WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-loop models tracked

  1. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Passarino, G; Passera, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the building blocks for the two-loop renormalization of the Standard Model are introduced with a comprehensive discussion of the special vertices induced in the Lagrangian by a particular diagonalization of the neutral sector and by two alternative treatments of the Higgs tadpoles. Dyson resummed propagators for the gauge bosons are derived, and two-loop Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. In part II, the complete set of counterterms needed for the two-loop renormalization will be derived. In part III, a renormalization scheme will be introduced, connecting the renormalized quantities to an input parameter set of (pseudo-)experimental data, critically discussing renormalization of a gauge theory with unstable particles.

  2. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S

    2006-01-01

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics.

  3. Two-loop electroweak threshold corrections in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd A. Kniehl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the relationships between the basic parameters of the on-shell renormalization scheme and their counterparts in the MS¯ scheme at full order O(α2 in the Standard Model. These enter as threshold corrections the renormalization group analyses underlying, e.g., the investigation of the vacuum stability. To ensure the gauge invariance of the parameters, in particular of the MS¯ masses, we work in Rξ gauge and systematically include tadpole contributions. We also consider the gaugeless-limit approximation and compare it with the full two-loop electroweak calculation.

  4. Two-Loop Renormalization in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S

    2006-01-01

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, will be discussed in p...

  5. Two-loop-induced neutrino masses: A model-independent perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Majorana neutrino mass generation mechanisms at the two-loop order. After briefly reviewing the systematic classification of one-loop realizations, we then focus on a general two-loop classification scheme which provides a model-independent catalog for neutrino mass models at the two-loop order

  6. Study of Two-Loop Neutrino Mass Generation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We study the models with the Majorana neutrino masses generated radiatively by two-loop diagrams due to the Yukawa $\\rho \\bar \\ell_R^c \\ell_R$ and effective $\\rho^{\\pm\\pm} W^\\mp W^\\mp$ couplings along with a scalar triplet $\\Delta$, where $\\rho$ is a doubly charged singlet scalar, $\\ell_R$ the charged lepton and $W$ the charged gauge boson. A generic feature in these types of models is that the neutrino mass spectrum has to be a normal hierarchy. Furthermore, by using the neutrino oscillation data and comparing with the global fitting result in the literature, we find a unique neutrino mass matrix and predict the Dirac and two Majorana CP phases to be $1.40\\pi$, $1.11\\pi$ and $1.47\\pi$, respectively. We also discuss the model parameters constrained by the lepton flavor violating processes and electroweak oblique parameters. In addition, we show that the rate of the neutrinoless double beta decay $(0\

  7. Two loop effective Kähler potential of (non-)renormalizable supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Nibbelink, S G; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot; Nyawelo, Tino S.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a supergraph computation of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We only insist on gauge invariance of the Kaehler potential and the superpotential as we heavily rely on its consequences in the quantum theory. However, we do not require gauge invariance for the gauge kinetic functions, so that our results can also be applied to anomalous theories that involve the Green-Schwarz mechanism. We illustrate our two loop results by considering a few simple models: the (non-)renormalizable Wess-Zumino model and Super Quantum Electrodynamics.

  8. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part I. Prolegomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Ferroglia, A. [Albert-Ludwigs-Univ., Freiburg (Germany). Fakultat fur Phys.]|[Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Passera, M. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In this paper the building blocks for the two-loop renormalization of the Standard Model are introduced with a comprehensive discussion of the special vertices induced in the Lagrangian by a particular diagonalization of the neutral sector and by two alternative treatments of the Higgs tadpoles. Dyson resummed propagators for the gauge bosons are derived, and two-loop Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities are discussed. In part II, the complete set of counterterms needed for the two-loop renormalization will be derived. In part III, a renormalization scheme will be introduced, connecting the renormalized quantities to an input parameter set of (pseudo-)experimental data, critically discussing renormalization of a gauge theory with unstable particles. (orig.)

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Release of Radiation in Flow Blockage Accident for Two Loops PWR

    OpenAIRE

    Khurram Mehboob; Cao Xinrong; Majid Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this study modeling and simulation of release of radiation form two loops PWR has been carried out for flow blockage accident. For this purpose, a MATLAB based program “Source Term Evaluator for Flow Blockage Accident” (STEFBA) has been developed, which uses the core inventory as its primary input. The TMI-2 reactor is considered as the reference plant for this study. For 1100 reactor operation days, the core inventory has been evaluated under the core design constrains at average reactor ...

  10. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part III. Renormalization equations and their solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I and II of this series of papers all elements have been introduced to extend, to two loops, the set of renormalization procedures which are needed in describing the properties of a spontaneously broken gauge theory. In this paper, the final step is undertaken and finite renormalization is discussed. Two-loop renormalization equations are introduced and their solutions discussed within the context of the minimal standard model of fundamental interactions. These equations relate renormalized Lagrangian parameters (couplings and masses) to some input parameter set containing physical (pseudo-)observables. Complex poles for unstable gauge and Higgs bosons are used and a consistent setup is constructed for extending the predictivity of the theory from the Lep1 Z-boson scale (or the Lep2 WW scale) to regions of interest for LHC and ILC physics. (orig.)

  11. Two-loop Induced Majorana Neutrino Mass in a Radiatively Induced Quark and Lepton Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    A two-loop induced radiative neutrino model is proposed as an extension of our previous work in which the first and second generation standard model fermion masses are generated at one-loop level in both quark and lepton sectors. Then we discuss current neutrino oscillation data, lepton flavor violations, muon anomalous magnetic moment, and a bosonic dark matter candidate, for both the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Our numerical analysis shows that less hierarchical Yukawa coupling constants can fit the experimental data with TeV scale dark matter.

  12. Two-loop corrections to the ρ parameter in Two-Higgs-Doublet models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessenberger, Stephan; Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Models with two scalar doublets are among the simplest extensions of the Standard Model which fulfill the relation ρ = 1 at lowest order for the ρ parameter as favored by experimental data for electroweak observables allowing only small deviations from unity. Such small deviations Δρ originate exclusively from quantum effects with special sensitivity to mass splittings between different isospin components of fermions and scalars. In this paper the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections to Δρ are calculated in the CP-conserving THDM, resulting from the top-Yukawa coupling and the self-couplings of the Higgs bosons in the gauge-less limit. The on-shell renormalization scheme is applied. With the assumption that one of the CP-even neutral scalars represents the scalar boson observed by the LHC experiments, with standard properties, the two-loop non-standard contributions in Δρ can be separated from the standard ones. These contributions are of particular interest since they increase with mass splittings between non-standard Higgs bosons and can be additionally enhanced by tanβ and λ{sub 5}, an additional free coefficient of the Higgs potential, and can thus modify the one-loop result substantially. Numerical results are given for the dependence on the various non-standard parameters, and the influence on the calculation of electroweak precision observables is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Two-loop corrections to the $\\rho$ parameter in Two-Higgs-Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Hessenberger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Models with two scalar doublets are among the simplest extensions of the Standard Model which fulfill the relation $\\rho = 1$ at lowest order for the $\\rho$ parameter as favored by experimental data for electroweak observables allowing only small deviations from unity. Such small deviations $\\Delta\\rho$ originate exclusively from quantum effects with special sensitivity to mass splittings between different isospin components of fermions and scalars. In this paper the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections to $\\Delta\\rho$ are calculated in the $CP$-conserving THDM, resulting from the top-Yukawa coupling and the self-couplings of the Higgs bosons in the gauge-less limit. The on-shell renormalization scheme is applied. With the assumption that one of the $CP$-even neutral scalars represents the scalar boson observed by the LHC experiments, with standard properties, the two-loop non-standard contributions in $\\Delta\\rho$ can be separated from the standard ones. These contributions are of particular interest si...

  14. Two-loop stability of a complex singlet extended standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raul; Morais, António P.; Sampaio, Marco O. P.; Santos, Rui

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the dark matter and the baryon asymmetry problems, we analyze a complex singlet extension of the Standard Model with a Z2 symmetry (which provides a dark matter candidate). After a detailed two-loop calculation of the renormalization group equations for the new scalar sector, we study the radiative stability of the model up to a high energy scale (with the constraint that the 126 GeV Higgs boson found at the LHC is in the spectrum) and find it requires the existence of a new scalar state mixing with the Higgs with a mass larger than 140 GeV. This bound is not very sensitive to the cutoff scale as long as the latter is larger than 1010 GeV . We then include all experimental and observational constraints/measurements from collider data, from dark matter direct detection experiments, and from the Planck satellite and in addition force stability at least up to the grand unified theory scale, to find that the lower bound is raised to about 170 GeV, while the dark matter particle must be heavier than about 50 GeV.

  15. Sfermion loop contribution to the two-loop level fermion electric dipole moment in R-parity violating supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the Barr-Zee type two-loop level contribution to the fermion electric and chromo-electric dipole moments with sfermion loop in R-parity violating supersymmetric models. It is found that the Barr-Zee type fermion dipole moment with sfermion loop acts destructively to the currently known fermion loop contribution, and that it has small effect when the mass of squarks or charged sleptons in the loop is larger than or comparable to that of the sneutrinos, but cannot be neglected if the sneutrinos are much heavier than loop sfermions.

  16. Constraints on abelian extensions of the Standard Model from two-loop vacuum stability and U(1) B- L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corianò, Claudio; Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal U(1) B- L extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  17. Constraints on Abelian Extensions of the Standard Model from Two-Loop Vacuum Stability and $U(1)_{B-L}$

    CERN Document Server

    Coriano, Claudio; Marzo, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal $U(1)_{B-L}$ extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  18. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  19. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  20. Extending two Higgs doublet models for two-loop neutrino mass generation and one-loop neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-02-01

    We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.

  1. Higgs boson mass in the Standard Model at two-loop order and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Stephen P. [Northern Illinois U.; Robertson, David G. [Otterbein Coll.

    2014-10-23

    We calculate the mass of the Higgs boson in the standard model in terms of the underlying Lagrangian parameters at complete 2-loop order with leading 3-loop corrections. A computer program implementing the results is provided. The program also computes and minimizes the standard model effective potential in Landau gauge at 2-loop order with leading 3-loop corrections.

  2. A reappraisal of two-loop contributions to the fermion electric dipole moments in R-parity violating supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    We reexamine the R-parity violating contribution to the fermion electric and chromo-electric dipole moments (EDM and cEDM) in the two-loop diagrams. It is found that the leading Barr-Zee type two-loop contribution is smaller than the result found in previous works, and that EDM experimental data provide looser limits on RPV couplings.

  3. Thermodynamics and phase transition of the O(N) model from the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Markó, Gergely; Szép, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the O(N) model across the corresponding phase transition using the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation of the effective potential and compare our results to those obtained in the literature within the Hartree-Fock approximation. In particular, we find that in the chiral limit the transition is of the second order, whereas it was found to be of the first order in the Hartree-Fock case. These features are manifest at the level of the thermodynamical observables. We also compute the thermal sigma and pion masses from the curvature of the effective potential. In the chiral limit, this guarantees that the Goldstone theorem is obeyed in the broken phase. A realistic parametrization of the model in the N=4 case, based on the vacuum values of the curvature masses, shows that a sigma mass of around 450 MeV can be obtained. The equations are renormalized after extending our previous results for the N=1 case by means of the general procedure described in [J. Berges et al., Annals Phys. ...

  4. Testable two-loop radiative neutrino mass model based on an LLQd^cQd^c effective operator

    CERN Document Server

    Angel, Paul W; Rodd, Nicholas L; Schmidt, Michael A; Volkas, Raymond R

    2013-01-01

    A new two-loop radiative Majorana neutrino mass model is constructed from the gauge- invariant effective operator L^i L^j Q^k d^c Q^l d^c \\epsilon_{ik} \\epsilon_{jl} that violates lepton number conservation by two units. The ultraviolet completion features two scalar leptoquark flavors and a color-octet Majorana fermion. We show that there exists a region of parameter space where the neutrino oscillation data can be fitted while simultaneously meeting flavor-violation and collider bounds. The model is testable through lepton flavor-violating processes such as {\\mu} -> e{\\gamma}, {\\mu} -> eee, and {\\mu}N -> eN conversion, as well as collider searches for the scalar leptoquarks and color-octet fermion. We computed and compiled a list of necessary Passarino-Veltman integrals up to boxes in the approximation of vanishing external momenta and made them available as a Mathematica package, denoted as ANT.

  5. Anomalous scaling and large-scale anisotropy in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop renormalization-group analysis of the Kazantsev-Kraichnan kinematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, N V; Gulitskiy, N M

    2012-06-01

    The field theoretic renormalization group and operator product expansion are applied to the Kazantsev-Kraichnan kinematic model for the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The anomalous scaling emerges as a consequence of the existence of certain composite fields ("operators") with negative dimensions. The anomalous exponents for the correlation functions of arbitrary order are calculated in the two-loop approximation (second order of the renormalization-group expansion), including the anisotropic sectors. The anomalous scaling and the hierarchy of anisotropic contributions become stronger due to those second-order contributions.

  6. Breakdown of Fermi liquid behavior near the hot spots in a two-dimensional model: A two-loop renormalization group analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vanuildo S. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Freire, Hermann, E-mail: hfreire@mit.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    Motivated by a recent experimental observation of a nodal liquid on both single crystals and thin films of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+} {sub δ} by Chatterjee et al. [Nature Phys. 6 (2010) 99], we perform a field-theoretical renormalization group (RG) analysis of a two-dimensional model such that only eight points located near the “hot spots” on the Fermi surface are retained, which are directly connected by spin density wave ordering wavevector. We derive RG equations up to two-loop order describing the flow of renormalized couplings, quasiparticle weight, several order-parameter response functions, and uniform spin and charge susceptibilities of the model. We find that while the order-parameter susceptibilities investigated here become non-divergent at two loops, the quasiparticle weight vanishes in the low-energy limit, indicating a breakdown of Fermi liquid behavior at this RG level. Moreover, both uniform spin and charge susceptibilities become suppressed in the scaling limit which indicate gap openings in both spin and charge excitation spectra of the model.

  7. Constraints on abelian extensions of the Standard Model from two-loop vacuum stability and U(1){sub B−L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corianò, Claudio [STAG Research Centre and Mathematical Sciences,University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Università del Salento and INFN - Sezione di Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Rose, Luigi Delle; Marzo, Carlo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi' ,Università del Salento and INFN - Sezione di Lecce,Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-02-19

    We present a renormalization group study of the scalar potential in a minimal U(1){sub B−L} extension of the Standard Model involving one extra heavier Higgs and three heavy right-handed neutrinos with family universal B-L charge assignments. We implement a type-I seesaw for the masses of the light neutrinos of the Standard Model. In particular, compared to a previous study, we perform a two-loop extension of the evolution, showing that two-loop effects are essential for the study of the stability of the scalar potential up to the Planck scale. The analysis includes the contribution of the kinetic mixing between the two abelian gauge groups, which is radiatively generated by the evolution, and the one-loop matching conditions at the electroweak scale. By requiring the stability of the potential up to the Planck mass, significant constraints on the masses of the heavy neutrinos, on the gauge couplings and the mixing in the Higgs sector are identified.

  8. Two Loop Effective Kähler Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nyawelo, T S; Nyawelo, Tino S.; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we study the renormalization of the effective Kaehler potential at one and two loops for general four dimensional (non--renormalizable) N=1 supersymmetric theories described by arbitrary Kaehler potential, superpotential and gauge kinetic function. We consider the Wess-Zumino model as an example.

  9. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  10. Supersymmetric Wilson loops at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bassetto, Antonio; Pucci, Fabrizio; Seminara, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of certain BPS Wilson loops in ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. They belong to a general family, introduced recently, in which the addition of particular scalar couplings endows generic loops on $S^3$ with a fraction of supersymmetry. When restricted to $S^2$, their quantum average has been further conjectured to be exactly computed by the matrix model governing the zero-instanton sector of YM$_2$ on the sphere. We perform a complete two-loop analysis on a class of cusped Wilson loops lying on a two-dimensional sphere, finding perfect agreement with the conjecture. The perturbative computation reproduces the matrix-model expectation through a highly non-trivial interplay between ladder diagrams and self-energies/vertex contributions, suggesting the existence of a localization procedure.

  11. Off-shell two loop QCD vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Gracey, J A

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MSbar scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off-shell.

  12. Two-Loop Threshold Singularities, Unstable Particles and Complex Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Sturm, C; Uccirati, S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of threshold singularities induced by unstable particles on two-loop observables is investigated and it is shown how to cure them working in the complex-mass scheme. The impact on radiative corrections around thresholds is thoroughly analyzed and shown to be relevant for two selected LHC and ILC applications: Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into two photons at two loops in the Standard Model. Concerning Higgs production, it is essential to understand possible sources of large corrections in addition to the well-known QCD effects. It is shown that NLO electroweak corrections can incongruently reach a 10 % level around the WW vector-boson threshold without a complete implementation of the complex-mass scheme in the two-loop calculation.

  13. Evidence of a short-range incommensurate d-wave charge order from a fermionic two-loop renormalization group calculation of a 2D model with hot spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Vanuildo S de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Freire, Hermann, E-mail: hfreire@mit.edu [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74.001-970, Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 2139 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The two-loop renormalization group (RG) calculation is considerably extended here for the two-dimensional (2D) fermionic effective field theory model, which includes only the so-called “hot spots” that are connected by the spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering wavevector on a Fermi surface generated by the 2D t−t{sup ′} Hubbard model at low hole doping. We compute the Callan–Symanzik RG equation up to two loops describing the flow of the single-particle Green’s function, the corresponding spectral function, the Fermi velocity, and some of the most important order-parameter susceptibilities in the model at lower energies. As a result, we establish that–in addition to clearly dominant SDW correlations–an approximate (pseudospin) symmetry relating a short-range incommensurated-wave charge order to the d-wave superconducting order indeed emerges at lower energy scales, which is in agreement with recent works available in the literature addressing the 2D spin-fermion model. We derive implications of this possible electronic phase in the ongoing attempt to describe the phenomenology of the pseudogap regime in underdoped cuprates.

  14. A two-loop excitation control system for synchronous generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Cervantes, Ilse; Escarela-Perez, Rafael; Espinosa-Perez, Gerardo [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion ESIME-C, Av. Santa Ana 1000 Col. San Francisco Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico)

    2005-10-01

    An excitation controller for a single generator based on modern multi-loop design methodology is presented in this paper. The proposed controller consists of two-loops: a stabilizing (damping injection) loop and a voltage regulating loop. The task of the stabilizing loop is to add damping in the face of voltage oscillations. The voltage regulating loop is basically a PI compensator whose objective is to obtain terminal voltage regulation about the prescribed reference. The main contribution of this paper is to give some insights into the systematic derivation of multi-loop controllers of power generators. Certain connections between the two-loop excitation controller and standard PSS-AVR schemes are discussed. In this way, some insight into the stability of the standard PSS scheme is obtained from the analysis of the proposed controller. The proposed controller is evaluated via numerical simulations on a full finite-element model. (author)

  15. Two loop scalar bilinears for inflationary SQED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Tsamis, N C [Department of Physics, University of Crete GR-710 03 Heraklion, Hellas (Greece); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2007-01-07

    We evaluate the one- and two-loop contributions to the expectation values of two coincident and gauge invariant scalar bilinears in the theory of massless, minimally coupled scalar quantum electrodynamics on a locally de Sitter background. One of these bilinears is the product of two covariantly differentiated scalars, the other is the product of two undifferentiated scalars. The computations are done using dimensional regularization and the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Our results are in perfect agreement with the stochastic predictions at this order.

  16. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R

    2011-10-01

    The turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the framework of the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where the magnetic field behaves as a passive vector field advected by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, is calculated by the field theoretic renormalization group technique in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the two-loop corrections to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic MHD turbulence are less than 2% of its leading order value (the one-loop value) and, at the same time, the two-loop turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is the same as the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number obtained in the corresponding model of a passively advected scalar field. The dependence of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number on the spatial dimension d is investigated and the source of the smallness of the two-loop corrections for spatial dimension d=3 is identified and analyzed.

  17. TRACKING CLIMATE MODELS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CLAIRE MONTELEONI*, GAVIN SCHMIDT, AND SHAILESH SAROHA* Climate models are complex mathematical models designed by meteorologists, geophysicists, and climate...

  18. A Two-loop Test of Buscher's T-duality, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Z; Palla, L; Horvath, Zalan; Karp, Robert L.; Palla, Laszlo

    2000-01-01

    We study the two loop quantum equivalence of sigma models related by Buscher's T-duality transformation. The computation of the two loop perturbative free energy density is performed in the case of a certain deformation of the SU(2) principal sigma model, and its T-dual, using dimensional regularization and the geometric sigma model perturbation theory. We obtain agreement between the free energy density expressions of the two models.

  19. Track structure in biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S B

    1986-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation.

  20. A note on two-loop superloop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    We explore the duality between supersymmetric Wilson loop on null polygonal contours in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and next-to-maximal helicity violating (NMHV) scattering amplitudes. Earlier analyses demonstrated that the use of a dimensional regulator for ultraviolet divergences, induced due to presence of the cusps on the loop, yields anomalies that break both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. At one-loop order, these are present only in Grassmann components localized in the vicinity of a single cusp and result in a universal function for any number of sites of the polygon that can be subtracted away in a systematic manner leaving a well-defined supersymmetric remainder dual to corresponding components of the superamplitude. The question remains though whether components which were free from the aforementioned supersymmetric anomaly at leading order of perturbation theory remain so once computed at higher orders. Presently we verify this fact by calculating a particular component of the null polygonal super Wilson loop at two loops restricting the contour kinematics to a two-dimensional subspace. This allows one to perform all computations in a concise analytical form and trace the pattern of cancellations between individual Feynman graphs in a transparent fashion. As a consequence of our consideration we obtain a dual conformally invariant result for the remainder function in agreement with one-loop NMHV amplitudes.

  1. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...... infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  2. On-shell two-loop three-gluon vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Davydychev, A I

    1999-01-01

    The two-loop three-gluon vertex is calculated in an arbitrary covariant gauge, in the limit when two of the gluons are on the mass shell. The corresponding two-loop results for the ghost-gluon vertex are also obtained. It is shown that the results are consistent with the Ward-Slavnov-Taylor identities.

  3. Tracks FAQs: What is Modeled Air Data?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss modeled air data. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 4/25/2011.

  4. Two-loop Bethe-logarithm correction in hydrogenlike atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachucki, Krzysztof; Jentschura, Ulrich D

    2003-09-12

    We calculate the two-loop Bethe logarithm correction to atomic energy levels in hydrogenlike systems. The two-loop Bethe logarithm is a low-energy quantum electrodynamic (QED) effect involving multiple summations over virtual excited atomic states. Although much smaller in absolute magnitude than the well-known one-loop Bethe logarithm, the two-loop analog is quite significant when compared to the current experimental accuracy of the 1S-2S transition: It contributes -8.19 and -0.84 kHz for the 1S and the 2S state, respectively. The two-loop Bethe logarithm has been the largest unknown correction to the hydrogen Lamb shift to date. Together with the ongoing measurement of the proton charge radius at the Paul Scherrer Institute, its calculation will bring theoretical and experimental accuracy for the Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen to the level of 10(-7).

  5. Off-shell two-loop QCD vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MS¯ scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off shell.

  6. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  7. Two-loop electroweak threshold corrections to the bottom and top Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between the MS-bar Yukawa coupling and the pole mass for the bottom and top quarks at the two-loop electroweak order O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit of the standard model. We also consider the MS-bar to pole mass relationships at this order, which include tadpole contributions to ensure the gauge independence of the MS-bar masses. In order to avoid the presence of tadpoles, we propose a redefinition of the running heavy-quark mass in terms of the MS-bar Yukawa coupling. We also present Delta r in the MS-bar scheme at O(alpha^2) in the gaugeless limit. As an aside, we also present the exact two-loop expression for the heavy-quark mass counterterm at two loops.

  8. Two-loop QCD Correction to Massive Spin-2 Resonance $ \\to q ~ \\bar{q} ~ g $

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2016-01-01

    Two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 Graviton decaying to $q ~ + ~ \\bar{q}~ + ~g$ is presented considering a generic universal spin-2 coupling to the SM through the conserved energy-momentum tensor. Such a massive spin-2 particle can arise in extra-dimensional models. The ultraviolet and infrared structure of the QCD amplitudes are studied. In dimensional regularisation, the infrared pole structure is in agreement with Catani's proposal, confirming the universal factorization property of QCD amplitudes, even with the spin-2 tensorial coupling. This computation now completes the full two-loop QCD corrections for the production of a spin-2 in association with a jet.

  9. The Vector and Scalar Form Factors of the Pion to Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Talavera, P

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the vector and scalar form factors of the pion to two loops in Chiral Perturbation Theory. We estimate the unknown O(p^6) constants using resonance exchange. We make a careful comparison to the available data and determine two O(p^4) constants rather precisely, and two O(p^6) constants less precisely. We also use Chiral Perturbation Theory to two loops to extract in a model--independent manner the charge radius of the pion from the available data, and obtain \\rpiV=0.437\\pm 0.016 fm^2.

  10. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Arantxa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  11. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Villanueva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  12. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

  13. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....

  14. Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity with External Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J

    2013-01-01

    We extend the maximal unitarity method at two loops to double-box basis integrals with up to three external massive legs. We use consistency equations based on the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. We obtain unique formulae for the coefficients of the master double-box integrals. These formulae can be used either analytically or numerically.

  15. An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.

  16. Two loop low temperature corrections to electron self energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; Samina S. Masood

    2011-01-01

    We recalculate the two loop corrections in the background heat bath using real time formalism. The procedure of the integrations of loop momenta with dependence on finite temperature before the momenta without it has been followed. We determine the mass a

  17. Two-Loop Gluon Regge Trajectory from Lipatov's Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Chachamis, Grigorios; Madrigal, José Daniel; Vera, Agustín Sabio

    2012-01-01

    Lipatov's high-energy effective action is a useful tool for computations in the Regge limit beyond leading order. Recently, a regularisation/subtraction prescription has been proposed that allows to apply this formalism to calculate next-to-leading order corrections in a consistent way. We illustrate this procedure with the computation of the gluon Regge trajectory at two loops.

  18. Local integrands for two-loop QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we review the recent computation of the five- and six-gluon two-loop amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory using local integrands which make the infrared pole structure manifest. We make some remarks on the connection with BCJ relations and the all-multiplicity structure.

  19. Two-Loop Tensor Integrals in Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Passarino, G; Passera, M; Uccirati, S

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study is performed of general massive, tensor, two-loop Feynman diagrams with two and three external legs. Reduction to generalized scalar functions is discussed and integral representations are introduced, family-by-family of diagrams, that support the same class of algorithms (algorithms of smoothness) already employed for the numerical evaluation of ordinary scalar functions.

  20. Two-loop beta functions for supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, I. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1984-11-15

    The two-loop ..beta.. functions in the dimensional regularisation framework for a general gauge theory coupled to scalar and spinor fields are presented and by means of a finite transformation of the couplings are converted into a form which vanishes for special cases corresponding to supersymmetric gauge theories.

  1. Two-loop and n-loop eikonal vertex corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    I present calculations of two-loop vertex corrections with massive and massless partons in the eikonal approximation. I show that the $n$-loop result for the UV poles can be given in terms of the one-loop calculation.

  2. Deformable Models for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Leimberg, Denis; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær;

    2005-01-01

    A deformable template method for eye tracking on full face images is presented. The strengths of the method are that it is fast and retains accuracy independently of the resolution. We compare the me\\$\\backslash\\$-thod with a state of the art active contour approach, showing that the heuristic...

  3. PyR@TE 2: A Python tool for computing RGEs at two-loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonnet, F.; Schienbein, I.

    2017-04-01

    Renormalization group equations are an essential tool for the description of theories across different energy scales. Even though their expressions at two-loop for an arbitrary gauge field theory have been known for more than thirty years, deriving the full set of equations for a given model by hand is very challenging and prone to errors. To tackle this issue, we have introduced in Lyonnet et al. (2014) a Python tool called PyR@TE; Python Renormalization group equations @ Two-loop for Everyone. With PyR@TE, it is easy to implement a given Lagrangian and derive the complete set of two-loop RGEs for all the parameters of the theory. In this paper, we present the new version of this code, PyR@TE 2, which brings many new features and in particular it incorporates kinetic mixing when several U(1) gauge groups are involved. In addition, the group theory part has been greatly improved as we introduced a new Python module dubbed PyLie that deals with all the group theoretical aspects required for the calculation of the RGEs as well as providing very useful model building capabilities. This allows the use of any irreducible representation of the SU(n) , SO(2 n) and SO(2n + 1) groups. Furthermore, it is now possible to implement terms in the Lagrangian involving fields which can be contracted into gauge singlets in more than one way. As a byproduct, results for a popular model (SM + complex triplet) for which, to our knowledge, the complete set of two-loop RGEs has not been calculated before are presented in this paper. Finally, the two-loop RGEs for the anomalous dimension of the scalar and fermion fields have been implemented as well. It is now possible to export the coupled system of beta functions into a numerical C++ function, leading to a consequent speed up in solving them.

  4. An improved likelihood model for eye tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2007-01-01

    approach in such cases is to abandon the tracking routine and re-initialize eye detection. Of course this may be a difficult process due to missed data problem. Accordingly, what is needed is an efficient method of reliably tracking a person's eyes between successively produced video image frames, even...... are challenging. It proposes a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models in a particle filter-based eye tracking framework. It fuses key information from even, odd infrared fields (dark and bright-pupil) and their corresponding subtractive image into one single observation model...

  5. Brief description of the flavor-changing neutral scalar interactions at two-loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitán, R

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show a general description about flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) mediated by scalars. The analysis is extended at two-loop level for the Two-Higgs Doublet Model type-III because others models have strong constraints on its parameters, even at high orders of the perturbation. For this letter we focus on the standard model, calculating the amplitude for the $h \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ process and discussing the results briefly.

  6. Brief description of the flavor-changing neutral scalar interactions at two-loop level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, R.; Orduz-Ducuara, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this letter we show a general description about flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNC) mediated by scalars. The analysis is extended at two-loop level for the Two-Higgs Doublet Model type-III because others models have strong constraints on its parameters, even at high orders of the perturbation. For this letter we focus on the standard model, calculating the amplitude for the h→γγ process and discussing the results briefly.

  7. Towards a Basis for Planar Two-Loop Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Gluza, Janusz; Kosower, David A

    2010-01-01

    The existence of a finite basis of algebraically independent one-loop integrals has underpinned important developments in the computation of one-loop amplitudes in field theories and gauge theories in particular. We give an explicit construction reducing integrals to a finite basis for planar integrals at two loops, both to all orders in the dimensional regulator e, and also when all integrals are truncated to O(e). We show how to reorganize integration-by-parts equations to obtain elements of the first basis efficiently, and how to use Gram determinants to obtain additional linear relations reducing this all-orders basis to the second one. The techniques we present should apply to non-planar integrals, to integrals with massive propagators, and beyond two loops as well.

  8. Two-loop corrections to Higgs boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindran, V. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Smith, J. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Neerven, W.L. van [Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, PO Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: neerven@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl

    2005-01-03

    In this paper we present the complete two-loop vertex corrections to scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs boson production for general colour factors for the gauge group SU(N) in the limit where the top quark mass gets infinite. We derive a general formula for the vertex correction which holds for conserved and non-conserved operators. For the conserved operator we take the electromagnetic vertex correction as an example whereas for the non-conserved operators we take the two vertex corrections above. Our observations for the structure of the pole terms 1/-bar 4, 1/-bar 3 and 1/-bar 2 in two loop order are the same as made earlier in the literature for electromagnetism. However, we also elucidate the origin of the second order single pole term which is equal to the second order singular part of the anomalous dimension plus a universal function which is the same for the quark and the gluon.

  9. Two-Loop SL(2) Form Factors and Maximal Transcendentality

    CERN Document Server

    Loebbert, Florian; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand's numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  10. Analytic two-loop form factors in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Brandhuber, Andreas; Yang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We derive a compact expression for the three-point MHV form factors of half-BPS operators in N=4super Yang-Mills at two loops. The main tools of our calculation are generalised unitarity applied at the form factor level, and the compact expressions for supersymmetric tree-level form factors and amplitudes entering the cuts. We confirm that infrared divergences exponentiate as expected, and that collinear factorisation is entirely captured by an ABDK/BDS ansatz. Next, we construct the two-loop remainder function obtained by subtracting this ansatz from the full two-loop form factor and compute it numerically. Using symbology, combined with various physical constraints and symmetries, we find a unique solution for its symbol. With this input we construct a remarkably compact analytic expression for the remainder function, which contains only classical polylogarithms, and compare it to our numerical results. Furthermore, we make the surprising observation that our remainder is equal to the maximally transcendent...

  11. Tracking Models for Optioned Portfolio Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng

    In this paper we study a target tracking problem for the portfolio selection involving options. In particular, the portfolio in question contains a stock index and some European style options on the index. A refined tracking-error-variance methodology is adopted to formulate this problem as a multi-stage optimization model. We derive the optimal solutions based on stochastic programming and optimality conditions. Attention is paid to the structure of the optimal payoff function, which is shown to possess rich properties.

  12. Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest terms, doctoral dissertation entitled "Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy" is part of the supporting research background in the development of the ambitious proton radiotherapy project currently under way at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Krak\\'ow. Another broad motivation was the desire to become directly involved in research on a topical and challenging subject of possibly developing a therapy planning system for carbon beam radiotherapy, based in its radiobiological part on the Track Structure model developed by prof. Robert Katz over 50 years ago. Thus, the general aim of this work was, firstly, to recapitulate the Track Structure model and to propose an updated and complete formulation of this model by incorporating advances made by several authors who had contributed to its development in the past. Secondly, the updated and amended (if necessary) formulation of the model was presented in a form applicable for use in computer codes which would constitute the "radiobio...

  13. On the impact of kinetic mixing in beta functions at two-loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic mixing is a fundamental property of models with a gauge symmetry involving several $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ group factors. In this paper, we perform a numerical study of the impact of kinetic mixing on beta functions at two-loop. To do so, we use the recently published PyR@TE 2 software to derive the complete set of RGEs of the SM B-L model at two-loop including kinetic mixing. We show that it is important to properly account for kinetic mixing as the evolution of the parameters with the energy scale can change drastically. In some cases, these modifications can even lead to a different conclusion regarding the stability of the scalar potential.

  14. Two loop unification of non-SUSY SO(10) GUT with TeV scalars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T. Daniel

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we examine gauge coupling unification of the non-SUSY SO(10) grand unified theory proposed by Babu and Mohapatra [Phys. Lett. B 715, 328 (2012), 10.1016/j.physletb.2012.08.006] at the two loop level. This theory breaks down to the standard model in a single step and has the distinguishing feature of TeV nonstandard model scalars. This leads to a plethora of interesting new physics at the TeV scale and the discovery of new particles at the LHC. This model gives rise to testable proton decay, neutron-antineutron oscillations, provides a mechanism for baryogenesis, and contains potential dark matter candidates. In this paper, we compute the two loop beta function and show that this model unifies to two loop order around 1 015 GeV . We then compute the proton lifetime, taking into account threshold effects and show that these effects place it above the Super-Kamiokande limit [K. Abe et al. (Super-Kamiokande Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 95, 012004 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.012004].

  15. Melody Track Selection Using Discriminative Language Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Li, Ming; Suo, Hongbin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this letter we focus on the task of selecting the melody track from a polyphonic MIDI file. Based on the intuition that music and language are similar in many aspects, we solve the selection problem by introducing an n-gram language model to learn the melody co-occurrence patterns in a statistical manner and determine the melodic degree of a given MIDI track. Furthermore, we propose the idea of using background model and posterior probability criteria to make modeling more discriminative. In the evaluation, the achieved 81.6% correct rate indicates the feasibility of our approach.

  16. Two Loop Radiative Seesaw and X-ray line Dark Matter with Global U(1) Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We study a two loop induced radiative neutrino model with global $U(1)$ symmetry at 0.1 GeV scale, in which we consider a keV scale of dark matter candidate recently reported by XMN-Newton X-ray observatory using data of various galaxy clusters and Andromeda galaxy. We also discuss the vacuum stability of singly charged bosons, lepton flavor violation processes, and a role of Goldstone boson.

  17. Amorphous track models: a numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Hahn, Ute;

    Amorphous track models such as Katz' Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach [1, 2] or the Local Effect Model (LEM) [3, 4] had reasonable success in predicting the response of solid state dosimeters and radiobiological systems. LEM is currently applied in radiotherapy for biological dose optimization in ca...

  18. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.;

    2010-01-01

    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  19. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  20. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

    2009-01-01

    infrastructure for different symbolic positioning technologies, e.g., Bluetooth and RFID. More specifically, the paper proposes a model of indoor space that comprises a base graph and mappings that represent the topology of indoor space at different levels. The resulting model can be used for one or several...... indoor positioning technologies. Focusing on RFID-based positioning, an RFID specific reader deployment graph model is built from the base graph model. This model is then used in several algorithms for constructing and refining trajectories from raw RFID readings. Empirical studies with implementations...

  1. The muon magnetic moment in the 2HDM: complete two-loop result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherchiglia, Adriano; Kneschke, Patrick; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2017-01-01

    We study the 2HDM contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment a μ and present the complete two-loop result, particularly for the bosonic contribution. We focus on the Aligned 2HDM, which has general Yukawa couplings and contains the type I, II, X, Y models as special cases. The result is expressed with physical parameters: three Higgs boson masses, Yukawa couplings, two mixing angles, and one quartic potential parameter. We show that the result can be split into several parts, each of which has a simple parameter dependence, and we document their general behavior. Taking into account constraints on parameters, we find that the full 2HDM contribution to a μ can accommodate the current experimental value, and the complete two-loop bosonic contribution can amount to (2⋯4) × 10-10, more than the future experimental uncertainty.

  2. The muon magnetic moment in the ${\\rm{2HDM}}$: complete two-loop result

    CERN Document Server

    Cherchiglia, Adriano; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2016-01-01

    We study the ${\\rm{2HDM}}$ contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\\mu$ and present the complete two-loop result, particularly for the bosonic contribution. We focus on the Aligned ${\\rm{2HDM}}$, which has general Yukawa coupling constants and is more general than the type I, II, X, Y models. The result is expressed with physical parameters: three Higgs boson masses, Yukawa couplings, two mixing angles, and one quartic potential parameter. We show that the result can be split into several parts, each of which has a simple parameter dependence, and we document the general behavior. Taking into account constraints on parameters, we find that the full ${\\rm{2HDM}}$ contribution to $a_\\mu$ can accommodate the current experimental value, and the complete two-loop bosonic result contribution can amount to $(2\\cdots 4)\\times 10^{-10}$, more than the future experimental uncertainty.

  3. Higgs boson couplings to bottom quarks: two-loop supersymmetry-QCD corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noth, David; Spira, Michael

    2008-10-31

    We present two-loop supersymmetry (SUSY) QCD corrections to the effective bottom Yukawa couplings within the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM). The effective Yukawa couplings include the resummation of the nondecoupling corrections Deltam_{b} for large values of tanbeta. We have derived the two-loop SUSY-QCD corrections to the leading SUSY-QCD and top-quark-induced SUSY-electroweak contributions to Deltam_{b}. The scale dependence of the resummed Yukawa couplings is reduced from O(10%) to the percent level. These results reduce the theoretical uncertainties of the MSSM Higgs branching ratios to the accuracy which can be achieved at a future linear e;{+}e;{-} collider.

  4. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...... transformations was carried out using a training set of five images. The tracker was automatically initialised by a described multi-scale initialisation method and achieved a performance in the range of 7-10 frames per second....

  5. Optimized Perturbation Theory at Finite Temperature Two-Loop Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiku, S

    2000-01-01

    We study the optimized perturbation theory (OPT) at finite temperature, which is a self-consistent resummation method. Firstly, we generalize the idea of the OPT to optimize the coupling constant in lambda phi^4 theory, and give a proof of the renormalizability of this generalized OPT. Secondly, the principle of minimal sensitivity and the criterion of the fastest apparent convergence, which are conditions to determine the optimal parameter values, are examined in lambda phi^4 theory. Both conditions exhibit a second-order transition at finite temperature with critical exponent beta = 0.5 in the two-loop approximation.

  6. Numerical Computation of Two-loop Box Diagrams with Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Hamaguchi, N; Ishikawa, T; Kato, K; Kurihara, Y; Fujimoto, J; Shimizu, Y

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is presented to evaluate multi-loop integrals, which appear in the calculation of cross-sections in high-energy physics. It relies on a fully numerical method and is applicable to a wide class of integrals with various mass configurations. As an example, the computation of two-loop planar and non-planar box diagrams is shown. The results are confirmed by comparisons with other techniques, including the reduction method, and by a consistency check using the dispersion relation.

  7. Two-loop Dirac neutrino mass and WIMP dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Cesar; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W F

    2016-01-01

    We propose a "scotogenic" mechanism relating small neutrino mass and cosmological dark matter. Neutrinos are Dirac fermions with masses arising only in two--loop order through the sector responsible for dark matter. Two triality symmetries ensure both dark matter stability and strict lepton number conservation at higher orders. A global spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry leads to a physical $Diracon$ that induces invisible Higgs decays which add up to the Higgs to dark matter mode. This enhances sensitivities to spin-independent WIMP dark matter search below $m_h/2$.

  8. Two loop low temperature corrections to electron self energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; Samina S. Masood

    2011-01-01

    We xecalculate the two loop corrections in the background heat bath using real time formalism.The procedure of the integrations of loop momenta with dependence on finite temperature before the moments without it has been followed. We determine the mass and wavefunction renormalization constants in the low temperature limit of QED, for the first time with this preferred order of integrations. The correction to electron mass and spinors in this limit is important in the early universe at the time of primordial nucleosynthesis as well as in astrophysics.

