WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-loop weak radiative

  1. Coherent neutrino radiation in supernovae at two loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sedrakian, A.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    2000-01-01

    We develop a neutrino transport theory, in terms of the real-time non-equilibrium Green's functions, which is applicable to physical conditions arbitrary far from thermal equilibrium. We compute the coherent neutrino radiation in cores of supernovae by evaluating the two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) polarization function with dressed propagators. The propagator dressing is carried out in the particle-particle channel to all orders in the interaction. We show that at two loops there are two disti...

  2. Coherent neutrino radiation in supernovae at two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakian, A.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    2000-10-01

    We develop a neutrino transport theory, in terms of the real-time nonequilibrium Green's functions, which is applicable to physical conditions arbitrary far from thermal equilibrium. We compute the coherent neutrino radiation in cores of supernovae by evaluating the two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) polarization function with dressed propagators. The propagator dressing is carried out in the particle-particle channel to all orders in the interaction. We show that at two loops there are two distinct sources of coherence effects in the bremsstrahlung. One is the generically off-shell intermediate state propagation, which leads to the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal type suppression of radiation. We extend previous perturbative results, obtained in the leading order in quasiparticle width, by deriving the exact nonperturbative expression. A new contribution due to off-shell final or initial baryon states is treated in the leading order in the quasiparticle width. The latter contribution corresponds to processes of higher order than second order in the virial expansion in the number of quasiparticles. At the 2p-2h level, the time component of the polarization tensor for the vector transitions vanishes identically in the soft neutrino approximation. Vector current thereby is conserved. The contraction of the neutral axial vector current with the tensor interaction among the baryons leads to a nonvanishing contribution to the bremsstrahlung rate. These rates are evaluated numerically for finite temperature pure neutron matter at and above the nuclear saturation density.

  3. Electroweak two-loop corrections to the effective weak mixing angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awramik, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Czakon, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik]|[Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Field Theory and Particle Physics; Freitas, A. [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-08-15

    Recently exact results for the complete electroweak two-loop contributions to the effective weak mixing angle were published. This paper illustrates the techniques used for this computation, in particular the methods for evaluating the loop diagrams and the proper definition of Z-pole observables at next-to-next -to-leading order. Numerical results are presented in terms of simple parametrization formulae and compared in detail with a previous result of an expansion up to next-to-leading order in the top-quark mass. Finally, an estimate of the remaining theoretical uncertainties from unknown higher-order corrections is given. (Orig.)

  4. Coherent neutrino radiation in supernovae at two loops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedrakian, A; Dieperink, AEL

    2000-01-01

    We develop a neutrino transport theory, in terms of the real-time nonequilibrium Green's functions, which is applicable to physical conditions arbitrary far from thermal equilibrium. We compute the coherent neutrino radiation in cores of supernovae by evaluating the two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) pol

  5. Two Loop Radiative Seesaw and X-ray line Dark Matter with Global U(1) Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We study a two loop induced radiative neutrino model with global $U(1)$ symmetry at 0.1 GeV scale, in which we consider a keV scale of dark matter candidate recently reported by XMN-Newton X-ray observatory using data of various galaxy clusters and Andromeda galaxy. We also discuss the vacuum stability of singly charged bosons, lepton flavor violation processes, and a role of Goldstone boson.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of Release of Radiation in Flow Blockage Accident for Two Loops PWR

    OpenAIRE

    Khurram Mehboob; Cao Xinrong; Majid Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this study modeling and simulation of release of radiation form two loops PWR has been carried out for flow blockage accident. For this purpose, a MATLAB based program “Source Term Evaluator for Flow Blockage Accident” (STEFBA) has been developed, which uses the core inventory as its primary input. The TMI-2 reactor is considered as the reference plant for this study. For 1100 reactor operation days, the core inventory has been evaluated under the core design constrains at average reactor ...

  7. Two-loop Induced Majorana Neutrino Mass in a Radiatively Induced Quark and Lepton Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    A two-loop induced radiative neutrino model is proposed as an extension of our previous work in which the first and second generation standard model fermion masses are generated at one-loop level in both quark and lepton sectors. Then we discuss current neutrino oscillation data, lepton flavor violations, muon anomalous magnetic moment, and a bosonic dark matter candidate, for both the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Our numerical analysis shows that less hierarchical Yukawa coupling constants can fit the experimental data with TeV scale dark matter.

  8. Two--Loop Anomalous Dimension Matrix for $\\Delta S=1$ Weak Non-Leptonic Decays; 2, ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_e \\alpha_s)$

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Lautenbacher, M E; Buras, Andrzej J.; Jamin, Matthias; Lautenbacher, Markus E.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the $10\\times 10$ two--loop anomalous dimension matrix to order $\\ord(\\alpha_e \\alpha_s)$ in the dimensional regularization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ (NDR) which is necessary for the extension of the $\\Delta S=1$ weak Hamiltonian involving electroweak penguins beyond the leading logarithmic approximation. We demonstrate, how a direct calculation of penguin diagrams involving $\\gamma_5$ in closed fermion loops can be avoided thus allowing a consistent calculation of two--loop anomalous dimensions in the simplest renormalization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ in $D$ dimensions. We give the necessary one--loop finite terms which allow to obtain the corresponding two--loop anomalous dimension matrix in the HV scheme with non--anticommuting $\\gamma_5$.

  9. The Two-Loop Anomalous Dimension Matrix for $\\Delta S=1$ Weak Non-Leptonic Decays; 1, ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Lautenbacher, M E; Weisz, P; Buras, Andrzej J.; Jamin, Matthias; Lautenbacher, Markus E.; Weisz, Peter H.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop $10 \\times 10$ anomalous dimension matrix ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^{2})$ involving current-current operators, QCD penguin operators, and electroweak penguin operators especially relevant for $\\Delta S=1$ weak non-leptonic decays, but also important for $\\Delta B=1$ decays. The calculation is performed in two schemes for $\\gamma_{5}$: the dimensional regularization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_{5}$ (NDR), and in the 't Hooft-Veltman scheme. We demonstrate how a direct calculation of diagrams involving $\\gamma_{5}$ in closed fermion loops can be avoided thus allowing a consistent calculation in the NDR scheme. The compatibility of the results obtained in the two schemes considered is verified and the properties of the resulting matrices are discussed. The two-loop corrections are found to be substantial. The two-loop anomalous dimension matrix ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_e\\alpha_s)$, required for a consistent inclusion of electroweak penguin operators, is presented in a subsequent publication.

  10. Testable two-loop radiative neutrino mass model based on an LLQd^cQd^c effective operator

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Paul W; Rodd, Nicholas L; Schmidt, Michael A; Volkas, Raymond R

    2013-01-01

    A new two-loop radiative Majorana neutrino mass model is constructed from the gauge- invariant effective operator L^i L^j Q^k d^c Q^l d^c \\epsilon_{ik} \\epsilon_{jl} that violates lepton number conservation by two units. The ultraviolet completion features two scalar leptoquark flavors and a color-octet Majorana fermion. We show that there exists a region of parameter space where the neutrino oscillation data can be fitted while simultaneously meeting flavor-violation and collider bounds. The model is testable through lepton flavor-violating processes such as {\\mu} -> e{\\gamma}, {\\mu} -> eee, and {\\mu}N -> eN conversion, as well as collider searches for the scalar leptoquarks and color-octet fermion. We computed and compiled a list of necessary Passarino-Veltman integrals up to boxes in the approximation of vanishing external momenta and made them available as a Mathematica package, denoted as ANT.

  11. Weak Gauge Boson Radiation in Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper Roy

    2014-01-01

    The emission of W and Z gauge boson is included in a traditional QCD + QED shower. The unitarity of the shower algorithm links the real radiation of the weak gauge bosons to the negative weak virtual corrections. The shower evolution process leads to a competition between QCD, QED and weak radiation, and allows for W and Z boson production inside jets. Various effects on LHC physics are studied, both at low and high transverse momenta, and effects at higher-energy hadron colliders are outlined.

  12. Two-Loop Threshold Singularities, Unstable Particles and Complex Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Sturm, C; Uccirati, S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of threshold singularities induced by unstable particles on two-loop observables is investigated and it is shown how to cure them working in the complex-mass scheme. The impact on radiative corrections around thresholds is thoroughly analyzed and shown to be relevant for two selected LHC and ILC applications: Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into two photons at two loops in the Standard Model. Concerning Higgs production, it is essential to understand possible sources of large corrections in addition to the well-known QCD effects. It is shown that NLO electroweak corrections can incongruently reach a 10 % level around the WW vector-boson threshold without a complete implementation of the complex-mass scheme in the two-loop calculation.

  13. Off-shell two loop QCD vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MSbar scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off-shell.

  14. Two Loop Effective Kähler Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nyawelo, T S; Nyawelo, Tino S.; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we study the renormalization of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional (non--renormalizable) N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We consider the Wess-Zumino model as an example.

  15. Two loop scalar bilinears for inflationary SQED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Tsamis, N C [Department of Physics, University of Crete GR-710 03 Heraklion, Hellas (Greece); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2007-01-07

    We evaluate the one- and two-loop contributions to the expectation values of two coincident and gauge invariant scalar bilinears in the theory of massless, minimally coupled scalar quantum electrodynamics on a locally de Sitter background. One of these bilinears is the product of two covariantly differentiated scalars, the other is the product of two undifferentiated scalars. The computations are done using dimensional regularization and the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Our results are in perfect agreement with the stochastic predictions at this order.

  16. Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi-Bellouati, A.; Razet, A.; Bastie, J.; Himbert, M. E.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    The parametric down conversion of photons generated in a non-linear crystal gives rise to two correlated photons. When associated with a system of coincidence counting, this phenomenon allows one to measure the quantum efficiencies of detectors working at a normal rate of photon counting, without the need for reference sources or detectors. At the Institut National de Métrologie (INM) (France), this method was implemented with the aim of developing a new standard detector for the absolute measurement of very weak radiation. The validation of this method is presented from an international comparison between the laboratories of the INM (France) and the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris (IENGF) (Italy) and from a comparison of methods at INM using the French national standard detector, the cryogenic radiometer.

  17. Pion radiative weak decay from the instanton vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sang-In; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the vector and axial-vector form factors for the pion radiative weak decays π+ →e+νe γ and π+ →e+νee+e-, based on the gauged effective chiral action from the instanton vacuum in the large Nc limit. The nonlocal contributions, which arise from the gauging of the action, enhance the vector form factor by about 20%, whereas the axial-vector form factor is reduced by almost 30%. Both the results for the vector and axial-vector form factors at the zero momentum transfer are in good agreement with the experimental data. The dependence of the form factors on the momentum transfer is also studied. The slope parameters are computed and compared with other works.

  18. Supersymmetric Wilson loops at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bassetto, Antonio; Pucci, Fabrizio; Seminara, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of certain BPS Wilson loops in ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. They belong to a general family, introduced recently, in which the addition of particular scalar couplings endows generic loops on $S^3$ with a fraction of supersymmetry. When restricted to $S^2$, their quantum average has been further conjectured to be exactly computed by the matrix model governing the zero-instanton sector of YM$_2$ on the sphere. We perform a complete two-loop analysis on a class of cusped Wilson loops lying on a two-dimensional sphere, finding perfect agreement with the conjecture. The perturbative computation reproduces the matrix-model expectation through a highly non-trivial interplay between ladder diagrams and self-energies/vertex contributions, suggesting the existence of a localization procedure.

  19. A note on two-loop superloop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    We explore the duality between supersymmetric Wilson loop on null polygonal contours in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and next-to-maximal helicity violating (NMHV) scattering amplitudes. Earlier analyses demonstrated that the use of a dimensional regulator for ultraviolet divergences, induced due to presence of the cusps on the loop, yields anomalies that break both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. At one-loop order, these are present only in Grassmann components localized in the vicinity of a single cusp and result in a universal function for any number of sites of the polygon that can be subtracted away in a systematic manner leaving a well-defined supersymmetric remainder dual to corresponding components of the superamplitude. The question remains though whether components which were free from the aforementioned supersymmetric anomaly at leading order of perturbation theory remain so once computed at higher orders. Presently we verify this fact by calculating a particular component of the null polygonal super Wilson loop at two loops restricting the contour kinematics to a two-dimensional subspace. This allows one to perform all computations in a concise analytical form and trace the pattern of cancellations between individual Feynman graphs in a transparent fashion. As a consequence of our consideration we obtain a dual conformally invariant result for the remainder function in agreement with one-loop NMHV amplitudes.

  20. On-shell two-loop three-gluon vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Davydychev, A I

    1999-01-01

    The two-loop three-gluon vertex is calculated in an arbitrary covariant gauge, in the limit when two of the gluons are on the mass shell. The corresponding two-loop results for the ghost-gluon vertex are also obtained. It is shown that the results are consistent with the Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities.

  1. Role of gauge invariance in B -> V gamma radiative weak decays

    CERN Document Server

    Riazuddin, M

    2002-01-01

    The role of gauge invariance in calculating B -> V gamma radiative weak decays is clarified. It is shown that the gauge invariance severely restricts the contributions mediated by the usual weak non-leptonic Hamiltonian dominated by u and c quaks with one photon attachment. Such contributions are found to be almost negligible.

  2. Weak discontinuities in electrically conducting and radiating gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The singular surface theory has been used to determine the law of propagation of weak discontinuities and the problem of growth and decay of waves. The effect of radioactive heat transfer has been treated using a differential approximation which is valid over entire optical depth range. The effects of wave geometry and magnetic field with finite electrical conductivity on the global behavior of the wave amplitude have also been studied. The two cases of diverging and converging waves have been discussed separately.

  3. Study of Two-Loop Neutrino Mass Generation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We study the models with the Majorana neutrino masses generated radiatively by two-loop diagrams due to the Yukawa $\\rho \\bar \\ell_R^c \\ell_R$ and effective $\\rho^{\\pm\\pm} W^\\mp W^\\mp$ couplings along with a scalar triplet $\\Delta$, where $\\rho$ is a doubly charged singlet scalar, $\\ell_R$ the charged lepton and $W$ the charged gauge boson. A generic feature in these types of models is that the neutrino mass spectrum has to be a normal hierarchy. Furthermore, by using the neutrino oscillation data and comparing with the global fitting result in the literature, we find a unique neutrino mass matrix and predict the Dirac and two Majorana CP phases to be $1.40\\pi$, $1.11\\pi$ and $1.47\\pi$, respectively. We also discuss the model parameters constrained by the lepton flavor violating processes and electroweak oblique parameters. In addition, we show that the rate of the neutrinoless double beta decay $(0\

  4. Two-loop Bethe-logarithm correction in hydrogenlike atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2003-09-12

    We calculate the two-loop Bethe logarithm correction to atomic energy levels in hydrogenlike systems. The two-loop Bethe logarithm is a low-energy quantum electrodynamic (QED) effect involving multiple summations over virtual excited atomic states. Although much smaller in absolute magnitude than the well-known one-loop Bethe logarithm, the two-loop analog is quite significant when compared to the current experimental accuracy of the 1S-2S transition: It contributes -8.19 and -0.84 kHz for the 1S and the 2S state, respectively. The two-loop Bethe logarithm has been the largest unknown correction to the hydrogen Lamb shift to date. Together with the ongoing measurement of the proton charge radius at the Paul Scherrer Institute, its calculation will bring theoretical and experimental accuracy for the Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen to the level of 10(-7).

  5. Off-shell two-loop QCD vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MS¯ scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off shell.

  6. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants. In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work. Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p plants to date observed the significant trend of radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress proteins, etc.). This study should be useful as a reference for researchers conducting epidemiological studies and the long-term experiments, using whole organisms, to observe the effects of RF-EMFs.

  7. The complete two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in soft-collinear effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M.; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e+e- annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that in many cases one can straightforwardly predict potentially large logarithmic contributions to the integrated jet thrust distribution at L loops by making use of analogous contributions to the simpler integrated hemisphere soft function.

  8. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

  9. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Passarino, G; Passera, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the building blocks for the two-loop renormalization of the Standard Model are introduced with a comprehensive discussion of the special vertices induced in the Lagrangian by a particular diagonalization of the neutral sector and by two alternative treatments of the Higgs tadpoles. Dyson resummed propagators for the gauge bosons are derived, and two-loop Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. In part II, the complete set of counterterms needed for the two-loop renormalization will be derived. In part III, a renormalization scheme will be introduced, connecting the renormalized quantities to an input parameter set of (pseudo-)experimental data, critically discussing renormalization of a gauge theory with unstable particles.

  10. The role of radiation in organizing convection in weak temperature gradient simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Sharon L.; Sentić, Stipo; Herman, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Using a cloud system resolving model with the large scale parameterized by the weak temperature gradient approximation, we investigated the influence of interactive versus noninteractive radiation on the characteristics of convection and convective organization. The characteristics of convecting environments are insensitive to whether radiation is interactive compared to when it is not. This is not the case for nonconvecting environments; interactive radiative cooling profiles show strong cooling at the top of the boundary layer which induces a boundary layer circulation that ultimately exports moist entropy (or analogously moist static energy) from dry domains. This upgradient transport is associated with a negative gross moist stability, and it is analogous to boundary layer circulations in radiative convective equilibrium simulations of convective self-aggregation. This only occurs when radiation cools interactively. Whether radiation is static or interactive also affects the existence of multiple equilibria-steady states which either support precipitating convection or which remain completely dry depending on the initial moisture profile. Interactive radiation drastically increases the range of parameters which permit multiple equilibria compared to static radiation; this is consistent with the observation that self-aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium simulations is more readily attained with interactive radiation. However, the existence of multiple equilibria in absence of interactive radiation suggests that other mechanisms may result in organization.

  11. Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity with External Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J

    2013-01-01

    We extend the maximal unitarity method at two loops to double-box basis integrals with up to three external massive legs. We use consistency equations based on the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. We obtain unique formulae for the coefficients of the master double-box integrals. These formulae can be used either analytically or numerically.

  12. An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.

  13. Two loop low temperature corrections to electron self energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; Samina S. Masood

    2011-01-01

    We recalculate the two loop corrections in the background heat bath using real time formalism. The procedure of the integrations of loop momenta with dependence on finite temperature before the momenta without it has been followed. We determine the mass a

  14. Two-Loop Gluon Regge Trajectory from Lipatov's Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Chachamis, Grigorios; Madrigal, José Daniel; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2012-01-01

    Lipatov's high-energy effective action is a useful tool for computations in the Regge limit beyond leading order. Recently, a regularisation/subtraction prescription has been proposed that allows to apply this formalism to calculate next-to-leading order corrections in a consistent way. We illustrate this procedure with the computation of the gluon Regge trajectory at two loops.

  15. Local integrands for two-loop QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we review the recent computation of the five- and six-gluon two-loop amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory using local integrands which make the infrared pole structure manifest. We make some remarks on the connection with BCJ relations and the all-multiplicity structure.

  16. Two-Loop Tensor Integrals in Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Passarino, G; Passera, M; Uccirati, S

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study is performed of general massive, tensor, two-loop Feynman diagrams with two and three external legs. Reduction to generalized scalar functions is discussed and integral representations are introduced, family-by-family of diagrams, that support the same class of algorithms (algorithms of smoothness) already employed for the numerical evaluation of ordinary scalar functions.

  17. Two-loop beta functions for supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, I. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1984-11-15

    The two-loop ..beta.. functions in the dimensional regularisation framework for a general gauge theory coupled to scalar and spinor fields are presented and by means of a finite transformation of the couplings are converted into a form which vanishes for special cases corresponding to supersymmetric gauge theories.

  18. Two-loop and n-loop eikonal vertex corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    I present calculations of two-loop vertex corrections with massive and massless partons in the eikonal approximation. I show that the $n$-loop result for the UV poles can be given in terms of the one-loop calculation.

  19. Towards a Basis for Planar Two-Loop Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, Janusz; Kosower, David A

    2010-01-01

    The existence of a finite basis of algebraically independent one-loop integrals has underpinned important developments in the computation of one-loop amplitudes in field theories and gauge theories in particular. We give an explicit construction reducing integrals to a finite basis for planar integrals at two loops, both to all orders in the dimensional regulator e, and also when all integrals are truncated to O(e). We show how to reorganize integration-by-parts equations to obtain elements of the first basis efficiently, and how to use Gram determinants to obtain additional linear relations reducing this all-orders basis to the second one. The techniques we present should apply to non-planar integrals, to integrals with massive propagators, and beyond two loops as well.

  20. Two-loop corrections to Higgs boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, V. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Smith, J. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Neerven, W.L. van [Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, PO Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: neerven@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2005-01-03

    In this paper we present the complete two-loop vertex corrections to scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production for general colour factors for the gauge group SU(N) in the limit where the top quark mass gets infinite. We derive a general formula for the vertex correction which holds for conserved and non-conserved operators. For the conserved operator we take the electromagnetic vertex correction as an example whereas for the non-conserved operators we take the two vertex corrections above. Our observations for the structure of the pole terms 1/-bar 4, 1/-bar 3 and 1/-bar 2 in two loop order are the same as made earlier in the literature for electromagnetism. However, we also elucidate the origin of the second order single pole term which is equal to the second order singular part of the anomalous dimension plus a universal function which is the same for the quark and the gluon.

  1. Two-Loop SL(2) Form Factors and Maximal Transcendentality

    CERN Document Server

    Loebbert, Florian; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand's numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  2. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S

    2006-01-01

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics.

  3. A two-loop excitation control system for synchronous generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Cervantes, Ilse; Escarela-Perez, Rafael; Espinosa-Perez, Gerardo [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion ESIME-C, Av. Santa Ana 1000 Col. San Francisco Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico)

    2005-10-01

    An excitation controller for a single generator based on modern multi-loop design methodology is presented in this paper. The proposed controller consists of two-loops: a stabilizing (damping injection) loop and a voltage regulating loop. The task of the stabilizing loop is to add damping in the face of voltage oscillations. The voltage regulating loop is basically a PI compensator whose objective is to obtain terminal voltage regulation about the prescribed reference. The main contribution of this paper is to give some insights into the systematic derivation of multi-loop controllers of power generators. Certain connections between the two-loop excitation controller and standard PSS-AVR schemes are discussed. In this way, some insight into the stability of the standard PSS scheme is obtained from the analysis of the proposed controller. The proposed controller is evaluated via numerical simulations on a full finite-element model. (author)

  4. Efficient weakly-radiative wireless energy transfer: An EIT-like approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by a quantum interference phenomenon known in the atomic physics community as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we propose an efficient weakly radiative wireless energy transfer scheme between two identical classical resonant objects, strongly coupled to an intermediate classical resonant object of substantially different properties, but with the same resonance frequency. The transfer mechanism essentially makes use of the adiabatic evolution of an instantaneous (so cal...

  5. Analytic two-loop form factors in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Yang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We derive a compact expression for the three-point MHV form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4super Yang-Mills at two loops. The main tools of our calculation are generalised unitarity applied at the form factor level, and the compact expressions for supersymmetric tree-level form factors and amplitudes entering the cuts. We confirm that infrared divergences exponentiate as expected, and that collinear factorisation is entirely captured by an ABDK/BDS ansatz. Next, we construct the two-loop remainder function obtained by subtracting this ansatz from the full two-loop form factor and compute it numerically. Using symbology, combined with various physical constraints and symmetries, we find a unique solution for its symbol. With this input we construct a remarkably compact analytic expression for the remainder function, which contains only classical polylogarithms, and compare it to our numerical results. Furthermore, we make the surprising observation that our remainder is equal to the maximally transcendent...

  6. Two-loop formfactors in theories with mass gap and Z-boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotikov, A. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kuehn, J.H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Veretin, O. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Petrozavodsk Univ., Karelia (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    The non-factorizable two-loop corrections to the formfactor both for a U(1) x U(1) and a SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with massive and massless gauge bosons respectively is evaluated at arbitrary momentum transfer q{sup 2}. The asymptotic behaviour for q{sup 2}{yields}{infinity} is compared to a recent calculation of Sudakov logarithms. The result is an important ingredient for the calculation of radiative corrections to Z-boson production at hadron and lepton colliders. (orig.)

  7. Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperature Two-Loop Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiku, S

    2000-01-01

    We study the optimized perturbation theory (OPT) at finite temperature, which is a self-consistent resummation method. Firstly, we generalize the idea of the OPT to optimize the coupling constant in lambda phi^4 theory, and give a proof of the renormalizability of this generalized OPT. Secondly, the principle of minimal sensitivity and the criterion of the fastest apparent convergence, which are conditions to determine the optimal parameter values, are examined in lambda phi^4 theory. Both conditions exhibit a second-order transition at finite temperature with critical exponent beta = 0.5 in the two-loop approximation.

  8. Numerical Computation of Two-loop Box Diagrams with Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Hamaguchi, N; Ishikawa, T; Kato, K; Kurihara, Y; Fujimoto, J; Shimizu, Y

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is presented to evaluate multi-loop integrals, which appear in the calculation of cross-sections in high-energy physics. It relies on a fully numerical method and is applicable to a wide class of integrals with various mass configurations. As an example, the computation of two-loop planar and non-planar box diagrams is shown. The results are confirmed by comparisons with other techniques, including the reduction method, and by a consistency check using the dispersion relation.

  9. Two-loop Dirac neutrino mass and WIMP dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Cesar; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W F

    2016-01-01

    We propose a "scotogenic" mechanism relating small neutrino mass and cosmological dark matter. Neutrinos are Dirac fermions with masses arising only in two--loop order through the sector responsible for dark matter. Two triality symmetries ensure both dark matter stability and strict lepton number conservation at higher orders. A global spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry leads to a physical $Diracon$ that induces invisible Higgs decays which add up to the Higgs to dark matter mode. This enhances sensitivities to spin-independent WIMP dark matter search below $m_h/2$.

  10. Two loop low temperature corrections to electron self energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; Samina S. Masood

    2011-01-01

    We xecalculate the two loop corrections in the background heat bath using real time formalism.The procedure of the integrations of loop momenta with dependence on finite temperature before the moments without it has been followed. We determine the mass and wavefunction renormalization constants in the low temperature limit of QED, for the first time with this preferred order of integrations. The correction to electron mass and spinors in this limit is important in the early universe at the time of primordial nucleosynthesis as well as in astrophysics.

  11. Two-loop electroweak threshold corrections in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd A. Kniehl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the relationships between the basic parameters of the on-shell renormalization scheme and their counterparts in the MS¯ scheme at full order O(α2 in the Standard Model. These enter as threshold corrections the renormalization group analyses underlying, e.g., the investigation of the vacuum stability. To ensure the gauge invariance of the parameters, in particular of the MS¯ masses, we work in Rξ gauge and systematically include tadpole contributions. We also consider the gaugeless-limit approximation and compare it with the full two-loop electroweak calculation.

  12. Two-Loop Fermionic Corrections to Massive Bhabha Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Gluza, J; Riemann, T

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering from fermion loops in the context of pure Quantum Electrodynamics. The differential cross section is expressed by a small number of Master Integrals with exact dependence on the fermion masses me, mf and the Mandelstam invariants s,t,u. We determine the limit of fixed scattering angle and high energy, assuming the hierarchy of scales me^2 << mf^2 << s,t,u. The numerical result is combined with the available non-fermionic contributions. As a by-product, we provide an independent check of the known electron-loop contributions.

  13. Eikonal gluon bremsstrahlung at finite Nc beyond two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenda, Yazid; Khelifa-Kerfa, Kamel

    2016-03-01

    We present a general formalism for computing the matrix-element squared for the emission of soft energy-ordered gluons beyond two loops in QCD perturbation theory at finite Nc. Our formalism is valid in the eikonal approximation. A Mathematica program has been developed for the automated calculation of all real/virtual eikonal squared amplitudes needed at a given loop order. For the purpose of illustration, we show the explicit forms of the eikonal squared amplitudes up to the fifth-loop order. In the large-Nc limit, our results coincide with those previously reported in literature.

  14. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  15. Two-Loop Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The scattering equations give striking formulae for massless scattering amplitudes at tree level and, as shown recently, at one loop. The progress at loop level was based on ambitwistor string theory, which naturally yields the scattering equations. We proposed that, for ambitwistor strings, the standard loop expansion in terms of the genus of the worldsheet is equivalent to an expansion in terms of nodes of a Riemann sphere, with the nodes carrying the loop momenta. In this paper, we show how to obtain two-loop scattering equations with the correct factorization properties. We adapt genus-two integrands from the ambitwistor string to the nodal Riemann sphere and show that these yield correct answers, by matching standard results for the four-point two-loop amplitudes of maximal supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory. In the Yang-Mills case, this requires the loop analogue of the Parke-Taylor factor carrying the colour dependence, which includes non-planar contributions.

