quantum state detection is introduced.The circuit has a bandwidth of 10MHz and the saturation power is about 19 mW.A maximum photocurrent noise reduction of 1.1 dB below the shot noise is achieved.Taking the detection efficiency into account,the squeezing will be about 1.5 dB.
Quantum teleportation of entangled squeezed vacuum states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡新华
2003-01-01
An optical scheme for probabilistic teleporting entangled squeezed vacuum states (SVS) is proposed. In this scheme,the teleported state is a bipartite entangled SVS,and the quantum channel is a tripartite entangled SVS.The process of the teleportation is achieved by using a 50/50 symmetric beamsplitter and photon detectors with the help of classical information.
Squeezing in the Real and Imaginary Spin Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Dong; WANG Xiao-Guang; WU Ling-An
2005-01-01
@@ We study spin squeezing properties in the real and imaginary spin coherent states. We obtain analytical expressions of two spin squeezing parameters via a novel ladder operator formalism of the spin coherent state and the generation function method.
Leggett-Garg Inequalities for Squeezed States
Martin, Jerome
2016-01-01
Temporal Bell inequalities, or Leggett-Garg Inequalities (LGI), are studied for continuous-variable systems placed in a squeezed state. The importance of those systems lies in their broad applicability which allows the description of many different physical settings in various branches of physics, ranging from cosmology to condensed matter physics and from optics to quantum information theory. LGI violations are explored and systematically mapped in squeezing parameter space. Configurations for which LGI violation occurs are found but it is shown that no violation can be obtained if all squeezing angles vanish, contrary to what happens for the spatial Bell inequalities. We also assess the effect of decoherence on the detectability of such violations. Our study opens up the possibility of new experimental designs for the observation of LGI violation.
Coherent states and squeezed states, supercoherent states and supersqueezed states
Nieto, Michael Martin
1992-01-01
This article reports on a program to obtain and understand coherent states for general systems. Most recently this has included supersymmetric systems. A byproduct of this work has been studies of squeezed and supersqueezed states. To obtain a physical understanding of these systems has always been a primary goal. In particular, in the work on supersymmetry an attempt to understand the role of Grassmann numbers in quantum mechanics has been initiated.
On the Squeezed Number States and their Phase Space Representations
Albano, L; Stephany, J
2002-01-01
We compute the photon number distribution, the Q distribution function and the wave functions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state. We discuss the oscillations which appear in the photon number distribution of squeezed number states for high values of the squeezing parameter. We compare our results with the formalism based on the interference in phase space.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Sbi-Biao
2002-01-01
A method is presented for generating highly squeezed states of a cavity field via the atom-cavity field interaction of the Raman type. In the scheme a sequence of three-level A-type atoms interacts with a cavity field, displaced by a classical source, in a Rarman manner. Then the atomic states are measured. By this way the cavity field may collapse onto a superposition of several coherent states, which exhibits strong squeezing. The scheme can also be used to prepare superpositions of many two-mode coherent states for two cavity fields. The coherent states in each mode are on a straight line. This is the first way for preparing multi-component entangled coherent states of this type in cavity QED.
Optical Generation of Single- or Two-Mode Excited Entangled Coherent States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Zhen-Zhong; JING Hui; ZHANG Xian-Zhou
2008-01-01
With nonlinear Mach-Zehnder interferometer (NLMZI) and a type-Ⅰ beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal, we optically generate single-mode excited entangled coherent states. This scheme can be easily generalized to generate two-mode excited entangled coherent states. We simply analyse different influences of single- and two-mode photon excitations on entangled coherent states.
Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.
1985-01-01
A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).
On the squeezed number states and their phase space representations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albano, L [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Mundarain, D F [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Stephany, J [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela)
2002-10-01
We compute the photon-number distribution, the Q({alpha}) distribution function and the wavefunctions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state using generating functions which allow one to obtain any matrix element in the squeezed number state representation from the matrix elements in the squeezed coherent state representation. For highly squeezed number states we discuss the previously unnoted oscillations which appear in the Q({alpha}) function. We also note that these oscillations can be related to the photon-number distribution oscillations and to the momentum representation of the wavefunction.
The properties of squeezed optical states created in lossy cavities
Seifoory, Hossein; Dignam, Marc M; Sipe, J E
2016-01-01
We investigate theoretically the properties of squeezed states generated using degenerate parametric down conversion in lossy cavities. We show that the Lindblad master equation, which governs the evolution of this system, has as its solution a squeezed thermal state with an effective temperature and squeezing parameter that depends on time. We derive analytical solutions for the time-evolution of quadrature noise, thermal photon number, squeezing parameter, and total photon number under different pumping regimes. We also find the steady state limits of the quadrature noises and discuss the $ g^{(2)} $ factor of the generated light inside the cavity in the steady state.
Entanglement bounds for squeezed non-symmetric thermal state
Jiang, L
2003-01-01
I study the three parameters bipartite quantum Gaussian state called squeezed asymmetric thermal state, calculate Gaussian entanglement of formation analytically and the up bound of relative entropy of entanglement, compare them with coherent information of the state. Based on the result obtained, it is anticipated that hashing inequality is not violated for squeezed non-symmetric thermal state.
Quantum electrodynamics in the squeezed vacuum state Electron mass shift
Putz, V; Putz, Volkmar; Svozil, Karl
2001-01-01
Due to the nonvanishing average photon population of the squeezed vacuum state, finite corrections to the scattering matrix are obtained. The lowest order contribution to the electron mass shift for a one mode squeezed vacuum state is given by $\\delta m(\\Omega, s)/m=\\alpha (2/\\pi)(\\Omega /m)^2\\sinh^2(s)$, where $\\Omega$ and $s$ stand for the mode frequency and the squeeze parameter and $\\alpha$ for the fine structure constant, respectively.
Squeezed state generation for interferometric gravitational-wave detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKenzie, Kirk; Gray, Malcolm B; Gossler, Stefan; Lam, Ping Koy; McClelland, David E [Center for Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2006-04-21
In this paper we present results demonstrating the development of a squeezed state at sideband frequencies as low as 100 Hz. The squeezed source was generated in a doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operated below threshold. The OPO resonance condition is achieved using the pump field, allowing the OPO to produce a squeezed vacuum state stably. We describe limitations to the experiment and discuss future work.
Experimental Realization of a Thermal Squeezed State of Levitated Optomechanics
Rashid, Muddassar; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Kim, M. S.; Ulbricht, Hendrik
2016-12-01
We experimentally squeeze the thermal motional state of an optically levitated nanosphere by fast switching between two trapping frequencies. The measured phase-space distribution of the center of mass of our particle shows the typical shape of a squeezed thermal state, from which we infer up to 2.7 dB of squeezing along one motional direction. In these experiments the average thermal occupancy is high and, even after squeezing, the motional state remains in the remit of classical statistical mechanics. Nevertheless, we argue that the manipulation scheme described here could be used to achieve squeezing in the quantum regime if preceded by cooling of the levitated mechanical oscillator. Additionally, a higher degree of squeezing could, in principle, be achieved by repeating the frequency-switching protocol multiple times.
Squeezing the limit: quantum benchmarks for the teleportation and storage of squeezed states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owari, M; Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Polzik, E S; Wolf, M M [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Serafini, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.owari@imperial.ac.uk
2008-11-15
We derive fidelity benchmarks for the quantum storage and teleportation of squeezed states of continuous variable systems, for input ensembles where the degree of squeezing s is fixed, no information about its orientation in phase space is given, and the distribution of phase-space displacements is a Gaussian. In the limit where the latter becomes flat, we prove analytically that the maximal classical achievable fidelity (which is 1/2 without squeezing, for s=1) is given by {radical}s/(1+s), vanishing when the degree of squeezing diverges. For mixed states, as well as for general distributions of displacements, we reduce the determination of the benchmarks to the solution of a finite-dimensional semidefinite program, which yields accurate, certifiable bounds thanks to a rigorous analysis of the truncation error. This approach may be easily adapted to more general ensembles of input states.
Quantum Harmonic Oscillator State Control in a Squeezed Fock Basis
Kienzler, D.; Lo, H.-Y.; Negnevitsky, V.; Flühmann, C.; Marinelli, M.; Home, J. P.
2017-07-01
We demonstrate control of a trapped-ion quantum harmonic oscillator in a squeezed Fock state basis, using engineered Hamiltonians analogous to the Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings forms. We demonstrate that for squeezed Fock states with low n the engineered Hamiltonians reproduce the √{n } scaling of the matrix elements which is typical of Jaynes-Cummings physics, and also examine deviations due to the finite wavelength of our control fields. Starting from a squeezed vacuum state, we apply sequences of alternating transfer pulses which allow us to climb the squeezed Fock state ladder, creating states up to excitations of n =6 with up to 8.7 dB of squeezing, as well as demonstrating superpositions of these states. These techniques offer access to new sets of states of the harmonic oscillator which may be applicable for precision metrology or quantum information science.
Probabilistic teleportation scheme of two-mode entangled photon states by using linear optic element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Shao-hua
2003-01-01
A scheme for teleporting two-mode entangled photon states with the successful probability 33.3% is proposed. In the scheme, the teleporte d qubit is two-mode photon entangled states, and two pairs of EPR pair are used as quantum channel between a sender and a receiver. This procedure is achieved by using two 50/50 symmetric beam splitters and four photon number detectors wit h the help of classical information.
Steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs
Zippilli, Stefano
2014-01-01
When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.
An Extra Phase for Two-Mode Coherent States Displaced in Noncommutative Phase Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Long; FENG Xun-Li; ZHANG Zhi-Ming; LIU Song-Hao
2012-01-01
Using deformed boson algebra,we study the property of two-mode coherent states in noncommutative phase space.When a two-mode field evolves in the noncommutative phase space,it can acquire an extra θ-dependent phase compared to the case of commutative space.This phase is detectable and may be used to test noncommutativity.%Using deformed boson algebra, we study the property of two-mode coherent states in noncommutative phase space. When a two-mode field evolves in the noncommutative phase space, it can acquire an extra 9-dependent phase compared to the case of commutative space. This phase is detectable and may be used to test noncommutativity.
Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities and the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states
Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-01-01
In this work we focus on entanglement of two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce the formalism of Gaussian entanglement measures, adopting the framework developed in [M. M. Wolf {\\em et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 69}, 052320 (2004)], where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute Gaussian measures explicitely for two important families of nonsymmetric two--mode Gaussian states, namely the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in [G. Adesso {\\em et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 92}, 087901 (2004)]. This allows us to compare the {\\em orderings} induced on the set of entangled two--mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian entanglement measures. We find that in a certain range of global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement than states of maximum negativity. Thus ...
SU(2) Coherent State Description of Two-Mode Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Ying; YANG Xiao-Xue
2002-01-01
We show that the evolution equations for mean quantities such as atom numbers and the inter-modecorrelation for two-mode Bose-Einstein condensates form a closed set of equations in the SU(2) coherent state description,and they are identical in form to the two-mode mean-field model with only a slightly reduced two-body interactionstrength. The exact analytical solutions to the evolution equations are also presented.
Reconstruction of the joint state of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate
Bolda, E L; Walls, D F; Bolda, Eric L.; Tan, Sze M.; Walls, Dan F.
1997-01-01
We propose a scheme to reconstruct the state of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate, with a given total number of atoms, using an atom interferometer that requires beam splitter, phase shift and non-ideal atom counting operations. The density matrix in the number-state basis can be computed directly from the probabilities of different counts for various phase shifts between the original modes, unless the beamsplitter is exactly balanced. Simulated noisy data from a two-mode coherent state is produced and the state is reconstructed, for 49 atoms. The error can be estimated from the singular values of the transformation matrix between state and probability data.
Experimental Realisation of a Thermal Squeezed State of Levitated Optomechanics
Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Kim, M S; Ulbricht, Hendrik
2016-01-01
We experimentally squeeze the thermal motional state of an optically levitated nanosphere, by fast switching between two trapping frequencies. The measured phase space distribution of our particle shows the typical shape of a squeezed thermal state, from which we infer up to 2.7dB of squeezing along one motional direction. The experiment features a large number of thermal excitations, therefore remaining in the classical regime. Nevertheless, we argue that the manipulation scheme described here could be used to achieve squeezing below the zero-point level, if preceded by ground state cooling of the levitated mechanical oscillator. Additionally, a higher degree of squeezing could in principle be achieved by repeating the frequency-switching protocol multiple times.
Preparation of entangled squeezed states and quantification of their entanglement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡新华; 匡乐满
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for generating bipartite and multipartite entangled squeezed states via the Jaynes-Cummingsmodel with large detuning. Bipartite entanglement of these entangled states is quantified by the concurrence. We alsouse the N-tangle to compute multipartite entanglement of these multipartite entangled squeezed states. Finally wediscuss two limiting cases which arise from r → oo and r → 0, in which the multipartite entangled squeezed statereduces correspondingly into an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and an N-qubit W state.
Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...
Nth-powered amplitude squeezing in fan-states
Duc, T M
2002-01-01
Squeezing properties of the Hillery-type N-powered amplitude are investigated in the fan-state vertical bar xi; 2k, f> sub F which is linearly superposed by 2k 2k-quantum nonlinear coherent states in the phase-locked manner. The general expression of squeezing is derived analytically for arbitrary xi, k, N and f showing a multi-directional character of squeezing. For a given k, squeezing may appear to the even power N=2k if f ident to 1 and N>=2k if f not =1 and the number of directions along with the Nth-powered amplitude is squeezed is exactly equal to N, for both f ident to 1 (the light field) and f not =1 (the vibrational motion of the trapped ion). Discussions are also given elucidating the qualitative difference between the cases of f ident to 1 and f not =1.
Engineering three-dimensional maximally entangled states for two modes in a bimodal cavity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Zhen-Biao; Su Wan-Jun
2007-01-01
An alternative scheme is proposed for engineering three-dimensional maximally entangled states for two modes of a superconducting microwave cavity. In this scheme, an appropriately prepared four-level atom is sent through a bimodal cavity. During its passing through the cavity, the atom is coupled resonantly with two cavity modes simultaneously and addressed by a classical microwave pulse tuned to the required transition. Then the atomic states are detected to collapse two modes onto a three-dimensional maximally entangled state. The scheme is different from the previous one in which two nonlocal cavities are used. A comparison between them is also made.
Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics
Bastos, Catarina; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno
2015-01-01
One examines putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase-space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelop whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics respectively, one concludes that, although the time evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechnics remains as non-local as quantum mechanics itself.
Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics
Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno
2016-05-01
We examine putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelope whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics, respectively, we conclude that although the time-evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechanics remain as nonlocal as quantum mechanics itself.
EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations
Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector
2004-06-01
This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly
Two-mode excited entangled coherent states and their entanglement properties
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Dong-Lin; Kuang Le-Man
2009-01-01
This paper introduces two types of two-mode excited entangled coherent states(TMEECSs)|Ψ±(α,m,n)>,studies their entanglement characteristics,and investigates the influence of photon excitations on quantum entanglement.It shows that for the state|Ψ+(α,m,m)>the two-mode photon excitations affect seriously entanglement character while the state |Ψ-(α,m,m)>is always a maximally entangled state,and shows how such states can be produced by using cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum measurements.It finds that the entanglement amount of the TMEECSs is larger than that of the single-mode excited entangled coherent states with the same photon excitation number.
Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Janszky, J. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Man'ko, V. I. (Editor)
1998-01-01
The Fifth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, on 27-31 May 1997. This series was initiated in 1991 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland as the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. The scientific purpose of this series was to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics including quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic. As the meeting attracted more participants and started covering more diversified subjects, the fourth meeting was called an international conference. The Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held in 1995 was hosted by Shanxi University in Taiyuan, China. The fifth meeting of this series, which was held at Balatonfured, Hungary, was also supported by the IUPAP. In 1999, the Sixth International Conference will be hosted by the University of Naples in 1999. The meeting will take place in Ravello near Naples.
Entanglement concentration for two-mode Gaussian states in non-inertial frames
Di Noia, Maurizio; Giraldi, Filippo; Petruccione, Francesco
2017-04-01
Entanglement creation and concentration by means of a beam splitter (BS) is analysed for a generic two-mode bipartite Gaussian state in a relativistic framework. The total correlations, the purity and the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity are analytically studied for observers in an inertial state and in a non-inertial state of uniform acceleration. The dependence of entanglement on the BS transmissivity due to the Unruh effect is analysed in the case when one or both observers undergo uniform acceleration. Due to the Unruh effect, depending on the initial Gaussian state parameters and observed accelerations, the best condition for entanglement generation limited to the two modes of the observers in their regions is not always a balanced beam splitter, as it is for the inertial case.
Entanglement and extreme spin squeezing of unpolarized states
Vitagliano, Giuseppe; Apellaniz, Iagoba; Kleinmann, Matthias; Lücke, Bernd; Klempt, Carsten; Tóth, Géza
2017-01-01
We present criteria to detect the depth of entanglement in macroscopic ensembles of spin-j particles using the variance and second moments of the collective spin components. The class of states detected goes beyond traditional spin-squeezed states by including Dicke states and other unpolarized states. The criteria derived are easy to evaluate numerically even for systems of very many particles and outperform past approaches, especially in practical situations where noise is present. We also derive analytic lower bounds based on the linearization of our criteria, which make it possible to define spin-squeezing parameters for Dicke states. In addition, we obtain spin squeezing parameters also from the condition derived in (Sørensen and Mølmer 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 4431). We also extend our results to systems with fluctuating number of particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurat, Julien [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Keller, Gaelle [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Oliveira-Huguenin, Jose Augusto [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Fabre, Claude [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Coudreau, Thomas [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Case 74, Universite Pierre et Marie curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Laboratoire Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Case 7021, Universite Denis Diderot, 2 Place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Serafini, Alessio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy); CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Adesso, Gerardo [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy); CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy); and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno (Italy) and CNR-Coherentia, Gruppo di Salerno (Italy) and INFN Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)
2005-12-01
A powerful theoretical structure has emerged in recent years on the characterization and quantification of entanglement in continuous-variable systems. After reviewing this framework, we will illustrate it with an original set-up based on a type-II OPO (optical parametric oscillator) with adjustable mode coupling. Experimental results allow a direct verification of many theoretical predictions and provide a sharp insight into the general properties of two-mode Gaussian states and entanglement resource manipulation.
Laurat, J; Oliveira-Huguenin, J A; Fabre, C; Coudreau, T; Serafini, A; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Laurat, Julien; Keller, Ga\\"{e}lle; Oliveira-Huguenin, Jose-Augusto; Fabre, Claude; Coudreau, Thomas; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-01-01
A powerful theoretical structure has emerged in recent years on the characterization and quantification of entanglement in continuous-variable systems. After reviewing this framework, we will illustrate it with an original set-up based on a type-II OPO with adjustable mode coupling. Experimental results allow a direct verification of many theoretical predictions and provide a sharp insight into the general properties of two-mode Gaussian states and entanglement resource manipulation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; LI Chao
2004-01-01
We extend the approach of solving master equations for density matrices by projecting it onto the thermal entangled state representation (Hong-Yi Fan and Jun-Hua Chen, J. Phys. A35 (2002) 6873) to two-mode case. In this approach the two-photon master equations can be directly and conveniently converted into c-number partial differential equations. As an example, we solve the typical master equation for two-photon process in some limiting cases.
Broadband detection of squeezed vacuum A spectrum of quantum states
Breitenbach, G; Schiller, S; Mlynek, J; Breitenbach, Gerd; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Schiller, Stephan; Mlynek, Jurgen
1998-01-01
We demonstrate the simultaneous quantum state reconstruction of the spectral modes of the light field emitted by a continuous wave degenerate optical parametric amplifier. The scheme is based on broadband measurement of the quantum fluctuations of the electric field quadratures and subsequent Fourier decomposition into spectral intervals. Applying the standard reconstruction algorithms to each bandwidth-limited quantum trajectory, a "spectrum" of density matrices and Wigner functions is obtained. The recorded states show a smooth transition from the squeezed vacuum to a vacuum state. In the time domain we evaluated the first order correlation function of the squeezed output field, showing good agreement with the theory.
Displacement of microwave squeezed states with Josephson parametric amplifiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Ling; Baust, Alexander; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Menzel, Edwin; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Betzenbichler, Martin; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Haeberlein, Max; Eder, Peter; Goetz, Jan; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Huebl, Hans; Deppe, Frank [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2015-07-01
Propagating quantum microwaves are promising building blocks for quantum communication. Interestingly, such itinerant quantum microwaves can be generated in the form of squeezed photon states by Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA). We employ a specific ''dual-path'' setup for both state reconstruction and JPA characterization. Displacement operations are performed by using a directional coupler after the squeezing. We compare our results with theory predictions. In particular, we discuss our experiments in the context of remote state preparation and quantum teleportation with propagating microwaves.
Fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Peng, Kunchi (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Manko, V. I. (Editor)
1996-01-01
The fourth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations was held at Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China, on June 5 - 9, 1995. This conference was jointly organized by Shanxi University, the University of Maryland (U.S.A.), and the Lebedev Physical Institute (Russia). The first meeting of this series was called the Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, and was held in 1991 at College Park, Maryland. The second and third meetings in this series were hosted in 1992 by the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, and in 1993 by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, respectively. The scientific purpose of this series was initially to discuss squeezed states of light, but in recent years, the scope is becoming broad enough to include studies of uncertainty relations and squeeze transformations in all branches of physics, including, of course, quantum optics and foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum optics will continue playing the pivotal role in the future, but the future meetings will include all branches of physics where squeeze transformations are basic transformation. This transition took place at the fourth meeting of this series held at Shanxi University in 1995. The fifth meeting in this series will be held in Budapest (Hungary) in 1997, and the principal organizer will be Jozsef Janszky of the Laboratory of Crystal Physics, P.O. Box 132, H-1052. Budapest, Hungary.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
安钧鸿; 王顺金; 罗洪刚; 贾成龙
2004-01-01
The dissipative and decoherence properties as well as the asymptotic behaviour of the single mode electromagnetic field interacting with the time-dependent squeezed vacuum field reservoir are investigated in detail by using the algebraic dynamical method. With the help of the left and right representations of the relevant hw( 4) algebra, the dynamical symmetry of the nonautonomous master equation of the system is found to be su(1, 1). The unique equilibrium steady solution is found to be the squeezed state and any initial state of the system is proven to approach the unique squeezed state asymptotically. Thus the squeezed vacuum field reservoir is found to play the role of a squeezing mold of the cavity field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The generalized continuous variable two-mode entangled state |〉 is proposed by using the tech-nique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators. The characteristics of this new entangled representation and its application in quantum teleportation are analyzed in detail. These results indicate that such real parameters |〉 indeed make up a new entangled representation owing to its completeness and orthogonal relation. By employing the |〉 as quantum transmission channel,the teleportation of any single-mode quantum state |ψ〉 3 can be realized by a unitary transformation.
Four modes of optical parametric operation for squeezed state generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchler, B.C.; Lam, P.K.;
2003-01-01
of this light, including a full quantum state tomography. In addition we demonstrate the direct detection of the squeezed state statistics without the aid of a spectrum analyser. This technique makes the nonclassical properties directly visible and allows complete measurement of the statistical moments...
Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging
Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states
Kogias, Ioannis
2014-01-01
Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...
Squeezed State Effects on Continuous Variable Quantum Erasing
Bonanno, Peter; Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio
2008-03-01
Experimental verification of complementarity using quantum erasing for the continuous variable (CV) infinite dimensional Hilbert space has been considered. [1] The complemetary pair is that of the canonically conjugate amplitude and phase quadratures of light. The amplitude quadrature is labeled to a squeezed meter signal by quantum nondemolition (QND) [2] entanglement coupling. [3] Knowledge of which eigenstate (WE) can be obtained by measuring this amplitude in the meter state, and can thereafter be `lost' by measuring the quadrature phase of the meter, thus restoring the quadrature phase of the signal beam in a process known as quantum erasure. [4] The coupling, i.e. the labeling of the signal state to the meter state, is implemented with a beam splitter coupled to the squeezed light meter beam. [4] We investigate the effects of using the unitary squeeze operator S(z)=exp.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 (z*a^2 - za^+2) where z = re^i(squeezing angle) on selected coherent states under certain conditions. [5,6] [1] U. L. Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 100403 (2004). [2] V. B. Braginsky et al., Science 209, 547 (1980). [3] R. Bruckmeimer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43 (1997). [4] P. Grangier et al., Nature 396, 537 (1998). [5] C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981). [6] D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 1, 3217 (1970), D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 4, 1925 (1971). .
Quantum reconstruction of an intense polarization squeezed optical state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, Ch.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.
2007-01-01
We perform a reconstruction of the polarization sector of the density matrix of an intense polarization squeezed beam starting from a complete set of Stokes measurements. By using an appropriate quasidistribution, we map this onto the Poincare space, providing a full quantum mechanical...... characterization of the measured polarization state....
Holographic Description of Negative Null Energy in Squeezed Vacuum States
Lee, Da-Shin
2016-01-01
Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the expectation value of stress tensor in squeezed vacuum states of $2+1$-dimensional quantum critical theories with a general dynamical scaling $z$. The holographic dual theory is the theory of gravity in 3+1-dimensional Lifshitz backgrounds. We then adopt a consistent approach to obtain the boundary stress tensor from bulk construction, which satisfies the trace Ward identity associated with Lifshitz scaling symmetry. The scheme for holographic dual of squeezed vacuum states is found to be the gravity theory in the geometry perturbed by gravitational wave. For small squeezing parameters, the expectation value of stress tensor in squeezed vacuum states is obtained for both strongly coupled quantum critical fields and free relativistic fields. We find that, in both cases with $z=1$, the stress tensor satisfies the averaged null energy condition and is consistent with the quantum interest conjecture. In particular, the negative lower bound on null-contracted stress tensor, w...
Deterministic Squeezed States with Joint Measurements and Feedback
Greve, Graham P.; Cox, Kevin C.; Wu, Baochen; Thompson, James K.
2016-05-01
Joint measurement of many qubits or atoms is a powerful way to create entanglement for precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the random quantum collapse resulting from the joint measurement also leads to randomness in which entangled state is created. We present an experiment in which we apply real-time feedback to eliminate the randomness generated during the joint measurement of 5 ×104 laser-cooled Rb atoms. The feedback effectively steers the quantum state to a desired squeezed state. After feedback, the final state achieves a directly observed phase resolution variance up to 7.4(6) dB below the standard quantum limit for unentangled atoms. The entanglement and improved measurement capability of these states can be realized without retaining knowledge of the joint measurement's outcome, possibly opening new applications for spin squeezed states generated via joint measurement.
Single qubit operations with base squeezed coherent states
Podoshvedov, Sergey A.
2013-03-01
In quantum computing with base either coherent or squeezed coherent states, information is encoded into coherent states with opposite amplitudes. To exploit the base states in quantum computation, we need arbitrary qubit rotations plus a two-qubit gate such as controlled-Z gate to simulate any multiqubit unitary transformations. We develop an approach to realize single qubit operations with the base squeezed coherent states. The optical setup requires a resource of the base squeezed coherent states, unbalanced beam splitter whose transmittance tends to unity and photon counters in auxiliary modes. A successful two-photon subtraction from transmitted beam is heralded by two-photon click in auxiliary modes where tiny part of the initial beam is detected. The thrust of the method is that it achieves a high fidelity without photodetectors with a high efficiency or a single-photon resolution. We observe that there is wide diapason of values of the parameters that provide performance of single qubit operations with the base states. The problem is resolved in Wigner representation to take into account imperfections of the optical devices.
Quadrature-dependent Bogoliubov transformations and multiphoton squeezed states
De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2001-01-01
We introduce a linear, canonical transformation of the fundamental single--mode field operators $a$ and $a^{\\dagger}$ that generalizes the linear Bogoliubov transformation familiar in the construction of the harmonic oscillator squeezed states. This generalization is obtained by adding to the linear transformation a nonlinear function of any of the fundamental quadrature operators $X_{1}$ and $X_{2}$, making the original Bogoliubov transformation quadrature--dependent. Remarkably, the conditions of canonicity do not impose any constraint on the form of the nonlinear function, and lead to a set of nontrivial algebraic relations between the $c$--number coefficients of the transformation. We examine in detail the structure and the properties of the new quantum states defined as eigenvectors of the transformed annihilation operator $b$. These eigenvectors define a class of multiphoton squeezed states. The structure of the uncertainty products and of the quasiprobability distributions in phase space shows that bes...
Third International Workshop on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Rubin, Morton H. (Editor); Shih, Yan-Hua (Editor); Zachary, Woodford W. (Editor)
1994-01-01
The purpose of these workshops is to bring together an international selection of scientists to discuss the latest developments in Squeezed States in various branches of physics, and in the understanding of the foundations of quantum mechanics. At the third workshop, special attention was given to the influence that quantum optics is having on our understanding of quantum measurement theory. The fourth meeting in this series will be held in the People's Republic of China.
Sixth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations
Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S. (Editor); Solimento, S. (Editor)
2000-01-01
These proceedings contain contributions from about 200 participants to the 6th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'99) held in Naples May 24-29, 1999, and organized jointly by the University of Naples "Federico II," the University of Maryland at College Park, and the Lebedev Institute, Moscow. This was the sixth of a series of very successful meetings started in 1990 at the College Park Campus of the University of Maryland. The other meetings in the series were held in Moscow (1992), Baltimore (1993), Taiyuan P.R.C. (1995) and Balatonfuered, Hungary (1997). The present one was held at the campus Monte Sant'Angelo of the University "Federico II" of Naples. The meeting sought to provide a forum for updating and reviewing a wide range of quantum optics disciplines, including device developments and applications, and related areas of quantum measurements and quantum noise. Over the years, the ICSSUR Conference evolved from a meeting on quantum measurement sector of quantum optics, to a wide range of quantum optics themes, including multifacet aspects of generation, measurement, and applications of nonclassical light (squeezed and Schrodinger cat radiation fields, etc.), and encompassing several related areas, ranging from quantum measurement to quantum noise. ICSSUR'99 brought together about 250 people active in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on nonclassical light sources and related areas. The Conference was organized in 8 Sections: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations; Harmonic oscillators and squeeze transformations; Methods of quantum interference and correlations; Quantum measurements; Generation and characterisation of non-classical light; Quantum noise; Quantum communication and information; and Quantum-like systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Bang-Pin; WANG Shun-Jin; YU Wan-Lun; SUN Wei-Li; WANG Gang
2004-01-01
@@ We obtain the analytical solution to the master equation in the photon number representation by using algebraic dynamical method in the nonautonomous case. Based on the solution we find that a two-mode coherent sate can be produced within dissipative background, and the averaged photon number for each mode is related to the damping constant, external field amplitude and coupling constant between two modes.
Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of a Quantum Squeezed State Beyond the 3 dB Limit
Lei, C. U.; Weinstein, A. J.; Suh, J.; Wollman, E. E.; Kronwald, A.; Marquardt, F.; Clerk, A. A.; Schwab, K. C.
2016-09-01
We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7 ±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.
De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2002-01-01
We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these states realize a natural four-photon generalization of the two-photon squeezed states.
Manipulation of Squeezed Two-Phonon Bound States using Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakamura Kazutaka G.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-phonon bound states have been excited exclusively in ZnTe(110 via impulsive stimulated second-order Raman scattering, essentially being squeezed states due to phase coherent excitation of two identical components anticorrelated in the wave vector. By using coherent control technique with a pair of femtosecond laser pulses, the manipulation of squeezed states has been demonstrated in which both the amplitude and lifetime of coherent oscillations of squeezed states are modulated, indicating the feasibility to control the quantum noise and the quantum nature of phonon squeezed states, respectively.
Preparation of Motional Mesoscopic Superpositions of Squeezed Coherent States of N Trapped Ions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Xing; XIE Xiao-Tao; LI Jia-Hua; CHEN Chang-Yong
2005-01-01
A scheme is proposed to generate arbitrary, discrete superpostions of squeezed coherent states of the squeezed center of mass of N trapped ions along a straight line in phase space. The scheme is based on a resonant bichromatic excitation of each trapped ion that generates displacement and squeezing in the vibrational motion conditioned to each internal state. In this paper, we also show that such a method can be used for the engineering of motional quantum states.
Miranowicz, A; Miranowicz, Adam; Leonski, Wieslaw
2006-01-01
Schemes for optical-state truncation of two cavity modes are analysed. The systems, referred to as the nonlinear quantum scissors devices, comprise two coupled nonlinear oscillators (Kerr nonlinear coupler) with one or two of them pumped by external classical fields. It is shown that the quantum evolution of the pumped couplers can be closed in a two-qubit Hilbert space spanned by vacuum and single-photon states only. Thus, the pumped couplers can behave as a two-qubit system. Analysis of time evolution of the quantum entanglement shows that Bell states can be generated. A possible implementation of the couplers is suggested in a pumped double-ring cavity with resonantly enhanced Kerr nonlinearities in an electromagnetically-induced transparency scheme. The fragility of the generated states and their entanglement due to the standard dissipation and phase damping are discussed by numerically solving two types of master equations.
Deterministic Quantum Key Distribution Using Gaussian-Modulated Squeezed States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何广强; 朱俊; 曾贵华
2011-01-01
A continuous variable ping-pong scheme, which is utilized to generate deterministic private key, is proposed. The proposed scheme is implemented physically by using Ganssian-modulated squeezed states. The deterministic char- acteristic, i.e., no basis reconciliation between two parties, leads a nearly two-time efficiency comparing to the standard quantum key distribution schemes. Especially, the separate control mode does not need in the proposed scheme so that it is simpler and more available than previous ping-pong schemes. The attacker may be detected easily through the fidelity of the transmitted signal, and may not be successful in the beam splitter attack strategy.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua
2004-01-01
@@ We propose a simple method to generate a practical SU(2)-Schrodinger-cat state of a single trapped-ion vibration mode and the light field state, using the method based on a quantum system, which is composed of the onedimensional trapped-ion motion and a single cavity field mode. Moreover, the method proposed can be used for the generation two-mode maximal quantum entangled state. The detection of such a state is also briefly discussed.
Maximal entanglement of squeezed vacuum states via swapping with number-phase measurement
Kitagawa, A; Kitagawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Katsuji
2002-01-01
We propose a method to realize entanglement via swapping from a pair of squeezed vacuum states by performing number sum and phase difference measurements. The resultant states are maximally entangled by adjusting the two squeezing parameters to the same value. We then describe a teleportation protocol by using the entangled states prepared in this way.
Spin Squeezing and Entanglement of Many-Particle Spin-Half States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Dong; WANG Xiao-Guang; WU Ling-An
2005-01-01
@@ In many-particle spin-half systems with exchange symmetry, we find that the spin squeezing is related to two types of entanglement, the bipartite and the pairwise entanglement. A quantitative relationship is revealed for the spin squeezing parameter, the tangle, and the concurrence. We find that a class of states is spin squeezed if the pairwise entanglement is stronger than the bipartite entanglement.