  9. Coherent neutrino radiation in supernovae at two loops

    OpenAIRE

    Sedrakian, A.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    2000-01-01

    We develop a neutrino transport theory, in terms of the real-time non-equilibrium Green's functions, which is applicable to physical conditions arbitrary far from thermal equilibrium. We compute the coherent neutrino radiation in cores of supernovae by evaluating the two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) polarization function with dressed propagators. The propagator dressing is carried out in the particle-particle channel to all orders in the interaction. We show that at two loops there are two disti...

  10. Two-Loop Fermionic Corrections to Massive Bhabha Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Gluza, J; Riemann, T

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering from fermion loops in the context of pure Quantum Electrodynamics. The differential cross section is expressed by a small number of Master Integrals with exact dependence on the fermion masses me, mf and the Mandelstam invariants s,t,u. We determine the limit of fixed scattering angle and high energy, assuming the hierarchy of scales me^2 << mf^2 << s,t,u. The numerical result is combined with the available non-fermionic contributions. As a by-product, we provide an independent check of the known electron-loop contributions.

  11. Eikonal gluon bremsstrahlung at finite Nc beyond two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenda, Yazid; Khelifa-Kerfa, Kamel

    2016-03-01

    We present a general formalism for computing the matrix-element squared for the emission of soft energy-ordered gluons beyond two loops in QCD perturbation theory at finite Nc. Our formalism is valid in the eikonal approximation. A Mathematica program has been developed for the automated calculation of all real/virtual eikonal squared amplitudes needed at a given loop order. For the purpose of illustration, we show the explicit forms of the eikonal squared amplitudes up to the fifth-loop order. In the large-Nc limit, our results coincide with those previously reported in literature.

  12. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    For the modern railways, maintenance is critical for ensuring safety, train punctuality and overall capacity utilization. The cost of railway maintenance in Europe is high, on average between 30,000 – 100,000 Euro per km per year [1]. Aiming to reduce such maintenance expenditure, this paper...... presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time...... recovery on the track quality after tamping operation and (5) Tamping machine operation factors. A Danish railway track between Odense and Fredericia with 57.2 km of length is applied for a time period of two to four years in the proposed maintenance model. The total cost can be reduced with up to 50...

  13. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  14. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  15. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....

  16. Two-Loop Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, Yvonne; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The scattering equations give striking formulae for massless scattering amplitudes at tree level and, as shown recently, at one loop. The progress at loop level was based on ambitwistor string theory, which naturally yields the scattering equations. We proposed that, for ambitwistor strings, the standard loop expansion in terms of the genus of the worldsheet is equivalent to an expansion in terms of nodes of a Riemann sphere, with the nodes carrying the loop momenta. In this paper, we show how to obtain two-loop scattering equations with the correct factorization properties. We adapt genus-two integrands from the ambitwistor string to the nodal Riemann sphere and show that these yield correct answers, by matching standard results for the four-point two-loop amplitudes of maximal supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory. In the Yang-Mills case, this requires the loop analogue of the Parke-Taylor factor carrying the colour dependence, which includes non-planar contributions.

  17. Two-loop scattering amplitudes from the Riemann sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    The scattering equations give striking formulas for massless scattering amplitudes at tree level and, as shown recently, at one loop. The progress at loop level was based on ambitwistor-string theory, which naturally yields the scattering equations. We proposed that, for ambitwistor strings, the standard loop expansion in terms of the genus of the world sheet is equivalent to an expansion in terms of nodes of a Riemann sphere, with the nodes carrying the loop momenta. In this paper, we show how to obtain two-loop scattering equations with the correct factorization properties. We adapt genus-two integrands from the ambitwistor string to the nodal Riemann sphere and show that these yield correct answers, by matching standard results for the four-point two-loop amplitudes of maximal supergravity and super-Yang-Mills theory. In the Yang-Mills case, this requires the loop analogue of the Parke-Taylor factor carrying the color dependence, which includes nonplanar contributions.

  18. The two-loop electroweak bosonic corrections to sin2 ⁡ θeffb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen; Freitas, Ayres; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord; Usovitsch, Johann

    2016-11-01

    The prediction of the effective electroweak mixing angle sin2 ⁡θeffb in the Standard Model at two-loop accuracy has now been completed by the first calculation of the bosonic two-loop corrections to the Z b bar b vertex. Numerical predictions are presented in the form of a fitting formula as function of MZ ,MW ,MH ,mt and Δα, αs. For central input values, we obtain a relative correction of Δκb (α2 , bos) = - 0.9855 ×10-4, amounting to about a quarter of the fermionic corrections, and corresponding to sin2 ⁡ θeffb = 0.232704. The integration of the corresponding two-loop vertex Feynman integrals with up to three dimensionless parameters in Minkowskian kinematics has been performed with two approaches: (i) Sector decomposition, implemented in the packages FIESTA 3 and SecDec 3, and (ii) Mellin-Barnes representations, implemented in AMBRE 3/MB and the new package MBnumerics.

  19. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in helical kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop renormalization group result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R; Zalom, P

    2013-04-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique, the influence of helicity (spatial parity violation) on the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the presence of helicity decreases the value of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and, at the same time, the two-loop helical contribution to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is at most 4.2% (in the case with the maximal helicity) of its nonhelical value. These results demonstrate, on one hand, the potential importance of the presence of asymmetries in processes in turbulent environments and, on the other hand, the rather strong stability of the properties of diffusion processes of the magnetic field in the conductive turbulent environment with the spatial parity violation in comparison to the corresponding systems without the spatial parity violation. In addition, obtained results are compared to the corresponding results found for the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number in the model of passively advected scalar field. It is shown that the turbulent Prandtl number and the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number, which are the same in fully symmetric isotropic turbulent systems, are essentially different when one considers the spatial parity violation. It means that the properties of the diffusion processes in the turbulent systems with a given symmetry breaking can considerably depend on the internal tensor structure of advected quantities.

  20. PyR@TE 2: A Python tool for computing RGEs at two-loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization group equations are an essential tool for the description of theories accross different energy scales. Even though their expressions at two-loop for an arbitrary gauge field theory have been known for more than thirty years, deriving the full set of equations for a given model by hand is very challenging and prone to errors. To tackle this issue, we have introduced in [1] a Python tool called PyR@TE; Python Renormalization group equations @ Two-loop for Everyone. With PyR@TE, it is easy to implement a given Lagrangian and derive the complete set of two-loop RGEs for all the parameters of the theory. In this paper, we present the new version of this code, PyR@TE 2, which brings many new features and in particular it incorporates kinetic mixing when several $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ gauge groups are involved. In addition, the group theory part has been greatly improved as we introduced a new Python module dubbed PyLie that deals with all the group theoretical aspects required for the calculation of the RG...

  1. Gravitational Two-Loop Counterterm Is Asymptotically Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Knorr, Benjamin; Lippoldt, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario provides an elegant mechanism to construct a quantum theory of gravity within the framework of quantum field theory based on a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In this work we report novel evidence for the validity of this scenario, using functional renormalization group techniques to determine the renormalization group flow of the Einstein-Hilbert action supplemented by the two-loop counterterm found by Goroff and Sagnotti. The resulting system of beta functions comprises three scale-dependent coupling constants and exhibits a non-Gaussian fixed point which constitutes the natural extension of the one found at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action. The fixed point exhibits two ultraviolet attractive and one repulsive direction supporting a low-dimensional UV-critical hypersurface. Our result vanquishes the long-standing criticism that asymptotic safety will not survive once a "proper perturbative counterterm" is included in the projection space.

  2. The Gravitational Two-Loop Counterterm is Asymptotically Safe

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Lippoldt, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario provides an elegant mechanism to construct a quantum theory of gravity within the framework of quantum field theory based on a non-Gau{\\ss}ian fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In this work we report novel evidence for the validity of this scenario, using functional renormalization group techniques to determine the renormalization group flow of the Einstein-Hilbert action supplemented by the two-loop counterterm found by Goroff and Sagnotti. The resulting system of beta functions comprises three scale-dependent coupling constants and exhibits a non-Gau{\\ss}ian fixed point which constitutes the natural extension of the one found at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action. The fixed point exhibits two ultraviolet attractive and one repulsive direction supporting a low-dimensional UV-critical hypersurface. Our result vanquishes the longstanding criticism that asymptotic safety will not survive once a "proper perturbative counterterm" is included in the projecti...

  3. Overcoming Obstacles to Colour-Kinematics Duality at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Mogull, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of colour-kinematics duality has allowed great progress in our understanding of the UV structure of gravity. However, it has proven difficult to find numerators which satisfy colour-kinematics duality in certain cases. We discuss obstacles to building a set of such numerators in the context of the five-gluon amplitude with all helicities positive at two loops. We are able to overcome the obstacles by adding more loop momentum to our numerator to accommodate tension between the values of certain cuts and the symmetries of certain diagrams. At the same time, we maintain control over the size of our ansatz by identifying a highly constraining but desirable symmetry property of our master numerator. The resulting numerators have twelve powers of loop momenta rather than the seven one would expect from the Feynman rules.

  4. Rapidity renormalized TMD soft and beam functions at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebbert, Thomas [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Oredsson, Joel [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics; Stahlhofen, Maximilian [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence

    2016-03-15

    We compute the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft function for the production of a color-neutral final state at the LHC within the rapidity renormalization group (RRG) framework to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use this result to extract the universal renormalized TMD beam functions (aka TMDPDFs) in the same scheme and at the same order from known results in another scheme. We derive recurrence relations for the logarithmic structure of the soft and beam functions, which we use to cross check our calculation. We also explicitly confirm the non-Abelian exponentiation of the TMD soft function in the RRG framework at two loops. Our results provide the ingredients for resummed predictions of p {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -differential cross sections at NNLL' in the RRG formalism. The RRG provides a systematic framework to resum large (rapidity) logarithms through (R)RG evolution and assess the associated perturbative uncertainties.

  5. Resource Tracking Model Updates and Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Resource Tracking Model has been updated to capture system manager and project manager inputs. Both the Trick/General Use Nodal Network Solver Resource Tracking Model (RTM) simulator and the RTM mass balance spreadsheet have been revised to address inputs from system managers and to refine the way mass balance is illustrated. The revisions to the RTM included the addition of a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) to recover hydrogen from Sabatier Reactor methane, which was vented in the prior version of the RTM. The effect of the PPA on the overall balance of resources in an exploration vehicle is illustrated in the increased recycle of vehicle oxygen. Case studies have been run to show the relative effect of performance changes on vehicle resources.

  6. A Provenance Tracking Model for Data Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ciobanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For data-centric systems, provenance tracking is particularly important when the system is open and decentralised, such as the Web of Linked Data. In this paper, a concise but expressive calculus which models data updates is presented. The calculus is used to provide an operational semantics for a system where data and updates interact concurrently. The operational semantics of the calculus also tracks the provenance of data with respect to updates. This provides a new formal semantics extending provenance diagrams which takes into account the execution of processes in a concurrent setting. Moreover, a sound and complete model for the calculus based on ideals of series-parallel DAGs is provided. The notion of provenance introduced can be used as a subjective indicator of the quality of data in concurrent interacting systems.

  7. Two-loop virtual top-quark effect on Higgs-boson decay to bottom quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenschön, Mathias; Fugel, Frank; Kniehl, Bernd A

    2007-02-16

    In most of the mass range encompassed by the limits from the direct search and the electroweak precision tests, the Higgs boson of the standard model preferably decays to bottom quarks. We present, in analytic form, the dominant two-loop electroweak correction, of O(GF2mt4), to the partial width of this decay. It amplifies the familiar enhancement due to the O(GFmt2) one-loop correction by about +16% and thus more than compensates the screening by about -8% through strong-interaction effects of order O(alphasGFmt2).

  8. On the two-loop corrections to the Higgs mass in trilinear R-parity violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbi K. Dreiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of large trilinear R-parity violating couplings on the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass in supersymmetric models. We use the publicly available computer codes SARAH and SPheno to compute the leading two-loop corrections. We use the effective potential approach. For not too heavy third generation squarks (m˜≲1 TeV and couplings close to the unitarity bound we find positive corrections up to a few GeV in the Higgs mass.

  9. The two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 resonance → q anti qg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Taushif; Rana, Narayan [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); Training School Complex, Homi Bhaba National Institute, Mumbai (India); Das, Goutam; Mathews, Prakash [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Theory Division, Kolkata (India); Training School Complex, Homi Bhaba National Institute, Mumbai (India); Ravindran, V. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India)

    2016-12-15

    The two-loop QCD correction to massive spin-2 graviton decaying to q + anti q + g is presented considering a generic universal spin-2 coupling to the SM through the conserved energy-momentum tensor. Such a massive spin-2 particle can arise in extra-dimensional models. The ultraviolet and infrared structure of the QCD amplitudes are studied. In dimensional regularization, the infrared pole structure is in agreement with Catani's proposal, confirming the universal factorization property of QCD amplitudes, even with the spin-2 tensorial coupling. (orig.)

  10. Two-loop level rainbow-like supersymmetric contribution to the fermion EDM

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop level electric and chromo-electric dipole moments of the fermion involving fermion-sfermion inner loop, gaugino, and higgsino in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and analyze the chromo-electric dipole moment with the top-stop inner loop. It is found that this contribution is comparable with, and even dominates in some situation over the Barr-Zee type diagram generated from the CP-violation of the top squark sector in TeV scale supersymmetry breaking.

  11. An Active Model for Facial Feature Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörgen Ahlberg

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for finding and tracking a face and extract global and local animation parameters from a video sequence. The system uses an initial colour processing step for finding a rough estimate of the position, size, and inplane rotation of the face, followed by a refinement step drived by an active model. The latter step refines the pre­vious estimate, and also extracts local animation parame­ters. The system is able to track the face and some facial features in near real-time, and can compress the result to a bitstream compliant to MPEG-4 face and body animation.

  12. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  13. ATLAS TrackingEvent Data Model -- 12.0.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ATLAS; Akesson, F.; Atkinson, T.; Costa, M.J.; Elsing, M.; Fleischmann, S.; Gaponenko, A.; Liebig, W.; Moyse, E.; Salzburger, A.; Siebel, M.

    2006-07-23

    In this report the event data model (EDM) relevant for tracking in the ATLAS experiment is presented. The core component of the tracking EDM is a common track object which is suited to describe tracks in the innermost tracking sub-detectors and in the muon detectors in offline as well as online reconstruction. The design of the EDM was driven by a demand for modularity and extensibility while taking into account the different requirements of the clients. The structure of the track object and the representation of the tracking-relevant information are described in detail.

  14. The two-loop sunrise integral and elliptic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Luise; Weinzierl, Stefan [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Bogner, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk, we present a solution for the two-loop sunrise integral with arbitrary masses around two and four space-time dimensions in terms of a generalised elliptic version of the multiple polylogarithms. Furthermore we investigate the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in higher orders in the dimensional regularisation ε of the two-dimensional equal mass solution. Around two space-time dimensions the solution consists of a sum of three elliptic dilogarithms where the arguments have a nice geometric interpretation as intersection points of the integration region and an elliptic curve associated to the sunrise integral. Around four space-time dimensions the sunrise integral can be expressed with the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solution around two dimensions, mass derivatives thereof and simpler terms. Considering higher orders of the two-dimensional equal mass solution we find certain generalisations of the elliptic polylogarithms appearing in the ε{sup 0}- and ε{sup 1}-solutions around two and four space-time dimensions. We show that these higher order-solutions can be found by iterative integration within this class of functions.

  15. Hard matching for boosted tops at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Andre H. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Faculty of Physics; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Erwin Schroeder International Institute for Mathematical Physics; Pathak, Aditya; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Pietrulewicz, Piotr [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-08-15

    Cross sections for top quarks provide very interesting physics opportunities, being both sensitive to new physics and also perturbatively tractable due to the large top quark mass. Rigorous factorization theorems for top cross sections can be derived in several kinematic scenarios, including the boosted regime in the peak region that we consider here. In the context of the corresponding factorization theorem for e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions we extract the last missing ingredient that is needed to evaluate the cross section differential in the jet-mass at two-loop order, namely the matching coefficient at the scale μ ≅ m{sub t}. Our extraction also yields the final ingredients needed to carry out logarithmic resummation at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order (or N3LL if we ignore the missing 4-loop cusp anomalous dimension). This coefficient exhibits an amplitude level rapidity logarithm starting at O(α{sup 2}{sub s}) due to virtual top quark loops, which we treat using rapidity renormalization group (RG) evolution. Interestingly, this rapidity RG evolution appears in the matching coefficient between two effective theories around the heavy quark mass scale μ≅m{sub t}.

  16. Coherent neutrino radiation in supernovae at two loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakian, A.; Dieperink, A. E. L.

    2000-10-01

    We develop a neutrino transport theory, in terms of the real-time nonequilibrium Green's functions, which is applicable to physical conditions arbitrary far from thermal equilibrium. We compute the coherent neutrino radiation in cores of supernovae by evaluating the two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) polarization function with dressed propagators. The propagator dressing is carried out in the particle-particle channel to all orders in the interaction. We show that at two loops there are two distinct sources of coherence effects in the bremsstrahlung. One is the generically off-shell intermediate state propagation, which leads to the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal type suppression of radiation. We extend previous perturbative results, obtained in the leading order in quasiparticle width, by deriving the exact nonperturbative expression. A new contribution due to off-shell final or initial baryon states is treated in the leading order in the quasiparticle width. The latter contribution corresponds to processes of higher order than second order in the virial expansion in the number of quasiparticles. At the 2p-2h level, the time component of the polarization tensor for the vector transitions vanishes identically in the soft neutrino approximation. Vector current thereby is conserved. The contraction of the neutral axial vector current with the tensor interaction among the baryons leads to a nonvanishing contribution to the bremsstrahlung rate. These rates are evaluated numerically for finite temperature pure neutron matter at and above the nuclear saturation density.

  17. Stochastic analysis model for vehicle-track coupled systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-10-01

    This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.

  18. Neural mass model-based tracking of anesthetic brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Levin; Freestone, Dean R.; Manton, Jonathan H.; Heyse, Bjorn; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Lipping, Tarmo; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Liley, David T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural mass model-based tracking of brain states from electroencephalographic signals holds the promise of simultaneously tracking brain states while inferring underlying physiological changes in various neuroscientific and clinical applications. Here, neural mass model-based tracking of brain state

  19. Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman

    2014-01-01

    Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of Majorana neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower---and therefore dominant---loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as "snail-diagram". The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility o...

  20. Two-loop snail diagrams: relating neutrino masses to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Yasaman [Physics school, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-06

    Various mechanisms have been developed to explain the origin of neutrino masses. One of them is radiative mass generation. Two-loop mass generation is of particular interest because the masses and couplings of new particles propagating in the loop can be in the range testable by other experiments and observations. In order for the radiative mass suppression to be reliable, it should be guaranteed that lower loop contributions are suppressed. Based on loop topology and the form of electroweak presentation of the particles propagating in the loop, one can determine whether a lower — and therefore dominant — loop contribution is possible. We present a model based on these general considerations which leads to neutrino masses via a two-loop diagram which we dub as “snail-diagram”. The model has two natural candidates for dark matter one of them being a neutral Dirac fermion which can satisfy the conditions of the thermal freeze-out scenario by annihilation to lepton pairs. We comment on the possibility of explaining the GeV gamma ray excess observed by Fermi-LAT from the region close to the Galaxy Center. We also discuss possible signals at the LHC and at experiments searching for lepton flavor violating rare decays.

  1. Field weighting model for tracking-integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake; Hammer, Kimberly; Geary, Andrew; Stalcup, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics enables a potentially low cost concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) implementation, where single-axis module tracking is complemented by an additional degree of freedom within the module [1,2,3,4,5]. Gross module tracking can take on multiple configurations, the most common being rotation about a polar or horizontal North-South oriented axis. Polar-axis tracking achieves >95% sunlight collection compared to dual-axis tracking[6], leaving the tracking-integrated optics to compensate for +/-23.5° seasonal variations. The collection efficiency of N-S horizontal axis tracking is latitude-dependent, with ˜90% collection relative to dual-axis tracking at 32.2° latitude. Horizontal tracking at higher latitudes shifts an increasing burden to the tracking-integrated optics, which must operate between two incidence angle extremes: summer solstice sunrise/sunset to winter solstice noon. An important aspect of tracking-integrated lens design is choosing a suitable field weighting to appropriately account for annual DNI received at each angle of incidence. We present a field weighting model, generalized for polar or horizontal module tracking at any latitude, which shows excellent agreement with measured insolation data. This model is particularly helpful for the design of tracking-integrated optics for horizontally-tracked modules, where the correct field weighting is asymmetric and significantly biased away from the normal incidence.

  2. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  3. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  4. Deformation Models Tracking, Animation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Arnau; Gómez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The computational modelling of deformations has been actively studied for the last thirty years. This is mainly due to its large range of applications that include computer animation, medical imaging, shape estimation, face deformation as well as other parts of the human body, and object tracking. In addition, these advances have been supported by the evolution of computer processing capabilities, enabling realism in a more sophisticated way. This book encompasses relevant works of expert researchers in the field of deformation models and their applications.  The book is divided into two main parts. The first part presents recent object deformation techniques from the point of view of computer graphics and computer animation. The second part of this book presents six works that study deformations from a computer vision point of view with a common characteristic: deformations are applied in real world applications. The primary audience for this work are researchers from different multidisciplinary fields, s...

  5. Generative models for pedestrian track analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Various problems in tracking and track analysis are addressed, with a focus on applications in the surveillance and intelligent vehicle domains, such as pedestrian path prediction, learning spatial and temporal structure of behavior patterns in data, anomalous track detection, and data association w

  6. Generative models for pedestrian track analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Various problems in tracking and track analysis are addressed, with a focus on applications in the surveillance and intelligent vehicle domains, such as pedestrian path prediction, learning spatial and temporal structure of behavior patterns in data, anomalous track detection, and data association

  7. A comprehensive track model for the improvement of corrugation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J.; Vadillo, E. G.; Santamaría, J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents a detailed model of the railway track based on wave propagation, suitable for corrugation studies. The model analyses both the vertical and the transverse dynamics of the track. Using the finite strip method (FSM), only the cross-section of the rail must be meshed, and thus it is not necessary to discretise a whole span in 3D. This model takes into account the discrete nature of the support, introducing concepts pertaining to the theory of periodic structures in the formulation. Wave superposition is enriched taking into account the contribution of residual vectors. In this way, the model obtains accurate results when a finite section of railway track is considered. Results for the infinite track have been compared against those presented by Gry and Müller. Aside from the improvements provided by the model presented in this paper, which Gry's and Müller's models do not contemplate, the results arising from the comparison prove satisfactory. Finally, the calculated receptances are compared against the experimental values obtained by the authors, demonstrating a fair degree of adequacy. Finally, these receptances are used within a linear model of corrugation developed by the authors.

  8. Two-loop amplitudes and master integrals for the production of a Higgs boson via a massive quark and a scalar-quark loop

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, C; Bucherer, S; Daleo, A; Kunszt, Zoltán; Anastasiou, Charalampos; Beerli, Stefan; Bucherer, Stefan; Daleo, Alejandro; Kunszt, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We compute all two-loop master integrals which are required for the evaluation of next-to-leading order QCD corrections in Higgs boson production via gluon fusion. Many two-loop amplitudes for 2 -> 1 processes in the Standard Model and beyond can be expressed in terms of these integrals using automated reduction techniques. These integrals also form a subset of the master integrals for more complicated 2 -> 2 amplitudes with massive propagators in the loops. As a first application, we evaluate the two-loop amplitude for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion via a massive quark. Our result is the first independent check of the calculation of Spira, Djouadi, Graudenz and Zerwas. We also present for the first time the two-loop amplitude for gg -> h via a massive squark.

  9. The Higgs Mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D; Staub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which lead to very tight constraints from precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models to both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and how their consequent predictions for patterns in the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms do not violate these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with any other observation. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  10. The Higgs mass in the MSSM at two-loop order beyond minimal flavour violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Nickel, Kilian; Staub, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms provide a wealth of new potential sources of flavour violation, which are tightly constrained by precision experiments. This has posed a challenge to construct flavour models which both explain the structure of the Standard Model Yukawa couplings and also predict soft-breaking patterns that are compatible with these constraints. While such models have been studied in great detail, the impact of flavour violating soft terms on the Higgs mass at the two-loop level has been assumed to be small or negligible. In this letter, we show that large flavour violation in the up-squark sector can give a positive or negative mass shift to the SM-like Higgs of several GeV, without being in conflict with other observations. We investigate in which regions of the parameter space these effects can be expected.

  11. Modelling Of Random Vertical Irregularities Of Railway Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podwórna M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study presents state-of-the-art in analytical and numerical modelling of random vertical irregularities of continuously welded ballasted railway tracks. The common model of railway track irregularity vertical profiles is applied, in the form of a stationary and ergodic Gaussian process in space. Random samples of track irregularity vertical profiles are generated with the Monte-Carlo method. Based on the numerical method developed in the study, the minimum and recommended sampling number required in the random analysis of railway bridges and number of frequency increments (harmonic components in track irregularity vertical profiles simulation are determined. The lower and upper limits of wavelengths are determined based on the literature studies. The approach yields track irregularity random samples close to reality. The track irregularity model developed in the study can be used in the dynamic analysis of railway bridge / track structure / highspeed train systems.

  12. A Brownian Bridge Movement Model to Track Mobile Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    BRIDGE MOVEMENT MODEL TO TRACK MOBILE TARGETS by Chun Chieh Cheng September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Dashi I. Singham Second Reader: Michael P...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A BROWNIAN BRIDGE MOVEMENT MODEL TO TRACK MOBILE TARGETS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. A BROWNIAN BRIDGE MOVEMENT MODEL TO TRACK MOBILE TARGETS Chun Chieh Cheng Major

  13. Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    System ( CMS ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Missions/WaterResources/CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The...System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a

  14. Complex-mass renormalization in hadronic EFT: applicability at two-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Djukanovic, D; Gegelia, J; Krebs, H; Meißner, U -G

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the application of the complex-mass scheme to multi-loop diagrams in hadronic effective field theory by considering as an example a two-loop self-energy diagram. We show that the renormalized two-loop diagram satisfies the power counting.

  15. Complex-mass renormalization in hadronic EFT: Applicability at two-loop order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, D. [University of Mainz, Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Epelbaum, E.; Krebs, H. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany); Gegelia, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We discuss the application of the complex-mass scheme to multi-loop diagrams in hadronic effective field theory by considering as an example a two-loop self-energy diagram. We show that the renormalized two-loop diagram satisfies the power counting. (orig.)

  16. $K_{l4}$ at two-loops and CHPT predictions for $\\pi\\pi$-scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Amorós, G; Talavera, P; Amoros, Gabriel; Bijnens, Johan; Talavera, Pere

    2000-01-01

    We present the results from our two-loop calculations of masses, decay-constants, vacuum-expectation-values and the $K_{\\ell4}$ form-factors in three-flavour Chiral Perturbation Theory (CHPT). We use this to fit the $L_i^r$ to two-loops and discuss the ensuing predictions for $\\pi\\pi$-threshold parameters.

  17. Prediction of Typhoon Tracks Using Dynamic Linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keon-Tae SOHN; H. Joe KWON; Ae-Sook SUH

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the statistical forecasts of typhoon tracks. Numerical models havetheir own systematic errors, like a bias. In order to improve the accuracy of track forecasting, a statisticalmodel called DLM (dynamic linear model) is applied to remove the systematic error. In the analysis oftyphoons occurring over the western North Pacific in 1997 and 2000, DLM is useful as an adaptive modelfor the prediction of typhoon tracks.

  18. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghui Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

  19. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.

  20. Effective field theory of large scale structure at two loops: The apparent scale dependence of the speed of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mercolli, Lorenzo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-12-01

    We study the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduces an apparent scale dependence for the leading-order parameter cs2 of the EFT starting at k =0.1 h Mpc-1 . These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1% level to k z =0 . We construct a well-motivated one-parameter ansatz to fix the relative size of the one- and two-loop counterterms using their high-k sensitivity. Although this one-parameter model is a very restrictive choice for the counterterms, it explains the apparent scale dependence of cs2 seen in simulations. It is also able to capture the scale dependence of the density power spectrum up to k ≈0.3 h Mpc-1 at the 1% level at redshift z =0 . Considering a simple scheme for the resummation of large-scale motions, we find that the two-loop calculation reduces the need for this IR resummation at k <0.2 h Mpc-1 . Finally, we extend our calculation to momentum statistics and show that the same one-parameter model can also describe density-momentum and momentum-momentum statistics.

  1. Two-loop Prediction for Scaling Exponents in $(2 + \\epsilon)$-dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aida, T; Aida, Toshiaki; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    We perform the two loop level renormalization of quantum gravity in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We work in the background gauge whose manifest covariance enables us to use the short distance expansion of the Green's functions. We explicitly show that the theory is renormalizable to the two loop level in our formalism. We further make a physical prediction for the scaling relation between the gravitational coupling constant and the cosmological constant which is expected to hold at the short distance fixed point of the renormalization group. It is found that the two loop level calculation is necessary to determine the scaling exponent to the leading order in $\\epsilon$.

  2. Two loop computation of a running coupling in lattice Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R A; Narayanan, Rajamani; Wolff, Ulli

    1995-01-01

    We compute the two loop coefficient in the relation between the lattice bare coupling and the running coupling defined through the Schroedinger functional for the case of pure SU(2) gauge theory. This result is needed as one computational component to relate the latter to the MSbar-coupling, and it allows us to implement O(a) improvement of the Schroedinger functional to two-loop order. In addition, the two-loop beta-function is verified in a perturbative computation on the lattice, and the behavior of an improved bare coupling is investigated beyond one loop.

  3. Two-loop anomalous dimensions of heavy baryon currents in heavy quark effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Groote, S; Yakovlev, O I

    1996-01-01

    We present results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of the heavy baryon HQET currents J=(q^TC\\Gamma\\tau q)\\Gamma'Q with arbitrary Dirac matrices \\Gamma and \\Gamma'. From our general result we obtain the two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents with quantum numbers of the ground state heavy baryons \\Lambda_Q, \\Sigma_Q and \\Sigma_Q^*. As a by-product of our calculation and as an additional check we rederive the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of mesonic scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and tensor currents (J=\\bar q\\Gamma q) in massless QCD as well as in HQET.

  4. Learning a Tracking and Estimation Integrated Graphical Model for Human Pose Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the tracking of 2-D human poses in a video stream to determine the spatial configuration of body parts in each frame, but this is not a trivial task because people may wear different kinds of clothing and may move very quickly and unpredictably. The technology of pose estimation is typically applied, but it ignores the temporal context and cannot provide smooth, reliable tracking results. Therefore, we develop a tracking and estimation integrated model (TEIM) to fully exploit temporal information by integrating pose estimation with visual tracking. However, joint parsing of multiple articulated parts over time is difficult, because a full model with edges capturing all pairwise relationships within and between frames is loopy and intractable. In previous models, approximate inference was usually resorted to, but it cannot promise good results and the computational cost is large. We overcome these problems by exploring the idea of divide and conquer, which decomposes the full model into two much simpler tractable submodels. In addition, a novel two-step iteration strategy is proposed to efficiently conquer the joint parsing problem. Algorithmically, we design TEIM very carefully so that: 1) it enables pose estimation and visual tracking to compensate for each other to achieve desirable tracking results; 2) it is able to deal with the problem of tracking loss; and 3) it only needs past information and is capable of tracking online. Experiments are conducted on two public data sets in the wild with ground truth layout annotations, and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed TEIM framework.

  5. Space Object Tracking Method Based on a Snake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan-wei, Xu; Xin, Wang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, aiming at the problem of unstable tracking of low-orbit variable and bright space objects, adopting an active contour model, a kind of improved GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) - Snake algorithm is proposed to realize the real-time search of the real object contour on the CCD image. Combined with the Kalman filter for prediction, a new adaptive tracking method is proposed for space objects. Experiments show that this method can overcome the tracking error caused by the fixed window, and improve the tracking robustness.

  6. Reduced parameter model on trajectory tracking data with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 朱炬波

    1999-01-01

    The data fusion in tracking the same trajectory by multi-measurernent unit (MMU) is considered. Firstly, the reduced parameter model (RPM) of trajectory parameter (TP), system error and random error are presented,and then the RPM on trajectory tracking data (TTD) is obtained, a weighted method on measuring elements (ME) is studied and criteria on selection of ME based on residual and accuracy estimation are put forward. According to RPM,the problem about selection of ME and self-calibration of TTD is thoroughly investigated. The method improves data accuracy in trajectory tracking obviously and gives accuracy evaluation of trajectory tracking system simultaneously.

  7. The two-loop electroweak bosonic corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b}$

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord; Usovitsch, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of the effective electroweak mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b}$ in the Standard Model at two-loop accuracy has now been completed by the first calculation of the bosonic two-loop corrections to the $Z{\\bar b}b$ vertex. Numerical predictions are presented in the form of a fitting formula as function of $M_Z, M_W, M_H, m_t$ and $\\Delta{\\alpha}$, ${\\alpha_{\\rm s}}$. For central input values, we obtain a relative correction of $\\Delta\\kappa_{\\rm b}^{(\\alpha^2,\\rm bos)} = -0.9855 \\times 10^{-4}$, amounting to about a quarter of the fermionic corrections, and corresponding to $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm b} = 0.232704$. The integration of the corresponding two-loop vertex Feynman integrals with up to three dimensionless parameters in Minkowskian kinematics has been performed with two approaches: (i) Sector decomposition, implemented in the packages FIESTA 3 and SecDec 3, and (ii) Mellin-Barnes representations, implemented in AMBRE 3/MB and the new package MBnumerics.

  8. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure at Two Loops: the apparent scale dependence of the speed of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduce an apparent scale dependence for the leading order parameter $c_\\text{s}^2$ of the EFT starting at k=0.1 h/Mpc. These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1 % level to k<0.1 h/Mpc at redshift z=0. We construct a well motivated one parameter ansatz to fix the relative size of the one- and two-loop counterterms using their high-k sensitivity. Although this one parameter model is a very restrictive choice for the counterterms, it explains the apparent scale dependence of $c_\\text{s}^2$ seen in simulations. It is also able to capture the scale dependence of the density power spectrum up to k$\\approx$ 0.3 h/Mpc at the 1 % level at redshift $z=0$. Considering a simple scheme for the resummation of large scale motions, we find that the two loop calculation reduces the need for this ...

  9. Tracking cellular telephones as an input for developing transport models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of tracking cellular telephones and using the data to populate transport and other models. We report here on one of the pilots, known as DYNATRACK (Dynamic Daily Path Tracking), a larger experiment conducted in 2007 with a more heterogeneous group of commuters...

  10. Hypersonic Vehicle Tracking Based on Improved Current Statistical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Guangjun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method of tracking the near space hypersonic vehicle is put forward. According to hypersonic vehicles’ characteristics, we improved current statistical model through online identification of the maneuvering frequency. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to analyze the performance of the method. The results show that the improved method exhibits very good tracking performance in comparison with the old method.

  11. Self-paced model learning for robust visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhui; Gu, Jason; Ma, Xin; Li, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    In visual tracking, learning a robust and efficient appearance model is a challenging task. Model learning determines both the strategy and the frequency of model updating, which contains many details that could affect the tracking results. Self-paced learning (SPL) has recently been attracting considerable interest in the fields of machine learning and computer vision. SPL is inspired by the learning principle underlying the cognitive process of humans, whose learning process is generally from easier samples to more complex aspects of a task. We propose a tracking method that integrates the learning paradigm of SPL into visual tracking, so reliable samples can be automatically selected for model learning. In contrast to many existing model learning strategies in visual tracking, we discover the missing link between sample selection and model learning, which are combined into a single objective function in our approach. Sample weights and model parameters can be learned by minimizing this single objective function. Additionally, to solve the real-valued learning weight of samples, an error-tolerant self-paced function that considers the characteristics of visual tracking is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our tracker on a recent tracking benchmark data set with 50 video sequences.

  12. Portfolio optimization for index tracking modelling in Malaysia stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun

    2016-06-01

    Index tracking is an investment strategy in portfolio management which aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate similar mean return with the stock market index mean return without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using the optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the benchmark stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of weekly price of stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2013. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio is able to track FBMKLCI Index at minimum tracking error of 1.0027% with 0.0290% excess mean return over the mean return of FBMKLCI Index. The significance of this study is to construct the optimal portfolio using optimization model which adopts regression approach in tracking the stock market index without purchasing all index components.

  13. Modeling of miner track system during steering motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 韩庆珏

    2015-01-01

    Equipment for deep sea mining has risen from a position of virtual non-existence to a major industrial significance and in deep sea bed mining, the miner is the key equipment of the whole system that charges with the most complex and dangerous task. Evaluation of trafficability for tracked vehicles for deep sea mining is essential. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in a wide range of modern applications. These applications are highly specific and substitutes are inferior or unknown. One possible source of the REE could be the poly-metallic nodule, at present explored in the tropical part of the Pacific Ocean. In developing miners of high performance, dynamic behaviour should be investigated under various traveling conditions. The mechanics of tracked vehicles is of continuing interest to organizations and agencies that specify design and operate tracked vehicles. Most works done are on the complete track vehicle system but in this work the research activity is aimed only at the track system with the basic aim of optimizing the track system design so that it can be manufactured by using the minimum resources. Equations and models are developed for the track system of a miner during steering motion. These equations and models could further be used for design optimization of the track system.

  14. Pavlovian sign-tracking model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Sharma, Nikyta

    2013-09-01

    While poorly controlled alcohol drinking is a prominent symptom of alcohol abuse, its environmental determinants remain poorly understood. The Sign-Tracking Model (STM), developed by Tomie and his associates, postulates that poorly controlled alcohol drinking is due to the development of signal-directed behaviors induced by Pavlovian sign-tracking procedures. In laboratory studies of animal learning, presentation of the lever (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the presentation of the food (unconditioned stimulus, US) induces sign-tracking conditioned response (CR) performance, wherein rats approach and contact, then express consummatory-like responses (i.e., licking, gnawing, and chewing) directed at the lever CS. The Pavlovian sign-tracking CR is an involuntary acquired reflexive response. It is poorly controlled and elicited by the presentation of the CS. STM proposes that poorly controlled alcohol drinking in humans may be due to repeated pairings of the alcohol sipper (e.g., cocktail glass) CS with alcohol's rewarding effects US, resulting in sign-tracking CR performance. The cocktail glass CS will elicit Pavlovian sign-tracking CR performance of reflexive and involuntary alcohol intake. This paper reviews evidence in the Pavlovian conditioning literature that in animals the positive contingency between the alcohol sipper CS and alcohol US induces sign-tracking of alcohol drinking. Also reviewed is evidence that in human beings alcohol drinking is a direct function of the positive contingency between a particular alcohol glassware CS and alcohol US. Implications of these findings for the Sign-Tracking Model (STM) are discussed.

  15. Naturalness made easy: two-loop naturalness bounds on minimal SM extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is a collection of conservative naturalness bounds on minimal extensions of the standard model by (vector-like) fermionic or scalar gauge multiplets. Within, we advocate for an intuitive and physical concept of naturalness built upon the renormalisation group equations. In the effective field theory of the standard model plus a gauge multiplet with mass $M$, the low scale Higgs mass parameter is a calculable function of $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ input parameters defined at some high scale $\\Lambda_h > M$. If the Higgs mass is very sensitive to these input parameters, then this signifies a naturalness problem. To sensibly capture the sensitivity, it is shown how a sensitivity measure can be rigorously derived as a Bayesian model comparison, which reduces in a relevant limit to a Barbieri--Giudice-like fine-tuning measure. This measure is fully generalisable to any perturbative EFT. The interesting results of our two-loop renormalisation group study are as follows: for $\\Lambda_h=\\Lambda...

  16. Naturalness made easy: two-loop naturalness bounds on minimal SM extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jackson D.; Cox, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The main result of this paper is a collection of conservative naturalness bounds on minimal extensions of the Standard Model by (vector-like) fermionic or scalar gauge multiplets. Within, we advocate for an intuitive and physical concept of naturalness built upon the renormalisation group equations. In the effective field theory of the Standard Model plus a gauge multiplet with mass M , the low scale Higgs mass parameter is a calculable function of overline{MS} input parameters defined at some high scale Λ h > M . If the Higgs mass is very sensitive to these input parameters, then this signifies a naturalness problem. To sensibly capture the sensitivity, it is shown how a sensitivity measure can be rigorously derived as a Bayesian model comparison, which reduces in a relevant limit to a Barbieri-Giudice-like fine-tuning measure. This measure is fully generalisable to any perturbative EFT. The interesting results of our two-loop renormalisation group study are as follows: for Λ h = ΛPl we find "10% fine-tuning" bounds on the masses of various gauge multiplets of M

  17. Neural-network-based two-loop control of robotic manipulators including actuator dynamics in task space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangyong WANG; Tianyou CHAI; Zheng FANG

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network-based motion controller in task space is presented in this paper. The proposed controller is addressed as a two-loop cascade control scheme. The outer loop is given by kinematic control in the task space. It provides a joint velocity reference signal to the inner one. The inner loop implements a velocity servo loop at the robot joint level. A radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with proportional-integral (PI) control to construct a velocity tracking control scheme for the inner loop. Finally, a prototype technology based control system is designed for a robotic manipulator. The proposed control scheme is applied to the robotic manipulator. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control scheme by comparing it with other control strategies.