  16. Two-loop scattering amplitudes from the Riemann sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The scattering equations give striking formulas for massless scattering amplitudes at tree level and, as shown recently, at one loop. The progress at loop level was based on ambitwistor-string theory, which naturally yields the scattering equations. We proposed that, for ambitwistor strings, the standard loop expansion in terms of the genus of the world sheet is equivalent to an expansion in terms of nodes of a Riemann sphere, with the nodes carrying the loop momenta. In this paper, we show how to obtain two-loop scattering equations with the correct factorization properties. We adapt genus-two integrands from the ambitwistor string to the nodal Riemann sphere and show that these yield correct answers, by matching standard results for the four-point two-loop amplitudes of maximal supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory. In the Yang-Mills case, this requires the loop analogue of the Parke-Taylor factor carrying the color dependence, which includes nonplanar contributions.

  17. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S

    2006-01-01

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, will be discussed in p...

  18. A Radiative Model for the Weak Scale and Neutrino Mass via Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah

    2015-01-01

    We present a three-loop model of neutrino mass in which both the weak scale and neutrino mass arise as radiative effects. In this approach, the scales for electroweak symmetry breaking, dark matter, and the exotics responsible for neutrino mass, are related due to an underlying scale-invariance. This motivates the otherwise-independent O(TeV) exotic masses usually found in three-loop models of neutrino mass. We demonstrate the existence of viable parameter space and show that the model can be probed at colliders, precision experiments, and dark matter direct-detection experiments.

  19. Huygens' principle and radiation tails in a weak Schwarzschild fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piir, I. (Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    In approximation of a weak gravitational field the formula generalized Poisson formula for the wave equation is derived and the mechanism of tail aprearance of radial waves is discussed. It is shown that if the initial data of the Cauchy problem differ from zero in the two-connnected region of the initial hypersurface embracing by its internal boundary the Schwarzchild singularity there always arises the radiation tail through a linear approximation of the Huygens principle realized everywhere in a flat space-time.

  20. Anomalous Photoluminescence of Weakly Confined Excitons including Radiative Correction in Nano-to-Bulk Crossover Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takuya; Yokoshi, Nobuhiko; Ishihara, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    We develop a theoretical formalism to calculate photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of weakly confined excitons incorporating the microscopic nonlocal optical response. The nonlocality is caused by the center-of-mass (c. m.) motion of exciton and becomes remarkable in nano-to-bulk crossover regime. The theory successfully explains the characteristics of recently observed peculiar PL spectra in high quality CuCl films [5], wherein the signals appear at the exciton states with the very large radiative corrections not only for the lowest level but also for the higher ones including non-dipole types of excitons.

  1. Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2014-01-01

    Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of Majorana neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower---and therefore dominant---loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as "snail-diagram". The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility o...

  2. Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Yasaman [Physics school, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-06

    Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower — and therefore dominant — loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as “snail-diagram”. The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility of explaining the GeV gamma ray excess observed by Fermi-LAT from the region close to the Galaxy Center. We also discuss possible signals at the LHC and at experiments searching for lepton flavor violating rare decays.

  3. Gravitational Two-Loop Counterterm Is Asymptotically Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario provides an elegant mechanism to construct a quantum theory of gravity within the framework of quantum field theory based on a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In this work we report novel evidence for the validity of this scenario, using functional renormalization group techniques to determine the renormalization group flow of the Einstein-Hilbert action supplemented by the two-loop counterterm found by Goroff and Sagnotti. The resulting system of beta functions comprises three scale-dependent coupling constants and exhibits a non-Gaussian fixed point which constitutes the natural extension of the one found at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action. The fixed point exhibits two ultraviolet attractive and one repulsive direction supporting a low-dimensional UV-critical hypersurface. Our result vanquishes the long-standing criticism that asymptotic safety will not survive once a "proper perturbative counterterm" is included in the projection space.

  4. The Gravitational Two-Loop Counterterm is Asymptotically Safe

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Lippoldt, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario provides an elegant mechanism to construct a quantum theory of gravity within the framework of quantum field theory based on a non-Gau{\\ss}ian fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In this work we report novel evidence for the validity of this scenario, using functional renormalization group techniques to determine the renormalization group flow of the Einstein-Hilbert action supplemented by the two-loop counterterm found by Goroff and Sagnotti. The resulting system of beta functions comprises three scale-dependent coupling constants and exhibits a non-Gau{\\ss}ian fixed point which constitutes the natural extension of the one found at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action. The fixed point exhibits two ultraviolet attractive and one repulsive direction supporting a low-dimensional UV-critical hypersurface. Our result vanquishes the longstanding criticism that asymptotic safety will not survive once a "proper perturbative counterterm" is included in the projecti...

  5. Overcoming Obstacles to Colour-Kinematics Duality at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Mogull, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of colour-kinematics duality has allowed great progress in our understanding of the UV structure of gravity. However, it has proven difficult to find numerators which satisfy colour-kinematics duality in certain cases. We discuss obstacles to building a set of such numerators in the context of the five-gluon amplitude with all helicities positive at two loops. We are able to overcome the obstacles by adding more loop momentum to our numerator to accommodate tension between the values of certain cuts and the symmetries of certain diagrams. At the same time, we maintain control over the size of our ansatz by identifying a highly constraining but desirable symmetry property of our master numerator. The resulting numerators have twelve powers of loop momenta rather than the seven one would expect from the Feynman rules.

  6. Rapidity renormalized TMD soft and beam functions at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbert, Thomas [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Oredsson, Joel [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics; Stahlhofen, Maximilian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence

    2016-03-15

    We compute the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft function for the production of a color-neutral final state at the LHC within the rapidity renormalization group (RRG) framework to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use this result to extract the universal renormalized TMD beam functions (aka TMDPDFs) in the same scheme and at the same order from known results in another scheme. We derive recurrence relations for the logarithmic structure of the soft and beam functions, which we use to cross check our calculation. We also explicitly confirm the non-Abelian exponentiation of the TMD soft function in the RRG framework at two loops. Our results provide the ingredients for resummed predictions of p {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -differential cross sections at NNLL' in the RRG formalism. The RRG provides a systematic framework to resum large (rapidity) logarithms through (R)RG evolution and assess the associated perturbative uncertainties.

  7. A collisional-radiative model for low-pressure weakly magnetized Ar plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Marchuk, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    Collisional-radiative (CR) models are widely investigated in plasma physics for describing the kinetics of reactive species and for optical emission spectroscopy. This work reports a new Ar CR model used in low-pressure (0.01-10 Pa) weakly magnetized (<0.1 Tesla) plasmas, including ECR, helicon, and NLD discharges. In this model 108 realistic levels are individually studied, i.e. 51 lowest levels of the Ar atom and 57 lowest levels of the Ar ion. We abandon the concept of an ``effective level'' usually adopted in previous models for glow discharges. Only in this way the model can correctly predict the non-equilibrium population distribution of close energy levels. In addition to studying atomic metastable and radiative levels, this model describes the kinetic processes of ionic metastable and radiative levels in detail for the first time. This is important for investigation of plasma-surface interaction and for optical diagnostics using atomic and ionic line-ratios. This model could also be used for studying Ar impurities in tokamaks and astrophysical plasmas.

  8. Importance of Compton scattering for radiation spectra of isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V

    2007-01-01

    Emergent model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are widely used to fit the observed soft X-ray spectra of different types of isolated neutron stars. We investigate the effect of Compton scattering on the emergent spectra of hot (T_eff > 10^6 K) isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields. In order to compute model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium we solve the radiation transfer equation with the Kompaneets operator. We calculate a set of models with effective temperatures in the range 1 - 5 * 10^6 K, with two values of surface gravity (log g = 13.9 and 14.3) and different chemical compositions. Radiation spectra computed with Compton scattering are softer than those computed without Compton scattering at high energies (E > 5 keV) for light elements (H or He) model atmospheres. The Compton effect is more significant in H model atmospheres and models with low surface gravity. The emergent spectra of the hottest (T_eff > 3 * 10^6 K) model atmospheres can be described by diluted blackb...

  9. Efficient weakly-radiative wireless energy transfer: An EIT-like approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Karalis, Aristeidis; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2009-08-01

    Inspired by a quantum interference phenomenon known in the atomic physics community as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we propose an efficient weakly radiative wireless energy transfer scheme between two identical classical resonant objects, strongly coupled to an intermediate classical resonant object of substantially different properties, but with the same resonance frequency. The transfer mechanism essentially makes use of the adiabatic evolution of an instantaneous (so called "dark") eigenstate of the coupled 3-object system. Our analysis is based on temporal coupled mode theory (CMT), and is general enough to be valid for various possible sorts of coupling, including the resonant inductive coupling on which witricity-type wireless energy transfer is based. We show that in certain parameter regimes of interest, this scheme can be more efficient, and/or less radiative than other, more conventional approaches. A concrete example of wireless energy transfer between capacitively-loaded metallic loops is illustrated at the beginning, as a motivation for the more general case. We also explore the performance of the currently proposed EIT-like scheme, in terms of improving efficiency and reducing radiation, as the relevant parameters of the system are varied.

  10. Two-loop-induced neutrino masses: A model-independent perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanisms at the two-loop order. After briefly reviewing the systematic classification of one-loop realizations, we then focus on a general two-loop classification scheme which provides a model-independent catalog for neutrino mass models at the two-loop order

  11. DETERMINATION OF SUPERFICIAL ABSORBED DOSE FROM EXTERNAL EXPOSURE OF WEAKLY PENETRATING RADIATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽姝

    1994-01-01

    The methods of determining the superficial absorbed dose distributions in a water phantom by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported.The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at definite depthes corresponding to some superficial organs and tissues such as the radiosensitive layer of the skin,cornea,sclera,anterior chamber and lens of eyeball.The ratios among superficial absorbed dose D(0.07) and average absorbed doses at the depthes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6mm are also obtained with Cross's methods.They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of some superficial tissues and organs such as the skin and the components of eyeball for weakly penetrating radiations.

  12. The two-loop sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bogner, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, we present a solution for the two-loop sunrise integral with arbitrary masses around two and four space-time dimensions in terms of a generalised elliptic version of the multiple polylogarithms. Furthermore we investigate the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in higher orders in the dimensional regularisation ε of the two-dimensional equal mass solution. Around two space-time dimensions the solution consists of a sum of three elliptic dilogarithms where the arguments have a nice geometric interpretation as intersection points of the integration region and an elliptic curve associated to the sunrise integral. Around four space-time dimensions the sunrise integral can be expressed with the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solution around two dimensions, mass derivatives thereof and simpler terms. Considering higher orders of the two-dimensional equal mass solution we find certain generalisations of the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solutions around two and four space-time dimensions. We show that these higher order-solutions can be found by iterative integration within this class of functions.

  13. Hard matching for boosted tops at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Andre H. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Faculty of Physics; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Erwin Schroeder International Institute for Mathematical Physics; Pathak, Aditya; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Pietrulewicz, Piotr [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-08-15

    Cross sections for top quarks provide very interesting physics opportunities, being both sensitive to new physics and also perturbatively tractable due to the large top quark mass. Rigorous factorization theorems for top cross sections can be derived in several kinematic scenarios, including the boosted regime in the peak region that we consider here. In the context of the corresponding factorization theorem for e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions we extract the last missing ingredient that is needed to evaluate the cross section differential in the jet-mass at two-loop order, namely the matching coefficient at the scale μ ≅ m{sub t}. Our extraction also yields the final ingredients needed to carry out logarithmic resummation at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order (or N3LL if we ignore the missing 4-loop cusp anomalous dimension). This coefficient exhibits an amplitude level rapidity logarithm starting at O(α{sup 2}{sub s}) due to virtual top quark loops, which we treat using rapidity renormalization group (RG) evolution. Interestingly, this rapidity RG evolution appears in the matching coefficient between two effective theories around the heavy quark mass scale μ≅m{sub t}.

  14. Detection of Weak Radiation Involving Generation and Progress of Water Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryouichi

    It is well known that generation and progress of water tree in XLPE cable are remarkably influenced by inorganic impurities. We have investigated the behavior of them in water tree and reported the experimental results as follows: i) the anomalous increase or decrease in several kinds of inorganic elements was observed in water treed XLPE samples, ii) a distinctive relationship was found for the mass numbers for the elements, iii) the isotopic content of the elements such as Zn deviated over 6% from the natural abundance. These results suggest that water tree is concerned with unknown phenomena e.g., cold fusion or nuclear transmutation in condensed matter. In order to study the relationship between water tree and these phenomena, we attempted to detect neutron, γ-ray or X-ray involving generation and progress of water tree in XLPE samples. For the experiments weak and burst-like radiation seemed to be low energy γ-ray or X-ray was often detected by BF3 and/or CdZnTe counter. The radiation tended to be detected from the samples in which a lot of water trees were generated by supplying inorganic cations abundantly.

  15. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Foreman, Simon; Green, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: jjmc@stanford.edu, E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu, E-mail: drgreen@stanford.edu, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Large scale structure surveys promise to be the next leading probe of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbation theory for the weakly non-linear regime of dark matter, where correlation functions are computed in an expansion of the wavenumber k of a mode over the wavenumber associated with the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. Since most of the information is contained at high wavenumbers, it is necessary to compute higher order corrections to correlation functions. After the one-loop correction to the matter power spectrum, we estimate that the next leading one is the two-loop contribution, which we compute here. At this order in k/k{sub NL}, there is only one counterterm in the EFTofLSS that must be included, though this term contributes both at tree-level and in several one-loop diagrams. We also discuss correlation functions involving the velocity and momentum fields. We find that the EFTofLSS prediction at two loops matches to percent accuracy the non-linear matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k∼ 0.6 h Mpc{sup −1}, requiring just one unknown coefficient that needs to be fit to observations. Given that Standard Perturbation Theory stops converging at redshift zero at k∼ 0.1 h Mpc{sup −1}, our results demonstrate the possibility of accessing a factor of order 200 more dark matter quasi-linear modes than naively expected. If the remaining observational challenges to accessing these modes can be addressed with similar success, our results show that there is tremendous potential for large scale structure surveys to explore the primordial universe.

  16. 30 years, some 700 integrals, and 1 dessert, or: Electroweak two-loop corrections to the Zbb vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovyk, I; Gluza, J; Riemann, T; Usovitsch, J

    2016-01-01

    The one-loop corrections to the weak mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_{eff}^b$ derived from the $Z{\\bar b}b$ vertex, are known since 1985. It took another 30 years to calculate the complete electroweak two-loop corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta_{eff}^b$. The main obstacle was the calculation of the O(700) bosonic two-loop vertex integrals with up to three mass scales, at $s=M_Z^2$. We did not perform the usual integral reduction and master evaluation, but chose a completely numerical approach, using two different calculational chains. One method relies on publicly available sector decomposition implementations. Further, we derived Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations, exploring the publicly available MB suite. We had to supplement the MB suite by two new packages: AMBRE~3, a Mathematica program, for the efficient treatment of non-planar integrals and MBnumerics for advanced numerics in the Minkowskian space-time. Our preliminary result for LL2016, the "dessert", for the electroweak bosonic two-loop contributions to $\\sin^...

  17. Updated NNLO QCD predictions for the weak radiative B-meson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Misiak, M; Boughezal, R; Czakon, M; Ewerth, T; Ferroglia, A; Fiedler, P; Gambino, P; Greub, C; Haisch, U; Huber, T; Kaminski, M; Ossola, G; Poradzinski, M; Rehman, A; Schutzmeier, T; Steinhauser, M; Virto, J

    2015-01-01

    We perform an updated analysis of the inclusive weak radiative B-meson decays in the standard model, incorporating all our results for the O(alpha_s^2) and lower-order perturbative corrections that have been calculated after 2006. New estimates of non-perturbative effects are taken into account, too. For the CP- and isospin-averaged branching ratios, we find B_{s gamma} = (3.36 +_ 0.23) * 10^-4 and B_{d gamma} = 1.73^{+0.12}_{-0.22} * 10^-5, for E_gamma > 1.6 GeV. These results remain in agreement with the current experimental averages. Normalizing their sum to the inclusive semileptonic branching ratio, we obtain R_gamma = ( B_{s gamma} + B_{d gamma})/B_{c l nu} = (3.31 +_ 0.22) * 10^-3. A new bound from B_{s gamma} on the charged Higgs boson mass in the two-Higgs-doublet-model II reads M_{H^+} > 480 GeV at 95%C.L.

  18. Complex-mass renormalization in hadronic EFT: applicability at two-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Djukanovic, D; Gegelia, J; Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the application of the complex-mass scheme to multi-loop diagrams in hadronic effective field theory by considering as an example a two-loop self-energy diagram. We show that the renormalized two-loop diagram satisfies the power counting.

  19. Complex-mass renormalization in hadronic EFT: Applicability at two-loop order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, D. [University of Mainz, Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Gegelia, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We discuss the application of the complex-mass scheme to multi-loop diagrams in hadronic effective field theory by considering as an example a two-loop self-energy diagram. We show that the renormalized two-loop diagram satisfies the power counting. (orig.)

  20. $K_{l4}$ at two-loops and CHPT predictions for $\\pi\\pi$-scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Amorós, G; Talavera, P; Amoros, Gabriel; Bijnens, Johan; Talavera, Pere

    2000-01-01

    We present the results from our two-loop calculations of masses, decay-constants, vacuum-expectation-values and the $K_{\\ell4}$ form-factors in three-flavour Chiral Perturbation Theory (CHPT). We use this to fit the $L_i^r$ to two-loops and discuss the ensuing predictions for $\\pi\\pi$-threshold parameters.

  1. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R

    2011-10-01

    The turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the framework of the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where the magnetic field behaves as a passive vector field advected by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, is calculated by the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the two-loop corrections to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic MHD turbulence are less than 2% of its leading order value (the one-loop value) and, at the same time, the two-loop turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is the same as the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number obtained in the corresponding model of a passively advected scalar field. The dependence of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number on the spatial dimension d is investigated and the source of the smallness of the two-loop corrections for spatial dimension d=3 is identified and analyzed.

  2. Evidence for two-loop interaction from IRIS and SDO observations of penumbral brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Koukras, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We investigate small scale energy release events which can provide clues on the heating mechanism of the solar corona. Methods: We analyzed spectral and imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatoty (SDO), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard SDO. Results: We report observations of small flaring loops in the penumbra of a large sunspot on July 19, 2013. Our main event consisted of a loop spanning 15'', from the umbral-penumbral boundary to an opposite polarity region outside the penumbra. It lasted approximately 10 min with a two minute impulsive peak and was observed in all AIA/SDO channels, while the IRIS slit was located near its penumbral footpoint. Mass motions with an apparent velocity of 100 km s-1 were detected beyond the brightening, starting in the rise phase of the impulsive peak; these were apparently associated with a higher-lying loop. We interpret these motions in terms of two-loop interaction. IRIS spectra in both the C ii and Si iv lines showed very extended wings, up to about 400 km s-1, first in the blue (upflows) and subsequently in the red wing. In addition to the strong lines, emission was detected in the weak lines of Cl i, O i and C i, as well as in the Mg ii triplet lines. Absorption features in the profiles of the C ii doublet, the Si iv doublet and the Mg ii h and k lines indicate the existence of material with a lower source function between the brightening and the observer. We attribute this absorption to the higher loop and this adds further credibility to the two-loop interaction hypothesis. Tilts were detected in the absorption spectra, as well as in the spectra of Cl i, O i, and C i lines, possibly indicating rotational motions from the untwisting of magnetic flux tubes. Conclusions: We conclude that the absorption features in the C ii, Si iv and Mg ii profiles originate in a higher

  3. Two-loop stability of a complex singlet extended standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raul; Morais, António P.; Sampaio, Marco O. P.; Santos, Rui

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry problems, we analyze a complex singlet extension of the Standard Model with a Z2 symmetry (which provides a dark matter candidate). After a detailed two-loop calculation of the renormalization group equations for the new scalar sector, we study the radiative stability of the model up to a high energy scale (with the constraint that the 126 GeV Higgs boson found at the LHC is in the spectrum) and find it requires the existence of a new scalar state mixing with the Higgs with a mass larger than 140 GeV. This bound is not very sensitive to the cutoff scale as long as the latter is larger than 1010 GeV . We then include all experimental and observational constraints/measurements from collider data, from dark matter direct detection experiments, and from the Planck satellite and in addition force stability at least up to the grand unified theory scale, to find that the lower bound is raised to about 170 GeV, while the dark matter particle must be heavier than about 50 GeV.

  4. Two-loop Prediction for Scaling Exponents in $(2 + \\epsilon)$-dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aida, T; Aida, Toshiaki; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    We perform the two loop level renormalization of quantum gravity in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We work in the background gauge whose manifest covariance enables us to use the short distance expansion of the Green's functions. We explicitly show that the theory is renormalizable to the two loop level in our formalism. We further make a physical prediction for the scaling relation between the gravitational coupling constant and the cosmological constant which is expected to hold at the short distance fixed point of the renormalization group. It is found that the two loop level calculation is necessary to determine the scaling exponent to the leading order in $\\epsilon$.

  5. Two loop computation of a running coupling in lattice Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R A; Narayanan, Rajamani; Wolff, Ulli

    1995-01-01

    We compute the two loop coefficient in the relation between the lattice bare coupling and the running coupling defined through the Schroedinger functional for the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory. This result is needed as one computational component to relate the latter to the MSbar-coupling, and it allows us to implement O(a) improvement of the Schroedinger functional to two-loop order. In addition, the two-loop beta-function is verified in a perturbative computation on the lattice, and the behavior of an improved bare coupling is investigated beyond one loop.

  6. Two-loop anomalous dimensions of heavy baryon currents in heavy quark effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S; Yakovlev, O I

    1996-01-01

    We present results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of the heavy baryon HQET currents J=(q^TC\\Gamma\\tau q)\\Gamma'Q with arbitrary Dirac matrices \\Gamma and \\Gamma'. From our general result we obtain the two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents with quantum numbers of the ground state heavy baryons \\Lambda_Q, \\Sigma_Q and \\Sigma_Q^*. As a by-product of our calculation and as an additional check we rederive the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of mesonic scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and tensor currents (J=\\bar q\\Gamma q) in massless QCD as well as in HQET.

  7. A Two-loop Test of Buscher's T-duality, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Z; Palla, L; Horvath, Zalan; Karp, Robert L.; Palla, Laszlo

    2000-01-01

    We study the two loop quantum equivalence of sigma models related by Buscher's T-duality transformation. The computation of the two loop perturbative free energy density is performed in the case of a certain deformation of the SU(2) principal sigma model, and its T-dual, using dimensional regularization and the geometric sigma model perturbation theory. We obtain agreement between the free energy density expressions of the two models.

  8. RegPT: Direct and fast calculation of regularized cosmological power spectrum at two-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Codis, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    We present a specific prescription for the calculation of cosmological power spectra, exploited here at two-loop order in perturbation theory (PT), based on the multi-point propagator expansion. In this approach power spectra are constructed from the regularized expressions of the propagators that reproduce both the resummed behavior in the high-k limit and the standard PT results at low-k. With the help of N-body simulations, we show that such a construction gives robust and accurate predictions for both the density power spectrum and the correlation function at percent-level in the weakly non-linear regime. We then present an algorithm that allows accelerated evaluations of all the required diagrams by reducing the computational tasks to one-dimensional integrals. This is achieved by means of pre-computed kernel sets defined for appropriately chosen fiducial models. The computational time for two-loop results is then reduced from a few minutes, with the direct method, to a few seconds with the fast one. The...

  9. Constraints on abelian extensions of the Standard Model from two-loop vacuum stability and U(1) B- L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal U(1) B- L extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  10. Constraints on Abelian Extensions of the Standard Model from Two-Loop Vacuum Stability and $U(1)_{B-L}$

    CERN Document Server

    Coriano, Claudio; Marzo, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  11. Systematics of High Temperature Perturbation Theory: The Two-Loop Electron Self-Energy in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Mottola, Emil; 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.025014

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the systematics of the loop expansion in high temperature gauge theories beyond the leading order hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation, we calculate the two-loop electron proper self-energy in high temperature QED. The two-loop bubble diagram contains a linear infrared divergence. Even if regulated with a non-zero photon mass M of order of the Debye mass, this infrared sensitivity implies that the two-loop self-energy contributes terms to the fermion dispersion relation that are comparable to or even larger than the next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions at one-loop. Additional evidence for the necessity of a systematic restructuring of the loop expansion comes from the explicit gauge parameter dependence of the fermion damping rate at both one and two-loops. The leading terms in the high temperature expansion of the two-loop self-energy for all topologies arise from an explicit hard-soft factorization pattern, in which one of the loop integrals is hard, nested inside a second loop...

  12. Two-loop electroweak threshold corrections to the bottom and top Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the MS-bar Yukawa coupling and the pole mass for the bottom and top quarks at the two-loop electroweak order O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit of the standard model. We also consider the MS-bar to pole mass relationships at this order, which include tadpole contributions to ensure the gauge independence of the MS-bar masses. In order to avoid the presence of tadpoles, we propose a redefinition of the running heavy-quark mass in terms of the MS-bar Yukawa coupling. We also present Delta r in the MS-bar scheme at O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit. As an aside, we also present the exact two-loop expression for the heavy-quark mass counterterm at two loops.

  13. FDR, an easier way to NNLO calculations: a two-loop case study

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, Alice Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we advertise the important simplifications produced by FDR in NNLO computations. We show that - due to its four-dimensionality - FDR does not require an order-by-order renormalization and that, unlike the one-loop case, FDR and dimensional regularization (DR) generate intermediate two-loop results which are no longer linked by a simple subtraction of the ultraviolet (UV) poles in epsilon. As an illustrative example, we re-derive the known two-loop result for H -> gamma gamma mediated by an infinitely heavy top loop in the presence of gluonic corrections. The calculation establishes FDR as a simpler and fully consistent approach to the UV problem at the two-loop level, that, in turn, is an essential ingredient toward purely numerical NNLO calculations.

  14. Two-loop renormalization of the effective field theory of a static quark

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1991-01-01

    We give a recurrence relation for two-loop integrals encountered in the effective field theory of an infinitely heavy quark, Q, interacting with gluons and Nl massless quarks, q, from which we obtain exact two-loop results, in any dimension and covariant gauge, for the propagator of Q and the vertex function of the heavy-light current J = Q Gamma q, at zero q momentum. The anomalous dimension of the Q field agrees with the recent result of Broadhurst, Gray and Schilcher. The anomalous dimension of the current is gamma_J = d log Z_J / d log mu = - alpha_s/pi (1 + (127 + 56 zeta(2) - 10 Nl)/72) alpha_s/pi + O(alpha_s^2)) which gives the new two-loop correction to the result of Voloshin and Shifman.

  15. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroupathis, A.; Panagopoulos, H.

    2007-11-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators ψ¯Γψ, where Γ denotes the scalar and pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, Zm. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, Zψ, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in cSW, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constants, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the one-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MS¯ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, are included in the Appendix.

  16. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2007-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI $^\\prime$ scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the Scalar and Pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor non-singlet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, $Z_m$. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, $Z_{\\psi}$, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the 1-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum.

  17. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part I. Prolegomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Ferroglia, A. [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg (Germany). Fakultat fur Phys.]|[Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Passera, M. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In this paper the building blocks for the two-loop renormalization of the Standard Model are introduced with a comprehensive discussion of the special vertices induced in the Lagrangian by a particular diagonalization of the neutral sector and by two alternative treatments of the Higgs tadpoles. Dyson resummed propagators for the gauge bosons are derived, and two-loop Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. In part II, the complete set of counterterms needed for the two-loop renormalization will be derived. In part III, a renormalization scheme will be introduced, connecting the renormalized quantities to an input parameter set of (pseudo-)experimental data, critically discussing renormalization of a gauge theory with unstable particles. (orig.)

  18. Two-loop QCD Correction to Massive Spin-2 Resonance $ \\to q ~ \\bar{q} ~ g $

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2016-01-01

    Two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 Graviton decaying to $q ~ + ~ \\bar{q}~ + ~g$ is presented considering a generic universal spin-2 coupling to the SM through the conserved energy-momentum tensor. Such a massive spin-2 particle can arise in extra-dimensional models. The ultraviolet and infrared structure of the QCD amplitudes are studied. In dimensional regularisation, the infrared pole structure is in agreement with Catani's proposal, confirming the universal factorization property of QCD amplitudes, even with the spin-2 tensorial coupling. This computation now completes the full two-loop QCD corrections for the production of a spin-2 in association with a jet.

  19. The Vector and Scalar Form Factors of the Pion to Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the vector and scalar form factors of the pion to two loops in Chiral Perturbation Theory. We estimate the unknown O(p^6) constants using resonance exchange. We make a careful comparison to the available data and determine two O(p^4) constants rather precisely, and two O(p^6) constants less precisely. We also use Chiral Perturbation Theory to two loops to extract in a model--independent manner the charge radius of the pion from the available data, and obtain \\rpiV=0.437\\pm 0.016 fm^2.