Deterministic Squeezed States with Joint Measurements and Feedback
Cox, Kevin C; Weiner, Joshua M; Thompson, James K
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the creation of entangled or spin-squeezed states using a joint measurement and real-time feedback. The pseudo-spin state of an ensemble of $N= 5\\times 10^4$ laser-cooled $^{87}$Rb atoms is deterministically driven to a specified population state with angular resolution that is a factor of 5.5(8) (7.4(6) dB) in variance below the standard quantum limit for unentangled atoms -- comparable to the best enhancements using only unitary evolution. Without feedback, conditioning on the outcome of the joint pre-measurement, we directly observe up to 59(8) times (17.7(6) dB) improvement in quantum phase variance relative to the standard quantum limit for $N=4\\times 10^5$ atoms. This is the largest reported entanglement enhancement to date in any system.
Teleportation of a two-particle four-component squeezed vacuum state by linear optical elements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huina Chen; Jinming Liu
2009-01-01
We present a linear optical scheme for achieving a unity fidelity teleportation of a two-particle four component squeezed vacuum state using two entangled squeezed vacuum states as quantum channel.The devices used are beam splitters and ideal photon detectors capable of distinguishing between odd and even photon numbers.Moreover,we also obtain the success probability of the teleportation scheme.
Transforming squeezed light into large-amplitude coherent-state superposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Mølmer, Klaus
2007-01-01
A quantum superposition of two coherent states of light with small amplitude can be obtained by subtracting a photon from a squeezed vacuum state. In experiments this preparation can be made conditioned on the detection of a photon in the field from a squeezed light source. We propose and analyze...
Chrapkiewicz, Radosław
2015-01-01
Photon number resolving detectors can be highly useful for studying the statistics of multi-photon quantum states of light. In this work we study the counts statistics of different states of light measured on multiplexed on-off detectors. We put special emphasis on artificial nonclassical features of the statistics obtained. We show new ways to derive analytical formulas for counts statistics and their moments. Using our approach we are the first to derive statistics moments for multi-mode thermal states measured on multiplexed on-off detectors. We use them to determine empirical Mandel parameters and recently proposed subbinomial parameters suitable for tests of nonclassicality of the measured states. Additionally, we investigate subpoissonian and superbunching properties of the two-mode squeezed state measured on a pair of multiplexed detectors and we present results of the Fano factor and second-order correlation function for these states.
Thermo Vacuum State for Describing the Density Operator of Photon-subtracted Squeezed Chaotic Light
Wan, Zhi-Long; Fan, Hong-Yi; Li, Heng-Mei; Wang, Zhen
2017-10-01
For the density operator describing s-photon-subtracted squeezed chaotic light (PSSCL) we search for its thermo vacuum state (a pure state) in the real-fictitious space. We find that it reduces to a thermo vacuum state of squeezed chaotic light when s = 0, and to a thermo vacuum state of the optical negative binomial field when no squeezing. The new thermo vacuum state simplifies calculating photon number average, quantum fluctuation and Mandel's Q parameter of PSSCL. Using the method of integration within ordered product (IWOP) of operators we also derive the normalization coefficient and explicitly analytical expressions of Wigner function for PSSCL.
Spin squeezing and entanglement via hole-burning in atomic coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)], E-mail: christopher.gerry@lehman.cuny.edu; Peart, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)
2008-10-20
We study the generation of spin squeezing via the hole burning of selected Dicke states out of an atomic coherent state prepared for a collection of N two-level atoms or ions. The atoms or ions of the atomic coherent state are not entangled, but the removal of one or more Dicke states generates entanglement, and spin squeezing occurs for some ranges of the relevant parameters. Spin squeezing in a collection of two-level atoms or ions is of importance for precision spectroscopy.
Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina, Jan; Peřina, Jan; Miranowicz, Adam
2016-07-01
The behavior of general nonclassical two-mode Gaussian states at a beam splitter is investigated. Single-mode nonclassicality as well as two-mode entanglement of both input and output states are analyzed suggesting their suitable quantifiers. These quantifiers are derived from local and global invariants of linear unitary two-mode transformations such that the sum of input (or output) local nonclassicality measures and entanglement measure gives a global invariant. This invariant quantifies the global nonclassicality resource. Mutual transformations of local nonclassicalities and entanglement induced by the beam splitter are analyzed considering incident noisy twin beams, single-mode noisy squeezed vacuum states, and states encompassing both squeezed states and twin beams. A rich tapestry of interesting nonclassical output states is predicted.
First long-term application of squeezed states of light in a gravitational-wave observatory.
Grote, H; Danzmann, K; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H
2013-05-03
We report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German-British detector GEO 600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, when GEO 600 was performing an observational run together with the French-Italian Virgo detector. In a second period, the squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum was applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time that science-quality data were acquired with GEO 600. A sensitivity increase from squeezed vacuum application was observed broadband above 400 Hz. The time average of gain in sensitivity was 26% (2.0 dB), determined in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0 kHz. This corresponds to a factor of 2 increase in the observed volume of the Universe for sources in the kHz region (e.g., supernovae, magnetars). We introduce three new techniques to enable the long-term application of squeezed light, and show that the glitch rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application. Squeezed vacuum states of light have arrived as a permanent application, capable of increasing the astrophysical reach of gravitational-wave detectors.
Generation of squeezed-state superpositions via time-dependent Kerr nonlinearities
León-Montiel, R de J
2015-01-01
We put forward an experimental scheme for direct generation of optical squeezed coherent-state superpositions. The proposed setup makes use of an optical cavity, filled with a nonlinear Kerr medium, whose frequency is allowed to change during time evolution. By exactly solving the corresponding time-dependent anharmonic-oscillator Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that squeezed-state superpositions can be generated in an optical cavity. Furthermore, we show that the squeezing degree of the produced states can be tuned by properly controlling the frequency shift of the cavity, a feature that could be useful in many quantum information protocols, such as quantum teleportation and quantum computing.
Nonclasssical Properties in Two-Mode Fields Resonantly Interacting with a Three-Level [Ⅰ]-Type Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Some noclassical properties in electromagnetic Reid are investigated for the interaction of two-modes initially taken in coherent-state representation with the three-level [Ⅰ]-type atom, such as squeezing properties and violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. The enhancement of Geld squeezing is found by selective atomic measurement. The Cauchy-Schwartz inequality is violated by the application of the classical Geld followed by detection in excited state.
Squeezing of Collective Excitations in Spin Ensembles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraglund Andersen, Christian; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
We analyse the possibility to create two-mode spin squeezed states of two separate spin ensembles by inverting the spins in one ensemble and allowing spin exchange between the ensembles via a near resonant cavity field. We investigate the dynamics of the system using a combination of numerical an...
Nonclassical properties and decoherence of fields in photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states
Wang, Zhen; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun
2014-04-01
We put forward the photon-added squeezing-enhanced thermal states (PASETS) theoretically by adding photon to the squeezed enhancing thermal states (SETS) repeatedly. Based on the normally ordered density operator of PASETS, we investigate the nonclassical behavior of the PASETS by evaluating, both analytically and numerically, Mandel's Q-parameter, photon-number distribution (PND), and Wigner function (WF). It is found that smaller squeezing parameter r and thermal photon number nc can lead to more chance of the appearance of sub-Poissonian statistics. And it is shown that the PND of PASETS exhibit more remarkable oscillations than that of SETS in stronger squeezing case. The WF exhibit partial negativity in phase space and the squeezing parameter r can result in both squeezing and rotating effect. By investigating the fidelity between PASETS and SETS shows that the fidelity tender to steady values in the high value of squeezing parameter or thermal photon number. In addition, the decoherence effect on the PASETS is examined by the time-evolution of the analytical WF in thermal channel. The results show that the PASETS shall lose nonclassicality and non-Gaussianity and reduce to classical states with Gaussian distribution after sufficient time interaction with the thermal noise. And larger photon-added number or thermal photon number shall render shorter decoherence time.
Fidelity of Quantum Teleportation for Single-Mode Squeezed State Light
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jun-Xiang; XIE Chang-De; PENG Kun-Chi
2005-01-01
@@ The fidelity of quantum teleportation of a single-mode squeezed state of light is calculated based on the general theory of quantum-mechanical measurement in the Schrodinger picture. It is shown that the criterion for the nonclassical state teleportation is different from that for coherent state. F = 1/2 is no longer the rigorous boundary between classical and quantum teleportation for a squeezed state of light. When the quantum entanglement of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) beam used for teleportation and the parameters of the system are given,the fidelity depends on the squeezing of the input squeezed state. The higher the squeezing is, the smaller the fidelity is, and the lower the classical limitation of fidelity is. The dependence of the optimum gain for teleporting a squeezed vacuum state upon the EPR entanglement is also calculated. The results obtained provide important references for designing experimental systems of teleporting a non-classical state and judging the quality of the teleported quantum state.
Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath
Mundarain, D; Stephany, J
2006-01-01
In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.
The use of squeezed states and balanced homodyne for detecting gravitational waves
Ben-Aryeh, Y
2010-01-01
The possibility of using squeezed states and balanced homodyne detection of gravitational waves is discussed. It is shown that the quantum noise due to high laser intensities in Michelson interferometer for gravitational waves detection can be reduced by sending squeezed vacuum states to the 'dark' port of the interferometer. The present analysis describes photon statistics measurements effects related to quadrature balanced homodyne detection showing the advantage of using this scheme for detecting gravitational waves.
The nonlinear squeezed one-photon states and their nonclassical properties
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Ji-Suo; Meng Xiang-Guo
2007-01-01
By virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators and the properties of the inverses of annihilation and creation operators of f-oscillator, this paper obtains two new types of squeezed operators and f-analogues of squeezed one-photon states, which are quite different from ones constructed by Song and Fan (Phys. Lett. A 294 (2002) 66). Subsequently, some nonclassical properties of the states are investigated in detail.
Discrete-time reservoir engineering with entangled bath and stabilising squeezed states
Miao, Zibo; Sarlette, Alain
2017-09-01
This theoretical proposal investigates how resonant interactions occurring when a harmonic oscillator is fed with a stream of entangled qubits allow us to stabilise squeezed states of the harmonic oscillator. We show that the properties of the squeezed state stabilised by this engineered reservoir, including the squeezing strength, can be tuned at will through the parameters of the ‘input’ qubits, albeit in tradeoff with the convergence rate. We also discuss the influence of the type of entanglement in the input from a pairwise case to a more widely distributed case. This paper can be read either as a proposal to stabilise squeezed states or as a step toward treating quantum systems with time-entangled reservoir inputs.
Oscillation behaviour in the photon-number distribution of squeezed coherent states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Shuai; Zhang Xiao-Yan; Fan Hong-Yi
2012-01-01
From the normally ordered form of the density operator of a squeezed coherent state(SCS),we directly derive the compact expression of the SCS's photon-number distribution(PND).Besides the known oscillation characteristics,we find that the PND is a periodic function with a period of π and extremely sensitive to phase.If the squeezing is strong enough,and the compound phase which is relevant to the complex squeezing and displacement parameters are assigned appropriate values,different oscillation behaviours in PND for even and odd photon numbers appear,respectively.
Role of Optical Density of States in Two-mode Optomechanical Cooling
Kim, Seunghwi
2016-01-01
Dynamical back-action cooling of phonons in optomechanical systems having one optical mode is well studied. Systems with two optical modes have the potential to reach significantly higher cooling rate through resonant enhancement of both pump and scattered light. Here we experimentally investigate the role of dual optical densities of states on optomechanical cooling, and the deviation from theory caused by thermal locking to the pump laser. Using this, we demonstrate a room temperature system operating very close to the strong coupling regime, where saturation of cooling is anticipated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gao Yun-Feng; Feng Jian; Wang Ji-Suo
2005-01-01
The evolution of the entanglement degree of two-mode fields and atom with the intensity-dependent coupling is investigated using von Neumann entropy. The results for the initial fields in both coherent states and two-mode squeezed vacuum state are calculated. The influence of the field.intensity on the entropy is discussed. It is found that the field and atom are generally in maximum entanglement but subject to periodic pulsed disentanglement completely under the condition of strong initial field.
Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao
2016-08-24
We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement.
First Long-Term Application of Squeezed States of Light in a Gravitational-Wave Observatory
Grote, H; Dooley, K L; Schnabel, R; Slutsky, J; Vahlbruch, H
2013-01-01
In this work we report on the first long-term application of squeezed vacuum states of light to improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of a gravitational-wave observatory. In particular, squeezed vacuum was applied to the German/British detector GEO600 during a period of three months from June to August 2011, where GEO600 was performing an observational run together with the French/Italian Virgo detector. Then, after a short interruption, squeezing application continued for about 11 months from November 2011 to October 2012. During this time, squeezed vacuum could be applied for 90.2% (205.2 days total) of the time when science-quality data was acquired with GEO\\,600. The average gain in sensitivity from squeezed vacuum application in this period was 26% (2.0dB), as measured in the frequency band from 3.7 to 4.0kHz, corresponding to a factor of two increase in observed volume of the universe. We show that the glitch-rate of the detector did not increase from squeezing application, confirming the long-term...
Phase control of squeezed vacuum states of light in gravitational wave detectors.
Dooley, K L; Schreiber, E; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Leong, J R; Wittel, H; Grote, H
2015-04-06
Quantum noise will be the dominant noise source for the advanced laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors currently under construction. Squeezing-enhanced laser interferometers have been recently demonstrated as a viable technique to reduce quantum noise. We propose two new methods of generating an error signal for matching the longitudinal phase of squeezed vacuum states of light to the phase of the laser interferometer output field. Both provide a superior signal to the one used in previous demonstrations of squeezing applied to a gravitational-wave detector. We demonstrate that the new signals are less sensitive to misalignments and higher order modes, and result in an improved stability of the squeezing level. The new signals also offer the potential of reducing the overall rms phase noise and optical losses, each of which would contribute to achieving a higher level of squeezing. The new error signals are a pivotal development towards realizing the goal of 6 dB and more of squeezing in advanced detectors and beyond.
Multipartite State Representations in Multi-mode Fock Space and Their Squeezing Transformations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Hong-Chun; LI Heng-Mei; QI Kai-Guo
2007-01-01
We present the continuous state vector of the total coordinate of multi-particle and the state vector of their total momentum, respectively, which possess completeness relation in multi-mode Fock space by virtue of the integration within an order product (IWOP) technique. We also calculate the transition from classical transformation of variables in the states to quantum unitary operator, deduce a new multi-mode squeezing operator, and discuss its squeezing effect. In progress, it indicates that the IWOP technique provides a convenient way to construct new representation in quantum mechanics.
Information Entropy Squeezing for a Atom in Mode-Mode Competition System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Qin; FANG Mao-Fa; LI Shao-Xin; LI Ying; HU Yao-Hua
2008-01-01
The entropy squeezing properties for a two-level atom interacting with a two-mode field via two different competing transitions are investigated from a quantum information point of view. The influences of the initial state of the system and the relative coupling strength between the atom and the field on the atomic information entropy squeezing are discussed. Our results show that the squeezed direction and the frequency of the information entropy squeezing can be controlled by choosing the phase of the atom dipole and the relative competing strength of atom-field, respectively. We find that, under the same condition, no atomic variance squeezing is predicted from the HUR while optimal entropy squeezing is obtained from the EUR, so the quantum information entropy is a remarkable precision measure for the atomic squeezing in the considered system.
Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Wu, E.
2016-06-01
As the quantum states of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center can be coherently manipulated and obtained at room temperature, it is important to generate steady-state spin squeezing in spin qubits associated with NV impurities in diamond. With this task we consider a new type of a hybrid magneto-nano-electromechanical resonator, the functionality of which is based on a magnetic-field induced deflection of an appropriate cantilever that oscillates between NV spins in diamond. We show that there is bistability and spin squeezing state due to the presence of the microwave field, despite the damping from mechanical damping. Moreover, we find that bistability and spin squeezing can be controlled by the microwave field and the parameter Vz. Our scheme may have the potential application on spin clocks, magnetometers, and other measurements based on spin-spin system in diamond nanostructures.
A new type of photon-added squeezed coherent state and its statistical properties
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Jun; Fan Hong-Yi; Song Jun
2012-01-01
We construct a new type of photon-added squeezed coherent state generated by repeatedly operating the bosonic creation operator on a new type of squeezed coherent state [Fan H Y and Xiao M 1996 Phys.Lett.A 220 81].We find that its normalization factor is related to single-variable Hermite polynomials.Furthermore,we investigate its statistical properties,such as Mandel's Q parameter,photon-number distribution,and Wigner function.The nonclassicality is displayed in terms of the intense oscillation of photon-number distribution and the negativity of the Wigner function.
Density Matrix and Squeezed Vacuum State for General Coupling Harmonic Oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Tong-Qiang
2003-01-01
By taking a unitary transformation approach, we study two harmonic oscillators with both kinetic coupling and coordinate coupling terms, and derive the density matrix of the system. The results show that the ground state of the system is a rotated two single-mode squeezed state.
Temporal second-order coherence function for displaced-squeezed thermal states
Alexanian, Moorad
2015-01-01
We calculate the quantum mechanical, temporal second-order coherence function for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The calculation involves first the dynamical generation at time $t$ of the Gaussian state from an initial thermal state and subsequent measurements of two photons a time $\\tau \\geq 0$ apart. The generation of the Gaussian state by the parametric amplifier ensures that the temporal second-order coherence function depends only on $\\tau$, via $\\tau/t$, for given Gaussian state parameters, Gaussian state preparation time $t$, and average number $\\bar{n}$ of thermal photons. It is interesting that the time evolution for displaced thermal states shows a power decay in $\\tau/t$ rather than an exponential one as is the case for general, displaced-squeezed thermal states.
Phase space interference and the WKB approximation for squeezed number states
Mundarain, D F
2003-01-01
Squeezed number states for a single mode Hamiltonian are investigated from two complementary points of view. Firstly the more relevant features of their photon distribution are discussed using the WKB wave functions. In particular the oscillations of the distribution and the parity behavior are derived and compared with the exact results. The accuracy is verified and it is shown that for high photon number it fails to reproduce the true distribution. This is contrasted with the fact that for moderate squeezing the WKB approximation gives the analytical justification to the interpretation of the oscillations as the result of the interference of areas with definite phases in phase space. It is shown with a computation at high squeezing using a modified prescription for the phase space representation which is based on Wigner-Cohen distributions that the failure of the WKB approximation does not invalidate the area overlap picture.
QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS IN A MESOSCOPIC DAMPED LC PARALLEL CIRCUIT IN DISPLACED SQUEEZED FOCK STATE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU YONG-JIAN
2001-01-01
We study the quantum effects of a damped LC parallel circuit considering its different performance from an RLC series circuit in classical physics. The damped LC parallel circuit with a source is quantized and the quantum fluctuations of magnetic flux and electric charge in the circuit in displaced squeezed Fock state are investigated. It is shown that, as in the RLC series circuit, the fluctuations only depend on the squeezing parameter and the parameters of the circuit components in the damped LC parallel circuit, but the effects of the circuit components on the fluctuations are different in the two circuits.
A note on “Generalized superposition of two squeezed states: generation and statistical properties”
Avelar, A. T.; Malbouisson, J.M.C.; Baseia, B.
2004-01-01
Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 139-143 A previous scheme [Physica A 280 (2003) 346] showed how to create a generalized superposition of two squeezed states for stationary fields and studied its statistical properties. Here we show how to extend this result for travelling fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu Jiuyun (Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Hunan 410006 (China)); Kuang Leman (Theoretical Physics Division, Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin 300071 (China) Department of Physics and Institute of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Hunan 410081 (China))
1994-10-03
The even and odd coherent states (CSs) of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space harmonic oscillator (FDHSHO) are constructed and some properties of these states are studied. Their quadrature squeezing and amplitude-squared squeezing are investigated in detail. It is shown that, while the squeezing behaviour of the even and odd CSs of the FDHSHO approaches that of the even and odd CSs of the usual harmonic oscillator as the dimension of the Hilbert space tends to infinity, this behaviour is nontrivally different if the dimension of the Hilbert space is finite. In the latter case, it is found that the even and odd CSs exhibit both amplitude-squared squeezing and quadrature squeezing. ((orig.))
Building of one-way Hadamard gate for squeezed coherent states
Podoshvedov, Sergey A.
2013-01-01
We present an optical scheme to conditionally generate even or odd squeezed superpositions of coherent states (SSCSs). The optical setup consists of an unbalanced beam splitter whose transmittance tends to unity, and additional balanced beam splitters and photodetectors in auxiliary modes. Squeezed coherent states with different amplitudes are the input states in the optical scheme. The single-qubit operations are probabilistic and employ two- and three-photon subtractions from initial beams as the driving force. Generation of the even or odd SSCSs is observed in a wide diapason of values of used parameters. We consider a possibility to realize a one-way Hadamard gate for the squeezed coherent states when the base states are transformed into superposition states. States approximating the output states of a Hadamard gate with high fidelity can be realized by imposing restrictions on the values of used parameters. Higher-order subtractions from input beams are necessary to generate the SSCSs with larger amplitudes and higher fidelities. The problem is resolved in a Wigner representation to take into account imperfections of the optical devices.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Nian-Quan
2005-01-01
@@ By extending the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) bipartite entanglement to an n-partite case, we construct the common eigenstate of the n-partite total coordinate and relative momenta for the continuous variables. The entanglement property of the state is shown. The classical dilation transform of variables in such a state induces a new n-mode squeezing operator related to an n-mode bosonic operator realization of SU(1,1) Lie algebra.
Preparation of multicomponent motional coherent and squeezed coherent states of a trapped ion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Jia-Hua; Yang Wen-Xing; Peng Ju-Cun
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present a scheme for preparation of multicomponent motional coherent and squeezed coherent states of the quantized centre of mass of an ion trapped in a one-dimensional harmonic potential and driven by two travelling-wave laser beams tuned to the nth red and blue vibrational sidebands, respectively. In addition, our scheme also provides experimental possibility for quantum state engineering.
Fisher information of a squeezed-state interferometer with a finite photon-number resolution
Liu, P; Yang, W; Jin, G R; Sun, C P
2016-01-01
Squeezed-state interferometry plays an important role in quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation, as it allows the estimation precision to be improved up to the Heisenberg limit by using ideal photon-number-resolving detectors at the output ports. Here we show that for each individual $N$% -photon component of the phase-matched coherent $\\otimes $ squeezed vacuum input state, the classical Fisher information always saturates the quantum Fisher information. Moreover, the total Fisher information is the sum of the contributions from each individual $N$-photon components, where the largest $N$ is limited by the finite number resolution of available photon counters. Based on this observation, we provide approximate formula that quantifies the amount of lost information due to the finite photon number resolution, e.g., given the mean photon number $\\bar{n}$ in the input state, $96$ percent of the Heisenberg limit can be achieved with the number resolution $\\gtrsim 5\\bar{n}$.
Tonekaboni, Behnam; Szigeti, Stuart S
2015-01-01
We have previously shown that quantum-enhanced atom interferometry can be achieved by mapping the quantum state of squeezed optical vacuum to one of the atomic inputs via a beamsplitter-like process [Phys.~Rev.~A \\textbf{90}, 063630 (2014)]. Here we ask the question: is a better phase sensitivity possible if the quantum state transfer (QST) is described by a three-mode-mixing model, rather than a beamsplitter? The answer is yes, but only if the portion of the optical state not transferred to the atoms is incorporated via information recycling. Surprisingly, our scheme gives a better sensitivity for lower QST efficiencies, and with a sufficiently large degree of squeezing can attain near-Heisenberg-limited sensitivities for arbitrarily small QST efficiencies. Furthermore, we use the quantum Fisher information to demonstrate the near-optimality of our scheme.
Representations of coherent and squeezed states in an extended two-parameter Fock space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. K. Tavassoly; M. H. Lake
2012-01-01
Recently an f-deformed Fock space which is spanned by ｜n〉λ was introduced.These bases are the eigenstates of a deformed non-Hermitian Hamiltonian.In this contribution,we will use rather new nonorthogonal basis vectors for the construction of coherent and squeezed states,which in special case lead to the earlier known states.For this purpose,we first generalize the previously introduced Fock space spanned by ｜n〉λ bases,to a new one,spanned by extended two-parameters bases ｜n〉λ1,λ2.These bases are now the eigenstates of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian Hλ1,λ2 =a(+)1,λ2a +1/2,where a(+)λ1,λ2 =a(+) + λ1a + λ2 and a are,respectively,the deformed creation and ordinary bosonic annihilation operators.The bases ｜n〉λ1,λ2 are nonorthogonal (squeezed states),but normalizable.Then,we deduce the new representations of coherent and squeezed states in our two-parameter Fock space.Finally,we discuss the quantum statistical properties,as well as the non-classical properties of the obtained states numerically.
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-03-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [ F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004) ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.
Squeezed states and graviton-entropy production in the early universe
Giovannini, Massimo
1994-01-01
Squeezed states are a very useful framework for the quantum treatment of tensor perturbations (i.e. gravitons production) in the early universe. In particular, the non equilibrium entropy growth in a cosmological process of pair production is completely determined by the associated squeezing parameter and is insensitive to the number of particles in the initial state. The total produced entropy may represent a significant fraction of the entropy stored today in the cosmic blackbody radiation, provided pair production originates from a change in the background metric at a curvature scale of the Planck order. Within the formalism of squeezed thermal states it is also possible to discuss the stimulated emission of gravitons from an initial thermal bath, under the action of the cosmic gravitational background field. We find that at low energy the graviton production is enhanced, if compared with spontaneous creation from the vacuum; as a consequence, the inflation scale must be lowered, in order not to exceed the observed CMB quadrupole anisotropy. This effect is important, in particular, for models based on a symmetry-breaking transition which require, as initial condition, a state of thermal equilibrium at temperatures higher than the inflation scale and in which inflation has a minimal duration.
Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states
Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; Anno, Fabio Dell'; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2004-01-01
We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixings of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems; and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local oscillator angle allows to vary at will the statist...
Enhancing the sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light
,
2013-01-01
Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of earth-based gravitational wave observatories is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometer level sensitivity of the kilometer-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational wave Uni- verse with unprecedented sensi...
Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbhade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, S.; Bowers, J.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Buckland, K.; Brückner, F.; Buchler, B. C.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A. D.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H.-S.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Constancio Junior, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Dayanga, T.; Deleeuw, E.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; Derosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Palma, I.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Drasco, S.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engel, R.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B. F.; Farr, W.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Finn, L. S.; Fisher, R. P.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Fotopoulos, N.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Garcia, J.; Gehrels, N.; Gelencser, G.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heintze, M. C.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Huang, V.; Huerta, E. A.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jang, Y. J.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D.; Kozameh, C.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Kucharczyk, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuper, B. J.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Leong, J. R.; Levine, B.; Lhuillier, V.; Lin, A. C.; Litvine, V.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacArthur, J.; MacDonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; MacLeod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Manca, G.; Mandel, I.
2013-08-01
Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity.
Squeezing of thermal fluctuations in four-wave mixing in a Λ scheme
Erukhimova, Maria; Tokman, Mikhail
2017-01-01
We theoretically investigated the mechanism of two-mode quadrature squeezing in a regime of four-wave mixing in a Λ scheme of three-level atoms embedded in a thermal reservoir. We demonstrated that the process of nonlinear transfer of noise from the low frequency of ground state splitting to the optical frequency is significant if the number of thermal photons at the low frequency is high. We have shown that correct calculation of the two-mode squeezing level taking into account both thermal noise and distortion of dissipative properties of the thermally excited medium resulted in a simple expression for the maximum squeezing level, which is defined by the ground-state coherence decay rate and the drive-field intensity. We found the optimal conditions for squeezing, in particular, the optimal density-length product of the active medium depending on the atomic relaxation parameters and the drive-field intensity.
A bridge between the single-photon and squeezed-vacuum states
Jain, Nitin; Huisman, S.R.; Bimbard, Erwan; Lvovsky, A.I.
2010-01-01
The two modes of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen quadrature entangled state generated by parametric down-conversion interfere on a beam splitter of variable splitting ratio. Detection of a photon in one of the beam splitter output channels heralds preparation of a signal state in the other, which is
State Budgets Are Likely to Squeeze 2-Year Colleges
Selingo, Jeffrey J.
2008-01-01
Community colleges in nearly half of the states will probably face midyear reductions in their appropriations, according to a survey of members of the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges. The study paints a bleak picture of a widening fiscal crisis among state governments, which started in the most recent budget year and is…
Algebraic geometry tools for the study of entanglement: an application to spin squeezed states
Bernardi, Alessandra; Carusotto, Iacopo
2012-03-01
A short review of algebraic geometry tools for the decomposition of tensors and polynomials is given from the point of view of applications to quantum and atomic physics. Examples of application to assemblies of indistinguishable two-level bosonic atoms are discussed using modern formulations of the classical Sylvester algorithm for the decomposition of homogeneous polynomials in two variables. In particular, the symmetric rank and symmetric border rank of spin squeezed states are calculated as well as their Schrödinger-cat-like decomposition as the sum of macroscopically different coherent spin states; Fock states provide an example of states for which the symmetric rank and the symmetric border rank are different.
Squeezing and Entanglement in Continuous Variable Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIA Yun-Jie; GUO Guang-Can
2004-01-01
Based on total variance of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type operators, the generalized EPR entangled states in continuous variable systems are defined. We show that such entangled states must correspond to two-mode squeezing states whether these states are Gaussian or not and whether they are pure or not. With help of the relation between the total variance and the entanglement, the degree of such entanglement is also defined. Through analysing some specific cases, we see that this method is very convenient and easy in practical applications. In addition, an entangled state with no squeezing is studied, which reveals that there certainly exists something unknown about entanglement in continuous variable systems.
Classical Simulation of Squeezed Vacuum in Optical Waveguide Arrays
Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Sipe, John
2013-01-01
We reveal that classical light diffraction in arrays of specially modulated coupled optical waveguides can simulate the quantum process of two-mode squeezing in nonlinear media, with the waveguide mode amplitudes corresponding the signal and idler photon numbers. The whole Fock space is mapped by a set of arrays, where each array represents the states with a fixed difference between the signal and idler photon numbers. We demonstrate a critical transition from photon number growth to Bloch oscillations with periodical revivals of an arbitrary input state, associated with an increase of the effective phase mismatch between the pump and the squeezed photons.
Displacement-enhanced entanglement distillation of single-mode-squeezed entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
It has been shown that entanglement distillation of Gaussian entangled states by means of local photon subtraction can be improved by local Gaussian transformations. Here we show that a similar effect can be expected for the distillation of an asymmetric Gaussian entangled state that is produced...... by a single squeezed beam. We show that for low initial entanglement, our largely simplified protocol generates more entanglement than previous proposed protocols. Furthermore, we show that the distillation scheme also works efficiently on decohered entangled states as well as with a practical photon...
Functional approach to squeezed states in non commutative theories
Lubo, M
2004-01-01
We review some noncommutative theories in which no state saturates simultaneously all the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We show how the difference of structure between the Poisson brackets and the commutators in these theories generically leads to a harmonic oscillator whose position mean value is not strictly equal to the one predicted by classical mechanics. This raises the question of the nature of quasi classical states in these models. We propose an extension based on a variational principle. The action considered is the sum of the squares of the terms associated to the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We first verify that our proposal works in the usual theory: we recover the known gaussian functions and, besides them, other states which can be expressed as products of gaussians with specific hypergeometrics. We illustrate our construction in three models defined on a four dimensional phase space: two models endowed with a minimal length uncertainty and the non commutative p...
BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Squeezing
Zubairy, Suhail
2005-05-01
Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the
Quadrature measurements of a bright squeezed state via sideband swapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, J.; Glockl, O.; Leuchs, G.
2009-01-01
The measurement of an arbitrary quadrature of a bright quantum state of light is a commonly requested action in many quantum information protocols, but it is experimentally challenging with previously proposed schemes. We suggest that the quadrature be measured at a specific sideband frequency...
Continuous Variable Entanglement and Squeezing of Orbital Angular Momentum States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2009-01-01
We report the first experimental characterization of the first-order continuous variable orbital angular momentum states. Using a spatially nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) we produce quadrature entanglement between the two first-order Laguerre-Gauss modes. The family of orbital...
Functional approach to squeezed states in non commutative theories
Lubo, Musongela
2004-05-01
We review here the quantum mechanics of some noncommutative theories in which no state saturates simultaneously all the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We show how the difference of structure between the Poisson brackets and the commutators in these theories generically leads to a harmonic oscillator whose positions and momenta mean values are not strictly equal to the ones predicted by classical mechanics. This raises the question of the nature of quasi classical states in these models. We propose an extension based on a variational principle. The action considered is the sum of the absolute values of the expressions associated to the non trivial Heisenberg uncertainty relations. We first verify that our proposal works in the usual theory i.e. we recover the known gaussian functions. Besides them, we find other states which can be expressed as products of gaussians with specific hyper geometrics. We illustrate our construction in two models defined on a four dimensional phase space: a model endowed with a minimal length uncertainty and the non commutative plane. Our proposal leads to second order partial differential equations. We find analytical solutions in specific cases. We briefly discuss how our proposal may be applied to the fuzzy sphere and analyze its shortcomings.
Rubio López, Adrián E.
2017-01-01
The present work contributes to the study of nonequilibrium aspects of the Casimir forces with the introduction of squeezed states in the calculations. Throughout this article two main results can be found, being both strongly correlated. Primarily, the more formal result involves the development of a first-principles canonical quantization formalism to study the quantum vacuum in the presence of different dissipative material bodies in completely general scenarios. For this purpose, we consider a one-dimensional quantum scalar field interacting with the volume elements' degrees of freedom of the material bodies, which are modeled as a set of composite systems consisting of quantum harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment (provided as an infinite set of quantum harmonic oscillators acting as a thermal bath). Solving the full dynamics of the composite system through its Heisenberg equations, we study each contribution to the field operator by employing general properties of the Green function. We deduce the long-time limit of the contributions to the field operator. In agreement with previous works, we show that the expectation values of the components of the energy-momentum tensor present two contributions, one associated to the thermal baths and the other one associated to the field's initial conditions. This allows the direct study of steady situations involving different initial states for the field (keeping arbitrary thermal states for the baths). This leads to the other main result, consisting of computing the Casimir force when the field is initially in thermal or continuum-single-mode squeezed states (the latter being characterized by a given bandwidth and frequency). Time averaging is required for the squeezed case, showing that both results can be given in a unified way, while for the thermal state, all the well-known equilibrium results can be successfully reproduced. Finally, we compared the initial conditions' contribution and the total
Representations of Coherent and Squeezed States in an Extended Two-parameters Fock Space
Tavassoly, M K
2012-01-01
Recently a $f$-deformed Fock space which is spanned by $|n>_{\\lambda}$ has been introduced. These bases are indeed the eigen-states of a deformed non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. In this contribution, we will use a rather new non-orthogonal basis vectors for the construction of coherent and squeezed states, which in special case lead to the earlier known states. For this purpose, we first generalize the previously introduced Fock space spanned by $|n>_{\\lambda}$ bases, to a new one, spanned by an extended two-parameters bases $|n>_{\\lambda_{1},\\lambda_{2}}$. These bases are now the eigen-states of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian $H_{\\lambda_{1},\\lambda_{2}}=a^{\\dagger}_{\\lambda_{1},\\lambda_{2}}a+1/2$, where $a^{\\dagger}_{\\lambda_{1},\\lambda_{2}}=a^{\\dagger}+\\lambda_{1}a + \\lambda_{2}$ and $a$ are respectively, the deformed creation and ordinary bosonic annihilation operators. The bases $|n>_{\\lambda_{1},\\lambda_{2}}$ are non-orthogonal (squeezed states), but normalizable. Then, we deduce the new representations of cohe...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张盛; 王剑; 唐朝京; 张权
2011-01-01
It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Muhammad Ashfaq Ahmad; Lin Jie; Qian Yan; Ma Zhi-Min; Ma Ai-Qun; Liu Shu-Tian
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the properties of amplitude-squared squeezing of the generalized odd-even coherent states of anharmonic oscillator in finite-dimensional Hilbert space. It demonstrates that the generalized odd coherent states do exhibit strong amplitude-squared squeezing effects in comparison with the generalized even coherent states.
Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür; Hardal, Ali Ümit
2014-01-01
We investigate spin squeezing, quantum entanglement, and second-order coherence in two coupled, driven, dissipative, nonlinear cavities. We compare these quantum statistical properties for the cavities coupled with either single- or two-photon exchange. Solving the quantum optical master equation of the system numerically in the steady state, we calculate the zero-time delay second-order correlation function for the coherent, genuine two-mode entanglement parameters, an optimal spin squeezing...
Properties of a polaron in a quantum dot: a squeezed-state variational approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin Jiwen; Li Weiping; Yu Yifu
2013-01-01
The ground-state energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron in a parabolic quantum dot for the entire range of the electron-phonon coupling constant are obtained using the single-mode squeezed-state variational approach.The variational approach we applied is based on two successive canonical transformations and using a displaced-oscillator type unitary transformation to deal with the bilinear terms which are usually neglected.In order to study the relationship between the ground-state energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron ofa polaron in a parabolic quantum dot with the electron-LO-phonon coupling constant and the confinement length,numerical calculations are carried out in the electron-LO-phonon strong-and weak-coupling regions.
Squeezing of thermal fluctuations in four-wave mixing in a \\Lambda-scheme
Erukhimova, Maria
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the mechanism of two-mode quadrature squeezing in regime of four-wave mixing in a \\Lambda-scheme of three-level atoms embedded in a thermal reservoir. We demonstrate that the process of nonlinear transfer of noise from the low frequency of ground state splitting to the optical frequency drastically modifies the condition of effective two-mode squeezing. The damage factor is significant if number of thermal photons at the low frequency is high and the role of inelastic processes in ground state coherence decay is not negligible. We found the optimal conditions for squeezing, in particular optimal density-length product of active medium depending on the relaxation parameters and drive intensity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Wang-Yun; An Yu-Ying; Yang Zhi-Yong
2007-01-01
The properties of the field quantum entropy evolution in a system of a single-mode squeezed coherent state field interacting with a two-level atom is studied by utilizing the complete quantum theory, and we focus our attention on the discussion of the influences of field squeezing parameter γ, atomic distribution angle θ and coupling strength g between the field and the atom on the properties of the evolution of field quantum entropy. The results obtained from numerical calculation indicate that the amplitude of oscillation of field quantum entropy evolution decreases with the increasing of squeezing parameter γ, and that both atomic distribution angle θ and coupling strength g between the field and the atom can influence the periodicity of field quantum entropy evolution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Aryeh, Y., E-mail: phr65yb@physics.technion.ac.i [Physics Department, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2011-03-07
The possibility of using squeezed states and balanced homodyne detection of optical signals in a Michelson interferometer is discussed. The present analysis describes photon statistics measurements effects related to quadrature balanced homodyne detection showing the advantage of using this scheme for detecting weak optical signals.
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chirkin, A S [Physics Department, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob' evy Gory, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2002-06-01
The results of quantum analysis of the light generated by consecutive and simultaneous quasi-phase-matched (QPM) wave interactions in periodically poled nonlinear crystals (PPNCs) are presented. In the case of the consecutive interactions of waves with multiple frequencies {omega}, 2{omega} and 3{omega}, the parametric amplification at low-frequency pumping is investigated. Generation of the quadrature-squeezed light at frequencies {omega} and 3{omega} in the 2{omega} frequency pumping field, the photon statistics and correlation as well as the entanglement properties for photons produced at different frequencies are studied. In the case of simultaneous QPM spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes in single PPNC, the main attention is paid to obtaining the polarization-entangled states at the collinear geometry of the wave interaction.
Generalised squeezing and information theory approach to quantum entanglement
Vourdas, A.
1993-01-01
It is shown that the usual one- and two-mode squeezing are based on reducible representations of the SU(1,1) group. Generalized squeezing is introduced with the use of different SU(1,1) rotations on each irreducible sector. Two-mode squeezing entangles the modes and information theory methods are used to study this entanglement. The entanglement of three modes is also studied with the use of the strong subadditivity property of the entropy.
Spin squeezing and quantum correlations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K S Mallesh; Swarnamala Sirsi; Mahmoud A A Sbaih; P N Deepak; G Ramachandran
2002-08-01
We discuss the notion of spin squeezing considering two mutually exclusive classes of spin- states, namely, oriented and non-oriented states. Our analysis shows that the oriented states are not squeezed while non-oriented states exhibit squeezing. We also present a new scheme for construction of spin- states using 2 spinors oriented along different axes. Taking the case of = 1, we show that the `non-oriented’ nature and hence squeezing arise from the intrinsic quantum correlations that exist among the spinors in the coupled state.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
We designed the experimental generation system of the optical GHZ-like and cluster-like quadripartite entangled states for continuous variables.We theoretically demonstrated that the two different types of quadripartite entangled states can be obtained by the linearly optical transformation of four amplitude-quadrature and phase-quadrature squeezed states produced from a pair of nondegenerate optical parametric amplifiers under appropriate phase relations.The criteria for full inseparability of quadripartite cluster-like state were deduced,and the dependency of the quadripartite entanglement on the initial squeezing degree,the transmission efficiencies of the system and the detection efficiency of homodyne detection were numerically calculated.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
范洪义; 姜年权
2002-01-01
By extending the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen bipartite entanglement to the tripartite case, we construct the com-mon eigenvector of the tripartite centre-of-mass coordinate and two mass-weighted relative momenta, which is anew entangled state of continuum variables. The classical dilation transform of variables in such a state inducesa new three-mode squeezing operator related to a three-mode bosonic operator realization of S U(1,1 ) Lie algebra.
Prospect for detecting squeezed states of light created by a single atom in free space
Stobińska, Magdalena; Sondermann, Markus; Leuchs, Gerd
2009-01-01
We discuss the possibilities of studying in detail the dynamics of spontaneous emission of a single photon by a single atom and measuring the transient degree of squeezing by means of full solid angle fluorescence detection.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.Abdel-Khalek; M.M.A.Ahmed; A-S F.Obada
2011-01-01
We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic field,initially prepared in a coherent state.Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested.The temporal evolution of the negativity,Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated.The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy,Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.%We present an effective two-level system in interaction through two-photon processes with a single mode quantized electromagnetic Reid, initially prepared in a coherent state. Field entropy squeezing as an indicator of the entanglement in a mixed state system is suggested. The temporal evolution of the negativity, Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing are investigated. The results highlight the important roles played by both the Stark shift parameters and the mixed state setting in the dynamics of the Wehrl entropy, Wehrl phase distribution and field entropy squeezing.
Defacio, Brian; Kim, S.-H.; Vannevel, A.
1994-01-01
The squeezed states or Bogoliubov transformations and wavelets are applied to two problems in nonrelativistic statistical mechanics: the dielectric response of liquid water, epsilon(q-vector,w), and the bubble formation in water during insonnification. The wavelets are special phase-space windows which cover the domain and range of L(exp 1) intersection of L(exp 2) of classical causal, finite energy solutions. The multiresolution of discrete wavelets in phase space gives a decomposition into regions of time and scales of frequency thereby allowing the renormalization group to be applied to new systems in addition to the tired 'usual suspects' of the Ising models and lattice gasses. The Bogoliubov transformation: squeeze transformation is applied to the dipolaron collective mode in water and to the gas produced by the explosive cavitation process in bubble formation.
New theorem relating two-mode entangled tomography to two-mode Fresnel operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Chuan-Mei; Fan Hong-Yi
2012-01-01
Based on the Fan-Hu's formalism,i.e.,the tomogram of two-mode quantum states can be considered as the module square of the states' wave function in the intermediate representation,which is just the eigenvector of the Fresnel quadrature phase,we derive a new theorem for calculating the quantum tomogram of two-mode density operators,i.e.,the tomogram of a two-mode density operator is equal to the marginal integration of the classical Weyl correspondence function of F+2pF2,where F2 is the two-mode Fresnel operator. An application of the theorem in evaluating the tomogram of an optical chaotic field is also presented.
The Bose-Hubbard model with squeezed dissipation
Quijandría, Fernando; Naether, Uta; Porras, Diego; José García-Ripoll, Juan; Zueco, David
2015-03-01
The stationary properties of the Bose-Hubbard model under squeezed dissipation are investigated. The dissipative model does not possess a U(1) symmetry but conserves parity. We find that =0 always holds, so no symmetry breaking occurs. Without the onsite repulsion, the linear case is known to be critical. At the critical point the system freezes to an EPR state with infinite two mode entanglement. We show here that the correlations are rapidly destroyed whenever the repulsion is switched on. As we increase the latter, the system approaches a thermal state with an effective temperature defined in terms of the squeezing parameter in the dissipators. We characterize this transition by means of a Gutzwiller ansatz and the Gaussian Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation.
Quantum Dynamical Theory for Squeezed Atom Laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING Hui; HAN Yi-Ang; CHEN Jing-Ling; MIAO Yuan-Xiu
2000-01-01
A model for the squeezed output coupler of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensed atoms is established with a simple many-boson system of two states with linear coupling, by preparing an initially squeezed light field. In the Bogoliubov approximation, its solutions show that the quadrature squeezing effect mutually oscillates between the coupling light field and the output atomic field. This manifests that the initially squeezed light will transform into a coherent state after some period of coupling interaction while the output atomic field is in a squeezed state.
Generation of low-frequency squeezed states%低频压缩态光场的制备∗
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘增俊; 翟泽辉; 孙恒信; 郜江瑞
2016-01-01
Squeezed state of light is an important resource of optical measuerments below the shot noise limit and has been used to improve measurement sensitivity in many areas such as gravitational wave detection, especially in audio frequency region. Compared with the high-frequency squeezed states, the generation of the low-frequency squeezed states is more diﬃcult, because it is limited by several technical noise sources. In this paper we report the observation of more than 2 dB of vacuum squeezing at 1064 nm in the gravitational-wave detection band down to 3 kHz with a double-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The OPO has a configuration of linear cavity consisting of an input coupling mirror with a transmission of 11%at 532 nm and an output coupling mirror with the transmission of 12%at 1064 nm. The nonlinear materials in the OPO is type-I periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal which is chosen for this experiment due to its higher nonlinearity, broader phase matching temperature, and smaller photo-thermal effect. The OPO is pumped by the light of 532 nm from Nd: YVO4/KTP solid-state laser of maximum optical power 3 W. To avoid various noise coupled from the seed beam, the OPO is seeded by vacuum fluctuations instead of coherent field at the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm). A Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme is used to lock the OPO cavity length with the signal derived from the reflected pump beam, so as to lock the pump field and also lock the fundamental field. To make both the pump and seed beams resonant simultaneously, the temperature of the PPKTP is carefully adjusted. The squeezed state can be detected on a homodyne detection by interfering it with the local oscillator and detected by a balanced detector with two photodiodes (EXT500 T) but having the same quantum eﬃciency of 86%at 1064 nm. The subsequent electronic noise is analyzed with a low-frequency spectrum analyzer, which shows that the audio noise sources from lab
Vahlbruch, Henning; Mehmet, Moritz; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2016-09-01
Squeezed states of light belong to the most prominent nonclassical resources. They have compelling applications in metrology, which has been demonstrated by their routine exploitation for improving the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave detector since 2010. Here, we report on the direct measurement of 15 dB squeezed vacuum states of light and their application to calibrate the quantum efficiency of photoelectric detection. The object of calibration is a customized InGaAs positive intrinsic negative (p-i-n) photodiode optimized for high external quantum efficiency. The calibration yields a value of 99.5% with a 0.5% (k =2 ) uncertainty for a photon flux of the order 1 017 s-1 at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The calibration neither requires any standard nor knowledge of the incident light power and thus represents a valuable application of squeezed states of light in quantum metrology.
Squeezing in a 2-D generalized oscillator
Castanos, Octavio; Lopez-Pena, Ramon; Manko, Vladimir I.
1994-01-01
A two-dimensional generalized oscillator with time-dependent parameters is considered to study the two-mode squeezing phenomena. Specific choices of the parameters are used to determine the dispersion matrix and analytic expressions, in terms of standard hermite polynomials, of the wavefunctions and photon distributions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-Rui; YANG Lu; TAN Xin-Zhou; XIONG Hong-Wei; L(U) Bao-Long
2009-01-01
We study the phase coherence property of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a standing-wave laser field.The lattice depth is determined using a method of Kapitza-Dirac scattering between a condensate and a short pulse lattice potential.Condensates are then adiabatically loaded into the optical lattice.The phase coherence property of the confined condensates is reflected by the interference patterns of the expanded atomic cloud released from the optical lattice.For weak lattice,nearly all of the atoms stay in a superfluid state.However,as the lattice depth is increased,the phase coherence of the whole condensate sample is gradually lost,which confirms that the sub-condensates in each lattice well have evolved into number-squeezed states.
Yeh, Wei-Chang
2016-08-18
Network reliability is an important index to the provision of useful information for decision support in the modern world. There is always a need to calculate symbolic network reliability functions (SNRFs) due to dynamic and rapid changes in network parameters. In this brief, the proposed squeezed artificial neural network (SqANN) approach uses the Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the corresponding reliability of a given designed matrix from the Box-Behnken design, and then the Taguchi method is implemented to find the appropriate number of neurons and activation functions of the hidden layer and the output layer in ANN to evaluate SNRFs. According to the experimental results of the benchmark networks, the comparison appears to support the superiority of the proposed SqANN method over the traditional ANN-based approach with at least 16.6% improvement in the median absolute deviation in the cost of extra 2 s on average for all experiments.
Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization
Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe
1994-01-01
We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.
Lopez, Adrian E Rubio
2016-01-01
This work contributes to the study of non-equilibrium aspects of the Casimir forces with the introduction of squeezed states in the calculations. Throughout this article two main results can be found, being both strongly correlated. Primarily, the more formal result involves the development of a first-principles canonical quantization formalism to study the vacuum in presence different dissipative bodies in completely general scenarios. We considered a one-dimensional quantum scalar field interacting with the volume elements' degrees of freedom of the material bodies, which are modeled as composite systems consisting in a harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment. Solving the full dynamics of the composite system through its Heisenberg equations, we studied each contribution to the field operator by employing general properties of the Green function. We deduced the long-time limit of the field operator. In agreement with previous works, we showed that the expectation values of the components of the...
Quantum-squeezing effects of strained multilayer graphene NEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yuelin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Quantum squeezing can improve the ultimate measurement precision by squeezing one desired fluctuation of the two physical quantities in Heisenberg relation. We propose a scheme to obtain squeezed states through graphene nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS taking advantage of their thin thickness in principle. Two key criteria of achieving squeezing states, zero-point displacement uncertainty and squeezing factor of strained multilayer graphene NEMS, are studied. Our research promotes the measured precision limit of graphene-based nano-transducers by reducing quantum noises through squeezed states.
Gerrits, Thomas; Clement, Tracy S; Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E; Miller, Aaron J; Migdall, Alan L; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P; Knill, Emanuel
2010-01-01
Optical Schr\\"odinger cat states will have many applications in the fields of quantum information and high precision metrology in the future. Also, quantum states that cannot be characterized or measured by means of coincidence measurements require characterization with high efficiency and real photon-number resolving detectors. Here we report results from experiments creating heralded photonic cat states by subtracting up to three photons from a squeezed vacuum light pulse. We utilized our photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor with a quantum efficiency of 85% to detect the number of heralding photons. This is the first experiment utilizing the full photon-number-resolving capabilities of this photon detector. The optical cat state that was produced when subtracting three photons had a mean photon number of 2.75 and a fidelity of 0.59 +0.04/-0.14 compared to an ideal cat state consisting of an equal superposition of two optical coherent states. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the cat states si...
Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mueller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Klimov, Andrei B.
2016-01-01
We investigate polarization squeezing in squeezed coherent states with varying coherent amplitudes. In contrast to the traditional characterization based on the full Stokes parameters, we experimentally determine the Stokes vector of each excitation subspace separately. Only for states with a fix...
Atomic Tunnelling Dynamics of Two Squeezed Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jin-Hui; KUANG Le-Man
2003-01-01
In this paper, tunnelling dynamics of squeezed Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC's) in the presence of the nonlinear self-interaction of each species, the interspecies nonlinear interaction, and the Josephson-like tunnelling interaction is investigated by using the second quantization approach. The influence of BEC squeezing on macroscopic quantum self-trapping (MQST) and quantum coherent atomic tunnelling is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the MQST and coherent atomic tunnelling between two squeezed BEC's can be manipulated through changing squeezing amplitude and squeezing phase of BEC squeezed states.
High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C
2013-01-01
states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...
Coordinate-Dependent N-Mode Squeezing Transformations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wei; REN Gang; CHEN Xiang-Rong; SONG Tong-Qiang; CAI Ling-Cang; GOU Qing-Quan
2008-01-01
We introduce the coordinate-dependent N-mode squeezing transformation and show that it can be con-structed by the combination of two unitary transformations, a coordinate-dependent displacement followed by the stan-dard squeezed transformation. The properties of the corresponding N-mode squeezed states are also discussed.
Nuclear spin squeezing via electric quadrupole interaction
Aksu Korkmaz, Yaǧmur; Bulutay, Ceyhun
2016-01-01
Control over nuclear-spin fluctuations is essential for processes that rely on preserving the quantum state of an embedded system. For this purpose, squeezing is a viable alternative, so far that has not been properly exploited for the nuclear spins. Of particular relevance in solids is the electric quadrupole interaction (QI), which operates on nuclei having spin higher than 1/2. In its general form, QI involves an electric-field gradient (EFG) biaxiality term. Here, we show that as this EFG biaxiality increases, it enables continuous tuning of single-particle squeezing from the one-axis twisting to the two-axis countertwisting limits. A detailed analysis of QI squeezing is provided, exhibiting the intricate consequences of EFG biaxiality. The initial states over the Bloch sphere are mapped out to identify those favorable for fast initial squeezing, or for prolonged squeezings. Furthermore, the evolution of squeezing in the presence of a phase-damping channel and an external magnetic field are investigated. We observe that dephasing drives toward an antisqueezed terminal state, the degree of which increases with the spin angular momentum. Finally, QI squeezing in the limiting case of a two-dimensional EFG with a perpendicular magnetic field is discussed, which is of importance for two-dimensional materials, and the associated beat patterns in squeezing are revealed.
Dalton, B. J.; Goold, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Reid, M. D.
2017-02-01
These two accompanying papers are concerned with entanglement for systems of identical massive bosons and the relationship to spin squeezing and other quantum correlation effects. The main focus is on two mode entanglement, but multi-mode entanglement is also considered. The bosons may be atoms or molecules as in cold quantum gases. The previous paper I dealt with the general features of quantum entanglement and its specific definition in the case of systems of identical bosons. Entanglement is a property shared between two (or more) quantum sub-systems. In defining entanglement for systems of identical massive particles, it was concluded that the single particle states or modes are the most appropriate choice for sub-systems that are distinguishable, that the general quantum states must comply both with the symmetrization principle and the super-selection rules (SSR) that forbid quantum superpositions of states with differing total particle number (global SSR compliance). Further, it was concluded that (in the separable states) quantum superpositions of sub-system states with differing sub-system particle number (local SSR compliance) also do not occur. The present paper II determines possible tests for entanglement based on the treatment of entanglement set out in paper I. Several inequalities involving variances and mean values of operators have been previously proposed as tests for entanglement between two sub-systems. These inequalities generally involve mode annihilation and creation operators and include the inequalities that define spin squeezing. In this paper, spin squeezing criteria for two mode systems are examined, and spin squeezing is also considered for principle spin operator components where the covariance matrix is diagonal. The proof, which is based on our SSR compliant approach shows that the presence of spin squeezing in any one of the spin components requires entanglement of the relevant pair of modes. A simple Bloch vector test for
Generation of a squeezed state at 1.55 μm with periodically poled LiNbO3
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Qin; Feng Jin-Xia; Li Hong; Jiao Yue-Chun; Zhang Kuan-Shou
2012-01-01
We report on the generation of a squeezing vacuum at 1.55 μm using an optical parametric amplifier based on periodically poled LiNbO3.Using three specifically designed narrow linewidth mode cleaners as the spatial mode and noise filter of the laser at 1.55 μm and 775 nm,the squeezed vacuum of up to 3.0 dB below the shot noise level at 1.55 μm is experimentally obtained.This system is compatible with standard telecommunication optical fibers,and will be useful for continuous variable long-distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computing.
The Climate Change Squeeze Facing the United States and US Agriculture
Sohngen, Brent; McCarl, Bruce A.
2004-01-01
Agriculture and forestry in the United States face pressures from the eventual effects of climate change and from efforts to control greenhouse gasses. This set of papers looks at the economic consequences from both pressures.
Squeezed light for advanced gravitational wave detectors and beyond.
Oelker, E; Barsotti, L; Dwyer, S; Sigg, D; Mavalvala, N
2014-08-25
Recent experiments have demonstrated that squeezed vacuum states can be injected into gravitational wave detectors to improve their sensitivity at detection frequencies where they are quantum noise limited. Squeezed states could be employed in the next generation of more sensitive advanced detectors currently under construction, such as Advanced LIGO, to further push the limits of the observable gravitational wave Universe. To maximize the benefit from squeezing, environmentally induced disturbances such as back scattering and angular jitter need to be mitigated. We discuss the limitations of current squeezed vacuum sources in relation to the requirements imposed by future gravitational wave detectors, and show a design for squeezed light injection which overcomes these limitations.
Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-10-01
Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.
Mutual coherence and spin squeezing in double-well atomic condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jing Hui
2002-12-30
We develop an analytical method for the investigations of quantum dynamics and statistics of double-well atomic condensates with Josephson-like coupling. An interesting collapse and revival phenomenon is shown for any atomic state, and the anti-correlations are revealed between the two atomic modes through an exact result for second-order cross-correlation. Particularly, the possible violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality as the sign of nonlocality are exhibited by the combination of intrinsic collisions and external field. The essential difference between the two-mode nonclassical correlation and the collective spin squeezing is also briefly discussed.
School Finance 2004?05: Districts Receive An Increase Despite A State Budget Squeeze
Perry, Mary; Edwards, Brian; Oregon, Isabel
2004-01-01
Another year of financial difficulty for the state of California led to the suspension of the minimum-funding guarantee that has provided some financial protection for schools in recent years. In a negotiation with education leaders Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger managed to craft the suspension in a way that protected education's interests at the…
Squeezed light in semiconductors
Ward, M B
2001-01-01
Experimental evidence is presented for the generation of photon-number squeezed states of light as a result of multi-photon absorption. Photon-number squeezing as a result of non-linear absorption has long been predicted and results have been obtained utilising two very different material systems: (i) an AIGaAs waveguide in which high optical intensities can be maintained over a relatively long interaction length of 2 mm; (ii) the organic polymer p-toluene sulphonate polydiacetylene that is essentially a one-dimensional semiconductor possessing a highly nonlinear optical susceptibility. The resulting nonlinear absorption is shown to leave the transmitted light in a state that is clearly nonclassical, exhibiting photon-number fluctuations below the shot-noise limit. Tuning the laser wavelength across the half-bandgap energy has enabled a comparison between two- and three-photon processes in the semiconductor waveguide. The correlations created between different spectral components of a pulsed beam of light as ...
Quantum optical ABCD theorem in two-mode case
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fan Hong-Yi; Hu Li-Yun
2008-01-01
By introducing the entangled Fresnel operator (EFO) this paper demonstrates that there exists ABCD theorem for two-mode entangled case in quantum optics.The canonical operator method as mapping of ray-transfer ABCD matrix is explicitly shown by EFO's normally ordered expansion through the coherent state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators.
Pulsed squeezed vacuum characterization without homodyning
Wenger, J; Tualle-Brouri, R; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P; Grangier, Ph.
2004-01-01
Direct photon detection is experimentally implemented to measure the squeezing and purity of a single-mode squeezed vacuum state without an interferometric homodyne detection. Following a recent theoretical proposal [arXiv quant-ph/0311119], the setup only requires a tunable beamsplitter and a single-photon detector to fully characterize the generated Gaussian states. The experimental implementation of this procedure is discussed and compared with other reference methods.
Squeezed quadrature fluctuations in a gravitational wave detector using squeezed light.
Dwyer, S; Barsotti, L; Chua, S S Y; Evans, M; Factourovich, M; Gustafson, D; Isogai, T; Kawabe, K; Khalaidovski, A; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Mavalvala, N; McClelland, D E; Meadors, G D; Mow-Lowry, C M; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Smith-Lefebvre, N; Stefszky, M; Vorvick, C; Sigg, D
2013-08-12
Squeezed states of light are an important tool for optical measurements below the shot noise limit and for optical realizations of quantum information systems. Recently, squeezed vacuum states were deployed to enhance the shot noise limited performance of gravitational wave detectors. In most practical implementations of squeezing enhancement, relative fluctuations between the squeezed quadrature angle and the measured quadrature (sometimes called squeezing angle jitter or phase noise) are one limit to the noise reduction that can be achieved. We present calculations of several effects that lead to quadrature fluctuations, and use these estimates to account for the observed quadrature fluctuations in a LIGO gravitational wave detector. We discuss the implications of this work for quantum enhanced advanced detectors and even more sensitive third generation detectors.
Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes
Semmler, Marion; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2016-01-01
As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as fl...
Parity Breaking Medium and Squeeze Operators
Andrianov, A A; Soldati, R
2016-01-01
The transition between a Minkowski space region and a parity breaking medium domain is thoroughly discussed. The requirement of continuity of the field operator content across the separating boundary of the two domains leads to Bogolyubov transformations, squeezed pairs states and squeeze operators that turn out to generate a functional SU(2) algebra. According to this algebraic approach, the reflection and transmission probability amplitude across the separating boundary are computed. The suitable generalization of the well known Sauter-Schwinger-Nikishov formula to the emission or absorption of squeezed pairs out of the vacuum is obtained.
Observation of Localized Multi-Spatial-Mode Quadrature Squeezing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. S. Embrey
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum states of light can improve imaging whenever the image quality and resolution are limited by the quantum noise of the illumination. In the case of a bright illumination, quantum enhancement is obtained for a light field composed of many squeezed transverse modes. A possible realization of such a multi-spatial-mode squeezed state is a field which contains a transverse plane in which the local electric field displays reduced quantum fluctuations at all locations, on any one quadrature. Using a traveling-wave amplifier, we have generated a multi-spatial-mode squeezed state and showed that it exhibits localized quadrature squeezing at any point of its transverse profile, in regions much smaller than its size. We observe 75 independently squeezed regions. The amplification relies on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a hot vapor and produces a bichromatic squeezed state. The result confirms the potential of this technique for producing illumination suitable for practical quantum imaging.
Minimum Uncertainty, Coherence and Squeezing in Diffusion Processes, and Stochastic Quantization
De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; Vitiello, G; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitiello, Giuseppe
1993-01-01
We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.
Carlowicz, Michael
According to Science & Engineering Indicators 1996, concerns about funding for research are well founded. Data gathered by the National Science Board indicate that total spending on research in the United States has been in steady decline during the 1990s.Industry has held the research and development line item steady at about $97 billion since 1987, but the value has dropped about 1.5$ per year in real dollars (adjusted for inflation). In that same period, the government contribution to R&D has dropped 20% from its peak in 1987. Overall R&D has dropped from 2.8% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1991 to 2.4% in 1995, and spending on nondefense research has dropped below 2% of the GDP. Japan now invests 2.7% in nondefense R&D Germany, 2.4%.
Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing.
Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing
2016-05-12
The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Lu; Kong Ling-Bo; Zhan Ming-Sheng
2008-01-01
Squeezing via the interaction between the cavity light field and the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in a doublewell potential is considered within the context of the two-mode approximation.For the cavity light field initially in a coherent state,it is shown that by choosing appropriate parameters,quadrature squeezing of the cavity light field can be achieved and it exhibits periodic oscillation.We also study the case in which BEC is tuned to resonance by periodically modulating the trapping potential,and the quadrature squeezing of the cavity field exhibits periodic collapse and revival effect.Both analytic and numerical calculations are performed,and they are found to be in good agreement with each other. The result shows that the quantum statistical properties of the cavity light field can be manipulated by its coupling with the condensates in the double-well potential.On the other hand,dynamical properties of the condensates in the double-well potential will be reflected by the quadrature squeezing of the light field.
Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing.
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-06-01
The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
Performance of quantum Otto refrigerators with squeezing
Long, Rui; Liu, Wei
2015-06-01
The performance of a quantum Otto refrigerator coupled to a squeezed cold reservoir has been evaluated using the χ figure of merit. We have shown that squeezing can enhance the coefficient of performance (COP) dramatically, surpassing the Carnot COP defined by the initial temperatures of the heat baths. Furthermore, when the squeezing parameter approaches its maximum value, the work input vanishes while the cooling rate remains finite, in apparent contravention of the second law of thermodynamics. To explain this phenomenon, we have shown that squeezing renders the thermal bath into a nonequilibrium state and the temperature of the bath becomes frequency dependent. Thereby, a correlation to the Carnot COP has been deduced. The results reveal that the COP under the maximum χ figure of merit is of the Curzon-Ahlborn style that cannot surpass the actual Carnot COP, and is thus consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.
Squeezing and entanglement in multi-qutrit systems
Naji, Azita; Jafarpour, Mojtaba
2013-08-01
We study squeezing and bipartite entanglement in a multi-qutrit system initially in a coherent state, initiated by the two-axis counter-twisting Hamiltonian in the presence and also absence of a magnetic field. We start with an initial coherent state which is neither squeezed nor entangled; however, it gains both properties as it is evolved by the Hamiltonian. Both squeezing and entanglement show an oscillatory behavior in time and stronger Hamiltonians correspond to smaller oscillation periods. Generation of almost continuous squeezing according to Kitagawa criterion seems feasible; however, off and on squeezing death is observed according to that of Wineland. The entanglement is diminished as the size of the system is increased, implying that the generation of strong entanglement in large multi-qutrit systems, instigated by the counter-twisting Hamiltonian, may not be feasible. Application of a magnetic field may have adverse effect on both squeezing and entanglement.
Solutions of two-mode Jaynes-Cummings models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sudha Singh; Ashalata Sinha
2008-05-01
A simple procedure to solve two fully quantized non-linear Jaynes-Cummings models is presented, one in which an atom interacts with a two-mode radiation field in a Raman-type process and the other involving multiphoton interaction between the two-mode field and the atom. Effect of intensity-dependent coupling between the field and the atom in both the above-mentioned cases has also been investigated. The unitary transformation method presented here not only solves the time-dependent problem but also permits a determination of the eigensolutions of the interacting Hamiltonian at the same time. Graphical features of the time dependence of the population inversion have been analysed when one of the field modes is prepared initially in a coherent state while the other one in a vacuum state.
On the realization of atomic dipole squeezing by remote manipulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIANG Shao-hua; SONG Ke-hui
2004-01-01
A scheme for adjusting the dipole squeezing properties of one atom at one place by manipulating and detecting another atom at the remote place is proposed, in which these atoms initially in the spatially separated entangled state act as a quantum channel carrying quantum information. The result shows that the dipole squeezing properties of one atom can be adjusted by rotating and detecting the other, and the maximal atomic squeezing can be obtained under local operation and classical communication.
Teleporting squeezing: Optimization using non-Gaussian resources
Dell'Anno, F; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F
2010-01-01
We study the continuous-variable quantum teleportation of states, statistical moments of observables, and scale parameters such as squeezing. We investigate the problem both in ideal and imperfect Vaidman-Braunstein-Kimble protocol setups. We show how the teleportation fidelity is maximized and the difference between output and input variances is minimized by using suitably optimized entangled resources. Specifically, we consider the teleportation of coherent squeezed states, exploiting squeezed Bell states as entangled resources. This class of non-Gaussian states includes photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states as special cases. At variance with the case of entangled Gaussian resources, the use of entangled non-Gaussian squeezed Bell resources allows for different optimization procedures that lead to inequivalent results. Performing two independent optimization procedures one can either maximize the state teleportation fidelity, or minimize the difference between input and output quadrature varian...
Hybrid squeezing of solitonic resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers
Tran, Truong X; Soeller, Christoph; Blow, Keith J; Biancalana, Fabio
2011-01-01
We report on the existence of a novel kind of squeezing in photonic crystal fibers which is conceptually intermediate between the four-wave mixing induced squeezing, in which all the participant waves are monochromatic waves, and the self-phase modulation induced squeezing for a single pulse in a coherent state. This hybrid squeezing occurs when an arbitrary short soliton emits quasi-monochromatic resonant radiation near a zero group velocity dispersion point of the fiber. Photons around the resonant frequency become strongly correlated due to the presence of the classical soliton, and a reduction of the quantum noise below the shot noise level is predicted.
Measuring the Wigner Functions of Two-Mode Cavity Fields and Testing the Bell's Inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张智明
2004-01-01
We propose a scheme for measuring the Wigner function of a two-mode cavity field. The scheme bases on the interaction between the two-mode cavity field and three-level atoms. We find a simple relation between the Wigner function and the atomic population. One can obtain the Wigner function by measuring the atomic population with a micromaser-like experiment and doing a numerical integral. By using the two-mode Wigner function one can obtain the Clauser-Horne combination and test the Bell's inequalities. We test our equations with a two-mode entanglement state and the results are rather good.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李春先; 方卯发; 等
2003-01-01
We study the squeezing for a two-level atom in the Jaynes-Cumings model with intensity-dependent coupling using quantum information entropy,and examine the influences of the initial state of the system on the squeezed component number and direction of the information entropy squeezing.Our results show that,the squeezed component number depends on the atomic initial distribution angle,while the squeezed direction is determined by both the phases of the atom and the field for the information entropy squeezing.Quantum information entropy is shown to be a remarkable precision measure for atomic squeezing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李春先; 方卯发
2003-01-01
We study the squeezing for a two-level atom in the Jaynes-Cummings model with intensity-dependent coupling using quantum information entropy, and examine the influences of the initial state of the system on the squeezed component number and direction of the information entropy squeezing. Our results show that, the squeezed component number depends on the atomic initial distribution angle, while the squeezed direction is determined by both the phases of the atom and the field for the information entropy squeezing. Quantum information entropy is shown to be a remarkable precision measure for atomic squeezing.
q-Deformed Entangled States Representations and Some Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ye-Jun; SONG Jun; YUAN Hong-Chun; LIU Qiu-Yu
2011-01-01
The q-deformed entangled states are introduced by using deformation quantization methods and new normal ordering of the vacuum projection operator for q-deformed boson oscillator.In similar way, by virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, the new completeness and orthogonality relations composed of the bra and ket, which are not mutually Hermitian conjugates are obtained.Furthermore, the property of squeezing operator represented by the q-deformed entangled states is exhibited.Lastly, the nonclassical properties of the q-deformed two-mode squeezed vacuum state are studied.