  18. Two-Loop QCD Correction to massive spin-2 resonance $\\rightarrow$ 3 gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2014-01-01

    We present the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ virtual QCD corrections to the process $h \\rightarrow g+g+g$ due to interference of born and two-loop amplitudes, where $h$ is a massive spin-2 particle and $g$ is the gluon. We assume that the SM fields couple to $h$ through the SM energy momentum tensor. Our result constitutes one of the ingredients to full NNLO QCD contribution to production of a massive spin-2 particle along with a jet in the scattering process at the LHC. In particular, this massive spin-2 could be a KK mode of a ADD graviton in large extra dimensional model or a RS KK mode in warped extra dimensional model or a generic massive spin-2. In addition, it provides an opportunity to study the ultraviolet and infrared structures of QCD amplitudes involving tensorial coupling resulting from energy momentum operator. Using dimensional regularization, we find that infrared poles of this amplitude are in agreement with the proposal by Catani confirming the factorization property of QCD amplitudes with tensoria...

  19. MODELING OF THE TRACK AND ROLLING STOCK INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Khalipova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Interaction of system’s elements of "carriage–track" modelling requires consideration of various criteria, it also requires analysis of many uncertainty and randomness factors’ influence on the basic parameters to ensure optimal or rational parameters of the system. The researching of interactions’ process requires new theoretical approaches to formulation of objectives, based on a generalization of existing modeling approaches. The purpose of this work is development of interaction models between track and rolling stock based on multiple structures of objects. Methodology. Dedicated and formed the main evaluation criteria of dynamic interaction between track and rolling stock optimization - quality assurance and safety of transportation process, improving of their efficiency and reducing of prime cost’s. Based on vector optimization methods, proposed model of rolling stock and track’s elements interaction. For the synthesis of the model used mathematical machine of multiple objects structures. Findings. Generalized approaches to modeling in the interaction of rolling stock and track for different structural elements of the system under different exploitation conditions. This theoretical approach demonstrated on the examples of modeling of passenger and freight cars with track under different exploitation conditions. Originality. Proposed theoretical approach to the problem of track and rolling stock interaction, based on a synthesis of existing models by using of multiple objects structures. Practical value. Using of proposed model allows to structure key data and rational parameters of rolling stock and track interaction’s modeling and to formulate optimal and rational parameters of the system, to determine the effective exploitation parameters and measurement system for rational use of infrastructure.

  20. Efficient and Robust Feature Model for Visual Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu; ZHUO Qing; WANG Wenyuan

    2009-01-01

    Long duration visual tracking of targets is quite challenging for computer vision, because the envi-ronments may be cluttered and distracting. Illumination variations and partial occlusions are two main diffi-culties in real world visual tracking. Existing methods based on hostile appearance information cannot solve these problems effectively. This paper proposes a feature-based dynamic tracking approach that can track objects with partial occlusions and varying illumination. The method represents the tracked object by an in-variant feature model. During the tracking, a new pyramid matching algorithm was used to match the object template with the observations to determine the observation likelihood. This matching is quite efficient in calculation and the spatial constraints among these features are also embedded. Instead of complicated op-timization methods, the whole model is incorporated into a Bayesian filtering framework. The experiments on real world sequences demonstrate that the method can track objects accurately and robustly even with illu-mination variations and partial occlusions.

  1. Systematics of High Temperature Perturbation Theory: The Two-Loop Electron Self-Energy in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Mottola, Emil; 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.025014

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the systematics of the loop expansion in high temperature gauge theories beyond the leading order hard thermal loop (HTL) approximation, we calculate the two-loop electron proper self-energy in high temperature QED. The two-loop bubble diagram contains a linear infrared divergence. Even if regulated with a non-zero photon mass M of order of the Debye mass, this infrared sensitivity implies that the two-loop self-energy contributes terms to the fermion dispersion relation that are comparable to or even larger than the next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions at one-loop. Additional evidence for the necessity of a systematic restructuring of the loop expansion comes from the explicit gauge parameter dependence of the fermion damping rate at both one and two-loops. The leading terms in the high temperature expansion of the two-loop self-energy for all topologies arise from an explicit hard-soft factorization pattern, in which one of the loop integrals is hard, nested inside a second loop...

  2. Avoiding the Goldstone Boson Catastrophe in general renormalisable field theories at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Braathen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We show how the infra-red divergences associated to Goldstone bosons in the minimum condition of the two-loop Landau-gauge effective potential can be avoided in general field theories. This extends the resummation formalism recently developed for the Standard Model and the MSSM, and we give compact, infra-red finite expressions in closed form for the tadpole equations. We also show that the results at this loop order are equivalent to (and are most easily obtained by) imposing an "on-shell" condition for the Goldstone bosons. Moreover, we extend the approach to show how the infra-red divergences in the calculation of the masses of neutral scalars (such as the Higgs boson) can be eliminated. For the mass computation, we specialise to the gaugeless limit and extend the effective potential computation to allow the masses to be determined without needing to solve differential equations for the loop functions -- opening the door to fast, infra-red safe determinations of the Higgs mass in general theories.

  3. Avoiding the Goldstone Boson Catastrophe in general renormalisable field theories at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braathen, Johannes; Goodsell, Mark D. [LPTHE, UPMC University Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); LPTHE, CNRS,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France)

    2016-12-14

    We show how the infra-red divergences associated to Goldstone bosons in the minimum condition of the two-loop Landau-gauge effective potential can be avoided in general field theories. This extends the resummation formalism recently developed for the Standard Model and the MSSM, and we give compact, infra-red finite expressions in closed form for the tadpole equations. We also show that the results at this loop order are equivalent to (and are most easily obtained by) imposing an “on-shell” condition for the Goldstone bosons. Moreover, we extend the approach to show how the infra-red divergences in the calculation of the masses of neutral scalars (such as the Higgs boson) can be eliminated. For the mass computation, we specialise to the gaugeless limit and extend the effective potential computation to allow the masses to be determined without needing to solve differential equations for the loop functions — opening the door to fast, infra-red safe determinations of the Higgs mass in general theories.

  4. Passive Target Tracking Based on Current Statistical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-long; XIE Jian-ying; YANG Yu-pu

    2005-01-01

    Bearing-only passive tracking is regarded as a nonlinear hard tracking problem. There are still no completely good solutions to this problem until now. Based on current statistical model, the novel solution to this problem utilizing particle filter (PF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed. The new solution adopts data fusion from two observers to increase the observability of passive tracking. It applies the residual resampling step to reduce the degeneracy of PF and it introduces the Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) to reduce the effect of the "sample impoverish". Based on current statistical model, the EKF, the UKF and particle filter with various proposal distributions are compared in the passive tracking experiments with two observers. The simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed new filtering methods with the novel techniques.

  5. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  6. FDR, an easier way to NNLO calculations: a two-loop case study

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, Alice Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we advertise the important simplifications produced by FDR in NNLO computations. We show that - due to its four-dimensionality - FDR does not require an order-by-order renormalization and that, unlike the one-loop case, FDR and dimensional regularization (DR) generate intermediate two-loop results which are no longer linked by a simple subtraction of the ultraviolet (UV) poles in epsilon. As an illustrative example, we re-derive the known two-loop result for H -> gamma gamma mediated by an infinitely heavy top loop in the presence of gluonic corrections. The calculation establishes FDR as a simpler and fully consistent approach to the UV problem at the two-loop level, that, in turn, is an essential ingredient toward purely numerical NNLO calculations.

  7. Two-loop renormalization of the effective field theory of a static quark

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1991-01-01

    We give a recurrence relation for two-loop integrals encountered in the effective field theory of an infinitely heavy quark, Q, interacting with gluons and Nl massless quarks, q, from which we obtain exact two-loop results, in any dimension and covariant gauge, for the propagator of Q and the vertex function of the heavy-light current J = Q Gamma q, at zero q momentum. The anomalous dimension of the Q field agrees with the recent result of Broadhurst, Gray and Schilcher. The anomalous dimension of the current is gamma_J = d log Z_J / d log mu = - alpha_s/pi (1 + (127 + 56 zeta(2) - 10 Nl)/72) alpha_s/pi + O(alpha_s^2)) which gives the new two-loop correction to the result of Voloshin and Shifman.

  8. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroupathis, A.; Panagopoulos, H.

    2007-11-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators ψ¯Γψ, where Γ denotes the scalar and pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, Zm. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, Zψ, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in cSW, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constants, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the one-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MS¯ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, are included in the Appendix.

  9. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2007-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI $^\\prime$ scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the Scalar and Pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor non-singlet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, $Z_m$. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, $Z_{\\psi}$, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the 1-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum.

  10. Group Targets Tracking Using Multiple Models GGIW-CPHD Based on Best-Fitting Gaussian Approximation and Strong Tracking Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma Gaussian inverse Wishart cardinalized probability hypothesis density (GGIW-CPHD algorithm was always used to track group targets in the presence of cluttered measurements and missing detections. A multiple models GGIW-CPHD algorithm based on best-fitting Gaussian approximation method (BFG and strong tracking filter (STF is proposed aiming at the defect that the tracking error of GGIW-CPHD algorithm will increase when the group targets are maneuvering. The best-fitting Gaussian approximation method is proposed to implement the fusion of multiple models using the strong tracking filter to correct the predicted covariance matrix of the GGIW component. The corresponding likelihood functions are deduced to update the probability of multiple tracking models. From the simulation results we can see that the proposed tracking algorithm MM-GGIW-CPHD can effectively deal with the combination/spawning of groups and the tracking error of group targets in the maneuvering stage is decreased.

  11. The Inverse Amplitude Method in $\\pi\\pi$ Scattering in Chiral Perturbation Theory to Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Ruiz-Arriola, E

    2002-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is used to unitarize the two loop $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes of SU(2) Chiral Perturbation Theory in the $I=0,J=0$, $I=1,J=1$ and $I=2,J=0$ channels. An error analysis in terms of the low energy one-loop parameters $\\bar l_{1,2,3,4,}$ and existing experimental data is undertaken. A comparison to standard resonance saturation values for the two loop coefficients $\\bar b_{1,2,3,4,5,6} $ is also carried out. Crossing violations are quantified and the convergence of the expansion is discussed.

  12. Critical Exponents in Percolation Model of Track Region Critical Exponents in Percolation Model of Track Region Critical Exponents in Percolation Model of Track Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Demchyshyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Differences between critical exponents of this model and the continuous percolation model indicate that the dependence of the modified structure area on the dose and the angle related with the correlation between individual tracks. It results in next effect: angular dependence of the surface area of the branched structure has maximum value at certain «critical» angle of ions incidence. Differences between critical exponents of this model and the continuous percolation model indicate that the dependence of the modified structure area on the dose and the angle related with the correlation between individual tracks. It results in next effect: angular dependence of the surface area of the branched structure has maximum value at certain «critical» angle of ions incidence. Differences between critical exponents of this model and the continuous percolation model indicate that the dependence of the modified structure area on the dose and the angle related with the correlation between individual tracks. It results in next effect: angular dependence of the surface area of the branched structure has maximum value at certain «critical» angle of ions incidence.

  13. Particle tracking modeling of sediment-laden jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. N.; Lee, J. H. W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a general model to predict the particulate transport and deposition from a sediment-laden horizontal momentum jet. A three-dimensional (3-D) stochastic particle tracking model is developed based on the governing equation of particle motion. The turbulent velocity fluctuations are modelled by a Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation function that captures the trapping of sediment particles in turbulent eddies, which result in the reduction of settling velocity. Using classical solutions of mean jet velocity, and turbulent fluctuation and dissipation rate profiles derived from computational fluid dynamics calculations of a pure jet, the equation of motion is solved numerically to track the particle movement in the jet flow field. The 3-D particle tracking model predictions of sediment deposition and concentration profiles are in excellent agreement with measured data. The computationally demanding Basset history force is shown to be negligible in the prediction of bottom deposition profiles.

  14. Characterization of the New GBT Azimuth Track and Pointing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Constantikes, K. T.; Ghigo, F.; Brandt, J.; Grider, R.

    2008-01-01

    Following the completion of the mechanical aspect of the azimuth track refurbishment project (described in the October 2007 Newsletter), it was necessary to character- ize the performance of the new track and implement a new pointing model prior to the resumption of scheduled operations. The Precision Telescope Control System (PTCS) team was responsible for this effort, which required significant planning and development beginning a year ago in January 2007. Although there was high confidence that the refurbishment would yield a flatter and more resilient track, the possibility of remaining low-level features spurred the team to develop a robust technique for measuring track features prior to the April 30 shutdown. To characterize the track, the centerpiece instrument is a pair of two-axis gas-damped capacitive-readout inclinometers mounted on the ends of the elevation axle. With the new track, both the large scale (tens of degrees) and small scale structure has been greatly reduced, with an rms of 0.94 arcseconds (equivalent to 5.7 thousandths of an inch at the track radius). A repeated measurement of the new track over the timescale of a week has shown the remaining features to be stable, but it will be monitored occasionally during the coming year. The nighttime blind pointing performance now shows a standard deviation of 3.4" in cross-elevation, 3.7" in elevation, and 2.0 mm in focus. These rms values are improved by about 1" in elevation and 1 mm in focus over the previous model when compared under the same conditions in fall 2006 and spring 2007.

  15. Renormalization of two-loop diagrams in scalar lattice field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Borasoy, B

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to calculate to very high precision the coefficients of the divergences occuring in two-loop diagrams for a massive scalar field on the lattice. The approach is based on coordinate space techniques and extensive use of the precisely known Green's function.

  16. Exact Combinatorics of Bern-Kosower-type Amplitudes for Two-Loop $\\Phi^{3}$ Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, H T; Sato, Haru-Tada; Schmidt, Michael G.

    1998-01-01

    Counting the contribution rate of a world-line formula to Feynman diagrams in Bern-Kosower-like amplitudes derived from a bosonic string theory for $N$-point two-loop Feynman amplitudes. In this connection we also present a method to derive simple and compact world-line forms for the effective action.

  17. Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilencea, D.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Theoretical Physics Department, Bucharest (Romania); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Lalak, Z.; Olszewski, P. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a Higgs-like scalar φ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton (σ). Its VEV left angle σ right angle generates the DR subtraction scale (μ ∝ left angle σ right angle), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where μ = fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking (μ = fixed scale). These operators have the form φ{sup 6}/σ{sup 2}, φ{sup 8}/σ{sup 4}, etc., which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about left angle σ right angle >> left angle φ right angle, where such hierarchy is arranged by one initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum level from evanescent interactions (∝ ε) between σ and φ that vanish in d = 4 but are required by classical scale invariance in d = 4 - 2ε. The Callan-Symanzik equation of the two-loop potential is respected and the two-loop beta functions of the couplings differ from those of the same theory regularized with μ = fixed scale. Therefore the running of the couplings enables one to distinguish between spontaneous and explicit scale symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  18. The two-loop six-point amplitude in ABJM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the first analytic computation of the six-point two-loop amplitude of ABJM theory. We show that the two-loop amplitude consist of corrections proportional to two distinct local Yangian invariants which can be identified as the tree- and the one-loop amplitude respectively. The two-loop correction proportional to the tree-amplitude is identical to the one-loop BDS result of N=4 SYM plus an additional remainder function, while the correction proportional to the one-loop amplitude is finite. Both the remainder and the finite correction are dual conformal invariant, which implies that the two-loop dual conformal anomaly equation for ABJM is again identical to that of one-loop N=4 SYM, as was first observed at four-point. We discuss the theory on the Higgs branch, showing that its amplitudes are infrared finite, but equal, in the small mass limit, to those obtained in dimensional regularization.

  19. The complete two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in soft-collinear effective theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Schabinger, Robert M.; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we complete the calculation of the soft part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution in e+e- annihilation. This jet mass observable is based on the thrust cone jet algorithm, which involves a veto scale for out-of-jet radiation. The previously uncomputed part of our result depends in a complicated way on the jet cone size, r, and at intermediate stages of the calculation we actually encounter a new class of multiple polylogarithms. We employ an extension of the coproduct calculus to systematically exploit functional relations and represent our results concisely. In contrast to the individual contributions, the sum of all global terms can be expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms. Our explicit two-loop calculation enables us to clarify the small r picture discussed in earlier work. In particular, we show that the resummation of the logarithms of r that appear in the previously uncomputed part of the two-loop integrated jet thrust distribution is inextricably linked to the resummation of the non-global logarithms. Furthermore, we find that the logarithms of r which cannot be absorbed into the non-global logarithms in the way advocated in earlier work have coefficients fixed by the two-loop cusp anomalous dimension. We also show that in many cases one can straightforwardly predict potentially large logarithmic contributions to the integrated jet thrust distribution at L loops by making use of analogous contributions to the simpler integrated hemisphere soft function.

  20. Two-loop RG functions of the massive φ4 field theory in general dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shpot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-loop Feynman integrals of the massive φ4d field theory are explicitly obtained for generic space dimensions d. Corresponding renormalization-group functions are expressed in a compact form in terms of Gauss hypergeometric functions. A number of interesting and useful relations are given for these integrals as well as for several special mathematical functions and constants.

  1. Two-loop Bhabha scattering at high energy beyond leading power approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Penin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the two-loop O(me2/s contribution to the wide-angle high-energy electron–positron scattering in the double-logarithmic approximation. The origin and the general structure of the power-suppressed double logarithmic corrections are discussed in detail.

  2. Modeling magnetostrictive material for high-speed tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottauscio, Oriano; Roccato, Paolo E.; Zucca, Mauro

    2011-04-01

    This work proposes a simplified model applicable to devices based on magnetostrictive materials conceived to be implemented in the control of a micropositioner. The 1D magnetomechanical dynamic model of the active material is based on the Preisach hysteresis model and includes classical eddy currents. The model has been used in a digital signal processing procedure for the determination of the supply current tracking position. Comparisons with experiments, obtained by controlling the actual micropositioner in an open loop chain, are satisfactory.

  3. Early Tracking Behavior in Small-field Quintessence Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We study several quintessence models which are exotic at Q = 0, anduse a simple constraint Q ≥ H/2π to check when they enter the tracking regime,disregarding the details of inflation. We find that it can also give strong constraintsfor V = V0Q-α, which has to enter the tracking regime after lnz ~ 10, while forthe supergravity model V = V0Q-αexp(kQ2/2), the constraint is much weaker. Forthe exponential form of inverse power-law potential V = Voexp(λ/Q), it exhibits noconstraints.

  4. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL TRACKING DAN TRACING DALAM DISTRIBUSI KOMODITI PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra Rahadian Perdana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegagalan distribusi komoditi pertanian dapat berdampak pada penurunan dan kehilangan nilai baik secara kualitas dan kuantitas karena suatu perubahan dimensi waktu-jarak atau suhu serta sarana pengangkutan dalam setiap mata rantai aktivitas distribusi. Model tracking dan tracing system dapat menjadi strategi untuk menjamin keberhasilan distribusi komoditi pertanian secara tepat baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Model tracking dan tracing komoditi pertanian adalah sebuah sistem proaktif yang real time yang dilengkapi dengan komponen pendukung proses distribusi dengan data yang akurat, terpercaya, berguna, dan cepat dengan memberikan informasi posisi barang atau sarana moda transportasinya.

  5. Model of wet chemical etching of swift heavy ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, S. A.; Malakhov, A. I.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    A model of wet chemical etching of tracks of swift heavy ions (SHI) decelerated in solids in the electronic stopping regime is presented. This model takes into account both possible etching modes: etching controlled by diffusion of etchant molecules to the etching front, and etching controlled by the rate of a reaction of an etchant with a material. Olivine ((Mg0.88Fe0.12)2SiO4) crystals were chosen as a system for modeling. Two mechanisms of chemical activation of olivine around the SHI trajectory are considered. The first mechanism is activation stimulated by structural transformations in a nanometric track core, while the second one results from neutralization of metallic atoms by generated electrons spreading over micrometric distances. Monte-Carlo simulations (TREKIS code) form the basis for the description of excitations of the electronic subsystem and the lattice of olivine in an SHI track at times up to 100 fs after the projectile passage. Molecular dynamics supplies the initial conditions for modeling of lattice relaxation for longer times. These simulations enable us to estimate the effects of the chemical activation of olivine governed by both mechanisms. The developed model was applied to describe chemical activation and the etching kinetics of tracks of Au 2.1 GeV ions in olivine. The estimated lengthwise etching rate (38 µm · h‑1) is in reasonable agreement with that detected in the experiments (24 µm · h‑1).

  6. Tracking stochastic resonance curves using an assisted reference model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderón Ramírez, Mario; Rico Martínez, Ramiro [Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Av. Tecnológico y A. García Cubas S/N, Celaya, Guanajuato, 38010 (Mexico); Ramírez Álvarez, Elizeth [Nonequilibrium Chemical Physics, Physik-Department, TU-München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Parmananda, P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The optimal noise amplitude for Stochastic Resonance (SR) is located employing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) reference model with a nonlinear predictive capability. A modified Kalman Filter (KF) was coupled to this reference model in order to compensate for semi-quantitative forecast errors. Three manifestations of stochastic resonance, namely, Periodic Stochastic Resonance (PSR), Aperiodic Stochastic Resonance (ASR), and finally Coherence Resonance (CR) were considered. Using noise amplitude as the control parameter, for the case of PSR and ASR, the cross-correlation curve between the sub-threshold input signal and the system response is tracked. However, using the same parameter the Normalized Variance curve is tracked for the case of CR. The goal of the present work is to track these curves and converge to their respective extremal points. The ANN reference model strategy captures and subsequently predicts the nonlinear features of the model system while the KF compensates for the perturbations inherent to the superimposed noise. This technique, implemented in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, enabled us to track the resonance curves and eventually locate their optimal (extremal) values. This would yield the optimal value of noise for the three manifestations of the SR phenomena.

  7. Modeling of Location Estimation for Object Tracking in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chi Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Location estimation for object tracking is one of the important topics in the research of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Recently, many location estimation or position schemes in WSN have been proposed. In this paper, we will propose the procedure and modeling of location estimation for object tracking in WSN. The designed modeling is a simple scheme without complex processing. We will use Matlab to conduct the simulation and numerical analyses to find the optimal modeling variables. The analyses with different variables will include object moving model, sensing radius, model weighting value α, and power-level increasing ratio k of neighboring sensor nodes. For practical consideration, we will also carry out the shadowing model for analysis.

  8. Multi-Topic Tracking Model for dynamic social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Liu, Changzheng; Zhao, Ming; Li, Ruixuan; Xiao, Hailing; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The topic tracking problem has attracted much attention in the last decades. However, existing approaches rarely consider network structures and textual topics together. In this paper, we propose a novel statistical model based on dynamic bayesian network, namely Multi-Topic Tracking Model for Dynamic Social Network (MTTD). It takes influence phenomenon, selection phenomenon, document generative process and the evolution of textual topics into account. Specifically, in our MTTD model, Gibbs Random Field is defined to model the influence of historical status of users in the network and the interdependency between them in order to consider the influence phenomenon. To address the selection phenomenon, a stochastic block model is used to model the link generation process based on the users' interests to topics. Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) is used to describe the document generative process according to the users' interests. Finally, the dependence on the historical topic status is also considered to ensure the continuity of the topic itself in topic evolution model. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is utilized to estimate parameters in the proposed MTTD model. Empirical experiments on real datasets show that the MTTD model performs better than Popular Event Tracking (PET) and Dynamic Topic Model (DTM) in generalization performance, topic interpretability performance, topic content evolution and topic popularity evolution performance.

  9. RegPT: Direct and fast calculation of regularized cosmological power spectrum at two-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Codis, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    We present a specific prescription for the calculation of cosmological power spectra, exploited here at two-loop order in perturbation theory (PT), based on the multi-point propagator expansion. In this approach power spectra are constructed from the regularized expressions of the propagators that reproduce both the resummed behavior in the high-k limit and the standard PT results at low-k. With the help of N-body simulations, we show that such a construction gives robust and accurate predictions for both the density power spectrum and the correlation function at percent-level in the weakly non-linear regime. We then present an algorithm that allows accelerated evaluations of all the required diagrams by reducing the computational tasks to one-dimensional integrals. This is achieved by means of pre-computed kernel sets defined for appropriately chosen fiducial models. The computational time for two-loop results is then reduced from a few minutes, with the direct method, to a few seconds with the fast one. The...

  10. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains...

  11. MODEL OF FEES CALCULATION FOR ACCESS TO TRACK INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mishchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the article is to develop a one- and two-element model of the fees calculation for the use of track infrastructure of Ukrainian railway transport. Methodology. On the basis of this one can consider that when planning the planned preventive track repair works and the amount of depreciation charges the guiding criterion is not the amount of progress it is the operating life of the track infrastructure facilities. The cost of PPTRW is determined on the basis of the following: the classification track repairs; typical technological processes for track repairs; technology based time standards for PPTRW; costs for the work of people, performing the PPTRW, their hourly wage rates according to the Order 98-Ts; the operating cost of machinery; regulated list; norms of expenditures and costs of materials and products (they have the largest share of the costs for repairs; railway rates; average distances for transportation of materials used during repair; standards of general production expenses and the administrative costs. Findings. The models offered in article allow executing the objective account of expenses in travelling facilities for the purpose of calculation of the proved size of indemnification and necessary size of profit, the sufficient enterprises for effective activity of a travelling infrastructure. Originality. The methodological bases of determination the fees (payments for the use of track infrastructure on one- and two-element base taking into account the experience of railways in the EC countries and the current transport legislation were grounded. Practical value. The article proposes the one- and two-element models of calculating the fees (payments for the TIF use, accounting the applicable requirements of European transport legislation, which provides the expense compensation and income formation, sufficient for economic incentives of the efficient operation of the TIE of Ukrainian railway transport.

  12. A Simple Cloud Reflectance Model for Ship Tracks in Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    A Simple Cloud Reflectance Model 01 for Ship Tracks in Clouds I OTIOSt 9L1, FIF MAR 16 1992J R. A. Siquig Forecast Guidance and Naval Systems...because of increased absorption. Note that this is based on the results for four wavelengths. Because of the undulatory nature of the imaginary part of

  13. An improved fiber tracking algorithm based on fiber assignment using the continuous tracking algorithm and two-tensor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuhong Zhu; Gang Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study tested an improved fiber tracking algorithm, which was based on fiber assignment using a continuous tracking algorithm and a two-tensor model. Different models and tracking decisions were used by judging the type of estimation of each voxel. This method should solve the cross-track problem. This study included eight healthy subjects, two axonal injury patients and seven demyelinating disease patients. This new algorithm clearly exhibited a difference in nerve fiber direction between axonal injury and demyelinating disease patients and healthy control subjects. Compared with fiber assignment with a continuous tracking algorithm, our novel method can track more and longer nerve fibers, and also can solve the fiber crossing problem.

  14. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning

    2016-04-01

    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  15. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  16. Adaptive mixture observation models for multiple object tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Peng; SUN LiFeng; YANG ShiQiang

    2009-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) poses many difficulties to conventional well-studied single object track-ing (SOT) algorithms, such as severe expansion of configuration space, high complexity of motion con-ditions, and visual ambiguities among nearby targets, among which the visual ambiguity problem is the central challenge. In this paper, we address this problem by embedding adaptive mixture observation models (AMOM) into a mixture tracker which is implemented in Particle Filter framework. In AMOM, the extracted multiple features for appearance description are combined according to their discriminative power between ambiguity prone objects, where the discriminability of features are evaluated by online entropy-based feature selection techniques. The induction of AMOM can help to surmount the Incapa-bility of conventional mixture tracker in handling object occlusions, and meanwhile retain its merits of flexibility and high efficiency. The final experiments show significant improvement in MOT scenarios compared with other methods.

  17. Tracking topological entity changes in 3D collaborative modeling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengYuan; He Fazhi; HuangZhiyong; Cai Xiantao; and Zhang Dejun

    2012-01-01

    One of the key problems in collaborative geometric modeling systems is topological entity correspondence when topolog- ical structure of geometry models on collaborative sites changes, ha this article, we propose a solution for tracking topological entity alterations in 3D collaborative modeling environment. We firstly make a thorough analysis and detailed categorization on the altera- tion properties and causations for each type of topological entity, namely topological face and topological edge. Based on collabora- tive topological entity naming mechanism, a data structure called TEST (Topological Entity Structure Tree) is introduced to track the changing history and current state of each topological entity, to embody the relationship among topological entities. Rules and algo- rithms are presented for identification of topological entities referenced by operations for correct execution and model consistency. The algorithm has been verified within the prototype we have implemented with ACIS.

  18. Comparison of Three Approximate Kinematic Models for Space Object Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    surveillance, and the SOs are only observed during a very small fraction of their orbiting period (with the short-arc observations) [10,20]. State...initialization, the 2-point differencing method in [1] is used for tracking filters with the WNA and KSP models, since their state vector contain only positions...and velocities. For the WPA model, a modified 2-point differencing method was used, where the position and velocity states and their covariance are

  19. Two loop electroweak corrections from heavy fermions to b→s+γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-Yi; FENG Tai-Fu

    2010-01-01

    Applying an effective Lagrangian method and an on-shell scheme, we analyze the electroweak corrections to the rare decay b→, s+γ from some special two loop diagrams in which a closed heavy fermion loop is attached to the virtual charged gauge bosons or Higgs. At the decoupling limit where the virtual fermions in the inner loop are much heavier than the electroweak scale, we verify the final results satisfying the decoupling theorem explicitly when the interactions among Higgs and heavy fermions do not contain the nondecoupling couplings. Adopting the universal assumptions on the relevant couplings and mass spectrum of new physics, we find that the relative corrections from those two loop diagrams to the SM theoretical prediction on the branching ratio of B → Xsγ can reach 5% as the energy scale of new physics ANp=200 GeV.

  20. BPS Wilson loops and Bremsstrahlung function in ABJ(M): a two loop analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marco S. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Griguolo, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parmaand INFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Leoni, Matias [Physics Department, FCEyN-UBA & IFIBA-CONICETCiudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicoccaand INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenzeand INFN Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    We study a family of circular BPS Wilson loops in N=6 super Chern-Simons-matter theories, generalizing the usual 1/2-BPS circle. The scalar and fermionic couplings depend on two deformation parameters and these operators can be considered as the ABJ(M) counterpart of the DGRT latitudes defined in N=4 SYM. We perform a complete two-loop analysis of their vacuum expectation value, discuss the appearance of framing-like phases and propose a general relation with cohomologically equivalent bosonic operators. We make an all-loop proposal for computing the Bremsstrahlung function associated to the 1/2-BPS cusp in terms of these generalized Wilson loops. When applied to our two-loop result it reproduces the known expression. Finally, we comment on the generalization of this proposal to the bosonic 1/6-BPS case.

  1. Hard Photon production from unsaturated quark gluon plasma at two loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, D; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, K; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    The hard photon productions from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two loop level are estimated from a chemically non-equilibrated quark gluon plasma using the frame work of thermal field theory. Although, the rate of photon production is suppressed due to unsaturated phase space, the above suppression is relatively smaller than expected due to an additional collinear enhancement (arise due to decrease in thermal quark mass) as compared to it's equilibrium counterpart. Interestingly, unlike the one loop case, the reduction in the two loop processes are found to be independent of gluon chemical poential, but strongly depends on quark fugacity. It is also found that, since the phase space suppression is highest for annihilation with scattering, the photon production is entirely dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism at all energies. This is to be contrasted with the case of the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production particularly at highe...

  2. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  3. Local Integrand Representations of All Two-Loop Amplitudes in Planar SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Bourjaily, Jacob L

    2015-01-01

    We use generalized unitarity at the integrand-level to directly construct local, manifestly dual-conformally invariant formulae for all two-loop scattering amplitudes in planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM). This representation separates contributions into manifestly finite and manifestly divergent terms---in a way that renders all infrared-safe observables (including ratio functions) calculable without any need for regulation. These results perfectly match the all-loop BCFW recursion relations, to which we provide a closed-form solution valid through two-loop-order. Finally, we describe and document a Mathematica package which implements these results, available as part of this work's source files on the arXiv.

  4. Matching the $D^{6}R^{4}$ interaction at two-loops

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric; Pioline, Boris; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of the $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction in the low energy expansion of the two-loop four-graviton amplitude in type II superstring theory is known to be proportional to the integral of the Zhang-Kawazumi (ZK) invariant over the moduli space of genus-two Riemann surfaces. We demonstrate that the ZK invariant is an eigenfunction with eigenvalue 5 of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the interior of moduli space. Exploiting this result, we evaluate the integral of the ZK invariant explicitly, finding agreement with the value of the two-loop $D^6 {\\cal R}^4$ interaction predicted on the basis of S-duality and supersymmetry. A review of the current understanding of the $D^{2p} {\\cal R}^4$ interactions in type II superstring theory compactified on a torus $T^d$ with $p \\leq 3$ and $d \\leq 4$ is included.

  5. Two-loop gg → Hg amplitude mediated by a nearly massless quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Kirill; Tancredi, Lorenzo; Wever, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    We analytically compute the two-loop scattering amplitude gg → Hg assuming that the mass of the quark, that mediates the ggH interaction, is vanishingly small. Our computation provides an important ingredient required to improve the theoretical description of the top-bottom interference effect in Higgs boson production in gluon fusion, and to elucidate its impact on the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution.

  6. Two-Loop Iteration of Five-Point N=4 Super-Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Smirnov, V A

    2006-01-01

    We confirm by explicit computation the conjectured all-orders iteration of planar maximally supersymmetric N=4 Yang-Mills theory in the nontrivial case of five-point two-loop amplitudes. We compute the required unitarity cuts of the integrand and evaluate the resulting integrals numerically using a Mellin--Barnes representation and the automated package of ref.~[1]. This confirmation of the iteration relation provides further evidence suggesting that N=4 gauge theory is solvable.

  7. New results for a two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2016-01-01

    We consider the two-loop massless propagator-type Feynman diagram with an arbitrary (non-integer) index on the central line. We analytically prove the equality of the two well-known results existing in the literature which express this diagram in terms of ${}_3F_2$-hypergeometric functions of argument $-1$ and $1$, respectively. We also derive new representations for this diagram which may be of importance in practical calculations.

  8. Two-loop current-current operator contribution to the non-leptonic QCD penguin amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Guido; Huber, Tobias; Li, Xin-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The computation of direct CP asymmetries in charmless B decays at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD is of interest to ascertain the short-distance contribution. Here we compute the two-loop penguin contractions of the current-current operators Q_{1,2} and provide a first estimate of NNLO CP asymmetries in penguin-dominated b -> s transitions.

  9. Master integrals for massive two-loop Bhabha scattering in QED

    CERN Document Server

    Czakon, M; Riemann, Tord

    2004-01-01

    We present a set of scalar master integrals (MIs) needed for a complete treatment of massive two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering in QED, including integrals with arbitrary fermionic loops. The status of analytical solutions for the MIs is reviewed and examples of some methods to solve MIs analytically are worked out in more detail. Analytical results for the pole terms in epsilon of so far unknown box MIs with five internal lines are given.

  10. Master integrals for massive two-loop Bhabha scattering in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik]|[Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Gluza, J. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Riemann, T.

    2004-12-01

    We present a set of scalar master integrals (MIs) needed for a complete treatment of massive two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering in QED, including integrals with arbitrary fermionic loops. The status of analytical solutions for the MIs is reviewed and examples of some methods to solve MIs analytically are worked out in more detail. Analytical results for the pole terms in {epsilon} of so far unknown box MIs with five internal lines are given. (orig.)

  11. Two-loop anomalous dimensions for currents of baryons with two heavy quarks in NRQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, V V

    1998-01-01

    We present analytical results on the two-loop anomalous dimensions of currents for baryons, containing two heavy quarks $J = [Q^{iT}C\\Gamma\\tau Q^j]\\Gamma' q^k\\epsilon_{ijk}$ with arbitrary Dirac matrices $\\Gamma$ and velocity of heavy quarks and the inverse heavy quark mass. It is shown, that in this approximation the anomalous dimensions do not depend on the Dirac structure of the current under consideration.

  12. Two-loop $gg \\to Hg$ amplitude mediated by a nearly massless quark

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Kirill; Wever, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We analytically compute the two-loop scattering amplitude $gg \\to Hg$ assuming that the mass of the quark, that mediates the ggH interaction, is vanishingly small. Our computation provides an important ingredient required to improve the theoretical description of the top-bottom interference effect in Higgs boson production in gluon fusion, and to elucidate its impact on the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution.

  13. Integral Reduction by Unitarity Method for Two-loop Amplitudes: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Bo; Huang, Rijun; Zhou, Kang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the unitarity method to two-loop diagrams and use it to discuss the integral bases of reduction. To test out method, we focus on the four-point double-box diagram as well as its related daughter diagrams, i.e., the double-triangle diagram and the triangle-box diagram. For later two kinds of diagrams, we have given complete analytical results in general (4-2\\eps)-dimension.

  14. The Vibro-Acoustic Modelling of Slab Track with Embedded Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN LIER, S.

    2000-03-01

    The application of concrete slab track in railways has certain advantages compared with conventional ballasted track, but conventional slab track structures generally produce more noise than ballasted track. For this reason a “silent slab track” has been developed in the Dutch ICES “Stiller Treinverkeer” project (silent railway traffic) by optimizing the track. In the design, the rails are embedded in a cork-filled elastomeric material. The paper discusses the vibro-acoustic modelling of this track using the simulation package “TWINS”, combined with finite element techniques. The model evaluates the one-third octave band sound power spectrum radiated by train wheels and track, and provides for a tool to optimize the track design. Three track types are compared using the vibro-acoustic model: an existing slab track with embedded UIC54 rails, a newly designed, acoustically optimized slab track with a less stiff rail embedded in a stiffer elastomere, and, as a reference, a ballasted track. The models of the existing tracks have been validated with measurements. Calculations indicate that the optimized slab track will emit between 4 and 6 dB(A) less noise than the ballasted track. The existing slab track produces between 1·5 and 3 dB(A) more noise than the ballasted track; this is caused by resonances in the elastomeric moulding material in the frequency range determining the dB(A)-level.

  15. Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-04-30

    Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g {yields} gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The {epsilon}-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/{epsilon} pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula.

  16. Two-loop Feynman Diagrams in Yang-Mills Theory from Bosonic String Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Körs, B; Kors, Boris; Schmidt, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present intermediate results of an ongoing investigation which attempts a generalization of the well known one-loop Bern Kosower rules of Yang-Mills theory to higher loop orders. We set up a general procedure to extract the field theoretical limit of bosonic open string diagrams, based on the sewing construction of higher loop world sheets. It is tested with one- and two-loop scalar field theory, as well as one-loop and two-loop vacuum Yang-Mills diagrams, reproducing earlier results. It is then applied to two-loop two-point Yang-Mills diagrams in order to extract universal renormalization coefficients that can be compared to field theory. While developing numerous technical tools to compute the relevant contributions, we hit upon important conceptual questions: Do string diagrams reproduce Yang-Mills Feynman diagrams in a certain preferred gauge? Do they employ a certain preferred renormalization scheme? Are four gluon vertices related to three gluon vertices? Unfortunately, our investigations remained in...

  17. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, ICEx, Physics Department, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [Coimbra University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics Department, Center of Computational Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  18. VIDEO MULTI-TARGET TRACKING BASED ON PROBABILISTIC GRAPHICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Huang Chenrong; Wu Zhengjun; Xu Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In the technique of video multi-target tracking,the common particle filter can not deal well with uncertain relations among multiple targets.To solve this problem,many researchers use data association method to reduce the multi-target uncertainty.However,the traditional data association method is difficult to track accurately when the target is occluded.To remove the occlusion in the video,combined with the theory of data association,this paper adopts the probabilistic graphical model for multi-target modeling and analysis of the targets relationship in the particle filter framework.Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can solve the occlusion problem better compared with the traditional algorithm.

  19. The corrections from one loop and two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams to muon MDM in BLMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shu-Min; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Yan, Ben; Zhan, Xi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    In a supersymmetric extension of the standard model where baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries(BLMSSM) and the Yukawa couplings between Higgs doublets and exotic quarks are considered, we study the one loop diagrams and the two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams with a closed Fermi(scalar) loop between the vector Boson and Higgs. Using the effective Lagrangian method, we deduce the Wilson coefficients of dimension 6 operators contributing to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon, which satisfies the electromagnetic gauge invariance. In the numerical analysis, we consider the experiment constraints from Higgs and neutrino data. In some parameter space, the new physics contribution is large and even reaches $24\\times10^{-10}$, which can remedy the deviation well.

  20. Reference-data modelling for tracking and tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Subject headings: supply chain, tracking and tracing, reference-data modelling

  1. IMPACT - Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    technical correctness. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...research and development process at Los Alamos National Laboratory ( LANL ), has the goal to develop an integrated modeling system for addressing current...project. 2. GROUND BASED OBSERVATIONS LANL is using a Raven-class telescope (0.35 m aperture C14 on a Paramount ME mount) to track

  2. Reference-data modelling for tracking and tracing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Subject headings: supply chain, tracking and tracing, reference-data modelling

  3. Track-stitching using graphical models and message passing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, LJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available . Multiple crossing targets, with fragmented tracks, are simulated. It is then shown, that the algorithm successfully stitches track fragments together, even in the presence of false tracks, caused by noisy observations....

  4. Object tracking with double-dictionary appearance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Li; Fan, Tanghuai; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Lizhong

    2016-08-01

    Dictionary learning has previously been applied to target tracking across images in video sequences. However, most trackers that use dictionary learning neglect to make optimal use of the representation coefficients to locate the target. This increases the possibility of losing the target in the presence of similar objects, or in case occlusion or rotation occurs. We propose an effective object-tracking method based on a double-dictionary appearance model under a particle filter framework. We employ a double dictionary by training template features to represent the target. This representation not only exploits the relationship between the candidate and target but also represents the target more accurately with minimal residual. We also introduce a simple and effective strategy to update the template to reduce the influence of occlusion, rotation, and drift. Experiments on challenging sequences showed that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods in terms of several comparative metrics.