  20. Two loop effective Kähler potential of (non-)renormalizable supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Nibbelink, S G; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Nyawelo, Tino S.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a supergraph computation of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We only insist on gauge invariance of the Kaehler potential and the superpotential as we heavily rely on its consequences in the quantum theory. However, we do not require gauge invariance for the gauge kinetic functions, so that our results can also be applied to anomalous theories that involve the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We illustrate our two loop results by considering a few simple models: the (non-)renormalizable Wess-Zumino model and Super Quantum Electrodynamics.

  1. The Inverse Amplitude Method in $\\pi\\pi$ Scattering in Chiral Perturbation Theory to Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Ruiz-Arriola, E

    2002-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is used to unitarize the two loop $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes of SU(2) Chiral Perturbation Theory in the $I=0,J=0$, $I=1,J=1$ and $I=2,J=0$ channels. An error analysis in terms of the low energy one-loop parameters $\\bar l_{1,2,3,4,}$ and existing experimental data is undertaken. A comparison to standard resonance saturation values for the two loop coefficients $\\bar b_{1,2,3,4,5,6} $ is also carried out. Crossing violations are quantified and the convergence of the expansion is discussed.

  2. Detection of On-Chip Generated Weak Microwave Radiation Using Superconducting Normal-Metal SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Jalali-Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses quantum interaction phenomena of microwave radiation with a single-electron tunneling system. For this study, an integrated circuit is implemented, combining on the same chip a Josephson junction (Al/AlO x /Al oscillator and a single-electron transistor (SET with the superconducting island (Al and normal-conducting leads (AuPd. The transistor is demonstrated to operate as a very sensitive photon detector, sensing down to a few tens of photons per second in the microwave frequency range around f ∼ 100 GHz. On the other hand, the Josephson oscillator, realized as a two-junction SQUID and coupled to the detector via a coplanar transmission line (Al, is shown to provide a tunable source of microwave radiation: controllable variations in power or in frequency were accompanied by significant changes in the detector output, when applying magnetic flux or adjusting the voltage across the SQUID, respectively. It was also shown that the effect of substrate-mediated phonons, generated by our microwave source, on the detector output was negligibly small.

  3. Nanoscale heterogeneities in radiation-cured diacrylate networks: Weakness or asset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminski, Mickael; Molinari, Michael; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    The crosslinking polymerization of multifunctional monomers is known to yield brittle matrices, therefore limiting the development of this technique for the production of high performance composite materials. Among the various possible causes of the brittleness, the spontaneous formation of nanoheterogeneities during radiation-initiated polymerization is supported by atomic force microscopy imaging and by calorimetric analyses. The controlled polymerization-induced phase separation of nanosized clusters of polyethersulfone was evaluated as a means for alleviating the inherent tendency of the diacrylate materials to fragile failure. Various homogeneous formulations including the aromatic diacrylate monomers, and polyethersulfone together with a compatible reactive diluent were prepared and polymerized by electron beam irradiation. The resulting toughened materials show optimized critical stress intensity factor (KIc) over 2 MPa m0.5, whereas the KIc value is about 1 MPa m0.5 for the unmodified reference resin.

  4. Renormalization of two-loop diagrams in scalar lattice field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Borasoy, B

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to calculate to very high precision the coefficients of the divergences occuring in two-loop diagrams for a massive scalar field on the lattice. The approach is based on coordinate space techniques and extensive use of the precisely known Green's function.

  5. Exact Combinatorics of Bern-Kosower-type Amplitudes for Two-Loop $\\Phi^{3}$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, H T; Sato, Haru-Tada; Schmidt, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Counting the contribution rate of a world-line formula to Feynman diagrams in Bern-Kosower-like amplitudes derived from a bosonic string theory for $N$-point two-loop Feynman amplitudes. In this connection we also present a method to derive simple and compact world-line forms for the effective action.

  6. Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilencea, D.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Theoretical Physics Department, Bucharest (Romania); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Lalak, Z.; Olszewski, P. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a Higgs-like scalar φ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton (σ). Its VEV left angle σ right angle generates the DR subtraction scale (μ ∝ left angle σ right angle), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where μ = fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking (μ = fixed scale). These operators have the form φ{sup 6}/σ{sup 2}, φ{sup 8}/σ{sup 4}, etc., which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about left angle σ right angle >> left angle φ right angle, where such hierarchy is arranged by one initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum level from evanescent interactions (∝ ε) between σ and φ that vanish in d = 4 but are required by classical scale invariance in d = 4 - 2ε. The Callan-Symanzik equation of the two-loop potential is respected and the two-loop beta functions of the couplings differ from those of the same theory regularized with μ = fixed scale. Therefore the running of the couplings enables one to distinguish between spontaneous and explicit scale symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  7. The two-loop six-point amplitude in ABJM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the first analytic computation of the six-point two-loop amplitude of ABJM theory. We show that the two-loop amplitude consist of corrections proportional to two distinct local Yangian invariants which can be identified as the tree- and the one-loop amplitude respectively. The two-loop correction proportional to the tree-amplitude is identical to the one-loop BDS result of N=4 SYM plus an additional remainder function, while the correction proportional to the one-loop amplitude is finite. Both the remainder and the finite correction are dual conformal invariant, which implies that the two-loop dual conformal anomaly equation for ABJM is again identical to that of one-loop N=4 SYM, as was first observed at four-point. We discuss the theory on the Higgs branch, showing that its amplitudes are infrared finite, but equal, in the small mass limit, to those obtained in dimensional regularization.

  8. Two-loop RG functions of the massive φ4 field theory in general dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shpot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-loop Feynman integrals of the massive φ4d field theory are explicitly obtained for generic space dimensions d. Corresponding renormalization-group functions are expressed in a compact form in terms of Gauss hypergeometric functions. A number of interesting and useful relations are given for these integrals as well as for several special mathematical functions and constants.

  9. Two-loop Bhabha scattering at high energy beyond leading power approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Penin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the two-loop O(me2/s contribution to the wide-angle high-energy electron–positron scattering in the double-logarithmic approximation. The origin and the general structure of the power-suppressed double logarithmic corrections are discussed in detail.

  10. PyR@TE 2: A Python tool for computing RGEs at two-loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.

    2017-04-01

    Renormalization group equations are an essential tool for the description of theories across different energy scales. Even though their expressions at two-loop for an arbitrary gauge field theory have been known for more than thirty years, deriving the full set of equations for a given model by hand is very challenging and prone to errors. To tackle this issue, we have introduced in Lyonnet et al. (2014) a Python tool called PyR@TE; Python Renormalization group equations @ Two-loop for Everyone. With PyR@TE, it is easy to implement a given Lagrangian and derive the complete set of two-loop RGEs for all the parameters of the theory. In this paper, we present the new version of this code, PyR@TE 2, which brings many new features and in particular it incorporates kinetic mixing when several U(1) gauge groups are involved. In addition, the group theory part has been greatly improved as we introduced a new Python module dubbed PyLie that deals with all the group theoretical aspects required for the calculation of the RGEs as well as providing very useful model building capabilities. This allows the use of any irreducible representation of the SU(n) , SO(2 n) and SO(2n + 1) groups. Furthermore, it is now possible to implement terms in the Lagrangian involving fields which can be contracted into gauge singlets in more than one way. As a byproduct, results for a popular model (SM + complex triplet) for which, to our knowledge, the complete set of two-loop RGEs has not been calculated before are presented in this paper. Finally, the two-loop RGEs for the anomalous dimension of the scalar and fermion fields have been implemented as well. It is now possible to export the coupled system of beta functions into a numerical C++ function, leading to a consequent speed up in solving them.

  11. Two loop electroweak corrections from heavy fermions to b→s+γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-Yi; FENG Tai-Fu

    2010-01-01

    Applying an effective Lagrangian method and an on-shell scheme, we analyze the electroweak corrections to the rare decay b→, s+γ from some special two loop diagrams in which a closed heavy fermion loop is attached to the virtual charged gauge bosons or Higgs. At the decoupling limit where the virtual fermions in the inner loop are much heavier than the electroweak scale, we verify the final results satisfying the decoupling theorem explicitly when the interactions among Higgs and heavy fermions do not contain the nondecoupling couplings. Adopting the universal assumptions on the relevant couplings and mass spectrum of new physics, we find that the relative corrections from those two loop diagrams to the SM theoretical prediction on the branching ratio of B → Xsγ can reach 5% as the energy scale of new physics ANp=200 GeV.

  12. BPS Wilson loops and Bremsstrahlung function in ABJ(M): a two loop analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marco S. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Griguolo, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parmaand INFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Leoni, Matias [Physics Department, FCEyN-UBA & IFIBA-CONICETCiudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicoccaand INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenzeand INFN Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    We study a family of circular BPS Wilson loops in N=6 super Chern-Simons-matter theories, generalizing the usual 1/2-BPS circle. The scalar and fermionic couplings depend on two deformation parameters and these operators can be considered as the ABJ(M) counterpart of the DGRT latitudes defined in N=4 SYM. We perform a complete two-loop analysis of their vacuum expectation value, discuss the appearance of framing-like phases and propose a general relation with cohomologically equivalent bosonic operators. We make an all-loop proposal for computing the Bremsstrahlung function associated to the 1/2-BPS cusp in terms of these generalized Wilson loops. When applied to our two-loop result it reproduces the known expression. Finally, we comment on the generalization of this proposal to the bosonic 1/6-BPS case.

  13. The muon magnetic moment in the 2HDM: complete two-loop result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchiglia, Adriano; Kneschke, Patrick; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2017-01-01

    We study the 2HDM contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment a μ and present the complete two-loop result, particularly for the bosonic contribution. We focus on the Aligned 2HDM, which has general Yukawa couplings and contains the type I, II, X, Y models as special cases. The result is expressed with physical parameters: three Higgs boson masses, Yukawa couplings, two mixing angles, and one quartic potential parameter. We show that the result can be split into several parts, each of which has a simple parameter dependence, and we document their general behavior. Taking into account constraints on parameters, we find that the full 2HDM contribution to a μ can accommodate the current experimental value, and the complete two-loop bosonic contribution can amount to (2⋯4) × 10-10, more than the future experimental uncertainty.

  14. Hard Photon production from unsaturated quark gluon plasma at two loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, D; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, K; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    The hard photon productions from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two loop level are estimated from a chemically non-equilibrated quark gluon plasma using the frame work of thermal field theory. Although, the rate of photon production is suppressed due to unsaturated phase space, the above suppression is relatively smaller than expected due to an additional collinear enhancement (arise due to decrease in thermal quark mass) as compared to it's equilibrium counterpart. Interestingly, unlike the one loop case, the reduction in the two loop processes are found to be independent of gluon chemical poential, but strongly depends on quark fugacity. It is also found that, since the phase space suppression is highest for annihilation with scattering, the photon production is entirely dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism at all energies. This is to be contrasted with the case of the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production particularly at highe...

  15. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  16. Local Integrand Representations of All Two-Loop Amplitudes in Planar SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Bourjaily, Jacob L

    2015-01-01

    We use generalized unitarity at the integrand-level to directly construct local, manifestly dual-conformally invariant formulae for all two-loop scattering amplitudes in planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM). This representation separates contributions into manifestly finite and manifestly divergent terms---in a way that renders all infrared-safe observables (including ratio functions) calculable without any need for regulation. These results perfectly match the all-loop BCFW recursion relations, to which we provide a closed-form solution valid through two-loop-order. Finally, we describe and document a Mathematica package which implements these results, available as part of this work's source files on the arXiv.

  17. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  18. On the impact of kinetic mixing in beta functions at two-loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic mixing is a fundamental property of models with a gauge symmetry involving several $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ group factors. In this paper, we perform a numerical study of the impact of kinetic mixing on beta functions at two-loop. To do so, we use the recently published PyR@TE 2 software to derive the complete set of RGEs of the SM B-L model at two-loop including kinetic mixing. We show that it is important to properly account for kinetic mixing as the evolution of the parameters with the energy scale can change drastically. In some cases, these modifications can even lead to a different conclusion regarding the stability of the scalar potential.

  19. Matching the $D^{6}R^{4}$ interaction at two-loops

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric; Pioline, Boris; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of the $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction in the low energy expansion of the two-loop four-graviton amplitude in type II superstring theory is known to be proportional to the integral of the Zhang-Kawazumi (ZK) invariant over the moduli space of genus-two Riemann surfaces. We demonstrate that the ZK invariant is an eigenfunction with eigenvalue 5 of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the interior of moduli space. Exploiting this result, we evaluate the integral of the ZK invariant explicitly, finding agreement with the value of the two-loop $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction predicted on the basis of S-duality and supersymmetry. A review of the current understanding of the $D^{2p} {\\cal R}^4$ interactions in type II superstring theory compactified on a torus $T^d$ with $p \\leq 3$ and $d \\leq 4$ is included.

  20. The muon magnetic moment in the ${\\rm{2HDM}}$: complete two-loop result

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchiglia, Adriano; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2016-01-01

    We study the ${\\rm{2HDM}}$ contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\\mu$ and present the complete two-loop result, particularly for the bosonic contribution. We focus on the Aligned ${\\rm{2HDM}}$, which has general Yukawa coupling constants and is more general than the type I, II, X, Y models. The result is expressed with physical parameters: three Higgs boson masses, Yukawa couplings, two mixing angles, and one quartic potential parameter. We show that the result can be split into several parts, each of which has a simple parameter dependence, and we document the general behavior. Taking into account constraints on parameters, we find that the full ${\\rm{2HDM}}$ contribution to $a_\\mu$ can accommodate the current experimental value, and the complete two-loop bosonic result contribution can amount to $(2\\cdots 4)\\times 10^{-10}$, more than the future experimental uncertainty.

  1. Higgs boson couplings to bottom quarks: two-loop supersymmetry-QCD corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, David; Spira, Michael

    2008-10-31

    We present two-loop supersymmetry (SUSY) QCD corrections to the effective bottom Yukawa couplings within the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM). The effective Yukawa couplings include the resummation of the nondecoupling corrections Deltam_{b} for large values of tanbeta. We have derived the two-loop SUSY-QCD corrections to the leading SUSY-QCD and top-quark-induced SUSY-electroweak contributions to Deltam_{b}. The scale dependence of the resummed Yukawa couplings is reduced from O(10%) to the percent level. These results reduce the theoretical uncertainties of the MSSM Higgs branching ratios to the accuracy which can be achieved at a future linear e;{+}e;{-} collider.

  2. [The modification of the effect of microwave radiation on the biochemical processes in anaphylactic shock by using exposure to a weak and perturbed geomagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkovkin, V G

    1993-01-01

    Repeated exposure of guinea pigs to microwave radiation (1 mW/cm2) caused in some animals inhibition of anaphylactic response accompanied by increasing the content of histamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in the blood. This increase was more pronounced in irradiated guinea pigs died from anaphylactic shock than in nonirradiated animals. The long-term stay in the perturbed and weak geometric field reduced the effect induced by microwave radiation.

  3. Two-loop gg → Hg amplitude mediated by a nearly massless quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Kirill; Tancredi, Lorenzo; Wever, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    We analytically compute the two-loop scattering amplitude gg → Hg assuming that the mass of the quark, that mediates the ggH interaction, is vanishingly small. Our computation provides an important ingredient required to improve the theoretical description of the top-bottom interference effect in Higgs boson production in gluon fusion, and to elucidate its impact on the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution.

  4. Two-Loop Iteration of Five-Point N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Smirnov, V A

    2006-01-01

    We confirm by explicit computation the conjectured all-orders iteration of planar maximally supersymmetric N=4 Yang-Mills theory in the nontrivial case of five-point two-loop amplitudes. We compute the required unitarity cuts of the integrand and evaluate the resulting integrals numerically using a Mellin--Barnes representation and the automated package of ref.~[1]. This confirmation of the iteration relation provides further evidence suggesting that N=4 gauge theory is solvable.

  5. New results for a two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2016-01-01

    We consider the two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram with an arbitrary (non-integer) index on the central line. We analytically prove the equality of the two well-known results existing in the literature which express this diagram in terms of ${}_3F_2$-hypergeometric functions of argument $-1$ and $1$, respectively. We also derive new representations for this diagram which may be of importance in practical calculations.

  6. Two-loop current-current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Guido; Huber, Tobias; Li, Xin-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current-current operators Q_{1,2} and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b -> s transitions.

  7. Brief description of the flavor-changing neutral scalar interactions at two-loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitán, R

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show a general description about flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) mediated by scalars. The analysis is extended at two-loop level for the Two-Higgs Doublet Model type-III because others models have strong constraints on its parameters, even at high orders of the perturbation. For this letter we focus on the standard model, calculating the amplitude for the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ process and discussing the results briefly.

  8. Brief description of the flavor-changing neutral scalar interactions at two-loop level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, R.; Orduz-Ducuara, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this letter we show a general description about flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) mediated by scalars. The analysis is extended at two-loop level for the Two-Higgs Doublet Model type-III because others models have strong constraints on its parameters, even at high orders of the perturbation. For this letter we focus on the standard model, calculating the amplitude for the h→γγ process and discussing the results briefly.

  9. Master integrals for massive two-loop Bhabha scattering in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, M; Riemann, Tord

    2004-01-01

    We present a set of scalar master integrals (MIs) needed for a complete treatment of massive two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering in QED, including integrals with arbitrary fermionic loops. The status of analytical solutions for the MIs is reviewed and examples of some methods to solve MIs analytically are worked out in more detail. Analytical results for the pole terms in epsilon of so far unknown box MIs with five internal lines are given.

  10. Master integrals for massive two-loop Bhabha scattering in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik]|[Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Gluza, J. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Riemann, T.

    2004-12-01

    We present a set of scalar master integrals (MIs) needed for a complete treatment of massive two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering in QED, including integrals with arbitrary fermionic loops. The status of analytical solutions for the MIs is reviewed and examples of some methods to solve MIs analytically are worked out in more detail. Analytical results for the pole terms in {epsilon} of so far unknown box MIs with five internal lines are given. (orig.)

  11. Two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents of baryons with two heavy quarks in NRQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    1998-01-01

    We present analytical results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of currents for baryons, containing two heavy quarks $J = [Q^{iT}C\\Gamma\\tau Q^j]\\Gamma' q^k\\epsilon_{ijk}$ with arbitrary Dirac matrices $\\Gamma$ and velocity of heavy quarks and the inverse heavy quark mass. It is shown, that in this approximation the anomalous dimensions do not depend on the Dirac structure of the current under consideration.

  12. Two-loop $gg \\to Hg$ amplitude mediated by a nearly massless quark

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Kirill; Wever, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We analytically compute the two-loop scattering amplitude $gg \\to Hg$ assuming that the mass of the quark, that mediates the ggH interaction, is vanishingly small. Our computation provides an important ingredient required to improve the theoretical description of the top-bottom interference effect in Higgs boson production in gluon fusion, and to elucidate its impact on the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution.

  13. Integral Reduction by Unitarity Method for Two-loop Amplitudes: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Bo; Huang, Rijun; Zhou, Kang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the unitarity method to two-loop diagrams and use it to discuss the integral bases of reduction. To test out method, we focus on the four-point double-box diagram as well as its related daughter diagrams, i.e., the double-triangle diagram and the triangle-box diagram. For later two kinds of diagrams, we have given complete analytical results in general (4-2\\eps)-dimension.

  14. Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-04-30

    Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g {yields} gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The {epsilon}-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/{epsilon} pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula.

  15. Two-loop Feynman Diagrams in Yang-Mills Theory from Bosonic String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Körs, B; Kors, Boris; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present intermediate results of an ongoing investigation which attempts a generalization of the well known one-loop Bern Kosower rules of Yang-Mills theory to higher loop orders. We set up a general procedure to extract the field theoretical limit of bosonic open string diagrams, based on the sewing construction of higher loop world sheets. It is tested with one- and two-loop scalar field theory, as well as one-loop and two-loop vacuum Yang-Mills diagrams, reproducing earlier results. It is then applied to two-loop two-point Yang-Mills diagrams in order to extract universal renormalization coefficients that can be compared to field theory. While developing numerous technical tools to compute the relevant contributions, we hit upon important conceptual questions: Do string diagrams reproduce Yang-Mills Feynman diagrams in a certain preferred gauge? Do they employ a certain preferred renormalization scheme? Are four gluon vertices related to three gluon vertices? Unfortunately, our investigations remained in...

  16. The two-loop electroweak bosonic corrections to sin2 ⁡ θeffb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen; Freitas, Ayres; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord; Usovitsch, Johann

    2016-11-01

    The prediction of the effective electroweak mixing angle sin2 ⁡θeffb in the Standard Model at two-loop accuracy has now been completed by the first calculation of the bosonic two-loop corrections to the Z b bar b vertex. Numerical predictions are presented in the form of a fitting formula as function of MZ ,MW ,MH ,mt and Δα, αs. For central input values, we obtain a relative correction of Δκb (α2 , bos) = - 0.9855 ×10-4, amounting to about a quarter of the fermionic corrections, and corresponding to sin2 ⁡ θeffb = 0.232704. The integration of the corresponding two-loop vertex Feynman integrals with up to three dimensionless parameters in Minkowskian kinematics has been performed with two approaches: (i) Sector decomposition, implemented in the packages FIESTA 3 and SecDec 3, and (ii) Mellin-Barnes representations, implemented in AMBRE 3/MB and the new package MBnumerics.

  17. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in helical kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop renormalization group result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R; Zalom, P

    2013-04-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique, the influence of helicity (spatial parity violation) on the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the presence of helicity decreases the value of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and, at the same time, the two-loop helical contribution to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is at most 4.2% (in the case with the maximal helicity) of its nonhelical value. These results demonstrate, on one hand, the potential importance of the presence of asymmetries in processes in turbulent environments and, on the other hand, the rather strong stability of the properties of diffusion processes of the magnetic field in the conductive turbulent environment with the spatial parity violation in comparison to the corresponding systems without the spatial parity violation. In addition, obtained results are compared to the corresponding results found for the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number in the model of passively advected scalar field. It is shown that the turbulent Prandtl number and the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number, which are the same in fully symmetric isotropic turbulent systems, are essentially different when one considers the spatial parity violation. It means that the properties of the diffusion processes in the turbulent systems with a given symmetry breaking can considerably depend on the internal tensor structure of advected quantities.

  18. Two loop unification of non-SUSY SO(10) GUT with TeV scalars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. Daniel

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we examine gauge coupling unification of the non-SUSY SO(10) grand unified theory proposed by Babu and Mohapatra [Phys. Lett. B 715, 328 (2012), 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.08.006] at the two loop level. This theory breaks down to the standard model in a single step and has the distinguishing feature of TeV nonstandard model scalars. This leads to a plethora of interesting new physics at the TeV scale and the discovery of new particles at the LHC. This model gives rise to testable proton decay, neutron-antineutron oscillations, provides a mechanism for baryogenesis, and contains potential dark matter candidates. In this paper, we compute the two loop beta function and show that this model unifies to two loop order around 1 015 GeV . We then compute the proton lifetime, taking into account threshold effects and show that these effects place it above the Super-Kamiokande limit [K. Abe et al. (Super-Kamiokande Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 95, 012004 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.012004].

  19. PyR@TE 2: A Python tool for computing RGEs at two-loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization group equations are an essential tool for the description of theories accross different energy scales. Even though their expressions at two-loop for an arbitrary gauge field theory have been known for more than thirty years, deriving the full set of equations for a given model by hand is very challenging and prone to errors. To tackle this issue, we have introduced in [1] a Python tool called PyR@TE; Python Renormalization group equations @ Two-loop for Everyone. With PyR@TE, it is easy to implement a given Lagrangian and derive the complete set of two-loop RGEs for all the parameters of the theory. In this paper, we present the new version of this code, PyR@TE 2, which brings many new features and in particular it incorporates kinetic mixing when several $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ gauge groups are involved. In addition, the group theory part has been greatly improved as we introduced a new Python module dubbed PyLie that deals with all the group theoretical aspects required for the calculation of the RG...

  20. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  1. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, ICEx, Physics Department, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [Coimbra University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics Department, Center of Computational Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  2. A reappraisal of two-loop contributions to the fermion electric dipole moments in R-parity violating supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    We reexamine the R-parity violating contribution to the fermion electric and chromo-electric dipole moments (EDM and cEDM) in the two-loop diagrams. It is found that the leading Barr-Zee type two-loop contribution is smaller than the result found in previous works, and that EDM experimental data provide looser limits on RPV couplings.

  3. Thermal and radiative AGN feedback : weak impact on star formation in high-redshift disk galaxy simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Orianne; Bournaud, Frédéric; Gabor, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) release huge amounts of energy in their host galaxies, which, if the coupling is sufficient, can affect the interstellar medium (ISM). We use a high-resolution simulation ($\\sim6$ pc) of a z $\\sim2$ star-forming galaxy hosting an AGN, to study this not yet well-understood coupling. In addition to the often considered small-scale thermal energy deposition by the AGN, which is implemented in the simulation, we model long-range photo-ionizing AGN radiation in post-processing, and quantify the impact of AGN feedback on the ability of the gas to form stars. Surprisingly, even though the AGN generates powerful outflows, the impact of AGN heating and photo-ionization on instantaneous star formation is weak: the star formation rate decreases by a few percent at most, even in a quasar regime ($L_{bol}=10^{46.5}$ erg s$^{-1}$). Furthermore, the reservoirs of atomic gas that are expected to form stars on a 100 - 200 Myrs time scale are also marginally affected. Therefore, while the AGN-driv...

  4. Notification: Follow-Up on OIG Report 12-P-0417, Weaknesses in EPA’s Management of the Radiation Network System Demand Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-0010, January 2, 2014. The EPA OIG is beginning preliminary research on the EPA's actions to address the recommendations in the Apr 19, 2012, OIG Report, Weaknesses in EPA's Management of the Radiation Network System Demand Attention.

  5. Two-loop virtual top-quark effect on Higgs-boson decay to bottom quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenschön, Mathias; Fugel, Frank; Kniehl, Bernd A

    2007-02-16

    In most of the mass range encompassed by the limits from the direct search and the electroweak precision tests, the Higgs boson of the standard model preferably decays to bottom quarks. We present, in analytic form, the dominant two-loop electroweak correction, of O(GF2mt4), to the partial width of this decay. It amplifies the familiar enhancement due to the O(GFmt2) one-loop correction by about +16% and thus more than compensates the screening by about -8% through strong-interaction effects of order O(alphasGFmt2).

  6. Leading Chiral Logarithms of $K_{S} \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ at two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorbani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    We obtain the leading divergences at two loops for the decay $K_{S} \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ using only one-loop diagrams. We then find the double chiral logarithmic corrections to the decay branching ratio. It turns out that these effects are numerically small and therefore make a very small enhancement on the branching ratio. We also derive an expression for the corrections of type $\\log \\mu~\\times$ LEC. We find out that these single logarithmic effects can be sizable but comes with opposite sign with respect to the double chiral logarithms. Some numerical results are presented.

  7. On the two-loop corrections to the Higgs mass in trilinear R-parity violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbi K. Dreiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of large trilinear R-parity violating couplings on the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass in supersymmetric models. We use the publicly available computer codes SARAH and SPheno to compute the leading two-loop corrections. We use the effective potential approach. For not too heavy third generation squarks (m˜≲1 TeV and couplings close to the unitarity bound we find positive corrections up to a few GeV in the Higgs mass.

  8. The two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 resonance → q anti qg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Taushif; Rana, Narayan [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); Training School Complex, Homi Bhaba National Institute, Mumbai (India); Das, Goutam; Mathews, Prakash [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Theory Division, Kolkata (India); Training School Complex, Homi Bhaba National Institute, Mumbai (India); Ravindran, V. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India)

    2016-12-15

    The two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 graviton decaying to q + anti q + g is presented considering a generic universal spin-2 coupling to the SM through the conserved energy-momentum tensor. Such a massive spin-2 particle can arise in extra-dimensional models. The ultraviolet and infrared structure of the QCD amplitudes are studied. In dimensional regularization, the infrared pole structure is in agreement with Catani's proposal, confirming the universal factorization property of QCD amplitudes, even with the spin-2 tensorial coupling. (orig.)

  9. Two-loop NF=1 QED Bhabha scattering differential cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, R.; Ferroglia, A.; Mastrolia, P.; Remiddi, E.; van der Bij, J. J.

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the two-loop virtual, UV renormalized corrections at order α(N=1) in QED to the Bhabha scattering differential cross section, for arbitrary values of the squared c.m. energy s and momentum transfer t, and on-shell electrons and positrons of finite mass m. The calculation is carried out within the dimensional regularization scheme; the remaining IR divergences appear as polar singularities in (D-4). The result is presented in terms of 1- and 2-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, of maximum weight 3.