Hassani Nadiki, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2016-12-01
In this paper the interaction of a three-level atom in V-configuration with a two-mode quantized field in cavity optomechanics is studied. To achieve the purpose, we first deduce the effective Hamiltonian and evaluate the explicit time-dependent form of the state vector of the whole system by choosing special initial conditions for atom, field and the oscillatory mirror. Interestingly, we can obtain the time evolution of atomic linear entropy, population inversion, quantum statistics and squeezing, both analytically and numerically. The results show that the entanglement between the atom and the subsystem of field and mirror, and all above-mentioned physical quantities can be appropriately controlled by the initial atom-field state condition, the parameters of cavity optomechanics as well as atom-field coupling strengths. In particular, the appearance of collapse-revival phenomenon in the entanglement and quantum photon statistics, also the full sub-Poissonian statistics in the two modes of field as well as in the mechanical mode of optomechanical system are noticeable features of the work.
Stefszky, Michael; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chua, Sheon; Buchler, Ben C.; Symul, Thomas; McClelland, David E.; Lam, Ping Koy
2011-01-01
A squeezed light source requires properties such as high squeezing amplitude, high bandwidth and stability over time, ideally using as few resources, such as laser power, as possible. We compare three nonlinear materials, two of which have not been well characterized for squeezed state production,
Stefszky, Michael; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chua, Sheon; Buchler, Ben C.; Symul, Thomas; McClelland, David E.; Lam, Ping Koy
2011-01-01
A squeezed light source requires properties such as high squeezing amplitude, high bandwidth and stability over time, ideally using as few resources, such as laser power, as possible. We compare three nonlinear materials, two of which have not been well characterized for squeezed state production, a
Relative entropy as a measure of entanglement for Gaussian states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lu Huai-Xin; Zhao Bo
2006-01-01
In this paper, we derive an explicit analytic expression of the relative entropy between two general Gaussian states. In the restriction of the set for Gaussian states and with the help of relative entropy formula and Peres-Simon separability criterion, one can conveniently obtain the relative entropy entanglement for Gaussian states. As an example,the relative entanglement for a two-mode squeezed thermal state has been obtained.
Teleported State and its Fidelity in Quantum Teleportation of Continuous Variables
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Fu-Li; LI Hong-Rong; ZHANG Jun-Xiang; ZHU Shi-Yao
2003-01-01
When given an unknown quantum state which may be either a pure or a mixed state in the coherent state representation, we show that explicit expressions for the teleported state and its fidelity in the teleportation process (S. L. Braunstein and H. J. Kimble 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 869) can be obtained without explicit expansions for the two-mode squeezed vacuum state and the Bell basis in a specified representation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
冯川; 萨楚尔夫; 李红星
2014-01-01
利用全量子理论，研究了多光子Jaynes-Cummings模型中与 Glauber-Lachs态相互作用的混合态原子的信息熵压缩。讨论了相干平均光子数、热平均光子数、跃迁光子数、原子初态参量对原子信息熵压缩的影响。结果表明原子信息熵X分量没有熵压缩性质；相干平均光子数取值适当时，原子信息熵Y分量呈现熵压缩效应；热平均光子数、跃迁光子数会破坏原子信息熵Y分量的熵压缩效应；原子初态参量对原子信息熵Y分量能否呈现熵压缩效应没有决定性作用；伴随双光子跃迁时，原子的熵压缩因子的时间演化曲线呈现周期性。%The information entropy squeezing properties of the atom interacting with the Glauber-Lachs state in multi-photon Jaynes-Cummings model are studied by means of the full quantum theory.The in-fluences of the mean number of the coherent photons,the average number of the thermal photons,the number of the transition photons and the atomic initial state on the information entropy squeezing of the atom are discussed.The results indicate that there is no entropy squeezing in the X component of infor-mation entropy of the atom at any instant of the time evolution of the system.But there exists an entro-py squeezing in the Y component of information entropy of the atom during the time evolution when the mean number of coherent photons takes an appropriate value.The mean number of thermal photons and the number of the transition photons have a destructive effect on theY component of information entropy of the atom.The atomic initial state has no effect on the entropy squeezing in the Y component of infor-mation entropy of the atom.If the number of the transition photons equals to two,the time evolution of the entropy squeezing factor appears periodic change.
Ben-Aryeh, Yacob
2010-01-01
It is shown in the present Letter that the quantum noise due to high laser intensities in Michelson interferometer for gravitational waves detection can be reduced by sending squeezed vacuum states to the 'dark' port of the interferometer. The experimental details of such physical system have been described in a recent article by Barak and Ben-Aryeh (JOSA-B, 25, 361(2008)). In another very recent article by Voronov and Weyrauch (Phys. Rev.A 81, 053816 (2010)) they have followed our methods for treating the same physical system, and have pointed out an error in the sign of one of our expressions thus claiming for the elimination of our physical results. I show here a method by which the expectation value for the photon number operator is increased and at the same time the standard deviation is reduced. Although due to the mistake in sign in our expression the physical method for obtaining such result is different from our original study [1], the main physical effect can remain .
Direct Measurement of Squeezing in the Motion of Trapped Ions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG Hao-Sheng; HU Ai-Qin; LIU Qiong; KUANG Le-Man
2005-01-01
@@ We present a simple method that can be used to directly measure the squeezing of the quantum motional states of a trapped ion.Through the use of the interaction between the trapped ion and classical lasers, one can design a required coupling between the internal electronic and external vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and can transfer information of the expectation value of a vibrational operator to the atomic internal populations.Thus measurement of squeezing on the quantum motional state can directly be realized.By adjusting the phases of the interacting lasers, one can measure the squeezing of both position and momentum quadratures.
Effect of Squeezing on the Atomic and the Entanglement Dynamics in the Jaynes-Cummings Model
Subeesh, T; Ahmed, A B M; Satyanarayana, M Venkata
2012-01-01
The dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings interaction of a two-level atom interacting with a single mode of the radiation field is investigated, as the state of the field is gradually changed from a coherent state to a squeezed coherent state. The effect of mild squeezing on the coherent light is shown to be striking: the photon number distribution gets localized and it peaks maximally for a particular value of squeezing. The atomic inversion retains its structure for a longer time. The mean linear entropy shows that the atom has a tendency to get disentangled from field within the collapse region and also in the revival region, for mild squeezing. These properties are absent for the case of a coherent state or for an excessively squeezed coherent state. We also elucidate a connection between these properties and the photon statistics of the mildly squeezed coherent state; these states have the minimum variance and are also maximally sub-Poissonian.
Spin squeezing an ultracold molecule
Bhattacharya, M
2015-01-01
Most research on spin squeezing thus far has focused on realizations involving either atomic or nuclear degrees of freedom. In this article we discuss a concrete proposal for spin squeezing the ultracold ground state polar paramagnetic molecule OH, a system currently under fine control in the laboratory. Starting from an experimentally relevant effective Hamiltonian, we identify a parameter regime where different combinations of static electric and magnetic fields can be used to realize the single-axis twisting Hamiltonian of Kitagawa and Ueda [M. Kitagawa and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. A 47, 5138 (1993)], the uniform field Hamiltonian proposed by Law et al. [C. K. Law, H. T Ng and P. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 63, 055601 (2001)], and a model of field propagation in a Kerr medium considered by Agarwal and Puri [G. S. Agarwal and R. R. Puri, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2969 (1989)]. To support our conclusions, we provide analytical expressions as well as numerical calculations, including optimization of field strengths and accounti...
Squeezed Phonons: Modulating Quantum Fluctuations of Atomic Displacements.
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1997-03-01
We have studied phonon squeezed states and also put forward several proposals for their generation(On phonon parametric process, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2294 (1996); on polariton mechanism, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 53, 2419 (1996); on second-order Raman scattering, X. Hu and F. Nori, preprint.. Here, we compare the relative merits and limitations of these approaches, including several factors that will limit the amount of phonon squeezing. In particular, we investigate the effect of the initial thermal states on the phonon modes. Using a model for the phonon density matrix, we also study the mixing of the phonon squeezed states with thermal states, which describes the decay of the phonon coherence. Finally, we calculate the maximum possible squeezing from a phonon parametric process limited by phonon decay.
Teleportation of squeezing: Optimization using non-Gaussian resources
Dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-12-01
We study the continuous-variable quantum teleportation of states, statistical moments of observables, and scale parameters such as squeezing. We investigate the problem both in ideal and imperfect Vaidman-Braunstein-Kimble protocol setups. We show how the teleportation fidelity is maximized and the difference between output and input variances is minimized by using suitably optimized entangled resources. Specifically, we consider the teleportation of coherent squeezed states, exploiting squeezed Bell states as entangled resources. This class of non-Gaussian states, introduced by Illuminati and co-workers [F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, L. Albano, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.022301 76, 022301 (2007); F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.012333 81, 012333 (2010)], includes photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed states as special cases. At variance with the case of entangled Gaussian resources, the use of entangled non-Gaussian squeezed Bell resources allows one to choose different optimization procedures that lead to inequivalent results. Performing two independent optimization procedures, one can either maximize the state teleportation fidelity, or minimize the difference between input and output quadrature variances. The two different procedures are compared depending on the degrees of displacement and squeezing of the input states and on the working conditions in ideal and nonideal setups.
Conditionally Teleported States Using Optical Squeezers and Photon Counting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FAN Hong-Yi; FAN Yue; CHENG Hai-Ling
2002-01-01
By virtue of the neat expression of the two-mode squeezing operator in the Einstein,Podolsky and Rosen entangled state representation,we provide a new approach for discussing the teleportation scheme using optical squeezers and photon counting devices.We derive the explicit form of the teleported states,so that the conditional property of teleportation and teleportation fidelity of this protocol can be scen more clcarly.The derivation is concise.
Engineering Matter Interactions Using Squeezed Vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina Zeytinoğlu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the vacuum fluctuations can be used to engineer the strength and the range of interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or wave guides, which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. Here, we show theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the antisqueezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allow for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic structure. Thus, the strength and range of the interactions can be engineered in a time-dependent way by changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a traveling-wave geometry, which also allows the implementation of chiral dissipative interactions. Using experimentally realized squeezing parameters and including realistic losses, we predict single-atom cooperativities C of up to 10 for the squeezed-vacuum-enhanced interactions.
Measurement-induced disturbances and nonclassical correlations of Gaussian states
Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard; Girolami, Davide; Korolkova, Natalia; Adesso, Gerardo
2010-01-01
We study quantum correlations beyond entanglement in two--mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, by means of the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) and its ameliorated version (AMID). In analogy with the recent studies of the Gaussian quantum discord, we define a Gaussian AMID by constraining the optimization to all bi-local Gaussian positive operator valued measurements. We solve the optimization explicitly for relevant families of states, including squeezed thermal states. Remarkably, we find that there is a finite subset of two--mode Gaussian states, comprising pure states, where non-Gaussian measurements such as photon counting are globally optimal for the AMID and realize a strictly smaller state disturbance compared to the best Gaussian measurements. However, for the majority of two--mode Gaussian states the unoptimized MID provides a loose overestimation of the actual content of quantum correlations, as evidenced by its comparison with Gaussian discord. This feature displays strong sim...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙中禹; 陈光德; 杨志勇; 王菊霞
2004-01-01
利用多模压缩态理论研究了由多模复共轭相干态、多模复共轭虚相干态和多模真空态的线性叠加所组成的三态叠加多模薛定谔猫态纠缠光场的广义非线性不等幂次高次差压缩特性.结果发现:①真空场对此猫态光场的不等幂次高次差压缩效应没有影响;②在一定条件下,此猫态光场的两个正交相位分量可分别呈现出不等幂次高次差压缩效应;③而在另外的条件下,此猫态光场的两个正交相位分量则可同时出现上述的不等幂次高次差压缩效应,这是一种与测不准关系相悖的现象,称此种现象为"双边差压缩"效应.%By utilizing the general theory of multimode squeezed states, the effects of generalized nonlinear unequal-power higher-power difference squeezing in the multimode Schrodinger-cat state entangled light field is studied, that is formed by the linear superposition of three macroscopical distinguishable quantum states named the multimode complex conjugate coherent state, multimode complex conjugate imaginary coherent state and multimode vacuum state. It is found that 1) the difference squeezing of the cat state entangled light field is independent of its vacuum state component; 2) in some cases, the two quadrature phase components of this cat state entangled light field present unequal-power higher-power difference squeezing properties respectively; 3)under some other conditions, the difference squeezing effects of two quadrature phase components of the state mentioned above cart exist at the same time. The two preceding results stated above are in conformity with the uncertainty principle, but the last is not. It is called "two-sided difference squeezing" phenomenon and could be very useful in the application of squeezed light on light quanta communication.
Entanglement dynamics in two-mode Gaussian systems
Jami, S.; Labbafi, Z.
2017-04-01
The current study investigated the time evolution of entanglement in an open quantum system. This system includes two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with a general environment. This study reports the solution of the time evolution of the covariance matrix by using the Markovian master equation. It was found that the entanglement for a preferred Gaussian state, is a continuous variable system. This study examined the time evolution of the entanglement by using Simon's separability criterion for continuous variable systems and computing covariance matrix with considering environmental factors such as temperature for two initial state of system (separable and entangled) with drawing Simon's criterion and logarithmic negativity. The results demonstrated that for a certain value of dispersion and dissipation coefficient, the initial state of the system is saved over the time. But for other amounts of the above factors, entanglement birth, entanglement death and repeated entanglement birth and entanglement death happen in the system. Furthermore, the present study investigated the behavior of system's purity under the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature and environment parameter with regard to the relation between purity and covariance matrix for two-mode Gaussian state.
Pulsed squeezed light: simultaneous squeezing of multiple modes
Wasilewski, W; Banaszek, K; Radzewicz, C; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad; Radzewicz, Czeslaw
2005-01-01
We analyze the spectral properties of squeezed light produced by means of pulsed, single-pass degenerate parametric down-conversion. The multimode output of this process can be decomposed into characteristic modes undergoing independent squeezing evolution akin to the Schmidt decomposition of the biphoton spectrum. The main features of this decomposition can be understood using a simple analytical model developed in the perturbative regime. In the strong pumping regime, for which the perturbative approach is not valid, we present a numerical analysis, specializing to the case of one-dimensional propagation in a beta-barium borate waveguide. Characterization of the squeezing modes provides us with an insight necessary for optimizing homodyne detection of squeezing. For a weak parametric process, efficient squeezing is found in a broad range of local oscillator modes, whereas the intense generation regime places much more stringent conditions on the local oscillator. We point out that without meeting these cond...
Global Optimization strategies for two-mode clustering
J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); J. Trejos (Javier); W. Castilli
2005-01-01
textabstractTwo-mode clustering is a relatively new form of clustering that clusters both rows and columns of a data matrix. To do so, a criterion similar to k-means is optimized. However, it is still unclear which optimization method should be used to perform two-mode clustering, as various meth
Genetic algorithm based two-mode clustering of metabolomics data
Hageman, J.A.; Berg, R.A. van den; Westerhuis, J.A.; Werf, M.J. van der; Smilde, A.K.
2008-01-01
Metabolomics and other omics tools are generally characterized by large data sets with many variables obtained under different environmental conditions. Clustering methods and more specifically two-mode clustering methods are excellent tools for analyzing this type of data. Two-mode clustering metho
Spin Squeezing of Atomic Ensembles via Nuclear-Electronic Spin Entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, K.
2008-01-01
We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of ≈1012 cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...... quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via interatom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography....
Spin Squeezing of Atomic Ensembles via Nuclear-Electronic Spin Entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, K.;
2008-01-01
We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of ≈1012 cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...... quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via interatom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography....
Modular interference characteristic of two-mode fiber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Helin Wang; Weihong Bi; Aijun Yang; Feng Liu
2006-01-01
The modular interference characteristics of circular-core and elliptical-core two-mode fibers are investigated in theory. The intensity distribution and figure of two-lobe mode patterns are evaluated and simulated quantitatively for different phase difference change between LP01 and LPeven11 mode. The interference mode patters of elliptical-core and circular-core two-mode fibers are compared, the result shows that the two-lobe interference patters of the two-mode fibers generate energy exchange and oscillation, and thedifference is that the interference mode patterns of circular-core two-mode fiber are almost elliptical, while the interference mode pattern of elliptical-core two-mode fiber is approximately circular on condition that proper selection of the ellipticity. Their two-dimensional (2D) profile determines the choice of the core shape of the information pick-up fiber.
Correlation measurement of squeezed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krivitsky, Leonid; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, R.;
2009-01-01
We study the implementation of a correlation measurement technique for the characterization of squeezed light which is nearly free of electronic noise. With two different sources of squeezed light, we show that the sign of the covariance coefficient, revealed from the time-resolved correlation data...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.V. Slobodianiuk
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Two-mode model of spin-torque nano-oscillator (STNO under the action of thermal noise is considered. Langevin equations for mode amplitudes were derived starting from general nonlinear oscillator model. Stationary probability distribution function describing mean mode generation powers was obtained using Fokker-Planck equation. It was shown that thermal noise can lead to two-mode generation in STNO. An increase of thermal noise power leads to excitation of the second mode in a system and to a two-mode generation regime through intermediate state when two modes coexist only in some range of the applied currents.
Adaptive phase estimation with squeezed thermal light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berni, A. A.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard
2013-01-01
Summary form only given. The use of quantum states of light in optical interferometry improves the precision in the estimation of a phase shift, paving the way for applications in quantum metrology, computation and cryptography. Sub-shot noise phase sensing can for example be achieved by injecting...... a squeezed vacuum into an interferometer . However, this approach leads to enhanced sensitivity only for small phase shifts. In this work we aim for ab initio sub-shot noise estimation of an unknown phase shift using a pre-determined squeezed probe and an adaptive measurement approach. We experimentally...... with the signal. A second estimation step leads to the final estimation of the phase shift. Thermalization of the probe state prevents the attainability of the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. Nevertheless, we show that the studied adaptive scheme still saturates the classical Cramér-Rao bound, showing sub-shot noise...
Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum
Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun
2016-10-01
A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).
Two-mode mazer injected with V-type three-level atoms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁文青; 张智明; 谢绳武
2003-01-01
The properties of the two-mode mazer operating on V-type three-level atoms are studied. The effect of the oneatom pumping on the two modes of the cavity field in number-state is asymmetric, that is, the atom emits a photon into one mode with some probability and absorbs a photon from the other mode with some other probability. This effect makes the steady-state photon distribution and the steady-state photon statistics asymmetric for the two modes. The diagram of the probability currents for the photon distribution, given by the analysis of the master equation, reveals that there is no detailed balance solution for the master equation. The computations show that the photon statistics of one mode or both modes can be sub-Poissonian, that the two modes can have anticorrelation or correlation, that the photon statistics increases with the increase of thermal photons, and that the resonant position and strength of the photon statistics are influenced by the ratio of the two coupling strengths of the two modes. These properties are also discussed physically.
Two-mode polarized traveling wave deflecting structure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谭建豪; 顾强; 方文程; 童德春; 赵振堂
2015-01-01
In this paper, we propose a two-mode polarizable deflecting structure, as a new concept for bunch measure-ment and beam control. With two modes of HEM11 and HEM12 operating in the same structure on horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, the operation status can be switched between the two polarization modes. They can be operated simultaneously with two independent input power sources. With two-mode deflecting structure, the bunch distortion caused by the geometric wake-fields in the accelerating structure can be mea-sured by one structure.
Application of new entangled state representation to a two-coupled oscillator system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pang Qian-Jun
2005-01-01
composed of the common eigenvectors of operators (x1 +p2) and (p1 + x2) is established. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors resentation. We find that the second-quantization representation can be used to derive the normally ordered product expression of eigenvector in Fock space. In particular, we find that the ground state of the Hamiltonian is a kind of generalized two-mode squeezed state.
Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENG HaoSheng; KUANG LeMan; ZHU XiWen; GAO KeLin
2002-01-01
It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode, in Lamb Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation, is described by a Jaynes-Cummingsmodel. For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal stateis prepared in a coherent superposition of states, coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass modeare discussed, particularly, a "weak" coherent state and a "weak" squeezed vacuum state are obtained. Collapse andrevival are also observed in this type of initial condition.
Entanglement dynamics of non-interacting two-qubit system under a squeezed vacuum environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun Qian; Xunli Feng; Shangqing Gong
2007-01-01
Entanglement dynamics of two non-interacting atoms in a squeezed vacuum reservoir is studied. Several examples with different initial entangled states are investigated, and it is found that entangled atoms become disentangled faster in squeezed vacuum than in ordinary vacuum, and larger squeezing results in faster entanglement decay. The time evolution of the concurrence and the separability "distance" A can be used to explain this novel entanglement sudden death phenomenon.
Continuous-wave non-classical light with GHz squeezing bandwidth
Ast, Stefan; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman
2012-01-01
Squeezed states can be employed for entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution, where the secure key rate is proportional to the bandwidth of the squeezing. We produced a non-classical continuous-wave laser field at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which showed squeezing over a bandwidth of more than 2 GHz. The experimental setup used parametric down-conversion via a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). We did not use any resonant enhancement for the funda- mental wavelength, which should in principle allow a production of squeezed light over the full phase-matching bandwidth of several nanometers. We measured the squeezing to be up to 0.3 dB below the vacuum noise from 50 MHz to 2 GHz limited by the measuring bandwidth of the homodyne detector. The squeezing strength was possibly limited by thermal lensing inside the non-linear crystal.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡明亮; 田东平; 柳海
2007-01-01
提出了一种利用V-型三能级原子与双模腔场的共振相互作用制备多原子及多腔场纠缠W态的新方案,并用共生纠缠度研究了该模型中的纠缠演化和热纠缠现象.%A new scheme for the preparation of multi-atom and nulti-cavity entangled W state via resonant interaction of V-type three-level atoms and two-mode cavity- field is proposed. Also the time evolution and the thermal entanglement of this model will be studied by the concept of concurrence in this paper.
Soft particles feel the squeeze
Frenkel, D.
2009-01-01
It's hard to fit in when you're different — especially if you're a large particle trying to squeeze into an array of smaller ones. But some soft, polymeric particles simply shrink to fit the space available.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schnabel Roman
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This contribution reviews our recent progress on the generation of squeezed light [1], and also the recent squeezed-light enhancement of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600 [2]. GEO 600 is currently the only GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for gravitational waves. With the help of squeezed states of light it now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which not only proves the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future gravitational wave astronomy but also the usefulness of quantum entanglement.
Which Q-analogue of the squeezed oscillator?
Solomon, Allan I.
1993-01-01
The noise (variance squared) of a component of the electromagnetic field - considered as a quantum oscillator - in the vacuum is equal to one half, in appropriate units (taking Planck's constant and the mass and frequency of the oscillator all equal to 1). A practical definition of a squeezed state is one for which the noise is less than the vacuum value - and the amount of squeezing is determined by the appropriate ratio. Thus the usual coherent (Glauber) states are not squeezed, as they produce the same variance as the vacuum. However, it is not difficult to define states analogous to coherent states which do have this noise-reducing effect. In fact, they are coherent states in the more general group sense but with respect to groups other than the Heisenberg-Weyl Group which defines the Glauber states. The original, conventional squeezed state in quantum optics is that associated with the group SU(1,1). Just as the annihilation operator a of a single photon mode (and its hermitian conjugate a, the creation operator) generates the Heisenberg Weyl algebra, so the pair-photon operator a(sup 2) and its conjugate generates the algebra of the group SU(1,1). Another viewpoint, more productive from the calculational stance, is to note that the automorphism group of the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra is SU(1,1). Needless to say, each of these viewpoints generalizes differently to the quantum group context. Both are discussed. The following topics are addressed: conventional coherent and squeezed states; eigenstate definitions; exponential definitions; algebra (group) definitions; automorphism group definition; example: signal-to-noise ratio; q-coherent and q-squeezed states; M and P q-bosons; eigenstate definitions; exponential definitions; algebra (q-group) definitions; and automorphism q-group definition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪贤才
2013-01-01
按照有序算符内积分技术,时间演化算符可以表示为坐标-动量相位空间中经典变换的量子映射.依据已经提出的LC电路量子化方案所得到的哈密顿量,推广应用到RLC(电阻、电容和电感)电路量子化方案并得到相应哈密顿量.借助相应的理论计算,可以发现在量子化的RLC电路中存在压缩机制.利用有序算符内积分技术和量子菲涅耳变换关系,可以进一步推导出量子介观RLC电路中相应压缩态的简明形式.%By using the technique of integration within ordered product (IWOP) of operators,the timeevolution operator can be expressed as quantum image of the classical transformation in the coordinate and momentum phase space.The quantized mesoscopic RLC (resistance,capacitance and inductance) electric circuit and the corresponding Hamiltonian were obtained according to the way of the quantized mesoscopic LC electric circuit.By means of theoretical calculations,it was shown that there exists squeezing mechanism in the quantized mesoscopic RLC electric circuit.Furthermore,the concrete form of the squeezed state in the quantized mesoscopic RLC electric circuit was derived based on the IWOP technique and quantum Fresnel transformation.
CERN Bulletin
2012-01-01
Rare processes like the Higgs production require maximizing the number of proton collisions. This is done by squeezing the beams to very small sizes. However, interesting physics processes also happen when beams are not squeezed at interaction points. Last week, a dedicated run showed that the LHC is a record-breaking machine also with de-squeezed beams. This figure shows an online hit map of one of the ATLAS/ALFA detectors. The narrow elliptical shape is the typical signal produced by elastically scattered protons. The removal of the background (central bulge) is a challenge for both experiments. The beam squeezing parameter is known by experts as beta-star (ß*): the smaller the ß*, the stronger the squeezing. To obtain as many collisions as possible in the heart of the experiments, the ß* at full energy is 0.60 m – that is, beams are squeezed to very small beam sizes. This maximizes the rate of proton collisions as required for rare process...
Improvement of an Atomic Clock using Squeezed Vacuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kruse, I.; Lange, K; Peise, Jan
2016-01-01
Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case......, the vacuum noise restricts the precision of the interferometer to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel clock configuration that surpasses the SQL by squeezing the vacuum in the empty input state. We create a squeezed vacuum state containing an average of 0...
Grinberg, Horacio
2008-12-18
The interaction of a two-level cyclic XY n-spin model with a two-mode cavity field involving two-photon transitions is investigated through a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model in the rotating-wave approximation. The two-photon interacting Hamiltonian becomes from the replacement of each single-mode field in the one-photon interacting Hamiltonian with the second-harmonic generation. It was assumed that initially the correlated field modes are in disentangled coherent states having the same photon distribution and that the spin system is in an excited state. At any time t > 0, the spin system and the field are in an entangled state, in this case, via a unitary time evolution operator. Thus, the spontaneous decay of a spin level was treated by considering the interaction of the two-level spin system with the modes of the universe in the vacuum state. The different cases of interest, characterized in terms of a detuning parameter for each mode, which emerge from nonvanishing commutation relations, were analytically implemented and numerically discussed for various values of the initial mean photon number and spin-photon coupling constants. Photon distribution, time evolution of the spin population inversion, as well as the statistical properties of the field leading to the possible production of nonclassical states, such as antibunched light, violations of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality, and second- and fourth-order squeezing, are examined. The case of zero detuning of both modes was treated in terms of a linearization of the expansion of the time evolution operator, while in other three cases, the computations were conducted via second- and third-order Dyson perturbation expansion of the time evolution operator matrix elements for the excited and ground states of the spin system, respectively.
Modulation instabilities in randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers
Li, Jin-Hua; Ren, Hai-Dong; Pei, Shi-Xin; Cao, Zhao-Lou; Xian, Feng-Lin
2016-12-01
Modulation instabilities in the randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers (RB-TMFs) are analyzed in detail by accounting the effects of the differential mode group delay (DMGD) and group velocity dispersion (GVD) ratio between the two modes, both of which are absent in the randomly birefringent single-mode optical fibers (RB-SMFs). New MI characteristics are found in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. For the normal dispersion, without DMGD, no MI exists. With DMGD, a completely new MI band is generated as long as the total power is smaller than a critical total power value, named by Pcr, which increases significantly with the increment of DMGD, and reduces dramatically as GVD ratio and power ratio between the two modes increases. For the anomalous dispersion, there is one MI band without DMGD. In the presence of DMGD, the MI gain is reduced generally. On the other hand, there also exists a critical total power (Pcr), which increases (decreases) distinctly with the increment of DMGD (GVD ratio of the two modes) but varies complicatedly with the power ratio between the two modes. Two MI bands are present for total power smaller than Pcr, and the dominant band can be switched between the low and high frequency bands by adjusting the power ratio between the two modes. The MI analysis in this paper is verified by numerical simulation. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Provincial Universities (Grant No. 14KJB140009), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447113), and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (Grant No. 2241131301064).
Quantum teleportation of one- and two-photon superposition states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李英; 张天才; 张俊香; 谢常德
2003-01-01
Quantum teleportation of one- and two-photon superposition states based on EPR entanglement of continuouswave two-mode squeezed state is discussed. The fidelities of teleportation are deduced for two different input quantum states. The dependence of the fidelity on the parameters of EPR entanglement and the gain of the classical channels are shown numerically. Comparing with the teleportation of Fock state and coherent state, it is pointed out that for given EPR entanglement and classical gain, the higher the nonclassicality of the input state, the lower the accessible fidelity of teleportation.
Influence of the virtual photon field on the squeezing properties of an atom laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Jian-Gang; Sun Chang-Yong; Wen Ling-Hua; Liang Bao-Long
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the squeezing properties of an atom laser without rotating-wave approximation in the system of a binomial states field interacting with a two-level atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. It discusses the influences of atomic eigenfrequency, the interaction intensity between the optical field and atoms, parameter of the binomial states field and virtual photon field on the squeezing properties. The results show that two quadrature components of an atom laser can be squeezed periodically. The duration and the degree of squeezing an atom laser have something to do with the atomic eigenfrequency and the parameter of the binomial states field, respectively. The collapse and revival frequency of atom laser fluctuation depends on the interaction intensity between the optical field and atoms. The effect of the virtual photon field deepens the depth of squeezing an atom laser.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨庆怡; 韦联福
2001-01-01
A time-dependent Hermitian Hamiltonian with SU(1,1)H(3) algebraic structure is constructed to describe a mesoscopic RLC circuit with a source by quantizating the relevant classical equation of motion.Quantum dynamical problem corresponding to such a system is exactly solved by evolution operator method.It is shown that the squeezed state of radiation field in a mesoscopic RLC circuit driven by an external source can be prepared by the time-evolution of the vacuum state.%通过严格求解具有SU(1，1)H(3)代数结构的含源介观RLC电路系统，我们证明在外源驱动下的介观RLC电路可得到具有明显量子压缩特性的光辐射.
Non-gaussian statistics from individual pulses of squeezed light
Wenger, J; Grangier, P
2004-01-01
We describe the observation of a degaussification protocol that maps individual pulses of squeezed light onto non-Gaussian states. This effect is obtained by sending a small fraction of the squeezed vacuum beam onto an avalanche photodiode, and by conditioning the single-shot homodyne detection of the remaining state upon the photon-counting events. The experimental data provides a clear evidence of phase-dependent non-Gaussian statistics. This protocol is closely related to the first step of an entanglement distillation procedure for continuous variables.
Non-Gaussian statistics from individual pulses of squeezed light.
Wenger, Jérôme; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe
2004-04-16
We describe the observation of a "degaussification" protocol that maps individual pulses of squeezed light onto non-Gaussian states. This effect is obtained by sending a small fraction of the squeezed vacuum beam onto an avalanche photodiode, and by conditioning the single-shot homodyne detection of the remaining state upon the photon-counting events. The experimental data provide clear evidence of phase-dependent non-Gaussian statistics. This protocol is closely related to the first step of an entanglement distillation procedure for continuous variables.
Squeezing and entangling nuclear spins in helium 3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinaudi, Gael; Sinatra, Alice; Dantan, Aurelien Romain
2007-01-01
We present a realistic model for transferring the squeezing or the entanglement of optical field modes to the collective ground state nuclear spin of 3He using metastability exchange collisions. We discuss in detail the requirements for obtaining good quantum state transfer efficiency and study t...
The Effect of Incoherent Population Pumping on Squeezing in Resonance Fluorescence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Zhaoyang; ZHANG Jingtao; XU Zhizhan
2000-01-01
The effect of incoherent population pumping on the steady-state population inversion and the quadrature squeezing spectra produced in the resonance fluorescence of a two-level atom is investigated. In the presence of incoherent population pumping, the steady-state population inversion is increased for small frequency detuning but is not changed for large frequency detuning. For resonant excitation at low intensities, the weak incoherent pumping degrades the degree of the squeezing and shifts the position of the maximum squeezing; for off-resonant excitation at strong intensities, the weak incoherent pumping hardly changes the squeezing spectra. But when the incoherent pumping is strong the squeezing may be completely destroyed for both cases.
Dynamical Relation between Quantum Squeezing and Entanglement in Coupled Harmonic Oscillator System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lock Yue Chew
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate into the numerical and analytical relationship between the dynamically generated quadrature squeezing and entanglement within a coupled harmonic oscillator system. The dynamical relation between these two quantum features is observed to vary monotically, such that an enhancement in entanglement is attained at a fixed squeezing for a larger coupling constant. Surprisingly, the maximum attainable values of these two quantum entities are found to consistently equal to the squeezing and entanglement of the system ground state. In addition, we demonstrate that the inclusion of a small anharmonic perturbation has the effect of modifying the squeezing versus entanglement relation into a nonunique form and also extending the maximum squeezing to a value beyond the system ground state.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
戴宏毅; 李承祖; 陈平形; 梁林梅
2003-01-01
介绍了单模压缩相干态及其基本性质,根据简并V型三能级原子与单模光场的改进型有效哈密顿量,通过矩阵方法推导出原子-光场系统的态矢量.提出利用简并V型三能级原子与单模光场的非共振相互作用制备压缩相干态的叠加态的一种新方案,讨论了怎样进行控制单模压缩相干态光场中的压缩方向问题.%The single-mode squeezed coherent states and their fundamental properties are discussed. Based on the modified effective Hamiltonian for the atom-field system, the state of the system is derived by means of matrix. A new scheme is presented to generate superposition of squeezed coherent states through non-resonant of degenerate V-type three-level atoms with single-mode cavity field. Controls of the squeezing direction of single-mode squeezed coherent states in the light field are also discussed.