  5. Tracked Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Simulation Methodology, with Control, using RecurDyn Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    track segment, with pins connecting each track segment. The modeler must align each segment properly with the track pins with the sprocket teeth and...representative track segment is copied and linked together using a simplified algorithm which assumes each track segment is identical, with force/ torque pairs...simulation, RecurDyn feeds CoLink the desired inputs (error term, speed, direction, etc), CoLink performs the programmed operation (generates torque

  6. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson

    2000-04-07

    The purpose of the transport methodology and component analysis is to provide the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport and model setup for transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) site-scale model. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated into the FEHM computer code and the resulting changes in the FEHM code are to be submitted to the software configuration management system. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining colloid-facilitated transport parameters are outlined for use in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses. Concurrently, process-level flow model calculations are being carrier out in a PMR for the unsaturated zone. The computer code TOUGH2 is being used to generate three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields, that are supplied to the Performance Assessment group for subsequent transport simulations. These flow fields are converted to input files compatible with the FEHM code, which for this application simulates radionuclide transport using the particle-tracking algorithm outlined in this AMR. Therefore, this AMR establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model, but the specific breakthrough curves presented do not necessarily represent the behavior of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone.

  7. Image-guided tumor motion modeling and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Wu, Y.; Liu, W.; Christensen, J.; Tai, A.; Li, A. X.

    2009-02-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important procedure in the treatment of cancer in the thorax and abdomen. However, its efficacy can be severely limited by breathing induced tumor motion. Tumor motion causes uncertainty in the tumor's location and consequently limits the radiation dosage (for fear of damaging normal tissue). This paper describes a novel signal model for tumor motion tracking/prediction that can potentially improve RT results. Using CT and breathing sensor data, it provides a more accurate characterization of the breathing and tumor motion than previous work and is non-invasive. The efficacy of our model is demonstrated on patient data.

  8. Leading Chiral Logarithms of $K_{S} \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ at two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorbani, Karim

    2014-01-01

    We obtain the leading divergences at two loops for the decay $K_{S} \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ using only one-loop diagrams. We then find the double chiral logarithmic corrections to the decay branching ratio. It turns out that these effects are numerically small and therefore make a very small enhancement on the branching ratio. We also derive an expression for the corrections of type $\\log \\mu~\\times$ LEC. We find out that these single logarithmic effects can be sizable but comes with opposite sign with respect to the double chiral logarithms. Some numerical results are presented.

  9. Two-loop NF=1 QED Bhabha scattering differential cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, R.; Ferroglia, A.; Mastrolia, P.; Remiddi, E.; van der Bij, J. J.

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the two-loop virtual, UV renormalized corrections at order α(N=1) in QED to the Bhabha scattering differential cross section, for arbitrary values of the squared c.m. energy s and momentum transfer t, and on-shell electrons and positrons of finite mass m. The calculation is carried out within the dimensional regularization scheme; the remaining IR divergences appear as polar singularities in (D-4). The result is presented in terms of 1- and 2-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, of maximum weight 3.

  10. Two-loop NF=1 QED Bhabha scattering differential cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonciani, R. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: roberto.bonciani@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Ferroglia, A. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: andrea.ferroglia@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Mastrolia, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)]. E-mail: mastrolia@physics.ucla.edu; Remiddi, E. [Physics Department, Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: ettore.remiddi@bo.infn.it; Bij, J.J. van der [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: jochum@physik.uni-freiburg.de

    2004-11-22

    We calculate the two-loop virtual, UV renormalized corrections at order {alpha}4(NF=1) in QED to the Bhabha scattering differential cross section, for arbitrary values of the squared c.m. energy s and momentum transfer t, and on-shell electrons and positrons of finite mass m. The calculation is carried out within the dimensional regularization scheme; the remaining IR divergences appear as polar singularities in (D-4). The result is presented in terms of 1- and 2-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, of maximum weight 3.

  11. Reformulating the TBA equations for the quark anti-quark potential and their two loop expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Correa, Diego H. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hegedűs, Árpád [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Massolo, Fidel I. Schaposnik [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Tóth, Gábor Zsolt [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2014-03-11

    The boundary thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (BTBA) equations introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2012)134http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2013)135 to describe the cusp anomalous dimension contain imaginary chemical potentials and singular boundary fugacities, which make its systematic expansion problematic. We propose an alternative formulation based on real chemical potentials and additional source terms. We expand our equations to double wrapping order and find complete agreement with the direct two-loop gauge theory computation of the cusp anomalous dimension.

  12. Local integrands for two-loop all-plus Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    We express the planar five- and six-gluon two-loop Yang-Mills amplitudes with all positive helicities in compact analytic form using D-dimensional local integrands that are free of spurious singularities. The integrand is fixed from on-shell tree amplitudes in six dimensions using D-dimensional generalised unitarity cuts. The resulting expressions are shown to have manifest infrared behaviour at the integrand level. We also find simple representations of the rational terms obtained after integration in 4-2epsilon dimensions.

  13. Electroweak two-loop corrections to the effective weak mixing angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awramik, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Czakon, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik]|[Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Field Theory and Particle Physics; Freitas, A. [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-08-15

    Recently exact results for the complete electroweak two-loop contributions to the effective weak mixing angle were published. This paper illustrates the techniques used for this computation, in particular the methods for evaluating the loop diagrams and the proper definition of Z-pole observables at next-to-next -to-leading order. Numerical results are presented in terms of simple parametrization formulae and compared in detail with a previous result of an expansion up to next-to-leading order in the top-quark mass. Finally, an estimate of the remaining theoretical uncertainties from unknown higher-order corrections is given. (Orig.)

  14. R-parity violating two-loop level rainbowlike contribution to the fermion electric dipole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the two-loop level R-parity violating supersymmetric contribution to the electric and chromoelectric dipole moments of the fermion with neutrino and gaugino in the intermediate state. It is found that this contribution can be sufficiently enhanced with large tan {\\beta} and that it can have comparable size with the currently known R-parity violating Barr-Zee type process in the TeV scale supersymmetry breaking. We also give new limits on the R-parity violating couplings from the experimental data of the electric dipole moments of the neutron and the electron.

  15. Eikonal gluon bremsstrahlung at finite N_c beyond two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Delenda, Yazid

    2015-01-01

    We present a general formalism for computing the matrix-element squared for the emission of soft energy-ordered gluons beyond two loops in QCD perturbation theory at finite $N_c$. Our formalism is valid in the eikonal approximation. A Mathematica program has been developed for the automated calculation of all real/virtual eikonal squared amplitudes needed at a given loop order. For the purpose of illustration we show the explicit forms of the eikonal squared amplitudes up to the fifth-loop order. In the large-$N_c$ limit our results coincide with those previously reported in literature.

  16. Two-loop formfactors in theories with mass gap and Z-boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotikov, A. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics]|[Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kuehn, J.H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Veretin, O. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Petrozavodsk Univ., Karelia (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    The non-factorizable two-loop corrections to the formfactor both for a U(1) x U(1) and a SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with massive and massless gauge bosons respectively is evaluated at arbitrary momentum transfer q{sup 2}. The asymptotic behaviour for q{sup 2}{yields}{infinity} is compared to a recent calculation of Sudakov logarithms. The result is an important ingredient for the calculation of radiative corrections to Z-boson production at hadron and lepton colliders. (orig.)

  17. Two-loop QED operator matrix elements with massive external fermion lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Freitas, Abilio de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Fisica; Neerven, Wilhelmus van [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Institut-Lorentz

    2011-07-15

    The two-loop massive operator matrix elements for the fermionic local twist-2 operators with external massive fermion lines in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) are calculated up to the constant terms in the dimensional parameter {epsilon}=D-4. We investigate the hypothesis of F. A. Berends et al. (1988) that the 2-loop QED initial state corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into a virtual neutral gauge boson, except power corrections of O((m{sup 2}{sub f}/s){sup k}), k {>=} 1, can be represented in terms of these matrix elements and the massless 2-loop Wilson coefficients of the Drell-Yan process. (orig.)

  18. Precise numerical evaluation of the two loop sunrise graph Master Integrals in the equal mass case

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzorini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    We present a double precision routine in Fortran for the precise and fast numerical evaluation of the two Master Integrals (MIs) of the equal mass two-loop sunrise graph for arbitrary momentum transfer in d=2 and d=4 dimensions. The routine implements the accelerated power series expansions obtained by solving the corresponding differential equations for the MIs at their singular points. With a maximum of 22 terms for the worst case expansion a relative precision of better than a part in 10^{15} is achieved for arbitrary real values of the momentum transfer.

  19. The human operator in manual preview tracking /an experiment and its modeling via optimal control/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizuka, M.; Whitney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    A manual preview tracking experiment and its results are presented. The preview drastically improves the tracking performance compared to zero-preview tracking. Optimal discrete finite preview control is applied to determine the structure of a mathematical model of the manual preview tracking experiment. Variable parameters in the model are adjusted to values which are consistent to the published data in manual control. The model with the adjusted parameters is found to be well correlated to the experimental results.

  20. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-12-01

    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over methods employing global image statistics in cases of complex object radiance and cluttered background. In cases of complex 3D object motion and relative viewpoint change, self-occlusions and disocclusions of the object are prominent, and current methods employing joint shape and appearance models are unable to accurately adapt to new shape and appearance information, leading to inaccurate shape detection. In this work, we model self-occlusions and dis-occlusions in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. Experiments on video exhibiting occlusion/dis-occlusion, complex radiance and background show that occlusion/dis-occlusion modeling leads to superior shape accuracy compared to recent methods employing joint shape/appearance models or employing global statistics. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Two-loop top-Yukawa-coupling corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Passehr, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The top-Yukawa-coupling enhanced two-loop corrections to the charged Higgs-boson mass in the real MSSM are presented. The contributing two-loop self-energies are calculated in the Feynman-diagrammatic approach in the gaugeless limit with vanishing external momentum and bottom mass, within a renormalization scheme comprising on-shell and DR conditions. Numerical results illustrate the effect of the O(α{sub t}{sup 2}) contributions and the importance of the two-loop corrections to the mass of the charged Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  2. Planar two-loop master integrals for massive Bhabha scattering: N_f=1 and N_f=2

    CERN Document Server

    Actis, S; Gluza, J; Riemann, Tord; Actis, Stefano; Czakon, Michal; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in the computation of two-loop master integrals for massive Bhabha scattering are briefly reviewed. We apply a method based on expansions of exact Mellin-Barnes representations and evaluate all planar four-point master integrals in the approximation of small electron mass at fixed scattering angle for the one-flavor case. The same technique is employed to derive and evaluate also all two-loop masters generated by additional fermion flavors. The approximation is sufficient for the determination of QED two-loop corrections for Bhabha scattering in the kinematics planned to be used for the luminosity determination at the ILC.

  3. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  4. Large mass expansion in two-loop QCD corrections of para-charmonium decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, K; Pak, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the light-by-light scattering type two-loop QCD corrections due to the light quark loops in the para-charmonium decays $eta_{c} rightarrow gamma gamma$ and $eta_{c} rightarrow g g$. We replace the mass of the internal charm quarks by an artificial large mass and obtain the result as a series in the large mass. The obtained series can be transformed into the good convergent ones by a change of the expansion parameter. The results are supported by two other methods to improve the convergence. We also observe that the color singlet state of $eta_{c}$ eliminates the potential divergences in the two-loop QCD corrections. The obtained corrections to the modes $eta_{c} rightarrow gamma gamma$ and $eta_{c} rightarrow g g$ account for -1.25% and -0.73% of the tree level values, respectively. Comparing the ratio of the decay rates with the experimental value, we find the constrains on the unknown contribution to these decays.

  5. Deconfinement transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory: a two-loop study

    CERN Document Server

    Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N

    2014-01-01

    In a recent work we have proposed a perturbative approach for the study of the phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature. This is based on a simple massive extension of background field methods in the Landau-DeWitt gauge, where the gluon mass term is related to the existence of Gribov ambiguities. We have shown that a one-loop calculation of the background field effective potential describes well the phase structure of the SU(2) and SU(3) theories. Here, we present the calculation of the next-to-leading order contribution in perturbation theory for the SU(2) case. In particular, we compute the background field effective potential at two-loop order and the corresponding Polyakov loop, a gauge invariant order parameter of the transition, at one-loop order. We show that the two-loop correction brings the critical temperature closer to its actual value as compared to the previous one-loop result. We also compute the thermodynamic pressure as a function of the temperature and show that two...

  6. Infrared divergences and harmonic anomalies in the two-loop superstring effective action

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the pertubative contributions to the $D^4 R^4$ and $D^6 R^4$ couplings in the low-energy effective action of type II string theory compactified on a torus $T^d$, with particular emphasis on two-loop corrections. In general, it is necessary to introduce an infrared cut-off $\\Lambda$ to separate local interactions from non-local effects due to the exchange of massless states. We identify the degenerations of the genus-two Riemann surface which are responsible for power-like dependence on $\\Lambda$, and give an explicit prescription for extracting the $\\Lambda$-independent effective couplings. These renormalized couplings are then shown to be eigenmodes of the Laplace operator with respect to the torus moduli, up to computable anomalous source terms arising in the presence of logarithmic divergences, in precise agreement with predictions from U-duality. Our results for the two-loop $D^6 R^4$ contribution also probe essential properties of the Kawazumi-Zhang invariant

  7. Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a higgs-like scalar $\\phi$ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton ($\\sigma$). Its vev $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$ generates the DR subtraction scale ($\\mu\\sim\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where $\\mu$=fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking ($\\mu$=fixed scale). These operators have the form: $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$, $\\phi^8/\\sigma^4$, etc, which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle\\gg \\langle\\phi\\rangle$, where such hierarchy is arranged by {\\it one} initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum...

  8. Designing a Process for Tracking Business Model Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs

    The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide for such pro...... innovation, performance management and business model change that informed the design throughout the project.......The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide...... that may alter the business model of the firm. The decision-making process about which metrics to track affects what management’s attention is focused on during the year. The rather streamlined process outlined here is capable of facilitating swift responses to environmental changes in local markets...

  9. The two-loop helicity amplitudes for $q \\bar q' \\to V_1 V_2 \\to 4~\\mathrm{leptons}$

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We compute the two-loop massless QCD corrections to the helicity amplitudes for the production of two massive vector bosons in quark-antiquark annihilation, allowing for an arbitrary virtuality of the vector bosons: $q \\bar q' \\to V_1V_2$. Combining with the leptonic decay currents, we obtain the full two-loop QCD description of the corresponding electroweak four-lepton production processes. The calculation is performed by projecting the two-loop diagrams onto an appropriate basis of Lorentz structures. All two-loop Feynman integrals are reduced to a basis of master integrals, which are then computed using the differential equations method and optimised for numerical performance. We provide a public C++ code which allows for fast and precise numerical evaluations of the amplitudes.

  10. Extensions in adaptive model tracking with mitigated passivity conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itzhak BARKANA

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility of nonlinear and adaptive control methodologies in multivariable linear timeinvariant systems with state space realization {A,B,C} has apparently been limited by the standard strict passivity (or positive realness) conditions that imply that the product CB must be positive definite symmetric.More recently the symmetry condition has been mitigated,requiring instead that the not necessarily symmetric matrix CB be diagonalizable and with positive real eigenvalues.However,although the mitigated conditions are useful in proving pure stabilizability with Adaptive Controllers,the Model Tracking question has remained open and counterexamples seem to demonstrate total divergence of standard model reference adaptive controllers when the regular passivity conditions are not fully satisfied.Therefore,this paper further extends the previous results,showing that the new passivity conditions do guarantee stability with adaptive model tracking.Examples show how the new conditions solve the case of flexible structures with unknown parameters when perfect collocation is not possible.Also,the so-called counterexamples become simple,well-behaved,examples.

  11. QCD two-loop corrections for hadronic single top-quark production in the t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Assadsolimani, M; Tausk, B; Uwer, P

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the calculation of single top-quark production in the t-channel at two-loop order in QCD. In particular we present the decomposition of the amplitude according to its spin and colour structure and present complete results for the two-loop amplitudes in terms of master integrals. For the vertex corrections compact analytic expressions are given. The box contributions are implemented in a publicly available C program.

  12. Statistical modelling of tropical cyclone tracks: a comparison of models for the variance of trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, T; Hall, Tim; Jewson, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We describe results from the second stage of a project to build a statistical model for hurricane tracks. In the first stage we modelled the unconditional mean track. We now attempt to model the unconditional variance of fluctuations around the mean. The variance models we describe use a semi-parametric nearest neighbours approach in which the optimal averaging length-scale is estimated using a jack-knife out-of-sample fitting procedure. We test three different models. These models consider the variance structure of the deviations from the unconditional mean track to be isotropic, anisotropic but uncorrelated, and anisotropic and correlated, respectively. The results show that, of these models, the anisotropic correlated model gives the best predictions of the distribution of future positions of hurricanes.

  13. 3-D model-based tracking for UAV indoor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulière, Céline; Marchand, Eric; Eck, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-based tracking approach for 3-D localization. One main difficulty of standard model-based approach lies in the presence of low-level ambiguities between different edges. In this paper, given a 3-D model of the edges of the environment, we derive a multiple hypotheses tracker which retrieves the potential poses of the camera from the observations in the image. We also show how these candidate poses can be integrated into a particle filtering framework to guide the particle set toward the peaks of the distribution. Motivated by the UAV indoor localization problem where GPS signal is not available, we validate the algorithm on real image sequences from UAV flights.

  14. A new enhanced index tracking model in portfolio optimization with sum weighted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Hoe, Lam Weng

    2017-04-01

    Index tracking is a portfolio management which aims to construct the optimal portfolio to achieve similar return with the benchmark index return at minimum tracking error without purchasing all the stocks that make up the index. Enhanced index tracking is an improved portfolio management which aims to generate higher portfolio return than the benchmark index return besides minimizing the tracking error. The objective of this paper is to propose a new enhanced index tracking model with sum weighted approach to improve the existing index tracking model for tracking the benchmark Technology Index in Malaysia. The optimal portfolio composition and performance of both models are determined and compared in terms of portfolio mean return, tracking error and information ratio. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of the proposed model is able to generate higher mean return than the benchmark index at minimum tracking error. Besides that, the proposed model is able to outperform the existing model in tracking the benchmark index. The significance of this study is to propose a new enhanced index tracking model with sum weighted apporach which contributes 67% improvement on the portfolio mean return as compared to the existing model.

  15. Two-Loop QCD Corrections to Higgs $\\rightarrow b + \\bar{b} + g$ Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Taushif; Mathews, Prakash; Rana, Narayan; Ravindran, V

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive observables involving Higgs boson in association with jets are often well suited to study the Higgs boson properties. They are rates involving cuts on the final state jets or differential distributions of rapidity, transverse momentum of the observed Higgs boson. While they get dominant contributions from gluon initiated partonic subprocesses, it is important to include the subdominant ones coming from other channels. In this article, we study one such channel namely the Higgs production in association with a jet in bottom anti-bottom annihilation process. We compute relevant amplitude $H\\rightarrow b+\\overline b+g$ up to two loop level in QCD where Higgs couples to bottom quark through Yukawa coupling. We use projection operators to obtain the coefficients for each tensorial structure appearing in this process. We have demonstrated that the renormalized amplitudes do have the right infrared structure predicted by the QCD factorization in dimensional regularization. The finite parts of the one and t...

  16. The Two-Loop Finite-Temperature Effective Potential of the MSSM and Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Losada, M

    1999-01-01

    We construct an effective three dimensional theory for the MSSM at high temperatures in the limit of large-$m_{A}$. We analyse the two-loop effective potential of the 3D theory for the case of a light right handed stop to determine the precise region in the $m_{h}$-$m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}}$ plane for which the sphaleron constraint for preservation of the baryon asymmetry is satisfied. We also compare with results previously obtained usind 3D and 4D calculations of the effective potential. A two-stage phase transition still persists for a small range of values of $m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}}$. The allowed region requires a value of $m_{\\tilde{t}_{R}} \\lsi m_{t}$ and $m_{h} \\lsi 100$ (110) GeV for $m_{Q} = 300$ GeV (1 TeV).

  17. Two-Loop Quantum Gravity Corrections to Cosmological Constant in Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Ken-ji

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of the Planck mass and the cosmological constant are calculated in a renormalizable quantum conformal gravity with a single dimensionless coupling, which is formulated using dimensional regularization on the basis of Hathrell's works for conformal anomalies. The dynamics of the traceless tensor field is handled by the Weyl action, while that of the conformal-factor field is described by the induced Wess-Zumino actions, including the Riegert action as the kinetic term. Loop calculations are carried out in Landau gauge in order to reduce the number of Feynman diagrams as well as to avoid some uncertainty. Especially, we calculate two-loop quantum gravity corrections to the cosmological constant. It suggests that there is a dynamical solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  18. Two-loop renormalization of vector, axial-vector and tensor fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2008-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ corresponds to the Vector, Axial-Vector and Tensor Dirac operators, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MSbar scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, together with some special features of superficially divergent integrals, are included in the Appendices.

  19. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Foreman, Simon; Green, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: jjmc@stanford.edu, E-mail: sfore@stanford.edu, E-mail: drgreen@stanford.edu, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Large scale structure surveys promise to be the next leading probe of cosmological information. It is therefore crucial to reliably predict their observables. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a manifestly convergent perturbation theory for the weakly non-linear regime of dark matter, where correlation functions are computed in an expansion of the wavenumber k of a mode over the wavenumber associated with the non-linear scale k{sub NL}. Since most of the information is contained at high wavenumbers, it is necessary to compute higher order corrections to correlation functions. After the one-loop correction to the matter power spectrum, we estimate that the next leading one is the two-loop contribution, which we compute here. At this order in k/k{sub NL}, there is only one counterterm in the EFTofLSS that must be included, though this term contributes both at tree-level and in several one-loop diagrams. We also discuss correlation functions involving the velocity and momentum fields. We find that the EFTofLSS prediction at two loops matches to percent accuracy the non-linear matter power spectrum at redshift zero up to k∼ 0.6 h Mpc{sup −1}, requiring just one unknown coefficient that needs to be fit to observations. Given that Standard Perturbation Theory stops converging at redshift zero at k∼ 0.1 h Mpc{sup −1}, our results demonstrate the possibility of accessing a factor of order 200 more dark matter quasi-linear modes than naively expected. If the remaining observational challenges to accessing these modes can be addressed with similar success, our results show that there is tremendous potential for large scale structure surveys to explore the primordial universe.

  20. The Quadrotor Dynamic Modeling and Indoor Target Tracking Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable nonlinear dynamic model of the quadrotor is presented. The nonlinear dynamic model includes actuator dynamic and aerodynamic effect. Since the rotors run near a constant hovering speed, the dynamic model is simplified at hovering operating point. Based on the simplified nonlinear dynamic model, the PID controllers with feedback linearization and feedforward control are proposed using the backstepping method. These controllers are used to control both the attitude and position of the quadrotor. A fully custom quadrotor is developed to verify the correctness of the dynamic model and control algorithms. The attitude of the quadrotor is measured by inertia measurement unit (IMU. The position of the quadrotor in a GPS-denied environment, especially indoor environment, is estimated from the downward camera and ultrasonic sensor measurements. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed dynamic model and control algorithms are demonstrated by experimental results. It is shown that the vehicle achieves robust vision-based hovering and moving target tracking control.

  1. Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Robinson

    2004-10-21

    The purpose of this report is to document the abstraction model being used in total system performance assessment (TSPA) model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ). The UZ transport abstraction model uses the particle-tracking method that is incorporated into the finite element heat and mass model (FEHM) computer code (Zyvoloski et al. 1997 [DIRS 100615]) to simulate radionuclide transport in the UZ. This report outlines the assumptions, design, and testing of a model for calculating radionuclide transport in the UZ at Yucca Mountain. In addition, methods for determining and inputting transport parameters are outlined for use in the TSPA for license application (LA) analyses. Process-level transport model calculations are documented in another report for the UZ (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). Three-dimensional, dual-permeability flow fields generated to characterize UZ flow (documented by BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]; DTN: LB03023DSSCP9I.001 [DIRS 163044]) are converted to make them compatible with the FEHM code for use in this abstraction model. This report establishes the numerical method and demonstrates the use of the model that is intended to represent UZ transport in the TSPA-LA. Capability of the UZ barrier for retarding the transport is demonstrated in this report, and by the underlying process model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]). The technical scope, content, and management of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Transport Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171282]). Deviations from the technical work plan (TWP) are noted within the text of this report, as appropriate. The latest version of this document is being prepared principally to correct parameter values found to be in error due to transcription errors, changes in source data that were not captured in the report, calculation errors, and errors in interpretation of source data.

  2. Tracking the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Hu, Chuanmin; Zheng, Lianyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was caused by a drilling rig explosion on 20 April 2010 that killed 11 people. It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history and presented an unprecedented threat to Gulf of Mexico marine resources. Although oil gushing to the surface diminished after the well was capped, on 15 July 2010, much remains to be known about the oil and the dispersants beneath the surface, including their trajectories and effects on marine life. A system for tracking the oil, both at the surface and at depth, was needed for mitigation efforts and ship survey guidance. Such a system was implemented immediately after the spill by marshaling numerical model and satellite remote sensing resources available from existing coastal ocean observing activities [e.g., Weisberg et al., 2009]. Analyzing this system's various strengths and weaknesses can help further improve similar systems designed for other emergency responses.

  3. Manifold learning for object tracking with multiple nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Jacinto C; Silva, Jorge G; Marques, Jorge S; Lemos, Joao M

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel manifold learning algorithm for high-dimensional data sets. The scope of the application focuses on the problem of motion tracking in video sequences. The framework presented is twofold. First, it is assumed that the samples are time ordered, providing valuable information that is not presented in the current methodologies. Second, the manifold topology comprises multiple charts, which contrasts to the most current methods that assume one single chart, being overly restrictive. The proposed algorithm, Gaussian process multiple local models (GP-MLM), can deal with arbitrary manifold topology by decomposing the manifold into multiple local models that are probabilistic combined using Gaussian process regression. In addition, the paper presents a multiple filter architecture where standard filtering techniques are integrated within the GP-MLM. The proposed approach exhibits comparable performance of state-of-the-art trackers, namely multiple model data association and deep belief networks, and compares favorably with Gaussian process latent variable models. Extensive experiments are presented using real video data, including a publicly available database of lip sequences and left ventricle ultrasound images, in which the GP-MLM achieves state of the art results.

  4. Evidence for two-loop interaction from IRIS and SDO observations of penumbral brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Koukras, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We investigate small scale energy release events which can provide clues on the heating mechanism of the solar corona. Methods: We analyzed spectral and imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatoty (SDO), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard SDO. Results: We report observations of small flaring loops in the penumbra of a large sunspot on July 19, 2013. Our main event consisted of a loop spanning 15'', from the umbral-penumbral boundary to an opposite polarity region outside the penumbra. It lasted approximately 10 min with a two minute impulsive peak and was observed in all AIA/SDO channels, while the IRIS slit was located near its penumbral footpoint. Mass motions with an apparent velocity of 100 km s-1 were detected beyond the brightening, starting in the rise phase of the impulsive peak; these were apparently associated with a higher-lying loop. We interpret these motions in terms of two-loop interaction. IRIS spectra in both the C ii and Si iv lines showed very extended wings, up to about 400 km s-1, first in the blue (upflows) and subsequently in the red wing. In addition to the strong lines, emission was detected in the weak lines of Cl i, O i and C i, as well as in the Mg ii triplet lines. Absorption features in the profiles of the C ii doublet, the Si iv doublet and the Mg ii h and k lines indicate the existence of material with a lower source function between the brightening and the observer. We attribute this absorption to the higher loop and this adds further credibility to the two-loop interaction hypothesis. Tilts were detected in the absorption spectra, as well as in the spectra of Cl i, O i, and C i lines, possibly indicating rotational motions from the untwisting of magnetic flux tubes. Conclusions: We conclude that the absorption features in the C ii, Si iv and Mg ii profiles originate in a higher

  5. Autonomous tracked robots in planar off-road conditions modelling, localization, and motion control

    CERN Document Server

    González, Ramón; Guzmán, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    This monograph is framed within the context of off-road mobile robotics. In particular, it discusses issues related to modelling, localization, and motion control of tracked mobile robots working in planar slippery conditions. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well-known solution for mobile platforms operating over diverse challenging terrains, for that reason, tracked robotics constitutes an important research field with many applications (e.g. agriculture, mining, search and rescue operations, military activities). The specific topics of this monograph are: historical perspective of tracked vehicles and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking model taking into account slip effect; visual-odometry-based localization strategies; and advanced slip-compensation motion controllers ensuring efficient real-time execution. Physical experiments with a real tracked robot are presented showing the better performance of the suggested novel approaches to known techniques.   Keywords: longitudinal slip, visual odometry, slip...

  6. A novel model for determining the amplitude-wavelength limits of track irregularities accompanied by a reliability assessment in railway vehicle-track dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-03-01

    The loads on a vehicle and the vibrations transmitted to track infrastructures due to the operation of rolling stocks are mainly determined by the irregularities of the track profile. Hence, it is rather important to ascertain the limits of track irregularities, including amplitudes and wavelengths, to guarantee the dynamic performance of running vehicles and guiding tracks. Furthermore, the operation and management levels as well as irregularity status for different railways are highly dissimilar. Therefore, it is a necessary to conduct a reliability assessment for a specific railway line. In the present work, a large amount of measured track irregularities are concentrated as a group form of the track irregularity power spectrum density. A track irregularity inversion model is presented to obtain realistic representations of track profile deformations with information regarding amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities. Then, the methodologies for determining the limits of track irregularities and achieving a reliability assessment are presented by introducing the probability density evolution method and development of a Wavelet-Wigner-Hough method. Using the vehicle-track interaction model, numerical studies for confirming the limits of track irregularities and evaluating the reliability of the dynamic performance of the vehicle can be conducted to provide valuable suggestions. This paper offers new possibilities for studying the limit amplitudes, characteristic wavelengths of track irregularities as well as corresponding reliabilities when a railway vehicle runs under different track geometric conditions.

  7. Applying Particle Tracking Model In The Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-78 January 2011 2 Figure 1. CMS domain, grid, and bathymetry . CMS-Flow is driven by...through the simulation. At the end of the simulation, about 65 percent of the released clay particles are considered “ dead ,” ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-78 January...2011 11 which means that they are either permanently buried at the sea bed or have moved out of the model domain. Figure 11. Specifications of

  8. Modeling and adaptive motion/force tracking for ver tical wheel on rotating table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongcai Zhang; Yuqiang Wu; Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of modeling and adaptive motion/force tracking for a class of nonholonomic dy-namic systems with affine constraints (NDSAC): a vertical wheel on a rotating table. Prior to the development of tracking control er, the dynamic model of the wheel in question is derived in a meticu-lous manner. A continuously differentiable friction model is also considered in the modeling. By exploiting the inherent cascade interconnected structure of the wheel dynamics, an adaptive mo-tion/force tracking control er is presented guaranteeing that the trajectory tracking errors asymptotical y converge to zero while the contact force tracking errors can be made smal enough by tuning design parameters. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking methodology.

  9. Two-loop conformal generators for leading-twist operators in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M.; Strohmaier, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Manashov, A.N. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moch, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-01-15

    QCD evolution equations in minimal subtraction schemes have a hidden symmetry: One can construct three operators that commute with the evolution kernel and form an SL(2) algebra, i.e. they satisfy (exactly) the SL(2) commutation relations. In this paper we find explicit expressions for these operators to two-loop accuracy going over to QCD in non-integer d=4-2ε space-time dimensions at the intermediate stage. In this way conformal symmetry of QCD is restored on quantum level at the specially chosen (critical) value of the coupling, and at the same time the theory is regularized allowing one to use the standard renormalization procedure for the relevant Feynman diagrams. Quantum corrections to conformal generators in d=4-2ε effectively correspond to the conformal symmetry breaking in the physical theory in four dimensions and the SL(2) commutation relations lead to nontrivial constraints on the renormalization group equations for composite operators. This approach is valid to all orders in perturbation theory and the result includes automatically all terms that can be identified as due to a nonvanishing QCD β-function (in the physical theory in four dimensions). Our result can be used to derive three-loop evolution equations for flavor-nonsinglet quark-antiquark operators including mixing with the operators containing total derivatives. These equations govern, e.g., the scale dependence of generalized hadron parton distributions and light-cone meson distribution amplitudes.

  10. The Two-Loop Six-Gluon MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Spradlin, M; Vergu, C; Volovich, A

    2008-01-01

    We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal...

  11. Two-Loop Beam and Soft Functions for Rapidity-Dependent Jet Vetoes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Shireen; Stahlhofen, Maximilian; Tackmann, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Jet vetoes play an important role in many analyses at the LHC. Traditionally, jet vetoes have been imposed using a restriction on the transverse momentum $p_{Tj}$ of jets. Alternatively, one can also consider jet observables for which $p_{Tj}$ is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity $y_j$ that vanishes as $|y_j| \\to \\infty$. Such observables are useful as they provide a natural way to impose a tight veto on central jets but a looser one at forward rapidities. We consider two such rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, $\\mathcal{T}_{Bj}$ and $\\mathcal{T}_{Cj}$, and compute the required beam and dijet soft functions for the jet-vetoed color-singlet production cross section at two loops. At this order, clustering effects from the jet algorithm become important. The dominant contributions are computed fully analytically while corrections that are subleading in the limit of small jet radii are expressed in terms of finite numerical integrals. Our results enable the full NNLL' resummation and are an ...

  12. Two-loop supersymmetric QCD and half-maximal supergravity amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Kälin, Gregor; Mogull, Gustav

    2017-09-01

    Using the duality between color and kinematics, we construct two-loop four-point scattering amplitudes in N=2 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory coupled to N f fundamental hypermultiplets. Our results are valid in D ≤ 6 dimensions, where the upper bound corresponds to six-dimensional chiral N=(1,0) SYM theory. By exploiting a close connection with N=4 SYM theory — and, equivalently, six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory — we find compact integrands with four-dimensional external vectors in both the maximally-helicity-violating (MHV) and all-chiral-vector sectors. Via the double-copy construction corresponding D-dimensional half-maximal supergravity amplitudes with external graviton multiplets are obtained in the MHV and all-chiral sectors. Appropriately tuning N f enables us to consider both pure and matter-coupled supergravity, with arbitrary numbers of vector multiplets in D = 4. As a bonus, we obtain the integrands of the genuinely six-dimensional supergravities with N=(1,1) and N=(2,0) supersymmetry. Finally, we extract the potential ultraviolet divergence of half-maximal supergravity in D = 5 - 2 ɛ and show that it non-trivially cancels out as expected.

  13. The Two-Loop Scale Dependence of the Static QCD Potential including Quark Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1999-06-14

    The interaction potential V(Q{sup 2}) between static test charges can be used to define an effective charge {alpha}{sub V}(Q{sup 2}) and a physically-based renormalization scheme for quantum chromodynamics and other gauge theories. In this paper we use recent results for the finite-mass fermionic corrections to the heavy-quark potential at two-loops to derive the next-to-leading order term for the Gell Mann-Low function of the V-scheme. The resulting effective number of flavors N{sub F}(Q{sup 2}/m{sup 2}) in the {alpha}{sub V} scheme is determined as a gauge-independent and analytic function of the ratio of the momentum transfer to the quark pole mass. The results give automatic decoupling of heavy quarks and are independent of the renormalization procedure. Commensurate scale relations then provide the next-to-leading order connection between all perturbatively calculable observables to the analytic and gauge-invariant {alpha}{sub V} scheme without any scale ambiguity and a well defined number of active flavors. The inclusion of the finite quark mass effects in the running of the coupling is compared with the standard treatment of finite quark mass effects in the {ovr MS} scheme.

  14. Perturbative Yukawa theory at finite density: the role of masses and renormalization group flow at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Palhares, Letícia F

    2008-01-01

    Yukawa theory at vanishing temperature provides (one of the ingredients for) an effective description of the thermodynamics of a variety of cold and dense fermionic systems. We study the role of masses and the renormalization group flow in the calculation of the equation of state up to two loops within the MSbar scheme. Two-loop integrals are computed analytically for arbitrary fermion and scalar masses, and expressed in terms of well-known special functions. The dependence of the renormalization group flow on the number of fermion flavors is also discussed.

  15. World-line approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism in two-loop Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, H T; Sato, Haru-Tada; Schmidt, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the world-line formalism with a sewing method, we derive the Yang-Mills effective action in a form useful to generate the Bern-Kosower-type master formulae for gluon scattering amplitudes at the two-loop level. It is shown that four-gluon ($\\Phi^4$ type sewing) contributions can be encapsulated in the action with three-gluon ($\\Phi^3$ type) vertices only, the total action thus becoming a simple expression. We then derive a general formula for a two-loop Euler-Heisenberg type action in a pseudo-abelian $su(2)$ background. The ghost loop and fermion loop cases are also studied.

  16. Modeling and performance analysis of GPS vector tracking algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Matthew

    This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of GPS vector tracking algorithms and the advantages they have over traditional receiver architectures. Standard GPS receivers use a decentralized architecture that separates the tasks of signal tracking and position/velocity estimation. Vector tracking algorithms combine the two tasks into a single algorithm. The signals from the various satellites are processed collectively through a Kalman filter. The advantages of vector tracking over traditional, scalar tracking methods are thoroughly investigated. A method for making a valid comparison between vector and scalar tracking loops is developed. This technique avoids the ambiguities encountered when attempting to make a valid comparison between tracking loops (which are characterized by noise bandwidths and loop order) and the Kalman filters (which are characterized by process and measurement noise covariance matrices) that are used by vector tracking algorithms. The improvement in performance offered by vector tracking is calculated in multiple different scenarios. Rule of thumb analysis techniques for scalar Frequency Lock Loops (FLL) are extended to the vector tracking case. The analysis tools provide a simple method for analyzing the performance of vector tracking loops. The analysis tools are verified using Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo simulations are also used to study the effects of carrier to noise power density (C/N0) ratio estimation and the advantage offered by vector tracking over scalar tracking. The improvement from vector tracking ranges from 2.4 to 6.2 dB in various scenarios. The difference in the performance of the three vector tracking architectures is analyzed. The effects of using a federated architecture with and without information sharing between the receiver's channels are studied. A combination of covariance analysis and Monte Carlo simulation is used to analyze the performance of the three algorithms. The federated algorithm without

  17. Measuring and Modelling Crowd Flows - Fusing Stationary and Tracking Data

    CERN Document Server

    Treiber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The two main data categories of vehicular traffic flow, stationary detector data and floating-car data, are also available for many Marathons and other mass-sports events: Loop detectors and other stationary data sources find their counterpart in the RFID tags of the athletes recording the split times at several stations during the race. Additionally, more and more athletes use smart-phone apps generating track data points that are the equivalent of floating-car data. We present a methodology to detect congestions and estimate the location of jam-fronts, the delay times, and the spatio-temporal speed and density distribution of the athlete's crowd flow by fusing these two data sources based on a first-order macroscopic model with triangular fundamental diagram. The method can be used in real-time or for analyzing past events. Using synthetic "ground truth" data generated by simulations with the Intelligent-Driver Model, we show that, in a real-time application, the proposed algorithm is robust and effective w...

  18. Real-time model for simulating a tracked vehicle on deformable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Meywerk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulation is one possibility to gain insight into the behaviour of tracked vehicles on deformable soils. A lot of publications are known on this topic, but most of the simulations described there cannot be run in real-time. The ability to run a simulation in real-time is necessary for driving simulators. This article describes an approach for real-time simulation of a tracked vehicle on deformable soils. The components of the real-time model are as follows: a conventional wheeled vehicle simulated in the Multi Body System software TRUCKSim, a geometric description of landscape, a track model and an interaction model between track and deformable soils based on Bekker theory and Janosi–Hanamoto, on one hand, and between track and vehicle wheels, on the other hand. Landscape, track model, soil model and the interaction are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The details of the real-time model are described in this article, and a detailed description of the Multi Body System part is omitted. Simulations with the real-time model are compared to measurements and to a detailed Multi Body System–finite element method model of a tracked vehicle. An application of the real-time model in a driving simulator is presented, in which 13 drivers assess the comfort of a passive and an active suspension of a tracked vehicle.

  19. A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2016-10-25

    Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.

  20. Modeling reactive transport with particle tracking and kernel estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater reactive transport models are useful to assess and quantify the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface media and are an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth Systems. Particle Tracking Method (PTM) provides a computationally efficient and adaptable approach to solve the solute transport partial differential equation. On a molecular level, chemical reactions are the result of collisions, combinations, and/or decay of different species. For a well-mixed system, the chem- ical reactions are controlled by the classical thermodynamic rate coefficient. Each of these actions occurs with some probability that is a function of solute concentrations. PTM is based on considering that each particle actually represents a group of molecules. To properly simulate this system, an infinite number of particles is required, which is computationally unfeasible. On the other hand, a finite number of particles lead to a poor-mixed system which is limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect to actually model incomplete mix- ing in naturally occurring porous media. In this work, we demonstrate that this effect in most cases should be attributed to a defficient estimation of the concentrations and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing processes in porous media. To illustrate this, we show that a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations can approach the well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. KDEs provide weighting functions of each particle mass that expands its region of influence, hence providing a wider region for chemical reactions with time. Simulation results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve state-of-the-art simulations of chemical reactions and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative conceptual models and not on a limited number of particles.