  10. Two-loop NF=1 QED Bhabha scattering differential cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonciani, R. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: roberto.bonciani@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Ferroglia, A. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: andrea.ferroglia@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Mastrolia, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)]. E-mail: mastrolia@physics.ucla.edu; Remiddi, E. [Physics Department, Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: ettore.remiddi@bo.infn.it; Bij, J.J. van der [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: jochum@physik.uni-freiburg.de

    2004-11-22

    We calculate the two-loop virtual, UV renormalized corrections at order {alpha}4(NF=1) in QED to the Bhabha scattering differential cross section, for arbitrary values of the squared c.m. energy s and momentum transfer t, and on-shell electrons and positrons of finite mass m. The calculation is carried out within the dimensional regularization scheme; the remaining IR divergences appear as polar singularities in (D-4). The result is presented in terms of 1- and 2-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, of maximum weight 3.

  11. Reformulating the TBA equations for the quark anti-quark potential and their two loop expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Correa, Diego H. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hegedűs, Árpád [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Massolo, Fidel I. Schaposnik [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Tóth, Gábor Zsolt [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2014-03-11

    The boundary thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (BTBA) equations introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2012)134http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2013)135 to describe the cusp anomalous dimension contain imaginary chemical potentials and singular boundary fugacities, which make its systematic expansion problematic. We propose an alternative formulation based on real chemical potentials and additional source terms. We expand our equations to double wrapping order and find complete agreement with the direct two-loop gauge theory computation of the cusp anomalous dimension.

  12. Local integrands for two-loop all-plus Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    We express the planar five- and six-gluon two-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes with all positive helicities in compact analytic form using D-dimensional local integrands that are free of spurious singularities. The integrand is fixed from on-shell tree amplitudes in six dimensions using D-dimensional generalised unitarity cuts. The resulting expressions are shown to have manifest infrared behaviour at the integrand level. We also find simple representations of the rational terms obtained after integration in 4-2epsilon dimensions.

  13. R-parity violating two-loop level rainbowlike contribution to the fermion electric dipole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the two-loop level R-parity violating supersymmetric contribution to the electric and chromoelectric dipole moments of the fermion with neutrino and gaugino in the intermediate state. It is found that this contribution can be sufficiently enhanced with large tan {\\beta} and that it can have comparable size with the currently known R-parity violating Barr-Zee type process in the TeV scale supersymmetry breaking. We also give new limits on the R-parity violating couplings from the experimental data of the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron.

  14. Two-loop level rainbow-like supersymmetric contribution to the fermion EDM

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop level electric and chromo-electric dipole moments of the fermion involving fermion-sfermion inner loop, gaugino, and higgsino in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and analyze the chromo-electric dipole moment with the top-stop inner loop. It is found that this contribution is comparable with, and even dominates in some situation over the Barr-Zee type diagram generated from the CP-violation of the top squark sector in TeV scale supersymmetry breaking.

  15. Eikonal gluon bremsstrahlung at finite N_c beyond two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Delenda, Yazid

    2015-01-01

    We present a general formalism for computing the matrix-element squared for the emission of soft energy-ordered gluons beyond two loops in QCD perturbation theory at finite $N_c$. Our formalism is valid in the eikonal approximation. A Mathematica program has been developed for the automated calculation of all real/virtual eikonal squared amplitudes needed at a given loop order. For the purpose of illustration we show the explicit forms of the eikonal squared amplitudes up to the fifth-loop order. In the large-$N_c$ limit our results coincide with those previously reported in literature.

  16. Two-loop QED operator matrix elements with massive external fermion lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Freitas, Abilio de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Fisica; Neerven, Wilhelmus van [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Institut-Lorentz

    2011-07-15

    The two-loop massive operator matrix elements for the fermionic local twist-2 operators with external massive fermion lines in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) are calculated up to the constant terms in the dimensional parameter {epsilon}=D-4. We investigate the hypothesis of F. A. Berends et al. (1988) that the 2-loop QED initial state corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into a virtual neutral gauge boson, except power corrections of O((m{sup 2}{sub f}/s){sup k}), k {>=} 1, can be represented in terms of these matrix elements and the massless 2-loop Wilson coefficients of the Drell-Yan process. (orig.)

  17. Precise numerical evaluation of the two loop sunrise graph Master Integrals in the equal mass case

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzorini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    We present a double precision routine in Fortran for the precise and fast numerical evaluation of the two Master Integrals (MIs) of the equal mass two-loop sunrise graph for arbitrary momentum transfer in d=2 and d=4 dimensions. The routine implements the accelerated power series expansions obtained by solving the corresponding differential equations for the MIs at their singular points. With a maximum of 22 terms for the worst case expansion a relative precision of better than a part in 10^{15} is achieved for arbitrary real values of the momentum transfer.

  18. Two-loop top-Yukawa-coupling corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Passehr, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The top-Yukawa-coupling enhanced two-loop corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the real MSSM are presented. The contributing two-loop self-energies are calculated in the Feynman-diagrammatic approach in the gaugeless limit with vanishing external momentum and bottom mass, within a renormalization scheme comprising on-shell and DR conditions. Numerical results illustrate the effect of the O(α{sub t}{sup 2}) contributions and the importance of the two-loop corrections to the mass of the charged Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  19. Planar two-loop master integrals for massive Bhabha scattering: N_f=1 and N_f=2

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Gluza, J; Riemann, Tord; Actis, Stefano; Czakon, Michal; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the computation of two-loop master integrals for massive Bhabha scattering are briefly reviewed. We apply a method based on expansions of exact Mellin-Barnes representations and evaluate all planar four-point master integrals in the approximation of small electron mass at fixed scattering angle for the one-flavor case. The same technique is employed to derive and evaluate also all two-loop masters generated by additional fermion flavors. The approximation is sufficient for the determination of QED two-loop corrections for Bhabha scattering in the kinematics planned to be used for the luminosity determination at the ILC.

  20. Large mass expansion in two-loop QCD corrections of para-charmonium decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, K; Pak, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the light-by-light scattering type two-loop QCD corrections due to the light quark loops in the para-charmonium decays $eta_{c} rightarrow gamma gamma$ and $eta_{c} rightarrow g g$. We replace the mass of the internal charm quarks by an artificial large mass and obtain the result as a series in the large mass. The obtained series can be transformed into the good convergent ones by a change of the expansion parameter. The results are supported by two other methods to improve the convergence. We also observe that the color singlet state of $eta_{c}$ eliminates the potential divergences in the two-loop QCD corrections. The obtained corrections to the modes $eta_{c} rightarrow gamma gamma$ and $eta_{c} rightarrow g g$ account for -1.25% and -0.73% of the tree level values, respectively. Comparing the ratio of the decay rates with the experimental value, we find the constrains on the unknown contribution to these decays.

  1. Deconfinement transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory: a two-loop study

    CERN Document Server

    Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N

    2014-01-01

    In a recent work we have proposed a perturbative approach for the study of the phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature. This is based on a simple massive extension of background field methods in the Landau-DeWitt gauge, where the gluon mass term is related to the existence of Gribov ambiguities. We have shown that a one-loop calculation of the background field effective potential describes well the phase structure of the SU(2) and SU(3) theories. Here, we present the calculation of the next-to-leading order contribution in perturbation theory for the SU(2) case. In particular, we compute the background field effective potential at two-loop order and the corresponding Polyakov loop, a gauge invariant order parameter of the transition, at one-loop order. We show that the two-loop correction brings the critical temperature closer to its actual value as compared to the previous one-loop result. We also compute the thermodynamic pressure as a function of the temperature and show that two...

  2. Two-loop corrections to the ρ parameter in Two-Higgs-Doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessenberger, Stephan; Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Models with two scalar doublets are among the simplest extensions of the Standard Model which fulfill the relation ρ = 1 at lowest order for the ρ parameter as favored by experimental data for electroweak observables allowing only small deviations from unity. Such small deviations Δρ originate exclusively from quantum effects with special sensitivity to mass splittings between different isospin components of fermions and scalars. In this paper the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections to Δρ are calculated in the CP-conserving THDM, resulting from the top-Yukawa coupling and the self-couplings of the Higgs bosons in the gauge-less limit. The on-shell renormalization scheme is applied. With the assumption that one of the CP-even neutral scalars represents the scalar boson observed by the LHC experiments, with standard properties, the two-loop non-standard contributions in Δρ can be separated from the standard ones. These contributions are of particular interest since they increase with mass splittings between non-standard Higgs bosons and can be additionally enhanced by tanβ and λ{sub 5}, an additional free coefficient of the Higgs potential, and can thus modify the one-loop result substantially. Numerical results are given for the dependence on the various non-standard parameters, and the influence on the calculation of electroweak precision observables is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Infrared divergences and harmonic anomalies in the two-loop superstring effective action

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the pertubative contributions to the $D^4 R^4$ and $D^6 R^4$ couplings in the low-energy effective action of type II string theory compactified on a torus $T^d$, with particular emphasis on two-loop corrections. In general, it is necessary to introduce an infrared cut-off $\\Lambda$ to separate local interactions from non-local effects due to the exchange of massless states. We identify the degenerations of the genus-two Riemann surface which are responsible for power-like dependence on $\\Lambda$, and give an explicit prescription for extracting the $\\Lambda$-independent effective couplings. These renormalized couplings are then shown to be eigenmodes of the Laplace operator with respect to the torus moduli, up to computable anomalous source terms arising in the presence of logarithmic divergences, in precise agreement with predictions from U-duality. Our results for the two-loop $D^6 R^4$ contribution also probe essential properties of the Kawazumi-Zhang invariant

  4. Two-loop corrections to the $\\rho$ parameter in Two-Higgs-Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hessenberger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Models with two scalar doublets are among the simplest extensions of the Standard Model which fulfill the relation $\\rho = 1$ at lowest order for the $\\rho$ parameter as favored by experimental data for electroweak observables allowing only small deviations from unity. Such small deviations $\\Delta\\rho$ originate exclusively from quantum effects with special sensitivity to mass splittings between different isospin components of fermions and scalars. In this paper the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections to $\\Delta\\rho$ are calculated in the $CP$-conserving THDM, resulting from the top-Yukawa coupling and the self-couplings of the Higgs bosons in the gauge-less limit. The on-shell renormalization scheme is applied. With the assumption that one of the $CP$-even neutral scalars represents the scalar boson observed by the LHC experiments, with standard properties, the two-loop non-standard contributions in $\\Delta\\rho$ can be separated from the standard ones. These contributions are of particular interest si...

  5. Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a higgs-like scalar $\\phi$ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton ($\\sigma$). Its vev $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$ generates the DR subtraction scale ($\\mu\\sim\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where $\\mu$=fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking ($\\mu$=fixed scale). These operators have the form: $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$, $\\phi^8/\\sigma^4$, etc, which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle\\gg \\langle\\phi\\rangle$, where such hierarchy is arranged by {\\it one} initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum...

  6. The two-loop helicity amplitudes for $q \\bar q' \\to V_1 V_2 \\to 4~\\mathrm{leptons}$

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the two-loop massless QCD corrections to the helicity amplitudes for the production of two massive vector bosons in quark-antiquark annihilation, allowing for an arbitrary virtuality of the vector bosons: $q \\bar q' \\to V_1V_2$. Combining with the leptonic decay currents, we obtain the full two-loop QCD description of the corresponding electroweak four-lepton production processes. The calculation is performed by projecting the two-loop diagrams onto an appropriate basis of Lorentz structures. All two-loop Feynman integrals are reduced to a basis of master integrals, which are then computed using the differential equations method and optimised for numerical performance. We provide a public C++ code which allows for fast and precise numerical evaluations of the amplitudes.

  7. QCD two-loop corrections for hadronic single top-quark production in the t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Assadsolimani, M; Tausk, B; Uwer, P

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the calculation of single top-quark production in the t-channel at two-loop order in QCD. In particular we present the decomposition of the amplitude according to its spin and colour structure and present complete results for the two-loop amplitudes in terms of master integrals. For the vertex corrections compact analytic expressions are given. The box contributions are implemented in a publicly available C program.

  8. Two-Loop QCD Corrections to Higgs $\\rightarrow b + \\bar{b} + g$ Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive observables involving Higgs boson in association with jets are often well suited to study the Higgs boson properties. They are rates involving cuts on the final state jets or differential distributions of rapidity, transverse momentum of the observed Higgs boson. While they get dominant contributions from gluon initiated partonic subprocesses, it is important to include the subdominant ones coming from other channels. In this article, we study one such channel namely the Higgs production in association with a jet in bottom anti-bottom annihilation process. We compute relevant amplitude $H\\rightarrow b+\\overline b+g$ up to two loop level in QCD where Higgs couples to bottom quark through Yukawa coupling. We use projection operators to obtain the coefficients for each tensorial structure appearing in this process. We have demonstrated that the renormalized amplitudes do have the right infrared structure predicted by the QCD factorization in dimensional regularization. The finite parts of the one and t...

  9. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  10. The Two-Loop Finite-Temperature Effective Potential of the MSSM and Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Losada, M

    1999-01-01

    We construct an effective three dimensional theory for the MSSM at high temperatures in the limit of large-$m_{A}$. We analyse the two-loop effective potential of the 3D theory for the case of a light right handed stop to determine the precise region in the $m_{h}$-$m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}}$ plane for which the sphaleron constraint for preservation of the baryon asymmetry is satisfied. We also compare with results previously obtained usind 3D and 4D calculations of the effective potential. A two-stage phase transition still persists for a small range of values of $m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}}$. The allowed region requires a value of $m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}} \\lsi m_{t}$ and $m_{h} \\lsi 100$ (110) GeV for $m_{Q} = 300$ GeV (1 TeV).

  11. The Higgs Mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D; Staub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which lead to very tight constraints from precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models to both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and how their consequent predictions for patterns in the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms do not violate these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with any other observation. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  12. Two-Loop Quantum Gravity Corrections to Cosmological Constant in Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Ken-ji

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of the Planck mass and the cosmological constant are calculated in a renormalizable quantum conformal gravity with a single dimensionless coupling, which is formulated using dimensional regularization on the basis of Hathrell's works for conformal anomalies. The dynamics of the traceless tensor field is handled by the Weyl action, while that of the conformal-factor field is described by the induced Wess-Zumino actions, including the Riegert action as the kinetic term. Loop calculations are carried out in Landau gauge in order to reduce the number of Feynman diagrams as well as to avoid some uncertainty. Especially, we calculate two-loop quantum gravity corrections to the cosmological constant. It suggests that there is a dynamical solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  13. The Higgs mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Nickel, Kilian; Staub, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which are tightly constrained by precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models which both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and also predict soft-breaking patterns that are compatible with these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative mass shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with other observations. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  14. Two-loop renormalization of vector, axial-vector and tensor fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2008-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ corresponds to the Vector, Axial-Vector and Tensor Dirac operators, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MSbar scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, together with some special features of superficially divergent integrals, are included in the Appendices.

  15. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  16. Quantum radiation from an inertial scalar charge evolving in the de Sitter universe: Weak-field limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaga, Robert, E-mail: robert.blaga90@e-uvt.ro [Faculty of Physics, West University of Timişoara V. Pârvan Ave. 4, RO-300223 Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the energy radiated by an inertial scalar charge evolving in the expanding Poincaré patch of de Sitter spacetime, in the framework of scalar QED perturbation theory. We approximate the transition amplitude in the small expansion parameter limit and show that the leading contribution to the radiated energy has the form of the energy radiated by an accelerated particle in Minkowski space.

  17. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

  18. Constraints on abelian extensions of the Standard Model from two-loop vacuum stability and U(1){sub B−L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corianò, Claudio [STAG Research Centre and Mathematical Sciences,University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Università del Salento and INFN - Sezione di Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Università del Salento and INFN - Sezione di Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-02-19

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal U(1){sub B−L} extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  19. Two-Loop QCD Correction to massive spin-2 resonance $\\rightarrow$ 3 gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2014-01-01

    We present the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ virtual QCD corrections to the process $h \\rightarrow g+g+g$ due to interference of born and two-loop amplitudes, where $h$ is a massive spin-2 particle and $g$ is the gluon. We assume that the SM fields couple to $h$ through the SM energy momentum tensor. Our result constitutes one of the ingredients to full NNLO QCD contribution to production of a massive spin-2 particle along with a jet in the scattering process at the LHC. In particular, this massive spin-2 could be a KK mode of a ADD graviton in large extra dimensional model or a RS KK mode in warped extra dimensional model or a generic massive spin-2. In addition, it provides an opportunity to study the ultraviolet and infrared structures of QCD amplitudes involving tensorial coupling resulting from energy momentum operator. Using dimensional regularization, we find that infrared poles of this amplitude are in agreement with the proposal by Catani confirming the factorization property of QCD amplitudes with tensoria...

  20. Two-loop conformal generators for leading-twist operators in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M.; Strohmaier, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Manashov, A.N. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moch, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-01-15

    QCD evolution equations in minimal subtraction schemes have a hidden symmetry: One can construct three operators that commute with the evolution kernel and form an SL(2) algebra, i.e. they satisfy (exactly) the SL(2) commutation relations. In this paper we find explicit expressions for these operators to two-loop accuracy going over to QCD in non-integer d=4-2ε space-time dimensions at the intermediate stage. In this way conformal symmetry of QCD is restored on quantum level at the specially chosen (critical) value of the coupling, and at the same time the theory is regularized allowing one to use the standard renormalization procedure for the relevant Feynman diagrams. Quantum corrections to conformal generators in d=4-2ε effectively correspond to the conformal symmetry breaking in the physical theory in four dimensions and the SL(2) commutation relations lead to nontrivial constraints on the renormalization group equations for composite operators. This approach is valid to all orders in perturbation theory and the result includes automatically all terms that can be identified as due to a nonvanishing QCD β-function (in the physical theory in four dimensions). Our result can be used to derive three-loop evolution equations for flavor-nonsinglet quark-antiquark operators including mixing with the operators containing total derivatives. These equations govern, e.g., the scale dependence of generalized hadron parton distributions and light-cone meson distribution amplitudes.

  1. The Two-Loop Six-Gluon MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Spradlin, M; Vergu, C; Volovich, A

    2008-01-01

    We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal...

  2. Two-Loop Beam and Soft Functions for Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Shireen; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Jet vetoes play an important role in many analyses at the LHC. Traditionally, jet vetoes have been imposed using a restriction on the transverse momentum $p_{Tj}$ of jets. Alternatively, one can also consider jet observables for which $p_{Tj}$ is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity $y_j$ that vanishes as $|y_j| \\to \\infty$. Such observables are useful as they provide a natural way to impose a tight veto on central jets but a looser one at forward rapidities. We consider two such rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, $\\mathcal{T}_{Bj}$ and $\\mathcal{T}_{Cj}$, and compute the required beam and dijet soft functions for the jet-vetoed color-singlet production cross section at two loops. At this order, clustering effects from the jet algorithm become important. The dominant contributions are computed fully analytically while corrections that are subleading in the limit of small jet radii are expressed in terms of finite numerical integrals. Our results enable the full NNLL' resummation and are an ...

  3. Two-loop supersymmetric QCD and half-maximal supergravity amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Kälin, Gregor; Mogull, Gustav

    2017-09-01

    Using the duality between color and kinematics, we construct two-loop four-point scattering amplitudes in N=2 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory coupled to N f fundamental hypermultiplets. Our results are valid in D ≤ 6 dimensions, where the upper bound corresponds to six-dimensional chiral N=(1,0) SYM theory. By exploiting a close connection with N=4 SYM theory — and, equivalently, six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory — we find compact integrands with four-dimensional external vectors in both the maximally-helicity-violating (MHV) and all-chiral-vector sectors. Via the double-copy construction corresponding D-dimensional half-maximal supergravity amplitudes with external graviton multiplets are obtained in the MHV and all-chiral sectors. Appropriately tuning N f enables us to consider both pure and matter-coupled supergravity, with arbitrary numbers of vector multiplets in D = 4. As a bonus, we obtain the integrands of the genuinely six-dimensional supergravities with N=(1,1) and N=(2,0) supersymmetry. Finally, we extract the potential ultraviolet divergence of half-maximal supergravity in D = 5 - 2 ɛ and show that it non-trivially cancels out as expected.

  4. The Two-Loop Scale Dependence of the Static QCD Potential including Quark Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1999-06-14

    The interaction potential V(Q{sup 2}) between static test charges can be used to define an effective charge {alpha}{sub V}(Q{sup 2}) and a physically-based renormalization scheme for quantum chromodynamics and other gauge theories. In this paper we use recent results for the finite-mass fermionic corrections to the heavy-quark potential at two-loops to derive the next-to-leading order term for the Gell Mann-Low function of the V-scheme. The resulting effective number of flavors N{sub F}(Q{sup 2}/m{sup 2}) in the {alpha}{sub V} scheme is determined as a gauge-independent and analytic function of the ratio of the momentum transfer to the quark pole mass. The results give automatic decoupling of heavy quarks and are independent of the renormalization procedure. Commensurate scale relations then provide the next-to-leading order connection between all perturbatively calculable observables to the analytic and gauge-invariant {alpha}{sub V} scheme without any scale ambiguity and a well defined number of active flavors. The inclusion of the finite quark mass effects in the running of the coupling is compared with the standard treatment of finite quark mass effects in the {ovr MS} scheme.

  5. Naturalness made easy: two-loop naturalness bounds on minimal SM extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is a collection of conservative naturalness bounds on minimal extensions of the standard model by (vector-like) fermionic or scalar gauge multiplets. Within, we advocate for an intuitive and physical concept of naturalness built upon the renormalisation group equations. In the effective field theory of the standard model plus a gauge multiplet with mass $M$, the low scale Higgs mass parameter is a calculable function of $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ input parameters defined at some high scale $\\Lambda_h > M$. If the Higgs mass is very sensitive to these input parameters, then this signifies a naturalness problem. To sensibly capture the sensitivity, it is shown how a sensitivity measure can be rigorously derived as a Bayesian model comparison, which reduces in a relevant limit to a Barbieri--Giudice-like fine-tuning measure. This measure is fully generalisable to any perturbative EFT. The interesting results of our two-loop renormalisation group study are as follows: for $\\Lambda_h=\\Lambda...

  6. Naturalness made easy: two-loop naturalness bounds on minimal SM extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Cox, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The main result of this paper is a collection of conservative naturalness bounds on minimal extensions of the Standard Model by (vector-like) fermionic or scalar gauge multiplets. Within, we advocate for an intuitive and physical concept of naturalness built upon the renormalisation group equations. In the effective field theory of the Standard Model plus a gauge multiplet with mass M , the low scale Higgs mass parameter is a calculable function of overline{MS} input parameters defined at some high scale Λ h > M . If the Higgs mass is very sensitive to these input parameters, then this signifies a naturalness problem. To sensibly capture the sensitivity, it is shown how a sensitivity measure can be rigorously derived as a Bayesian model comparison, which reduces in a relevant limit to a Barbieri-Giudice-like fine-tuning measure. This measure is fully generalisable to any perturbative EFT. The interesting results of our two-loop renormalisation group study are as follows: for Λ h = ΛPl we find "10% fine-tuning" bounds on the masses of various gauge multiplets of M

  7. Avoiding the Goldstone Boson Catastrophe in general renormalisable field theories at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Braathen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We show how the infra-red divergences associated to Goldstone bosons in the minimum condition of the two-loop Landau-gauge effective potential can be avoided in general field theories. This extends the resummation formalism recently developed for the Standard Model and the MSSM, and we give compact, infra-red finite expressions in closed form for the tadpole equations. We also show that the results at this loop order are equivalent to (and are most easily obtained by) imposing an "on-shell" condition for the Goldstone bosons. Moreover, we extend the approach to show how the infra-red divergences in the calculation of the masses of neutral scalars (such as the Higgs boson) can be eliminated. For the mass computation, we specialise to the gaugeless limit and extend the effective potential computation to allow the masses to be determined without needing to solve differential equations for the loop functions -- opening the door to fast, infra-red safe determinations of the Higgs mass in general theories.

  8. Avoiding the Goldstone Boson Catastrophe in general renormalisable field theories at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braathen, Johannes; Goodsell, Mark D. [LPTHE, UPMC University Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); LPTHE, CNRS,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France)

    2016-12-14

    We show how the infra-red divergences associated to Goldstone bosons in the minimum condition of the two-loop Landau-gauge effective potential can be avoided in general field theories. This extends the resummation formalism recently developed for the Standard Model and the MSSM, and we give compact, infra-red finite expressions in closed form for the tadpole equations. We also show that the results at this loop order are equivalent to (and are most easily obtained by) imposing an “on-shell” condition for the Goldstone bosons. Moreover, we extend the approach to show how the infra-red divergences in the calculation of the masses of neutral scalars (such as the Higgs boson) can be eliminated. For the mass computation, we specialise to the gaugeless limit and extend the effective potential computation to allow the masses to be determined without needing to solve differential equations for the loop functions — opening the door to fast, infra-red safe determinations of the Higgs mass in general theories.

  9. Perturbative Yukawa theory at finite density: the role of masses and renormalization group flow at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Palhares, Letícia F

    2008-01-01

    Yukawa theory at vanishing temperature provides (one of the ingredients for) an effective description of the thermodynamics of a variety of cold and dense fermionic systems. We study the role of masses and the renormalization group flow in the calculation of the equation of state up to two loops within the MSbar scheme. Two-loop integrals are computed analytically for arbitrary fermion and scalar masses, and expressed in terms of well-known special functions. The dependence of the renormalization group flow on the number of fermion flavors is also discussed.

  10. World-line approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism in two-loop Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, H T; Sato, Haru-Tada; Schmidt, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the world-line formalism with a sewing method, we derive the Yang-Mills effective action in a form useful to generate the Bern-Kosower-type master formulae for gluon scattering amplitudes at the two-loop level. It is shown that four-gluon ($\\Phi^4$ type sewing) contributions can be encapsulated in the action with three-gluon ($\\Phi^3$ type) vertices only, the total action thus becoming a simple expression. We then derive a general formula for a two-loop Euler-Heisenberg type action in a pseudo-abelian $su(2)$ background. The ghost loop and fermion loop cases are also studied.

  11. Effective Two-loop Thermodynamic Potential with Fermions in the real-time formalism of thermal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, W; Xin, Wang; Jiarong, Li

    2000-01-01

    Within the real-time formalism (RTF) of thermal field theory,we apply the hard thermal loop (HTL) resummation technique to calculating effective two-loop thermodynamic potential in quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and its renormalization. The result with collective effects is obtained, which is valid for an arbitrary number of quark flavors with masses.

  12. Momentum-dependent two-loop QCD corrections to the neutral Higgs-boson masses in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowka, S.; Hahn, T.; Heinrich, G.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Results are presented for the momentum-dependent two-loop contributions of O(α{sub t}α{sub s}) to the masses and mixing effects in the Higgs sector of the MSSM. They are obtained in the Feynman-diagrammatic approach using a mixed on-shell/DR renormalization that can directly be matched onto the higher-order corrections included in the code FeynHiggs. The new two-loop diagrams are evaluated with the program SecDec. The combination of the new momentum-dependent two-loop contribution with the existing one- and two-loop corrections in the on-shell/DR scheme leads to an improved prediction of the light MSSM Higgs boson mass and a correspondingly reduced theoretical uncertainty. We find that the corresponding shifts in the lightest Higgs-boson mass M{sub h} are below 1 GeV in all scenarios considered, but they can extend up to the level of the current experimental uncertainty. The results are included in the code FeynHiggs. (orig.)

  13. First observation and branching fraction and decay parameter measurements of the weak radiative decay $\\Xi^0 \\to \\Lambda e^{+}e^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafstrm, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Ruggiero, G; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Velasco, M; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Valdata, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    The weak radiative decay $Xi^0 -> \\Lambda e^+ e^- $ has been detected for the first time. We find 412 candidates in the signal region, with an estimated background of $15pm 5$ events. We determine the branching fraction ${cal{B}}(\\Xi^0 -> \\Lambda e^+ e^- ) = [7.6pm 0.4({m stat})pm 0.4({m syst})pm 0.2({m norm})] imes 10^{-6}$, consistent with an internal bremsstrahlung process, and the decay asymmetry parameter $\\alpha_{\\Xi \\Lambda ee} = -0.8pm 0.2$, consistent with that of $\\Xi^0 -> \\Lambda \\gamma$. The charge conjugate reaction $\\overline{\\Xi^{0}} -> \\overline{\\Lambda} e^+ e^- $ has also been observed.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z~2.3--5

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Brent M; Jansen, Rolf A; Cohen, Seth H; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K; MacKenty, John W; O'Connell, Robert W; Silk, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 50 massive star-forming galaxies and 14 weak AGN with reliable spectroscopic redshifts at z~2.3--5.8. We analyzed HST WFC3/UVIS mosaics of the ERS field in three UV filters, and ACS B in the GOODS-South field to sample the rest-frame LyC over these redshifts. The average LyC emission of galaxies at z_mean=2.38, 2.68, 3.47, and 5.02 is detected at the >=3sigma level in image stacks of 11--15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, F336W, and ACS/WFC F435W filters. Their average LyC flux corresponds to AB~29.5--30.7 mag. The LyC flux of weak AGN is typically ~1 mag brighter at z~2.3--4.8, but averaged over ~4x fewer galaxies. The stacked galaxy LyC profiles are flatter than their non-ionizing UV-continuum profiles out to r~0".7, possibly indicating a radial porosity dependence in the ISM. The average LyC emission from AGN is more extended and sometimes more elongated compared to galaxies without AGN, possibly due to the viewing-angle at wh...