Squeezed light in optomechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harris, G. I.; Taylor, M. A.; Hoff, Ulrich Busk
2012-01-01
Squeezed light enhanced optomechanical measurements are demonstrated in both intra-cavity and biological contexts, with respective enhancements of 1.0 and 2.7 dB. Quantum enhanced microrheology of the cytoplasm of a yeast cell is thereby realized.......Squeezed light enhanced optomechanical measurements are demonstrated in both intra-cavity and biological contexts, with respective enhancements of 1.0 and 2.7 dB. Quantum enhanced microrheology of the cytoplasm of a yeast cell is thereby realized....
Entanglement evolution of a two-mode Gaussian system in various thermal environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mihaescu, Tatiana, E-mail: mihaescu92tatiana@gmail.com; Isar, Aurelian [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)
2015-12-07
We describe the evolution of the quantum entanglement of an open system consisting of two bosonic modes interacting with a common thermal environment, described by two different models. The initial state of the system is taken of Gaussian form. In the case of a thermal bath, characterized by temperature and dissipation constant which correspond to an asymptotic Gibbs state of the system, we show that for a zero temperature of the thermal bath an initial entangled Gaussian state remains entangled for all finite times. For an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death takes place and we calculate the survival time of entanglement. For the second model of the environment, corresponding to a non-Gibbs asymptotic state, we study the possibility of generating entanglement. We show that the generation of the entanglement between two uncoupled bosonic modes is possible only for definite values of the temperature and dissipation constant, which characterize the thermal environment.
Squeezing of light via reflection from a silicon micromechanical resonator
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Hill, Jeff T; Chan, Jasper; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Painter, Oskar
2013-01-01
We present the measurement of squeezed light generation using an engineered optomechanical system fabricated from a silicon microchip and composed of a micromechanical resonator coupled to a nanophotonic cavity. Laser light is used to measure the fluctuations in the position of the mechanical resonator at a measurement rate comparable to the free dynamics of the mechanical resonator, and greater than its thermal decoherence rate. By approaching the strong continuous measurement regime we observe, through homodyne detection, non-trivial modifications of the reflected light's vacuum fluctuation spectrum. In spite of the mechanical resonator's highly excited thermal state ($10,000$ phonons), we observe squeezing at the level of $4.5 \\pm 0.5%$ below that of shot-noise over a few MHz bandwidth around the mechanical resonance frequency of 28 MHz. This squeezing is interpreted as an unambiguous quantum signature of radiation pressure shot-noise.
Squeeze-Out of Branched Alkanes on Graphite
Gosvami, N. N.; Sinha, S. K.; O'Shea, S. J.
2008-02-01
We study squalane and heptamethylnonane (HMN) confined between a conducting atomic force microscope tip and a graphite surface. Solvation layering occurs for both liquids but marked differences in the squeeze out mechanics are observed for ordered or disordered monolayers. The squalane monolayer at 25°C is an ordered solid, as verified by direct imaging, and the squeeze out can be modeled using elastic continuum mechanics. HMN is in a disordered state at 25°C and cannot be modeled as a single elastic asperity even in solid-solid contact because HMN liquid is trapped in the contact zone.
A two-mode planetary nebula luminosity function
Rodríguez-González, A; Esquivel, A; Raga, A C; Stasińska, G; Peña, M; Mayya, D
2014-01-01
We propose a new Planetary Nebula Luminosity Function (PNLF) that includes two populations in the distribution. Our PNLF is a direct extension of the canonical function proposed by Jacoby et al. (1987), in order to avoid problems related with the histogram construction, it is cast in terms of cumulative functions. We are interested in recovering the shape of the faint part of the PNLF in a consistent manner, for galaxies with and without a dip in their PN luminosity functions. The parameters for the two mode PNLF are obtained with a genetic algorithm, which obtains a best fit to the PNLF varying all of the parameters simultaneously in a broad parameter space. We explore a sample of 9 galaxies with various Hubble types and construct their PNLF. All of the irregular galaxies, except one, are found to be consistent with a two-mode population, while the situation is less clear for ellipticals and spirals.For the case of NGC\\, 6822, we show that the two-mode PNLF is consistent with previous studies of the star for...
Research progress on squeeze casting in China
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Weiwen; Zhao Haidong; You Dongdong; Zhang Datong; Shao Ming; Zhang Wen
2014-01-01
Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting aloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.
Entanglement of formation in two-mode Gaussian systems in a thermal environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dumitru, Irina, E-mail: aniri-dum@yahoo.com; Isar, Aurelian [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)
2015-12-07
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous variable entanglement for a system consisting of two non-interacting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. The calculated measure of entanglement is entanglement of formation. We describe the evolution of entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix for symmetric Gaussian input states. In the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place, for all non-zero temperatures of the thermal bath. After that, the system remains for all times in a separable state. For a zero temperature of the thermal bath, the system remains entangled for all finite times, but in the limit of asymptotic large times the state becomes separable.
Longacre, R S
2016-01-01
Squeeze out happen when the expanding central fireball flows around a large surface flux tube in a central Au-Au collision at RHIC. We model such an effect in a flux tube model. Two particle correlations with respect to the $v_2$ axis formed by the soft fireball particles flowing around this large flux tube is a way of measuring the effect.
Conservation relation of nonclassicality and entanglement for Gaussian states in a beam splitter
Ge, Wenchao; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2015-11-01
We study the relation between single-mode nonclassicality and two-mode entanglement in a beam splitter. We show that single-mode nonclassicality (the entanglement potential) of incident light cannot be transformed into two-mode entanglement completely after a single beam splitter. Some of the entanglement potential remains as single-mode nonclassicality in the two entangled output modes. Two-mode entanglement generated in the process can be equivalently quantified as an increase in the minimum uncertainty widths (or decrease in the squeezing) of the output states compared to the input states. We use the nonclassical depth and logarithmic negativity as single-mode nonclassicality and entanglement measures, respectively. We realize that a conservation relation between the two quantities can be adopted for Gaussian states, if one works in terms of uncertainty width. This conservation relation is extended to many sets of beam splitters.
Spin squeezing and light entanglement in Coherent Population Trapping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Cviklinski, Jean; Giacobino, Elisabeth;
2006-01-01
We show that strong squeezing and entanglement can be generated at the output of a cavity containing atoms interacting with two fields in a coherent population trapping situation, on account of a nonlinear Faraday effect experienced by the fields close to a dark-state resonance in a cavity...
Wormholes and negative energy from the gravitationally squeezed vacuum
Hochberg, David
1992-01-01
Minkowski-signature wormhole solutions of the Einstein field equations require the existence of negative energy density in the vicinity of their throats. We point out that the gravitational interaction automatically generates squeezed vacuum states of matter, which by their nature, entail negative energy and, thus, provide a natural source for maintaining this class of wormholes.
Decoherence of two-qubit system in a non-Markovian squeezed reservoir
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Fa-Qiang; Zhang Zhi-Ming; Liang Rui-Sheng
2009-01-01
The decoherence of two initially entangled qubits coupled with a squeezed vacuum cavity separately is investigated exactly. The results show that, first, in principle, the disentanglement time decreases with the increase of squeeze parameter r, due to the augmenting of average photon number of every mode in the squeezed vacuum cavity. Second, there appear entanglement revivals after the complete disentanglement for the case of even parity initial Bell state, while there occur the entanglement decrcase and the entanglement revival before the complete disentanglement for the case of odd parity initial Bell state. The results are quite different from those for the case of qubits in a vacuum cavity.
Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENGHao－Sheng; KUANGLe－Man; 等
2002-01-01
It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode,in Lamb-Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation,is described by a Jaynes-Cummings model.For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal state is prepared in a coherent superposition of states,coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass mode are discussed,particularly,a“weak” coherent state and a “weak” squeezed vacuum state are obtained.Collapse and revival are also observed in this type of initial condition.
Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB
Mehmet, Moritz; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Schnabel, Roman
2011-01-01
Continuous-wave squeezed states of light at the wavelength of 1550 nm have recently been demonstrated, but so far the obtained factors of noise suppression still lag behind today's best squeezing values demonstrated at 1064 nm. Here we report on the realization of a half-monolithic nonlinear resonator based on periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate which enabled the direct detection of up to 12.3 dB of squeezing at 5 MHz. Squeezing was observed down to a frequency of 2 kHz which is well within the detection band of gravitational wave interferometers. Our results suggest that a long-term stable 1550 nm squeezed light source can be realized with strong squeezing covering the entire detection band of a 3rd generation gravitational-wave detector such as the Einstein Telescope.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koprulu, Kahraman G.; Aytur, Orhan
2001-06-01
We investigate the generation of amplitude-squeezed states with degenerate optical parametric amplifiers that are pumped by focused Gaussian beams. We present a model that facilitates the calculation of the squeezing level for an experimentally realistic configuration in which there is a Gaussian input signal beam that has the same confocal parameter and waist location as the Gaussian pump beam, with no restriction on the interaction length-to-confocal parameter ratio. We show that the 3-dB squeezing limit that was thought to be imposed by the Gaussian pump profile can be exceeded in the (previously uninvestigated) tight-focusing regime. We find the maximum possible amplitude squeezing in this regime to be 4.65 dB. However, it is possible to increase the squeezing level further by spatially filtering the tails of the output signal beam, resulting in squeezing levels in excess of 10 dB. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America
Zhang, Yu-Yu
2016-12-01
Generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA) is proposed by employing both the displacement and the squeezing transformations. A solvable Hamiltonian is reformulated in the same form as the ordinary RWA ones. For a qubit coupled to oscillators experiment, a well-defined Schrödinger-cat-like entangled state is given by the displaced-squeezed oscillator state instead of the original displaced state. For the isotropic Rabi case, the mean photon number and the ground-state energy are expressed analytically with additional squeezing terms, exhibiting a substantial improvement of the GSRWA. And the ground-state energy in the anisotropic Rabi model confirms the effectiveness of the GSRWA. Due to the squeezing effect, the GSRWA improves the previous methods only with the displacement transformation in a wide range of coupling strengths even for large atom frequency.
QUANTUM MECHANICS. Quantum squeezing of motion in a mechanical resonator.
Wollman, E E; Lei, C U; Weinstein, A J; Suh, J; Kronwald, A; Marquardt, F; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C
2015-08-28
According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longacre, R. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.
2016-09-01
Squeeze out happen when the expanding central fireball flows around a large surface flux tube in a central Au-Au collision at RHIC. We model such an effect in a flux tube model. Two particle correlations with respect to the v_{2} axis formed by the soft fireball particles flowing around this large flux tube is a way of measuring the effect.
Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.
Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J
2004-01-22
We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.
Entropy squeezing of the field interacting with a nearly degenerate V-type three-level atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Qing-Chun; Zhu Shi-Ning
2005-01-01
The position- and momentum-entopic squeezing properties of the optical field in the system of a nearly degenerate three-level atom interacting with a single-mode field are investigated. Calculation results indicate that when the field is initially in the vacuum state, it may lead to squeezing of the position entropy or the momentum entropy of the field if the atom is prepared properly. The effects of initial atomic state and the splitting of the excited levels of the atom on field entropies are discussed in this case. When the initial field is in a coherent state, we find that position-entropy squeezing of the field is present even if the atom is prepared in the ground state. By comparing the variance squeezing and entropy squeezing of the field we confirm that entropy is more sensitive than variance in measuring quantum fluctuations.
Dynamic Behavior of Lambda-Type Three-Level Atoms and Two-Mode Cavity Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
A system comprising of Lambda-type three-level atoms and the two-mode cavity field is considered in this paper. Under the adiabatical approximation and the large detuning condition, the effective Hamiltonian of the system in the interaction picture can be given out. If the two identical three-level atoms pass through the cavity in turn, the entangled state atoms can be generated. When the interaction time is taken to an appropriate value, the maximally entangled states are created. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors of the system are studied in detail.
Strong relative intensity squeezing by 4-wave mixing in Rb vapor
McCormick, C F; Boyer, V; Lett, P D
2006-01-01
We have measured -3.5 dB (-8.1 dB corrected for losses) relative intensity squeezing between the probe and conjugate beams generated by stimulated, nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot rubidium vapor. Unlike early observations of squeezing in atomic vapors based on saturation of a two-level system, our scheme uses a resonant nonlinearity based on ground-state coherences in a three-level system. Since this scheme produces narrowband, squeezed light near an atomic resonance it is of interest for experiments involving cold atoms or atomic ensembles.
Entanglement entropy of squeezed vacua on a lattice
Bianchi, Eugenio; Yokomizo, Nelson
2015-01-01
We derive a formula for the entanglement entropy of squeezed states on a lattice in terms of the complex structure J. The analysis involves the identification of squeezed states with group-theoretical coherent states of the symplectic group and the relation between the coset Sp(2N,R)/Isot(J_0) and the space of complex structures. We present two applications of the new formula: (i) we derive the area law for the ground state of a scalar field on a generic lattice in the limit of small speed of sound, (ii) we compute the rate of growth of the entanglement entropy in the presence of an instability and show that it is bounded from above by the Kolmogorov-Sinai rate.
Entanglement dynamics of bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs
Bougouffa, Smail
2010-01-01
Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols, thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of a great importance. In this paper we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized in the cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as fying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions, which assure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of sudden death entanglement (ESD) in a bipartite system subjected to squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.
Entanglement dynamics of a bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia); Hindi, Awatif, E-mail: sbougouffa@taibahu.edu.sa, E-mail: sbougouffa@hotmail.com [Physics Department, College of Science, PO Box 22452, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)
2011-02-15
Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols; thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of great importance. In this paper, we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized through cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as flying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions that ensure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death in a bipartite system subjected to a squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.
Polarization squeezing with photonic crystal fibers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milanovic, J.; Huck, Alexander; Heersink, J.
2007-01-01
We report on the generation of polarization squeezing by employing intense, ultrashort light pulses in a single pass method in photonic crystal fibers. We investigated the squeezing behavior near the zero-dispersion wavelength and in the anomalous dispersion regime by using two distinct fibers. We...... observed a maximal squeezing at 810 nm of -3.3 +/- 0.3 dB with an excess noise of +16.8 +/- 0.3 dB in the anomalous regime. Correcting for linear and interference losses between the polarization modes, this corresponds to -6 +/- 1 dB. The ratio of squeezing to excess noise indicates the creation of a much...
Two modes of dipole events in tropical Indian Ocean
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO YongPing; CHEN YongLi; WANG Fan; BAI XueZhi; WU AiMing
2009-01-01
By analyzing the distributions of subsurface temperature and the surface wind stress anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events,two major modes of the IOD and their formation mechanisms are revealed.(1) The subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the tropical Indian Ocean during the IOD events can be described as a "＜" -shaped and west-east-oriented dipole pattern;in the east side of the "＜" pattern,a notable tongue-like STA extends westward along the equator in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean;while in the west side of the "＜" pattern,the STA has opposite sign with two centers (the southern one is stronger than the northern one in intensity) being of rough symmetry about the equator in the tropical mid-western Indian Ocean.(2) The IOD events are composed of two modes,which have similar spatial pattern but different temporal variabilities due to the large scale air-sea interactions within two independent systems.The first mode of the IOD event originates from the air-sea interaction on a scale of the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean and coexists with ENSO.The second mode originates from the air-sea interaction on a scale of the tropical Indian Ocean and is closely associated with changes in the position and intensity of the Mascarene high pressure.The strong IOD event occurs when the two modes are in phase,and the IOD event weakens or disappears when the two modes are out of phase.Besides,the IOD events are normally strong when either of the two modes is strong.(3) The IOD event is caused by the abnormal wind stress forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean,which results in vertical transports,leading to the upwelling and pileup of seawater.This is the main dynamic processes resulting in the STA.When the anomalous easterly exists over the equatorial Indian Ocean,the cold waters upwell in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean while the warm waters pileup in the tropical western Indian Ocean,hence the thermocline in
Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Tikani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inertia track. This design provides a hydraulic engine mount design with an adjustable notch frequency location and also damping characteristics in shake motions. By using a simple control strategy, the efficiency of the proposed hydraulic engine mount in two-mode operation meaning isolating mode in the highway driving condition and damping mode in the shock motions, is investigated.
Two modes of dipole events in tropical Indian Ocean
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
By analyzing the distributions of subsurface temperature and the surface wind stress anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events, two major modes of the IOD and their formation mechanisms are revealed. (1) The subsurface temperature anomaly (STA) in the tropical Indian Ocean during the IOD events can be described as a "<" -shaped and west-east-oriented dipole pattern; in the east side of the "<" pattern, a notable tongue-like STA extends westward along the equator in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean; while in the west side of the "<" pattern, the STA has op- posite sign with two centers (the southern one is stronger than the northern one in intensity) being of rough symmetry about the equator in the tropical mid-western Indian Ocean. (2) The IOD events are composed of two modes, which have similar spatial pattern but different temporal variabilities due to the large scale air-sea interactions within two independent systems. The first mode of the IOD event originates from the air-sea interaction on a scale of the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean and coexists with ENSO. The second mode originates from the air-sea interaction on a scale of the tropical Indian Ocean and is closely associated with changes in the position and intensity of the Mascarene high pressure. The strong IOD event occurs when the two modes are in phase, and the IOD event weakens or disap- pears when the two modes are out of phase. Besides, the IOD events are normally strong when either of the two modes is strong. (3) The IOD event is caused by the abnormal wind stress forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean, which results in vertical transports, leading to the upwelling and pileup of sea- water. This is the main dynamic processes resulting in the STA. When the anomalous easterly exists over the equatorial Indian Ocean, the cold waters upwell in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean while the warm waters pileup in the tropical western Indian Ocean, hence
Lorentz Harmonics, Squeeze Harmonics and Their Physical Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marilyn E. Noz
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Among the symmetries in physics, the rotation symmetry is most familiar to us. It is known that the spherical harmonics serve useful purposes when the world is rotated. Squeeze transformations are also becoming more prominent in physics, particularly in optical sciences and in high-energy physics. As can be seen from Dirac’s light-cone coordinate system, Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. Thus the squeeze transformation is one of the fundamental transformations in Einstein’s Lorentz-covariant world. It is possible to define a complete set of orthonormal functions defined for one Lorentz frame. It is shown that the same set can be used for other Lorentz frames. Transformation properties are discussed. Physical applications are discussed in both optics and high-energy physics. It is shown that the Lorentz harmonics provide the mathematical basis for squeezed states of light. It is shown also that the same set of harmonics can be used for understanding Lorentz-boosted hadrons in high-energy physics. It is thus possible to transmit physics from one branch of physics to the other branch using the mathematical basis common to them.
Atom-assisted quadrature squeezing of a mechanical oscillator inside a dispersive cavity
Biswas, Asoka; Chauhan, Anil Kumar
2016-05-01
Measurement of position of a mesoscopic harmonic oscillator below standard quantum limit in cavity optomechanics has seen a growing interest in recent times. If the oscillator is suspended inside the cavity (with both the mirrors fixed) at a position where the cavity frequency becomes extremum (a membrane-in-the-middle setup), large squeezing can be achieved by conditional measurement of thermal photons; however the cavity decay degrades such squeezing. Here we propose an atom-cavity-oscillator hybrid scheme, in which the effect of cavity decay is eliminated via dispersive coupling of the cavity mode. The atom in Λ configuration is considered to be trapped on either side of the membrane inside the cavity. We show that a considerable amount of squeezing (far beyond the 3 dB limit) can be achieved that is not affected by spontaneous emission of the atom. The squeezing depends upon the initial preparation of the atomic states. Further, the external classical fields, that drive the atomic transition and the cavity mode, control the degree of squeezing and can also lead to a strong effective atom-oscillator coupling. Effect of thermal phonon bath on squeezing is studied in terms of the squeezing spectrum. The results are supported by the detailed analytical calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefszky, Michael; Buchler, Ben C; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy [Quantum Optics Group, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Mow-Lowry, Conor M; McKenzie, Kirk; Chua, Sheon; McClelland, David E, E-mail: michael.stefszky@anu.edu.au [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Department of Quantum Science, The Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-01-14
A squeezed light source requires properties such as high squeezing amplitude, high bandwidth and stability over time, ideally using as few resources, such as laser power, as possible. We compare three nonlinear materials, two of which have not been well characterized for squeezed state production, and also investigate the viability of doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator cavities in achieving these requirements. A model is produced that provides a new way of looking at the construction of an optical parametric oscillator/optical parametric amplifier setup where second harmonic power is treated as a limited resource. The well-characterized periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) is compared in an essentially identical setup to two relatively new materials, periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (PPSLT) and 1.7% magnesium oxide doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium niobate (PPSLN). Although from the literature PPSLT and PPSLN present advantages such as a higher damage threshold and a higher nonlinearity, respectively, PPKTP was still found to have the most desirable properties. With PPKTP, 5.8 dB of squeezing below the shot noise limit was achieved. With PPSLT, 5.0 dB of squeezing was observed but the power required to see this squeezing was much higher than expected. A technical problem with the PPSLN limited the observed squeezing to around 1.0 dB. This problem is discussed.
Amplification of gravitational waves signal in Michelson coherent-squeezed interferometer
Barak, R
2007-01-01
Gravitational waves reaching a Michelson interferometer are expected to induce a very small change in the length of its arms causing a phase shift between them, but it is very difficult to observe the extremely small phase shift signals produced. In the present letter we show that the gravitational waves signal could be amplified by orders of magnitude by using very special conditions for a coherent-squeezed Michelson interferometer in which the coherent state enters one port of the interferometer and the squeezed vacuum enters in the other port. We treat the case where without the gravitational induced phase shift the very strong coherent state goes out of one output port while the squeezed vacuum goes out the other output port (the ``dark'' port). While the phase shift produced by the gravitation waves does not give any significant change in the strong coherent output, the light intensity in the ``dark'' port is amplified with decreased fluctuations as the squeezing increases.
Impact of backscattered light in a squeezing-enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detector
Chua, S S Y; Barsotti, L; Sigg, D; Schofield, R M S; Frolov, V V; Kawabe, K; Evans, M; Meadors, G D; Factourovich, M; Gustafson, R; Smith-Lefebvre, N; Vorvick, C; Landry, M; Khalaidovski, A; Stefszky, M S; Mow-Lowry, C M; Buchler, B C; Shaddock, D A; Lam, P K; Schnabel, R; Mavalvala, N; McClelland, D E
2014-01-01
Squeezed states of light have been recently used to improve the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors beyond the quantum limit. To completely establish quantum engineering as a realistic option for the next generation of detectors, it is crucial to study and quantify the noise coupling mechanisms which injection of squeezed states could potentially introduce. We present a direct measurement of the impact of backscattered light from a squeezed-light source deployed on one of the 4 km long detectors of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We also show how our measurements inform the design of squeezed light sources compatible with the even more sensitive advanced detectors currently under construction, such as Advanced LIGO.
Improvement of an Atomic Clock using Squeezed Vacuum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kruse, I.; Lange, K; Peise, Jan;
2016-01-01
, the vacuum noise restricts the precision of the interferometer to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel clock configuration that surpasses the SQL by squeezing the vacuum in the empty input state. We create a squeezed vacuum state containing an average of 0.......75 atoms to improve the clock sensitivity of 10000 atoms by 2.05+0.34−0.37 dB. The SQL poses a significant limitation for today’s microwave fountain clocks, which serve as the main time reference. We evaluate the major technical limitations and challenges for devising a next generation of fountain clocks......Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case...
Squeezing-enhanced feedback cooling of a microresonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kerdoncuff, Hugo
Since its inception, quantum mechanics have not ceased to fascinate the scientific world, and especially the fundamental question about the famous Schrödinger's cat being alive or dead, or both, is still far from being answered. Although superposition states have been achieved with small particle...... microtoroids. Secondly we model the dielectric gradient force actuation scheme and investigate its capabilities in controlling the vibrations of a microtoroid acoustic mode....... such oscillators into their quantum ground state. In the present work we investigate a cold damping scheme relying on the ultra-sensitive measurement of mechanical displacements, provided by a cavity-enhanced optomechanical interaction with quadrature squeezed states of light, to control strong dielectric gradient...... forces actuating the motion of a toroidal microresonator within a feedback loop. We first determine theoretically the conditions and limits to squeezing-enhanced measurement sensitivity of mechanical motion in a cavity optomechanical system, and perform experimentally a proof-of-principle on our...
EDITORIAL: Squeeze transformation and optics after Einstein
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-12-01
With this special issue, Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics contributes to the celebration of the World Year of Physics held in recognition of five brilliant papers written by Albert Einstein in 1905. There is no need to explain to the readers of this journal the content and importance of these papers, which are cornerstones of modern physics. The 51 contributions in this special issue represent current trends in quantum optics —100 years after the concept of light quanta was introduced. At first glance, in his famous papers of 1905, Einstein treated quite independent subjects—special relativity, the nature and statistical properties of light, electrodynamics of moving bodies and Brownian motion. We now know that all these phenomena are deeply related, and these relations are clearly shown in many papers in this issue. Most of the papers are based on the talks and poster contributions from participants of the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations (ICSSUR'05), which took place in Besançon, France, 2-6 May, 2005. This was the continuation of a series of meetings, originating with the first workshops organized by Professor Y S Kim at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in 1991 and by Professor V I Man'ko at the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow in 1992. One of the main topics of ICSSUR'05 and this special issue is the theory and applications of squeezed states and their generalizations. At first glance, one could think that this subject has no relation to Einstein's papers. However, this is not true: the theory of squeezed states is deeply related to special relativity, as far as it is based on the representations of the Lorentz group (see the paper by Kim Y S and Noz M E, S458-S467), which also links the current concepts of entanglement and decoherence with Lorentz-covariance. Besides, studies of the different quantum states of light imply, after all, the study of photon (or photo
Output field-quadrature measurements and squeezing in ultrastrong cavity-QED
Stassi, Roberto; Savasta, Salvatore; Garziano, Luigi; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Nori, Franco
2016-12-01
We study the squeezing of output quadratures of an electro-magnetic field escaping from a resonator coupled to a general quantum system with arbitrary interaction strengths. The generalized theoretical analysis of output squeezing proposed here is valid for all the interaction regimes of cavity-quantum electrodynamics: from the weak to the strong, ultrastrong, and deep coupling regimes. For coupling rates comparable or larger then the cavity resonance frequency, the standard input-output theory for optical cavities fails to calculate the variance of output field-quadratures and predicts a non-negligible amount of output squeezing, even if the system is in its ground state. Here we show that, for arbitrary interaction strength and for general cavity-embedded quantum systems, no squeezing can be found in the output-field quadratures if the system is in its ground state. We also apply the proposed theoretical approach to study the output squeezing produced by: (i) an artificial two-level atom embedded in a coherently-excited cavity; and (ii) a cascade-type three-level system interacting with a cavity field mode. In the latter case the output squeezing arises from the virtual photons of the atom-cavity dressed states. This work extends the possibility of predicting and analyzing the results of continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography when optical resonators interact very strongly with other quantum systems.
Demonstration of quadrature-squeezed surface plasmons in a gold waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huck, Alexander; Smolka, Stephan; Lodahl, Peter;
2009-01-01
We report on the efficient generation, propagation and reemission of squeezed long-range surface-plasmon polaritons in a gold waveguide. Squeezed light is used to excite the nonclassical surface-plasmon polaritons, and the reemitted quantum state is fully characterized by complete quantum...... tomographic reconstruction of the density matrix. We find that the plasmon-assisted transmission of nonclassical light in metallic waveguides can be described by a beam splitter relation. This result is explained theoretically....
A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks
Kaiser, Florian; Fedrici, Bruno; Zavatta, Alessandro; D'Auria, Virginia; Tanzilli, Sébastien
2016-01-01
International audience; Squeezed light is a fundamental resource for quantum communication. In view of its real-world applications, the realization of easy-to-operate experimental systems compatible with existing fiber networks is a crucial step. To comply with these requirements, we demonstrate the feasibility of a squeezing experiment at a telecom wavelength realized, for the first time, in an entirely guided-wave fashion. In our work, the state generation relies on waveguide non-linear opt...
Generation of Hidden Optical-Polarization: Squeezing and Non-Classicality
Gupta, Gyaneshwar K.; Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Ravi S
2010-01-01
A monochromatic double-mode coherent light endowed with orthogonally polarized photons propagating collinearly is studied in Degenerate Parametric Amplification. Generation of Hidden Optical- Polarized States is shown by non-zero values of Index of Hidden Optical-Polarization. Squeezing in HOPS is demonstrated by recognizing a Squeezing function. The Non-Classical feature of HOPS is observed by 'degree of Hidden Optical-Polarization' which attains non-classical value 'greater than unity'. The...
30 years of squeezed light generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph;
2016-01-01
Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating qua...
Modeling the interdependent network based on two-mode networks
An, Feng; Gao, Xiangyun; Guan, Jianhe; Huang, Shupei; Liu, Qian
2017-10-01
Among heterogeneous networks, there exist obviously and closely interdependent linkages. Unlike existing research primarily focus on the theoretical research of physical interdependent network model. We propose a two-layer interdependent network model based on two-mode networks to explore the interdependent features in the reality. Specifically, we construct a two-layer interdependent loan network and develop several dependent features indices. The model is verified to enable us to capture the loan dependent features of listed companies based on loan behaviors and shared shareholders. Taking Chinese debit and credit market as case study, the main conclusions are: (1) only few listed companies shoulder the main capital transmission (20% listed companies occupy almost 70% dependent degree). (2) The control of these key listed companies will be more effective of avoiding the spreading of financial risks. (3) Identifying the companies with high betweenness centrality and controlling them could be helpful to monitor the financial risk spreading. (4) The capital transmission channel among Chinese financial listed companies and Chinese non-financial listed companies are relatively strong. However, under greater pressure of demand of capital transmission (70% edges failed), the transmission channel, which constructed by debit and credit behavior, will eventually collapse.
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
Bernardini, Alex E
2015-01-01
The effect of phase space general noncommutativity on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined. A two-dimensional noncommutative quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure similar to that of Hadamard billiards is obtained and their components behavior are monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two \\emph{free} 1D harmonic oscillators (HO's), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the noncommutative deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained Hamiltonian represents then two \\emph{interacting} 1D HO's. By assuming that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PING Yun-Xia; LIU Lie; ZHANG Chao-Min; CHENG Ze
2011-01-01
Violations of Bell inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and entanglement in a two-mode three-level atomic system are investigated. It is shown that there are some states, which are entangled but do not violate Bell inequality in this system. Moreover, the relations of violations of Bell inequality, Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and entanglement are discussed in detail.
Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.
Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl
2014-05-02
DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases.
The Multiphoton Interaction of Lambda Model Atom and Two-Mode Fields
Liu, Tang-Kun
1996-01-01
The system of two-mode fields interacting with atom by means of multiphotons is addressed, and the non-classical statistic quality of two-mode fields with interaction is discussed. Through mathematical calculation, some new rules of non-classical effects of two-mode fields which evolue with time, are established.
The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation
Calloni, Enrico; Conte, Andrea; De Laurentis, Martina; Naticchioni, Luca; Puppo, Paola; Ricci, Fulvio
2016-07-01
POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.
The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calloni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Conte, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); De Laurentis, Martina, E-mail: martina.delaurentis@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Naticchioni, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Puppo, Paola [INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Ricci, Fulvio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy)
2016-07-11
POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.
Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Nielsen, Bo Melholt; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultracompact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing...... squeezing spectrum for intra-cavity pump self-phase modulation. Subject to standard material loss and detection efficiencies, we find that the device holds promises for generating substantial quantum noise squeezing over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz. In the low-propagation loss regime, approximately -6 d...
Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. W. Shende
1988-10-01
Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.
Model on surface borehole squeezing deformation fracture*
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Hai-tao; HU Qian-ting; HUANG Sheng-shu
2009-01-01
As a good method to solve the problem of high methane on the workface and in the goaf, drawing coal strata methane through a surface borehole is used. However, the excavation affected the overlying rock strata greatly. When the excavation face passed through the surface borehole position, the surface borehole fractures fast. This problem was seriously related to the unformed squeeze effect. Therefore, a squeezing deformation fracture model based on the rock strata squeezing effect was set up. At the same time, a 3DEC simulation model is presented to confirm the theory. The result shows that the mod-el is reliable and has a good engineering application value.
Two-axis-twisting spin squeezing by multipass quantum erasure
Wang, Mingfeng; Qu, Weizhi; Li, Pengxiong; Bao, Han; Vuletić, Vladan; Xiao, Yanhong
2017-07-01
Many-body entangled states are key elements in quantum information science and quantum metrology. One important problem in establishing a high degree of many-body entanglement using optical techniques is the leakage of the system information via the light that creates such entanglement. We propose an all-optical interference-based approach to erase this information. Unwanted atom-light entanglement can be removed by destructive interference of three or more successive atom-light interactions, leaving behind only atom-atom entanglement. This quantum erasure protocol allows implementation of spin squeezing with Heisenberg scaling using coherent light and a cold or warm atomic ensemble. Calculations show that a significant improvement in the squeezing exceeding 10 dB is obtained compared to previous methods, and substantial spin squeezing is attainable even under moderate experimental conditions. Our method enables the efficient creation of many-body entangled states with simple setups and, thus, is promising for advancing technologies in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.
Xiao, Zhihao; Lanning, R. Nicholas; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2017-08-01
Within the second-quantization framework, we develop a formalism for describing a spatially multimode optical field diffracted through a spatial mask and show that this process can be described as an effective interaction between various spatial modes. We demonstrate a method to calculate the quantum state in the diffracted optical field for any given quantum state in the incident field. We also give several additional examples of how the theory works, for various quantum input states, which may be easily tested in the laboratory, including two single-mode squeezed vacuums, single- and two-photon inputs, where we show that the diffraction process produces a two-mode squeezed vacuum, number-path entanglement, and a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like effect analogous to that of a beam splitter.
Squeezing through: capsule or bubble?
Dawson, Geoffrey
2013-01-01
In this fluid dynamics video, we compare the deformation of two flexible particles as they propagate through a sudden constriction of a liquid filled channel under constant-flux flow: a gas bubble, and a capsule formed by encapsulating a liquid droplet in a cross-linked polymeric membrane. Both bubble and capsule adopt highly contorted configurations as they squeeze through the constriction, exhibit broadly similar features over a wide range of flow rates, and rupture for sufficiently high flow rates. However, at flow rates prior to rupture, certain features of the deformation allow bubble and capsule to be distinguished: bubbles exhibit a tip-streaming singularity associated with critical thinning of the rear of the bubble, while the capsule membrane wrinkles under large compressive stresses induced by the constriction.
High-bandwidth squeezed light at 1550 nm from a compact monolithic PPKTP cavity
Ast, Stefan; Schnabel, Roman
2013-01-01
We report the generation of squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm with a broadband quantum noise reduction of up to 4.8 dB ranging from 5 MHz to 1.2 GHz sideband frequency. We used a custom-designed 2.6 mm long biconvex periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal. It featured reflectively coated end surfaces, 2.26 GHz of linewidth and generated the squeezing via optical parametric amplification. Two homodyne detectors with different quantum efficiencies and bandwidths were used to characterize the non-classical noise suppression. We measured squeezing values of up to 4.8 dB from 5 to 100 MHz and up to 3 dB from 100 MHz to 1.2 GHz. The squeezed vacuum measurements were limited by detection loss. We propose an improved detection scheme to measure up to 10 dB squeezing over 1 GHz. Our results of GHz bandwidth squeezed light generation provide new prospects for high-speed quantum key distribution.