  1. Modelling, validation and analysis of a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track system model with linear and nonlinear track properties in the presence of wheel flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzal, R. U. A.; Ahmed, A. K. W.; Bhat, R. B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents dynamic contact loads at wheel-rail contact point in a three-dimensional railway vehicle-track model as well as dynamic response at vehicle-track component levels in the presence of wheel flats. The 17-degrees of freedom lumped mass vehicle is modelled as a full car body, two bogies and four wheelsets, whereas the railway track is modelled as two parallel Timoshenko beams periodically supported by lumped masses representing the sleepers. The rail beam is also supported by nonlinear spring and damper elements representing the railpad and ballast. In order to ensure the interactions between the railpads, a shear parameter beneath the rail beams has also been considered into the model. The wheel-rail contact is modelled using nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. In order to solve the coupled partial and ordinary differential equations of the vehicle-track system, modal analysis method is employed. Idealised Haversine wheel flats with the rounded corner are included in the wheel-rail contact model. The developed model is validated with the existing measured and analytical data available in the literature. The nonlinear model is then employed to investigate the wheel-rail impact forces that arise in the wheel-rail interface due to the presence of wheel flats. The validated model is further employed to investigate the dynamic responses of vehicle and track components in terms of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in the presence of single wheel flat.

  2. Extended Cann Model for Behavioral Modeling of Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with behavioral modeling of power amplifiers (PAs) for envelope tracking (ET) applications. In such a scenario, the power supply modulation brings in several additional challenges for the system design and, similarly, it becomes more difficult to obtain an accurate and general PA...... by the ET operation. The model performance is tested modeling data-sets acquired from an ET test bench including a commercial RFMD PA and an envelope modulator designed using a commercial IC from TI....

  3. Path Tracking Control of Automatic Parking Cloud Model considering the Influence of Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the kinematic model of the automatic parking system and analyzes the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Furthermore, it solves the problem where the traditional automatic parking system model fails to take into account the time delay. Firstly, based on simulating calculation, the influence of time delay on the dynamic trajectory of a vehicle in the automatic parking system is analyzed under the transverse distance Dlateral between different target spaces. Secondly, on the basis of cloud model, this paper utilizes the tracking control of an intelligent path closer to human intelligent behavior to further study the Cloud Generator-based parking path tracking control method and construct a vehicle path tracking control model. Moreover, tracking and steering control effects of the model are verified through simulation analysis. Finally, the effectiveness and timeliness of automatic parking controller in the aspect of path tracking are tested through a real vehicle experiment.

  4. Tracking Strains in the Microbiome: Insights from Metagenomics and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ilana L; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Transmission usually refers to the movement of pathogenic organisms. Yet, commensal microbes that inhabit the human body also move between individuals and environments. Surprisingly little is known about the transmission of these endogenous microbes, despite increasing realizations of their importance for human health. The health impacts arising from the transmission of commensal bacteria range widely, from the prevention of autoimmune disorders to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. Despite this importance, there are outstanding basic questions: what is the fraction of the microbiome that is transmissible? What are the primary mechanisms of transmission? Which organisms are the most highly transmissible? Higher resolution genomic data is required to accurately link microbial sources (such as environmental reservoirs or other individuals) with sinks (such as a single person's microbiome). New computational advances enable strain-level resolution of organisms from shotgun metagenomic data, allowing the transmission of strains to be followed over time and after discrete exposure events. Here, we highlight the latest techniques that reveal strain-level resolution from raw metagenomic reads and new studies that are tracking strains across people and environments. We also propose how models of pathogenic transmission may be applied to study the movement of commensals between microbial communities.

  5. Sensor management for multiple target tracking with heterogeneous sensor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason L.; Fisher, John W., III; Willsky, Alan S.

    2006-05-01

    Modern sensors are able to rapidly change mode of operation and steer between physically separated objects. While control of such sensors over a rolling planning horizon can be formulated as a dynamic program, the optimal solution is inevitably intractable. In this paper, we consider the control problem under a restricted family of policies and show that the essential sensor control trade-offs are still captured. The advantage of this approach is that one can obtain the optimal policy within the restricted class in a tractable fashion, in this case by using the auction algorithm. The approach is well-suited for problems in which a single sensor (or group of sensors) is being used to track many targets using a heterogeneous sensor model, i.e., where the quality of observations varies with object state, such as due to obscuration. Our algorithm efficiently weighs the rewards achievable by observing each target at each time to find the best sensor plan within the restricted set. We extend this approach using a roll-out algorithm, to handle additional cases such as when observations take different amounts of time to complete.

  6. Effective Two-loop Thermodynamic Potential with Fermions in the real-time formalism of thermal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, W; Xin, Wang; Jiarong, Li

    2000-01-01

    Within the real-time formalism (RTF) of thermal field theory,we apply the hard thermal loop (HTL) resummation technique to calculating effective two-loop thermodynamic potential in quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and its renormalization. The result with collective effects is obtained, which is valid for an arbitrary number of quark flavors with masses.

  7. Momentum-dependent two-loop QCD corrections to the neutral Higgs-boson masses in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowka, S.; Hahn, T.; Heinrich, G.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Munich (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Results are presented for the momentum-dependent two-loop contributions of O(α{sub t}α{sub s}) to the masses and mixing effects in the Higgs sector of the MSSM. They are obtained in the Feynman-diagrammatic approach using a mixed on-shell/DR renormalization that can directly be matched onto the higher-order corrections included in the code FeynHiggs. The new two-loop diagrams are evaluated with the program SecDec. The combination of the new momentum-dependent two-loop contribution with the existing one- and two-loop corrections in the on-shell/DR scheme leads to an improved prediction of the light MSSM Higgs boson mass and a correspondingly reduced theoretical uncertainty. We find that the corresponding shifts in the lightest Higgs-boson mass M{sub h} are below 1 GeV in all scenarios considered, but they can extend up to the level of the current experimental uncertainty. The results are included in the code FeynHiggs. (orig.)

  8. Two-loop electroweak corrections to the A{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and A{sup 0}gg couplings of the CP-odd Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, J. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Fugel, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-06-15

    Using the asymptotic-expansion technique, we compute the dominant two-loop electroweak corrections, of O(G{sub F}m{sup 2}{sub t}), to production and decay via a pair of photons or gluons of the CP-odd Higgs boson A{sup 0} in a two-Higgs-doublet model with low- to intermediate values of the Higgs-boson masses and ratio tan {beta}=v{sub 2}/v{sub 1} of the vacuum expectation values. We also study the influence of a sequential heavyfermion generation. The appearance of three {gamma}{sub 5} matrices in closed fermion loops requires special care in the dimensional regularisation of ultraviolet divergences. The finite renormalisation constant for the pseudoscalar current effectively restoring the anticommutativity of the {gamma}{sub 5} matrix, familiar from perturbative quantum chromodynamics, is found not to receive a correction in this order. We also revisit the dominant two-loop electroweak correction to the H{yields}{gamma}{gamma} decay width in the standard model with a fourth fermion generation. (orig.)

  9. A Symplectic Multi-Particle Tracking Model for Self-Consistent Space-Charge Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Symplectic tracking is important in accelerator beam dynamics simulation. So far, to the best of our knowledge, there is no self-consistent symplectic space-charge tracking model available in the accelerator community. In this paper, we present a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional symplectic multi-particle spectral model for space-charge tracking simulation. This model includes both the effect from external fields and the effect of self-consistent space-charge fields using a split-operator method. Such a model preserves the phase space structure and shows much less numerical emittance growth than the particle-in-cell model in the illustrative examples.

  10. CELL TRACKING USING PARTICLE FILTERS WITH IMPLICIT CONVEX SHAPE MODEL IN 4D CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nisha; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian frameworks are commonly used in tracking algorithms. An important example is the particle filter, where a stochastic motion model describes the evolution of the state, and the observation model relates the noisy measurements to the state. Particle filters have been used to track the lineage of cells. Propagating the shape model of the cell through the particle filter is beneficial for tracking. We approximate arbitrary shapes of cells with a novel implicit convex function. The importance sampling step of the particle filter is defined using the cost associated with fitting our implicit convex shape model to the observations. Our technique is capable of tracking the lineage of cells for nonmitotic stages. We validate our algorithm by tracking the lineage of retinal and lens cells in zebrafish embryos. PMID:27403085

  11. Eye Tracking Meets the Process of Process Modeling: a Visual Analytic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea; Kaiser, M.; Neurauter, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Research on the process of process modeling (PPM) studies how process models are created. It typically uses the logs of the interactions with the modeling tool to assess the modeler’s behavior. In this paper we suggest to introduce an additional stream of data (i.e., eye tracking) to improve...... diagram, heat maps, fixations distributions) both static and dynamic (i.e., movies with the evolution of the model and eye tracking data on top)....

  12. THE OBJECTIVE ANALOGUE PREDICTION MODEL FOR TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACK WITH COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟元

    2002-01-01

    An objective analogue prediction model for tropical cyclone (TC) track is put forward that comprehensively assesses the environmental field. With the parameters of the tropical cyclone and environmental field at initial and future time, objective analogue criteria are set up in the model. Analogous samples are recognized by comprehensive assessment of historical TC cases for similarity with multivariate criteria, using non-linear analogue indexes especially defined for the purpose. When the historical tracks are coordinateconverted and weighted with reference to analogue indexes, forecast tracks are determined. As shown in model verification and forecast experiments, the model has forecasting skill.

  13. Fuzzy Control of Model Travel Tracking for Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Ji-fu; WU Yun-peng; GU Liang; HUANG Hua

    2006-01-01

    The control strategy of the model travel tracking for the vehicle suspension system is presented based on analyzing the responses of the vehicle suspension travel. A fuzzy control system of vehicle suspension is designed, in which the suspension travel output of the adaptive LQG control system is taken as the tracking objective. The simulation results prove that the suspension travel and vertical acceleration can be tracked simultaneously with the simple fuzzy controller,and the tracking effect of fuzzy control is better than that of the PID controller.

  14. Use of along-track magnetic field differences in lithospheric field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    , using 2 yr of low altitude data from the CHAMP satellite, we show that use of along-track differences of vector field data results in an enhanced recovery of the small scale lithospheric field, compared to the use of the vector field data themselves. We show that the along-track technique performs....... Experiments in modelling the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field with along-track differences are presented here as a proof of concept. We anticipate that use of such along-track differences in combination with east–west field differences, as are now provided by the Swarm satellite constellation...

  15. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic system using model predictive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Shaoyuan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of System Control and Information Processing

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, T-G-P model is built to find maximum power point according to light intensity and temperature, making it easier and more clearly for photovoltaic system to track the MPP. A predictive controller considering constraints for safe operation is designed. The simulation results show that the system can track MPP quickly, accurately and effectively.

  16. H(infinity) output tracking control for nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Wang, Qing-Guo; Lee, Tong Heng

    2006-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of H(infinity) output tracking control for nonlinear time-delay systems using Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model approach. An LMI-based design method is proposed for achieving the output tracking purpose. Illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the present results.

  17. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking.

  18. Using interacting multiple model particle filter to track airborne targets hidden in blind Doppler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In airborne tracking, the blind Doppler makes the target undetectable, resulting in tracking difficulties. In this paper,we studied most possible blind-Doppler cases and summed them up into two types: targets' intentional tangential flying to radar and unintentional flying with large tangential speed. We proposed an interacting multiple model (IMM) particle filter which combines a constant velocity model and an acceleration model to handle maneuvering motions. We compared the IMM particle filter with a previous particle filter solution. Simulation results showed that the IMM particle filter outperforms the method in previous works in terms of tracking accuracy and continuity.

  19. TO THE MODELING ISSUES OF LIFE CYCLE OF DEFORMATION WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article highlightsthe operational cycle modeling of the railway track elements for the development processes study of deformability as the basis of creating a regulatory framework of the track while ensuring the reliability of the railways. Methodology.The basic theory of wave propagation process in describing the interaction of track and rolling stock are used to achieve the goal. Findings. The basic provisions concerning the concept «the operational cycle of the deformation track» were proposed and formulated. The method was set. On its base the algorithm for determining the dynamic effects of the rolling stock on the way was obtained. The basic principles for the calculation schemes of railway track components for process evaluation of the deformability of the way were formulated. An algorithm was developed, which allows getting the field values of stresses, strains and displacements of all points of the track design elements. Based on the fields of stress-strain state of the track, an algorithm to establish the dependence of the process of deformability and the amount of energy expended on the deformability of the track operation was created. Originality.The research of track reliability motivates the development of new models, provides an opportunity to consider it for some developments. There is a need to define the criteria on which the possibility of assessing and forecasting changes in the track states in the course of its operation. The paper proposed the basic principles, methods, algorithms, and the terms relating to the conduct of the study, questions the reliability of the track. Practical value. Analytical models, used to determine the parameters of strength and stability of tracks, fully meet its objectives, but cannot be applied to determine the parameters of track reliability. One of the main factors of impossibility to apply these models is a quasi-dynamic approach. Therefore, as a rule, not only one dynamic

  20. Physical Models for Particle Tracking Simulations in the RF Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This document describes the algorithms that are used in the PyORBIT code to track the particles accelerated in the Radio-Frequency cavities. It gives the mathematical description of the algorithms and the assumptions made in each case. The derived formulas have been implemented in the PyORBIT code. The necessary data for each algorithm are described in detail.

  1. Two-loop two-point functions with masses asymptotic expansions and Taylor series, in any dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J; Tarasov, O V

    1993-01-01

    In all mass cases needed for quark and gluon self-energies, the two-loop master diagram is expanded at large and small $q^2$, in $d$ dimensions, using identities derived from integration by parts. Expansions are given, in terms of hypergeometric series, for all gluon diagrams and for all but one of the quark diagrams; expansions of the latter are obtained from differential equations. Pad\\'{e} approximants to truncations of the expansions are shown to be of great utility. As an application, we obtain the two-loop photon self-energy, for all $d$, and achieve highly accelerated convergence of its expansions in powers of $q^2/m^2$ or $m^2/q^2$, for $d=4$.

  2. Computation of $H\\to gg$ in FDH and DRED: renormalization, operator mixing, and explicit two-loop results

    CERN Document Server

    Broggio, A; Signer, A; Stöckinger, D; Visconti, A

    2015-01-01

    The $H\\to gg$ amplitude relevant for Higgs production via gluon fusion is computed in the four-dimensional helicity scheme (FDH) and in dimensional reduction (DRED) at the two-loop level. The required renormalization is developed and described in detail, including the treatment of evanescent $\\epsilon$-scalar contributions. In FDH and DRED there are additional dimension-5 operators generating the $H g g$ vertices, where $g$ can either be a gluon or an $\\epsilon$-scalar. An appropriate operator basis is given and the operator mixing through renormalization is described. The results of the present paper provide building blocks for further computations, and they allow to complete the study of the infrared divergence structure of two-loop amplitudes in FDH and DRED.

  3. Matching QCD and heavy-quark effective theory heavy-light currents at two loops and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, D. J.; Grozin, A. G.

    1995-10-01

    Heavy-light QCD currents are matched with heavy-quark effective theory (HQET) currents at two loops and leading order in 1/m. A single formula applies to all current matchings. As a by-product, a master formula for the two-loop anomalous dimension of the QCD current q¯γ[μ1...γμn]q is obtained, yielding a new result for the tensor current. The dependence of matching coefficients on γ5 prescriptions is elucidated. Ratios of QCD matrix elements are obtained, independently of the three-loop anomalous dimension of HQET currents. The two-loop coefficient in f*B/fB =1-2αs(mb)/3π-Kbα2s/π2 +O(α3s,1/mb) is Kb=83/12+4/81π2+2/27π2ln2-1/9ζ(3)-19/54Nl +Δc=6.37+Δc, with Nl=4 light flavors, and a correction Δc=0.18+/-0.01 that takes account of the nonzero ratio mc/mb=0.28+/-0.03. Convergence of the perturbative series is poor: the fastest apparent convergence would entail αs(μ) at μ=370 MeV. ``Naive non-Abelianization'' of large-Nl results, via Nl-->Nl-33/2, gives reasonable approximations to exact two-loop results. All-order results for anomalous dimensions and matching coefficients are obtained at large β0=11=2/3Nl. Consistent cancellation between infrared- and ultraviolet-renormalon ambiguities is demonstrated.

  4. Two-loop electroweak corrections to Higgs-gluon couplings to higher orders in the dimensional regularization parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetti, Marco; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We compute the two-loop electroweak correction to the production of the Higgs boson in gluon fusion to higher orders in the dimensional-regularization parameter $\\epsilon = (d-4)/2$. We employ the method of differential equations to compute the relevant integrals and express them in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. Our result provides one of the necessary inputs for the computation of mixed three-loop QCD-electroweak corrections to $gg \\to H$.

  5. 30 years, some 700 integrals, and 1 dessert, or: Electroweak two-loop corrections to the Zbb vertex

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovyk, I; Gluza, J; Riemann, T; Usovitsch, J

    2016-01-01

    The one-loop corrections to the weak mixing angle $\\sin^2\\theta_{eff}^b$ derived from the $Z{\\bar b}b$ vertex, are known since 1985. It took another 30 years to calculate the complete electroweak two-loop corrections to $\\sin^2\\theta_{eff}^b$. The main obstacle was the calculation of the O(700) bosonic two-loop vertex integrals with up to three mass scales, at $s=M_Z^2$. We did not perform the usual integral reduction and master evaluation, but chose a completely numerical approach, using two different calculational chains. One method relies on publicly available sector decomposition implementations. Further, we derived Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations, exploring the publicly available MB suite. We had to supplement the MB suite by two new packages: AMBRE~3, a Mathematica program, for the efficient treatment of non-planar integrals and MBnumerics for advanced numerics in the Minkowskian space-time. Our preliminary result for LL2016, the "dessert", for the electroweak bosonic two-loop contributions to $\\sin^...

  6. 2D Quantum Gravity on Compact Riemann Surfaces and Two-Loop Partition Function: Circumventing the c=1 Barrier?

    CERN Document Server

    Bilal, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kaehler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kaehler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function $Z[A]$ up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kaehler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contribut...

  7. Renormalization scheme dependence of the two-loop QCD corrections to the neutral Higgs-boson masses in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowka, S. [University of Zurich, Institute for Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Hahn, T.; Heinrich, G.; Hollik, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Heinemeyer, S. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Santander (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Reaching a theoretical accuracy in the prediction of the lightest MSSM Higgs-boson mass, M{sub h}, at the level of the current experimental precision requires the inclusion of momentum-dependent contributions at the two-loop level. Recently two groups presented the two-loop QCD momentum-dependent corrections to M{sub h} (Borowka et al., Eur Phys J C 74(8):2994, 2014; Degrassi et al., Eur Phys J C 75(2):61, 2015), using a hybrid on-shell-DR scheme, with apparently different results. We show that the differences can be traced back to a different renormalization of the top-quark mass, and that the claim in Ref. Degrassi et al. (Eur Phys J C 75(2):61, 2015) of an inconsistency in Ref. Borowka et al. (Eur Phys J C 74(8):2994, 2014) is incorrect. We furthermore compare consistently the results for M{sub h} obtained with the top-quark mass renormalized on-shell and DR. The latter calculation has been added to the FeynHiggs package and can be used to estimate missing higher-order corrections beyond the two-loop level. (orig.)

  8. Internal model control of a fast steering mirror for electro-optical fine tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop advanced control methods to improve the bandwidth and tracking precision of the electro-optical fine tracking system using a fast steering mirror (FSM). FSM is the most important part in this control system. The model of FSM is established at the beginning of this paper. Compared with the electro-optical fine tracking system with ground based platform, the electro-optical fine tracking system with movement based platform must be a wide bandwidth and a robustness system. An advanced control method based on internal model control law is developed for electro-optical fine tracking system. The IMC is an advanced algorithm. Theoretically, it can eliminate disturbance completely and make sure output equals to input even there is model error. Moreover, it separates process to the system dynamic characteristic and the object perturbation. Compared with the PID controller, the controller is simpler and the parameter regulation is more convenient and the system is more robust. In addition, we design an improved structure based on classic IMC. The tracking error of the two-port control system is much better than which of the classic IMC. The simulation results indicate that the electro-optical control system based on the internal model control algorithm is very effective. It shows a better performance at the tracing precision and the disturbance suppresses. Thus a new method is provided for the high-performance electro-optical fine tracking system.

  9. H∞ output tracking control of discrete-time nonlinear systems via standard neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Haiyang; Sheng, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    This brief proposes an output tracking control for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with disturbances. A standard neural network model is used to represent discrete-time nonlinear systems whose nonlinearity satisfies the sector conditions. H∞ control performance for the closed-loop system including the standard neural network model, the reference model, and state feedback controller is analyzed using Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The H∞ controller, of which the parameters are obtained by solving LMIs, guarantees that the output of the closed-loop system closely tracks the output of a given reference model well, and reduces the influence of disturbances on the tracking error. Three numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ output tracking design approach.

  10. H∞ tracking control of coupled spatiotemporal chaos based on fuzzy models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Chun-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Due to the interactions among coupled spatiotemporal subsystems, it is difficult to achieve the tracking control of the coupled spatiotemporal chaos. However, every subsystem of the coupled spatiotemporal chaos can be approximated by a set of fuzzy models, of which each represents a linearized model of the subsystem corresponding to the operating point of the controlled system. Based on these fuzzy models, an H∞ fuzzy tracking control scheme is suggested,where a linear matrix inequalities (LMI) is employed to represent the feedback controller. The parameters of controller are obtained by using convex optimization techniques of LMI. The model reference tracking control of the coupled spatiotemporal chaos is achieved, and the stability of the system is also guaranteed. The tracking performance is tested by simulation as an example.

  11. Onboard Robust Visual Tracking for UAVs Using a Reliable Global-Local Object Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Changhong; Duan, Ran; Kircali, Dogan; Kayacan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel onboard robust visual algorithm for long-term arbitrary 2D and 3D object tracking using a reliable global-local object model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, e.g...

  12. Measuring and Modelling Crowd Flows - Fusing Stationary and Tracking Data

    OpenAIRE

    Treiber, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The two main data categories of vehicular traffic flow, stationary detector data and floating-car data, are also available for many Marathons and other mass-sports events: Loop detectors and other stationary data sources find their counterpart in the RFID tags of the athletes recording the split times at several stations during the race. Additionally, more and more athletes use smart-phone apps generating track data points that are the equivalent of floating-car data. We present a methodology...

  13. ADAPTIVE BACKGROUND DENGAN METODE GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODELS UNTUK REAL-TIME TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rostianingsih

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, motion tracking application is widely used for many purposes, such as detecting traffic jam and counting how many people enter a supermarket or a mall. A method to separate background and the tracked object is required for motion tracking. It will not be hard to develop the application if the tracking is performed on a static background, but it will be difficult if the tracked object is at a place with a non-static background, because the changing part of the background can be recognized as a tracking area. In order to handle the problem an application can be made to separate background where that separation can adapt to change that occur. This application is made to produce adaptive background using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM as its method. GMM method clustered the input pixel data with pixel color value as it’s basic. After the cluster formed, dominant distributions are choosen as background distributions. This application is made by using Microsoft Visual C 6.0. The result of this research shows that GMM algorithm could made adaptive background satisfactory. This proofed by the result of the tests that succeed at all condition given. This application can be developed so the tracking process integrated in adaptive background maker process. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat ini, aplikasi motion tracking digunakan secara luas untuk banyak tujuan, seperti mendeteksi kemacetan dan menghitung berapa banyak orang yang masuk ke sebuah supermarket atau sebuah mall. Sebuah metode untuk memisahkan antara background dan obyek yang di-track dibutuhkan untuk melakukan motion tracking. Membuat aplikasi tracking pada background yang statis bukanlah hal yang sulit, namun apabila tracking dilakukan pada background yang tidak statis akan lebih sulit, dikarenakan perubahan background dapat dikenali sebagai area tracking. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, dapat dibuat suatu aplikasi untuk memisahkan background dimana aplikasi tersebut dapat

  14. Tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using a polynomial-based hysteresis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jinqiang; Zhang, Xianmin; Wu, Heng

    2016-06-01

    A polynomial-based hysteresis model that describes hysteresis behavior in piezoelectric actuators is presented. The polynomial-based model is validated by comparing with the classic Prandtl-Ishlinskii model. Taking the advantages of the proposed model into consideration, inverse control using the polynomial-based model is proposed. To achieve better tracking performance, a hybrid control combining the developed inverse control and a proportional-integral-differential feedback loop is then proposed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracking controls, several comparative experiments of the polynomial-based model and Prandtl-Ishlinskii model are conducted. The experimental results show that inverse control and hybrid control using the polynomial-based model in trajectory-tracking applications are effective and meaningful.

  15. Model-Based Hand Tracking by Chamfer Distance and Adaptive Color Learning Using Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdvibulvech Chutisant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new model-based hand tracking method for recovering of three-dimensional hand motion from an image sequence. We first build a three-dimensional hand model using truncated quadrics. The degrees of freedom (DOF for each joint correspond to the DOF of a real hand. This feature extraction is performed by using the Chamfer Distance function for the edge likelihood. The silhouette likelihood is performed by using a Bayesian classifier and the online adaptation of skin color probabilities. Therefore, it is to effectively deal with any illumination changes. Particle filtering is used to track the hand by predicting the next state of three-dimensional hand model. By using these techniques, this method adds the useful ability of automatic recovery from tracking failures. This method can also be used to track the guitarist's hand.

  16. Multiple Human Tracking in Complex Situation by Data Assimilation with Pedestrian Behavior Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, W.; Fuse, T.

    2012-07-01

    A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  17. Ride Dynamics of a Tracked Vehicle with a Finite Element Vehicle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jothi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on tracked vehicle dynamics is by and large limited to multi-rigid body simulation. For realistic prediction of vehicle dynamics, it is better to model the vehicle as multi-flexible body. In this paper, tracked vehicle is modelled as a mass-spring system with sprung and unsprung masses of the physical tracked vehicle by Finite element method. Using the equivalent vehicle model, dynamic studies are carried out by imparting vertical displacement inputs to the road wheels. Ride characteristics of the vehicle are captured by modelling the road wheel arms as flexible elements using Finite element method. In this work, a typical tracked vehicle test terrain viz., Trapezoidal blocks terrain (APG terrain is considered. Through the simulations, the effect of the road wheel arm flexibility is monitored. Result of the analysis of equivalent vehicle model with flexible road wheel arms, is compared with the equivalent vehicle model with rigid road wheel arms and also with the experimental results of physical tracked vehicle. Though there is no major difference in the vertical bounce response between the flexible model and the rigid model, but there is a visible difference in the roll condition. Result of the flexible vehicle model is also reasonably matches with the experimental result.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 19-25, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9201

  18. Basic simulation models of phase tracking devices using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Tranter, William

    2010-01-01

    The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), and many of the devices used for frequency and phase tracking, carrier and symbol synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis, are fundamental building blocks in today's complex communications systems. It is therefore essential for both students and practicing communications engineers interested in the design and implementation of modern communication systems to understand and have insight into the behavior of these important and ubiquitous devices. Since the PLL behaves as a nonlinear device (at least during acquisition), computer simulation can be used

  19. A three-component model of the control error in manual tracking of continuous random signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Hans; Staude, Gerhard; Wolf, Werner; Bauch, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    The performance of human operators acting within closed-loop control systems is investigated in a classic tracking task. The dependence of the control error (tracking error) on the parameters display gain, k(display), and input signal frequency bandwidth, f(g), which alter task difficulty and presumably the control delay, is studied with the aim of functionally specifying it via a model. The human operator as an element of a cascaded human-machine control system (e.g., car driving or piloting an airplane) codetermines the overall system performance. Control performance of humans in continuous tracking has been described in earlier studies. Using a handheld joystick, 10 participants tracked continuous random input signals. The parameters f(g) and k(display) were altered between experiments. Increased task difficulty promoted lengthened control delay and, consequently, increased control error.Tracking performance degraded profoundly with target deflection components above 1 Hz, confirming earlier reports. The control error is composed of a delay-induced component, a demand-based component, and a novel component: a human tracking limit. Accordingly, a new model that allows concepts of the observed control error to be split into these three components is suggested. To achieve optimal performance in control systems that include a human operator (e.g., vehicles, remote controlled rovers, crane control), (a) tasks should be kept as simple as possible to achieve shortest control delays, and (b) task components requiring higher-frequency (> 1 Hz) tracking actions should be avoided or automated by technical systems.

  20. Modeling and Quantitative Analysis of GNSS/INS Deep Integration Tracking Loops in High Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Ban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS precision applications in high dynamics, this paper describes a study on the carrier phase tracking technology of the GNSS/inertial navigation system (INS deep integration system. The error propagation models of INS-aided carrier tracking loops are modeled in detail in high dynamics. Additionally, quantitative analysis of carrier phase tracking errors caused by INS error sources is carried out under the uniform high dynamic linear acceleration motion of 100 g. Results show that the major INS error sources, affecting the carrier phase tracking accuracy in high dynamics, include initial attitude errors, accelerometer scale factors, gyro noise and gyro g-sensitivity errors. The initial attitude errors are usually combined with the receiver acceleration to impact the tracking loop performance, which can easily cause the failure of carrier phase tracking. The main INS error factors vary with the vehicle motion direction and the relative position of the receiver and the satellites. The analysis results also indicate that the low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS inertial measurement units (IMU has the ability to maintain GNSS carrier phase tracking in high dynamics.

  1. Trajectory Tracking Control of Underactuated USV with Model Perturbation and External Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinbiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved trajectory tracking controller based backstepping control algorithm to address the trajectory tracking problem of an underactuated Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV. A Three Degree of Freedom (DOF underactuated maneuvering motion model for water-jet-propelled USV is established, and controller can track both straight line trajectory and curve trajectory with relatively high accuracy. The stability of USV system is proved by BIBO (bounded-input-bounded-output stable characteristics, then simulation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the robustness and precise control performance of the controller.

  2. Cell survival in carbon beams - comparison of amorphous track model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, L.; Greilich, S.; Korcyl, M.

    . [2] . In addition, a new approach based on microdosimetric distributions is presented and investigated [3] . Material and methods: A suitable software library embrasing the mentioned amorphous track models including numerous submodels with respect to delta-electron range models, radial dose......Introduction: Predictions of the radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) play an essential role in treatment planning with heavy charged particles. Amorphous track models ( [1] , [2] , also referred to as track structure models) provide currently the most suitable description of cell survival under ion...... irradiation. The aim of this paper is to compare the predictions from different amorphous approaches found in the literature - more specifically the phenomenological, analytical model by Katz and co-workers [1] and a Monte-Carlo based full as implemented for example in the local effect model by Scholz et al...

  3. Slushy weightings for the optimal pilot model. [considering visual tracking task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, J. D.; Picha, D. G.; Anderson, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot model is described which accounts for the effect of motion cues in a well defined visual tracking task. The effect of visual and motion cues are accounted for in the model in two ways. First, the observation matrix in the pilot model is structured to account for the visual and motion inputs presented to the pilot. Secondly, the weightings in the quadratic cost function associated with the pilot model are modified to account for the pilot's perception of the variables he considers important in the task. Analytic results obtained using the pilot model are compared to experimental results and in general good agreement is demonstrated. The analytic model yields small improvements in tracking performance with the addition of motion cues for easily controlled task dynamics and large improvements in tracking performance with the addition of motion cues for difficult task dynamics.

  4. Object Tracking Using Adaptive Covariance Descriptor and Clustering-Based Model Updating for Visual Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for tracking an arbitrary object in video sequences for visual surveillance. The first contribution of this work is an automatic feature extraction method that is able to extract compact discriminative features from a feature pool before computing the region covariance descriptor. As the feature extraction method is adaptive to a specific object of interest, we refer to the region covariance descriptor computed using the extracted features as the adaptive covariance descriptor. The second contribution is to propose a weakly supervised method for updating the object appearance model during tracking. The method performs a mean-shift clustering procedure among the tracking result samples accumulated during a period of time and selects a group of reliable samples for updating the object appearance model. As such, the object appearance model is kept up-to-date and is prevented from contamination even in case of tracking mistakes. We conducted comparing experiments on real-world video sequences, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. The tracking system that integrates the adaptive covariance descriptor and the clustering-based model updating method accomplished stable object tracking on challenging video sequences.

  5. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  6. Influence of uneven rail irregularities on the dynamic response of the railway track using a three-dimensional model of the vehicle-track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Meysam; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Esmaeili, Morteza; Shadfar, Morad

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the vehicle-track interaction is developed to investigate the coupled behaviour of vehicle-track system, in the presence of uneven irregularities at left/right rails. The railway vehicle is simplified as a 3D multi-rigid-body model, and the track is treated as the two parallel beams on a layered discrete support system. Besides the car-body, the bogies and the wheel sets, the sleepers are assumed to have roll degree of freedom, in order to simulate the in-plane rotation of the components. The wheel-rail interface is treated using a nonlinear Hertzian contact model, coupling the mathematical equations of the vehicle-track systems. The dynamic interaction of the entire system is numerically studied in time domain, employing Newmark's integration method. The track irregularity spectra of both the left/right rails are taken into account, as the inputs of dynamic excitations. The dynamic responses of the track system induced by such irregularities are obtained, particularly in terms of the vertical (bounce) and roll displacements. The numerical model of the present research is validated using several benchmark models reported in the literature, for both the smooth and unsmooth track conditions. Four sample profiles of the measured rail irregularities are considered as the case studies of excitation sources, examining their influences on the dynamic behaviour of the coupled system. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the motion of track system is significantly influenced by the presence of uneven irregularities in left/right rails. Dynamic response of the sleepers in the roll direction becomes more sensitive to the rail irregularities, as the unevenness severity of the parallel profiles (quantitative difference between left and right rail spectra) is increased. The severe geometric deformation of the track in the bounce-pitch-roll directions is mainly related to such profile unevenness (cross-level) in left/right rails.

  7. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ent, van der R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are se

  8. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. Howeve

  9. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospherix moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are se

  10. Output tracking and regulation of nonlinear system based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X J; Sun, Z Q

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model, this paper discusses in detail the following three problems: (1) output tracking of the nonlinear system; (2) output regulation of the nonlinear system via a state feedback; (3) output regulation of the nonlinear system via a error feedback. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the soundness of these results and the effectiveness of the new methodology solving the output tracking and regulation problem of the nonlinear system.

  11. Model emulates human smooth pursuit system producing zero-latency target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A T; McDonald, J D

    1983-01-01

    Humans can overcome the 150 ms time delay of the smooth pursuit eye movement system and track smoothly moving visual targets with zero-latency. Our target-selective adaptive control model can also overcome an inherent time delay and produce zero-latency tracking. No other model or man-made system can do this. Our model is physically realizable and physiologically realistic. The technique used in our model should be useful for analyzing other time-delay systems, such as man-machine systems and robots.

  12. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  13. Analytic Result for the Two-loop Six-point NMHV Amplitude in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2012-02-15

    We provide a simple analytic formula for the two-loop six-point ratio function of planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. This result extends the analytic knowledge of multi-loop six-point amplitudes beyond those with maximal helicity violation. We make a natural ansatz for the symbols of the relevant functions appearing in the two-loop amplitude, and impose various consistency conditions, including symmetry, the absence of spurious poles, the correct collinear behavior, and agreement with the operator product expansion for light-like (super) Wilson loops. This information reduces the ansatz to a small number of relatively simple functions. In order to fix these parameters uniquely, we utilize an explicit representation of the amplitude in terms of loop integrals that can be evaluated analytically in various kinematic limits. The final compact analytic result is expressed in terms of classical polylogarithms, whose arguments are rational functions of the dual conformal cross-ratios, plus precisely two functions that are not of this type. One of the functions, the loop integral {Omega}{sup (2)}, also plays a key role in a new representation of the remainder function R{sub 6}{sup (2)} in the maximally helicity violating sector. Another interesting feature at two loops is the appearance of a new (parity odd) x (parity odd) sector of the amplitude, which is absent at one loop, and which is uniquely determined in a natural way in terms of the more familiar (parity even) x (parity even) part. The second non-polylogarithmic function, the loop integral {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)}, characterizes this sector. Both {Omega}{sup (2)} and {tilde {Omega}}{sup (2)} can be expressed as one-dimensional integrals over classical polylogarithms with rational arguments.

  14. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    CERN Document Server

    Remiddi, Ettore

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d-4) expansion.

  15. Differential equations and dispersion relations for Feynman amplitudes. The two-loop massive sunrise and the kite integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d - 4) expansion.

  16. The two-loop helicity amplitudes for $gg \\to V_1 V_2 \\to 4~\\mathrm{leptons}$

    CERN Document Server

    von Manteuffel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We compute the two-loop massless QCD corrections to the helicity amplitudes for the production of two electroweak gauge bosons in the gluon fusion channel, $gg \\to V_1 V_2$, keeping the virtuality of the vector bosons $V_1$ and $V_2$ arbitrary and taking their decays into leptons into account. The amplitudes are expressed in terms of master integrals, whose representation has been optimised for fast and reliable numerical evaluation. We provide analytical results and a public C++ code for their numerical evaluation on HepForge at http://vvamp.hepforge.org .

  17. Nonlinear dynamic model for visual object tracking on Grassmann manifolds with partial occlusion handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zulfiqar Hasan; Gu, Irene Yu-Hua

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel Bayesian online learning and tracking scheme for video objects on Grassmann manifolds. Although manifold visual object tracking is promising, large and fast nonplanar (or out-of-plane) pose changes and long-term partial occlusions of deformable objects in video remain a challenge that limits the tracking performance. The proposed method tackles these problems with the main novelties on: 1) online estimation of object appearances on Grassmann manifolds; 2) optimal criterion-based occlusion handling for online updating of object appearances; 3) a nonlinear dynamic model for both the appearance basis matrix and its velocity; and 4) Bayesian formulations, separately for the tracking process and the online learning process, that are realized by employing two particle filters: one is on the manifold for generating appearance particles and another on the linear space for generating affine box particles. Tracking and online updating are performed in an alternating fashion to mitigate the tracking drift. Experiments using the proposed tracker on videos captured by a single dynamic/static camera have shown robust tracking performance, particularly for scenarios when target objects contain significant nonplanar pose changes and long-term partial occlusions. Comparisons with eight existing state-of-the-art/most relevant manifold/nonmanifold trackers with evaluations have provided further support to the proposed scheme.

  18. Indoor Localisation Using a Context-Aware Dynamic Position Tracking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Ros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor wireless localisation is a widely sought feature for use in logistics, health, and social networking applications. Low-powered localisation will become important for the next generation of pervasive media applications that operate on mobile platforms. We present an inexpensive and robust context-aware tracking system that can track the position of users in an indoor environment, using a wireless smart meter network. Our context-aware tracking system combines wireless trilateration with a dynamic position tracking model and a probability density map to estimate indoor positions. The localisation network consisted of power meter nodes placed at known positions in a building. The power meter nodes are tracked by mobile nodes which are carried by users to localise their position. We conducted an extensive trial of the context-aware tracking system and performed a comparison analysis with existing localisation techniques. The context-aware tracking system was able to localise a person's indoor position with an average error of 1.21 m.

  19. Three-dimensional elasto-plastic soil modelling and analysis of sauropod tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Sanz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of FEA (Finite Element Analysis to model dinosaur tracks. Satisfactory reproductions of sauropod ichnites were simulated using 3D numerical models of the elasto-plastic behaviour of soils. Though the modelling was done of ichnites in situ at the Miraflores I tracksite (Soria, Spain, the methodology could be applied to other tracksites to improve their ichnological interpretation and better understand how the type and state of the trodden sediment at the moment the track is created is a fundamental determinant of the morphology of the ichnite. The results obtained explain why the initial and commonly adopted hypothesis—that soft sediments become progressively more rigid and resistant at depth—is not appropriate at this tracksite. We explain why it is essential to consider a more rigid superficial layer (caused by desiccation overlying a softer layer that is extruded to form a displacement rim. Adult sauropods left trackways behind them. These tracks could be filled up with water due to phreatic level was close to the ground surface. The simulation provides us with a means to explain the differences between similar tracks (of different depths; with or without displacement rims in the various stratigraphic layers of the tracksite and to explain why temporary and variable conditions of humidity lead to these differences in the tracks. The simulations also demonstrate that track depth alone is insufficient to differentiate true tracks from undertracks and that other discrimination criteria need to be taken into account. The scarcity of baby sauropod tracks is explained because they are shallow and easily eroded.

  20. Statistical integration of tracking and vessel survey data to incorporate life history differences in habitat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hazen, Elliott L; Nishizawa, Bungo; Sasaki, Hiroko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Habitat use is often examined at a species or population level, but patterns likely differ within a species, as a function of the sex, breeding colony, and current breeding status of individuals. Hence, within-species differences should be considered in habitat models when analyzing and predicting species distributions, such as predicted responses to expected climate change scenarios. Also, species' distribution data obtained by different methods (vessel-survey and individual tracking) are often analyzed separately rather than integrated to improve predictions. Here, we eventually fit generalized additive models for Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leuconelas using tracking data from two different breeding colonies in the Northwestern Pacific and visual observer data collected during a research cruise off the coast of western Japan. The tracking-based models showed differences among patterns of relative density distribution as a function of life history category (colony, sex, and breeding conditions). The integrated tracking-based and vessel-based bird count model incorporated ecological states rather than predicting a single surface for the entire species. This study highlights both the importance of including ecological and life history data and integrating multiple data types (tag-based tracking and vessel count) when examining species-environment relationships, ultimately advancing the capabilities of species distribution models.

  1. Segmentation and shape tracking of whole fluorescent cells based on the Chan-Vese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maška, Martin; Daněk, Ondřej; Garasa, Saray; Rouzaut, Ana; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    We present a fast and robust approach to tracking the evolving shape of whole fluorescent cells in time-lapse series. The proposed tracking scheme involves two steps. First, coherence-enhancing diffusion filtering is applied on each frame to reduce the amount of noise and enhance flow-like structures. Second, the cell boundaries are detected by minimizing the Chan-Vese model in the fast level set-like and graph cut frameworks. To allow simultaneous tracking of multiple cells over time, both frameworks have been integrated with a topological prior exploiting the object indication function. The potential of the proposed tracking scheme and the advantages and disadvantages of both frameworks are demonstrated on 2-D and 3-D time-lapse series of rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human lung squamous cell carcinoma cells, respectively.