  15. Two-loop two-point functions with masses asymptotic expansions and Taylor series, in any dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J; Tarasov, O V

    1993-01-01

    In all mass cases needed for quark and gluon self-energies, the two-loop master diagram is expanded at large and small $q^2$, in $d$ dimensions, using identities derived from integration by parts. Expansions are given, in terms of hypergeometric series, for all gluon diagrams and for all but one of the quark diagrams; expansions of the latter are obtained from differential equations. Pad\\'{e} approximants to truncations of the expansions are shown to be of great utility. As an application, we obtain the two-loop photon self-energy, for all $d$, and achieve highly accelerated convergence of its expansions in powers of $q^2/m^2$ or $m^2/q^2$, for $d=4$.

  16. Computation of $H\\to gg$ in FDH and DRED: renormalization, operator mixing, and explicit two-loop results

    CERN Document Server

    Broggio, A; Signer, A; Stöckinger, D; Visconti, A

    2015-01-01

    The $H\\to gg$ amplitude relevant for Higgs production via gluon fusion is computed in the four-dimensional helicity scheme (FDH) and in dimensional reduction (DRED) at the two-loop level. The required renormalization is developed and described in detail, including the treatment of evanescent $\\epsilon$-scalar contributions. In FDH and DRED there are additional dimension-5 operators generating the $H g g$ vertices, where $g$ can either be a gluon or an $\\epsilon$-scalar. An appropriate operator basis is given and the operator mixing through renormalization is described. The results of the present paper provide building blocks for further computations, and they allow to complete the study of the infrared divergence structure of two-loop amplitudes in FDH and DRED.

  17. Matching QCD and heavy-quark effective theory heavy-light currents at two loops and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, D. J.; Grozin, A. G.

    1995-10-01

    Heavy-light QCD currents are matched with heavy-quark effective theory (HQET) currents at two loops and leading order in 1/m. A single formula applies to all current matchings. As a by-product, a master formula for the two-loop anomalous dimension of the QCD current q¯γ[μ1...γμn]q is obtained, yielding a new result for the tensor current. The dependence of matching coefficients on γ5 prescriptions is elucidated. Ratios of QCD matrix elements are obtained, independently of the three-loop anomalous dimension of HQET currents. The two-loop coefficient in f*B/fB =1-2αs(mb)/3π-Kbα2s/π2 +O(α3s,1/mb) is Kb=83/12+4/81π2+2/27π2ln2-1/9ζ(3)-19/54Nl +Δc=6.37+Δc, with Nl=4 light flavors, and a correction Δc=0.18+/-0.01 that takes account of the nonzero ratio mc/mb=0.28+/-0.03. Convergence of the perturbative series is poor: the fastest apparent convergence would entail αs(μ) at μ=370 MeV. ``Naive non-Abelianization'' of large-Nl results, via Nl-->Nl-33/2, gives reasonable approximations to exact two-loop results. All-order results for anomalous dimensions and matching coefficients are obtained at large β0=11=2/3Nl. Consistent cancellation between infrared- and ultraviolet-renormalon ambiguities is demonstrated.

  18. Two-loop electroweak corrections to Higgs-gluon couplings to higher orders in the dimensional regularization parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetti, Marco; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We compute the two-loop electroweak correction to the production of the Higgs boson in gluon fusion to higher orders in the dimensional-regularization parameter $\\epsilon = (d-4)/2$. We employ the method of differential equations to compute the relevant integrals and express them in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. Our result provides one of the necessary inputs for the computation of mixed three-loop QCD-electroweak corrections to $gg \\to H$.

  19. The two-loop electroweak bosonic corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b}$

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord; Usovitsch, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of the effective electroweak mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b}$ in the Standard Model at two-loop accuracy has now been completed by the first calculation of the bosonic two-loop corrections to the $Z{\\bar b}b$ vertex. Numerical predictions are presented in the form of a fitting formula as function of $M_Z, M_W, M_H, m_t$ and $\\Delta{\\alpha}$, ${\\alpha_{\\rm s}}$. For central input values, we obtain a relative correction of $\\Delta\\kappa_{\\rm b}^{(\\alpha^2,\\rm bos)} = -0.9855 \\times 10^{-4}$, amounting to about a quarter of the fermionic corrections, and corresponding to $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b} = 0.232704$. The integration of the corresponding two-loop vertex Feynman integrals with up to three dimensionless parameters in Minkowskian kinematics has been performed with two approaches: (i) Sector decomposition, implemented in the packages FIESTA 3 and SecDec 3, and (ii) Mellin-Barnes representations, implemented in AMBRE 3/MB and the new package MBnumerics.

  20. Effective field theory of large scale structure at two loops: The apparent scale dependence of the speed of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mercolli, Lorenzo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-12-01

    We study the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduces an apparent scale dependence for the leading-order parameter cs2 of the EFT starting at k =0.1 h Mpc-1 . These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1% level to k z =0 . We construct a well-motivated one-parameter ansatz to fix the relative size of the one- and two-loop counterterms using their high-k sensitivity. Although this one-parameter model is a very restrictive choice for the counterterms, it explains the apparent scale dependence of cs2 seen in simulations. It is also able to capture the scale dependence of the density power spectrum up to k ≈0.3 h Mpc-1 at the 1% level at redshift z =0 . Considering a simple scheme for the resummation of large-scale motions, we find that the two-loop calculation reduces the need for this IR resummation at k <0.2 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we extend our calculation to momentum statistics and show that the same one-parameter model can also describe density-momentum and momentum-momentum statistics.

  1. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure at Two Loops: the apparent scale dependence of the speed of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduce an apparent scale dependence for the leading order parameter $c_\\text{s}^2$ of the EFT starting at k=0.1 h/Mpc. These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1 % level to k<0.1 h/Mpc at redshift z=0. We construct a well motivated one parameter ansatz to fix the relative size of the one- and two-loop counterterms using their high-k sensitivity. Although this one parameter model is a very restrictive choice for the counterterms, it explains the apparent scale dependence of $c_\\text{s}^2$ seen in simulations. It is also able to capture the scale dependence of the density power spectrum up to k$\\approx$ 0.3 h/Mpc at the 1 % level at redshift $z=0$. Considering a simple scheme for the resummation of large scale motions, we find that the two loop calculation reduces the need for this ...

  2. 2D Quantum Gravity on Compact Riemann Surfaces and Two-Loop Partition Function: Circumventing the c=1 Barrier?

    CERN Document Server

    Bilal, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kaehler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kaehler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function $Z[A]$ up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kaehler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contribut...

  3. Renormalization scheme dependence of the two-loop QCD corrections to the neutral Higgs-boson masses in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowka, S. [University of Zurich, Institute for Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Hahn, T.; Heinrich, G.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Reaching a theoretical accuracy in the prediction of the lightest MSSM Higgs-boson mass, M{sub h}, at the level of the current experimental precision requires the inclusion of momentum-dependent contributions at the two-loop level. Recently two groups presented the two-loop QCD momentum-dependent corrections to M{sub h} (Borowka et al., Eur Phys J C 74(8):2994, 2014; Degrassi et al., Eur Phys J C 75(2):61, 2015), using a hybrid on-shell-DR scheme, with apparently different results. We show that the differences can be traced back to a different renormalization of the top-quark mass, and that the claim in Ref. Degrassi et al. (Eur Phys J C 75(2):61, 2015) of an inconsistency in Ref. Borowka et al. (Eur Phys J C 74(8):2994, 2014) is incorrect. We furthermore compare consistently the results for M{sub h} obtained with the top-quark mass renormalized on-shell and DR. The latter calculation has been added to the FeynHiggs package and can be used to estimate missing higher-order corrections beyond the two-loop level. (orig.)

  4. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  5. Weak Hamiltonian, CP Violation and Rare Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    1998-01-01

    These lectures describe in detail the effective Hamiltonians for weak decays of mesons constructed by means of the operator product expansion and the renormalization group method. We calculate Wilson coeffcients of local operators, discuss mixing of operators under renormalization, the anomalous dimensions of operators and anomalous dimension matrices. We elaborate on the renormalzation scheme and renormalization scale dependences and their cancellations in physical amplitudes. In particular we discuss the issue of gamma-5 in D-dimensions and the role of evanescent operators in the calculation of two-loop anomalous dimensions. We present an explicit calculation of the 6 times 6 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix involving current-current and QCD-penguin operators and we give some hints how to properly calculate two-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators. In the phenonomenological part of these lectures we discuss in detail: CKM matrix, the unitarity triangle and its determination, two-body non-leptonic...

  6. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  7. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  8. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    CERN Document Server

    Remiddi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d-4) expansion.

  9. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d - 4) expansion.

  10. Sfermion loop contribution to the two-loop level fermion electric dipole moment in R-parity violating supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the Barr-Zee type two-loop level contribution to the fermion electric and chromo-electric dipole moments with sfermion loop in R-parity violating supersymmetric models. It is found that the Barr-Zee type fermion dipole moment with sfermion loop acts destructively to the currently known fermion loop contribution, and that it has small effect when the mass of squarks or charged sleptons in the loop is larger than or comparable to that of the sneutrinos, but cannot be neglected if the sneutrinos are much heavier than loop sfermions.

  11. The two-loop helicity amplitudes for $gg \\to V_1 V_2 \\to 4~\\mathrm{leptons}$

    CERN Document Server

    von Manteuffel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We compute the two-loop massless QCD corrections to the helicity amplitudes for the production of two electroweak gauge bosons in the gluon fusion channel, $gg \\to V_1 V_2$, keeping the virtuality of the vector bosons $V_1$ and $V_2$ arbitrary and taking their decays into leptons into account. The amplitudes are expressed in terms of master integrals, whose representation has been optimised for fast and reliable numerical evaluation. We provide analytical results and a public C++ code for their numerical evaluation on HepForge at http://vvamp.hepforge.org .

  12. The Observation of the Weak Radiative Hyperon Decay Ξ°→Λ°π°γ at KTeV/E799, Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Huican [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The large sample of Ξ° hyperons available at KTeV 799 provides an opportunity to search for the Weak Radiative Hyperon Decay Ξ° → Λ°π°γ. We present a branching fraction measurement of Ξ° → Λ°π°γ based on the E799-II experiment data-taking in 1999 at KTeV, Fermilab. We used the principal decay of Ξ° → Λ°π where Λ decays to a proton and a π- as the flux normalization mode. This is the first observation of this interesting decay mode. Four candidate events are found in the data. The branching ratio at 90% confidence level has been measured to be (1.67-0.80+1.45(stat.) ± 0.50(syst.)) x 10-5 or (1.67-0.69+1.16(stat.) ± 0.50(syst.)) x 10-5 at 68.27% confidence level.

  13. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  14. A two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature within a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. We also discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use...

  15. Two-loop amplitudes and master integrals for the production of a Higgs boson via a massive quark and a scalar-quark loop

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, C; Bucherer, S; Daleo, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Anastasiou, Charalampos; Beerli, Stefan; Bucherer, Stefan; Daleo, Alejandro; Kunszt, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We compute all two-loop master integrals which are required for the evaluation of next-to-leading order QCD corrections in Higgs boson production via gluon fusion. Many two-loop amplitudes for 2 -> 1 processes in the Standard Model and beyond can be expressed in terms of these integrals using automated reduction techniques. These integrals also form a subset of the master integrals for more complicated 2 -> 2 amplitudes with massive propagators in the loops. As a first application, we evaluate the two-loop amplitude for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion via a massive quark. Our result is the first independent check of the calculation of Spira, Djouadi, Graudenz and Zerwas. We also present for the first time the two-loop amplitude for gg -> h via a massive squark.

  16. Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively...

  17. Two-loop planar master integrals for Higgs$\\to 3$ partons with full heavy-quark mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, Roberto; Frellesvig, Hjalte; Henn, Johannes M; Moriello, Francesco; Smirnov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytic computation of all the planar master integrals which contribute to the two-loop scattering amplitudes for Higgs$\\to 3$ partons, with full heavy-quark mass dependence. These are relevant for the NNLO corrections to fully inclusive Higgs production and to the NLO corrections to Higgs production in association with a jet, in the full theory. The computation is performed using the differential equations method. Whenever possible, a basis of master integrals that are pure functions of uniform weight is used. The result is expressed in terms of one-fold integrals of polylogarithms and elementary functions up to transcendental weight four. Two integral sectors are expressed in terms of elliptic functions. We show that by introducing a one-dimensional parametrization of the integrals the relevant second order differential equation can be readily solved, and the solution can be expressed to all orders of the dimensional regularization parameter in terms of iterated integrals over elliptic kerne...

  18. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  19. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  20. The corrections from one loop and two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams to muon MDM in BLMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shu-Min; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Yan, Ben; Zhan, Xi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    In a supersymmetric extension of the standard model where baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries(BLMSSM) and the Yukawa couplings between Higgs doublets and exotic quarks are considered, we study the one loop diagrams and the two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams with a closed Fermi(scalar) loop between the vector Boson and Higgs. Using the effective Lagrangian method, we deduce the Wilson coefficients of dimension 6 operators contributing to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon, which satisfies the electromagnetic gauge invariance. In the numerical analysis, we consider the experiment constraints from Higgs and neutrino data. In some parameter space, the new physics contribution is large and even reaches $24\\times10^{-10}$, which can remedy the deviation well.

  1. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-02-01

    We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  2. Neural-network-based two-loop control of robotic manipulators including actuator dynamics in task space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyong WANG; Tianyou CHAI; Zheng FANG

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network-based motion controller in task space is presented in this paper. The proposed controller is addressed as a two-loop cascade control scheme. The outer loop is given by kinematic control in the task space. It provides a joint velocity reference signal to the inner one. The inner loop implements a velocity servo loop at the robot joint level. A radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with proportional-integral (PI) control to construct a velocity tracking control scheme for the inner loop. Finally, a prototype technology based control system is designed for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control scheme is applied to the robotic manipulator. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control scheme by comparing it with other control strategies.

  3. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  4. The calculation of the two-loop spin splitting functions P{sub ij}{sup (1)}(x)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertig, R. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Neerven, W.L. van [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Inst. Lorentz voor Theoretische Natuurkunde

    1995-06-01

    We present the calculation of the two-loop spin splitting functions P{sub ij}{sup (1)}(x) (i, j=q, g) contributing to the next-to-leading order corrected spin structure function g{sub 1}(x, Q{sup 2}). These splitting functions, which are presented in the anti M anti S scheme, are derived from the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} contribution to the anomalous dimensions {gamma}{sup m}{sub ij} (i, j=q, g). The latter correspond to the local operators which appear in the operator product expansion of two electromagnetic currents. Some of the properties of the anomalous dimensions will be discussed. In particular we find that in order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} the supersymmetric relation {gamma}{sup m}{sub qq}+{gamma}{sup m}{sub qg}-{gamma}{sup m}{sub qg}-{gamma}{sup m}{sub gg}=0 is violated. (orig.).

  5. Analytic calculation of two-loop QCD corrections to b → sl+l- in the high q2 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, C.; Pilipp, V.; Schüpbach, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present our results for the NNLL virtual corrections to the matrix elements of the operators O1 and O2 for the inclusive process b → sl+l- in the kinematical region q2 > 4mc2, where q2 is the invariant mass squared of the lepton-pair. This is the first analytic two-loop calculation of these matrix elements in the high q2 region. We give the matrix elements as an expansion in mc/mb and keep the full analytic dependence on q2. Making extensive use of differential equation techniques, we fully automatize the expanding of the Feynman integrals in mc/mb. In coincidence with an earlier work where the master integrals were obtained numerically [1], we find that in the high q2 region the αs corrections to the matrix elements langlesl+l-|O1,2|brangle calculated in the present paper lead to a decrease of the perturbative part of the q2-spectrum by 10%-15% relative to the NNLL result in which these contributions are put to zero and reduce the renormalization scale uncertainty to ~ 2%.

  6. Thermodynamics and phase transition of the O(N) model from the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Markó, Gergely; Szép, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the O(N) model across the corresponding phase transition using the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation of the effective potential and compare our results to those obtained in the literature within the Hartree-Fock approximation. In particular, we find that in the chiral limit the transition is of the second order, whereas it was found to be of the first order in the Hartree-Fock case. These features are manifest at the level of the thermodynamical observables. We also compute the thermal sigma and pion masses from the curvature of the effective potential. In the chiral limit, this guarantees that the Goldstone theorem is obeyed in the broken phase. A realistic parametrization of the model in the N=4 case, based on the vacuum values of the curvature masses, shows that a sigma mass of around 450 MeV can be obtained. The equations are renormalized after extending our previous results for the N=1 case by means of the general procedure described in [J. Berges et al., Annals Phys. ...

  7. Two-loop master integrals for the mixed EW-QCD virtual corrections to Drell-Yan scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, Roberto; Di Vita, Stefano; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We present the calculation of the master integrals needed for the two-loop QCD × EW corrections to q+overline{q}to {l}-+{l}+ and q+overline{q}^'to {l}-+overline{ν} , for massless external particles. We treat the W and Z bosons as degenerate in mass. We identify three types of diagrams, according to the presence of massive internal lines: the no-mass type, the one-mass type, and the two-mass type, where all massive propagators, when occurring, contain the same mass value. We find a basis of 49 master integrals and evaluate them with the method of the differential equations. The Magnus exponential is employed to choose a set of master integrals that obeys a canonical system of differential equations. Boundary conditions are found either by matching the solutions onto simpler integrals in special kinematic configurations, or by requiring the regularity of the solution at pseudothresholds. The canonical master integrals are finally given as Taylor series around d = 4 space-time dimensions, up to order four, with coefficients given in terms of iterated integrals, respectively up to weight four.

  8. Two-loop master integrals for the mixed EW-QCD virtual corrections to Drell-Yan scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonciani, Roberto [' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione Roma (Italy); Di Vita, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia; INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Schubert, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We present the calculation of the master integrals needed for the two-loop QCD x EW corrections to q+ anti q → l{sup -}+l{sup +} and q+ anti q{sup '} → l{sup -}+ anti ν, for massless external particles. We treat W and Z bosons as degenerate in mass. We identify three types of diagrams, according to the presence of massive internal lines: the no-mass type, the one-mass type, and the two-mass type, where all massive propagators, when occurring, contain the same mass value. We find a basis of 49 master integrals and evaluate them with the method of the differential equations. The Magnus exponential is employed to choose a set of master integrals that obeys a canonical system of differential equations. Boundary conditions are found either by matching the solutions onto simpler integrals in special kinematic configurations, or by requiring the regularity of the solution at pseudo-thresholds. The canonical master integrals are finally given as Taylor series around d=4 space-time dimensions, up to order four, with coefficients given in terms of iterated integrals, respectively up to weight four.

  9. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  10. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  11. Higgs production via weak boson fusion in the standard model and the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figy, Terrance [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Palmer, Sophy [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). IThP; Weiglein, Georg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO (which includes the NLO QCD corrections). Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the literature. For the production of a light Higgs boson in the MSSM the Standard Model result is recovered in the decoupling limit, while the loop contributions from superpartners to the production of neutral MSSM Higgs bosons can give rise to corrections in excess of 10% away from the decoupling region. (orig.)

  12. Higgs Production via Weak Boson Fusion in the Standard Model and the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Figy, Terrance; Weiglein, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Weak boson fusion is expected to be an important Higgs production channel at the LHC. Complete one-loop results for weak boson fusion in the Standard Model have been obtained by calculating the full virtual electroweak corrections and photon radiation and implementing these results into the public Monte Carlo program VBFNLO which includes the NLO QCD corrections. Furthermore the dominant supersymmetric one-loop corrections to neutral Higgs production, in the general case where the MSSM includes complex phases, have been calculated. These results have been combined with all one-loop corrections of Standard Model type and with the propagator-type corrections from the Higgs sector of the MSSM up to the two-loop level. Within the Standard Model the electroweak corrections are found to be as important as the QCD corrections after the application of appropriate cuts. The corrections yield a shift in the cross section of order 5% for a Higgs of mass 100-200 GeV, confirming the result obtained previously in the liter...

  13. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  14. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, Piotr H; Meissner, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with an explicit UV momentum cutoff $\\Lambda$. We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action express...

  15. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chankowski, Piotr H. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Lewandowski, Adrian [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-18

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with a smooth momentum cutoff Λ (implemented through an exponential damping factor). We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional (MS)-bar scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the (MS)-bar scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action expressed in terms of bare parameters. This, together with treating Λ as an intrinsic scale of a hypothetical underlying finite theory of all interactions, offers a possibility of an unconventional solution to the hierarchy problem if no intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale exist.

  16. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankowski, Piotr H.; Lewandowski, Adrian; Meissner, Krzysztof A.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with a smooth momentum cutoff Λ (implemented through an exponential damping factor). We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional overline{MS} scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the overline{MS} scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action expressed in terms of bare parameters. This, together with treating Λ as an intrinsic scale of a hypothetical underlying finite theory of all interactions, offers a possibility of an unconventional solution to the hierarchy problem if no intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale exist.

  17. Broken phase effective potential in the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation and nature of the phase transition in a scalar theory

    CERN Document Server

    Markó, Gergely; Szép, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We study the phase transition of a real scalar phi^4 theory in the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation using the imaginary time formalism, extending our previous (analytical) discussion of the Hartree approximation. We combine Fast Fourier Transform algorithms and accelerated Matsubara sums in order to achieve a high accuracy. Our results confirm and complete earlier ones obtained in the real time formalism [1] but which were less accurate due to the integration in Minkowski space and the discretization of the spectral density function. We also provide a complete and explicit discussion of the renormalization of the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation at finite temperature, both in the symmetric and in the broken phase, which was already used in the real-time approach, but never published. Our main result is that the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation suffices to cure the problem of the Hartree approximation regarding the order of the transition: the transition is of the second order type, as expected on ...

  18. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  19. Microscopic folding model analysis of the radiative (n ,γ ) reactions near the Z =28 shell closure and the weak s process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Saumi; Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Radiative thermal neutron capture cross sections over the range of thermal energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV are studied in the statistical Hauser-Feshbach formalism. The optical model potential is constructed by folding the density-dependent M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction with radial matter densities of target nuclei obtained from relativistic-mean-field (RMF) theory. The standard nuclear reaction code talys1.8 is used for calculation of cross sections. The nuclei studied in the present work reside near the Z =28 proton shell closure and are of astrophysical interest, taking part in p ,s , and r processes of nucleosynthesis. The Maxwellian-averaged cross-section (MACS) values for energies important for astrophysical applications are presented.

  20. Microscopic folding model analysis of the radiative $(n,\\gamma)$ reactions near the $Z=28$ shell-closure and the weak s-process

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Saumi; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross sections over the range of thermal energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV are studied in statistical Hauser-Feshbach formalism. The optical model potential is constructed by folding the density dependent M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction with radial matter densities of target nuclei obtained from relativistic-mean-field (RMF) theory. The standard nuclear reaction code TALYS1.8 is used for calculation of cross sections. The nuclei studied in the present work reside near the $Z=28$ proton shell closure and are of astrophysical interests taking part in p-, s-, and r-process of nucleosynthesis. The Maxwellian-averaged cross-section (MACS) values for energies important for astrophysical applications are presented.

  1. Anomalous scaling and large-scale anisotropy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop renormalization-group analysis of the Kazantsev-Kraichnan kinematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M

    2012-06-01

    The field theoretic renormalization group and operator product expansion are applied to the Kazantsev-Kraichnan kinematic model for the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anomalous scaling emerges as a consequence of the existence of certain composite fields ("operators") with negative dimensions. The anomalous exponents for the correlation functions of arbitrary order are calculated in the two-loop approximation (second order of the renormalization-group expansion), including the anisotropic sectors. The anomalous scaling and the hierarchy of anisotropic contributions become stronger due to those second-order contributions.

  2. Effect of spray system on fission product distribution in containment during a severe accident in a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Jahanfamia, Gholamreza [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sayareh, Reza [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code. The accident considered in this study is a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, which is not successfully mitigated by the action of safety systems. The analysis includes pressure and temperature responses, as well as investigation into the influence of spray on the retention of fission products and the prevention of hydrogen combustion in the containment.

  3. Effect of Spray System on Fission Product Distribution in Containment During a Severe Accident in a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehjourian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The containment response during the first 24 hours of a low-pressure severe accident scenario in a nuclear power plant with a two-loop Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor was simulated with the CONTAIN 2.0 computer code. The accident considered in this study is a large-break loss-of-coolant accident, which is not successfully mitigated by the action of safety systems. The analysis includes pressure and temperature responses, as well as investigation into the influence of spray on the retention of fission products and the prevention of hydrogen combustion in the containment.

  4. The two-loop sunrise integral around four space-time dimensions and generalisations of the Clausen and Glaisher functions towards the elliptic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Luise; Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We present the result for the finite part of the two-loop sunrise integral with unequal masses in four space-time dimensions in terms of the O ( ɛ0) -part and the O ( ɛ1) -part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions. The latter two integrals are given in terms of elliptic generalisations of Clausen and Glaisher functions. Interesting aspects of the result for the O ( ɛ1 ) -part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions are the occurrence of depth two elliptic objects and the weights of the individual terms.

  5. The two-loop sunrise integral around four space-time dimensions and generalisations of the Clausen and Glaisher functions towards the elliptic case

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present the result for the finite part of the two-loop sunrise integral with unequal masses in four space-time dimensions in terms of the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^0)$-part and the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^1)$-part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions. The latter two integrals are given in terms of elliptic generalisations of Clausen and Glaisher functions. Interesting aspects of the result for the ${\\mathcal O}(\\varepsilon^1)$-part of the sunrise integral around two space-time dimensions are the occurrence of depth two elliptic objects and the weights of the individual terms.

  6. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  7. Two-loop electroweak corrections to the A{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and A{sup 0}gg couplings of the CP-odd Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Fugel, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-06-15

    Using the asymptotic-expansion technique, we compute the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections, of O(G{sub F}m{sup 2}{sub t}), to production and decay via a pair of photons or gluons of the CP-odd Higgs boson A{sup 0} in a two-Higgs-doublet model with low- to intermediate values of the Higgs-boson masses and ratio tan {beta}=v{sub 2}/v{sub 1} of the vacuum expectation values. We also study the influence of a sequential heavyfermion generation. The appearance of three {gamma}{sub 5} matrices in closed fermion loops requires special care in the dimensional regularisation of ultraviolet divergences. The finite renormalisation constant for the pseudoscalar current effectively restoring the anticommutativity of the {gamma}{sub 5} matrix, familiar from perturbative quantum chromodynamics, is found not to receive a correction in this order. We also revisit the dominant two-loop electroweak correction to the H{yields}{gamma}{gamma} decay width in the standard model with a fourth fermion generation. (orig.)

  8. Breakdown of Fermi liquid behavior near the hot spots in a two-dimensional model: A two-loop renormalization group analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vanuildo S. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Freire, Hermann, E-mail: hfreire@mit.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    Motivated by a recent experimental observation of a nodal liquid on both single crystals and thin films of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+} {sub δ} by Chatterjee et al. [Nature Phys. 6 (2010) 99], we perform a field-theoretical renormalization group (RG) analysis of a two-dimensional model such that only eight points located near the “hot spots” on the Fermi surface are retained, which are directly connected by spin density wave ordering wavevector. We derive RG equations up to two-loop order describing the flow of renormalized couplings, quasiparticle weight, several order-parameter response functions, and uniform spin and charge susceptibilities of the model. We find that while the order-parameter susceptibilities investigated here become non-divergent at two loops, the quasiparticle weight vanishes in the low-energy limit, indicating a breakdown of Fermi liquid behavior at this RG level. Moreover, both uniform spin and charge susceptibilities become suppressed in the scaling limit which indicate gap openings in both spin and charge excitation spectra of the model.

  9. Two-Loop Quark Self-Energy in a New Formalism; 2, Renormalization of the Quark Propagator in the Light-Cone Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, George; Leibbrandt, George; Williams, Jimmy D.