Collapse-revival of squeezing of two atoms in dissipative cavities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹红梅; 方卯发
2016-01-01
Based on the time-convolutionless master-equation approach, we investigate the squeezing dynamics of two atoms in dissipative cavities. We find that the atomic squeezing is related to initial atomic states, atom–cavity couplings, non-Markovian effects and resonant frequencies of an atom and its cavity. The results show that a collapse–revival phenomenon will occur in the atomic squeezing and this process is accompanied by the buildup and decay of entanglement between two atoms. Enhancing the atom–cavity coupling can increase the frequency of the collapse–revival of the atomic squeezing. The stronger the non-Markovian effect is, the more obvious the collapse–revival phenomenon is. In particular, if the atom–cavity coupling or the non-Markovian effect is very strong, the atomic squeezing will tend to a stably periodic oscillation in a long time. The oscillatory frequency of the atomic squeezing is dependent on the resonant frequency of the atom and its cavity.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Bing-Ju; Liu Xiao-Juan; Zhou Qing-Ping; Liu Ming-Wei
2007-01-01
Based on the quantum information theory, we have investigated the entropy squeezing of a moving two-level atom interacting with the coherent field via the quantum mechanical channel of the two-photon process. The results are compared with those of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The influences of the atomic motion and field-mode structure parameter on the atomic entropy squeezing and on the control of noise of the quantum mechanical channel via the two-photon process are examined. Our results show that the squeezed period,duration of optimal entropy squeezing of a two-level atom and the noise of the quantum mechanical channel can be controlled by appropriately choosing the atomic motion and the field-mode structure parameter, respectively. The quantum mechanical channel of two-photon process is an ideal channel for quantum information (atomic quantum state) transmission. Quantum information entropy is a remarkably accurate measure of the atomic squeezing.
Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tjeerd C Andringa
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world where pressing needs occur less frequently. We have used the Rule of Conservative Changes – stating that new functions can only scaffold on evolutionary older, yet highly stable functions – to predict that the interplay of these two modes define a number of core functions in psychology associated with moral behavior. We explore this prediction with five examples reflecting different theoretical approaches to human cognition and action selection. We conclude the paper with the observation that science is currently dominated by the coping mode and that the benefits of the co-creation mode may be necessary to generate realistic prospects for a modern synthesis in the sciences of the mind.
Spin squeezing and Schrödinger cat generation in atomic samples with Rydberg blockade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opatrný, Tomáš; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
A scheme is proposed to prepare squeezed states and Schrödinger-cat-like states of the collective spin degrees of freedom associated with a pair of ground states in an atomic ensemble. The scheme uses an effective Jaynes-Cummings interaction which can be provided by excitation of the atoms...
A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum
Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.
2015-01-01
Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616
Limiting effects of geometrical and optical nonlinearities on the squeezing in optomechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djorwé, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon); Nana Engo, S.G., E-mail: nanaengo@gmail.com [Laboratory of Photonics, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Talla Mbé, J.H.; Woafo, P. [Laboratory of Modelling and Simulation in Engineering, Biomimetics and Prototypes, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I (Cameroon)
2013-08-01
In recent experiments, the re-thermalization time of the mechanical resonator is stated as the limiting factor for quantum applications of optomechanical systems. To explain the origin of this limitation, an analytical nonlinear investigation supported by the recent successful experimental laser cooling parameters is carried out in this work. To this end, the effects of geometrical and the optical nonlinearities on the squeezing are studied and are in a good agreement with the experimental results. It appears that highly squeezed state are generated where these nonlinearities are minimized and that high nonlinearities are limiting factors to reach the quantum ground state.
Two mode coupling in a single ion oscillator via parametric resonance
Gorman, Dylan J; Selvarajan, Sankaranarayanan; Daniilidis, Nikos; Häffner, Hartmut
2014-01-01
Atomic ions, confined in radio-frequency Paul ion traps, are a promising candidate to host a future quantum information processor. In this letter, we demonstrate a method to couple two motional modes of a single trapped ion, where the coupling mechanism is based on applying electric fields rather than coupling the ion's motion to a light field. This reduces the design constraints on the experimental apparatus considerably. As an application of this mechanism, we cool a motional mode close to its ground state without accessing it optically. As a next step, we apply this technique to measure the mode's heating rate, a crucial parameter determining the trap quality. In principle, this method can be used to realize a two-mode quantum parametric amplifier.
Variance squeezing and entanglement of the XX central spin model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Orany, Faisal A A [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Abdalla, M Sebawe, E-mail: m.sebaweh@physics.org [Mathematics Department, College of Science, King Saud University PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
2011-01-21
In this paper, we study the quantum properties for a system that consists of a central atom interacting with surrounding spins through the Heisenberg XX couplings of equal strength. Employing the Heisenberg equations of motion we manage to derive an exact solution for the dynamical operators. We consider that the central atom and its surroundings are initially prepared in the excited state and in the coherent spin state, respectively. For this system, we investigate the evolution of variance squeezing and entanglement. The nonclassical effects have been remarked in the behavior of all components of the system. The atomic variance can exhibit revival-collapse phenomenon based on the value of the detuning parameter.
Goda, K; Mikhailov, E E; Lam, P K; McClelland, D; Mavalvala, N; Goda, Keisuke; Kenzie, Kirk Mc; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Lam, Ping Koy; Clelland, David Mc; Mavalvala, Nergis
2005-01-01
We study the effect of photothermal fluctuations on squeezed states of light through the photo-refractive effect and thermal expansion in a degenerate optical parametric amplifier (OPA). We also discuss the effect of the photothermal noise in various cases and how to minimize its undesirable consequences. We find that the photothermal noise in the OPA introduces a significant amount of noise on phase squeezed beams, making them less than ideal for low frequency applications such as gravitational wave (GW) interferometers, whereas amplitude squeezed beams are relatively immune to the photothermal noise and may represent the best choice for application in GW interferometers.
Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit
Buchmann, L F; Kohler, J; Spethmann, N; Stamper-Kurn, D M
2016-01-01
A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme, called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows its use to improve force detection beyond the standard quantum limit.
Knox, D. J.
2013-11-14
© 2013 © The authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. The squeeze-film flow of a thin layer of Newtonian fluid filling the gap between a flat impermeable surface moving under a prescribed constant load and a flat thin porous bed coating a stationary flat impermeable surface is considered. Unlike in the classical case of an impermeable bed, in which an infinite time is required for the two surfaces to touch, for a porous bed contact occurs in a finite contact time. Using a lubrication approximation, an implicit expression for the fluid layer thickness and an explicit expression for the contact time are obtained and analysed. In addition, the fluid particle paths are calculated, and the penetration depths of fluid particles into the porous bed are determined. In particular, the behaviour in the asymptotic limit of small permeability, in which the contact time is large but finite, is investigated. Finally, the results are interpreted in the context of lubrication in the human knee joint, and some conclusions are drawn about the contact time of the cartilage-coated femoral condyles and tibial plateau and the penetration of nutrients into the cartilage.
LHC Report: Freshly squeezed beams!
Mike Lamont for the LHC Team
2011-01-01
After careful validation of new machine settings, the LHC was ready for higher luminosity operation. New luminosity records have been set, but the operations team continues to wrestle with machine availability issues. The commissioning of the squeeze to a ß* of 1 m in ATLAS and CMS described in the last Bulletin took until Wednesday, 7 September to complete. In order to validate the new set-up, beam losses were provoked in a controlled way with low intensity beams. The distribution of beam loss around the machine in these tests is known as a loss map. The loss maps showed that the collimation system is catching the large majority of beam losses as it should, and that the machine was ready for us to ramp the number of bunches back up and go to physics production. The ramp-up of the number of bunches went smoothly with fills at 264, 480, and 912 bunches on the way back to the machine’s previous record of 1380 bunches (first fill on Friday, 9 Se...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱从旭; 邓宏贵
2000-01-01
The amplitude-squared squeezing of odd coherent state in a finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces (FDHS) case are studied by numerical method. It is found that amplitude-squared squeezing properties exist in these states, and the properties are different from those of usual odd coherent states. but the results tend to those of usual odd coherent states when the number of dimension tend to ∞.%运用数值计算方法研究了有限维希尔伯特(Hilbert)空间谐振子奇相干态的振幅平方压缩特性.研究表明，在有限维情景，奇相干态存在振幅平方压缩效应，并展现了与通常无限维奇相干态截然不同的振幅平方压缩特性；而当维数足够大时，与通常奇相干态的结果趋于一致.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze
2007-01-01
Continuous variable entanglement and violation of Bell inequality for two modes are investigated in a three-level cascade atomic system. Entanglement of the system is demonstrated according to the entanglement criterion [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 2722]. Violation of Bell inequality is studied within the framework of a quantum theory of multiwave mixing. It is shown that there are some states that are entangled but do not violate the Bell inequality.
Scalable Spin Squeezing for Quantum-Enhanced Magnetometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates
Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Linnemann, D.; Hume, D. B.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2014-09-01
A major challenge in quantum metrology is the generation of entangled states with a macroscopic atom number. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that atomic squeezing generated via nonlinear dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates, combined with suitable trap geometries, allows scaling to large ensemble sizes. We achieve a suppression of fluctuations by 5.3(5) dB for 12 300 particles, from which we infer that similar squeezing can be obtained for more than 107 atoms. With this resource, we demonstrate quantum-enhanced magnetometry by swapping the squeezed state to magnetically sensitive hyperfine levels that have negligible nonlinearity. We find a quantum-enhanced single-shot sensitivity of 310(47) pT for static magnetic fields in a probe volume as small as 90 μm3.
The Effect of Spin Squeezing on the Entanglement Entropy of Kicked Tops
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernest Teng Siang Ong
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effects of spin squeezing on two-coupled quantum kicked tops, which have been previously shown to exhibit a quantum signature of chaos in terms of entanglement dynamics. Our results show that initial spin squeezing can lead to an enhancement in both the entanglement rate and the asymptotic entanglement for kicked tops when the initial state resides in the regular islands within a mixed classical phase space. On the other hand, we found a reduction in these two quantities if we were to choose the initial state deep inside the chaotic sea. More importantly, we have uncovered that an application of periodic spin squeezing can yield the maximum attainable entanglement entropy, albeit this is achieved at a reduced entanglement rate.
Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam
Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George
2016-08-01
Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. We predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. By taking into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator. We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.
LHC Report: Preparing for a tighter squeeze
Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team
2011-01-01
The LHC is resuming operation after a planned period of machine development followed by a technical stop. The beams returned last Friday, in the evening of 2 September, and preparations are now being made to squeeze the beams further at the collision points, aiming for new luminosity records. To obtain as many collisions as possible in the heart of the experiments, the beams are squeezed to very small beam sizes. The beam squeezing parameter is known by experts as beta-star: the smaller the ß*, the stronger the squeezing. During the machine development period that started on 24 August, tests were made for the high-luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS with ß* values of 1 m instead of the 1.5 m used previously. Unfortunately these tests were only partially successful, as some of the beam was lost during the squeezing process. It is thought that the beam losses were caused by the collimators, which were moved closer to the beam, and by the reduced crossing angle of the beams at ...
Continuous squeeze casting process by mass production
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yun Xia; Rich Jacques
2006-01-01
Squeeze casting has become the most competitive casting process in the automotive industry because of its many advantages over high pressure die casting (HPDC). Many squeeze casting R & D and small amount volume making have been implemented around the world, but the mass production control still exists problem. SPX Contech squeeze casting process P2000 successfully achieved the goal of mass production; it includes lower metal turbulence, less gas entrapment, minimum volumetric shrinkage, and thus less porosity. Like other casting processes, however, the quality of squeeze castings is still sensitive to process control and gate and runner design. Casting defects can form in both die-filling and metal solidification phases. The occurrence of casting defects is directly attributed to improper adjustment or lack of control of process parameters including metal filling velocity, temperature, dwell time, cooling pattern, casting design, and etc. This paper presents examples using P2000 techniques to improve part quality in the following areas: runner & gate design, casting & runner layout in the die, squeeze pin application, high thermal conductivityinserts, cooling/heating systems, spray & lubricant techniques,and part stress calculation from shrinkage or displacement prediction after stress relief.
Two-mode clustering of genotype by trait and genotype by environment data
Hageman, J.A.; Malosetti, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate the use of two-mode clustering for genotype by trait and genotype by environment data. In contrast to two separate (one mode) clusterings on genotypes or traits/environments, two-mode clustering simultaneously produces homogeneous groups of genotypes and traits/environm
Spin Squeezing of One-Axis Twisting Model
Li, Song-Song
2017-09-01
We investigate spin squeezing of the one-axis twisting model. By using short-time approximation solutions of the angular momentum operators, we analytically and numerically calculate the spin squeezing parameter. It is shown that smaller linear interaction can produce a stronger spin squeezing and maintain a longer time interval. It is also shown that the stronger spin squeezing can be achieved by increasing the number of particles.
Entropy Squeezing in the Quantum Heisenberg XY Spin Chains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHANG Ping; SHAO Bin; ZOU Jian
2009-01-01
The time evolution of entropy squeezing for the two-qubit XYZ Heisenberg model in an external uniform magnetic field is investigated in the language of quantum information.The effect of different parameters such as magnetic field and anisotropy parameter on the properties of entropy squeezing and variance squeezing are discussed.It is shown that magnetic field and anisotropy parameter can enhance the entropy squeezing.
Euro Area——Fiscal Squeeze,Export Boost
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Samra Al Harthy; Sarah Hewin
2010-01-01
@@ Europe's fiscat squeeze: how damaging? Tight fiscal versus loose monetary conditions The euro-area economy faces countervailing forces,and growth over the next two years is likely to be characterised by diverging trends among its member states.This divergence has been evident in the staggered return to growth within the region,with Germany and France back in positive territory by Q2-2009,while Spain pulled out of recession in Q1-2010.Business confidence surveys and purchasing managers indices point to buoyant growth for the region in Q2-2010,and strong orders should sustain the momentum in Q3.
Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.pierobon@unipd.it [Università di Padova, Padova (Italy)
2015-12-15
The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.
Demonstrating an additional law of relativistic velocities based on squeezed light
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Da-Bao; Li Yan; Zhang Fu-Lin; Chen Jing-Ling
2012-01-01
The special relativity is the foundation for many branches of modern physics,of which the theoretical results are far beyond our daily experience and hard to realized in kinematic experiments.However,its outcomes could be demonstrated by making use of the convenient substitute,i.e.,the squeezed light in the present paper.The squeezed light is very important in the field of quantum optics,and the corresponding transformation can be regarded as the coherent state of SU(1,1).In this paper,the connection between the squeezed operator and the Lorentz boost is built under certain conditions.Furthermore,the additional law of relativistic velocities and the angle of the Wigner rotation are deduced as well.
Audio-Band Frequency-Dependent Squeezing for Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Oelker, Eric; Isogai, Tomoki; Miller, John; Tse, Maggie; Barsotti, Lisa; Mavalvala, Nergis; Evans, Matthew
2016-01-29
Quantum vacuum fluctuations impose strict limits on precision displacement measurements, those of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors among them. Introducing squeezed states into an interferometer's readout port can improve the sensitivity of the instrument, leading to richer astrophysical observations. However, optomechanical interactions dictate that the vacuum's squeezed quadrature must rotate by 90° around 50 Hz. Here we use a 2-m-long, high-finesse optical resonator to produce frequency-dependent rotation around 1.2 kHz. This demonstration of audio-band frequency-dependent squeezing uses technology and methods that are scalable to the required rotation frequency and validates previously developed theoretical models, heralding application of the technique in future gravitational-wave detectors.
Zhang, Zhifeng; Drapaca, Corina
2016-11-01
Ischemic stroke accounts for about 87 percent of all stroke cases. In these cases, models of squeezing a droplet through a smaller constriction channel can help better understand the pathology and capillary restoring after a Stroke. In the present research, we analytical expressed the minimum impulse of squeezing a droplet through a circular channel as well as its critical velocity. By comparison with a previously defined critical velocity, we find the difference between these two. Applications of this research in the understanding of ischemic stroke are also discussed. Zhifeng Zhang thanks the support of Robert A. Sebrosky Graduate Fellowship in Engineering Science and Mechanics, the Pennsylvania State University.
Two-mode elliptical-core weighted fiber sensors for vibration analysis
Vengsarkar, Ashish M.; Murphy, Kent A.; Fogg, Brian R.; Miller, William V.; Greene, Jonathan A.; Claus, Richard O.
1992-01-01
Two-mode, elliptical-core optical fibers are demonstrated in weighted, distributed and selective vibration-mode-filtering applications. We show how appropriate placement of optical fibers on a vibrating structure can lead to vibration mode filtering. Selective vibration-mode suppression on the order of 10 dB has been obtained using tapered two-mode, circular-core fibers with tapering functions that match the second derivatives of the modes of vibration to be enhanced. We also demonstrate the use of chirped, two-mode gratings in fibers as spatial modal sensors that are equivalents of shaped piezoelectric sensors.
Vacuum squeezing in atomic media with self-rotation
Matsko, A B; Scully, M O; Welch, G R; Budker, D; Kimball, D F; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V
2002-01-01
When linearly polarized light propagates through a medium which causes self-rotation of elliptically polarized light, squeezed vacuum is produced in the orthogonal polarization. A simple relationship between the self-rotation angle for a given ellipticity and the degree of squeezing is developed. Taking into account absorption, we find the optimum condition for squeezing for any medium which causes self-rotation. Next, we analyze squeezing when the medium consists of a vapor of idealized, four-level atoms. Finally, we consider a medium consisting of a gas of multi-level Rb atoms, and analyze squeezing for light tuned near the D-lines under realistic conditions.
Squeezing Effect of a Nanomechanical Resonator Coupled to a Two-Level System:an Equilibrium Approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing; CHEN Zhi-De
2009-01-01
The squeezing effect of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a two-level system is studied by variational calculations based on both the displaced-squeezed-state (DSS) and the displaced-oscillator-state (DOS).The stable region of the DSS ground state at both T = 0 and T≠0 and the corresponding squeezing factor are alculated.It is found that when the resonator frequency lies in (kBT,△),where △ is the tunnelling splitting of the two-level-system in the presence of dissipation,tunnelling splitting of a DSS ground state decreases with the temperature,while tunnelling splitting of a DOS ground state increases with the temperature in low temperature region.This opposite temperature dependence can help to distinguish between the DSS and DOS ground state in the experiment.
Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components
1976-09-01
equipment. The squeeze casting process also differs from rheo- casting.(10-12) Unlike the former, the rheocasting process (8) "Ferrous Die Casting...various phases of rheocasting . At least so far, the process has not been applied to fabrication of complex steel components of the type that are under
Hartogs figure and symplectic non-squeezing
Sukhov, A
2011-01-01
We solve a problem on filling by Levi-flat hypersurfaces for a class of totally real 2-tori in a real 4-manifold with an almost complex structure tamed by an exact symplectic form. As an application we obtain a simple proof of Gromov's non-squeezing theorem in dimension 4 and new results on rigidity of symplectic structures.
Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Nielsen, Bo Melholt; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultracompact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing...
Limits of noise squeezing in Kerr effect
Bajer, J; Tanas, R
2002-01-01
It is well known that the optical Kerr effect can be a source of highly squeezed light, however the analytical limit of the noise suppression has not been found yet. The process is reconsidered and an analytical estimation of the optimal quadrature noise level is presented. The validity of the new scaling law is checked numerically and analytically.
Squeezing more from a quantum nondemolition measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchler, B.C.; Lam, P.K.; Bachor, H.A.
2002-01-01
We use a stable, 5 dB, amplitude squeezed source for a quantum nondomolition (QND) experiment. The performance of our QND system is enhanced by an electro-optic feedforward loop which improve,, the signal transfer efficiency. At best, we measure a total signal transfer of 1.81 and conditional var...
Squeezing effect of the cavity field in the two-atom Jay nes-Cummings model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Authors investigate the model that two two-level atoms in terac t with a single-mode cavity. The formulation of the time evolution operator for the two-atom Jaynes-Cummings model is presented by the bare-states approach. Besides, squeezing effect of the cavity field is studied and some novel feature s are obtained.
Spin Squeezing and Entanglement with Room Temperature Atoms for Quantum Sensing and Communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Heng
magnetometer at room temperature is reported. Furthermore, using spin-squeezing of atomic ensemble, the sensitivity of magnetometer is improved. Deterministic continuous variable teleportation between two distant atomic ensembles is demonstrated. The fidelity of teleportating dynamically changing sequence...... of spin states surpasses a classical benchmark, demonstrating the true quantum teleportation....
Sideband cooling beyond the quantum backaction limit with squeezed light
Clark, Jeremy B.; Lecocq, Florent; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Aumentado, José; Teufel, John D.
2017-01-01
Quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum produce measurable physical effects such as Casimir forces and the Lamb shift. They also impose an observable limit—known as the quantum backaction limit—on the lowest temperatures that can be reached using conventional laser cooling techniques. As laser cooling experiments continue to bring massive mechanical systems to unprecedentedly low temperatures, this seemingly fundamental limit is increasingly important in the laboratory. Fortunately, vacuum fluctuations are not immutable and can be ‘squeezed’, reducing amplitude fluctuations at the expense of phase fluctuations. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate that squeezed light can be used to cool the motion of a macroscopic mechanical object below the quantum backaction limit. We first cool a microwave cavity optomechanical system using a coherent state of light to within 15 per cent of this limit. We then cool the system to more than two decibels below the quantum backaction limit using a squeezed microwave field generated by a Josephson parametric amplifier. From heterodyne spectroscopy of the mechanical sidebands, we measure a minimum thermal occupancy of 0.19 ± 0.01 phonons. With our technique, even low-frequency mechanical oscillators can in principle be cooled arbitrarily close to the motional ground state, enabling the exploration of quantum physics in larger, more massive systems.
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.
2015-06-01
The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.
Two-Mode Wave Solutions to the Degasperis-Procesi Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Zheng-Di; BI Qin-Sheng
2008-01-01
@@ By introducing a new type of solutions, called the multiple-mode wave solutions which can be expressed in nonlinear superposition of single-mode waves with different speeds, we investigate the two-mode wave solutions in Degasperis-Procesi equation and two cases are derived.The explicit expressions for the two-mode waves as well as the existence conditions are presented.It is shown that the two-mode waves may be the nonlinear combinations of many types of single-mode waves, such as periodic waves, solitons, compactons, etc., and more complicated multiple-mode waves can be obtained if higher order or more single-mode waves are taken into consideration.It is pointed out that the two-mode wave solutions can be employed to display the typical mechanism of the interactions between different single-mode waves.
Analysis of MPN, MHN and Phase Noise of a Two-Mode Semiconductor Laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ebrahim Mortazy; Vahid Ahmadi; Mohammad Kazem Moravvej-Farshi; Abbas Zarifkar
2003-01-01
Intensity noise including Mode Partition Noise (MPN) and Mode Hopping Noise (MHN), and Phase/Frequency Noise Spectrum (FNS) are calculated for a two-mode semiconductor laser. RIN is derived considering of MPN and MHN effect.
Coupling of effective one-dimensional two-level atoms to squeezed light
Clark, S; Clark, Stephen; Parkins, Scott
2002-01-01
A cavity QED system is analyzed which duplicates the dynamics of a two-level atom in free space interacting exclusively with broadband squeezed light. We consider atoms in a three or four-level Lambda-configuration coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity which is driven by a squeezed light field. Raman transitions are induced between a pair of stable atomic ground states via the squeezed cavity mode and coherent driving fields. An analysis of the reduced master equation for the atomic ground states shows that a three-level atomic system has insufficient parameter flexibility to act as an effective two-level atom interacting exclusively with a squeezed reservoir. However, the inclusion of a fourth atomic level, coupled dispersively to one of the two ground states by an auxiliary laser field, introduces an extra degree of freedom and enables the desired interaction to be realised. As a means of detecting the reduced quadrature decay rate of the effective two-level system, we examine the transmission spectrum o...
Dense Coding in a Two-Spin Squeezing Model with Intrinsic Decoherence
Zhang, Bing-Bing; Yang, Guo-Hui
2016-11-01
Quantum dense coding in a two-spin squeezing model under intrinsic decoherence with different initial states (Werner state and Bell state) is investigated. It shows that dense coding capacity χ oscillates with time and finally reaches different stable values. χ can be enhanced by decreasing the magnetic field Ω and the intrinsic decoherence γ or increasing the squeezing interaction μ, moreover, one can obtain a valid dense coding capacity ( χ satisfies χ > 1) by modulating these parameters. The stable value of χ reveals that the decoherence cannot entirely destroy the dense coding capacity. In addition, decreasing Ω or increasing μ can not only enhance the stable value of χ but also impair the effects of decoherence. As the initial state is the Werner state, the purity r of initial state plays a key role in adjusting the value of dense coding capacity, χ can be significantly increased by improving the purity of initial state. For the initial state is Bell state, the large spin squeezing interaction compared with the magnetic field guarantees the optimal dense coding. One cannot always achieve a valid dense coding capacity for the Werner state, while for the Bell state, the dense coding capacity χ remains stuck at the range of greater than 1.
Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)
2004-06-01
We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.
Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels
Serafini, A; Illuminati, F; Paris, M G A
2004-01-01
We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed-coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.
Qubit-flip-induced cavity mode squeezing in the strong dispersive regime of the quantum Rabi model
Joshi, Chaitanya; Irish, Elinor K.; Spiller, Timothy P.
2017-01-01
Squeezed states of light are a set of nonclassical states in which the quantum fluctuations of one quadrature component are reduced below the standard quantum limit. With less noise than the best stabilised laser sources, squeezed light is a key resource in the field of quantum technologies and has already improved sensing capabilities in areas ranging from gravitational wave detection to biomedical applications. In this work we propose a novel technique for generating squeezed states of a confined light field strongly coupled to a two-level system, or qubit, in the dispersive regime. Utilising the dispersive energy shift caused by the interaction, control of the qubit state produces a time-dependent change in the frequency of the light field. An appropriately timed sequence of sudden frequency changes reduces the quantum noise fluctuations in one quadrature of the field well below the standard quantum limit. The degree of squeezing and the time of generation are directly controlled by the number of frequency shifts applied. Even in the presence of realistic noise and imperfections, our protocol promises to be capable of generating a useful degree of squeezing with present experimental capabilities. PMID:28358025
Frequency Up- and Down-conversions in Two-mode Cavity%两模腔中的参量上转换和下转换
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李斌; 冯勋立; 张智明
2011-01-01
提出了一种通过建立双线性二次哈密顿量在量子腔中实现参量上转换和下转换的方案.通常在非线性过程中,介质本身不参与能量的净交换,但光波频率可以发生转换的作用称为参量转换作用.此方案建立在一个四能级原子同时与两经典场和两量子场相互作用的基础上,理论属于非线性光学四波混频范畴.将原子制备在合适的能级上,经典光场与相应的能级发生共振,而同时量子光场与相应的能级产生大失谐相互作用,在强相互作用区域内,原子和腔场失耦合,进而实现腔模的参量转换.根据所制备初始能级的不同以及光场激发能级的差异,分别实现了参量上转换和参量下转换.在利用参量下转换制备压缩算符后,对实验的可行性进行了讨论,并且给出了理论值.结果表明:在级联三能原子中采用一个级联双光子过程代替了原来的两个偶极禁戒跃迁间的经典驱动,可以保证高的不同频率之间的转换效率,并且用于光的量子操控和量子信息处理.%A scheme was proposed to construct bilinear and quadratic Hamiltonians for frequency up-and down-conversions in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).Generally,in nonlinear optics,the interaction that the energe swaps between different optic modes without atomic transition is named frequency conversion.The proposed scheme was based on the interactions of a single four-level atom simultaneously with two classical driving fields and a two-mode cavity field,which is in the domain of four-wave mixing.By initially preparing the atom in a suitable state,each pump light was resonant with its transition,and two quantum modes were large tune to the other two transition,respectively,In the strong laser regime,the atomic degrees of freedom could be decoupled from the cavity degrees of freedom and the frequency conversion could be realized for the cavity modes.Due to the different initial states and
Limits to squeezing in the degenerate OPO
Chaturvedi, S; Drummond, P D
2001-01-01
We develop a systematic theory of quantum fluctuations in the driven parametric oscillator (OPO), including the region near threshold. This allows us to treat the limits imposed by nonlinearities to quantum squeezing and noise reduction, in this non-equilibrium quantum phase-transition. In particular, we compute the squeezing spectrum near threshold, and calculate the optimum value. We find that the optimal noise reduction occurs at different driving fields, depending on the ratio of damping rates. The largest spectral noise reductions are predicted to occur with a very high-Q second-harmonic cavity. Our analytic results agree well with stochastic numerical simulations. We also compare the results obtained in the positive-P representation, as a fully quantum mechanical calculation, with the truncated Wigner phase space equation, also known as semiclassical theory.
Squeeze Casting of Semiolid A356 Alloy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-Jie Yang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The rheo-squeeze casting (rheo-SQC combining the rheocasting and the SQC was developed, in which semisolid slurry was produced by the low superheat pouring with a shearing field (LSPSF process. The three-dimensional morphology of the primary α-Al phase and the rest spacing of slurry prepared by LSPSF process have been reconstructed and visualized, and the microstructures of squeeze cast A356 alloy have been obtained. Based on the three-dimensional microstructure reconstructed, their three-dimensional characterizations such as solid volume fraction and equivalent diameter of the extracted primary α-Al phase of the slurry were measured and calculated. And the microstructures of cross-section of squeeze cast product were investigated. Compared and analyzed the typical microstructure characteristics of parts in different positions produced by SQC and rheo-SQC, the results show that the primary α-Al phase was in the form of enriched dendrites across the whole section of parts produced by SQC. Nevertheless, in the relative case of the rheo-SQC, the whole formations of dendrites have been inhibited effectively, revealing a conspicuous modification in morphology and refinement of the primary α-Al phase. In addition, the solid fraction decreased from the centre to the verge of products along the slurry flow orientation.
Properties of squeezing functions and geometry of bounded domains
Deng, Fusheng; Zhang, Liyou
2012-01-01
In this article we continue the study of properties of squeezing functions and geometry of bounded domains. The limit of squeezing functions of a sequence of bounded domains is studied. We give comparisons of intrinsic positive forms and metrics on bounded domains in terms of squeezing functions. To study the boundary behavior of squeezing functions, we introduce the notions of (intrinsic) ball pinching radius, and give boundary estimate of squeezing functions in terms of these datum. Finally, we use these results to study geometric and analytic properties of some interesting domains, including planar domains, Cartan-Hartogs domains, and a strongly pseudoconvex Reinhardt domain which is not convex. As a corollary, all Cartan-Hartogs domains are homogenous regular, i.e., their squeezing functions admit positive lower bounds.
Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit.
Buchmann, L F; Schreppler, S; Kohler, J; Spethmann, N; Stamper-Kurn, D M
2016-07-15
A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows the accounting of measurement backaction. Even with the optomechanical system subject to continuous measurement, such detection allows the measurement of one component of an external force with sensitivity only limited by the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation.
Noise squeezing of fields that bichromatically excite atoms in a cavity.
Li, Lingchao; Hu, Xiangming; Rao, Shi; Xu, Jun
2016-11-14
It is well known that bichromatic excitation on one common transition can tune the emission or absorption spectra of atoms due to the modulation frequency dependent non-linearities. However little attention has been focused on the quantum dynamics of fields under bichromatic excitation. Here we present dissipative effects on noise correlations of fields in bichromatic interactions with atoms in cavities. We first consider an ensemble of two-level atoms that interacts with the two cavity fields of different frequencies and considerable amplitudes. By transferring the atom-field nonlinearities to the dressed atoms we separate out the dissipative interactions of Bogoliubov modes with the dressed atoms. The Bogoliubov mode dissipation establishes stable two-photon processes of two involved fields and therefore leads to two-mode squeezing. As a generalization, we then consider an ensemble of three-level Λ atoms for cascade bichromatic interactions. We extract the Bogoliubov-like four-mode interactions, which establish a quadrilateral of the two-photon processes of four involved fields and thus result in four-mode squeezing.
Simulations and experiments on polarization squeezing in optical fiber
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corney, J.F.; Heersink, J.; Dong, R.;
2008-01-01
We investigate polarization squeezing of ultrashort pulses in optical fiber, over a wide range of input energies and fiber lengths. Comparisons are made between experimental data and quantum dynamical simulations to find good quantitative agreement. The numerical calculations, performed using both...... effects cause a marked deterioration of squeezing at higher energies and longer fiber lengths. We also calculate the optimum fiber length for maximum squeezing....
Classical Stückelberg interferometry of a nanomechanical two-mode system
Seitner, Maximilian J.; Ribeiro, Hugo; Kölbl, Johannes; Faust, Thomas; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Weig, Eva M.
2016-12-01
Stückelberg interferometry is a phenomenon that has been well established for quantum-mechanical two-level systems. Here, we present classical two-mode interference of a nanomechanical two-mode system, realizing a classical analog of Stückelberg interferometry. Our experiment relies on the coherent energy exchange between two strongly coupled, high-quality factor nanomechanical resonator modes. Furthermore, we discuss an exact theoretical solution for the double-passage Stückelberg problem by expanding the established finite-time Landau-Zener single-passage solution. For the parameter regime explored in the experiment, we find that the Stückelberg return probability in the classical version of the problem formally coincides with the quantum case, which reveals the analogy of the return probabilities in the quantum-mechanical and the classical version of the problem. This result qualifies classical two-mode systems at large to simulate quantum-mechanical interferometry.
Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements
Genoni, Marco G.; Zhang, Jinglei; Millen, James; Barker, Peter F.; Serafini, Alessio
2015-07-01
With the purpose of controlling the steady state of a dielectric nanosphere levitated within an optical cavity, we study its conditional dynamics under simultaneous sideband cooling and additional time-continuous measurement of either the output cavity mode or the nanosphere’s position. We find that the average phonon number, purity and quantum squeezing of the steady-states can all be made more non-classical through the addition of time-continuous measurement. We predict that the continuous monitoring of the system, together with Markovian feedback, allows one to stabilize the dynamics for any value of the laser frequency driving the cavity. By considering state of the art values of the experimental parameters, we prove that one can in principle obtain a non-classical (squeezed) steady-state with an average phonon number {n}{ph}≈ 0.5.
Study on heat treatment blister of squeeze casting parts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TONG Wen-jun; QI Lin; QI Pi-xiang
2007-01-01
Heat treatment blister is one of the common defects found in squeeze casting parts, which is related to squeeze mode, process and mold. For direct squeeze-casting parts, solution heat treatment can be performed smoothly as long as oil-based paint is not used and air exhaust is well arranged. For indirect squeeze casting parts,solution heat treatment can also be applied when additional factors are taken into consideration, including well designed internal feeding system and strictly controlled liquid metal filling velocity to prevent from inclusions.