  2. Trajectory Generation Model-Based IMM Tracking for Safe Driving in Intersection Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking the actions of vehicles at crossroads and planning safe trajectories will be an effective method to reduce the rate of traffic accident at intersections. It is to resolve the problem of the abrupt change because of the existence of drivers' voluntary choices. In this paper, we make approach of an improved IMM tracking method based on trajectory generation, abstracted by trajectory generation algorithm, to improve this situation. Because of the similarity between human-driving trajectory and programming trajectory which is generated by trajectory-generated algorithm, the improved IMM method performs well in tracking moving vehicles with some sudden changes of its movement. A set of data is collected for experiments when an object vehicle takes a sudden left turn in intersection scenario. To compare the experiment results between IMM method with trajectory generation model and the one without, tracking error of the former decreases by 75% in particular scenario.

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Multi-target Multi-sensor Data Fusion for Trajectory Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Singh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of track fusion using various algorthims has been demonstrated . The sensor measurements of these targets are modelled using Kalman filter (KF and interacting multiple models (IMM filter. The joint probabilistic data association filter (JPDAF and neural network fusion (NNF algorithms were used for tracking multiple man-euvring targets. Track association and fusion algorithm are executed to get the fused track data for various scenarios, two sensors tracking a single target to three sensors tracking three targets, to evaluate the effects of multiple and dispersed sensors for single target, two targets, and multiple targets. The targets chosen were distantly spaced, closely spaced and crossing. Performance of different filters was compared and fused trajectory is found to be closer to the true target trajectory as compared to that for any of the sensor measurements of that target.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.205-214, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1513

  4. A two-loop study of the deconfinement transition in Yang-Mills theories: SU(3) and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Reinosa, U; Tissier, M; Wschebor, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of pure Yang-Mills theories at finite temperature within a simple massive extension of standard background field methods. We generalize our recent next-to-leading-order perturbative calculation of the Polyakov loop and the related background field effective potential for the SU(2) theory to any compact and connex Lie group with a simple Lie algebra. We discuss in detail the SU(3) theory, where the two-loop corrections yield improved values for the first order transition temperature as compared to the one-loop result. We show that certain one-loop artifacts of thermodynamical observables disappear at two-loop order, as was already the case for the SU(2) theory. In particular, the entropy and the pressure are positive for all temperatures. We also discuss the groups SU(4) and Sp(2) which shed interesting light, respectively, on the relation between the (de)confinement of static matter sources in the various representations of the gauge group and on the use...

  5. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der Ent

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares three state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. However, there are several atmospheric moisture tracking methods being used in the literature, and depending on the level of aggregation, the assumptions made and the level of detail, the performance of these methods may differ substantially. In this paper, we compare three methods. The RCM-tag method uses highly accurate 3-D water tracking (including phase transitions directly within a regional climate model (online, while the other two methods (WAM and 3D-T use a posteriori (offline water vapour tracking. The original version of WAM makes use of the well-mixed assumption, while 3D-T is a multi-layer model. The a posteriori models are faster and more flexible, but less accurate than online moisture tracking with RCM-tag. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the a posteriori models, we tagged evaporated water from Lake Volta in West Africa and traced it to where it precipitates. It is found that the strong wind shear in West Africa is the main cause of errors in the a posteriori models. The number of vertical layers and the initial release height of tagged water in the model are found to have the most significant influences on the results. With this knowledge small improvements were made to the a posteriori models. It appeared that expanding WAM to a 2 layer model, or a lower release height in 3D-T, led to significantly better results. Finally, we introduced a simple metric to assess wind shear globally and give recommendations about when to use which model. The "best" method, however, very much depends on the spatial extent of the research question as well as the available computational power.

  6. 3D model-based detection and tracking for space autonomous and uncooperative rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Zhang, Yueqiang; Liu, Haibo

    2015-10-01

    In order to fully navigate using a vision sensor, a 3D edge model based detection and tracking technique was developed. Firstly, we proposed a target detection strategy over a sequence of several images from the 3D model to initialize the tracking. The overall purpose of such approach is to robustly match each image with the model views of the target. Thus we designed a line segment detection and matching method based on the multi-scale space technology. Experiments on real images showed that our method is highly robust under various image changes. Secondly, we proposed a method based on 3D particle filter (PF) coupled with M-estimation to track and estimate the pose of the target efficiently. In the proposed approach, a similarity observation model was designed according to a new distance function of line segments. Then, based on the tracking results of PF, the pose was optimized using M-estimation. Experiments indicated that the proposed method can effectively track and accurately estimate the pose of freely moving target in unconstrained environment.

  7. A Combined Methodology of H∞ Fuzzy Tracking Control and Virtual Reference Model for a PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ounnas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a new fuzzy tracking strategy for a permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM by using Takagi-Sugeno models (T-S. A feedback-based fuzzy control with h-infinity tracking performance and a concept of virtual reference model are combined to develop a fuzzy tracking controller capable to track a reference signal and ensure a minimum effect of disturbance on the PMSM system. First, a T-S fuzzy model is used to represent the PMSM nonlinear system with disturbance. Next, an integral fuzzy tracking control based on the concept of virtual desired variables (VDVs is formulated to simplify the design of the virtual reference model and the control law. Finally, based on this concept, a two-stage design procedure is developed: i determine the VDVs from the nonlinear system output equation and generalized kinematics constraints ii calculate the feedback controller gains by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  9. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  10. A stabilized adaptive appearance changes model for 3D head tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Zoran; Heijden, van der Ferdinand; Williams, A.Denise

    2001-01-01

    A simple method is presented for 3D head pose estimation and tracking in monocular image sequences. A generic geometric model is used. The initialization consists of aligning the perspective projection of the geometric model with the subjects head in the initial image. After the initialization, the

  11. Multiple Human Tracking Using Particle Filter with Gaussian Process Dynamical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a particle filter-based multitarget tracking method incorporating Gaussian process dynamical model (GPDM to improve robustness in multitarget tracking. With the particle filter Gaussian process dynamical model (PFGPDM, a high-dimensional target trajectory dataset of the observation space is projected to a low-dimensional latent space in a nonlinear probabilistic manner, which will then be used to classify object trajectories, predict the next motion state, and provide Gaussian process dynamical samples for the particle filter. In addition, Histogram-Bhattacharyya, GMM Kullback-Leibler, and the rotation invariant appearance models are employed, respectively, and compared in the particle filter as complimentary features to coordinate data used in GPDM. The simulation results demonstrate that the approach can track more than four targets with reasonable runtime overhead and performance. In addition, it can successfully deal with occasional missing frames and temporary occlusion.

  12. A Hidden Markov Movement Model for rapidly identifying behavioral states from animal tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whoriskey, Kim; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2017-01-01

    1. Electronic telemetry is frequently used to document animal movement through time. Methods that can identify underlying behaviors driving specific movement patterns can help us understand how and why animals use available space, thereby aiding conservation and management efforts. For aquatic....... 2. We developed a new Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for identifying behavioral states from animal tracks with negligible error, which we called the Hidden Markov Movement Model (HMMM). We implemented as the basis for the HMMM the process equation of the DCRWS, but we used the method of maximum...... animal tracking data with significant measurement error, a Bayesian state-space model called the first-Difference Correlated Random Walk with Switching (DCRWS) has often been used for this purpose. However, for aquatic animals, highly accurate tracking data of animal movement are now becoming more common...

  13. Structure simulation in unidirectionally solidified turbine blade by dendrite envelope tracking model(Ⅰ): numerical modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tong-min; I. Ohnaka; H.Yasuda; SU Yan-qing; GUO Jing-jie

    2006-01-01

    A 3D dendrite envelope tracking model was developed for estimating the solidification structure of unidirectionally solidified turbine blade. The normal vector of dendrite envelope was estimated by the gradient of dendrite volume fraction, and growth velocity of the dendrite envelope (dendrite tips) was calculated with considering the anisotropy of grain growth. The solute redistribution at dendrite envelope was calculated by introducing an effective solute partition coefficient(ke). Simulation results show that the solute-build-up due to the rejection at envelope affects grain competition and consequently the solidification structure. The lower value of ke leads to more waved dendrite growth front and higher solute rejection. The model was applied to predict the structure of turbine-blade-shape samples showing good ability to reproduce the columnar and single grain structures.

  14. An Improved Interacting Multiple Model Filtering Algorithm Based on the Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the tracking accuracy, model estimation accuracy and quick response of multiple model maneuvering target tracking, the interacting multiple models five degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5CKF is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the interacting multiple models (IMM algorithm processes all the models through a Markov Chain to simultaneously enhance the model tracking accuracy of target tracking. Then a five degree cubature Kalman filter (5CKF evaluates the surface integral by a higher but deterministic odd ordered spherical cubature rule to improve the tracking accuracy and the model switch sensitivity of the IMM algorithm. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm exhibits quick and smooth switching when disposing different maneuver models, and it also performs better than the interacting multiple models cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF, interacting multiple models unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF, 5CKF and the optimal mode transition matrix IMM (OMTM-IMM.

  15. An Improved Interacting Multiple Model Filtering Algorithm Based on the Cubature Kalman Filter for Maneuvering Target Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Gannan

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the tracking accuracy, model estimation accuracy and quick response of multiple model maneuvering target tracking, the interacting multiple models five degree cubature Kalman filter (IMM5CKF) is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the interacting multiple models (IMM) algorithm processes all the models through a Markov Chain to simultaneously enhance the model tracking accuracy of target tracking. Then a five degree cubature Kalman filter (5CKF) evaluates the surface integral by a higher but deterministic odd ordered spherical cubature rule to improve the tracking accuracy and the model switch sensitivity of the IMM algorithm. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm exhibits quick and smooth switching when disposing different maneuver models, and it also performs better than the interacting multiple models cubature Kalman filter (IMMCKF), interacting multiple models unscented Kalman filter (IMMUKF), 5CKF and the optimal mode transition matrix IMM (OMTM-IMM).

  16. Cluster-based centralized data fusion for tracking maneuvering targets using interacting multiple model algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Vaidehi; K Kalavidya; S Indira Gandhi

    2004-04-01

    The interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm has proved to be useful in tracking maneuvering targets. Tracking accuracy can be further improved using data fusion. Tracking of multiple targets using multiple sensors and fusing them at a central site using centralized architecture involves communication of large volumes of measurements to a common site. This results in heavy processing requirement at the central site. Moreover, track updates have to be obtained in the fusion centre before the next measurement arrives. For solving this computational complexity, a cluster-based parallel processing solution is presented in this paper. In this scheme, measurements are sent to the data fusion centre where the measurements are partitioned and given to the slave processors in the cluster. The slave processors use the IMM algorithm to get accurate updates of the tracks. The master processor collects the updated tracks and performs data fusion using ‘weight decision approach’. The improvement in the computation time using clusters in the data fusion centre is presented in this paper.

  17. A Novel Short-Range Prediction Model for Railway Track Irregularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with axle loads, train loads, transport volume, and travel speed constantly increasing and railway network steadily lengthening, shortcomings of current maintenance strategies are getting to be noticed from an economical and safety perspective. To overcome the shortcomings, permanent-of-way departments throughout the world have given a considerable attention to an ideal maintenance strategy which is to carry out appropriate maintenances just in time on track locations really requiring maintenance. This strategy is simplified as the condition-based maintenance (CBM which has attracted attentions of engineers of many industries in the recent 70 years. To implement CBM for track irregularity, there are many issues which need to be addressed. One of them focuses on predicting track irregularity of each day in a future short period. In this paper, based on track irregularity evolution characteristics, a Short-Range Prediction Model was developed to this aim and is abbreviated to TI-SRPM. Performance analysis results for TI-SRPM illustrate that track irregularity amplitude predictions on sampling points by TI-SRPM are very close to their measurements by Track Geometry Car.

  18. Computational Graph Model for 3D Cells Tracking in Zebra Fish Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lelin; Xiong, Hongkai; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2007-11-01

    This paper leads to a novel technique for tracking and identification of zebra-fish cells in 3D image sequences, extending graph-based multi-objects tracking algorithm to 3D applications. As raised in previous work of 2D graph-based method, separated cells are modeled as vertices that connected by edges. Then the tracking work is simplified to that of vertices matching between graphs generated from consecutive frames. Graph-based tracking is composed of three steps: graph generation, initial source vertices selection and graph saturation. To satisfy demands in this work separated cell records are segmented from original datasets using 3D level-set algorithms. Besides, advancements are achieved in each of the step including graph regulations, multi restrictions on source vertices and enhanced flow quantifications. Those strategies make a good compensation for graph-based multi-objects tracking method in 2D space. Experiments are carried out in 3D datasets sampled from zebra fish, results of which shows that this enhanced method could be potentially applied to tracking of objects with diverse features.

  19. Two-loop dimensional reduction and effective potential without temperature expansions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Laine; Losada, M.

    2000-01-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, finite temperature computations are complicated by a hierarchy of zero temperature mass scales, in addition to the usual thermal mass scales. We extend the standard thermal resummations to such a situation, and discuss the 2-loop computations of the Higgs effective potential, and an effective 3d field theory for the electroweak phase transition, without carrying out high or low temperature expansions for the heavy masses. We also estimate the accuracy...

  20. A numerical model for the thermal history of rocks based on confined horizontal fission tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Klint; Hansen, Kirsten; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1992-01-01

    A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities, and the ur......A numerical model for determination of the thermal history of rocks is presented. It is shown that the thermal history may be uniquely determined as a piece-by-piece linear function on the basis of etched confined, horizontal fission track length distributions, their surface densities...

  1. Cell survival in carbon beams - comparison of amorphous track model predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, L.; Greilich, S.; Korcyl, M.

    distribution models, and gamma response models was developed. This software can be used for direct numerical comparison between the models, submodels and their parameters and experimental data. In the present paper, we look at 10%-survival data from cell lines irradiated in vitro with carbon and proton beams......Introduction: Predictions of the radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) play an essential role in treatment planning with heavy charged particles. Amorphous track models ( [1] , [2] , also referred to as track structure models) provide currently the most suitable description of cell survival under ion...... by Tsuruoka et al. [4] . Results and conclusion: Preliminary results show a good agreement of models predictions and the experimental data for clinical doses. When investigating the influence of radial dose distributions on inactivation cross section in the Katz model, we found that one of the most important...

  2. Fuzzy Modeling, Tracking Control and Synchronization of the Rossler's Chaotic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建安; 范丹丹

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method to model, track control and synchronize the Rossler's chaotic system is proposed. The fuzzy logical system is used so that the fuzzy inference rule is transferred into a type of variable coef ficient nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Consequently the model of the chaotic system is obtained. Then a fuzzy tracking control and a fuzzy synchronization for chaotic systems is proposed as well. First, a known tracking control for the Rossler's system is used in this paper. We represent the Rossler's chaotic and control systems into fuzzy inference rules. Then the variable coefficient nonlinear ordinary differential equation is also got. Simulation results show that such an approach is effective and has a high precision.

  3. A hand tracking algorithm with particle filter and improved GVF snake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-qi; Wu, Ai-guo; Dong, Na; Shao, Yi-zhe

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problem that the accurate information of hand cannot be obtained by particle filter, a hand tracking algorithm based on particle filter combined with skin-color adaptive gradient vector flow (GVF) snake model is proposed. Adaptive GVF and skin color adaptive external guidance force are introduced to the traditional GVF snake model, guiding the curve to quickly converge to the deep concave region of hand contour and obtaining the complex hand contour accurately. This algorithm realizes a real-time correction of the particle filter parameters, avoiding the particle drift phenomenon. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the root mean square error of the hand tracking by 53%, and improve the accuracy of hand tracking in the case of complex and moving background, even with a large range of occlusion.

  4. Fuzzy Neural Network-Based Interacting Multiple Model for Multi-Node Target Tracking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoliang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An interacting multiple model for multi-node target tracking algorithm was proposed based on a fuzzy neural network (FNN to solve the multi-node target tracking problem of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Measured error variance was adaptively adjusted during the multiple model interacting output stage using the difference between the theoretical and estimated values of the measured error covariance matrix. The FNN fusion system was established during multi-node fusion to integrate with the target state estimated data from different nodes and consequently obtain network target state estimation. The feasibility of the algorithm was verified based on a network of nine detection nodes. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm could trace the maneuvering target effectively under sensor failure and unknown system measurement errors. The proposed algorithm exhibited great practicability in the multi-node target tracking of WSNs.

  5. Two-loop dimensional reduction and effective potential without temperature expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, finite temperature computations are complicated by a hierarchy of zero temperature mass scales, in addition to the usual thermal mass scales. We extend the standard thermal resummations to such a situation, and discuss the 2-loop computations of the Higgs effective potential, and an effective 3d field theory for the electroweak phase transition, without carrying out high or low temperature expansions for the heavy masses. We also estimate the accuracy of the temperature expansions previously used for the MSSM electroweak phase transition in the presence of a heavy left-handed stop. We find that the low temperature limit of dealing with the left-handed stop is accurate up to surprisingly high temperatures.

  6. Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model helps track air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroTrac is a model that uses global positioning system (GPS) data to estimate time of day and duration that people spend in different microenvironments (e.g., indoors and outdoors at home, work, school).

  7. 3D model-based catheter tracking for motion compensation in EP procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Alexander; Liao, Rui; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2010-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained heart arrhythmia and a leading cause of stroke. Its treatment by radio-frequency catheter ablation, performed using fluoroscopic image guidance, is gaining increasingly more importance. Two-dimensional fluoroscopic navigation can take advantage of overlay images derived from pre-operative 3-D data to add anatomical details otherwise not visible under X-ray. Unfortunately, respiratory motion may impair the utility of these static overlay images for catheter navigation. We developed an approach for image-based 3-D motion compensation as a solution to this problem. A bi-plane C-arm system is used to take X-ray images of a special circumferential mapping catheter from two directions. In the first step of the method, a 3-D model of the device is reconstructed. Three-dimensional respiratory motion at the site of ablation is then estimated by tracking the reconstructed catheter model in 3-D. This step involves bi-plane fluoroscopy and 2-D/3-D registration. Phantom data and clinical data were used to assess our model-based catheter tracking method. Experiments involving a moving heart phantom yielded an average 2-D tracking error of 1.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 1.1 mm. Our evaluation of clinical data sets comprised 469 bi-plane fluoroscopy frames (938 monoplane fluoroscopy frames). We observed an average 2-D tracking error of 1.0 mm +/- 0.4 mm and an average 3-D tracking error of 0.8 mm +/- 0.5 mm. These results demonstrate that model-based motion-compensation based on 2-D/3-D registration is both feasible and accurate.

  8. High-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators using an ellipse-based hysteresis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guoying; Zhu, Limin

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, an ellipse-based mathematic model is developed to characterize the rate-dependent hysteresis in piezoelectric actuators. Based on the proposed model, an expanded input space is constructed to describe the multivalued hysteresis function H[u](t) by a multiple input single output (MISO) mapping Gamma:R(2)-->R. Subsequently, the inverse MISO mapping Gamma(-1)(H[u](t),H[u](t);u(t)) is proposed for real-time hysteresis compensation. In controller design, a hybrid control strategy combining a model-based feedforward controller and a proportional integral differential (PID) feedback loop is used for high-accuracy and high-speed tracking control of piezoelectric actuators. The real-time feedforward controller is developed to cancel the rate-dependent hysteresis based on the inverse hysteresis model, while the PID controller is used to compensate for the creep, modeling errors, and parameter uncertainties. Finally, experiments with and without hysteresis compensation are conducted and the experimental results are compared. The experimental results show that the hysteresis compensation in the feedforward path can reduce the hysteresis-caused error by up to 88% and the tracking performance of the hybrid controller is greatly improved in high-speed tracking control applications, e.g., the root-mean-square tracking error is reduced to only 0.34% of the displacement range under the input frequency of 100 Hz.

  9. Severe accident analysis in a two-loop PWR nuclear power plant with the ASTEC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, Sinisa; Amizic, Milan; Grgic, Davor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2013-12-15

    The ASTEC/V2.0 computer code was used to simulate a hypothetical severe accident sequence in the nuclear power plant Krsko, a 2-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. ASTEC is an integral code jointly developed by Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS, Germany) to assess nuclear power plant behaviour during a severe accident. The analysis was conducted in 2 steps. First, the steady state calculation was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the plant model and to obtain correct initial conditions for the accident analysis. The second step was the calculation of the station blackout accident with a leakage of the primary coolant through degraded reactor coolant pump seals, which was a small LOCA without makeup capability. Two scenarios were analyzed: one with and one without the auxiliary feedwater (AFW). The latter scenario, without the AFW, resulted in earlier core damage. In both cases, the accident ended with a core melt and a reactor pressure vessel failure with significant release of hydrogen. In addition, results of the ASTEC calculation were compared with results of the RELAP5/SCDAPSIM calculation for the same transient scenario. The results comparison showed a good agreement between predictions of those 2 codes. (orig.)

  10. Two-loop planar master integrals for Higgs$\\to 3$ partons with full heavy-quark mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, Roberto; Frellesvig, Hjalte; Henn, Johannes M; Moriello, Francesco; Smirnov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytic computation of all the planar master integrals which contribute to the two-loop scattering amplitudes for Higgs$\\to 3$ partons, with full heavy-quark mass dependence. These are relevant for the NNLO corrections to fully inclusive Higgs production and to the NLO corrections to Higgs production in association with a jet, in the full theory. The computation is performed using the differential equations method. Whenever possible, a basis of master integrals that are pure functions of uniform weight is used. The result is expressed in terms of one-fold integrals of polylogarithms and elementary functions up to transcendental weight four. Two integral sectors are expressed in terms of elliptic functions. We show that by introducing a one-dimensional parametrization of the integrals the relevant second order differential equation can be readily solved, and the solution can be expressed to all orders of the dimensional regularization parameter in terms of iterated integrals over elliptic kerne...

  11. Model update mechanism for mean-shift tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Ningsong; Yang Jie; Liu Erqi

    2005-01-01

    In order to solve the model update problem in mean-shift based tracker, a novel mechanism is proposed.Kalman filter is employed to update object model by filtering object kernel-histogram using previous model and current candidate. A self-tuning method is used for adaptively adjust all the parameters of the filters under the analysis of the filtering residuals. In addition, hypothesis testing servers as the criterion for determining whether to accept filtering result. Therefore, the tracker has the ability to handle occlusion so as to avoid over-update. The experimental results show that our method can not only keep up with the object appearance and scale changes but also be robust to occlusion.

  12. Design of a Discrete Tracking Controller for a Magnetic Levitation System: A Nonlinear Rational Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a discrete-time nonlinear rational approximate model for the unstable magnetic levitation system. Based on this model and as an application of the input-output linearization technique, a discrete-time tracking control design will be derived using the corresponding classical state space representation of the model. A simulation example illustrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  13. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available or the gradient of the slope being traversed by the platform. This paper presents the model of a tracked mobile manipulator for tipover stability analysis in stope mining environments. The Force Angle stability measure is used to compute the stability index...

  14. Online learning and fusion of orientation appearance models for robust rigid object tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marras, Ioannis; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a robust framework for learning and fusing of orientation appearance models based on both texture and depth information for rigid object tracking. Our framework fuses data obtained from a standard visual camera and dense depth maps obtained by low-cost consumer depth cameras such as the

  15. Pedestrian detection and tracking using a mixture of view-based shape-texture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munder, S.; Schnörr, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust multicue approach to the integrated detection and tracking of pedestrians in a cluttered urban environment. A novel spatiotemporal object representation is proposed, which combines a generative shape model and a discriminative texture classifier, both of which are compos

  16. Pedestrian detection and tracking using a mixture of view-based shape-texture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munder, S.; Schnörr, C.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust multicue approach to the integrated detection and tracking of pedestrians in a cluttered urban environment. A novel spatiotemporal object representation is proposed, which combines a generative shape model and a discriminative texture classifier, both of which are

  17. Model Based Design of Video Tracking Based on MATLAB/Simulink and DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chachou Mohamed Yacine

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of digital image processing on electronic boards is a current problem. In this study, we present a Model-Based Design of video tracking based on Matlab/Simulink and DSP. The implementation on DSP, of multi-objects detection and tracking algorithms of two kinds of applications inside and outside, is obtained by using automatic code generation that is code composer studio. The transmission and reception of data is realized by a network connection via Ethernet port between DSP and PC. This allows us, in the future, to extend the number of DSP working in parallel and their IP addresses would be generated by a DHCP server.

  18. Barrier traversal times using a phenomenological track formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Brouard, S; Jadczyk, A

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological model for a measurement of barrier traversal times for particles is proposed. Two idealized detectors for passage and arrival provide entrance and exit times for the barrier traversal. The averaged traversal time is computed over the ensemble of particles detected twice, before and after the barrier. The Hartman effect can still be found when passage detectors that conserve the momentum distribution of the incident packet are used.

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Control Strategy Optimization for a Hybrid Electric Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid electric tracked bulldozer composed of an engine generator, two driving motors, and an ultracapacitor is put forward, which can provide high efficiencies and less fuel consumption comparing with traditional ones. This paper first presents the terramechanics of this hybrid electric tracked bulldozer. The driving dynamics for this tracked bulldozer is then analyzed. After that, based on analyzing the working characteristics of the engine, generator, and driving motors, the power train system model and control strategy optimization is established by using MATLAB/Simulink and OPTIMUS software. Simulation is performed under a representative working condition, and the results demonstrate that fuel economy of the HETV can be significantly improved.

  20. Data-Driven Multiagent Systems Consensus Tracking Using Model Free Adaptive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xuhui; Hou, Zhongsheng; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-03-14

    This paper investigates the data-driven consensus tracking problem for multiagent systems with both fixed communication topology and switching topology by utilizing a distributed model free adaptive control (MFAC) method. Here, agent's dynamics are described by unknown nonlinear systems and only a subset of followers can access the desired trajectory. The dynamical linearization technique is applied to each agent based on the pseudo partial derivative, and then, a distributed MFAC algorithm is proposed to ensure that all agents can track the desired trajectory. It is shown that the consensus error can be reduced for both time invariable and time varying desired trajectories. The main feature of this design is that consensus tracking can be achieved using only input-output data of each agent. The effectiveness of the proposed design is verified by simulation examples.

  1. Modeling nitrogen transport and transformation in aquifers using a particle-tracking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhengtao; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.

    2014-09-01

    We have integrated multispecies biodegradation and geochemical reactions into an existing particle-tracking code to simulate reactive transport in three-dimensional variably saturated media, with a focus on nitrification and denitrification processes. This new numerical model includes reactive air-phase transport so that gases such as N2 and CO2 can be tracked. Although nitrogen biodegradation is the primary problem addressed here, the method presented is also applicable to other reactive multispecies transport problems. We verified the model by comparison with (1) analytical solutions for saturated one- and two-dimensional cases; (2) a finite element model for a one-dimensional unsaturated case; and (3) laboratory observations for a one-dimensional saturated case. Good agreement between the new code and the verification problems is demonstrated. The new model can simulate nitrogen transport and transformation in a heterogeneous permeability field where sharp concentration gradients are present. An example application to nitrogen species biodegradation and transport of a plume emanating from a leaking sewer in a heterogeneous, variably saturated aquifer is presented to illustrate this capability. This example is a novel application of coupling unsaturated/saturated zone transport with nitrogen species biodegradation. The code has the computational advantages of particle-tracking algorithms, including local and global mass conservation and minimal numerical dispersion. We also present new methods for improving particle code efficiency by implementing the concept of tracking surplus/deficit particles and particle recycling in order to control the growth of particle numbers. The new model retains the advantages of the particle tracking approach such as allowing relatively low spatial and temporal resolutions to be used, while incorporating the robustness of grid-based Monod kinetics to simulate biogeochemical reactions.

  2. Fuzzy virtual reference model sensorless tracking control for linear induction motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Yao; Liu, Peter; Lian, Kuang-Yow

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a fuzzy virtual reference model (FVRM) synthesis method for linear induction motor (LIM) speed sensorless tracking control. First, we represent the LIM as a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Second, we estimate the immeasurable mover speed and secondary flux by a fuzzy observer. Third, to convert the speed tracking control into a stabilization problem, we define the internal desired states for state tracking via an FVRM. Finally, by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), we obtain the observer gains and the control gains where exponential convergence is guaranteed. The contributions of the approach in this paper are threefold: 1) simplified approach--speed tracking problem converted into stabilization problem; 2) omit need of actual reference model--FVRM generates internal desired states; and 3) unification of controller and observer design--control objectives are formulated into an LMI problem where powerful numerical toolboxes solve controller and observer gains. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and show satisfactory performance both in transient response and robustness.

  3. Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.

  4. Variable structure multiple model for articulated human motion tracking from monocular video sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hong; TONG MingLei; CHEN ZhiChao; FAN YouJian

    2012-01-01

    A new model-based human body tracking framework with learning-based theory is introduced inthis paper.We propose a variable structure multiple model (VSMM) framework to address challenging problems such as uncertainty of motion styles,imprecise detection of feature points,and ambiguity of joint locations.Key human joint points are detected automatically and the undetected points are estimated with Kalman filters.Multiple motion models are learned from motion capture data using a ridge regression method.The model set that covers the total motion set is designed on the basis of topological and compatibility relationships,while the VSMM algorithm is used to estimate quaternion vectors of joint rotation.Experiments using real image sequences and simulation videos demonstrate the high efficiency of our proposed human tracking framework.

  5. Surrogate-driven deformable motion model for organ motion tracking in particle radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassi, Aurora; Seregni, Matteo; Riboldi, Marco; Cerveri, Pietro; Sarrut, David; Battista Ivaldi, Giovanni; Tabarelli de Fatis, Paola; Liotta, Marco; Baroni, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is the development and experimental testing of a tumor tracking method for particle radiation therapy, providing the daily respiratory dynamics of the patient’s thoraco-abdominal anatomy as a function of an external surface surrogate combined with an a priori motion model. The proposed tracking approach is based on a patient-specific breathing motion model, estimated from the four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomography (CT) through deformable image registration. The model is adapted to the interfraction baseline variations in the patient’s anatomical configuration. The driving amplitude and phase parameters are obtained intrafractionally from a respiratory surrogate signal derived from the external surface displacement. The developed technique was assessed on a dataset of seven lung cancer patients, who underwent two repeated 4D CT scans. The first 4D CT was used to build the respiratory motion model, which was tested on the second scan. The geometric accuracy in localizing lung lesions, mediated over all breathing phases, ranged between 0.6 and 1.7 mm across all patients. Errors in tracking the surrounding organs at risk, such as lungs, trachea and esophagus, were lower than 1.3 mm on average. The median absolute variation in water equivalent path length (WEL) within the target volume did not exceed 1.9 mm-WEL for simulated particle beams. A significant improvement was achieved compared with error compensation based on standard rigid alignment. The present work can be regarded as a feasibility study for the potential extension of tumor tracking techniques in particle treatments. Differently from current tracking methods applied in conventional radiotherapy, the proposed approach allows for the dynamic localization of all anatomical structures scanned in the planning CT, thus providing complete information on density and WEL variations required for particle beam range adaptation.

  6. Antarctic firn compaction rates from repeat-track airborne radar data: II. Firn model evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The thickness and density of the Antarctic firn layer vary considerably in time and space, thereby contributing to ice-sheet volume and mass changes. Distinguishing between these mass and volume changes is important for ice-sheet mass-balance studies. Evolution of firn layer depth and density is often modeled, because direct measurements are scarce. Here we directly compare modeled firn compaction rates with observed rates obtained from repeat-track airborne radar data over a 2 year interval ...

  7. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, R. J.; Tuinenburg, O. A.; Knoche, H.-R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-12-01

    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are several atmospheric moisture tracking methods in use. However, depending on the level of aggregation, the assumptions made and the level of detail, the performance of these methods may differ substantially. In this paper, we compare three methods. The RCM-tag method uses highly accurate 3-D water tracking (including phase transitions) directly within a regional climate model (online), while the other two methods (WAM and 3D-T) use a posteriori (offline) water vapour tracking. The original version of WAM is a single-layer model, while 3D-T is a multi-layer model, but both make use the "well-mixed" assumption for evaporation and precipitation. The a posteriori models are faster and more flexible, but less accurate than online moisture tracking with RCM-tag. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the a posteriori models, we tagged evaporated water from Lake Volta in West Africa and traced it to where it precipitates. It is found that the strong wind shear in West Africa is the main cause of errors in the a posteriori models. The number of vertical layers and the initial release height of tagged water in the model are found to have the most significant influences on the results. With this knowledge small improvements have been made to the a posteriori models. It appeared that expanding WAM to a 2-layer model, or a lower release height in 3D-T, led to significantly better results. Finally, we introduced a simple metric to assess wind shear globally and give recommendations about when to use which model. The "best" method, however, very much depends on the research question, the spatial extent under investigation, as well as the available computational power.

  8. On-Line RSSI-Range Model Learning for Target Localization and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramiro Martínez-de Dios

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI with the environment are very difficult to be modeled, inducing significant errors in RSSI-range models and highly disturbing target localization and tracking methods. Some techniques adopt a training-based approach in which they off-line learn the RSSI-range characteristics of the environment in a prior training phase. However, the training phase is a time-consuming process and must be repeated in case of changes in the environment, constraining flexibility and adaptability. This paper presents schemes in which each anchor node on-line learns its RSSI-range models adapted to the particularities of its environment and then uses its trained model for target localization and tracking. Two methods are presented. The first uses the information of the location of anchor nodes to dynamically adapt the RSSI-range model. In the second one, each anchor node uses estimates of the target location –anchor nodes are assumed equipped with cameras—to on-line adapt its RSSI-range model. The paper presents both methods, describes their operation integrated in localization and tracking schemes and experimentally evaluates their performance in the UBILOC testbed.

  9. Segmentation and Tracking of Lymphocytes Based on Modified Active Contour Models in Phase Contrast Microscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an improved active contour model for segmenting and tracking accurate boundaries of the single lymphocyte in phase-contrast microscopic images. Active contour models have been widely used in object segmentation and tracking. However, current external-force-inspired methods are weak at handling low-contrast edges and suffer from initialization sensitivity. In order to segment low-contrast boundaries, we combine the region information of the object, extracted by morphology gray-scale reconstruction, and the edge information, extracted by the Laplacian of Gaussian filter, to obtain an improved feature map to compute the external force field for the evolution of active contours. To alleviate initial location sensitivity, we set the initial contour close to the real boundaries by performing morphological image processing. The proposed method was tested on live lymphocyte images acquired through the phase-contrast microscope from the blood samples of mice, and comparative experimental results showed the advantages of the proposed method in terms of the accuracy and the speed. Tracking experiments showed that the proposed method can accurately segment and track lymphocyte boundaries in microscopic images over time even in the presence of low-contrast edges, which will provide a good prerequisite for the quantitative analysis of lymphocyte morphology and motility.

  10. Real-time visual tracking system modelling in MPSoC using platform based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zai Jian; Bautista, Tomás; Núñez, Antonio; Guerra, Cayetano; Hernández, Mario

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present the modelling of a real-time tracking system on a Multi-Processor System on Chip (MPSoC). Our final goal is to build a more complex computer vision system (CVS) by integrating several applications in a modular way, which performs different kind of data processing issues but sharing a common platform, and this way, a solution for a set of applications using the same architecture is offered and not just for one application. In our current work, a visual tracking system with real-time behaviour (25 frames/sec) is used like a reference application, and also, guidelines for our future CVS applications development. Our algorithm written in C++ is based on correlation technique and the threshold dynamic update approach. After an initial computational complexity analysis, a task-graph was generated from this tracking algorithm. Concurrently with this functionality correctness analysis, a generic model of multi-processor platform was developed. Finally, the tracking system performance mapped onto the proposed architecture and shared resource usage were analyzed to determine the real architecture capacity, and also to find out possible bottlenecks in order to propose new solutions which allow more applications to be mapped on the platform template in the future.

  11. Motion Predicting of Autonomous Tracked Vehicles with Online Slip Model Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise understanding of the mobility is essential for high performance autonomous tracked vehicles in challenging circumstances, though the complex track/terrain interaction is difficult to model. A slip model based on the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICRs of treads is presented and identified to predict the motion of the vehicle in a short term. Unlike many research studies estimating current ICRs locations using velocity measurements for feedback controllers, we focus on predicting the forward trajectories by estimating ICRs locations using position measurements. ICRs locations are parameterized over both tracks rolling speeds and the kinematic parameters are estimated in real time using an extended Kalman filter (EKF without requiring prior knowledge of terrain parameters. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm performs better than the traditional method when the pose measuring frequencies are low. Experiments are conducted on a tracked vehicle with a weight of 13.6 tons. Results demonstrate that the predicted position and heading errors are reduced by about 75% and the reduction of pose errors is over 24% in the absence of the real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS.

  12. A geopotential model from satellite tracking, altimeter, and surface gravity data: GEM-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Marshall, J. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Chinn, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    An improved model of Earth's gravitational field, Goddard Earth Model T-3 (GEM-T3), has been developed from a combination of satellite tracking, satellite altimeter, and surface gravimetric data. GEM-T3 provides a significant improvement in the modeling of the gravity field at half wavelengths of 400 km and longer. This model, complete to degree and order 50, yields more accurate satellite orbits and an improved geoid representation than previous Goddard Earth Models. GEM-T3 uses altimeter data from GEOS 3 (1975-1976), Seasat (1978) and Geosat (1986-1987). Tracking information used in the solution includes more than 1300 arcs of data encompassing 31 different satellites. The recovery of the long-wavelength components of the solution relies mostly on highly precise satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, but also includes Tracking Network (TRANET) Doppler, optical, and satellite-to-satellite tracking acquired between the ATS 6 and GEOS 3 satellites. The main advances over GEM-T2 (beyond the inclusion of altimeter and surface gravity information which is essential for the resolution of the shorter wavelength geoid) are some improved tracking data analysis approaches and additional SLR data. Although the use of altimeter data has greatly enhanced the modeling of the ocean geoid between 65 deg N and 60 deg S latitudes in GEM-T3, the lack of accurate detailed surface gravimetry leaves poor geoid resolution over many continental regions of great tectonic interest (e.g., Himalayas, Andes). Estimates of polar motion, tracking station coordinates, and long-wavelength ocean tidal terms were also made (accounting for 6330 parameters). GEM-T3 has undergone error calibration using a technique based on subset solutions to produce reliable error estimates. The calibration is based on the condition that the expected mean square deviation of a subset gravity solution from the full set values is predicted by the solutions' error covariances. Data weights are iteratively adjusted until

  13. Computer generated track and field scoring tables: II. Theoretical foundation and development of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, J G

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made into the subject of scoring tables for track and field with emphasis on the application of computers to calculate and output the tables. The resulting scoring tables represent an attempt to describe the effective quality of performance for track and field events. This paper is published in three parts. The first portion reviewed the historical development of scoring tables. This part concerns the theoretical foundation and development of a mathematical model. A set of underlying principles and construction guidelines are established as a basis for all scoring tables. In order to satisfy the goals, a model which includes an exponential term is developed. The concept of a zero offset is introduced as a boundary value for the low-level performances. The final part concerns an evaluation of the model and an analysis of the point scores for different events.

  14. Analysis of Vibrations Generated by the Presence of Corrugation in a Modeled Tram Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia I. Real Herráiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the development of the railway system. Despite the huge benefits of railways, one of the main drawbacks of this mode of transport is vibrations caused by vehicles in service, especially in the case of trams circulating in urban areas. Moreover, this undesirable phenomenon may be exacerbated by the presence of irregularities in the rail-wheel contact. Thus, an analytical model able to reproduce the vibrational behavior of a real stretch of tram track was implemented. Besides, a simulation of different types of corrugation was carried out by calculating in an auxiliary model the dynamic overloads generated by corrugation. These dynamic overloads fed the main model to obtain the vibrations generated and then transmitted to the track.

  15. Optimal tracking of a sEMG based force model for a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Chandrasekhar; Anugolu, Madhavi; Yihun, Yimesker; Jensen, Alex; Chiu, Steve; Schoen, Marco P; Naidu, D Subbaram

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a surface electromyographic (sEMG)-based, optimal control strategy for a prosthetic hand. System Identification (SI) is used to obtain the dynamic relation between the sEMG and the corresponding skeletal muscle force. The input sEMG signal is preprocessed using a Half-Gaussian filter and fed to a fusion-based Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) skeletal muscle force model. This MISO system model provides the estimated finger forces to be produced as input to the prosthetic hand. Optimal tracking method has been applied to track the estimated force profile of the Fusion based sEMG-force model. The simulation results show good agreement between reference force profile and the actual force.

  16. Eye-tracking measurements and their link to a normative model of monitoring behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Catrin; Bruder, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Increasing automation necessitates operators monitoring appropriately (OMA) and raises the question of how to identify them in future selections. A normative model was developed providing criteria for the identification of OMA. According to this model, the monitoring process comprises distinct monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection and recheck) in which attention should be focused on relevant areas. The current study tests the normative model on the basis of eye tracking. The eye-tracking data revealed increased concentration on relevant areas during the orientation and anticipation phase in comparison to the other phases. For the assessment of monitoring behaviour in the context of personnel selection, this implies that the anticipation and orientation phases should be considered separately as they appear to be more important in the context of monitoring than the other phases. A normative model was developed for the assessment of monitoring behaviour. Using the eye-tracking method, this model was tested with applicants for an Air Traffic Controller training programme. The results are relevant for the future selection of human operators, who will have to monitor highly automated systems.