    2000-01-01

    The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the noncovariant light-cone gauge (lcg). (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n^*-prescription for the spurious poles of 1/qn, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma_2 contains both covariant and noncovariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all nonlocal divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma_2 implies a quark mass counterterm of the form $\\delta m (lcg) = m\\tilde\\alpha_s C_F(3+\\tilde\\alpha_sW) + {\\rm O} (\\tilde\\alpha_s^3)$, the dimensional regulator epsilon, and on th...

  10. Two-loop quark self-energy in a new formalism; 2, Renormalization of the quark propagator in the light-cone gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G

    2000-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.440, p.537-602, 1995. The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the non-covariant light-cone gauge (LCG), n.A/sup a/(x)=0, n/sup 2/=0. (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n*/sub mu /-prescription for the spurious poles of (q.n)/sup -1/, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma /sub 2/ contains both covariant and non-covariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all non-local divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma /sub 2/ implies a quark mass counterterm of the form delta m(LCG)=m alpha /sub...

  11. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  12. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  13. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  14. Evaluation of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated ready-to-eat fresh products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Birmpa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assays was evaluated. Samples of romaine lettuce, strawberries, cherry tomatoes, green onions and sour berries were inoculated with known dilutions (100-108 CFU/g of produce of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes. With LAMP assay, pathogens can be detected in less than 60 min. The limits of detection of S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes depended on the food sample tested and on the presence of enrichment step. After enrichment steps, all food samples were found positive even at low initial pathogen levels. The developed LAMP, assays, are expected to become a valuable, robust, innovative, powerful, cheap and fast monitoring tool, which can be extensively used for routine analysis, and screening of contaminated foods by the food industry and the Public Food Health Authorities.

  15. Weakly isolated horizon information loss paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ge-Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the information loss paradox of weakly isolated horizon(WIH) based on the Parikh and Wilczek's tunneling spectrum. We find that there are correlations among Hawking radiations from weakly isolated horizon, the information can be carried out in terms of correlations between sequential emissions, and the radiation is an entropy conservation process. We generalize Refs.[11-13]' results to a more general spacetime. Through revisiting the calculation of tunneling of weakly isolated horizon, we find that Ref.[12]'s requirement that radiating particles have the same angular momenta of unit mass as that of black hole is not needed, and the energy and angular momenta of emitting particles are very arbitrary, which should be restricted only by keeping the cosmic censorship of black hole.

  16. Electromagnetic and Weak transitions in light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Viviani; L.E. Marcucci; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; R. Schiavilla

    2002-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the p -- d radiative and mu -- {sup 3}He weak capture processes by our group are presented and discussed. The trinucleon bound and scattering states have been obtained from variational calculations by expanding the corresponding wave functions in terms of correlated hyper-spherical harmonic functions. The electromagnetic and weak transition currents include one- and two-body operators. The accuracy achieved in these calculations allows for interesting comparisons with experimental data.

  17. Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Kosower, David A

    2012-01-01

    We show how to compute the coefficients of the double box basis integrals in a massless four-point amplitude in terms of tree amplitudes. We show how to choose suitable multidimensional contours for performing the required cuts, and derive consistency equations from the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. Our formulae for the coefficients can be used either analytically or numerically.

  18. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  19. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  20. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  1. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  2. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  3. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  4. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  5. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, V

    2005-01-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the cosmic microwave background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l approximately=1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended t...

  6. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  7. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  8. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  9. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  10. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  11. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  12. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  13. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  14. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  15. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  16. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  17. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  18. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  20. Weak-link capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Ross S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM)

    2011-06-07

    A process for making a dielectric material where a precursor polymer selected from poly(phenylene vinylene) polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), poly(thienylene vinylene), poly(1,4-naphthylene vinylene), and poly(p-pyridine vinylene) is energized said by exposure by radiation or increase in temperature to a level sufficient to eliminate said leaving groups contained within the precursor polymer, thereby transforming the dielectric material into a conductive polymer. The leaving group in the precursor polymer can be a chloride, a bromide, an iodide, a fluoride, an ester, an xanthate, a nitrile, an amine, a nitro group, a carbonate, a dithiocarbamate, a sulfonium group, an oxonium group, an iodonium group, a pyridinium group, an ammonium group, a borate group, a borane group, a sulphinyl group, or a sulfonyl group.

  1. Weak-link capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.; Wheeler, David R.; Bogart, Gregory R.

    2013-04-23

    A process for making a dielectric material where a precursor polymer selected from poly(phenylene vinylene)polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), poly(thienylene vinylene), poly(1,4-naphthylene vinylene), and poly(p-pyridine vinylene) is energized said by exposure by radiation or increase in temperature to a level sufficient to eliminate said leaving groups contained within the precursor polymer, thereby transforming the dielectric material into a conductive polymer. The leaving group in the precursor polymer can be a chloride, a bromide, an iodide, a fluoride, an ester, an xanthate, a nitrile, an amine, a nitro group, a carbonate, a dithiocarbamate, a sulfonium group, an oxonium group, an iodonium group, a pyridinium group, an ammonium group, a borate group, a borane group, a sulphinyl group, or a sulfonyl group.

  2. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  3. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  4. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    to distinguish hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.

  5. Weak compactness of biharmonic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.

  6. Evidence of a short-range incommensurate d-wave charge order from a fermionic two-loop renormalization group calculation of a 2D model with hot spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vanuildo S de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Freire, Hermann, E-mail: hfreire@mit.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 2139 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The two-loop renormalization group (RG) calculation is considerably extended here for the two-dimensional (2D) fermionic effective field theory model, which includes only the so-called “hot spots” that are connected by the spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering wavevector on a Fermi surface generated by the 2D t−t{sup ′} Hubbard model at low hole doping. We compute the Callan–Symanzik RG equation up to two loops describing the flow of the single-particle Green’s function, the corresponding spectral function, the Fermi velocity, and some of the most important order-parameter susceptibilities in the model at lower energies. As a result, we establish that–in addition to clearly dominant SDW correlations–an approximate (pseudospin) symmetry relating a short-range incommensurated-wave charge order to the d-wave superconducting order indeed emerges at lower energy scales, which is in agreement with recent works available in the literature addressing the 2D spin-fermion model. We derive implications of this possible electronic phase in the ongoing attempt to describe the phenomenology of the pseudogap regime in underdoped cuprates.

  7. [Systemic lupus erythematosus and weakness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Filipe; Santos, Maria José; da Silva, José Canas

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 13-year old young girl, with Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and recent onset of muscle weakness. Investigations lead to the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. The most important causes of muscle weakness in lupus patients are discussed.

  8. Design and Modeling of a Variable Heat Rejection Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Berisford, Daniel F.; Stephan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Variable Heat Rejection Radiator technology needed for future NASA human rated & robotic missions Primary objective is to enable a single loop architecture for human-rated missions (1) Radiators are typically sized for maximum heat load in the warmest continuous environment resulting in a large panel area (2) Large radiator area results in fluid being susceptible to freezing at low load in cold environment and typically results in a two-loop system (3) Dual loop architecture is approximately 18% heavier than single loop architecture (based on Orion thermal control system mass) (4) Single loop architecture requires adaptability to varying environments and heat loads

  9. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  10. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  11. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  12. Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke After injury to a nerve During a flare-up of multiple sclerosis (MS) You may feel ... Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) Shellfish poisoning OTHER Not enough healthy red blood ...

  13. Chiral perturbation theory approach to hadronic weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, E. de (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique 2)

    1989-07-01

    We are concerned with applications to the non-leptonic weak interactions in the sector of light quark flavors: u, d and s. Both strangeness changing {Delta}S=1 and {Delta}S=2 non-leptonic transitions can be described as weak perturbations to the strong effective chiral Lagrangian; the chiral structure of the weak effective Lagrangian being dictated by the transformation properties of the weak non-leptonic Hamiltonian of the Standard Model under global SU(3){sub Left}xSU(3){sub Right} rotations of the quark-fields. These lectures are organized as follows. Section 2 gives a review of the basic properties of chiral symmetry. Section 3 explains the effective chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian of the Standard Model to lowest order in derivatives and masses. Section 4 deals with non-leptonic weak transitions in the presence of electromagnetism. Some recent applications to radiative kaon decays are reviewed and the effect of the so called electromagnetic penguin like diagrams is also discussed. Section 5 explains the basic ideas of the QCD-hadronic duality approach to the evaluation of coupling constants of the non-leptonic chiral weak Lagrangian. (orig./HSI).

  14. A note on two-loop superloop

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2012-01-01

    We explore the duality between supersymmetric Wilson loop on null polygonal contours in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and next-to-maximal helicity violating (NMHV) scattering amplitudes. Earlier analyses demonstrated that the use of a dimensional regulator for ultraviolet divergences, induced due to presence of the cusps on the loop, yields anomalies that break both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. At one-loop order, these are present only in Grassmann components localized in the vicinity of a single cusp and result in a universal function for any number of sites of the polygon that can be subtracted away in a systematic manner leaving a well-defined supersymmetric remainder dual to corresponding components of the superamplitude. The question remains though whether components which were free from the aforementioned supersymmetric anomaly at leading order of perturbation theory remain so once computed at higher orders. Presently we verify this fact by calculating a particular component of the...

  15. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  16. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karta Kooner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  17. Interpolation for weak Orlicz spaces with condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yong; PENG LiHua; LIU PeiDe

    2008-01-01

    An interpolation theorem for weak Orlicz spaces generalized by N-functions satisfying M△ condition is given.It is proved to be true for weak Orlicz martingale spaces by weak atomic decomposition of weak Hardy martingale spaces.And applying the interpolation theorem,we obtain some embedding relationships among weak Orlicz martingale spaces.

  18. Weak Scale From the Maximum Entropy Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-01-01

    The theory of multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the $S^{3}$ universe at the final stage $S_{rad}$ becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the Standard Model, we can check whether $S_{rad}$ actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard $S_{rad}$ at the final stage as a function of the weak scale ( the Higgs expectation value ) $v_{h}$, and show that it becomes maximum around $v_{h}={\\cal{O}}(300\\text{GeV})$ when the dimensionless couplings in the Standard Model, that is, the Higgs self coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by \\begin{equation} v_{h}\\sim\\frac{T_{BBN}^{2}}{M_{pl}y_{e}^{5}},\

  19. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  20. Electromagnetism in nonleptonic weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, G. E-mail: ecker@doppler.thp.univie.ac.at; Isidori, G.; Mueller, G.; Neufeld, H.; Pich, A

    2000-12-18

    We construct a low-energy effective field theory that permits the complete treatment of isospin-breaking effects in nonleptonic weak interactions to next-to-leading order. To this end, we enlarge the chiral Lagrangian describing strong and {delta}S=1 weak interactions by including electromagnetic terms with the photon as additional dynamical degree of freedom. The complete and minimal list of local terms at next-to-leading order is given. We perform the one-loop renormalization at the level of the generating functional and specialize to K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays.

  1. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-05-19

    We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)

  3. Spatial characteristics of Kα radiation from weakly relativistic laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, D. C.; Pretzler, G.; Fill, E.; Eidmann, K.; Saemann, A.

    The spatial dependence of Kα emission generated from laser-produced hot electrons is investigated experimentally and theoretically. In addition, the conversion efficiency of Kα production as a function of laser intensity is measured and compared with modeling results. We use the terawatt Ti:sapphire laser at MPQ and vary the peak intensity from 1015 to 1018 W/cm2 with a pulse duration of 200 fs. A solid Cu target is placed at various positions in the laser focus, which allows one to vary the intensity but keep the total energy on the target constant. When the target is near best focus, the FWHM of the Kα emission, measured using a knife-edge, is considerably larger than the FWHM of the laser intensity. In measuring the efficiency of Kα production using the fundamental wavelength of the laser, a clear maximum of Kα emission is observed at a position away from best focus, where the peak intensity is down by more than an order of magnitude from the value at best focus. When the second harmonic of the laser is used, the Kα emission is peaked near best focus. The Kα emission from layer targets is used to obtain an estimate of the temperature of the hot electrons. Modeling of Kα production, using a Monte Carlo electron/photon transport code, shows the relationship between incident electron energy and the emitted Kα emission. Efficient Kα generation from the low-intensity wings of the laser pulse contributes to the large spot size of the Kα emission. The lower electron temperatures that are expected for the second harmonic explain the differences in the location of maximum Kα emission for the two wavelengths. We discuss the use of Kα emission in photoionizing inner-shell electrons with the goal of achieving X-ray lasing at short wavelengths.

  4. The cohomology group of weak entwining structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we reveal that a weak entwining structure admits a rich cohomology theory. As an application we compute the cohomology of a weak entwining structure associated to a weak coalgebra-Galois extension.

  5. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la

  6. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  7. Weak measurements and supraluminal communication

    CERN Document Server

    Belinsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    There is suggested a version of the experiment with a correlated pair of particles in the entangled state. The experiment demonstrates that, in the case of weak and/or non-demolition measurements of one of the particles, it is possible to transmit information with a speed not limited by velocity of light.

  8. On Weak-BCC-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  9. Eldercare at Home: Bone Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... socialize. This can make exercising fun. If you don't exercise, your bones and muscles will become weak and your chances of falling will increase. Let’s exercise together. I will pick you up and we will go to the mall and walk for a little ...

  10. Submanifolds Weakly Associated with Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Carriazo; L M Fernández; A Rodríguez-Hidalgo

    2009-06-01

    We establish an interesting link between differential geometry and graph theory by defining submanifolds weakly associated with graphs. We prove that, in a local sense, every submanifold satisfies such an association, and other general results. Finally, we study submanifolds associated with graphs either in low dimensions or belonging to some special families.

  11. On the weak project construction cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高守刚; 姜婧; 李玲

    2013-01-01

    the weak cost management is the most talked about topics in the weak industry, but also the basis of the weak construction business management and focus. With the increasingly fierce market competition, weak construction enterprises, the competition among enterprises wil gradual y transition from product quality competition to price competition. To strengthen the management of the weak construction enterprises cost, cut public spending ef iciency, improve market competitiveness, wil be the main way most weak construction corporate earnings and long-term business strategy. Based on the to weak project construction cost management based on analysis of the type of project construction costs, and further proposed the weak project construction cost management measures.

  12. Testing high-Z QED with SuperEBIT: An estimate of the U{sup 91+}1s two-loop Lamb shift based on a measurement of the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 1/2} transition in U{sup 89+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter [University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: beiersdorfer@llnl.gov

    2006-11-15

    Starting from the results of a recent measurement of the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 1/2} transition in U{sup 89+} made on the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, which provided a determination of the 2s two-loop QED contribution, we estimate 1.27+/-0.45eV for the two-loop contribution to the 1s level in U{sup 91+}. This estimate could be improved by a factor of two or more, if the uncertainties associated with the three-photon exchange in the theoretical calculations were eliminated in the future.

  13. The Weak Scale from BBN

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; Ruderman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, $v$, and the first generation masses, $m_{u,d,e}$, are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of $(m_u,m_d,m_e,v)$, catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of $(1.4,1.3,2.5,\\sim5)$, respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as $v$ is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of $m_{u,d,e}$ that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability. For very large values of $v$ a new regime is entered where weak in...

  14. Separating weak lensing and intrinsic alignments using radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss methods for performing weak lensing using radio observations to recover information about the intrinsic structural properties of the source galaxies. Radio surveys provide unique information that can benefit weak lensing studies, such as HI emission, which may be used to construct galaxy velocity maps, and polarized synchrotron radiation; both of which provide information about the unlensed galaxy and can be used to reduce galaxy shape noise and the contribution of intrinsic alignments. Using a proxy for the intrinsic position angle of an observed galaxy, we develop techniques for cleanly separating weak gravitational lensing signals from intrinsic alignment contamination in forthcoming radio surveys. Random errors on the intrinsic orientation estimates introduce biases into the shear and intrinsic alignment estimates. However, we show that these biases can be corrected for if the error distribution is accurately known. We demonstrate our methods using simulations, where we reconstruct the shear an...

  15. Weak Boson Production Amplitude Zeros; Equalities of the Helicity Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, F

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the radiation amplitude zeros exhibited by many Standard Model amplitudes for triple weak gauge boson production processes. We show that $WZ\\gamma$ production amplitudes have especially rich structure in terms of zeros, these amplitudes have zeros originating from several different sources. It is also shown that TYPE I current null zone is the special case of the equality of the specific helicity amplitudes.

  16. Radiative Corrections and Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Radiative corrections to parity violating deep inelastic electron scattering are reviewed including a discussion of the renormalization group evolution of the weak mixing angle. Recently obtained results on hypothetical Z' bosons - for which parity violating observables play an important role - are also presented.

  17. Hadronic weak charges and parity-violating forward Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gorchtein, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Parity-violating elastic electron-nucleon scattering at low momentum transfer allows one to access the nucleon's weak charge, the vector coupling of the $Z$-boson to the nucleon. In the Standard Model and at tree level, the weak charge of the proton is related to the weak mixing angle and accidentally suppressed, $Q_W^{p,\\,{\\rm tree}}=1-4\\sin^2\\theta_W\\approx0.07$. Modern experiments aim at extracting $Q_W^p$ at $\\sim1\\%$ accuracy. Similarly, parity non-conservation in atoms allows to access the weak charge of atomic nuclei. We consider a novel class of radiative corrections, an exchange of two photons with parity violation in the hadronic/nuclear system. These corrections may affect the extraction of $\\sin^2\\theta_W$ from the experimental data at the relevant level of precision because they are affected by long-range interactions similar to other parity-violating radiative corrections, such as, e.g., the $\\gamma Z$-exchange, which has obtained much attention recently. We show that the significance of this ne...

  18. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;

    2016-01-01

    environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  19. Weak Precedence Story Parsing Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1995-01-01

    Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques.The story understanding approach based on Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) involves that SPG is used to represent different abstracting processes of stories with different levels in story understanding and that the story understanding process is converted to the recognition process of stories using the syntactic parser of SPG.This kind of story understanding is called story parsing.In this paper,firstly a subclass of SPG,called Weak Precedence SPG(WPSPG),is defined.Afterwards the syntactic parsing algorithm of WPSPG is studied.An example of story parsing is also given.

  20. Weakly distributive domains(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; ZHANG Guo-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In our previous work(Inform.and Comput.,2005,202:87-103),we have shown that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D,if all higher-order stable function spaces built from D are ω-algebraic,then D is finitary.This accomplishes the first of a possible,two-step process in solving the problem raised(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Domainsand lambda-calculi,Cambridge Univ.Press,1998)whetherthe category of stable bifinite domains of Amadio-Droste-G(o)bel(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Theor.Comput.Sci.,1993,111:89-101)is the largest cartesian closed full subcategory within the category of ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions.This paper presents the results of the second step,which is to show that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D satisfying axioms M and I to be contained in a cartesian closed full sub-category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions,it must not violate M I∞.We introduce a new class of domains called weakly distributive domains and show that for these domains to be in a cartesian closed category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos,property M I must not be violated.Further,we demonstrate that principally distributive domains(those for which each principle ideal is distributive)form a proper subclass of weakly distributive domains,and Birkhoff's M3 and N5(Introduction to Lattices and order,Cambridge Univ.Press,2002)are weakly distributive(but non-distributive).Then,we establish characterization results for weakly distributive domains.We also introduce the notion of meet-generators in constructing stable functions and show that if an ω-algebraic meet-cpo D contains an infinite number of meet-generators,then[D→D]fails I.However,the original problem of Amadio and Curien remains open.

  1. Weakly circadian cells improve resynchrony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis B Webb

    Full Text Available The mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN contain thousands of neurons capable of generating near 24-h rhythms. When isolated from their network, SCN neurons exhibit a range of oscillatory phenotypes: sustained or damping oscillations, or arrhythmic patterns. The implications of this variability are unknown. Experimentally, we found that cells within SCN explants recover from pharmacologically-induced desynchrony by re-establishing rhythmicity and synchrony in waves, independent of their intrinsic circadian period We therefore hypothesized that a cell's location within the network may also critically determine its resynchronization. To test this, we employed a deterministic, mechanistic model of circadian oscillators where we could independently control cell-intrinsic and network-connectivity parameters. We found that small changes in key parameters produced the full range of oscillatory phenotypes seen in biological cells, including similar distributions of period, amplitude and ability to cycle. The model also predicted that weaker oscillators could adjust their phase more readily than stronger oscillators. Using these model cells we explored potential biological consequences of their number and placement within the network. We found that the population synchronized to a higher degree when weak oscillators were at highly connected nodes within the network. A mathematically independent phase-amplitude model reproduced these findings. Thus, small differences in cell-intrinsic parameters contribute to large changes in the oscillatory ability of a cell, but the location of weak oscillators within the network also critically shapes the degree of synchronization for the population.

  2. Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, T J; Zhang, P; Dubinski, J; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-01-01

    Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the CFHT Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5 arc minutes optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding $\\Delta \\Omega_m/\\Omega_m\\sim 10%$. This is significantly better than other filt...

  3. The weak scale from BBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2014-12-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.

  4. Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...

  5. Political corruption and weak state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author starts from the hypothesis that it is essential for the countries of the region to critically assess the synergy established between systemic, political corruption and a selectively weak, “devious” nature of the state. Moreover, the key dilemma is whether the expanded practice of political rent seeking supports the conclusion that the root of all corruption is in the very existence of the state - particularly in excessive, selective and deforming state interventions and benefits that create a fertile ground for corruption? The author argues that the destructive combination of weak government and rampant political corruption is based on scattered state intervention, while also rule the parties cartel in the executive branch subordinate to parliament, the judiciary and the police. Corrupt exchange takes place with the absence of strong institutional framework and the precise rules of the political and electoral games, control of public finances and effective political and anti-monopoly legislation and practice included. Exit from the current situation can be seen in the realization of effective anti­corruption strategy that integrates preventive and repressive measures and activities and lead to the establishment of principles of good governance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179076: Politički identitet Srbije u regionalnom i globalnom kontekstu

  6. Time—periodic weak solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Henriques de Brito

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuing from previous papers, where we studied the existence and uniqueness of the global solution and its asymptotic behavior as time t goes to infinity, we now search for a time-periodic weak solution u(t for the equation whose weak formulation in a Hilbert space H isddt(u′,v+δ(u′,v+αb(u,v+βa(u,v+(G(u,v=(h,vwhere: ′=d/dt; (′ is the inner product in H; b(u,v, a(u,v are given forms on subspaces U⊂W, respectively, of H; δ>0, α≥0, β≥0 are constants and α+β>0; G is the Gateaux derivative of a convex functional J:V⊂H→[0,∞ for V=U, when α>0 and V=W when α=0, hence β>0; v is a test function in V; h is a given function of t with values in H.

  7. Unification of Gauge Couplings in Radiative Neutrino Mass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Riad, Stella; Schmidt, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively. We study three different classes of neutrino mass models: (I) minimal ultraviolet completions of the dimension-7 $\\Delta L=2$ operators which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level without and with dark matter candidates, (II) models with dark matter which lead to neutrino masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of $\\mathrm{SU}(3)$. In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admit gauge coupling unification. In class (III), none of the models leads to gauge coupling unification. Regarding the scale of unification, we find values between $10...

  8. Recovering information of tunneling spectrum from weakly isolated horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang [Beijing University of Technology, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the properties of tunneling spectrum from weakly isolated horizon (WIH) - a locally defined black hole. We find that there exist correlations among Hawking radiations from a WIH, information can be carried out by such correlations, and the radiation is an entropy conservation process. Through revisiting the calculation of the tunneling spectrum from a WIH, we find that Zhang et al.'s (Ann Phys 326:350, 2011) requirement that radiated particles have the same angular momenta of a unit mass as that of the black hole is unnecessary, and the energy and angular momenta of the emitted particles are very arbitrary, restricted only by keeping the cosmic censorship hypothesis of black holes. So we resolve the information loss paradox based on the method of Zhang et al. (Phys Lett B 675:98, 2009; Ann Phys 326:350, 2011; Int J Mod Phys D 22:1341014, 2013) in a general case. (orig.)

  9. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  10. Detection of weak and small infrered targets under complicated background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinling; Zhang, Jiming; Deng, Linming; Niu, Xiaoming; Wei, Xueming; Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian

    2010-10-01

    The technique of weak small target detection and recognition has been the key technique of the electro-optical detecting system, many scholars are engaging the research of detection for weak and small targets. The effective detection for small targets in low SNR images is still a hot research field. Because infrared sensor is easily affected by atmosphere hot radiation, long distance and sensor noise, the detected targets in infrared images often present like small targets and drowned in noise. The basic problem inherent to extent the detection range is the detection of small, low observable, no obvious structural information in images and complicated background. In order to improve the detection ratio of weak small targets and decrease the false alarming ratio in the condition of complicated background, the paper presents the technology of pretreatment of infrared images and the technology of detection for weak small targets, mainly including the technology of Sobel edge algorithm and multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient. Based upon horizon-correlative characteristic of infrared images which were gotten by scanning, considering of the target properties in complicated background, an algorithm of weak and small target detection is presented. Because the images appear horizon-correlative characteristic, Sobel horizontal operator is adopted. By this algorithm, the background clutter was suppressed. Then an adaptive threshold was proposed to extract the precise location of small target. Incorporated with the two methods, a single frame weak and small target detection algorithm was built. Its high performance was then proved in a serial of experiments. In order to solve the detection problems of weak and small infrared targets under complicated background, a detection algorithm integrating with multi-degree and multi-orientation gradient fusion is proposed. Based on the principle of infrared radiation property of target, i.e., the gradient variations of pixel

  11. Casimir torque in weak coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Long, William

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, dedicated to Johan H{\\o}ye on the occasion of his 70th birthday, we examine manifestations of Casimir torque in the weak-coupling approximation, which allows exact calculations so that comparison with the universally applicable, but generally uncontrolled, proximity force approximation may be made. In particular, we examine Casimir energies between planar objects characterized by $\\delta$-function potentials, and consider the torque that arises when angles between the objects are changed. The results agree very well with the proximity force approximation when the separation distance between the objects is small compared with their sizes. In the opposite limit, where the size of one object is comparable to the separation distance, the shape dependence starts becoming irrelevant. These calculations are illustrative of what to expect for the torques between, for example, conducting planar objects, which eventually should be amenable to both improved theoretical calculation and experimental verific...

  12. New Weak Keys in RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baocang; LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu

    2006-01-01

    The security of the RSA system with the prime pairs of some special form is investigated. A new special-purpose algorithm for factoring RSA numbers is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to factor RSA numbers by factoring a well-chosen quadratic polynomial with integral coefficients. When viewed as a general-purpose algorithm, the new algorithm has a high computational complexity. It is shown that the RSA number n=pq can be easily factored if p and q have the special form of p=as+b, q=cs+d, where a, b, c, d are relatively small numbers. Such prime pairs (p, q) are the weak keys of RSA, so when we generate RSA modulus, we should avoid using such prime pairs (p, q).

  13. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  14. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation. There are two basic types of radiation: ionizing and nonionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. This kind of radiation usually ...

  15. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  16. Twisting theory for weak Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-zhen; ZHANG Yan; WANG Shuan-hong

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study the twisting theory of weak Hopf algebras and give an equivalence between the (braided) monoidal categories of weak Hopf bimodules over the original and the twisted weak Hopf algebra to generalize the result from Oeckl (2000).

  17. Reconstruction of weak quasi-Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Häring, Reto Andreas

    1995-01-01

    All rational semisimple braided tensor categories are representation categories of weak quasi Hopf algebras. To proof this result we construct for any given category of this kind a weak quasi tensor functor to the category of finite dimensional vector spaces. This allows to reconstruct a weak quasi Hopf algebra with the given category as its representation category.

  18. Radiation dosimetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, J

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes the basic facts about the measurement of ionizing radiation, usually referred to as radiation dosimetry. The article defines the common radiation quantities and units; gives typical levels of natural radiation and medical exposures; and describes the most important biological effects of radiation and the methods used to measure radiation. Finally, a proposal is made for a new radiation risk unit to make radiation risks more understandable to nonspecialists.

  19. Weakly Distributive Modules. Applications to Supplement Submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Engin Büyükaşik; Yilmaz M Demirci

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of Ganesan and Vanaja. We prove that -projective duo modules, in particular commutative rings, are weakly distributive. Using this result we obtain that in a commutative ring supplements are unique. This generalizes a result of Camillo and Lima. We also prove that any weakly distributive $\\oplus$-supplemented module is quasi-discrete.

  20. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  1. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  2. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  3. A universe without weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-08-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical “weakless universe” is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  4. Weak homology of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, G; Principe, M D

    2002-01-01

    We start by studying a small set of objects characterized by photometric profiles that have been pointed out to deviate significantly from the standard R^{1/4} law. For these objects we confirm that a generic R^{1/n} law, with n a free parameter, can provide superior fits (the best-fit value of n can be lower than 2.5 or higher than 10), better than those that can be obtained by a pure R^{1/4} law, by an R^{1/4}+exponential model, and by other dynamically justified self--consistent models. Therefore, strictly speaking, elliptical galaxies should not be considered homologous dynamical systems. Still, a case for "weak homology", useful for the interpretation of the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies, could be made if the best-fit parameter n, as often reported, correlates with galaxy luminosity L, provided the underlying dynamical structure also follows a systematic trend with luminosity. We demonstrate that this statement may be true even in the presence of significant scatter in the correlation n(L). Pr...