Degeneration of Four Wave Mixing in 500 m Step Index Two Mode Fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Jamaludin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Four wave mixing (FWM in two-mode fiber was experimentally demonstrated at 24.7 dBm of output Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA. The 0.5 km two mode fiber in laser cavity enhances the performance of four wave mixing by suppressing the homogenous broadening effect in erbium-doped fiber and perform a stable oscillation. At output EDFA approaches to 24.7 dBm, FWM is generated and the increasing of output EDFA induced the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR of all laser peaks.
Nonlinear Bethe-Heitler Pair Creation in an Intense Two-Mode Laser Field
Augustin, Sven
2013-01-01
We investigate electron-positron pair creation in the interaction of a nuclear Coulomb field and a highly intense two-mode laser field. For bichromatic laser fields, we examine the differences arising for commensurable and incommensurable frequencies in a continuous variation of the laser frequency ratio and the quantum interference effects, which may occur in the commensurable case. We show that the interference manifests in the angular distributions and the total pair-production rates of the created particles. Additionally, by varying the amplitudes of the two modes we study pair creation in a monochromatic laser wave of arbitrarily elliptical polarization.
Terahertz beat freuquency generation from two-mode lasing operation of coupled microdisk laser
Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Chil-Min; Shinohara, Susumu; Kim, Sang Wook
2012-01-01
We propose a coupled microdisk laser as a compact and tunable laser source for the generation of a coherent continuous wave THz radiation by photomixing. Using the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model including the nonlinear effect of active medium, we find single mode and two mode lasings depending on the pumping strength. We explain the transitions of lasing modes in terms of resonant modes which are the solutions of the Schr\\"odinger-Bloch model without active medium and nonlinear interaction. In particular, a two mode lasing is shown to generate THz oscillating frequency originating from the light beating of two nearly degenerated resonant modes with different symmetries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2003-07-01
Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)
A Two-Mode Mean-Field Optimal Switching Problem for the Full Balance Sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boualem Djehiche
2014-01-01
a two-mode optimal switching problem of mean-field type, which can be described by a system of Snell envelopes where the obstacles are interconnected and nonlinear. The main result of the paper is a proof of a continuous minimal solution to the system of Snell envelopes, as well as the full characterization of the optimal switching strategy.
Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove
2011-01-01
In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...
Computation of expectation values from vibrational coupled-cluster at the two-mode coupling level
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zoccante, Alberto; Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove
2011-01-01
In this work we show how the vibrational coupled-cluster method at the two-mode coupling level can be used to calculate zero-point vibrational averages of properties. A technique is presented, where any expectation value can be calculated using a single set of Lagrangian multipliers computed...
An Exact Solution and the Pancharatnam Phase for the Generalized Two-Mode Optical System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
侯邦品; 王顺金; 余万伦
2002-01-01
Using the algebraic dynamical method, we obtain the exact solution for the generalized two-mode optical system. From the solution, the Pancharatnam phase and the mean values of the number operators of the system are calculated. It is emphasized that the system can be used as a quantum memory.
Cognition from life: the two modes of cognition that underlie moral behavior
Andringa, Tjeerd; van den Bosch, Kirsten; Wijermans, Nanda
2015-01-01
We argue that the capacity to live life to the benefit of self and others originates in the defining properties of life. These lead to two modes of cognition; the coping mode that is preoccupied with the satisfaction of pressing needs and the co-creation mode that aims at the realization of a world
Buoyancy-induced squeezing of a deformable drop through an axisymmetric ring constriction
Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander Z.; Davis, Robert H.
2010-08-01
Bond number maximum versus the drop-to-total ring radius ratio is caused by the transitions from squeezing to dripping for the loss of a drop steady state on a constriction. The initial stages of drop dripping are numerically simulated using a boundary-integral method for slightly supercritical Bond numbers. For very large ratios of the drop-to-hole radii, however, a sharp maximum in the critical Bond number is reached, as there is a transition from the drop passing through the inside hole to dripping over the outside edge of the ring for Bond numbers above the critical line. Drop squeezing and trapping mechanisms are also observed experimentally, and the measured critical Bond numbers and trapped drop shapes compare favorably to theoretical calculations from the Young-Laplace algorithm.
Truong, Cao Dung; Trinh, M. Tuan; Dang, Hoai Bac; Nguyen, Van Tho
2017-02-01
We propose a polarization insensitive two-mode division (de)multiplexer based on a silicon-on-insulator platform operating with a broadband, low insertion and scattering loss, and small crosstalk. By using an asymmetric directional coupler, two-mode (de)multiplexing functions for both polarization TE and TM states can be realized by the numerical simulation. Simulated results using a three dimensional beam propagation method (3D-BPM) incorporated with an effective index method (EIM) show high performance of the device with an operation efficiency above 81.2% (i.e., insertion loss is less than 0.9 dB) in the range of ±5 nm around the central wavelength of 1550 nm. Fabrication tolerances also have proved suitability to current manufacture technologies for the planar waveguides. Besides a low scattering loss of the sidewall roughness and a little influence of dispersion, a small footprint can bring the device to applications of high bitrate and compact on-chip silicon photonic integrated circuits.
Squeezing-enhanced optomechanical transduction sensitivity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Harris, Glen I.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard;
2013-01-01
High-sensitivity interferometric detection of mechanical displacements has received much attention over the past decades, due to its vast field of applicability, e.g. in gravitational wave detection, cantilever-based single spin detection, and the quest to reveal quantum effects in mesoscopic...... mechanical systems. Following the proposal of Caves we have experimentally proven the applicability of squeezed light-enhanced interferometric displacement detection in the domain of micromechanical oscillators. The technique has previously been demonstrated for table-top interferometer setups and GW...
MHD squeezing flow between two infinite plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umar Khan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD squeezing flow of a viscous fluid has been discussed. Conservation laws combined with similarity transformations have been used to formulate the flow mathematically that leads to a highly nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Analytical solution to the resulting differential equation is determined by employing Variation of Parameters Method (VPM. Runge–Kutta order-4 method is also used to solve the same problem for the sake of comparison. It is found that solution using VPM reduces the computational work yet maintains a very high level of accuracy. The influence of different parameters is also discussed and demonstrated graphically.
Squeezed Wave Packets in Quantum Cosmology
Pedram, Pouria
2010-11-01
We use an appropriate initial condition for constructing squeezed wave packets in the context of Wheeler-DeWitt equation with complete classical description. This choice of initial condition does not alter the classical paths and only affect the quantum mechanical picture. To demonstrate the method, we consider an empty 4+1-dimensional Kaluza-Klein quantum cosmology in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We show that these wave packets do not disperse and sharply peak on the classical trajectories in the whole configuration space. So, the probability of finding the corresponding physical quantities approaches zero everywhere except on the classical paths.
Oscillatory squeeze flow for the study of linear viscoelastic behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole
2016-01-01
The squeezing of a sample between parallel plates has been used for many years to characterize the rheological behavior of soft, purely viscous materials, and in recent times, small-amplitude oscillatory squeezing has been proposed as a means to determine the linear viscoelastic properties of mol...
Critical Petermann K factor for intensity noise squeezing
van der Lee, A.M.; van Druten, N.J.; van Exter, M.P.; Woerdman, J.P.; Poizat, J.P.; Grangier, P.
2000-01-01
We investigate the impact of the Petermann-excess-noise factor K >= 1 on the possibility of intensity noise squeezing of laser light below the standard quantum limit. Using an N-mode model, we show that squeezing is limited to a floor level of 2(K-1) times the shot noise limit. Thus, even a modest P
Spin-Squeezing Entanglement of Second-Harmonic Generation
Shu, Jian
2016-10-01
An experimentally feasible scheme for generating spin-squeezing entanglement via second-harmonic generation was presented. Its shown that spin-squeezing entanglement can be generated rapidly in the dynamical process by adjusting coupling constant, detuning, the total number of particles and the evolution time.
Physical Activity Benefits Creativity: Squeezing a Ball for Enhancing Creativity
Kim, JongHan
2015-01-01
Studies in embodied cognition show that physical sensations, such as touch and movement, influence cognitive processes. Two studies were conducted to test whether squeezing a soft versus a hard ball facilitates different types of creativity. Squeezing a malleable ball would increase divergent creativity by catalyzing multiple or alternative ideas,…
Enforcing Margin Squeeze Ex Post Across Converging Telecommunications Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergqvist, Christian; Townsend, John
A margin squeeze is an exclusionary abuse which occurs when a vertically Integrated telecoms operator creates a disparity between upstream and downstream prices with the intention of squeezing an access competitor’s profits. The purpose of such pricing is either to increase the latter’s entry cos...
Resonance Fluorescence from an Artificial Atom in Squeezed Vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. Toyli
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We present an experimental realization of resonance fluorescence in squeezed vacuum. We strongly couple microwave-frequency squeezed light to a superconducting artificial atom and detect the resulting fluorescence with high resolution enabled by a broadband traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We investigate the fluorescence spectra in the weak and strong driving regimes, observing up to 3.1 dB of reduction of the fluorescence linewidth below the ordinary vacuum level and a dramatic dependence of the Mollow triplet spectrum on the relative phase of the driving and squeezed vacuum fields. Our results are in excellent agreement with predictions for spectra produced by a two-level atom in squeezed vacuum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2539 (1987], demonstrating that resonance fluorescence offers a resource-efficient means to characterize squeezing in cryogenic environments.
Ultrafast Optical Excitation of Coherent and Squeezed Phonons in SrTiO_3
Garrett, G. A.; Whitaker, J. F.; Merlin, R.
1998-03-01
We report on the impulsive excitation of coherent and squeezed phonon fields in SrTiO3 using, respectively, first-order and second-order stimulated Raman scattering.(osa.org/oearchive/source/2733.htm>Garrett et al)., Optics Express, to be published. Strontium titanate undergoes an antiferro-distortive phase transition at T_c≈ 110 K to a low temperature tetragonal structure. First-order Raman scattering is allowed only below T_c. Pump-probe spectra were obtained as a function of temperature and pump intensity. The frequency of the coherent (first-order) state is that of the A_1g-component of the soft mode associated with the phase transition. As in KTaO_3,(Garrett et al)., Science 275, 1638 (1997). the squeezed (second-order) field oscillates at a frequency corresponding to a strong, narrow peak in the density of states of the acoustic phonons.
Grishchuk, L P
1996-01-01
It is likely that the observed large-angular-scale anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are induced by the cosmological perturbations of quantum-mechanical origin. Such perturbations are now placed in squeezed vacuum quantum states and, hence, are characterized by large variances of their amplitude. The statistical properties of the anisotropies should reflect the underlying statistics of the squeezed vacuum quantum states. The theoretical variances for the temperature angular correlation function are derived and described quantitatively. It is shown that they are indeed large. Unfortunately, these large theoretical statistical uncertainties will make the extraction of cosmological information from the measured anisotropies a much more difficult problem than we wanted it to be.
Stability Analysis of a Gear Pair System Supported by Squeeze-Film Dampers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. N. Shiau
2001-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the stability of the steady-state periodic response of a gear pair system supported by squeeze-film dampers. The steady-state response of the system is obtained by using the hybrid technique of Harmonic Balance Method and Time Collocation. The Fioquet-Liapunov theory is used to perform the stability analysis of the first variation equations with periodic coefficients, which is generated by the perturbation technique. The stability charts on gear mesh stiffness, spin ratio, disk unbalance, gravity, and squeeze-film damper are used to perform parameter studies. The numerical results show that the unstable region always occurs when the spin ratio is near the second coupled mode of the gear pair system. Furthermore, the mesh stiffness has a significant influence on the coupled critical speeds. Therefore, it plays an important role in determining the spin ratio stability range.
Sala, Matthieu; Egorova, Dassia
2016-12-01
The multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of ultrafast nuclear dynamics at conical intersections (CI) is an emerging field of investigation, which profits also from the recent extension of the techniques to the UV domain. We present a detailed computational study of oscillatory signatures in two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo spectroscopy (also known as 2D electronic spectroscopy, 2DES) for the two-mode pyrazine model with dissipation. Conventional 2D signals as well as the resulting beating maps are considered. Although of a reduced character, the model captures quite well all the main signatures of the excited-state dynamics of the molecule. Due to the ultrafast relaxation via the CI and no excited-state absorption from the low-lying dark state, the oscillatory components of the signal are found to be predominantly determined by the ground state bleach contribution. They reflect, therefore, the ground-state vibrational coherence induced in the Raman active mode. Beating maps provide a way to experimentally differentiate between ground state bleach and stimulated emission oscillatory components. The ultrafast decay of the latter constitutes a clear indirect signature of the CI. In the considered model, because of the sign properties of the involved transition dipole moments, the dominance of the ground-state coherence leads to anti-correlated oscillations of cross peaks located at symmetric positions with respect to the main diagonal.
Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states
Jensen, K.; Wasilewski, W.; Krauter, H.; Fernholz, T.; Nielsen, B. M.; Owari, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Serafini, A.; Wolf, M. M.; Polzik, E. S.
2011-01-01
A quantum memory for light is a key element for the realization of future quantum information networks. Requirements for a good quantum memory are versatility (allowing a wide range of inputs) and preservation of quantum information in a way unattainable with any classical memory device. Here we demonstrate such a quantum memory for continuous-variable entangled states, which play a fundamental role in quantum information processing. We store an extensive alphabet of two-mode 6.0dB squeezed states obtained by varying the orientation of squeezing and the displacement of the states. The two components of the entangled state are stored in two room-temperature cells separated by 0.5m, one for each mode, with a memory time of 1ms. The true quantum character of the memory is rigorously proved by showing that the experimental memory fidelity 0.52+/-0.02 significantly exceeds the benchmark of 0.45 for the best possible classical memory for a range of displacements.
Magnetorheological Damper Working in Squeeze Mode
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinglong Gong
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This research is focused on evaluation of the magnetorheological fluids (MRFs based damper which works in squeeze mode. The operation direction of this damper is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. Before testing, commercial software ANSYS was used to analyze the magnetic field distribution inside the damper generated by charging current in the coil. The performance of the damper was tested by using the MTS809 (produced by MTS Systems Corporation, USA. For simulation of this damper, a mathematical model was set up. Experimental results showed that the small squeezed MR damper could produce large damping force; for example, the maximum damping force is nearly 6 kN, while the amplitude is 1.2 mm, the frequency is 1.0 Hz, and the current is 2.0 A, and the damping force was controllable by changing the current in the coil. The damping force versus displacement curves are complex. We divide them into four regions for simulation. The maximum damper force increased quickly with the increasing of the current in coil. This kind of damper can be used in vibration isolation for precise equipment.
Controllable hybrid shape of correlation and squeezing
Abdisa, Garuma; Ahmed, Irfan; Wang, Xiuxiu; Liu, Zongchen; Wang, Hongxing; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-08-01
Two- and three-mode correlation and squeezing of spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SPFWM) and fourth-order fluorescence (FL) composite signals are investigated theoretically and experimentally in both homonuclear (two-level) and heteronuclearlike (V-type level) molecular systems of P r3 + :YSO. By selecting different time positions, changing the power, and changing the frequency detuning of the laser field, the competition between the composite signals is demonstrated. It is found that as the laser parameters change, the signal evolves from a nonlinear χ(4 ) process resulting in a FL signal to a SPFWM signal (χ(3 ) process). In addition, the competition effect between the signals determines the evolution of the shape of the correlation from a pure sharp to a two-stage (mixed) shape and finally to a pure broad peak amplitude. Furthermore, the signal evolution determines the magnitude of squeezing, which can control the noise level. Such progress may find potential applications in optical hybrid communication and information processing.
Partial squeeze film levitation modulates fingertip friction.
Wiertlewski, Michaël; Fenton Friesen, Rebecca; Colgate, J Edward
2016-08-16
When touched, a glass plate excited with ultrasonic transverse waves feels notably more slippery than it does at rest. To study this phenomenon, we use frustrated total internal reflection to image the asperities of the skin that are in intimate contact with a glass plate. We observed that the load at the interface is shared between the elastic compression of the asperities of the skin and a squeeze film of air. Stroboscopic investigation reveals that the time evolution of the interfacial gap is partially out of phase with the plate vibration. Taken together, these results suggest that the skin bounces against the vibrating plate but that the bounces are cushioned by a squeeze film of air that does not have time to escape the interfacial separation. This behavior results in dynamic levitation, in which the average number of asperities in intimate contact is reduced, thereby reducing friction. This improved understanding of the physics of friction reduction provides key guidelines for designing interfaces that can dynamically modulate friction with soft materials and biological tissues, such as human fingertips.
Classical evolution of quantum fluctuations in spin-like systems: squeezing and entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimov, A B [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44410, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Espinoza, P [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Enrique Diaz de Leon 1, 47460, Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco (Mexico)
2005-06-01
It is shown that the quantum dynamics of spin coherent states governed by quadratic spin-like Hamiltonians, in the large spin limit, is well described in terms of evolution along classical trajectories on the two-dimensional sphere. Two non-linear effects: (a) spin squeezing and (b) spin entanglement are analysed using the Wigner function approach in the quasiclassical limit and numerically compared with the exact solution.
TWO-MODE GALERKIN APPROACH IN DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS OF VISCOELASTIC PLATES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张能辉; 程昌钧
2003-01-01
The dynamic stability of viscoelastic thin plates with large deflections was investigated by using the largest Liapunov exponent analysis and other numerical and analytical dynamic methods. The material behavior was described in terms of the Boltzmann superposition principle. The Galerkin method was used to simplify the original integropartial-differential model into a two-mode approximate integral model, which further reduced to an ordinary differential model by introducing new variables. The dynamic properties of one-mode and two-mode truncated systems were numerically compared. The influence of viscoelastic properties of the material, the loading amplitude and the initial values on the dynamic behavior of the plate under in-plane periodic excitations was discussed.
Diamantopoulos, N. P.; Nakazawa, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Maruta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Kuwaki, N.; Matsuo, S.; Kitayama, K.
2015-11-01
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is studied, particularly for the deployment of metro area networks (MAN) using two-mode fibers (TMF). Full C-band differential mode group delay (DMGD)-compensated TMF links are adopted for decreasing the computational complexity of real-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing. The effect of modal crosstalk to the maximum delay spread of the channel is validated through numerical simulations. Finally, the 2×2 MIMO channel state information (CSI) of a 102.6-km DMGD-compensated TMF link is experimentally estimated for mode path provisioning based upon routing and mode assignment (RMA) in MDM networks. The results confirm close-to-zero total DMGD value over the entire C-band.
Optimal Signal Filtration in Optical Sensors with Natural Squeezing of Vacuum Noises
Gusev, A. V.; Kulagin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The structure of optimal receiver is discussed for optical sensor measuring a small displacement of probe mass. Due to nonlinear interaction of the field and the mirror, a reflected wave is in squeezed state (natural squeezing), two quadratures of which are correlated and therefore one can increase signal-to-noise ratio and overcome the SQL. A measurement procedure realizing such correlation processing of two quadratures is clarified. The required combination of quadratures can be produced via mixing of pump field reflected from the mirror with local oscillator phase modulated field in duel-detector homodyne scheme. Such measurement procedure could be useful not only for resonant bar gravitational detector but for laser longbase interferometric detectors as well.
Critical petermann K factor for intensity noise squeezing
van Der Lee AM; van Druten NJ; van Exter MP; Woerdman; Poizat; Grangier
2000-11-27
We investigate the impact of the Petermann-excess-noise factor K>/=1 on the possibility of intensity noise squeezing of laser light below the standard quantum limit. Using an N-mode model, we show that squeezing is limited to a floor level of 2(K-1) times the shot noise limit. Thus, even a modest Petermann factor significantly impedes squeezing, which becomes impossible when K>/=1.5. This appears as a serious limitation for obtaining sub-shot-noise light from practical semiconductor lasers. We present experimental evidence for our theory.
Studying fluid squeeze characteristics for aerostatic journal bearing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel-Rahman, Gamal M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)], E-mail: gamalm60@yahoo.com
2008-07-01
The Reynolds equation for studying fluid squeeze of aerostatic journal bearing is solved numerically by considering the quasi-steady behavior of the air film. The radial displacement can influence the air film thickness modifying the pressure distribution in the journal-bearing gap. Also, the variations in the seal characteristics with eccentricity, time, squeeze number, length-to-diameter and supply pressure are presented. The numerical results for the squeeze load-carrying capacity are given in a non-dimensional for000.
The Achromatic Telescopic Squeezing (ATS) MD part III
Fartoukh, S; Goddard, B; Hofle, W; Jacquet, D; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; de Maria, R; Miyamoto, R; Mueller, G; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Ryckx, N; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Vanbavinckhove, G; Wenninger, J
2011-01-01
This note highlights the results obtained during the third so-called ATS MD which took place in 2011. The goal of this MD was extremely challenging, targeting a pre-squeezed beta* of 40 cm in ATLAS and CMS, followed by a telescopic squeeze of these two insertions to finally reach a beta* of 10 cm both at IP1 and IP5. Due to the rather poor machine availability during the MD period, the time initially allocated to the ATS studies was hardly cut by a factor of 2, and "only" the achromatic pre-squeeze down to beta*=40 cm was demonstrated with beam.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢俊; 许毅; 董传华
2003-01-01
In this paper, evolution of the higher-order squeezing for atomic dipole of three-level atom in the Kerr-like medium is investigated. The atom discussed has two configurations and is driven by the single-mode coherent state field. Our results show that the squeezing effects are clearly influenced by nonlinear parameters, the initial atom state and the detuning.
Ponderomotive light squeezing with atomic cavity optomechanics
Brooks, Daniel W C; Brahms, Nathan; Purdy, Thomas P; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M
2011-01-01
Accessing distinctly quantum aspects of the interaction between light and the position of a mechanical object has been an outstanding challenge to cavity-optomechanical systems. Only cold-atom implementations of cavity optomechanics have indicated effects of the quantum fluctuations in the optical radiation pressure force. Here we use such a system, in which quantum photon-number fluctuations significantly drive the center of mass of an atomic ensemble inside a Fabry-Perot cavity. We show that the optomechanical response both amplifies and ponderomotively squeezes the quantum light field. We also demonstrate that classical optical fluctuations can be attenuated by 26 dB or amplified by 20 dB with a weak input pump power of < 40 pW, and characterize the optomechanical amplifier's frequency-dependent gain and phase response in both the amplitude and phase-modulation quadratures.
Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams
Chille, Vanessa; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph
2016-01-01
We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices up to 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB$\\pm$0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters.
Science, society, and the coastal groundwater squeeze
Michael, Holly A.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Wilson, Alicia M.; Werner, Adrian D.
2017-04-01
Coastal zones encompass the complex interface between land and sea. Understanding how water and solutes move within and across this interface is essential for managing resources for society. The increasingly dense human occupation of coastal zones disrupts natural groundwater flow patterns and degrades freshwater resources by both overuse and pollution. This pressure results in a "coastal groundwater squeeze," where the thin veneers of potable freshwater are threatened by contaminant sources at the land surface and saline groundwater at depth. Scientific advances in the field of coastal hydrogeology have enabled responsible management of water resources and protection of important ecosystems. To address the problems of the future, we must continue to make scientific advances, and groundwater hydrology needs to be firmly embedded in integrated coastal zone management. This will require interdisciplinary scientific collaboration, open communication between scientists and the public, and strong partnerships with policymakers.
Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine
2014-01-01
We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...
Yu, Min; Fang, Mao-Fa
2016-10-01
We investigate the entropy squeezing of a two-level atom coupled to a dissipative cavity under two different controls: In the first case, quantum-jump-based feedback is alone applied, whereas in the second case we consider the combined effect of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving, in which we provide a scheme to generate and protect steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom. The results show that the entropy squeezing of atomic polarization components greatly depends on the control of quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving. Under the condition of designing proper quantum-jump-based feedback parameters, the entropy squeezing can be generated and protected. Furthermore, when both quantum-jump-based feedback and classical driving are simultaneously applied, steady and optimal entropy squeezing of the two-level atom can be obtained even though there is initially no entropy squeezing, which is explained by making use of the steady-state solution of the atom.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Optics and squeeze transformations after Einstein
Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Planat, Michel
2005-01-01
Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will publish a special issue in connection with the 9th International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations, to be held in Besançon, France, on 2-6 May 2005. In 2005, the physics community celebrates the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein’s theories of relativity and quantum physics. To celebrate these great contributions to physics, the conference will include sessions on Einstein’s influence on modern optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Conference participants, as well as other researchers working in the field, are invited to submit research papers to this special issue of the journal. The topics to be covered include: • Superposition principle • Squeezed states • Uncertainty relations • Quantum state generation and characterization • Phase space and group representations in quantum physics • Quantum transforms in signal analysis • Information theory and quantum computing • Quantum interference, decoherence and entanglement measure • Quantum chaos and quantum control • Bell inequalities • Nonstationary Casimir effect • Quantum-like and mesoscopic systems Manuscripts should be submitted by 1 August 2005 as the special issue is scheduled for publication in March 2006. All papers will be peer reviewed and the normal refereeing standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics will be maintained. The Editorial Division of IOP Publishing at the P N Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow will oversee editorial procedures in association with the IOP Publishing office in Bristol. There are no page charges for publication. Submissions should preferably be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. Advice on publishing your work in the journal, including specific information on figures, tables and references, may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors. Manuscripts should be submitted by e-mail to the Guest Editors at IOPP
Would one rather store squeezing or entanglement in continuous variable quantum memories?
Yadsan-Appleby, Hulya; Serafini, Alessio
2011-05-01
Given two quantum memories for continuous variables and the possibility to perform passive optical operations on the optical modes before or after the storage, two possible scenarios arise resulting in generally different degrees of final entanglement. Namely, one could either store an entangled state and retrieve it directly from the memory, or rather store two separate single-mode squeezed states and then combine them with a beam-splitter to generate the final entangled state. In this Letter, we analytically determine which of the two options yields more entanglement for several regions of the system's parameters, and quantify the advantage it entails.
Transmission probability of the two-mode mazer with injected atomic coherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁春华; 张智明
2005-01-01
The transmission probability of the two-mode mazer injected with V-type three-level atoms is studied, and the effects of the atomic coherence on it are examined. It is shown that the atomic coherence can affect the transmission probability. In the plots of the atomic transmission probability versus the dimensionless centre-of-mass momentum, there are resonance peaks and non-resonance platforms. The heights of these resonance peaks and non-resonance platforms can be adjusted by the atomic coherence parameter and by the relative coupling strength of the two transition channels.
Characterization of Rayleigh backscattering arising in various two-mode fibers.
Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Deng, Lei; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo
2016-05-30
We experimentally characterize the mode dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) arising in various two-mode fibers (TMFs). With the help of an all-fiber photonic lantern, we are able to measure the RB power at individual modes. Consequently, mode dependent power distribution of RB light caused by arbitrary forward propagation mode superposition can be obtained. The total RB power of the TMFs under test is higher than that of single mode fiber by at least 2 dB over the C band. Meanwhile, the RB light occurs among all guided modes in the TMFs with specific power ratios. The experimental characterization agrees well with the theoretical calculations.
Assessing Two-Mode Semantic Network Story Representations Using a False Memory Paradigm
Corman, Steven R.; Ball, B. Hunter; Talboom, Kimberly M.; GENE A. BREWER
2013-01-01
This paper describes a novel method of representing semantic networks of stories (and other text) as a two-mode graph. This method has some advantages over traditional one-mode semantic networks, but has the potential drawback (shared with n-gram text networks) that it contains paths that are not present in the text. An empirical study was devised using a false memory paradigm to determine whether these induced paths are remembered as being true of a set of stories. Results indicate that part...
EFFECTS OF COLOURED NOISE IN A TWO-MODE LASER SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗晓琴; 朱士群; 高伟建
2001-01-01
A homogeneously broadened two-mode laser system with multiplicative coloured noise is investigated when the mode coupling constant ξ=2. An analytical result is obtained when two-dimensional decoupling theory is applied to the system. The intensity auto-correlation function and effective eigenvalue of the laser system are calculated when the difference of pump parameters, multiplicative noise strength and noise correlation time are varied. It is shown that the multiplicative noise can enhance the fluctuations while the noise colour can reduce the fluctuations in the laser system.
MRE properties under shear and squeeze modes and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popp, K M [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Machine Elements, Design and Production, Agricolastrasse 1, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Zhang, X Z; Li, W H; Kosasih, P B [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, NSW 2522 (Australia)], E-mail: Kristin.Popp@imkf.tu-freiberg.de, E-mail: weihuali@uow.edu.au
2009-02-01
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) belong to the group of so called smart materials. Due to an applied magnetic field the MREs change their material properties like the stiffness. This feature has resulted in a number of novel applications, such as adaptive tuned dynamic vibration absorbers (ATDVA) for suppressing unwanted vibrations over a wide frequency range. MRE based devices operate in different modes, such as shear mode and squeeze mode but the study of mechanical performances of MREs under squeeze mode is very rare. This paper aims to investigate MRE performances under both shear and squeeze modes. Both experimental and simulation studies were conducted to analyze the MR effect in both modes. These studies indicate that MRE working in squeeze mode would result in higher MR effects. As a case study, a MRE based ATDVA was analyzed, which demonstrated good capabilities in reducing vibrations.
An integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light
Hoff, Ulrich B; Andersen, Ulrik L
2015-01-01
An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultra-compact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output squeezing spectrum for intra-cavity pump self-phase modulation. Subject to standard material loss and detection efficiencies, we find that the device holds promises for generating substantial quantum noise squeezing over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz. In the low-propagation loss regime, approximately -7 dB squeezing is predicted for a pump power of only 50 mW.
Squeezed light from second-harmonic generation: experiment versus theory.
Ralph, T C; Taubman, M S; White, A G; McClelland, D E; Bachor, H A
1995-06-01
We report excellent quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observation of squeezing from a singly resonant second-harmonic-generating crystal. Limitations in the noise suppression imposed by the pump laser are explicitly modeled and confirmed by our measurements.
Resonance Fluorescence from an Artificial Atom in Squeezed Vacuum
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Toyli, D. M; Eddins, A. W; Boutin, S; Puri, S; Hover, D; Bolkhovsky, V; Oliver, W. D; Blais, A; Siddiqi, I
2016-01-01
.... We strongly couple microwave-frequency squeezed light to a superconducting artificial atom and detect the resulting fluorescence with high resolution enabled by a broadband traveling-wave parametric amplifier...
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Squeezed and Non-classical Light
Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light
1988-01-01
The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...
Grote, Hartmut; Weinert, Michael; Adhikari, Rana X; Affeldt, Christoph; Kringel, Volker; Leong, Jonathan; Lough, James; Lück, Harald; Schreiber, Emil; Strain, Kenneth A; Vahlbruch, Henning; Wittel, Holger
2016-09-05
Current laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors employ a self-homodyne readout scheme where a comparatively large light power (5-50 mW) is detected per photosensitive element. For best sensitivity to gravitational waves, signal levels as low as the quantum shot noise have to be measured as accurately as possible. The electronic noise of the detection circuit can produce a relevant limit to this accuracy, in particular when squeezed states of light are used to reduce the quantum noise. We present a new electronic circuit design reducing the electronic noise of the photodetection circuit in the audio band. In the application of this circuit at the gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 the shot-noise to electronic noise ratio was permanently improved by a factor of more than 4 above 1 kHz, while the dynamic range was improved by a factor of 7. The noise equivalent photocurrent of the implemented photodetector and circuit is about 5μA/Hz above 1 kHz with a maximum detectable photocurrent of 20 mA. With the new circuit, the observed squeezing level in GEO 600 increased by 0.2 dB. The new circuit also creates headroom for higher laser power and more squeezing to be observed in the future in GEO 600 and is applicable to other optics experiments.
Squeezed Light for the Interferometric Detection of High Frequency Gravitational Waves
Schnabel, R; Strain, K A; Danzmann, K
2004-01-01
The quantum noise of the light field is a fundamental noise source in interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Injected squeezed light is capable of reducing the quantum noise contribution to the detector noise floor to values that surpass the so-called Standard-Quantum-Limit (SQL). In particular, squeezed light is useful for the detection of gravitational waves at high frequencies where interferometers are typically shot-noise limited, although the SQL might not be beaten in this case. We theoretically analyze the quantum noise of the signal-recycled laser interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO600 with additional input and output optics, namely frequency-dependent squeezing of the vacuum state of light entering the dark port and frequency-dependent homodyne detection. We focus on the frequency range between 1 kHz and 10 kHz, where, although signal recycled, the detector is still shot-noise limited. It is found that the GEO600 detector with present design parameters will benefit from frequency d...
A robust and simple two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined ADC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yin Xiumei; Zhao Nan; Sekedi Bomeh Kobenge; Yang Huazhong
2011-01-01
This paper presents a two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADC).The proposed calibration eliminates the errors of residual difference voltage induced by capacitor mismatch of pseudorandom (PN) sequence injection capacitors at the ADC initialization,while applies digital background calibration to continuously compensate the interstage gain errors in ADC normal operation.The presented technique not only reduces the complexity of analog circuit by eliminating the implementation of PN sequence with accurate amplitude in analog domain,but also improves the performance of digital background calibration by minimizing the sensitivity of calibration accuracy to sub-ADC errors.The use ofopamps with low DC gains in normal operation makes the proposed design more compatible with future nanometer CMOS technology.The prototype of a 12-bit 40-MS/s pipelined ADC with the two-mode digital calibration is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS process.Adopting a simple telescopic opamp with a DC gain of 58-dB in the first stage,the measured SFDR and SNDR within the first Nyquist zone reach 80-dB and 66-dB,respectively.With the calibration,the maximum integral nonlinearity (INL) of the ADC reduces from 4.75-LSB to 0.65-LSB,while the ADC core consumes 82-mW at 3.3-V power supply.
A robust and simple two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined ADC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yin Xiumei; Zhao Nan; Sekedi Bomeh Kobenge; Yang Huazhong, E-mail: yxm@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2011-03-15
This paper presents a two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The proposed calibration eliminates the errors of residual difference voltage induced by capacitor mismatch of pseudorandom (PN) sequence injection capacitors at the ADC initialization, while applies digital background calibration to continuously compensate the interstage gain errors in ADC normal operation. The presented technique not only reduces the complexity of analog circuit by eliminating the implementation of PN sequence with accurate amplitude in analog domain, but also improves the performance of digital background calibration by minimizing the sensitivity of calibration accuracy to sub-ADC errors. The use of opamps with low DC gains in normal operation makes the proposed design more compatible with future nanometer CMOS technology. The prototype of a 12-bit 40-MS/s pipelined ADC with the two-mode digital calibration is implemented in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process. Adopting a simple telescopic opamp with a DC gain of 58-dB in the first stage, the measured SFDR and SNDR within the first Nyquist zone reach 80-dB and 66-dB, respectively. With the calibration, the maximum integral nonlinearity (INL) of the ADC reduces from 4.75-LSB to 0.65-LSB, while the ADC core consumes 82-mW at 3.3-V power supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
A robust and simple two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined ADC
Xiumei, Yin; Nan, Zhao; Bomeh Kobenge, Sekedi; Huazhong, Yang
2011-03-01
This paper presents a two-mode digital calibration technique for pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADC). The proposed calibration eliminates the errors of residual difference voltage induced by capacitor mismatch of pseudorandom (PN) sequence injection capacitors at the ADC initialization, while applies digital background calibration to continuously compensate the interstage gain errors in ADC normal operation. The presented technique not only reduces the complexity of analog circuit by eliminating the implementation of PN sequence with accurate amplitude in analog domain, but also improves the performance of digital background calibration by minimizing the sensitivity of calibration accuracy to sub-ADC errors. The use of opamps with low DC gains in normal operation makes the proposed design more compatible with future nanometer CMOS technology. The prototype of a 12-bit 40-MS/s pipelined ADC with the two-mode digital calibration is implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS process. Adopting a simple telescopic opamp with a DC gain of 58-dB in the first stage, the measured SFDR and SNDR within the first Nyquist zone reach 80-dB and 66-dB, respectively. With the calibration, the maximum integral nonlinearity (INL) of the ADC reduces from 4.75-LSB to 0.65-LSB, while the ADC core consumes 82-mW at 3.3-V power supply.