  17. Algebraic model for bubble tracking in horizontal gas-liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Felipe G.C. de; Tisserant, Hendy R. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Morales, Rigoberto E.M. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais; Mazza, Ricardo A.; Rosa, Eugenio S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    The current work extends the concept of unit-cell applied in gas-liquid slug flow models to predict the evolution of the gas and liquid flow properties along a horizontal pipe. The motivation of this model is its simplicity, easiness of application and low computational cost. It is a useful tool of reference data generation in order to check the consistency of numerical slug tracking models. The potential of the model is accessed by comparing the gas bubbles and liquid slug sizes, the translational bubble velocity and the pressure drop against experimental data. (author)

  18. Vector modeling and track simulation in axial turn-milling motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zeng-hui; JIA Chun-de

    2005-01-01

    Through vector analysis the kinetic vector model is built in a machining cylinder surface through axial turn-milling. When building a kinetic vector model in the machining field, machining through axial turn-milling and using equilateral triangles and square prism surfaces, the kinetic vector model is given any equilateral polygon prismic surface. Kinetic tracks are simulated through these kinetic models respectively, thus it can be seen that the axial turn-milling is a very effective method in manufacturing any equilateral, polygon, prismic surface.

  19. Two--Loop Anomalous Dimension Matrix for $\\Delta S=1$ Weak Non-Leptonic Decays; 2, ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_e \\alpha_s)$

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Lautenbacher, M E; Buras, Andrzej J.; Jamin, Matthias; Lautenbacher, Markus E.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the $10\\times 10$ two--loop anomalous dimension matrix to order $\\ord(\\alpha_e \\alpha_s)$ in the dimensional regularization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ (NDR) which is necessary for the extension of the $\\Delta S=1$ weak Hamiltonian involving electroweak penguins beyond the leading logarithmic approximation. We demonstrate, how a direct calculation of penguin diagrams involving $\\gamma_5$ in closed fermion loops can be avoided thus allowing a consistent calculation of two--loop anomalous dimensions in the simplest renormalization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_5$ in $D$ dimensions. We give the necessary one--loop finite terms which allow to obtain the corresponding two--loop anomalous dimension matrix in the HV scheme with non--anticommuting $\\gamma_5$.

  20. GEM: a dynamic tracking model for mesoscale eddies in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Yang; Sun, Liang; Lin, Sheng-Fu

    2016-12-01

    The Genealogical Evolution Model (GEM) presented here is an efficient logical model used to track dynamic evolution of mesoscale eddies in the ocean. It can distinguish between different dynamic processes (e.g., merging and splitting) within a dynamic evolution pattern, which is difficult to accomplish using other tracking methods. To this end, the GEM first uses a two-dimensional (2-D) similarity vector (i.e., a pair of ratios of overlap area between two eddies to the area of each eddy) rather than a scalar to measure the similarity between eddies, which effectively solves the "missing eddy" problem (temporarily lost eddy in tracking). Second, for tracking when an eddy splits, the GEM uses both "parent" (the original eddy) and "child" (eddy split from parent) and the dynamic processes are described as the birth and death of different generations. Additionally, a new look-ahead approach with selection rules effectively simplifies computation and recording. All of the computational steps are linear and do not include iteration. Given the pixel number of the target region L, the maximum number of eddies M, the number N of look-ahead time steps, and the total number of time steps T, the total computer time is O(LM(N + 1)T). The tracking of each eddy is very smooth because we require that the snapshots of each eddy on adjacent days overlap one another. Although eddy splitting or merging is ubiquitous in the ocean, they have different geographic distributions in the North Pacific Ocean. Both the merging and splitting rates of the eddies are high, especially at the western boundary, in currents and in "eddy deserts". The GEM is useful not only for satellite-based observational data, but also for numerical simulation outputs. It is potentially useful for studying dynamic processes in other related fields, e.g., the dynamics of cyclones in meteorology.

  1. Tracking multiple people under occlusion and across cameras using probabilistic models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan-he WANG; Ji-lin LIU

    2009-01-01

    Tracking multiple people under occlusion and across cameras is a challenging question for discussion. Furthermore,the cameras in this study are used to extend the field of view, which are distinguished from the same field of view. Such correspondence between multiple cameras is a burgeoning research subject in the area of computer vision. This paper effectively solves the problems of tracking multiple people who pass from one camera to another and segmenting people under occlusion using probabilistic models. The probabilistic models are composed of blob model, motion model and color model, which make the most of the space, motion and color information. First, we present a color model that uses maximum likelihood estimation based on non-parametric kernel density estimation. Second, we introduce a blob model based on mean shift, which segments the body into many regions according to the color of each person in order to spatially localize the color features corresponding to the way people are dressed. Clothes can be any mixture of colors. Third, we bring forward a motion model based on statistical probability which indicates the movement position of the same person between two successive frames in a single camera. Finally, we effectively unify the three models into a general probabilistic model and attain a maximization likelihood probability image, which is used to segment the foreground region under occlusion and to match people across multiple cameras.

  2. The calculation of the two-loop spin splitting functions P{sub ij}{sup (1)}(x)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertig, R. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Neerven, W.L. van [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Inst. Lorentz voor Theoretische Natuurkunde

    1995-06-01

    We present the calculation of the two-loop spin splitting functions P{sub ij}{sup (1)}(x) (i, j=q, g) contributing to the next-to-leading order corrected spin structure function g{sub 1}(x, Q{sup 2}). These splitting functions, which are presented in the anti M anti S scheme, are derived from the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} contribution to the anomalous dimensions {gamma}{sup m}{sub ij} (i, j=q, g). The latter correspond to the local operators which appear in the operator product expansion of two electromagnetic currents. Some of the properties of the anomalous dimensions will be discussed. In particular we find that in order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} the supersymmetric relation {gamma}{sup m}{sub qq}+{gamma}{sup m}{sub qg}-{gamma}{sup m}{sub qg}-{gamma}{sup m}{sub gg}=0 is violated. (orig.).

  3. Analytic calculation of two-loop QCD corrections to b → sl+l- in the high q2 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, C.; Pilipp, V.; Schüpbach, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present our results for the NNLL virtual corrections to the matrix elements of the operators O1 and O2 for the inclusive process b → sl+l- in the kinematical region q2 > 4mc2, where q2 is the invariant mass squared of the lepton-pair. This is the first analytic two-loop calculation of these matrix elements in the high q2 region. We give the matrix elements as an expansion in mc/mb and keep the full analytic dependence on q2. Making extensive use of differential equation techniques, we fully automatize the expanding of the Feynman integrals in mc/mb. In coincidence with an earlier work where the master integrals were obtained numerically [1], we find that in the high q2 region the αs corrections to the matrix elements langlesl+l-|O1,2|brangle calculated in the present paper lead to a decrease of the perturbative part of the q2-spectrum by 10%-15% relative to the NNLL result in which these contributions are put to zero and reduce the renormalization scale uncertainty to ~ 2%.

  4. Two-loop master integrals for the mixed EW-QCD virtual corrections to Drell-Yan scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonciani, Roberto; Di Vita, Stefano; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Schubert, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    We present the calculation of the master integrals needed for the two-loop QCD × EW corrections to q+overline{q}to {l}-+{l}+ and q+overline{q}^'to {l}-+overline{ν} , for massless external particles. We treat the W and Z bosons as degenerate in mass. We identify three types of diagrams, according to the presence of massive internal lines: the no-mass type, the one-mass type, and the two-mass type, where all massive propagators, when occurring, contain the same mass value. We find a basis of 49 master integrals and evaluate them with the method of the differential equations. The Magnus exponential is employed to choose a set of master integrals that obeys a canonical system of differential equations. Boundary conditions are found either by matching the solutions onto simpler integrals in special kinematic configurations, or by requiring the regularity of the solution at pseudothresholds. The canonical master integrals are finally given as Taylor series around d = 4 space-time dimensions, up to order four, with coefficients given in terms of iterated integrals, respectively up to weight four.

  5. Two-loop master integrals for the mixed EW-QCD virtual corrections to Drell-Yan scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonciani, Roberto [' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione Roma (Italy); Di Vita, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia; INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Schubert, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    We present the calculation of the master integrals needed for the two-loop QCD x EW corrections to q+ anti q → l{sup -}+l{sup +} and q+ anti q{sup '} → l{sup -}+ anti ν, for massless external particles. We treat W and Z bosons as degenerate in mass. We identify three types of diagrams, according to the presence of massive internal lines: the no-mass type, the one-mass type, and the two-mass type, where all massive propagators, when occurring, contain the same mass value. We find a basis of 49 master integrals and evaluate them with the method of the differential equations. The Magnus exponential is employed to choose a set of master integrals that obeys a canonical system of differential equations. Boundary conditions are found either by matching the solutions onto simpler integrals in special kinematic configurations, or by requiring the regularity of the solution at pseudo-thresholds. The canonical master integrals are finally given as Taylor series around d=4 space-time dimensions, up to order four, with coefficients given in terms of iterated integrals, respectively up to weight four.

  6. A combined enthalpy / front tracking method for modelling melting and solidification in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, G.; Mirihanage, W. U.; Tong, M.; Browne, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    The authors present an integrated meso-scale 2D numerical model for the simulation of laser spot welding of a Fe-Cr-Ni steel. The melting of the parent materials due to the applied heating power is an important phenomenon, leading to the formation of the weld pool and the subsequent conditions from which solidification proceeds. This model deals with the dynamic formation of the weld pool whereby melting may be occurring at a given location while solidification has already commenced elsewhere throughout the weld pool. Considering both melting and possible simultaneous solidification in this manner ensures a more accurate simulation of temperature distribution. A source based enthalpy method is employed throughout the calculation domain in order to integrate the melting model with the UCD front tracking model for alloy solidification. Melting is tracked via interpolation of the liquidus isotherm, while solidification is treated via both the tracking of the advancing columnar dendritic front, and the nucleation and growth of equiaxed dendrites using a volume-averaging formulation. Heterogeneous nucleation is assumed to take place on TiN grain refiner particles at a grain refiner density of 1000 particles per mm2. A mechanical blocking criterion is used to define dendrite coherency, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition within the weld pool is predicted.

  7. Two-loop fermion self-energy in reduced quantum electrodynamics and application to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We compute the two-loop fermion self-energy in massless reduced quantum electrodynamics for an arbitrary gauge using the method of integration by parts. Focusing on the limit where the photon field is four-dimensional, our formula involves only recursively one-loop integrals and can therefore be evaluated exactly. From this formula, we deduce the anomalous scaling dimension of the fermion field as well as the renormalized fermion propagator up to two loops. The results are then applied to the ultra-relativistic limit of graphene and compared with similar results obtained for four-dimensional and three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation of 3-D Melting Using Double MRT Model with Interfacial Tracking Method

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...

  10. 3D environment modeling and location tracking using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert H.

    2016-05-01

    The remarkable popularity of smartphones over the past decade has led to a technological race for dominance in market share. This has resulted in a flood of new processors and sensors that are inexpensive, low power and high performance. These sensors include accelerometers, gyroscope, barometers and most importantly cameras. This sensor suite, coupled with multicore processors, allows a new community of researchers to build small, high performance platforms for low cost. This paper describes a system using off-the-shelf components to perform position tracking as well as environment modeling. The system relies on tracking using stereo vision and inertial navigation to determine movement of the system as well as create a model of the environment sensed by the system.

  11. Model-based passive acoustic tracking of sperm whale foraging behavior in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Christopher; Thode, Aaron; Straley, Jan; Folkert, Kendall; O'Connell, Victoria

    2005-09-01

    In 2004, the Southeast Alaska Sperm Whale Avoidance Project (SEASWAP) introduced the use of passive acoustics to help monitor the behavior of sperm whales depredating longline fishing operations. Acoustic data from autonomous recorders mounted on longlines provide the opportunity to demonstrate a tracking algorithm based on acoustic propagation modeling while providing insight into whales' foraging behavior. With knowledge of azimuthally dependent bathymetry, a 3D track of whale motion can be obtained using data from just one hydrophone by exploiting multipath arrival information from recorded sperm whale clicks. The evolution of multipath arrival patterns is matched to range-, depth-, and azimuth-dependent modeled arrival patterns to generate an estimate of whale motion. This technique does not require acoustic ray identification (i.e., direct path, surface reflected, etc.) while still utilizing individual ray arrival information, and it can also account for all waveguide propagation physics such as interaction with range-dependent bathymetry and ray refraction.

  12. Technical Note on a Track-pattern-based Model for Predicting Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Activity over the Western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Hoi HO; Joo-Hong KIM; Hyeong-Seog KIM; Woosuk CHOI; Min-Hee LEE; Hee-Dong YOO; Tae-Ryong KIM

    2013-01-01

    Recently,the National Typhoon Center (NTC) at the Korea Meteorological Administration launched a track-pattern-based model that predicts the horizontal distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) track density from June to October.This model is the first approach to target seasonal TC track clusters covering the entire western North Pacific (WNP) basin,and may represent a milestone for seasonal TC forecasting,using a simple statistical method that can be applied at weather operation centers.In this note,we describe the procedure of the track-pattern-based model with brief technical background to provide practical information on the use and operation of the model.The model comprises three major steps.First,long-term data of WNP TC tracks reveal seven climatological track clusters.Second,the TC counts for each cluster are predicted using a hybrid statistical-dynamical method,using the seasonal prediction of large-scale environments.Third,the final forecast map of track density is constructed by merging the spatial probabilities of the seven clusters and applying necessary bias corrections.Although the model is developed to issue the seasonal forecast in mid-May,it can be applied to alternative dates and target seasons following the procedure described in this note.Work continues on establishing an automatic system for this model at the NTC.

  13. Analysis and Optimization of a Lagrangian Volcanic Ash Particle Tracking Model called Puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.; Dean, K.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic ash tracking models are important for airborne and ground hazard mitigation. Volcanic ash can have devastating effects on aircraft during flight, and ground sedimentation is potentially hazardous in populated areas. Because ash dispersion is controlled primarily by atmospheric winds, analytic solutions are impractical and must be numerically solved. Two distinct modeling techniques, Lagrangian and Eulerian, are currently used for both regional and global tracking models. Recently, the Lagrangian technique has appeared to be more accurate and efficient for tracking volcanic ash plumes, particularly for small eruptions and at early times during the eruption. Modeling ash plume dispersion is complicated by several factors including particle sedimentation and aggregation, and varying wind-field dynamics from the near surface to upper atmosphere. Furthermore, there exists a very limited data set pertaining to past eruptions with which tracking models can be tested and validated. Due primarily to this dearth of data on past eruptions, tracking models have erred on the side of excess when including potentially important factors in describing particle dynamics. The most recent version of Puff includes eleven distinct, adjustable parameters that are intended to describe various processes that effect airborne particle dynamics. The analysis described here was undertaken to better understand the sensitivity of the model to each of the eleven parameters independently. As a result, an improved understanding of how best to parameterize the model has been gained, as well as several methods to optimize performance and the predictive capability has been discovered. Since Puff includes random perturbations in the ash particle trajectories using a Monte Carlo-type technique, large numbers of successive simulations were performed in the analysis, and the averaged overall behavior was analyzed. Model run groups of 100, 500, and 5000 simulations were performed. The eleven

  14. An Analysis Technique/Automated Tool for Comparing and Tracking Analysis Modes of Different Finite Element Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Robert L.; Band, Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis technique was developed to compare and track mode shapes for different Finite Element Models. The technique may be applied to a variety of structural dynamics analyses, including model reduction validation (comparing unreduced and reduced models), mode tracking for various parametric analyses (e.g., launch vehicle model dispersion analysis to identify sensitivities to modal gain for Guidance, Navigation, and Control), comparing models of different mesh fidelity (e.g., a coarse model for a preliminary analysis compared to a higher-fidelity model for a detailed analysis) and mode tracking for a structure with properties that change over time (e.g., a launch vehicle from liftoff through end-of-burn, with propellant being expended during the flight). Mode shapes for different models are compared and tracked using several numerical indicators, including traditional Cross-Orthogonality and Modal Assurance Criteria approaches, as well as numerical indicators obtained by comparing modal strain energy and kinetic energy distributions. This analysis technique has been used to reliably identify correlated mode shapes for complex Finite Element Models that would otherwise be difficult to compare using traditional techniques. This improved approach also utilizes an adaptive mode tracking algorithm that allows for automated tracking when working with complex models and/or comparing a large group of models.

  15. A modeling and simulation of control system of satellite tracking platform an- tenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaojun; GONG Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the platform of mobile carrier satellite tracking has a wide range of applications. The paper adopts the advanced method of to step response identify, using the data obtained by the experiment model of high-speed acquisition, using the method of the least squares, finally the antenna control system model function was identified. Make use of integral separation algorithm, simu- link simulation and experiment analysis to set the control parameters of it. Stimulate the signal antenna control system under inter- fering. The experiment of the simulation experiment showed that the antenna control system model is stable with little error.

  16. Study on Modeling and Control Strategy for Electric Drive Motor of Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖自力; 黄苏融; 马晓军; 庞宾宾

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the requirements for electric transmission system of a military tracked vehicle, the motor' s design indexes were analysed and calculated. A model based on saturate inductance parameter of interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor was brought forward by using finite element analysis. And its control strategy based on the largest running capability was studied also. The experiment resuhs for a scale model show that the modelling method improves the model' s accuracy, and the motor' s control strategy is effective.

  17. Onboard Robust Visual Tracking for UAVs Using a Reliable Global-Local Object Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhong; Duan, Ran; Kircali, Dogan; Kayacan, Erdal

    2016-08-31

    In this paper, we present a novel onboard robust visual algorithm for long-term arbitrary 2D and 3D object tracking using a reliable global-local object model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, e.g., autonomous tracking and chasing a moving target. The first main approach in this novel algorithm is the use of a global matching and local tracking approach. In other words, the algorithm initially finds feature correspondences in a way that an improved binary descriptor is developed for global feature matching and an iterative Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm is employed for local feature tracking. The second main module is the use of an efficient local geometric filter (LGF), which handles outlier feature correspondences based on a new forward-backward pairwise dissimilarity measure, thereby maintaining pairwise geometric consistency. In the proposed LGF module, a hierarchical agglomerative clustering, i.e., bottom-up aggregation, is applied using an effective single-link method. The third proposed module is a heuristic local outlier factor (to the best of our knowledge, it is utilized for the first time to deal with outlier features in a visual tracking application), which further maximizes the representation of the target object in which we formulate outlier feature detection as a binary classification problem with the output features of the LGF module. Extensive UAV flight experiments show that the proposed visual tracker achieves real-time frame rates of more than thirty-five frames per second on an i7 processor with 640 × 512 image resolution and outperforms the most popular state-of-the-art trackers favorably in terms of robustness, efficiency and accuracy.

  18. Onboard Robust Visual Tracking for UAVs Using a Reliable Global-Local Object Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhong; Duan, Ran; Kircali, Dogan; Kayacan, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel onboard robust visual algorithm for long-term arbitrary 2D and 3D object tracking using a reliable global-local object model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications, e.g., autonomous tracking and chasing a moving target. The first main approach in this novel algorithm is the use of a global matching and local tracking approach. In other words, the algorithm initially finds feature correspondences in a way that an improved binary descriptor is developed for global feature matching and an iterative Lucas–Kanade optical flow algorithm is employed for local feature tracking. The second main module is the use of an efficient local geometric filter (LGF), which handles outlier feature correspondences based on a new forward-backward pairwise dissimilarity measure, thereby maintaining pairwise geometric consistency. In the proposed LGF module, a hierarchical agglomerative clustering, i.e., bottom-up aggregation, is applied using an effective single-link method. The third proposed module is a heuristic local outlier factor (to the best of our knowledge, it is utilized for the first time to deal with outlier features in a visual tracking application), which further maximizes the representation of the target object in which we formulate outlier feature detection as a binary classification problem with the output features of the LGF module. Extensive UAV flight experiments show that the proposed visual tracker achieves real-time frame rates of more than thirty-five frames per second on an i7 processor with 640 × 512 image resolution and outperforms the most popular state-of-the-art trackers favorably in terms of robustness, efficiency and accuracy. PMID:27589769

  19. Onboard Robust Visual Tracking for UAVs Using a Reliable Global-Local Object Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel onboard robust visual algorithm for long-term arbitrary 2D and 3D object tracking using a reliable global-local object model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications, e.g., autonomous tracking and chasing a moving target. The first main approach in this novel algorithm is the use of a global matching and local tracking approach. In other words, the algorithm initially finds feature correspondences in a way that an improved binary descriptor is developed for global feature matching and an iterative Lucas–Kanade optical flow algorithm is employed for local feature tracking. The second main module is the use of an efficient local geometric filter (LGF, which handles outlier feature correspondences based on a new forward-backward pairwise dissimilarity measure, thereby maintaining pairwise geometric consistency. In the proposed LGF module, a hierarchical agglomerative clustering, i.e., bottom-up aggregation, is applied using an effective single-link method. The third proposed module is a heuristic local outlier factor (to the best of our knowledge, it is utilized for the first time to deal with outlier features in a visual tracking application, which further maximizes the representation of the target object in which we formulate outlier feature detection as a binary classification problem with the output features of the LGF module. Extensive UAV flight experiments show that the proposed visual tracker achieves real-time frame rates of more than thirty-five frames per second on an i7 processor with 640 × 512 image resolution and outperforms the most popular state-of-the-art trackers favorably in terms of robustness, efficiency and accuracy.

  20. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  1. User guide for MODPATH version 6 - A particle-tracking model for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, David W.

    2012-01-01

    MODPATH is a particle-tracking post-processing model that computes three-dimensional flow paths using output from groundwater flow simulations based on MODFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference groundwater flow model. This report documents MODPATH version 6. Previous versions were documented in USGS Open-File Reports 89-381 and 94-464. The program uses a semianalytical particle-tracking scheme that allows an analytical expression of a particle's flow path to be obtained within each finite-difference grid cell. A particle's path is computed by tracking the particle from one cell to the next until it reaches a boundary, an internal sink/source, or satisfies another termination criterion. Data input to MODPATH consists of a combination of MODFLOW input data files, MODFLOW head and flow output files, and other input files specific to MODPATH. Output from MODPATH consists of several output files, including a number of particle coordinate output files intended to serve as input data for other programs that process, analyze, and display the results in various ways. MODPATH is written in FORTRAN and can be compiled by any FORTRAN compiler that fully supports FORTRAN-2003 or by most commercially available FORTRAN-95 compilers that support the major FORTRAN-2003 language extensions.

  2. Detection and tracking of RC model aircraft in LWIR microgrid polarimeter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; LeMaster, Daniel A.; Mack, Robert T.; Villeneuve, Pierre V.; Weinheimer, Jeffrey J.; Middendorf, John R.

    2011-10-01

    The LWIR microgrid Polarized InfraRed Advanced Tactical Experiment (PIRATE) sensor was used to image several types of RC model aircraft at varying ranges and speeds under different background conditions. The data were calibrated and preprocessed using recently developed microgrid processing algorithms prior to estimation of the thermal (s0) and polarimetric (s1 and s2) Stokes vector images. The data were then analyzed to assess the utility of polarimetric information when the thermal s0 data is augmented with s1 and s2 information for several model aircraft detection and tracking scenarios. Multi-variate analysis tools were applied in conjunction with multi-hypothesis detection schemes to assess detection performance of the aircraft under different background clutter conditions. We find that polarization is able to improve detection performance when compared with the corresponding thermal data in nearly all cases. A tracking algorithm was applied to a sequence of s0 and corresponding degree of linear polarization (DoLP) images. An initial assessment was performed to determine whether polarization information can provide additional utility in these tracking scenarios.

  3. Extended Kalman Doppler tracking and model determination for multi-sensor short-range radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermaier, Thomas J.; Siart, Uwe; Eibert, Thomas F.; Bonerz, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    A tracking solution for collision avoidance in industrial machine tools based on short-range millimeter-wave radar Doppler observations is presented. At the core of the tracking algorithm there is an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) that provides dynamic estimation and localization in real-time. The underlying sensor platform consists of several homodyne continuous wave (CW) radar modules. Based on In-phase-Quadrature (IQ) processing and down-conversion, they provide only Doppler shift information about the observed target. Localization with Doppler shift estimates is a nonlinear problem that needs to be linearized before the linear KF can be applied. The accuracy of state estimation depends highly on the introduced linearization errors, the initialization and the models that represent the true physics as well as the stochastic properties. The important issue of filter consistency is addressed and an initialization procedure based on data fitting and maximum likelihood estimation is suggested. Models for both, measurement and process noise are developed. Tracking results from typical three-dimensional courses of movement at short distances in front of a multi-sensor radar platform are presented.

  4. Real Time Optima Tracking Using Harvesting Models of the Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Subbiah; Noever, D.

    1999-01-01

    Tracking optima in real time propulsion control, particularly for non-stationary optimization problems is a challenging task. Several approaches have been put forward for such a study including the numerical method called the genetic algorithm. In brief, this approach is built upon Darwinian-style competition between numerical alternatives displayed in the form of binary strings, or by analogy to 'pseudogenes'. Breeding of improved solution is an often cited parallel to natural selection in.evolutionary or soft computing. In this report we present our results of applying a novel model of a genetic algorithm for tracking optima in propulsion engineering and in real time control. We specialize the algorithm to mission profiling and planning optimizations, both to select reduced propulsion needs through trajectory planning and to explore time or fuel conservation strategies.

  5. Infrared small target tracking by discriminative classification based on Gaussian mixture model in compressive sensing domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyun; Song, Fei; Qin, Shiyin

    2017-02-01

    Addressing the problems of infrared small target tracking in forward looking infrared (FLIR) system, a new infrared small target tracking method is presented, in which features binding of both target gray intensity and spatial relationship is implemented by compressive sensing so as to construct the Gaussian mixture model of compressive appearance distribution. Subsequently, naive Bayesian classification is carried out over testing samples acquired with non-uniform sampling probability to identify the most credible location of targets from background scene. A series of experiments are carried out over four infrared small target image sequences with more than 200 images for each sequence, the results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method in both success rate and precision rate.

  6. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Chankowski, Piotr H; Meissner, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with an explicit UV momentum cutoff $\\Lambda$. We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action express...

  7. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chankowski, Piotr H. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Lewandowski, Adrian [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut),Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-18

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with a smooth momentum cutoff Λ (implemented through an exponential damping factor). We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional (MS)-bar scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the (MS)-bar scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action expressed in terms of bare parameters. This, together with treating Λ as an intrinsic scale of a hypothetical underlying finite theory of all interactions, offers a possibility of an unconventional solution to the hierarchy problem if no intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale exist.

  8. Two-loop RGE of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory in a renormalization scheme with an explicit UV cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankowski, Piotr H.; Lewandowski, Adrian; Meissner, Krzysztof A.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a systematic one-loop renormalization of a general renormalizable Yang-Mills theory coupled to scalars and fermions using a regularization scheme with a smooth momentum cutoff Λ (implemented through an exponential damping factor). We construct the necessary finite counterterms restoring the BRST invariance of the effective action by analyzing the relevant Slavnov-Taylor identities. We find the relation between the renormalized parameters in our scheme and in the conventional overline{MS} scheme which allow us to obtain the explicit two-loop renormalization group equations in our scheme from the known two-loop ones in the overline{MS} scheme. We calculate in our scheme the divergences of two-loop vacuum graphs in the presence of a constant scalar background field which allow us to rederive the two-loop beta functions for parameters of the scalar potential. We also prove that consistent application of the proposed regularization leads to counterterms which, together with the original action, combine to a bare action expressed in terms of bare parameters. This, together with treating Λ as an intrinsic scale of a hypothetical underlying finite theory of all interactions, offers a possibility of an unconventional solution to the hierarchy problem if no intermediate scales between the electroweak scale and the Planck scale exist.

  9. Model Parameter Adaption-Based Multi-Model Algorithm for Extended Object Tracking Using a Random Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional object tracking technology usually regards the target as a point source object. However, this approximation is no longer appropriate for tracking extended objects such as large targets and closely spaced group objects. Bayesian extended object tracking (EOT using a random symmetrical positive definite (SPD matrix is a very effective method to jointly estimate the kinematic state and physical extension of the target. The key issue in the application of this random matrix-based EOT approach is to model the physical extension and measurement noise accurately. Model parameter adaptive approaches for both extension dynamic and measurement noise are proposed in this study based on the properties of the SPD matrix to improve the performance of extension estimation. An interacting multi-model algorithm based on model parameter adaptive filter using random matrix is also presented. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive approaches and multi-model algorithm. The estimation performance of physical extension is better than the other algorithms, especially when the target maneuvers. The kinematic state estimation error is lower than the others as well.

  10. Amorphous track modelling of luminescence detector efficiency in proton and carbon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Bassler, Niels

    be seriously hampered by variations in detector efficiency (light output per energy imparted) due to high-LET effects and gradients along the physical size (~mm) of the detector crystals. Amorphous track models (ATMs) such as the Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach by Katz and co-workers or the ECLaT code by Geiß et...... the models and the selection of the most appropriate approach. Materials and methods: We have therefore developed a generic, open-source and publically available ATM code library (libSGP) including a number of ATMs, which can be used as a common platform to investigate the principal approaches and underlying...

  11. A mixed space-time and wavenumber-frequency domain procedure for modelling ground vibration from surface railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroma, S. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.; Ntotsios, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for studying ground vibration in which the railway track is modelled in the space-time domain using the finite element method (FEM) and, for faster computation, discretisation of the ground using either FEM or the boundary element method (BEM) is avoided by modelling it in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The railway track is coupled to the ground through a series of rectangular strips located at the surface of the ground; their vertical interaction is described by a frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness matrix whose elements are represented by discrete lumped parameter models. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed firstly through frequency domain analysis using as excitation a stationary harmonic load applied on the rail. The interaction forces at the ballast/ground interface are calculated using the FE track model in the space-time domain, transformed to the wavenumber domain, and used as input to the ground model for calculating vibration in the free field. Additionally, time domain simulations are also performed with the inclusion of nonlinear track parameters. Results are presented for the coupled track/ground model in terms of time histories and frequency spectra for the track vibration, interaction forces and free-field ground vibration. For the linear track model, the results from the mixed formulation are in excellent agreement with those from a semi-analytical model formulated in the wavenumber-frequency domain, particularly in the vicinity of the loading point. The accuracy of the mixed formulation away from the excitation point depends strongly on the inclusion of through-ground coupling in the lumped parameter model, which has been found to be necessary for both track dynamics and ground vibration predictions.

  12. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  13. A semi-analytical beam model for the vibration of railway tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovasilis, D.; Thompson, D. J.; Hussein, M. F. M.

    2017-04-01

    The high frequency dynamic behaviour of railway tracks, in both vertical and lateral directions, strongly affects the generation of rolling noise as well as other phenomena such as rail corrugation. An improved semi-analytical model of a beam on an elastic foundation is introduced that accounts for the coupling of the vertical and lateral vibration. The model includes the effects of cross-section asymmetry, shear deformation, rotational inertia and restrained warping. Consideration is given to the fact that the loads at the rail head, as well as those exerted by the railpads at the rail foot, may not act through the centroid of the section. The response is evaluated for a harmonic load and the solution is obtained in the wavenumber domain. Results are presented as dispersion curves for free and supported rails and are validated with the aid of a Finite Element (FE) and a waveguide finite element (WFE) model. Closed form expressions are derived for the forced response, and validated against the WFE model. Track mobilities and decay rates are presented to assess the potential implications for rolling noise and the influence of the various sources of vertical-lateral coupling. Comparison is also made with measured data. Overall, the model presented performs very well, especially for the lateral vibration, although it does not contain the high frequency cross-section deformation modes. The most significant effects on the response are shown to be the inclusion of torsion and foundation eccentricity, which mainly affect the lateral response.

  14. Comparison of 2D and 3D modeled tumor motion estimation/prediction for dynamic tumor tracking during arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun

    2017-05-01

    Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize a target in 3D space or in a 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, the 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and to determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved  >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for the 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting in on average only  <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem

  15. Performance Prediction of the NCAT Test Track Pavements Using Mechanistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCroix, Andrew Thomas

    In the pavement industry in the United States of America, there is an increasing desire to improve the pavement construction quality and life for new and rehabilitated pavements. In order to improve the quality of the pavements, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has pursued a performance-related specification (PRS) for over 20 years. The goal of PRS is to provide material and construction (M/C) properties that correlate well with pavement performance. In order to improve upon the PRS projects developed in WesTrack (NCHRP 9-20) and the MEPDG-based PRS (NCHRP 9-22), a set of PRS tests and models are proposed to provide a critical link between pavement performance and M/C properties. The PRS testing is done using the asphalt mixture performance tester (AMPT). The proposed PRS focuses on rutting and fatigue cracking of asphalt mixtures. The mixtures are characterized for their stiffness, fatigue behavior, and rutting resistance using a dynamic modulus (|E*|) test, a fatigue test, and a triaxial stress sweep (TSS) test, respectively. Information from the fatigue test characterizes the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model. Once the stiffness is reduced to a certain level, the material develops macro-cracks and fails. The TSS test is used to characterize a viscoplastic (VP) model. The VP model allows the prediction of the rut depth beneath the center of the wheel. The VECD and VP models are used within a layered viscoelastic (LVE) pavement model to predict fatigue and rutting performance of pavements. The PRS is evaluated by comparing the predictions to the field performance at the NCAT pavement test track in Opelika, Alabama. The test track sections evaluated are part of the 2009 test cycle group experiment, which focused on WMA, high RAP (50%), and a combination of both. The fatigue evaluation shows that all sections would last at least 18 years at the same traffic rate. The sections do not show any cracking, suggesting the sections are well

  16. Changes in spring-mass model parameters and energy cost during track running to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawinski, Jean; Heubert, Richard; Quievre, Jacques; Billat, Véronique; Hanon, Christine; Hannon, Christine

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exhaustion modifies the stiffness characteristics, as defined in the spring-mass model, during track running. We also investigated whether stiffer runners are also the most economical. Nine well-trained runners performed an exhaustive exercise over 2000 meters on an indoor track. This exhaustive exercise was preceded by a warm-up and was followed by an active recovery. Throughout all the exercises, the energy cost of running (Cr) was measured. Vertical and leg stiffness was measured with a force plate (Kvert and Kleg, respectively) integrated into the track. The results show that Cr increases significantly after the 2000-meter run (0.192 +/- 0.006 to 0.217 +/- 0.013 mL x kg(-1) x m(-1)). However, Kvert and Kleg remained constant (32.52 +/- 6.42 to 32.59 +/- 5.48 and 11.12 +/- 2.76 to 11.14 +/- 2.48 kN.m, respectively). An inverse correlation was observed between Cr and Kleg, but only during the 2000-meter exercise (r = -0.67; P < or = 0.05). During the warm-up or the recovery, Cr and Kleg, were not correlated (r = 0.354; P = 0.82 and r = 0.21; P = 0.59, respectively). On track, exhaustion induced by a 2000-meter run has no effect on Kleg or Kvert. The inverse correlation was only observed between Cr and Kleg during the 2000-meter run and not before or after the exercise, suggesting that the stiffness of the runner may be not associated with the Cr.

  17. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from a neutron star with wandering spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, S.; Sun, L.; Melatos, A.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    Gravitational wave searches for continuous-wave signals from neutron stars are especially challenging when the star's spin frequency is unknown a priori from electromagnetic observations and wanders stochastically under the action of internal (e.g., superfluid or magnetospheric) or external (e.g., accretion) torques. It is shown that frequency tracking by hidden Markov model (HMM) methods can be combined with existing maximum likelihood coherent matched filters like the F -statistic to surmount some of the challenges raised by spin wandering. Specifically, it is found that, for an isolated, biaxial rotor whose spin frequency walks randomly, HMM tracking of the F -statistic output from coherent segments with duration Tdrift=10 d over a total observation time of Tobs=1 yr can detect signals with wave strains h0>2 ×10-26 at a noise level characteristic of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). For a biaxial rotor with randomly walking spin in a binary orbit, whose orbital period and semimajor axis are known approximately from electromagnetic observations, HMM tracking of the Bessel-weighted F -statistic output can detect signals with h0>8 ×10-26. An efficient, recursive, HMM solver based on the Viterbi algorithm is demonstrated, which requires ˜103 CPU hours for a typical, broadband (0.5-kHz) search for the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1, including generation of the relevant F -statistic input. In a "realistic" observational scenario, Viterbi tracking successfully detects 41 out of 50 synthetic signals without spin wandering in stage I of the Scorpius X-1 Mock Data Challenge convened by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration down to a wave strain of h0=1.1 ×10-25, recovering the frequency with a root-mean-square accuracy of ≤4.3 ×10-3 Hz .

  18. From Cyclone Tracks to the Costs of European Winter Storms: A Probabilistic Loss Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwig, K.; Renggli, D.; Corti, T.; Reese, S.; Wueest, M.; Viktor, E.; Zimmerli, P.

    2014-12-01

    European winter storms cause billions of dollars of insured losses every year. Therefore, it is essential to understand potential impacts of future events, and the role reinsurance can play to mitigate the losses. The authors will present an overview on natural catastrophe risk assessment modeling in the reinsurance industry, and the development of a new innovative approach for modeling the risk associated with European winter storms.The new innovative approach includes the development of physically meaningful probabilistic (i.e. simulated) events for European winter storm loss assessment. The meteorological hazard component of the new model is based on cyclone and windstorm tracks identified in the 20thCentury Reanalysis data. The knowledge of the evolution of winter storms both in time and space allows the physically meaningful perturbation of historical event properties (e.g. track, intensity, etc.). The perturbation includes a random element but also takes the local climatology and the evolution of the historical event into account.The low-resolution wind footprints taken from the 20thCentury Reanalysis are processed by a statistical-dynamical downscaling to generate high-resolution footprints for both the simulated and historical events. Downscaling transfer functions are generated using ENSEMBLES regional climate model data. The result is a set of reliable probabilistic events representing thousands of years. The event set is then combined with country and site-specific vulnerability functions and detailed market- or client-specific information to compute annual expected losses.

  19. Effects of model approximations for electron, hole, and photon transport in swift heavy ion tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the electron subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the electronic subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the electron subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target electrons produces good coincidence of the calculated electron mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of electron motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly affects redistribution of the excess electronic energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced transport of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.

  20. Visual Trajectory-Tracking Model-Based Control for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Zdešar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual-control algorithm for driving a mobile robot along the reference trajectory. The configuration of the system consists of a two-wheeled differentially driven mobile robot that is observed by an overhead camera, which can be placed at arbitrary, but reasonable, inclination with respect to the ground plane. The controller must be capable of generating appropriate tangential and angular control velocities for the trajectory-tracking problem, based on the information received about the robot position obtained in the image. To be able to track the position of the robot through a sequence of images in real-time, the robot is marked with an artificial marker that can be distinguishably recognized by the image recognition subsystem. Using the property of differential flatness, a dynamic feedback compensator can be designed for the system, thereby extending the system into a linear form. The presented control algorithm for reference tracking combines a feedforward and a feedback loop, the structure also known as a two DOF control scheme. The feedforward part should drive the system to the vicinity of the reference trajectory and the feedback part should eliminate any errors that occur due to noise and other disturbances etc. The feedforward control can never achieve accurate reference following, but this deficiency can be eliminated with the introduction of the feedback loop. The design of the model predictive control is based on the linear error model. The model predictive control is given in analytical form, so the computational burden is kept at a reasonable level for real-time implementation. The control algorithm requires that a reference trajectory is at least twice differentiable function. A suitable approach to design such a trajectory is by exploiting some useful properties of the Bernstein-Bézier parametric curves. The simulation experiments as well as real system experiments on a robot normally used in the

  1. Modeling Self-Occlusions/Disocclusions in Dynamic Shape and Appearance Tracking for Obtaining Precise Shape

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao

    2013-05-01

    We present a method to determine the precise shape of a dynamic object from video. This problem is fundamental to computer vision, and has a number of applications, for example, 3D video/cinema post-production, activity recognition and augmented reality. Current tracking algorithms that determine precise shape can be roughly divided into two categories: 1) Global statistics partitioning methods, where the shape of the object is determined by discriminating global image statistics, and 2) Joint shape and appearance matching methods, where a template of the object from the previous frame is matched to the next image. The former is limited in cases of complex object appearance and cluttered background, where global statistics cannot distinguish between the object and background. The latter is able to cope with complex appearance and a cluttered background, but is limited in cases of camera viewpoint change and object articulation, which induce self-occlusions and self-disocclusions of the object of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to model self-occlusion/disocclusion phenomena in a joint shape and appearance tracking framework. We derive a non-linear dynamic model of the object shape and appearance taking into account occlusion phenomena, which is then used to infer self-occlusions/disocclusions, shape and appearance of the object in a variational optimization framework. To ensure robustness to other unmodeled phenomena that are present in real-video sequences, the Kalman filter is used for appearance updating. Experiments show that our method, which incorporates the modeling of self-occlusion/disocclusion, increases the accuracy of shape estimation in situations of viewpoint change and articulation, and out-performs current state-of-the-art methods for shape tracking.

  2. Modelling of the carburizing and quenching process applied to caterpillar track bushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, P.; Bonollo, F.

    2014-03-01

    The carburizing-quenching process applied to caterpillar track bushings was studied by means of experimental and numerical analyses. The numerical model was developed on the basis of the real cycle. The purpose of this work is to predict the carbon profiles, microstructural phase changes, hardness and residual stress that occur during quenching using finite element techniques. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and numerical results in terms of carbon diffusion and hardness profiles. The Sysweld® numerical code was used to perform the simulations.

  3. Antenna pointing system for satellite tracking based on Kalman filtering and model predictive control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L. G.; Ishihara, João Y.; Ferreira, Henrique C.; Borges, Renato A.; Borges, Geovany A.