  5. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  6. The Geometry And Significance Of Weak Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Parks, A D

    2000-01-01

    Summary: The theory of weak values for quantum mechanical observables has come to serve as a useful basis for contemporary discussions concerning such varied topics as the tunnelling-time controversy and quantum stochastic processes. An intrinsic complex-valued weak energy has recently been observed experimentally and reported in the literature. In this paper it is shown that: (a) the real and imaginary valued parts of this weak energy have geometric interpretations related to a phase acquired from parallel transport in Hilbert space and the variational dynamics occurring in the associated projective Hilbert space, respectively; (b) the weak energy defines functions which translate correlation amplitudes and probabilities in time; (c) correlation probabilities can be controlled by manipulating the weak energy and there exists a condition of weak stationarity that guarantees their time invariance; and (d) a time-weak energy uncertainty relation of the usual form prevails when a suitable set of dynamical constr...

  7. A model of radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model in the rst and second generation introducing extra U(1) gauge symmetry, discrete Z 2 symmetry, vector-like fermions and exotic scalar elds. Then we analyze the allowed parameter regions which simultaneously satisfy the constraints of FCNCs for the quark sector and of LFVs including μ - e conversion, observed quark mass and mixing, and the lepton mass and mixing. In addition, the typical value for the (g - 2) μ in our model is presented. We also show extension of the model in which Majorana type neutrino masses are generated at the two loop level.

  8. Quantifying the effect of baryon physics on weak lensing tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Semboloni, Elisabetta; Schaye, Joop; van Daalen, Marcel P; McCarthy, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    We use matter power spectra from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to quantify the effect of baryon physics on the weak gravitational lensing shear signal. The simulations consider a number of processes, such as radiative cooling, star formation, supernovae and feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). Van Daalen et al. (2011) used the same simulations to show that baryon physics, in particular the strong feedback that is required to solve the overcooling problem, modifies the matter power spectrum on scales relevant for cosmological weak lensing studies. As a result, the use of power spectra from dark matter simulations can lead to significant biases in the inferred cosmological parameters. We show that the typical biases are much larger than the precision with which future missions aim to constrain the dark energy equation of state, w_0. For instance, the simulation with AGN feedback, which reproduces X-ray and optical properties of groups of galaxies, gives rise to a ~40% bias in w_0. We demonstrate ...

  9. Weak* convergence of operator means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Alexandr V [Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    For a linear operator U with ||U'n||{<=}const on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T{sub {alpha}} corresponding to the adjoint operator U* of U in the W*O-topology of the space EndX*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in EndX*, which is the kernel of the operator, where {Gamma}{sub 0}={l_brace}U{sub n}*, n{>=}0{r_brace}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T{sub {alpha}} weakly* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C({Omega}) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation {phi} of a metrizable compactum {Omega} we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and {Gamma}={Gamma}-bar{sub 0}, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade ({phi},{Omega}). In particular, if cardL=1, then a) for any {omega} element of {Omega} the closure of the trajectory {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}{omega}, n{>=}0{r_brace} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction ({phi},m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the W*O-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T{sub n} element of EndX* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E({phi},{Omega}) contains elements obtained from the 'basis' family of transformations {l_brace}{phi}{sup n}, n{>=}0{r_brace} of the compact set {Omega} by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.

  10. The Helmholtz decomposition of decreasing and weakly increasing vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Petrascheck, D

    2015-01-01

    Helmholtz decomposition theorem for vector fields is presented usually with too strong restrictions on the fields. Based on the work of Blumenthal of 1905 it is shown that the decomposition of vector fields is not only possible for asymptotically weakly decreasing vector fields, but even for vector fields, which asymptotically increase sublinearly. Use is made of a regularizatin of the Greens function and the mathematics of the proof is formulated as simply as possible. We also show a few examples for the decomposition of vector fields including the electric dipole radiation.

  11. Health Evaluation of Operators Working in Electromagnetic Radiation Environment of Some Department by Organism Weak Magnetic Field Analytic Method%应用生物体微弱磁场检测技术对某部电磁辐射作业人员进行健康评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭清涛; 王京; 夏本立; 王育兵; 杨凯

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解某部电磁辐射作业人员的健康状况,为有针对性地提出防护措施提供参考依据.方法:随机抽取某部不同工作岗位的电磁辐射作业人员181名,进行生物体微弱磁场检测分析,以获取包括疲劳、免疫、睡眠、脑机能、血压、心脏、消化、肝胆、泌尿生殖、呼吸、运动、钙代谢、糖代谢、脂代谢、嘌呤代谢等15个系统在内的108项健康评估检测指标.对于每一项指标,仪器自带有其正常值范围,凡低于下限或高于上限的指标被视为异常.结果:所测电磁辐射作业人员总体在消化系统、钙代谢系统、血压系统、心脏系统、运动系统、免疫系统以及呼吸系统等七个系统存在不适症状的较为突出,其中脾胃不和的占比86.19%,钙代谢失衡的占比81.77%,血压不稳的占比68.51%,心脏功能欠佳的占比66.85%,骨关节不适的占比62.98%,免疫功能下降的占比61.33%,腰部不适的占比56.91%,咽喉不适的占比54.70%.出现血压不稳症状的人数,实验组明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:电磁辐射作业环境可能会影响作业人员的身体健康,应采取有效的安全防护措施,以减弱或消除电磁辐射对人体健康的影响.%Objective:To understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on health status of operators of some department,and provide the reference basis to put forward the protection measures effectively.Methods:181 electromagnetic radiation operators were randomly selected among different posts of some department to conduct organism weak magnetic field analysis,to obtain their health status including fatigue system,immunity system,sleep system,brain function system,blood pressure system,heart system,digestion system,liver and gallbladder system,urinary and reproduction system,respiratory system,sports system,calcium supersession system,sugar supersession system,fat supersession system,purine supersession system

  12. Can we observationally test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingyao; Malafarina, Daniele; Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-15

    In general relativity, gravitational collapse of matter fields ends with the formation of a spacetime singularity, where the matter density becomes infinite and standard physics breaks down. According to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, singularities produced in the gravitational collapse cannot be seen by distant observers and must be hidden within black holes. The validity of this conjecture is still controversial and at present we cannot exclude that naked singularities can be created in our Universe from regular initial data. In this paper, we study the radiation emitted by a collapsing cloud of dust and check whether it is possible to distinguish the birth of a black hole from the one of a naked singularity. In our simple dust model, we find that the properties of the radiation emitted in the two scenarios is qualitatively similar. That suggests that observational tests of the cosmic censorship conjecture may be very difficult, even in principle. (orig.)

  13. Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P; Gorringe, Tim; Fearing, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling $g_p$ is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling $g_p$ has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of $g_p$, the experimental studies of $g_p$, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.

  14. Weakly and Strongly Regular Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Argac; N.J.Groenewald

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove some basic properties of left weakly regular near-rings.We give an affirmative answer to the question whether a left weakly regular near-ring with left unity and satisfying the IFP is also right weakly regular. In the last section, we use among others left 0-prime and left completely prime ideals to characterize strongly regular near-rings.

  15. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF HENSTOCK INTEGRABLE SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuisaDiPiazza

    1994-01-01

    Some relationships between pointwise and weak convergence of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions are studied, In particular it is provided an example of a sequence of Henstock integrable functions whose pointwise limit is different from the weak one. By introducing an asymptotic version of the Henstock equiintegrability notion it is given a necessary and sufficient condition in order that a pointwisely convergent sequence of Henstock integrable functions is weakly convergent to its pointwise limit.

  16. Transversality theorems for the weak topology

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In his 1979 paper Trotman proves, using the techniques of the Thom transversality theorem, that under some conditions on the dimensions of the manifolds under consideration, openness of the set of maps transverse to a stratification in the strong (Whitney) topology implies that the stratification is $(a)$-regular. Here we first discuss the Thom transversality theorem for the weak topology and then give a similiar kind of result for the weak topology, under very weak hypotheses. Recently sever...

  17. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  18. On Weakly P.P. Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yue-ming; Ouyang Lun-qun; Wang Shu-gui

    2015-01-01

    We introduce, in this paper, the right weakly p.p. rings as the generaliza-tion of right p.p. rings. It is shown that many properties of the right p.p. rings can be extended onto the right weakly p.p. rings. Relative examples are constructed. As applications, we also characterize the regular rings and the semisimple rings in terms of the right weakly p.p. rings.

  19. Method and apparatus for evaluating structural weakness in polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1996-01-09

    A method and apparatus for evaluating structural weaknesses in polymer matrix composites is described. An object to be studied is illuminated with laser radiation and fluorescence emanating therefrom is collected and filtered. The fluorescence is then imaged and the image is studied to determine fluorescence intensity over the surface of the object being studied and the wavelength of maximum fluorescent intensity. Such images provide a map of the structural integrity of the part being studied and weaknesses, particularly weaknesses created by exposure of the object to heat, are readily visible in the image. 6 figs.

  20. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  1. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  2. Radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Gerald J; Hine, Gerald J

    1956-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry focuses on the advancements, processes, technologies, techniques, and principles involved in radiation dosimetry, including counters and calibration and standardization techniques. The selection first offers information on radiation units and the theory of ionization dosimetry and interaction of radiation with matter. Topics include quantities derivable from roentgens, determination of dose in roentgens, ionization dosimetry of high-energy photons and corpuscular radiations, and heavy charged particles. The text then examines the biological and medical effects of radiation,

  3. Hadronic weak charges and parity-violating forward Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Spiesberger, Hubert

    2016-11-01

    Background: Parity-violating elastic electron-nucleon scattering at low momentum transfer allows one to access the nucleon's weak charge, the vector coupling of the Z -boson to the nucleon. In the Standard Model and at tree level, the weak charge of the proton is related to the weak mixing angle and accidentally suppressed, QWp ,tree=1 -4 sin2θW≈0.07 . Modern experiments aim at extracting QWp at ˜1 % accuracy. Similarly, parity nonconservation in atoms allows to access the weak charge of atomic nuclei. Purpose: We consider a novel class of radiative corrections due to the exchange of two photons, with parity violation in the hadronic/nuclear system. These corrections are prone to long-range interactions and may affect the extraction of sin2θW from the experimental data at the relevant level of precision. Methods: The two-photon exchange contribution to the parity-violating electron-proton scattering amplitude is studied in the framework of forward dispersion relations. We address the general properties of the parity-violating forward Compton scattering amplitude and use relativistic chiral perturbation theory to provide the first field-theoretical proof that it obeys a superconvergence relation. Results: We show that the significance of this new correction increases with the beam energy in parity-violating electron scattering, but the superconvergence relation protects the formal definition of the weak charge as a limit at zero-momentum transfer and zero energy. We evaluate the new correction in a hadronic model with pion loops and the Δ (1232 ) resonance, supplemented with a high-energy contribution. For the kinematic conditions of existing and upcoming experiments we show that two-photon exchange corrections with hadronic or nuclear parity violation do not pose a problem for the interpretation of the data in terms of the weak mixing angle at the present level of accuracy. Conclusions: Two-photon exchange in presence of hadronic or nuclear parity violation

  4. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne' eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references. (JFP)

  5. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  6. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Juan David; Arnache Olmos, Oscar; Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ramos, Rafael; Anadon, Alberto; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  7. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  8. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  9. Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of branching-time relations for probabilistic systems has been investigated thoroughly by Baier, Hermanns, Katoen and Wolf (2003, 2005), including weak simulation for systems involving substochastic distributions. Weak simulation was proven to be sound w.r.t. the liveness fragment...

  10. S-parameters for weakly excited slots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...

  11. Weakly exact categories and the snake lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Amir

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of an exact category and introduce weakly exact categories. A proof of the snake lemma in this general setting is given. Some applications are given to illustrate how one can do homological algebra in a weakly exact category.

  12. Strong Connections and Invertible Weak Entwining Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N.ALONSO (A)LVAREZ; J.M.FERN(A)NDEZ VILABOA; R.GONZ(A)LEZ RODR(I)GUEZ

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we obtain a criterion under which the bijectivity of the canonical morphism of a weak Galois extension associated to a weak invertible entwining structure is equivalent to the existence of a strong connection form.Also we obtain an explicit formula for a strong connection under equivariant projective conditions or under coseparability conditions.

  13. Weakly tight functions and their decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Khare

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the study of a weakly tight function and its relation to tight functions. We obtain a Jordan-decomposition-type theorem for a locally bounded weakly tight real-valued function defined on a sublattice of IX, followed by the notion of a total variation.

  14. Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浙; 鲁世杰

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.

  15. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1, 181-190 (2011] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract. Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weakreciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1, 181-190 (2011] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Common fixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011]. We also provide illustrative examples to justify the improvements.

  16. Self-Dual Weak Hopf Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munir AHMED; Fang LI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we define the notion of self-dual graded weak Hopf algebra and self-dual semilattice graded weak Hopf algebra. We give characterization of finite-dimensional such algebras when they are in structually simple forms in the sense of E. L. Green and E. N. Morcos. We also give the definition of self-dual weak Hopf quiver and apply these types of quivers to classify the finite-dimensional self-dual semilattice graded weak Hopf algebras. Finally, we prove partially the conjecture given by N. Andruskiewitsch and H.-J. Schneider in the case of finite-dimensional pointed semilattice graded weak Hopf algebra H when grH is self-dual.

  17. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  18. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  19. Relative entropies, suitable weak solutions, and weak strong uniqueness for the compressible Navier-Stokes system

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotny, Antonin

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relative entropy for the weak solutions of the compressible Navier-Stokes system. We show that any finite energy weak solution satisfies a relative entropy inequality for any pair of sufficiently smooth test functions. As a corollary we establish weak-strong uniqueness principle for the compressible Navier-Stokes system.

  20. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  1. A Construction of Weakly Inverse Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Jun YU; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Let S° be an inverse semigroup with semilattice biordered set E° of idempotents and E a weakly inverse biordered set with a subsemilattice Ep = { e ∈ E |(V) f ∈ E, S(f , e)(C) w(e) } isomorphic to E° by θ:Ep→E°. In this paper, it is proved that if(V)f, g∈E, f ←→ ,g(→) f°θ (ζ)s° g°θand there exists a mapping φ from Ep into the symmetric weakly inverse semigroup (ζξ)(E ∪S°) satisfying six appropriate conditions, then a weakly inverse semigroup ∑ can be constructed in (ζξ)(S°), called the weakly inverse hull of a weakly inverse system (S°, E, θ, φ) with I(∑) ≌ S°, E(∑) (≌) E. Conversely,every weakly inverse semigroup can be constructed in this way. Furthermore, a sufficient and necessary condition for two weakly inverse hulls to be isomorphic is also given.

  2. Ultra-small phase estimation via weak measurement with postselection: A comparison of joint weak measurement and weak value amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chen; Yu, Yang; Li, Qin-Zheng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    We derive a general theory for the joint weak measurement with arbitrary postselection and employ it in the time-delay measurement. Especially, we study two special cases, i.e., the balanced and unbalanced postselection regimes, and present an experiment to verify the theoretical results. The experimental results show that under similar conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio of using joint weak measurement scheme remains higher than 12 dB when the measured time-delay is smaller the ultimate precision limit of the weak-value amplification scheme. Moreover, the joint weak measurement scheme is robust to the misalignment errors and the wavelength-dependency of optical components, which indicates its advantage of improving the measurement precision with convenient laboratory equipments.

  3. Thermodynamics of gravity favours Weak Censorship Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Hamid, Aymen I M; Maharaj, Sunil D

    2015-01-01

    We use the formulation of thermodynamics of gravity as proposed by Clifton, Ellis and Tavakol on the gravitational collapse of dustlike matter, that violates the strong or weak cosmic censorship conjecture depending on the initial data. We transparently demonstrate that the gravitational entropy prefers the scenario where the stronger version is violated but the weak censorship conjecture is satisfied. This is a novel result, showing the weak cosmic censorship and hence the future asymptotically simple structure of spacetime, is being validated by the nature of gravity, without imposing any extra constraint on the form of matter.

  4. Weak, strong, and uniform quantum simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we introduce different types of quantum simulations according to different operator topologies on a Hilbert space, namely, uniform, strong, and weak quantum simulations. We show that they have the same computational power that the efficiently solvable problems are in bounded-error quantum polynomial time. For the weak simulation, we formalize a general weak quantum simulation problem and construct an algorithm which is valid for all instances. Also, we analyze the computational power of quantum simulations by proving the query lower bound for simulating a general quantum process.

  5. Structural features of sequential weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.

  6. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the fracture behavior of weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of the samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be studied in detail. We found a fracture in shear immediately followed by a collapse of the weak layer.

  7. Weak Markov Processes as Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gohm, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A noncommutative Fornasini-Marchesini system (a multi-variable version of a linear system) can be realized within a weak Markov process (a model for quantum evolution). For a discrete time parameter this is worked out systematically as a theory of representations of structure maps of a system by a weak process. We introduce subprocesses and quotient processes which can be described naturally by a suitable category of weak processes. A corresponding notion of cascade for processes induces a represented cascade of systems. We study the control theoretic notion of observability which turns out to be particularly interesting in connection with a cascade structure. As an application we gain new insights into stationary Markov chains where observability for the system is closely related to asymptotic completeness in the scattering theory of the chain. This motivates a general definition of asymptotic completeness in the category of weak processes.

  8. Weak Lensing Simulations for the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Prina; Makhathini, Sphesihle; Abdalla, Filipe; Bacon, David; Brown, Michael L; Heywood, Ian; Jarvis, Matt; Smirnov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing measurements are traditionally made at optical wavelengths where many highly resolved galaxy images are readily available. However, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) holds great promise for this type of measurement at radio wavelengths owing to its greatly increased sensitivity and resolution over typical radio surveys. The key to successful weak lensing experiments is in measuring the shapes of detected sources to high accuracy. In this document we describe a simulation pipeline designed to simulate radio images of the quality required for weak lensing, and will be typical of SKA observations. We provide as input, images with realistic galaxy shapes which are then simulated to produce images as they would have been observed with a given radio interferometer. We exploit this pipeline to investigate various stages of a weak lensing experiment in order to better understand the effects that may impact shape measurement. We first show how the proposed SKA1-Mid array configurations perfor...

  9. Vibration diagnostics of weak base embankments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evgenij Ashpiz; Vladimir Kapustin; Svetlana Klepikova; Maxim Shirobokov

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical background was analyzed for vibration diagnostics method and experience in its application for weak base embankments. General schemes of survey and recommendations on hardware systems and further prospective development are outlined.

  10. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuQing; LI LiNa

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved.A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  11. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  12. The Sloan Nearby Cluster Weak Lensing Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Jeffrey M; Hardin, Frances Mei; Kubik, Donna; Lawhorn, Kelsey; Lin, Huan; Nicklaus, Liana; Nelson, Dylan; Reis, Ribamar R R; Seo, Hee-Jong; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Stebbins, Albert; Yunker, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We describe and present initial results of a weak lensing survey of nearby ($\\rm{z}\\lesssim0.1$) galaxy clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In this first study, galaxy clusters are selected from the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy cluster catalogs of \\citet{miller05} and \\citet{berlind06}. We report a total of seven individual low redshift cluster weak lensing measurements which include: A2048, A1767, A2244, A1066, A2199, and two clusters specifically identified with the C4 algorithm. Our program of weak lensing of nearby galaxy clusters in the SDSS will eventually reach $\\sim 200$ clusters, making it the largest weak lensing survey of individual galaxy clusters to date.

  13. A weak-scattering model for turbine-tone haystacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2013-08-01

    Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.

  14. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Steven James Cox; Bosen eDu; Danny eSorensen

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio–tem...

  15. Agile Software Methodologies: Strength and Weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Adel Hamdan Mohammad; Dr. Tariq Alwada’n; Dr. Jafar "M.Ali" Ababneh

    2013-01-01

    Agile methodologies are great software development methodologies. No doubt that these methodologies have widespread reputation. The core of agile methodologies is people. Customer and each team member in agiledevelopment teams are the key success or failure factor in agile process. In this paper authors demonstrate strength and weakness points in agile methodologies. Also authors demonstrate how strength and weakness factors can affect the overall results of agile development process.

  16. Weak measurement and the traversal time problem

    OpenAIRE

    Iannaccone, G.

    1996-01-01

    The theory of weak measurement, proposed by Aharonov and coworkers, has been applied by Steinberg to the long-discussed traversal time problem. The uncertainty and ambiguity that characterize this concept from the perspective of von Neumann measurement theory apparently vanish, and joint probabilities and conditional averages become meaningful concepts. We express the Larmor clock and some other well-known methods in the weak measurement formalism. We also propose a method to determine higher...

  17. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  18. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  19. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  20. Enhancing QKD security with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, Jacob M.; Troupe, James E.

    2016-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/24/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 11/8/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. In the late 1980s, Aharonov and colleagues developed the notion of a weak measurement of a quantum observable that does not appreciably disturb the system.1, 2 The measurement results are conditioned on both the pre-selected and post-selected state of the quantum system. While any one measurement reveals very little information, by making the same measurement on a large ensemble of identically prepared pre- and post-selected (PPS) states and averaging the results, one may obtain what is known as the weak value of the observable with respect to that PPS ensemble. Recently, weak measurements have been proposed as a method of assessing the security of QKD in the well-known BB84 protocol.3 This weak value augmented QKD protocol (WV-QKD) works by additionally requiring the receiver, Bob, to make a weak measurement of a particular observable prior to his strong measurement. For the subset of measurement results in which Alice and Bob's measurement bases do not agree, the weak measurement results can be used to detect any attempt by an eavesdropper, Eve, to correlate her measurement results with Bob's. Furthermore, the well-known detector blinding attacks, which are known to perfectly correlate Eve's results with Bob's without being caught by conventional BB84 implementations, actually make the eavesdropper more visible in the new WV-QKD protocol. In this paper, we will introduce the WV-QKD protocol and discuss its generalization to the 6-state single qubit protocol. We will discuss the types of weak measurements that are optimal for this protocol, and compare the predicted performance of the 6- and 4-state WV-QKD protocols.

  1. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  2. Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.

  3. Weak crystallization theory of metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivar; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Demler, Eugene A.

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is one of the most familiar, but hardest to analyze, phase transitions. The principal reason is that crystallization typically occurs via a strongly first-order phase transition, and thus rigorous treatment would require comparing energies of an infinite number of possible crystalline states with the energy of liquid. A great simplification occurs when crystallization transition happens to be weakly first order. In this case, weak crystallization theory, based on unbiased Ginzburg-Landau expansion, can be applied. Even beyond its strict range of validity, it has been a useful qualitative tool for understanding crystallization. In its standard form, however, weak crystallization theory cannot explain the existence of a majority of observed crystalline and quasicrystalline states. Here we extend the weak crystallization theory to the case of metallic alloys. We identify a singular effect of itinerant electrons on the form of weak crystallization free energy. It is geometric in nature, generating strong dependence of free energy on the angles between ordering wave vectors of ionic density. That leads to stabilization of fcc, rhombohedral, and icosahedral quasicrystalline (iQC) phases, which are absent in the generic theory with only local interactions. As an application, we find the condition for stability of iQC that is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules known empirically for the majority of stable iQC; namely, the length of the primary Bragg-peak wave vector is approximately equal to the diameter of the Fermi sphere.

  4. Buoyancy Instabilities in a Weakly Collisional Intracluster Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Matthew W; Reynolds, Christopher S; Stone, James M

    2012-01-01

    The intracluster medium of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional, high-beta plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of non-isothermal clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena MHD code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e. Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We highlight the importance of the microscale instabilities that inevitably accompany and regulate the pressure anisotropies generated by the HBI and MTI. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal...

  5. Weak Nonlinear Matter Waves in a Trapped Spin-1 Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hong-Qiang; YANG Shu-Rong; XUE Ju-Kui

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in a spin-1 condensates with harmonic external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. It is shown that, in the small amplitude limit, the dynamics of the solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the (KdV) equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in spinor BEGs. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton show that the small-amplitude vector solitons of the mixed types perform harmonic oscillations in the presence of the trap. Furthermore, the emitted radiation profiles and the soliton oscillation freauencv are also obtained.

  6. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  8. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  9. Respiratory muscle weakness in peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Höke, Ahmet

    2010-12-01

    Common peripheral neuropathies do not usually cause diaphragmatic weakness and subsequent respiratory compromise. However, respiratory involvement is relatively common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Experience in GBS has led to a standardized approach to manage respiratory problems in peripheral neuropathies. Diaphragmatic weakness is not common in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and extremely rare in multifocal motor neuropathy. The linkage has been described between certain subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease such as CMT2C and CMT4B1 and diaphragmatic weakness. A correlation usually has not been found between electrophysiologic findings and clinical respiratory signs or spirometric abnormalities in peripheral neuropathies except in amplitudes of evoked phrenic nerve responses. Careful and frequent assessment of respiratory function by a qualified team of healthcare professionals and physicians is essential. Criteria established for mechanical ventilation in GBS cases may be applied to other peripheral neuropathies with respiratory compromise as necessary.

  10. Evidence for a Lattice Weak Gravity Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Heidenreich, Ben; Rudelius, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture postulates the existence of superextremal charged particles, i.e. those with mass smaller than or equal to their charge in Planck units. We present further evidence for our recent observation that in known examples a much stronger statement is true: an infinite tower of superextremal particles of different charges exists. We show that effective Kaluza-Klein field theories and perturbative string vacua respect the Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture, namely that a finite index sublattice of the full charge lattice exists with a superextremal particle at each site. In perturbative string theory we show that this follows from modular invariance. However, we present counterexamples to the stronger possibility that a superextremal state exists at every lattice site, including an example in which the lightest charged state is subextremal. The Sublattice Weak Gravity Conjecture has many implications both for abstract theories of quantum gravity and for real-world physics. For instance, it ...

  11. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  12. The strong side of weak topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Yaacov; Ringel, Zohar; Stern, Ady

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are classified into ``strong'' (STI) and ``weak'' (WTI) according to the nature of their surface states. While the surface states of the STI are topologically protected, in the WTI they are believed to be very fragile to disorder. In this work we show that the WTI surface states are actually protected from any random perturbation which does not break time-reversal symmetry, and does not close the bulk energy gap. Consequently, the conductivity of metallic surfaces in the clean system will remain finite even in the presence of strong disorder of this type. In the weak disorder limit the surfaces are perfect metals, and strong surface disorder only acts to push them inwards. We find that WTI's differ from STI's primarily in their anisotropy, and that the anisotropy is not a sign of their weakness but rather of their richness.

  13. No-Hair Theorem for Weak Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that there exists a class of pulsars, called weak pulsars, for which the large-scale magnetosphere, and hence the gamma-ray emission, are independent of the detailed pattern of plasma production. The weak pulsar magnetosphere and its gamma-ray emission are uniquely determined by just three parameters: spin, dipole, and the spin-dipole angle. We calculate this supposedly unique pulsar magnetosphere in the axisymmetric case. The magnetosphere is found to be very close to (although interestingly not fully identical with) the magnetosphere we have previously calculated, explaining the phenomenological success of the old calculation. We offer only a highly tentative proof of this "Pulsar No-Hair Theorem". Our analytics, while convincing in its non-triviality, is incomplete, and counts only as a plausibility argument. Our numerics, while complete, is dubious. The plasma flow in the weak pulsar magnetosphere turns out to be even more intricate than what we have previously proposed: some particles, aft...

  14. Phase slips in superconducting weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Gregory; Glatz, Andreas; Aranson, Igor S.

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting vortices and phase slips are primary mechanisms of dissipation in superconducting, superfluid, and cold-atom systems. While the dynamics of vortices is fairly well described, phase slips occurring in quasi-one- dimensional superconducting wires still elude understanding. The main reason is that phase slips are strongly nonlinear time-dependent phenomena that cannot be cast in terms of small perturbations of the superconducting state. Here we study phase slips occurring in superconducting weak links. Thanks to partial suppression of superconductivity in weak links, we employ a weakly nonlinear approximation for dynamic phase slips. This approximation is not valid for homogeneous superconducting wires and slabs. Using the numerical solution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and bifurcation analysis of stationary solutions, we show that the onset of phase slips occurs via an infinite period bifurcation, which is manifested in a specific voltage-current dependence. Our analytical results are in good agreement with simulations.

  15. Interpolation for weak Orlicz spaces with M_Δ condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An interpolation theorem for weak Orlicz spaces generalized by N-functions satisfying MΔ condition is given. It is proved to be true for weak Orlicz martingale spaces by weak atomic decomposition of weak Hardy martingale spaces. And applying the interpolation theorem, we obtain some embedding relationships among weak Orlicz martingale spaces.