Application Of CFD To Modeling Of Squeeze Mode Magnetorheological Dampers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gołdasz Janusz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The so-called squeeze flow involves a magnetorheological (MR fluid sandwiched between two planar surfaces setting up a flow channel. The height of the channel varies according to a prescribed displacement or force profile. When exposed to a magnetic field of sufficient strength MR fluids develop a yield stress. In squeeze-mode devices the yield stress varies with both the magnetic field magnitude and the channel height. In this paper an unsteady flow model of an MR fluid in squeeze mode is proposed. The model is developed in Ansys Fluent R16. The MR material flow model is based on the apparent viscosity approach. In order to investigate the material's behaviour the authors prepared a model of an idealized squeeze-mode damper in which the fluid flow is enforced by varying the height of the channel. Using mesh animation, the model plate is excited, and as the mesh moves, the fluid is squeezed out of the gap. In the simulations the model is subjected to a range of displacement inputs of frequencies from 10 to 20 Hz, and local yield stress levels up to 30 kPa. The results are presented in the form of time histories of the normal force on the squeezing plate and loops of force vs. displacement (velocity.
Squeezing-out dynamics in free-standing smectic films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S̀liwa, Izabela, E-mail: izasliwa@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznaǹ (Poland); Vakulenko, A.A. [Saint Petersburg Institute for Machine Sciences, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg 199178 (Russian Federation); Zakharov, A.V., E-mail: alexandre.zakharov@yahoo.ca [Saint Petersburg Institute for Machine Sciences, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg 199178 (Russian Federation)
2016-05-06
Highlights: • We model the dynamics of layer transitions. • We model the thermally activated nucleation of a small hole. • We model the dynamics of squeezing-out one layer. - Abstract: We have carried out a theoretical study of the dynamics of the squeezing-out of one layer from the N-layer free-standing smectic film (FSSF) coupled with a meniscus, during the layer-thinning process. Squeezing-out is initiated by a thermally activated nucleation process in which a density fluctuation forms a small void in the center of the circular FSSF. The pressure gradient develops between the squeezed-out and nonsqueezed-out areas and is responsible for the driving out of one or several layer(s) from the N-layer smectic film. The dynamics of the boundary between these areas in the FSSF is studied by the use of the conservation laws for mass and linear momentum with accounting for the coupling between the meniscus and the smectic film. This coupling has a strong effect on the dynamics of the squeezing-out process and may significantly change the time which is needed to completely squeezed-out one or several layer(s) from the N-layer smectic film.
Haghshenasfard, Zahra; Cottam, Michael G
2017-03-20
A microscopic (Hamiltonian-based) method for the quantum statistics of bosonic excitations in a two-mode magnon system is developed. Both the exchange and the dipole-dipole interactions, as well as the Zeeman term for an external applied field, are included in the spin Hamiltonian, and the model also contains the nonlinear effects due to parallel pumping and four-magnon interactions. The quantization of spin operators is achieved through the Holstein-Primakoff formalism, and then a coherent magnon state representation is used to study the occupation magnon number and the quantum statistical behaviour of the system. Particular attention is given to the cross correlation between the two coupled magnon modes in a ferromagnetic nanowire geometry formed by two lines of spins. Manipulation of the collapse-and-revival phenomena for the temporal evolution of the magnon number as well as the control of the cross correlation between the two magnon modes is demonstrated by tuning the parallel pumping field amplitude. The role of the four-magnon interactions is particularly interesting and leads to anti-correlation in some cases with coherent states.
Modeling squeezing and thermal disorder in driven oscillators
Sewran, Sashwin; Sergi, Alessandro
2014-01-01
Recently, model systems with quadratic Hamiltonians and time-dependent interactions were studied by Briegel and Popescu and by Galve et al in order to consider the possibility of both quantum refrigeration in enzymes [Proc. R. Soc. 469, 20110290 (2013)] and entanglement in the high temperature limit [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 180501 (2010); Phys. Rev. A 81, 062117 (2010)]. Following this line of research, we studied a model comprising two quantum harmonic oscillators driven by a time-dependent harmonic coupling. Such a system was embedded in a thermal bath represented in two different ways. In one case, the bath was composed of a finite but great number of independent harmonic oscillators with an Ohmic spectral density. In the other case, the bath was more efficiently defined in terms of a single oscillator coupled to a non-Hamiltonian thermostat. In both cases, we simulated the effect of the thermal disorder on the generation of the squeezed states in the two-oscillators relevant system. We found that, in our mo...
Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in two-mode optomechanics
Jiang, Cheng; Cui, Yuanshun; Li, Xiaowei
2013-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate the mechanically mediated electromagnetically induced transparency in a two-mode cavity optomechanical system, where two cavity modes are coupled to a common mechanical resonator. When the two cavity modes are driven on their respective red sidebands by two pump beams, a transparency window appears in the probe transmission spectrum due to destructive interference. Under this situation the transmitted probe beam can be delayed as much as 4 us, which can be easily controlled by the power of the pump beams. In addition, we also investigate the amplification of the transmitted probe beam owing to constructive interference when one cavity is driven on its blue sideband while another one is driven on its red sideband.
Two modes of change in Southern Ocean productivity over the past million years.
Jaccard, S L; Hayes, C T; Martínez-García, A; Hodell, D A; Anderson, R F; Sigman, D M; Haug, G H
2013-03-22
Export of organic carbon from surface waters of the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean decreased during the last ice age, coinciding with declining atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations, signaling reduced exchange of CO(2) between the ocean interior and the atmosphere. In contrast, in the Subantarctic Zone, export production increased into ice ages coinciding with rising dust fluxes, thus suggesting iron fertilization of subantarctic phytoplankton. Here, a new high-resolution productivity record from the Antarctic Zone is compiled with parallel subantarctic data over the past million years. Together, they fit the view that the combination of these two modes of Southern Ocean change determines the temporal structure of the glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO(2) record, including during the interval of "lukewarm" interglacials between 450 and 800 thousand years ago.
Sensor applications of two-mode fiber in the Michelson interferometer configuration
Hlubina, Petr; Prochazka, Pavel
1994-11-01
The classical coherence formalism and guided-mode field representation is used to discuss the operation of few-mode fiber waveguide excited by a low-coherence, cross-spectrally pure, spatially coherent source in Michelson interferometer configuration as a sensor, even if a suppressed interference pattern at its exit face exists. In the case of a low- coherence excitation of few-mode fiber waveguide the principle of coherence modulation can be used, that is, the optical path difference between guided modes that exceeds the source coherence length can be compensated in Michelson interferometer configuration. The analysis of temporal coherence in a particular case of two-mode, weakly-guiding, step-index fiber waveguide takes also into consideration the effect of second-order modal dispersion; the potential applications to low- coherence source based interferometric sensors are discussed.
Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber.
Friis, S M M; Begleris, I; Jung, Y; Rottwitt, K; Petropoulos, P; Richardson, D J; Horak, P; Parmigiani, F
2016-12-26
We demonstrate efficient four-wave mixing among different spatial modes in a 1-km long two-mode fiber at telecommunication wavelengths. Two pumps excite the LP01 and LP11 modes, respectively, while the probe signal excites the LP01 mode, and the phase conjugation (PC) and Bragg scattering (BS) idlers are generated in the LP11 mode. For these processes we experimentally characterize their phase matching efficiency and bandwidth and find that they depend critically on the wavelength separation of the two pumps, in good agreement with the numerical study we carried out. We also confirm experimentally that BS has a larger bandwidth than PC for the optimum choice of the pump wavelength separation.
Wavelength Dependence of the Polarization Singularities in a Two-Mode Optical Fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. G. Krishna Inavalli
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present here an experimental demonstration of the wavelength dependence of the polarization singularities due to linear combination of the vector modes excited directly in a two-mode optical fiber. The coherent superposition of the vector modes excited by linearly polarized Gaussian beam as offset skew rays propagated in a helical path inside the fiber results in the generation of phase singular beams with edge dislocation in the fiber output. The polarization character of these beams is found to change dramatically with wavelength—from left-handed elliptically polarized edge dislocation to right-handed elliptically polarized edge-dislocation through disclinations. The measured behaviour is understood as being due to intermodal dispersion of the polarization corrections to the propagating vector modes, as the wavelength of the input beam is scanned.
Two-mode model for metal-dielectric guided-mode resonance filters.
Tuambilangana, Christelle; Pardo, Fabrice; Sakat, Emilie; Bouchon, Patrick; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad
2015-12-14
Symmetric metal-dielectric guided-mode resonators (GMR) can operate as infrared band-pass filters, thanks to high-transmission resonant peaks and good rejection ratio. Starting from matrix formalism, we show that the behavior of the system can be described by a two-mode model. This model reduces to a scalar formula and the GMR is described as the combination of two independent Fabry-Perot resonators. The formalism has then been applied to the case of asymmetric GMR, in order to restore the properties of the symmetric system. This result allows designing GMR-on-substrate as efficient as free-standing systems, the same high transmission maximum value and high quality factor being conserved.
Relaxation Process of Interacting Two-mode System Influenced by Markovian Thermal Reservoirs
Ban, Masashi
2016-11-01
Two different models of a relaxation process are considered for a linearly interacting two-mode system under the influence of independent Markovian thermal reservoirs. One is to describe the relaxation process of bare particles and the other is to describe the one of quasi particles which are derived from bare particles by the Bogoliubov transformation. The difference is that the former does not includes the effect of the inter-mode interaction on the damping operator while the latter does. The equations of motion are solved algebraically by making use of non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics. The relaxation processes in the two models are investigated in detail. The results are applied for investigating a non-ideal beam splitter with photon loss and noise addition.
Crosstalk analysis in homogeneous multi-core two-mode fiber under bent condition.
Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Bae, S H; Sim, D H; Kim, Hoon; Chung, Y C
2015-04-20
We analyze the inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core two-mode fibers (MC-TMFs) under bent condition by using the coupled-mode equations. In particular, we investigate the effects of the intra-core mode coupling on the inter-core crosstalk for two different types of MC-TMFs at various bending radii. The results show that the inter-core homo-mode crosstalk of LP(11) mode is dominant under the gentle fiber bending condition due to its large effective area. However, as the fiber bending becomes tight, the intra-core mode coupling is significantly enhanced and consequently makes all the inter-core crosstalk levels comparable to each other regardless of the mode. A similar tendency is observed at a reduced bending radius when the difference in the propagation constants between modes is large and core pitch is small.
Mechanical Micronization of Lipoaspirates: Squeeze and Emulsification Techniques.
Mashiko, Takanobu; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Feng, Jingwei; Kanayama, Koji; Kinoshita, Kaori; Sunaga, Ataru; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Yoshimura, Kotaro
2017-01-01
Condensation of grafted fat has been considered a key for achieving better outcomes after fat grafting. The authors investigated the therapeutic potential of two mechanical tissue micronizing procedures: squeeze and emulsification. Human aspirated fat was centrifuged (centrifuged fat) and fragmented with an automated slicer (squeezed fat). Alternatively, centrifuged fat was emulsified by repeated transfer between two syringes through a small-hole connecter and then separated by mesh filtration into two portions: residual tissue of emulsified fat and filtrated fluid of emulsified fat. The four products were examined for cellular components. Histologic and electron microscopic analyses revealed that squeezed fat and residual tissue of emulsified fat contained broken adipocytes and fragmented capillaries. Compared with centrifuged fat, the squeezed fat and residual fat products exhibited increased specific gravity and increased numbers of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells and endothelial cells per volume, suggesting successful cell/tissue condensation in both squeezed fat and residual tissue of emulsified fat. Although cell number and viability in the stromal vascular fraction were well maintained in both squeezed fat and residual fat, stromal vascular fraction culture assay showed that adipose-derived stromal cells were relatively damaged in residual tissue of emulsified fat but not in squeezed fat. By contrast, no adipose-derived stromal cells were cultured from filtrated fluid of emulsified fat. The authors' results demonstrated that mechanical micronization is easily conducted as a minimal manipulation procedure, which can condense the tissue by selectively removing adipocytes without damaging key components, such as adipose-derived stromal cells and endothelial cells. Depending on the extent of adipocyte removal, the product may be a useful therapeutic tool for efficient tissue volumization or therapeutic revitalization/fertilization. Therapeutic, V.
Exact diagonalization of non-Hermitian so(3,2) models: Generalized two-mode boson systems
Zhang, Hong-Biao; Wang, Gangcheng
2016-12-01
We propose a unified approach to exactly diagonalize generalized non-Hermitian so(3,2) models. This approach is a series of similarity transformations, which is constructed by some similarity transformation operators associated with su(1,1) and su(2) subalgebras of so(3,2) Lie algebra. During this diagonalization, it is worth noting that a key step is to get rid of the terms E ˆ ± and F ˆ ± together via the proper similarity transformations first. In this way, exact solutions of the non-Hermitian so(3,2) models are obtained. Meanwhile we give the corresponding eigenstates, which are regarded as Lie algebra so(3,2) coherent-like number states. The results can cover the generic form of the eigenvalues and eigenstates to the generalized non-Hermitian two-mode boson systems with the discrete spectrum, including 2D PT-symmetric and non-PT-symmetric oscillators as the special cases. Also they are true for the Hermitian case.
Entropy Squeezing in Coupled Field-Superconducting Charge Qubit with Intrinsic Decoherence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Xue-Qun; SHAO Bin; ZOU Jian
2007-01-01
We investigate the entropy squeezing in the system of a superconducting charge qubit coupled to a single mode field. We find an exact solution of the Milburn equation for the system and discuss the influence of intrinsic decoherence on entropy squeezing. As a comparison, we also consider the variance squeezing. Our results show that in the absence of the intrinsic decoherence both entropy and variance squeezings have the same periodic properties of time,and occur at the same range of time. However, when the intrinsic decoherence is considered, we find that as the time going on the entropy squeezing disappears fast than the variance squeezing, there exists a range of time where entropy squeezing can occur but variance squeezing cannot.
Information Entropy. and Squeezing of Quantum Fluctuations in a Two-Level Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain
2000-01-01
We study the atomic squeezing in the language of the quantum information theory. A rigorous entropy uncertainty relation which suits for characterizing the squeezing of a two-level atoms is obtained, and a general definition of information entropy squeezing in the two-level atoms is given. The information entropy squeezing of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode quantum field is examined. Our results show that the information entropy is a superior measure of the quantum uncertainty of atomic observable, also is a remarkable good precision measure of atomic squeezing. When the population difference of two-level atom is zero, the definition of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is trivial, while the definition of information entropy squeezing of the atom based on the entropy uncertainty relation is valid and can provide full information on the atomic squeezing in any cases.
Aleman, Monica; Weich, Kalie M; Madigan, John E
2017-09-05
Horses are a precocious species that must accomplish several milestones that are critical to survival in the immediate post-birth period for their survival. One essential milestone is the successful transition from the intrauterine unconsciousness to an extrauterine state of consciousness or awareness. This transition involves a complex withdrawal of consciousness inhibitors and an increase in neuroactivating factors that support awareness. This process involves neuroactive hormones as well as inputs related to factors such as cold, visual, olfactory, and auditory stimuli. One factor not previously considered in this birth transition is a yet unreported direct neural reflex response to labor-induced physical compression of the fetus in the birth canal (squeezing). Neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS) is a disorder of the newborn foal characterized by altered behavior, low affinity for the mare, poor awareness of the environment, failure to bond to the mother, abnormal sucking, and other neurologically-based abnormalities. This syndrome has been associated with altered events during birth, and was believed to be caused exclusively by hypoxia and ischemia. However, recent findings revealed an association of the NMS syndrome with the persistence of high concentrations of in utero neuromodulating hormones (neurosteroids) in the postnatal period. Anecdotal evidence demonstrated that a novel physical compression (squeeze) method that applies 20 min of sustained pressure to the thorax of some neonatal foals with this syndrome might rapidly hasten recovery. This survey provides information about outcomes and time frames to recovery comparing neonatal foals that were given this squeeze treatment to foals treated with routine medical therapy alone. Results revealed that the squeeze procedure, when applied for 20 min, resulted in a faster full recovery of some foals diagnosed with NMS. The adjunctive use of a non-invasive squeeze method may improve animal welfare by
Parametric excitation and squeezing in a many-body spinor condensate.
Hoang, T M; Anquez, M; Robbins, B A; Yang, X Y; Land, B J; Hamley, C D; Chapman, M S
2016-04-05
Atomic spins are usually manipulated using radio frequency or microwave fields to excite Rabi oscillations between different spin states. These are single-particle quantum control techniques that perform ideally with individual particles or non-interacting ensembles. In many-body systems, inter-particle interactions are unavoidable; however, interactions can be used to realize new control schemes unique to interacting systems. Here we demonstrate a many-body control scheme to coherently excite and control the quantum spin states of an atomic Bose gas that realizes parametric excitation of many-body collective spin states by time varying the relative strength of the Zeeman and spin-dependent collisional interaction energies at multiples of the natural frequency of the system. Although parametric excitation of a classical system is ineffective from the ground state, we show that in our experiment, parametric excitation from the quantum ground state leads to the generation of quantum squeezed states.
Topological phase transitions and chiral inelastic transport induced by the squeezing of light
Peano, Vittorio; Houde, Martin; Brendel, Christian; Marquardt, Florian; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-01-01
There is enormous interest in engineering topological photonic systems. Despite intense activity, most works on topological photonic states (and more generally bosonic states) amount in the end to replicating a well-known fermionic single-particle Hamiltonian. Here we show how the squeezing of light can lead to the formation of qualitatively new kinds of topological states. Such states are characterized by non-trivial Chern numbers, and exhibit protected edge modes, which give rise to chiral elastic and inelastic photon transport. These topological bosonic states are not equivalent to their fermionic (topological superconductor) counterparts and, in addition, cannot be mapped by a local transformation onto topological states found in particle-conserving models. They thus represent a new type of topological system. We study this physics in detail in the case of a kagome lattice model, and discuss possible realizations using nonlinear photonic crystals or superconducting circuits. PMID:26931620
Squeezing of X waves with orbital angular momentum
Ornigotti, Marco; Szameit, Alexander; Conti, Claudio
2016-01-01
Multi-level quantum protocols may potentially supersede standard quantum optical polarization-encoded protocols in terms of amount of information transmission and security. However, for free space telecomunications, we do not have tools for limiting loss due to diffraction and perturbations, as for example turbulence in air. Here we study propagation invariant quantum X-waves with angular momentum; this representation expresses the electromagnetic field as a quantum gas of weakly interacting bosons. The resulting spatio-temporal quantized light pulses are not subject to diffraction and dispersion, and are intrinsically resilient to disturbances in propagation. We show that spontaneous down-conversion generates squeezed X-waves useful for quantum protocols. Surprisingly the orbital angural momentum affects the squeezing angle, and we predict the existence of a characteristic axicon aperture for maximal squeezing. There results may boost the applications in free space of quantum optical transmission and multi-l...
High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses
Fan, Jitang
2017-03-01
High-rate squeezing process of bulk metallic glasses from a cylinder into an intact sheet achieved by impact loading is investigated. Such a large deformation is caused by plastic flow, accompanied with geometrical confinement, shear banding/slipping, thermo softening, melting and joining. Temperature rise during the high-rate squeezing process makes a main effect. The inherent mechanisms are illustrated. Like high-pressure torsion (HPT), equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and surface mechanical attrition treatments (SMAT) for refining grain of metals, High-Rate Squeezing (HRS), as a multiple-functions technique, not only creates a new road of processing metallic glasses and other metallic alloys for developing advanced materials, but also directs a novel technology of processing, grain refining, coating, welding and so on for treating materials.
Effects of reservoir squeezing on quantum systems and work extraction
Huang, X. L.; Wang, Tao; Yi, X. X.
2012-11-01
We establish a quantum Otto engine cycle in which the working substance contacts with squeezed reservoirs during the two quantum isochoric processes. We consider two working substances: (1) a qubit and (2) two coupled qubits. Due to the effects of squeezing, the working substance can be heated to a higher effective temperature, which leads to many interesting features different from the ordinary ones, such as (1) for the qubit as working substance, if we choose the squeezed parameters properly, the positive work can be exported even when TH
Demonstration of a squeezed-light-enhanced power- and signal-recycled Michelson interferometer.
Vahlbruch, Henning; Chelkowski, Simon; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman
2005-11-18
We report on the experimental combination of three advanced interferometer techniques for gravitational wave detection, namely, power recycling, detuned signal recycling, and squeezed field injection. For the first time, we experimentally prove the compatibility of especially the latter two. To achieve a broadband nonclassical sensitivity improvement, we applied a filter cavity for compensation of quadrature rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio was improved by up to 2.8 dB beyond the coherent state's shot noise. The complete setup was stably locked for arbitrary times and characterized by injected single-sideband modulation fields.
Effect of squeeze on electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould wave damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashourvan, Arash; Dubin, Daniel H. E. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2014-05-15
We present a theory for increased damping of Trivelpiece-Gouid plasma modes on a nonneutral plasma column, due to application of a Debye shielded cylindrically symmetric squeeze potential φ{sub 1}. We present two models of the effect this has on the plasma modes: a 1D model with only axial dependence, and a 2D model that also keeps radial dependence in the squeezed equilibrium and the mode. We study the models using both analytical and numerical methods. For our analytical studies, we assume that φ{sub 1}/T≪1, and we treat the Debye shielded squeeze potential as a perturbation in the equilibrium Hamiltonian. Our numerical simulations solve the 1D Vlasov-Poisson system and obtain the frequency and damping rate for a self-consistent plasma mode, making no assumptions as to the size of the squeeze. In both the 1D and 2D models, damping of the mode is caused by Landau resonances at energies E{sub n} for which the particle bounce frequency ω{sub b}(E{sub n}) and the wave frequency ω satisfy ω=nω{sub b}(E{sub n}). Particles experience a non-sinusoidal wave potential along their bounce orbits due to the squeeze potential. As a result, the squeeze induces bounce harmonics with n > 1 in the perturbed distribution. The harmonics allow resonances at energies E{sub n}≤T that cause substantial damping, even when wave phase velocities are much larger than the thermal velocity. In the regime ω/k≫√(T/m) (k is the wave number) and T≫φ{sub 1}, the resonance damping rate has a |φ{sub 1}|{sup 2} dependence. This dependence agrees with the simulations and experimental results.
A faster urethral pressure reflectometry technique for evaluating the squeezing function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klarskov, Niels; Saaby, Marie-Louise; Lose, Gunnar
2013-01-01
Abstract Objective. Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) has shown to be superior in evaluating the squeeze function compared to urethral pressure profilometry. The conventional UPR measurement (step method) required up to 15 squeezes to provide one measure of the squeezing opening pressure and ...
Feasibility of two modes of treatment delivery for child anxiety in primary care.
Chavira, Denise A; Drahota, Amy; Garland, Ann F; Roesch, Scott; Garcia, Maritza; Stein, Murray B
2014-09-01
In this study, we examine the feasibility of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety in primary care, using two modes of treatment delivery. A total of 48 parents and youth (8-13) with anxiety disorders were randomly assigned to receive 10-sessions of CBT either delivered by a child anxiety specialist in the primary care clinic or implemented by the parent with therapist support by telephone (i.e., face-to-face or therapist-supported bibliotherapy). Feasibility outcomes including satisfaction, barriers to treatment participation, safety, and dropout were assessed. Independent evaluators, blind to treatment condition, administered the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children (ADIS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up; clinical self-report questionnaires were also administered. Findings revealed high satisfaction, low endorsement of barriers, low drop out rates, and no adverse events across the two modalities. According to the CGI-I, 58.3%-75% of participants were considered responders (i.e., much or very much improved) at the various time points. Similar patterns were found for remission from "primary anxiety disorder" and "all anxiety disorders" as defined by the ADIS. Clinically significant improvement was seen on the various parent and child self-report measures of anxiety. Findings suggest that both therapy modalities are feasible and associated with significant treatment gains in the primary care setting. (clinicaltrials.gov unique identifier: NCT00769925).
Keiderling, Michael C.; Kojima, Harry
2009-03-01
We have extended our studies on the non-classical behavior of solid ^4He contained in compound torsional oscillator (TO) cell below 1 K. Our unique TO design allows observations on the identical sample at two distinct frequencies(f1=493 and f2=1165 Hz). The sample was grown by blocked capillary method in an annular cell(id = 8.0 mm, od = 10.0 mm, height = 9.0 mm). We focus here on experiments in which the two modes are excited simultaneously. While keeping the drive of f2 mode at a very low level, the drive of f1 mode was varied from high to low levels to produce substantial variations in the non-classical rotation inertia fraction (NCRIf). When the NCRIf seen by f1 mode is reduced by 89, 91 and 94 % at 9.7, 23.5 and 56.5 mK, respectively, the NCRIf seen by f2 mode (driven at low level) is reduced by 62, 68 and 80 %. The discrepancies and their temperature dependence in the observed reductions in NCRIf are not yet understood. Similar Measurements with the roles of the drive levels of the modes reversed as well as the changes in the dissipation of the torsional oscillator during the simultaneous drive will be reported.
Postprandial lipoprotein profile in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise
Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; de Moura Mello Antunes, Barbara; Lira, Fabio Santos; Takito, Monica Yuri; Franchini, Emerson
2016-01-01
The aim of present study was to compare blood lipid postprandial profile response in two modes of high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve individuals (6 men and 6 women) were submitted to a maximal incremental test (to determine maximal aerobic power [MAP] and V. O2peak [peak oxygen uptake]), high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (60×8-sec bouts interspersed by 12-sec passive recovery) and fixed high-intensity intermittent exercise (100% maximal aerobic speed, consisted of 1-min repetitions at MAP [70 rpm] separated by 1-min of passive recovery). Blood samples were collected pre, immediately, 45 and 90-min postexercise. Serum was analyzed for total cholesterol and its ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (TAG). For TAG there was a main effect of moment with higher values immediately postexercise compared to 45-min postexercise. For VLDL there was a main effect to moment with higher values immediately post exercise than pre and 45-min postexercise; higher values 90-min postexercise than 45-min postexercise. There was no effect for HDL-c, LDL-c, and cholesterol. For area under the curve there was no difference for any variable. Our results indicated that both kinds of acute exercise session lead to no improvement in the acute response of serum lipid profile of healthy young. PMID:27807528
Chen, Tsun-Hsu; Wang, Hsin-Hu; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung
2016-03-01
In comparison to more developed optical method for microparticle manipulation like optical tweezers, an optopiezoelectric actuating system could provide force output that is several orders higher. Taking advantages of photoconductive materials, the concept of integrating a virtual electrode in a distributed opto-piezoelectric actuators was developed for real-time in-situ spatial tailoring for vast varieties of applications in biochips, smart structures, etc. In this study, photoconductive material titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc) was used as the active ingredient to enable the virtual electrode in an opto-piezoelectric material based distributed actuator. By illuminating light of proper wavelength and enough intensity onto TiOPc photoconductive material, the effective impedance of the illuminated portion of TiOPc could drop significantly. The contributions of using additives in the TiOPc photoconductive electrode to adjust the electrical properties was investigated for optimization. Further, the two-mode excited linear ultrasonic motor was also studied and the feasibility to integrate the TiOPc photoconductive electrode was discussed. The flexibility provided by this newly developed system could potential deliver versatile performance in biochip applications.
Two modes of release shape the postsynaptic response at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse.
Grant, Lisa; Yi, Eunyoung; Glowatzki, Elisabeth
2010-03-24
Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sounds into receptor potentials and via their ribbon synapses into firing rates in auditory nerve fibers. Multivesicular release at individual IHC ribbon synapses activates AMPA-mediated EPSCs with widely ranging amplitudes. The underlying mechanisms and specific role for multivesicular release in encoding sound are not well understood. Here we characterize the waveforms of individual EPSCs recorded from afferent boutons contacting IHCs and compare their characteristics in immature rats (postnatal days 8-11) and hearing rats (postnatal days 19-21). Two types of EPSC waveforms were found in every recording: monophasic EPSCs, with sharp rising phases and monoexponential decays, and multiphasic EPSCs, exhibiting inflections on rising and decaying phases. Multiphasic EPSCs exhibited slower rise times and smaller amplitudes than monophasic EPSCs. Both types of EPSCs had comparable charge transfers, suggesting that they were activated by the release of similar numbers of vesicles, which for multiphasic EPSCs occurred in a less coordinated manner. On average, a higher proportion of larger, monophasic EPSCs was found in hearing compared to immature rats. In addition, EPSCs became significantly faster with age. The developmental increase in size and speed could improve auditory signaling acuity. Multiphasic EPSCs persisted in hearing animals, in some fibers constituting half of the EPSCs. The proportion of monophasic versus multiphasic EPSCs varied widely across fibers, resulting in marked heterogeneity of amplitude distributions. We propose that the relative contribution of two modes of multivesicular release, generating monophasic and multiphasic EPSCs, may underlie fundamental characteristics of auditory nerve fibers.
Metal-matrix interpenetrating phasecomposites produced by squeeze casting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈彬; 胡文彬; 刘磊; 周伟; 张荻
2002-01-01
On the basis of the proposition and manufacture of a new type of metal-matrix interpenetrating phase composites (MMIPCs) by vacuum high-pressure infiltration, squeeze casting method was chosen for further study on this new type of MMIPCs. By employing the highly porous ceramic perform made from SHS reaction of Al-TiO2-C system, squeeze casting process was studied in detail. By means of OM, SEM and TEM, the obtained highly porous SHS reaction products and the resulting MMIPCs for further understanding were closely examined and analyzed.
Coupling Measurements and Corrections for the Combined Ramp and Squeeze
Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Schaumann, Michaela; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2016-01-01
In operation of the LHC the ramp and the squeeze process have been independent beam processes up to now. Making them into a combined process would save time to reach the point where the beams are brought to collision. This would increase the integrated luminosity provided by the LHC. One possible source of problems could be deviation from the ideal optics and in particular the control of the transverse coupling. In this report we focus on the coupling measurements that were taken during the Combined Ramp and Squeeze (CRS) MD.
Enforcing Margin Squeeze Ex Post Across Converging Telecommunications Markets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergqvist, Christian; Townsend, John
A margin squeeze is an exclusionary abuse which occurs when a vertically Integrated telecoms operator creates a disparity between upstream and downstream prices with the intention of squeezing an access competitor’s profits. The purpose of such pricing is either to increase the latter’s entry costs...... and innovation present both theoretical and practical difficulties for assessing “muddled margins” on telecoms markets. New and different enforcement approaches to exclusion will have to be formulated within the Article 102 framework and tested in the Courts. This may even require abstaining from applying...
Quantum State Engineering of Light with Continuous-wave Optical Parametric Oscillators
Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien
2014-01-01
Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics1,2. Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems3. We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator3,4. This system is based on a non-linear χ2 crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states5. Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ3 non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode. PMID:24961685
Two modes of cell death caused by exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga N Pakhomova
Full Text Available High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF, are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity ("nanoelectroporation", leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1-2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6-24 hr post nsPEF. These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.
Two modes of cell death caused by exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric field.
Pakhomova, Olga N; Gregory, Betsy W; Semenov, Iurii; Pakhomov, Andrei G
2013-01-01
High-amplitude electric pulses of nanosecond duration, also known as nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), are a novel modality with promising applications for cell stimulation and tissue ablation. However, key mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of nsPEF have not been established. We show that the principal cause of cell death induced by 60- or 300-ns pulses in U937 cells is the loss of the plasma membrane integrity ("nanoelectroporation"), leading to water uptake, cell swelling, and eventual membrane rupture. Most of this early necrotic death occurs within 1-2 hr after nsPEF exposure. The uptake of water is driven by the presence of pore-impermeable solutes inside the cell, and can be counterbalanced by the presence of a pore-impermeable solute such as sucrose in the medium. Sucrose blocks swelling and prevents the early necrotic death; however the long-term cell survival (24 and 48 hr) does not significantly change. Cells protected with sucrose demonstrate higher incidence of the delayed death (6-24 hr post nsPEF). These cells are more often positive for the uptake of an early apoptotic marker dye YO-PRO-1 while remaining impermeable to propidium iodide. Instead of swelling, these cells often develop apoptotic fragmentation of the cytoplasm. Caspase 3/7 activity increases already in 1 hr after nsPEF and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage is detected in 2 hr. Staurosporin-treated positive control cells develop these apoptotic signs only in 3 and 4 hr, respectively. We conclude that nsPEF exposure triggers both necrotic and apoptotic pathways. The early necrotic death prevails under standard cell culture conditions, but cells rescued from the necrosis nonetheless die later on by apoptosis. The balance between the two modes of cell death can be controlled by enabling or blocking cell swelling.
Teacher argumentation in the secondary science classroom: Images of two modes of scientific inquiry
Gray, Ron E.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine scientific arguments constructed by secondary science teachers during instruction. The analysis focused on how arguments constructed by teachers differed based on the mode of inquiry underlying the topic. Specifically, how did the structure and content of arguments differ between experimentally and historically based topics? In addition, what factors mediate these differences? Four highly experienced high school science teachers were observed daily during instructional units for both experimental and historical science topics. Data sources include classroom observations, field notes, reflective memos, classroom artifacts, a nature of science survey, and teacher interviews. The arguments were analyzed for structure and content using Toulmin's argumentation pattern and Walton's schemes for presumptive reasoning revealing specific patterns of use between the two modes of inquiry. Interview data was analyzed to determine possible factors mediating these patterns. The results of this study reveal that highly experienced teachers present arguments to their students that, while simple in structure, reveal authentic images of science based on experimental and historical modes of inquiry. Structural analysis of the data revealed a common trend toward a greater amount of scientific data used to evidence knowledge claims in the historical science units. The presumptive reasoning analysis revealed that, while some presumptive reasoning schemes remained stable across the two units (e.g. 'causal inferences' and 'sign' schemes), others revealed different patterns of use including the 'analogy', 'evidence to hypothesis', 'example', and 'expert opinion' schemes. Finally, examination of the interview and survey data revealed five specific factors mediating the arguments constructed by the teachers: view of the nature of science, nature of the topic, teacher personal factors, view of students, and pedagogical decisions. These
Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states
Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value
2003-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the m
Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states
Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value
The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the