  16. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  17. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  18. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  19. Transport in weak dynamic disorder: a unified theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bin; Li, Tiejun

    2013-11-01

    For quantum particles, it is well known that static disorder would lead to Anderson localization (AL) while dynamic (evolving) disorder would destroy AL and facilitate the transport. In this article, we study the transport behavior of a quantum particle in weak dynamic disorder. Based on Wigner representation, we obtain the radiative transfer equation (a linear Boltzmann equation) in the weak dynamic disorder limit, which could lead to not only all the existing transport behaviors in the literature but also new transport behaviors (for example, Lévy flight in momentum space). Furthermore, for dimensions greater than one, though we can formally derive the diffusive transport approximation, we argue that this diffusive transport is not physical but the nondiffusive transport should persist forever. This provides a possible resolution for the long-standing puzzle whether diffusive or nondiffusive transport would prevail in the long time limit. Our result would have major implications for the hypertransport of light, matter wave dynamics in disordered media, and directed polymer problems.

  20. Aspects of electrostatics in a weak gravitational field

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa

    2009-01-01

    Several features of electrostatics of point charged particles in a weak, homogeneous, gravitational field are discussed using the Rindler metric to model the gravitational field. Some previously known results are obtained by simpler and more transparent procedures and are interpreted in an intuitive manner. Specifically: (i) We show that the electrostatic potential of a charge at rest in the Rindler frame is expressible as A_0=(q/l) where l is the affine parameter distance along the null geodesic from the charge to the field point. (ii) We obtain the sum of the electrostatic forces exerted by one charge on another in the Rindler frame and discuss its interpretation. (iii) We show how a purely electrostatic term in the Rindler frame appears as a radiation term in the inertial frame. (In part, this arises because charges at rest in a weak gravitational field possess additional weight due to their electrostatic energy. This weight is proportional to the acceleration and falls inversely with distance -- which are...

  1. Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello

    2009-01-01

    General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.

  2. Landau Weak Crystallization Theory and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, E. I.

    Aim of this lecture is to explain main features and ingredients of weak first order phase transitions between liquid-like (uniform in space) and solid-like (non-uniform with characteristic wave vector q0) states. We illustrate how this theory (traditionally termed as Landau weak crystallization theory) works. We consider two examples describing universal temperature dependence of shear viscosity in liquids, and so-called main phase transition in membranes. Our results are in a good qualitative agreement with experimental data, offering a deeper understanding of this kind of phase transitions. We discuss also why and where predicted universal effects can be masked.

  3. Simple understanding of quantum weak values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lupei; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In this work we revisit the important and controversial concept of quantum weak values, aiming to provide a simplified understanding to its associated physics and the origin of anomaly. Taking the Stern-Gerlach setup as a working system, we base our analysis on an exact treatment in terms of quantum Bayesian approach. We also make particular connection with a very recent work, where the anomaly of the weak values was claimed from the pure statistics in association with “disturbance” and “post-selection”, rather than the unique quantum nature. Our analysis resolves the related controversies through a clear and quantitative way.

  4. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  5. A Weakly Homomorphic Encryption with LDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As an effective solution to protect the privacy of the data, homomorphic encryption has become a hot research topic. Existing homomorphic schemes are not truly practical due to their huge key size. In this paper, we present a simple weakly homomorphic encryption scheme using only elementary modular arithmetic over the integers rather than working with ideal lattices. Compared with DGHV’s construction, the proposed scheme has shorter public key and ciphertext size. The main appeal of our approach is the conceptual simplicity. We reduce the security of weakly homomorphic scheme to “learning divisor with noise (LDN”

  6. Charged current weak electroproduction of $\\Delta$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Vacas, M J V

    1998-01-01

    We study the weak production of $\\Delta$ (i.e. $e^{-} + p \\to \\Delta^{0}+ energy range corresponding to the Mainz and TJNAF electron accelerators. The differential cross sections $\\sigma(\\theta)$ are found to be of the order of $ 10^{-39}$ cm$^2$/sr, over a range of angles which increases with energy. The possibility of observing these reactions with the high luminosities available at these accelerators, and studying the weak N-$\\Delta$ transition form factors through these reactions is discussed. The production cross section of N$^*(1440)$ in the kinematic region of $\\Delta$ production is also estimated and found to be small.

  7. Students’ Weakness Detective in Traditional Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Altuhaifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Artificial Intelligent in Education in learning contexts and domains, the traditional classroom is tough to find students’ weakness during lecture due to the student’s number and because the instruction is busy with explaining the lesson. According to that, choosing teaching style that can improve student talent or skills to performs better in their classes or professional life would not be an easy task. This system is going to detect the average of students’ weakness and find either a solution for this or instruction a style that can increase students’ ability and skills by filtering the collection data, understanding the problem. After that, it provides a teaching style.

  8. Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  9. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  11. Measuring the dark side (with weak lensing)

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, Luca; Sapone, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a convenient parametrization of dark energy models that is general enough to include several modified gravity models and generalized forms of dark energy. In particular we take into account the linear perturbation growth factor, the anisotropic stress and the modified Poisson equation. We discuss the sensitivity of large scale weak lensing surveys like the proposed DUNE satellite to these parameters. We find that a large-scale weak-lensing tomographic survey is able to easily distinguish the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model from LCDM and to determine the perturbation growth index to an absolute error of 0.02-0.03.

  12. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenner, Hubert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  13. A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza-Ruiz David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.

  14. Study of changes in the physiological state of cyanobacteria caused by weak ultrasonic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, V. A.; Grigor'eva, N. Yu.; Chistyakova, L. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of weak ultrasonic radiation with a frequency of 60 kHz on photosynthetic activity of living cells of cyanobacteria was studied using microspectrometric methods for the first time. An inhibitory effect on the physiological state of separate cells and the whole culture was demonstrated. A high efficiency of the method developed by the authors of this article for determination of the viability of cyanobacterial cultures in vivo for the purpose of operational environmental monitoring of the results of weak external influences was demonstrated.

  15. A weak balance: the contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability and falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, C.G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle strength is a potentially important factor contributing to postural control. In this article, we consider the influence of muscle weakness on postural instability and falling. We searched the literature for research evaluating muscle weakness as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling e

  16. What Weak Measurements and Weak Values Really Mean: Reply to Kastner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eliahu

    2017-06-01

    Despite their important applications in metrology and in spite of numerous experimental demonstrations, weak measurements are still confusing for part of the community. This sometimes leads to unjustified criticism. Recent papers have experimentally clarified the meaning and practical significance of weak measurements, yet in Kastner (Found Phys 47:697-707, 2017), Kastner seems to take us many years backwards in the the debate, casting doubt on the very term "weak value" and the meaning of weak measurements. Kastner appears to ignore both the basics and frontiers of weak measurements and misinterprets the weak measurement process and its outcomes. In addition, she accuses the authors of Aharonov et al. (Ann Phys 355:258-268, 2015) in statements completely opposite to the ones they have actually made. There are many points of disagreement between Kastner and us, but in this short reply I will leave aside the ontology (which is indeed interpretational and far more complex than that described by Kastner) and focus mainly on the injustice in her criticism. I shall add some general comments regarding the broader theory of weak measurements and the two-state-vector formalism, as well as supporting experimental results. Finally, I will point out some recent promising results, which can be proven by (strong) projective measurements, without the need of employing weak measurements.

  17. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  18. Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尧天; 严树森

    1999-01-01

    The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.

  19. Radiation Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  20. Higgs Boson Production and Weak Boson Structure

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the QCD structure of the weak bosons on the Higgs boson production in $e$-$p$ scattering is studied. The energy and Higgs boson mass dependence of the cross-section, following from the new contributions, is calculated.

  1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  2. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  3. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color-normal observer, and the compensation of color images in a way that a color-weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color-normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticeable-differences between the colors which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are the isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared with the previously used methods, this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations, and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyze the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color-matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential tests.

  4. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  5. TRANSPORTATION INEQUALITIES FOR WEAKLY DEPENDENT SEQUENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yutao

    2011-01-01

    In[3],they gave necessary and sufficient condition for T1C and then as applications T1C for weakly dependent sequences was established.In this note,based on Gozlan-Léonard characterization for W1H-inequalities,we extends this result to W1Hinequalities.

  6. On Uniform Weak König's Lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    is of interest in the context of explicit mathematics as developed by S. Feferman. The elimination process in Kohlenbach [10] actually can be used to eliminate even this uniform weak Konig's lemma provided that PRA only has a quantifier-free rule of extensionality QF-ER instead of the full axioms (E...

  7. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  8. Quantum trajectories based on the weak value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    The notion of the trajectory of an individual particle is strictly inhibited in quantum mechanics because of the uncertainty principle. Nonetheless, the weak value, which has been proposed as a novel and measurable quantity definable to any quantum observable, can offer a possible description of trajectory on account of its statistical nature. In this paper, we explore the physical significance provided by this "weak trajectory" by considering various situations where interference takes place simultaneously with the observation of particles, that is, in prototypical quantum situations for which no classical treatment is available. These include the double slit experiment and Lloyd's mirror, where in the former case it is argued that the real part of the weak trajectory describes an average over the possible classical trajectories involved in the process, and that the imaginary part is related to the variation of interference. It is shown that this average interpretation of the weak trajectory holds universally under the complex probability defined from the given transition process. These features remain essentially unaltered in the case of Lloyd's mirror where interference occurs with a single slit.

  9. Axion monodromy and the weak gravity conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Rompineve, Fabrizio [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Westphal, Alexander [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Axions with broken discrete shift symmetry (axion monodromy) have recently played a central role both in the discussion of inflation and the 'relaxion' approach to the hierarchy problem. We suggest a very minimalist way to constrain such models by the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls: While the electric side of the conjecture is always satisfied if the cosine-oscillations of the axion potential are sufficiently small, the magnetic side imposes a cutoff, Λ{sup 3}∝mfM{sub pl}, independent of the height of these 'wiggles'. We compare our approach with the recent related proposal by Ibanez, Montero, Uranga and Valenzuela. We also discuss the non-trivial question which version, if any, of the weak gravity conjecture for domain walls should hold. In particular, we show that string compactifications with branes of different dimensions wrapped on different cycles lead to a 'geometric weak gravity conjecture' relating volumes of cycles, norms of corresponding forms and the volume of the compact space. Imposing this 'geometric conjecture', e.g. on the basis of the more widely accepted weak gravity conjecture for particles, provides at least some support for the (electric and magnetic) conjecture for domain walls.

  10. Weakly nonlinear density-velocity relation

    CERN Document Server

    Chodorowski, M J; Chodorowski, Michal J; Lokas, Ewa L

    1996-01-01

    We rigorously derive weakly nonlinear relation between cosmic density and velocity fields up to third order in perturbation theory. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, \\de. The velocity field is described by the variable \\te proportional to the velocity divergence, \\te = - f(\\Omega)^{-1} H_0^{-1} \

  11. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes ana

  12. TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR WEAK ALMOST CONVERGENT FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Kuang Kuo

    2011-01-01

    The almost convergent function which was introduced by Raimi [6] and dis- cussed by Ho [4], Das and Nanda [2, 3], is the continuous analogue of almost convergent sequences (see [5]). In this paper, we establish the Tauberian conditions and the Cauchy criteria for weak almost convergent functions on R2+.

  13. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  14. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renu Chugh; Sanjay Kumar

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  15. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C; Jernigan, J G; Peterson, J R; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Bard, D; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Hannel, M; Hodge, M A; Jee, M J; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, P J; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M

    2012-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is one of the most powerful ground-based weak lensing survey telescopes in the upcoming decade. The complete 10-year survey will image $\\sim$ 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to $r\\sim27.5$, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of \\textit{additive} systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing ana...

  16. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of bacteri

  17. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  18. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  19. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  20. Strong suppression of weak localization in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morozov, S.V.; Novoselov, K.S.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Schedin, F.; Ponomarenko, L.A.; Jiang, D.; Geim, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Low-field magnetoresistance is ubiquitous in low-dimensional metallic systems with high resistivity and well understood as arising due to quantum interference on self-intersecting diffusive trajectories. We have found that in graphene this weak-localization magnetoresistance is strongly suppressed a

  1. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Universal Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华芳

    2013-01-01

      Chomsky’s universal grammar (UG) has always had a following among certain linguists. This article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of UG in the L2 setting according to its proponents and opponents. The author also evaluates it using Ka⁃plan’s five-point tool and Long’s eight-point measuring stick.

  2. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  3. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  4. [A strong man with a weak shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'.

  5. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced pr

  6. On properties of (weakly) small groups

    CERN Document Server

    Milliet, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    A group is small if it has countably many complete $n$-types over the empty set for each natural number n. More generally, a group $G$ is weakly small if it has countably many complete 1-types over every finite subset of G. We show here that in a weakly small group, subgroups which are definable with parameters lying in a finitely generated algebraic closure satisfy the descending chain conditions for their traces in any finitely generated algebraic closure. An infinite weakly small group has an infinite abelian subgroup, which may not be definable. A small nilpotent group is the central product of a definable divisible group with a definable one of bounded exponent. In a group with simple theory, any set of pairwise commuting elements is contained in a definable finite-by-abelian subgroup. First corollary : a weakly small group with simple theory has an infinite definable finite-by-abelian subgoup. Secondly, in a group with simple theory, a normal solvable group A of derived length n is contained in an A-def...

  7. Annihilators on weakly standard BCC-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    R. Halaš; L. Plojhar

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper the authors presented a new construction of BCC-algebras derived from posets with the top element 1. Resulting BCC-algebras, called weakly standard, are those for which every 4-element subset containing 1 is a subalgebra. In this paper we continue our investigations focusing on the properties of their lattices of congruence kernels.

  8. Legitimacy Building under Weak Institutional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejs, Anja; Harvold, Kjell; Larsen, Sanne Vammen;

    2014-01-01

    Local strategies for adaptation to climate change in Denmark and Norway are discussed. In both countries, the national impetus for local adaptation is weak; it is largely left to local actors to take the initiative. The dynamics of the different approaches to climate-change adaptation at the loca...

  9. WEAKLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY AND STRONGLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoChangli; LuShijie; ChenPeixin

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic reflexivity introduced by Hadwin is related to linear interpolation. In this paper, the concepts of weakly algebraic reflexivity and strongly algebraic reflexivity which are also related to linear interpolation are introduced. Some properties of them are obtained and some relations between them revealed.

  10. Weak chaos in the asymmetric heavy top

    CERN Document Server

    Barrientos, M; Ranada, A F

    1995-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of the slightly asymmetric heavy top, a non-integrable system obtained from the Lagrange top by breaking the symmetry of its inertia tensor. It shows signs of weak chaos, which we study numerically. We argue that it is a good example for introducing students to non-integrability and chaos. (author)

  11. Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...

  12. Many-body chaos at weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The strength of chaos in large N quantum systems can be quantified using λ L , the rate of growth of certain out-of-time-order four point functions. We calculate λ L to leading order in a weakly coupled matrix Φ4 theory by numerically diagonalizing a ladder kernel. The computation reduces to an essentially classical problem.

  13. 关于Weakly Almost Clean环

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟文静; 陈焕艮

    2015-01-01

    This paper defines weakly almost clean rings .A commutative ring R is a weakly almost clean ring if every element x∈ R can be written in the form x= r+ e or x= r-e where r∈ reg(R) and e∈ Id(R) .Firstly , for a nonempty collection {Ri}of rings Ri ,the product R = ∏ i∈ IRi is weakly almost clean if and only if there exists m∈ I such that Rm is weakly almost clean and Rn is almost clean for all n≠ m .Further ,let R be a ring and M be an R‐module ,the trivial extension R(M) of R and M is weakly almost clean if and only if each x∈ R can be written in the form x= r+ e or x= r-e where r∈ R-(Z(R)∪ Z(M)) and e∈ Id(R) .These extend the corre‐sponding results on almost clean rings .%定义了weakly almost clean环。交换环R叫做weakly almost clean环,如果对于任意一个元素 x ∈ R可以写成 x = r+ e或x = r-e的形式,其中r∈ reg(R)且e∈ Id(R)。首先,对于环Ri的非空集合{Ri},证明了直和R=∏ i∈ IRi为weakly almost clean当且仅当存在 m ∈ I使Rm为weakly almost clean且对所有的n≠ m ,Rn为almost clean 。然后,设R是一个环且 M为一个R‐模,得到了R和M的平凡扩张R(M)为weakly almost clean当且仅当每个 x∈ R可以写成x= r+e或x= r-e的形式,其中 r∈ R-(Z(R)∪ Z(M))且e∈ Id(R)。进而推广了almost clean环的相应结果。

  14. A Higher Order Godunov Method for Radiation Hydrodynamics: Radiation Subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Sekora, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A higher order Godunov method for the radiation subsystem of radiation hydrodynamics is presented. A key ingredient of the method is the direct coupling of stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of conservation laws; it is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The method is second order accurate in both time and space, unsplit, asymptotically preserving, and uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Numerical tests demonstrate second order convergence across various parameter regimes.

  15. Radiation carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk.

  16. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  17. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  18. Radiation risk in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, S James

    2014-05-01

    Given the central roles that anatomical and functional imaging now play in medical practice, there have been concerns about the increasing levels of radiation exposure and their potential hazards. Despite incomplete quantitative knowledge of the risks, it is prudent to think of radiation, even at low doses, as a potential, albeit weak, carcinogen. Thus, we are obliged to minimize its dose and optimize its benefits. Hopefully, time will clarify our estimates of the dangers. Until then, we should educate and assure our patients, their families, and colleagues that the risks have been taken into account and are well balanced by the benefits.

  19. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  20. Radio-oxidation of an EPDM elastomer under weak or strong ionising radiations: measurement and modelling of dioxygen consumption; Radio-oxydation d'un elastomere de type EPDM lors d'irradiations faiblement ou fortement ionisantes: mesure et modelisation de la consommation de dioxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dely, N

    2005-10-15

    Usually, the irradiation of polymers under ionising radiations occurs in air that is in the presence of oxygen. This leads to a radio oxidation process and to oxygen consumption. Our material is an EPDM elastomer (ethylene propylene 1,4 hexadiene) used as insulator in control-command cables in nuclear plants (Pressurised Water Reactor). A specific device has been conceived and built up during this PhD work for measuring very small oxygen consumptions with an accuracy of around 10%. Ionising radiations used are electrons at 1 MeV and carbon ions at 11 MeV per nucleon. Under both electron and ion irradiations, the influence of oxygen pressure on oxygen consumption has been studied in a very large range: between 1 and 200 mbar. In both cases, the yield of oxygen consumption is constant in-between 200 and 5 mbar. Then, at lower pressures, it decreases appreciably. On the other hand, the oxygen consumption during ion irradiation is four times smaller than during electron irradiation. This emphasizes the role of the heterogeneity of the energy deposition at a nano-metric scale. The adjustment of the experimental results obtained during electron irradiation with the general homogeneous steady-state kinetic model has allowed extracting all the values of the kinetic parameters for the chosen mechanism of radio oxidation. The knowledge of these numbers will allow us to face our results obtained during ion irradiation with a heterogeneous kinetic model under development. (author)

  1. Radiative muon capture on hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, W. (Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)); Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gumplinger, P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Sample, D.G.; Schott, W.; Wright, D.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)); Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Virginia State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Azuelos, G. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Depommier, P.; Jonkmans, G. (Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada)); Gorringe, T.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Henderson, R. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Von Egidy, T.; Zhang, N.S. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada). TRIUMF Facility); McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. (Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)); Robertson, B.D. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The radiative capture of negative muons by protons can be used to measure the weak induced pseudoscalar form factor. Brief arguments why this method is preferable to ordinary muon capture are given followed by a discussion of the experimental difficulties. The solution to these problems as attempted by experiment no. 452 at TRIUMF is presented together with preliminary results from the first run in August 1990. An outlook on the expected final precision and the experimental schedule is also given. (orig.).

  2. The weak mixing angle from low energy neutrino measurements: a global update

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, B C; Miranda, O G; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account recent theoretical and experimental inputs on reactor fluxes we reconsider the determination of the weak mixing angle from low energy experiments. We perform a global analysis to all available neutrino-electron scattering data from reactor antineutrino experiments, obtaining sin^2(theta_W) = 0.252 \\pm 0.030. We discuss the impact of the new theoretical prediction for the neutrino spectrum, the new measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum by the Daya Bay collaboration, as well as the effect of radiative corrections. We also reanalyze the measurements of the nu_e-e cross section at accelerator experiments including radiative corrections. By combining reactor and accelerator data we obtain an improved determination for the weak mixing angle, sin^2(theta_W) = 0.254 \\pm 0.024.

  3. The weak mixing angle from low energy neutrino measurements: A global update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, B. C.; Garcés, E. A.; Miranda, O. G.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-10-01

    Taking into account recent theoretical and experimental inputs on reactor fluxes we reconsider the determination of the weak mixing angle from low energy experiments. We perform a global analysis to all available neutrino-electron scattering data from reactor antineutrino experiments, obtaining sin2 ⁡θW = 0.252 ± 0.030. We discuss the impact of the new theoretical prediction for the neutrino spectrum, the new measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum by the Daya Bay collaboration, as well as the effect of radiative corrections. We also reanalyze the measurements of the νe - e cross section at accelerator experiments including radiative corrections. By combining reactor and accelerator data we obtain an improved determination for the weak mixing angle, sin2 ⁡θW = 0.254 ± 0.024.

  4. The Q_weak Experimental Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, T; Androic, D; Armstrong, D S; Asaturyan, A; Averett, T D; Averill, R; Balewski, J; Beaufait, J; Beminiwattha, R S; Benesch, J; Benmokhtar, F; Bessuille, J; Birchall, J; Bonnell, E; Bowman, J; Brindza, P; Brown, D B; Carlini, R D; Cates, G D; Cavness, B; Clark, G; Cornejo, J C; Dusa, S Covrig; Dalton, M M; Davis, C A; Dean, D C; Deconinck, W; Diefenbach, J; Dow, K; Dowd, J F; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Duvall, W S; Echols, J R; Elaasar, M; Falk, W R; Finelli, K D; Finn, J M; Gaskell, D; Gericke, M T W; Grames, J; Gray, V M; Grimm, K; Guo, F; Hansknecht, J; Harrison, D J; Henderson, E; Hoskins, J R; Ihloff, E; Johnston, K; Jones, D; Jones, M; Jones, R; Kargiantoulakis, M; Kelsey, J; Khan, N; King, P M; Korkmaz, E; Kowalski, S; Kubera, A; Leacock, J; Leckey, J P; Lee, A R; Lee, J H; Lee, L; Liang, Y; MacEwan, S; Mack, D; Magee, J A; Mahurin, R; Mammei, J; Martin, J W; McCreary, A; McDonald, M H; McHugh, M J; Medeiros, P; Meekins, D; Mei, J; Michaels, R; Micherdzinska, A; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Morgan, N; Musson, J; Mesick, K E; Narayan, A; Ndukum, L Z; Nelyubin, V; Nuruzzaman,; van Oers, W T H; Opper, A K; Page, S A; Pan, J; Paschke, K D; Phillips, S K; Pitt, M L; Poelker, M; Rajotte, J F; Ramsay, W D; Roberts, W R; Roche, J; Rose, P W; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shabestari, M H; Silwal, R; Simicevic, N; Smith, G R; Sobczynski, S; Solvignon, P; Spayde, D T; Stokes, B; Storey, D W; Subedi, A; Subedi, R; Suleiman, R; Tadevosyan, V; Tobias, W A; Tvaskis, V; Urban, E; Waidyawansa, B; Wang, P; Wells, S P; Wood, S A; Yang, S; Zhamkochyan, S; Zielinski, R B

    2014-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Q_weak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise ${\\vec{e}}$p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 microA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Moller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The ...

  5. Universal portfolios generated by weakly stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Pang, Sook Theng

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a universal portfolio generated by a set of independent Brownian motions where a finite number of past stock prices are weighted by the moments of the multivariate normal distribution is introduced and studied. The multivariate normal moments as polynomials in time consequently lead to a constant rebalanced portfolio depending on the drift coefficients of the Brownian motions. For a weakly stationary process, a different type of universal portfolio is proposed where the weights on the stock prices depend only on the time differences of the stock prices. An empirical study is conducted on the returns achieved by the universal portfolios generated by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process on selected stock-price data sets. Promising results are demonstrated for increasing the wealth of the investor by using the weakly-stationary-process-generated universal portfolios.

  6. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  7. A dynamical weak scale from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tevong

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ~ 1010 GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.

  8. The regularization of Old English weak verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tío Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.

  9. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  10. Weak Convergence Theorems for Nonself Mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong-quan; Guo Wei-ping; Ji You-qing

    2015-01-01

    Let E be a real uniformly convex and smooth Banach space, and K be a nonempty closed convex subset of E with P as a sunny nonexpansive retrac-tion. Let T1, T2 : K → E be two weakly inward nonself asymptotically nonexpan-sive mappings with respect to P with a sequence {k(i)n } ⊂ [1,∞) (i = 1, 2), and F := F (T1)∩F (T2) = ∅. An iterative sequence for approximation common fixed points of the two nonself asymptotically nonexpansive mappings is discussed. If E has also a Fr´echet differentiable norm or its dual E∗ has Kadec-Klee property, then weak convergence theorems are obtained.

  11. Model Reduction of Strong-Weak Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travelfrom the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous workwe have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell modelsmay be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of stronglyexcitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude,without sacrificing thespatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs. We combine the best of these twostrategies via a predictor--corrector decomposition scheme andachieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  12. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bosen; Sorensen, Danny; Cox, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio-temporal nature of its inputs (in the sense we reproduce the cell's precise mapping of inputs to outputs). We combine the best of these two strategies via a predictor-corrector decomposition scheme and achieve a drastically reduced highly accurate model of a caricature of the neuron responsible for collision detection in the locust.

  13. Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bjoern Malte

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this article is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line of sight-weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed TaRDiS (Tomography with orthogonAl Radial Distance polynomIal Systems). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher-matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomo...

  14. Weak lensing tomography with orthogonal polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this paper is weak cosmic shear tomography where the line-of-sight weighting is carried out with a set of specifically constructed orthogonal polynomials, dubbed Tomography with Orthogonal Radial Distance Polynomial Systems (TaRDiS). We investigate the properties of these polynomials and employ weak convergence spectra, which have been obtained by weighting with these polynomials, for the estimation of cosmological parameters. We quantify their power in constraining parameters in a Fisher matrix technique and demonstrate how each polynomial projects out statistically independent information, and how the combination of multiple polynomials lifts degeneracies. The assumption of a reference cosmology is needed for the construction of the polynomials, and as a last point we investigate how errors in the construction with a wrong cosmological model propagate to misestimates in cosmological parameters. TaRDiS performs on a similar level as traditional tomographic methods and some key features of tomography are made easier to understand.

  15. Atmospheric dispersion effects in weak lensing measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Plazas, Andrés A

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and point spread function (PSF) characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions ($\\Delta{\\bar{R}}$) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF ($\\Delta{v}$) for galaxies. We estimate the level of $\\Delta{V}$ that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the {\\em Dark Energy Survey (DES)} and the {\\em Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)} cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the $\\Delta{\\bar{R}}$ signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions ...

  16. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  17. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  18. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  19. Strong side of weak topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Zohar; Kraus, Yaacov E.; Stern, Ady

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are classified into “strong” (STI) and “weak” (WTI) according to the nature of their surface states. While the surface states of the STI are topologically protected from localization, this does not hold for the WTI. In this work, we show that the surface states of the WTI are actually protected from any random perturbation that does not break time-reversal symmetry, and does not close the bulk energy gap. Consequently, the conductivity of metallic surfaces in the clean system remains finite even in the presence of strong disorder of this type. In the weak disorder limit, the surfaces are found to be perfect metals, and strong surface disorder only acts to push the metallic surfaces inwards. We find that the WTI differs from the STI primarily in its anisotropy, and that the anisotropy is not a sign of its weakness but rather of its richness.

  20. The Weak Gravity Conjecture in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Miguel [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Calle Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics & Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Lo Ka Chung Building, Lee Shau Kee Campus, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-28

    We study weakly coupled U(1) theories in AdS{sub 3}, their associated charged BTZ solutions, and their charged spectra. We find that modular invariance of the holographic dual two-dimensional CFT and compactness of the gauge group together imply the existence of charged operators with conformal dimension significantly below the black hole threshold. We regard this as a form of the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) in three dimensions. We also explore the constraints posed by modular invariance on a particular discrete ℤ{sub N} symmetry which arises in our discussion. In this case, modular invariance does not guarantee the existence of light ℤ{sub N}-charged states. We also highlight the differences between our discussion and the usual heuristic arguments for the WGC based on black hole remnants.