    2016-12-01

    The present work proposes a new approach for an antenna pointing system for satellite tracking. Such a system uses the received signal to estimate the beam pointing deviation and then adjusts the antenna pointing. The present work has two contributions. First, the estimation is performed by a Kalman filter based conical scan technique. This technique uses the Kalman filter avoiding the batch estimator and applies a mathematical manipulation avoiding the linearization approximations. Secondly, a control technique based on the model predictive control together with an explicit state feedback solution are obtained in order to reduce the computational burden. Numerical examples illustrate the results.

  4. Radial dose distribution around an energetic heavy ion and an ion track structure model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ohno, Shin-ichi; Namba, Hideki; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Ritsuko

    1997-03-01

    Ionization currents produced in a small wall-less ionization chamber located at varying distance from the 200 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion`path traversing Ar gas were measured and utilized to construct a track structure model. Using the LET value of 200 MeV Ni{sup 12+} and G(Fe{sup 3+}) in Fricke solutions (= 15.4) for fast electrons, we estimate G(Fe{sup 3+}) for this ion to be 5.0. (author)

  5. A low-complexity interacting multiple model filter for maneuvering target tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Syed Safwan

    2017-01-22

    In this work, we address the target tracking problem for a coordinate-decoupled Markovian jump-mean-acceleration based maneuvering mobility model. A novel low-complexity alternative to the conventional interacting multiple model (IMM) filter is proposed for this class of mobility models. The proposed tracking algorithm utilizes a bank of interacting filters where the interactions are limited to the mixing of the mean estimates, and it exploits a fixed off-line computed Kalman gain matrix for the entire filter bank. Consequently, the proposed filter does not require matrix inversions during on-line operation which significantly reduces its complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of the low-complexity proposed scheme remains comparable to that of the traditional (highly-complex) IMM filter. Furthermore, we derive analytical expressions that iteratively evaluate the transient and steady-state performance of the proposed scheme, and establish the conditions that ensure the stability of the proposed filter. The analytical findings are in close accordance with the simulated results.

  6. Dynamic lung modeling and tumor tracking using deformable image registration and geometric smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Jing, Yiming; Liang, Xinghua; Xu, Guoliang; Dong, Lei

    2012-09-01

    A greyscale-based fully automatic deformable image registration algorithm, based on an optical flow method together with geometric smoothing, is developed for dynamic lung modeling and tumor tracking. In our computational processing pipeline, the input data is a set of 4D CT images with 10 phases. The triangle mesh of the lung model is directly extracted from the more stable exhale phase (Phase 5). In addition, we represent the lung surface model in 3D volumetric format by applying a signed distance function and then generate tetrahedral meshes. Our registration algorithm works for both triangle and tetrahedral meshes. In CT images, the intensity value reflects the local tissue density. For each grid point, we calculate the displacement from the static image (phase 5) to match with the moving image (other phases) by using merely intensity values of the CT images. The optical flow computation is followed by a regularization of the deformation field using geometric smoothing. Lung volume change and the maximum lung tissue movement are used to evaluate the accuracy of the application. Our testing results suggest that the application of deformable registration algorithm is an effective way for delineating and tracking tumor motion in image-guided radiotherapy.

  7. Modeling and Performance Prediction of Induction Motor Drive System for Electric Drive Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-yong; CHEN Quan-shi; SUN Feng-chun

    2007-01-01

    The principle of rotor flux-orientation vector control on 100/150 kW three-phase AC induction motor for electric drive tracked vehicles is analyzed, and the mathematic model is deduced. The drive system of induction motor is modeled and simulated by Matlab/Simulink. The characteristics of motor and drive system are analyzed and evaluated by practical bench test. The simulation and bench test results show that the model is valid, and the driving control system has constant torque under rated speed, constant torque above rated speed, widely variable speed range and better dynamic characteristics. In order to evaluate the practical applications of high power induction motor driving system in electric drive tracked vehicles, a collaborative simulation based on interface technology of Matlab/Simulink and multi-body dynamic analysis software known as RecurDyn is done, the vehicle performances are predicted in the acceleration time (0-32 km/h) and turning characteristic (v=10 km/h, R=B).

  8. Model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter to inertial orientation tracking of arbitrary kinematic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Pruszowski, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity. This paper describes the proposal of a new model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter that allows for estimation of orientation based on outputs from the inertial measurements unit sensors. The filter considers interdependencies resulting from the construction of the kinematic chain so that the orientation estimation is more accurate. The proposed solution is a universal filter that does not predetermine the degree of freedom at the connections between segments of the model. To validation the motion of 3-segments single link pendulum captured by optical motion capture system is used. The next step in the research will be to use this method for inertial motion capture with a human skeleton model.

  9. Application of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models for better environmental management of finfish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Navas, Juan; Telfer, Trevor C.; Ross, Lindsay G.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrographic conditions, and particularly current speeds, have a strong influence on the management of fish cage culture. These hydrodynamic conditions can be used to predict particle movement within the water column and the results used to optimise environmental conditions for effective site selection, setting of environmental quality standards, waste dispersion, and potential disease transfer. To this end, a 3D hydrodynamic model, MOHID, has been coupled to a particle tracking model to study the effects of mean current speed, quiescent water periods and bulk water circulation in Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal Ireland, an Irish fjard (shallow fjordic system) important to the aquaculture industry. A Lagangrian method simulated the instantaneous release of "particles" emulating discharge from finfish cages to show the behaviour of waste in terms of water circulation and water exchange. The 3D spatial models were used to identify areas of mixed and stratified water using a version of the Simpson-Hunter criteria, and to use this in conjunction with models of current flow for appropriate site selection for salmon aquaculture. The modelled outcomes for stratification were in good agreement with the direct measurements of water column stratification based on observed density profiles. Calculations of the Simpson-Hunter tidal parameter indicated that most of Mulroy Bay was potentially stratified with a well mixed region over the shallow channels where the water is faster flowing. The fjard was characterised by areas of both very low and high mean current speeds, with some areas having long periods of quiescent water. The residual current and the particle tracking animations created through the models revealed an anticlockwise eddy that may influence waste dispersion and potential for disease transfer, among salmon cages and which ensures that the retention time of waste substances from cages is extended. The hydrodynamic model results were incorporated into the ArcView TM GIS

  10. Inverse modeling methods for indoor airborne pollutant tracking: literature review and fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Zhai, Z

    2007-12-01

    Reduction in indoor environment quality calls for effective control and improvement measures. Accurate and prompt identification of contaminant sources ensures that they can be quickly removed and contaminated spaces isolated and cleaned. This paper discusses the use of inverse modeling to identify potential indoor pollutant sources with limited pollutant sensor data. The study reviews various inverse modeling methods for advection-dispersion problems and summarizes the methods into three major categories: forward, backward, and probability inverse modeling methods. The adjoint probability inverse modeling method is indicated as an appropriate model for indoor air pollutant tracking because it can quickly find source location, strength and release time without prior information. The paper introduces the principles of the adjoint probability method and establishes the corresponding adjoint equations for both multi-zone airflow models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The study proposes a two-stage inverse modeling approach integrating both multi-zone and CFD models, which can provide a rapid estimate of indoor pollution status and history for a whole building. Preliminary case study results indicate that the adjoint probability method is feasible for indoor pollutant inverse modeling. The proposed method can help identify contaminant source characteristics (location and release time) with limited sensor outputs. This will ensure an effective and prompt execution of building management strategies and thus achieve a healthy and safe indoor environment. The method can also help design optimal sensor networks.

  11. Speed tracking control of PM synchronous motor by internal model design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhaowu; Huang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we consider a speed tracking and load torque disturbance rejection problem of PM synchronous motor by internal model design. The problem is first formulated as a global robust output regulation problem of a special class of multivariable systems. Then the output regulation problem is further converted into a global stabilisation problem of an augmented system composed of the original plant and an internal model. As the augmented system does not take any known special form, we have developed a specific tool to deal with the stabilisation problem. In particular, a generalised changing supply function technique applicable to non-input-to-state stable (ISS) systems is developed. This technique, in conjunction with a particular nonlinear internal model, leads to an effective solution to the problem.

  12. Application of Gauss's law space-charge limited emission model in iterative particle tracking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altsybeyev, V. V.; Ponomarev, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The particle tracking method with a so-called gun iteration for modeling the space charge is discussed in the following paper. We suggest to apply the emission model based on the Gauss's law for the calculation of the space charge limited current density distribution using considered method. Based on the presented emission model we have developed a numerical algorithm for this calculations. This approach allows us to perform accurate and low time consumpting numerical simulations for different vacuum sources with the curved emitting surfaces and also in the presence of additional physical effects such as bipolar flows and backscattered electrons. The results of the simulations of the cylindrical diode and diode with elliptical emitter with the use of axysimmetric coordinates are presented. The high efficiency and accuracy of the suggested approach are confirmed by the obtained results and comparisons with the analytical solutions.

  13. Dynamic Modelling and Trajectory Tracking of Parallel Manipulator with Flexible Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhengsheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on dynamic modelling and real‐time control for a parallel manipulator with flexible link. The Lagrange principle and assumed modes method (AMM substructure technique is presented to formulate the dynamic modelling of a two‐degrees‐of‐freedom (DOF parallel manipulator with flexible links. Then, the singular perturbation technique (SPT is used to decompose the nonlinear dynamic system into slow time‐scale and fast time‐scale subsystems. Furthermore, the SPT is employed to transform the differential algebraic equations (DAEs for kinematic constraints into explicit ordinary differential equations (ODEs, which makes real‐time control possible. In addition, a novel composite control scheme is presented; the computed torque control is applied for a slow subsystem and the H technique for the fast subsystem, taking account of the model uncertainty and outside disturbance. The simulation results show the composite control can effectively achieve fast and accurate tracking control.

  14. Resident space object tracking using an interacting multiple model mixing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Quang M.

    2014-06-01

    A multiple model estimation scheme is proposed to enhance the robustness of a resident space object (RSO) tracker subject to its maneuverability uncertainties (unplanned or unknown jet firing activities) and other system variations. The concept is based on the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) estimation scheme. Within the IMM framework, two Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) models: (i) a 6 State (Position and Velocity of a constant orbiting RSO) EKF and (ii) a 9 state (Position, Velocity, and Acceleration of a maneuvering RSO) EKF are designed and implemented to achieve RSO maneuvering detection and enhanced tracking accuracy. The IMM estimation scheme is capable of providing enhanced state vector estimation accuracy and consistent prediction of the RSO maneuvering status, thus offering an attractive design feature for future Space Situational Awareness (SSA) missions. The design concept is illustrated using the Matlab/Based Simulation testing environment.

  15. Amorphous track modelling of luminescence detector efficiency in proton and carbon beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Bassler, Niels

    : The library proved to be a useful tool for to investigate the results from different ATMs over a broad parameter space. We found good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental luminescence data and will discuss the influence on the selected approaches and their parameters. An extended...... be seriously hampered by variations in detector efficiency (light output per energy imparted) due to high-LET effects and gradients along the physical size (~mm) of the detector crystals. Amorphous track models (ATMs) such as the Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach by Katz and co-workers or the ECLaT code by Geiß et...... the models and the selection of the most appropriate approach. Materials and methods: We have therefore developed a generic, open-source and publically available ATM code library (libSGP) including a number of ATMs, which can be used as a common platform to investigate the principal approaches and underlying...

  16. SPATIO-TEMPORAL SEGMENTATION AND REGIONS TRACKING OF HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO SEQUENCES USING A MARKOV RANDOM FIELD MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Brouard, Olivier; Delannay, Fabrice; Ricordel, Vincent; Barba, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we proposed a Markov Random field sequence segmentation and regions tracking model, which aims at combining color, texture, and motion features. First a motion-based segmentation is realized. The global motion of the video sequence is estimated and compensated. From the remaining motion information, the motion segmentation is achieved. Then, we use a Markovian approach to update and track over time the video objects. By video object, we mean typically, a...

  17. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on Pacific storm track using a multiscale global climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan H; Molina, Mario J

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols affect weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track, using a multiscale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and preindustrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by -2.5 and +1.3 W m(-2), respectively, by emission changes from preindustrial to present day, and an increased cloud top height indicates invigorated midlatitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, a global perspective of the effects of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multiscale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on a global scale.

  18. Modeling and Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for a Novel Six-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and trajectory tracking control of a novel six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV is concerned to solve problems such as smaller payload capacity and lack of both hardware redundancy and anticrosswind capability for quad-rotor. The mathematical modeling for the six-rotor UAV is developed on the basis of the Newton-Euler formalism, and a second-order sliding-mode disturbance observer (SOSMDO is proposed to reconstruct the disturbances of the rotational dynamics. In consideration of the under-actuated and strong coupling properties of the six-rotor UAV, a nested double loops trajectory tracking control strategy is adopted. In the outer loop, a position error PID controller is designed, of which the task is to compare the desired trajectory with real position of the six-rotor UAV and export the desired attitude angles to the inner loop. In the inner loop, a rapid-convergent nonlinear differentiator (RCND is proposed to calculate the derivatives of the virtual control signal, instead of using the analytical differentiation, to avoid “differential expansion” in the procedure of the attitude controller design. Finally, the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique are demonstrated by the simulation results.

  19. A H-Infinity Control for Path Tracking with Fuzzy Hyperbolic Tangent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goal of driver-less underground mining truck, a fuzzy hyperbolic tangent model is established for path tracking on an underground articulated mining truck. Firstly, the sample data of parameters are collected by the driver controlling articulated vehicle at a speed of 3 m/s, including both the lateral position deviation and the variation of heading angle deviation. Then, according to the improved adaptive BP neural network model and deriving formula of mediation rate of error estimator by the method of Cauchy robust, the weights are identified. Finally, H-infinity control controller is designed to control steering angle. The results of hardware-in-the-loop simulation show that lateral position deviation, heading angle deviation, and steering angle of the vehicle can be controlled, respectively, at 0.024 m, 0.08 rad, and 0.21 rad. All the deviations are asymptotically stable, and error control is in less than 2%. The method is demonstrated to be effective and reliable in path tracking for the underground vehicles.

  20. The Dynamic Model Embed in Augmented Graph Cuts for Robust Hand Tracking and Segmentation in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmenting human hand is important in computer vision applications, for example, sign language interpretation, human computer interaction, and gesture recognition. However, some serious bottlenecks still exist in hand localization systems such as fast hand motion capture, hand over face, and hand occlusions on which we focus in this paper. We present a novel method for hand tracking and segmentation based on augmented graph cuts and dynamic model. First, an effective dynamic model for state estimation is generated, which correctly predicts the location of hands probably having fast motion or shape deformations. Second, new energy terms are brought into the energy function to develop augmented graph cuts based on some cues, namely, spatial information, hand motion, and chamfer distance. The proposed method successfully achieves hand segmentation even though the hand passes over other skin-colored objects. Some challenging videos are provided in the case of hand over face, hand occlusions, dynamic background, and fast motion. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is much more accurate than other graph cuts-based methods for hand tracking and segmentation.

  1. Analyzing Ocean Tracks: A model for student engagement in authentic scientific practices using data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, K.; Krumhansl, R.; Brown, C.; DeLisi, J.; Kochevar, R.; Sickler, J.; Busey, A.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Block, B.

    2013-12-01

    The collection of large quantities of scientific data has not only transformed science, but holds the potential to transform teaching and learning by engaging students in authentic scientific work. Furthermore, it has become imperative in a data-rich world that students gain competency in working with and interpreting data. The Next Generation Science Standards reflect both the opportunity and need for greater integration of data in science education, and emphasize that both scientific knowledge and practice are essential elements of science learning. The process of enabling access by novice learners to data collected and used by experts poses significant challenges, however, recent research has demonstrated that barriers to student learning with data can be overcome by the careful design of data access and analysis tools that are specifically tailored to students. A group of educators at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) and scientists at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station are collaborating to develop and test a model for student engagement with scientific data using a web-based platform. This model, called Ocean Tracks: Investigating Marine Migrations in a Changing Ocean, provides students with the ability to plot and analyze tracks of migrating marine animals collected through the Tagging of Pacific Predators program. The interface and associated curriculum support students in identifying relationships between animal behavior and physical oceanographic variables (e.g. SST, chlorophyll, currents), making linkages between the living world and climate. Students are also supported in investigating possible sources of human impact to important biodiversity hotspots in the Pacific Ocean. The first round of classroom testing revealed that students were able to easily access and display data on the interface, and collect measurements from the animal tracks and oceanographic data layers. They were able to link multiple types of data to draw powerful

  2. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA track and Session Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araújo, S.; Boscarino, C.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Vries, A.P. de; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    We participated in two tracks: Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track and Session Track. In the KBA track, we focused on experi- menting with different approaches as it is the first time the track is launched. We experimented with supervised and unsupervised re- trieval models. Our supervised appro

  3. CWI at TREC 2012, KBA track and Session Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Araújo (Samur); C. Boscarino (Corrado); G.G. Gebremeskel (Gebre); J. He (Jiyin); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractWe participated in two tracks: Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Track and Session Track. In the KBA track, we focused on experi- menting with different approaches as it is the first time the track is launched. We experimented with supervised and unsupervised re- trieval models. Our supe

  4. Broken phase effective potential in the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation and nature of the phase transition in a scalar theory

    CERN Document Server

    Markó, Gergely; Szép, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We study the phase transition of a real scalar phi^4 theory in the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation using the imaginary time formalism, extending our previous (analytical) discussion of the Hartree approximation. We combine Fast Fourier Transform algorithms and accelerated Matsubara sums in order to achieve a high accuracy. Our results confirm and complete earlier ones obtained in the real time formalism [1] but which were less accurate due to the integration in Minkowski space and the discretization of the spectral density function. We also provide a complete and explicit discussion of the renormalization of the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation at finite temperature, both in the symmetric and in the broken phase, which was already used in the real-time approach, but never published. Our main result is that the two-loop Phi-derivable approximation suffices to cure the problem of the Hartree approximation regarding the order of the transition: the transition is of the second order type, as expected on ...

  5. The Two-Loop Anomalous Dimension Matrix for $\\Delta S=1$ Weak Non-Leptonic Decays; 1, ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Lautenbacher, M E; Weisz, P; Buras, Andrzej J.; Jamin, Matthias; Lautenbacher, Markus E.; Weisz, Peter H.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate the two-loop $10 \\times 10$ anomalous dimension matrix ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^{2})$ involving current-current operators, QCD penguin operators, and electroweak penguin operators especially relevant for $\\Delta S=1$ weak non-leptonic decays, but also important for $\\Delta B=1$ decays. The calculation is performed in two schemes for $\\gamma_{5}$: the dimensional regularization scheme with anticommuting $\\gamma_{5}$ (NDR), and in the 't Hooft-Veltman scheme. We demonstrate how a direct calculation of diagrams involving $\\gamma_{5}$ in closed fermion loops can be avoided thus allowing a consistent calculation in the NDR scheme. The compatibility of the results obtained in the two schemes considered is verified and the properties of the resulting matrices are discussed. The two-loop corrections are found to be substantial. The two-loop anomalous dimension matrix ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_e\\alpha_s)$, required for a consistent inclusion of electroweak penguin operators, is presented in a subsequent publication.

  6. Robust Adaptive Tracking Control of a Class of Robot Manipulators with Model Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Solís-Perales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust tracking controller for robot manipulators measuring only the angular positions and considering model uncertainties is presented. It is considered that the model is uncertain; that is, the system parameters, nonlinear terms, external perturbations, and the friction effects in each robot joint are considered unknown. The controller is composed by two parts, a linearizing-like control feedback and a high-gain estimator. The main idea is to lump the uncertain terms into a new state which represents the dynamics of the uncertainties. This new state is then estimated in order to be compensated. In this way the resulting controller is robust. A numerical example for a RR robot manipulator is provided, in order to corroborate the results.

  7. Towards an Applied Gamification Model for Tracking, Managing, & Encouraging Sustainable Travel Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Wells

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a gamification model for encouraging sustainable multi-modal urban travel in modern European cities. Our aim is to provide a mechanism that encourages users to reflect on their current travel behaviours and to engage in more environmentally friendly activities that lead to the formation of sustainable, long-term travel behaviours. To achieve this our users track their own behaviours, set goals, manage their progress towards those goals, and respond to challenges. Our approach uses a point accumulation and level achievement metaphor to abstract from the underlying specifics of individual behaviours and goals to allow an extensible and flexible platform for behaviour management. We present our model within the context of the SUPERHUB project and platform.

  8. Randomly-fluctuating heterogeneous continuum model of a ballasted railway track

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Corrêa, Lucio; Quezada, Juan Carlos; Cottereau, Régis; d'Aguiar, Sofia Costa; Voivret, Charles

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a description of a granular medium as a stochastic heterogeneous continuum medium. The heterogeneity of the material properties field recreates the heterogeneous stress field in a granular medium. The stochastic approach means that only statistical information, easily available, is required to construct the model. The heterogeneous continuum model is Calibrated with respect to discrete simulations of a set of railway ballast samples. As they are continuum-based, the equilibrium equations can be solved on a large scale using a parallel implementation of an explicit time discretization scheme for the Finite Element Method. Simulations representative of the influence on the environment of the passage of a train on a ballasted railway track clearly show the influence of the heterogeneity. These simulations seem to correlate well with previously unexplained overly damped measurements in the free field.

  9. The 2008 European School of Oncology inside track conference, "predictive modeling in prostate cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Scardino, Peter T; Denis, Louis

    2009-07-01

    The European School of Oncology (ESO) Inside Track Conference, "Predictive Modeling in Prostate Cancer," the first event ever dedicated to prediction in prostate cancer, was organized in collaboration with the Prostate Program of Milan National Cancer Institute and the American Italian Cancer Foundation in the wonderful scenario of the Excelsior Lido Hotel in Venice on April 17 through 19, 2008. More than 240 participants from 23 countries attended this 3-day conference, which convened an exceptional group of experts from all over the world whose presentations provided a framework for understanding the state of the art in predictive modeling of prostate cancer and displayed future research trends in the uro-oncologic community. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3035-8. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  10. Update of an Object Oriented Track Reconstruction Model for LHC Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavidCandilin; SijinQIAN; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this update report about an Object Oriented (OO) track reconstruction model,which was presented at CHEP'97,CHEP'98,and CHEP'2000,we shall describe subsequent new developments since the beginning of year 2000.The OO model for the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders.It has been coded in the C++ programming language originally for the CMS experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN,and later has been successfully implemented into three different OO computing environments(including the level-2 trigger and offline software systems)of the ATLAS(another major experiment at LHC).For the level-2 trigger software environment.we shall selectively present some latest performance results(e.g.the B-physics event selection for ATLAS level-2 trigger,the robustness study result,ets.).For the offline environment,we shall present a new 3-D space point package which provides the essential offline input.A major development after CHEP'2000 is the implementation of the OO model into the new OO software frameworkAthena"of ATLAS experiment.The new modularization of this OO package enables the model to be more flexible and to be more easily implemented into different software environments.Also it provides the potential to handle the more comlpicated realistic situation(e.g.to include the calibration correction and the alignment correction,etc.) Some general interface issues(e.g.design of the common track class)of the algorithms to different framework environments have been investigated by using this OO package.

  11. Adaptive robust motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders with LuGre model-based friction compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Tao, Guoliang; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Xiaocong

    2014-07-01

    Friction compensation is particularly important for motion trajectory tracking control of pneumatic cylinders at low speed movement. However, most of the existing model-based friction compensation schemes use simple classical models, which are not enough to address applications with high-accuracy position requirements. Furthermore, the friction force in the cylinder is time-varying, and there exist rather severe unmodelled dynamics and unknown disturbances in the pneumatic system. To deal with these problems effectively, an adaptive robust controller with LuGre model-based dynamic friction compensation is constructed. The proposed controller employs on-line recursive least squares estimation (RLSE) to reduce the extent of parametric uncertainties, and utilizes the sliding mode control method to attenuate the effects of parameter estimation errors, unmodelled dynamics and disturbances. In addition, in order to realize LuGre model-based friction compensation, the modified dual-observer structure for estimating immeasurable friction internal state is developed. Therefore, a prescribed motion tracking transient performance and final tracking accuracy can be guaranteed. Since the system model uncertainties are unmatched, the recursive backstepping design technology is applied. In order to solve the conflicts between the sliding mode control design and the adaptive control design, the projection mapping is used to condition the RLSE algorithm so that the parameter estimates are kept within a known bounded convex set. Finally, the proposed controller is tested for tracking sinusoidal trajectories and smooth square trajectory under different loads and sudden disturbance. The testing results demonstrate that the achievable performance of the proposed controller is excellent and is much better than most other studies in literature. Especially when a 0.5 Hz sinusoidal trajectory is tracked, the maximum tracking error is 0.96 mm and the average tracking error is 0.45 mm. This

  12. A Hybrid Approach for Co-Channel Speech Segregation based on CASA, HMM Multipitch Tracking, and Medium Frame Harmonic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Mohy Eldin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid approach for co-channel speech segregation. HMM (hidden Markov model is used to track the pitches of 2 talkers. The resulting pitch tracks are then enriched with the prominent pitch. The enriched tracks are correctly grouped using pitch continuity. Medium frame harmonics are used to extract the second pitch for frames with only one pitch deduced using the previous steps. Finally, the pitch tracks are input to CASA (computational auditory scene analysis to segregate the mixed speech. The center frequency range of the gamma tone filter banks is maximized to reduce the overlap between the channels filtered for better segregation. Experiments were conducted using this hybrid approach on the speech separation challenge database and compared to the single (non-hybrid approaches, i.e. signal processing and CASA. Results show that using the hybrid approach outperforms the single approaches.

  13. A Real-Time Model-Based Human Motion Tracking and Analysis for Human-Computer Interface Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Lin Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time model-based human motion tracking and analysis method for human computer interface (HCI. This method tracks and analyzes the human motion from two orthogonal views without using any markers. The motion parameters are estimated by pattern matching between the extracted human silhouette and the human model. First, the human silhouette is extracted and then the body definition parameters (BDPs can be obtained. Second, the body animation parameters (BAPs are estimated by a hierarchical tritree overlapping searching algorithm. To verify the performance of our method, we demonstrate different human posture sequences and use hidden Markov model (HMM for posture recognition testing.

  14. Digging Soil Experiments for Micro Hydraulic Excavators based on Model Predictive Tracking Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Takumi; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma; Suzuki, Katsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the increase of burden to operators and lack of skilled operators are the issue in the work of the hydraulic excavator. These problems are expected to be improved by autonomous control. In this paper, we present experimental results of hydraulic excavators using model predictive control (MPC) which incorporates servo mechanism. MPC optimizes digging operations by the optimal control input which is calculated by predicting the future states and satisfying the constraints. However, it is difficult for MPC to cope with the reaction force from soil when a hydraulic excavator performs excavation. Servo mechanism suppresses the influence of the constant disturbance using the error integration. However, the bucket tip deviates from a specified shape by the sudden change of the disturbance. We can expect that the tracking performance is improved by combining MPC and servo mechanism. Path-tracking controls of the bucket tip are performed using the optimal control input. We apply the proposed method to the Komatsu- made micro hydraulic excavator PC01 by experiments. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method through the experiment of digging soil by comparing servo mechanism and pure MPC with the proposed method.

  15. Tracking instantaneous entropy in heartbeat dynamics through inhomogeneous point-process nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Measures of entropy have been proved as powerful quantifiers of complex nonlinear systems, particularly when applied to stochastic series of heartbeat dynamics. Despite the remarkable achievements obtained through standard definitions of approximate and sample entropy, a time-varying definition of entropy characterizing the physiological dynamics at each moment in time is still missing. To this extent, we propose two novel measures of entropy based on the inho-mogeneous point-process theory. The RR interval series is modeled through probability density functions (pdfs) which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through such probability functions, the proposed indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of autonomic nervous system complexity. Of note, the distance between the time-varying phase-space vectors is calculated through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance of two pdfs. Experimental results, obtained from the analysis of RR interval series extracted from ten healthy subjects during stand-up tasks, suggest that the proposed entropy indices provide instantaneous tracking of the heartbeat complexity, also allowing for the definition of complexity variability indices.

  16. Hidden Markov model tracking of continuous gravitational waves from a neutron star with wandering spin

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorova, S; Melatos, A; Moran, W; Evans, R J

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational wave searches for continuous-wave signals from neutron stars are especially challenging when the star's spin frequency is unknown a priori from electromagnetic observations and wanders stochastically under the action of internal (e.g. superfluid or magnetospheric) or external (e.g. accretion) torques. It is shown that frequency tracking by hidden Markov model (HMM) methods can be combined with existing maximum likelihood coherent matched filters like the F-statistic to surmount some of the challenges raised by spin wandering. Specifically it is found that, for an isolated, biaxial rotor whose spin frequency walks randomly, HMM tracking of the F-statistic output from coherent segments with duration T_drift = 10d over a total observation time of T_obs = 1yr can detect signals with wave strains h0 > 2e-26 at a noise level characteristic of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO). For a biaxial rotor with randomly walking spin in a binary orbit, whose orbital...

  17. Identifying the origin of waterbird carcasses in Lake Michigan using a neural network source tracking model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Ge, Zhongfu; Fara, Luke J.; Houdek, Steven C.; Lubinski, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Avian botulism type E is responsible for extensive waterbird mortality on the Great Lakes, yet the actual site of toxin exposure remains unclear. Beached carcasses are often used to describe the spatial aspects of botulism mortality outbreaks, but lack specificity of offshore toxin source locations. We detail methodology for developing a neural network model used for predicting waterbird carcass motions in response to wind, wave, and current forcing, in lieu of a complex analytical relationship. This empirically trained model uses current velocity, wind velocity, significant wave height, and wave peak period in Lake Michigan simulated by the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. A detailed procedure is further developed to use the model for back-tracing waterbird carcasses found on beaches in various parts of Lake Michigan, which was validated using drift data for radiomarked common loon (Gavia immer) carcasses deployed at a variety of locations in northern Lake Michigan during September and October of 2013. The back-tracing model was further used on 22 non-radiomarked common loon carcasses found along the shoreline of northern Lake Michigan in October and November of 2012. The model-estimated origins of those cases pointed to some common source locations offshore that coincide with concentrations of common loons observed during aerial surveys. The neural network source tracking model provides a promising approach for identifying locations of botulinum neurotoxin type E intoxication and, in turn, contributes to developing an understanding of the dynamics of toxin production and possible trophic transfer pathways.

  18. Hierarchal Variable Switching Sets of Interacting Multiple Model for Tracking Maneuvering Targets in Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Moawoud Ay Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking maneuvering targets introduce two major directions to improve the Multiple Model (MM approach: Develop a better MM algorithm and design a better model set. The Interacting Multiple Model (IMM estimator is a suboptimal hybrid filter that has been shown to be one of the most cost-effective hybrid state estimation schemes. The main feature of this algorithm is the ability to estimate the state of a dynamic system with several behavior modes which can "switch" from one to another. In particular, the use of too many models is performance-wise as bad as that of too few models. In this paper we show that the use of too many models is performance-wise as bad as that of too few models. To overcome this we divide the models into a small number of sets, tuning these sets during operation at the right operating set. We proposed Hierarchal Switching sets of IMM (HSIMM. The state space of the nonlinear variable is divided into sets each set has its own IMM. The connection between them is the switching algorithm which manages the activation and termination of sets. Also the re-initialization process overcomes the error accumulation due to the targets changes from one model to another. This switching can introduce a number of different models while no restriction on their number. The activation of sets depends on the threshold value of set likely hood. As the likely hood of the set is higher than threshold it is active otherwise it is minimized. The result is the weighted sum of the output of active sets. The computational time is minimum than introduced by IMM and VIMM. HSIMM introduces less error as the noise increase and there is no need for re adjustment to the Covariance as the noise increase so it is more robust against noise and introduces minimum computational time.

  19. Embedded Analytical Solutions Improve Accuracy in Convolution-Based Particle Tracking Models using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Particle tracking often is used to generate particle-age distributions that are used as impulse-response functions in convolution. A typical application is to produce groundwater solute breakthrough curves (BTC) at endpoint receptors such as pumping wells or streams. The commonly used semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm based on the assumption of linear velocity gradients between opposing cell faces is computationally very fast when used in combination with finite-difference models. However, large gradients near pumping wells in regional-scale groundwater-flow models often are not well represented because of cell-size limitations. This leads to inaccurate velocity fields, especially at weak sinks. Accurate analytical solutions for velocity near a pumping well are available, and various boundary conditions can be imposed using image-well theory. Python can be used to embed these solutions into existing semi-analytical particle-tracking codes, thereby maintaining the integrity and quality-assurance of the existing code. Python (and associated scientific computational packages NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib) is an effective tool because of its wide ranging capability. Python text processing allows complex and database-like manipulation of model input and output files, including binary and HDF5 files. High-level functions in the language include ODE solvers to solve first-order particle-location ODEs, Gaussian kernel density estimation to compute smooth particle-age distributions, and convolution. The highly vectorized nature of NumPy arrays and functions minimizes the need for computationally expensive loops. A modular Python code base has been developed to compute BTCs using embedded analytical solutions at pumping wells based on an existing well-documented finite-difference groundwater-flow simulation code (MODFLOW) and a semi-analytical particle-tracking code (MODPATH). The Python code base is tested by comparing BTCs with highly discretized synthetic steady

  20. Model development and system performance optimization for staring infrared search and track (IRST) sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Craig; Theisen, Michael; Pace, Teresa; Halford, Carl; Driggers, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The mission of an Infrared Search and Track (IRST) system is to detect and locate (sometimes called find and fix) enemy aircraft at significant ranges. Two extreme opposite examples of IRST applications are 1) long range offensive aircraft detection when electronic warfare equipment is jammed, compromised, or intentionally turned off, and 2) distributed aperture systems where enemy aircraft may be in the proximity of the host aircraft. Past IRST systems have been primarily long range offensive systems that were based on the LWIR second generation thermal imager. The new IRST systems are primarily based on staring infrared focal planes and sensors. In the same manner that FLIR92 did not work well in the design of staring infrared cameras (NVTherm was developed to address staring infrared sensor performance), current modeling techniques do not adequately describe the performance of a staring IRST sensor. There are no standard military IRST models (per AFRL and NAVAIR), and each program appears to perform their own modeling. For this reason, L-3 has decided to develop a corporate model, working with AFRL and NAVAIR, for the analysis, design, and evaluation of IRST concepts, programs, and solutions. This paper provides some of the first analyses in the L-3 IRST model development program for the optimization of staring IRST sensors.

  1. Mapping mantle flow during retreating subduction: Laboratory models analyzed by feature tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, F.; Moroni, M.; Piromallo, C.; Faccenna, C.; Cenedese, A.; Bui, H. A.

    2006-03-01

    Three-dimensional dynamically consistent laboratory models are carried out to model the large-scale mantle circulation induced by subduction of a laterally migrating slab. A laboratory analogue of a slab-upper mantle system is set up with two linearly viscous layers of silicone putty and glucose syrup in a tank. The circulation pattern is continuously monitored and quantitatively estimated using a feature tracking image analysis technique. The effects of plate width and mantle viscosity/density on mantle circulation are systematically considered. The experiments show that rollback subduction generates a complex three-dimensional time-dependent mantle circulation pattern characterized by the presence of two distinct components: the poloidal and the toroidal circulation. The poloidal component is the answer to the viscous coupling between the slab motion and the mantle, while the toroidal one is produced by lateral slab migration. Spatial and temporal features of mantle circulation are carefully analyzed. These models show that (1) poloidal and toroidal mantle circulation are both active since the beginning of the subduction process, (2) mantle circulation is intermittent, (3) plate width affects the velocity and the dimension of subduction induced mantle circulation area, and (4) mantle flow in subduction zones cannot be correctly described by models assuming a two-dimensional steady state process. We show that the intermittent toroidal component of mantle circulation, missed in those models, plays a crucial role in modifying the geometry and the efficiency of the poloidal component.

  2. Epipolar Resampling of Cross-Track Pushbroom Satellite Imagery Using the Rigorous Sensor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Mojtaba; Valadan Zoej, Mohammad Javad; Mokhtarzade, Mehdi

    2017-01-11

    Epipolar resampling aims to eliminate the vertical parallax of stereo images. Due to the dynamic nature of the exterior orientation parameters of linear pushbroom satellite imagery and the complexity of reconstructing the epipolar geometry using rigorous sensor models, so far, no epipolar resampling approach has been proposed based on these models. In this paper for the first time it is shown that the orientation of the instantaneous baseline (IB) of conjugate image points (CIPs) in the linear pushbroom satellite imagery can be modeled with high precision in terms of the rows- and the columns-number of CIPs. Taking advantage of this feature, a novel approach is then presented for epipolar resampling of cross-track linear pushbroom satellite imagery. The proposed method is based on the rigorous sensor model. As the instantaneous position of sensors remains fixed, the digital elevation model of the area of interest is not required in the resampling process. Experimental results obtained from two pairs of SPOT and one pair of RapidEye stereo imagery with different terrain conditions shows that the proposed epipolar resampling approach benefits from a superior accuracy, as the remained vertical parallaxes of all CIPs in the normalized images are close to zero.

  3. Epipolar Resampling of Cross-Track Pushbroom Satellite Imagery Using the Rigorous Sensor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Jannati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipolar resampling aims to eliminate the vertical parallax of stereo images. Due to the dynamic nature of the exterior orientation parameters of linear pushbroom satellite imagery and the complexity of reconstructing the epipolar geometry using rigorous sensor models, so far, no epipolar resampling approach has been proposed based on these models. In this paper for the first time it is shown that the orientation of the instantaneous baseline (IB of conjugate image points (CIPs in the linear pushbroom satellite imagery can be modeled with high precision in terms of the rows- and the columns-number of CIPs. Taking advantage of this feature, a novel approach is then presented for epipolar resampling of cross-track linear pushbroom satellite imagery. The proposed method is based on the rigorous sensor model. As the instantaneous position of sensors remains fixed, the digital elevation model of the area of interest is not required in the resampling process. Experimental results obtained from two pairs of SPOT and one pair of RapidEye stereo imagery with different terrain conditions shows that the proposed epipolar resampling approach benefits from a superior accuracy, as the remained vertical parallaxes of all CIPs in the normalized images are close to zero.

  4. A Mathematical Model and Simulation Results of the Dynamic System Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track with a Wheel Flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Žygienė

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track with a wheel flat of a wheelset has been made. The system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track has been examined on the vertical plane. The mathematical model of the system Railway Vehicle Wheel–Track has employed linear, nonlinear, elastic and damping discrete elements. Rail dynamics haves been described using the finite element method. The unevenness of the rail and the wheel of the wheelset have been evaluated considering the contact between the rail and the wheel flat of the wheelset. The analysis of dynamic processes taking place in a railway vehicle wheel with the wheel flat moving at speed V = 60 km/h has been accomplished. The results of mathematical modelling of the above introduced dynamic system have been presented along with graphically displayed research findings of the conducted research.

  5. Modeling and output tracking of transverse flux permanent magnet machines using high gain observer and RBF neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H R; Babazadeh, A

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with modeling and adaptive output tracking of a transverse flux permanent magnet machine as a nonlinear system with unknown nonlinearities by utilizing high gain observer and radial basis function networks. The proposed model is developed based on computing the permeance between rotor and stator using quasiflux tubes. Based on this model, the techniques of feedback linearization and Hinfinity control are used to design an adaptive control law for compensating the unknown nonlinear parts, such as the effect of cogging torque, as a disturbance is decreased onto the rotor angle and angular velocity tracking performances. Finally, the capability of the proposed method in tracking both the angle and the angular velocity is shown in the simulation results.

  6. Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) model documentation and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, C.; Camp, J.; Conzelmann, G. [and others

    1996-12-01

    With passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the United States embarked on a policy for controlling acid deposition that has been estimated to cost at least $2 billion. Title IV of the Act created a major innovation in environmental regulation by introducing market-based incentives - specifically, by allowing electric utility companies to trade allowances to emit sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has been tasked by Congress to assess what Senator Moynihan has termed this {open_quotes}grand experiment.{close_quotes} Such a comprehensive assessment of the economic and environmental effects of this legislation has been a major challenge. To help NAPAP face this challenge, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored development of an integrated assessment model, known as the Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF). This section summarizes TAF`s objectives and its overall design.

  7. In vivo tracking of stem cells labeled with a nanoparticle in Alzheimer's disease animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungji; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Chang, Keun-A.

    2013-05-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising tool for the treatment of diverse conditions including neurodegenerative diseases. To understand transplanted stem cell biology, in vivo imaging is necessary. Nano material has great potential for in vivo imaging and several noninvasive methods are used such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), Fluorescence imaging (FI) and Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI). However, each method has limitations for in vivo imaging. To overcome these limitations, multimodal nanoprobes have been developed. In the present study, we intravenously injected human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) that labeled with multimodal nano particle, LEO-LIVETM-Magnoxide 797 or 675, into the Tg2576 mice, Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Sequential in vivo tracking was performed with mice injected with hASCs. We could found fluorescence signals until 10 days after injection.

  8. User guide for MODPATH Version 7—A particle-tracking model for MODFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, David W.

    2016-09-26

    MODPATH is a particle-tracking post-processing program designed to work with MODFLOW, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference groundwater flow model. MODPATH version 7 is the fourth major release since its original publication. Previous versions were documented in USGS Open-File Reports 89–381 and 94–464 and in USGS Techniques and Methods 6–A41.MODPATH version 7 works with MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW–USG. Support for unstructured grids in MODFLOW–USG is limited to smoothed, rectangular-based quadtree and quadpatch grids.A software distribution package containing the computer program and supporting documentation, such as input instructions, output file descriptions, and example problems, is available from the USGS over the Internet (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/modpath/).

  9. Tracking Control of A Balancing Robot – A Model-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiczek Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control concept for a single-axle mobile robot moving on the horizontal plane. A mathematical model of the nonholonomic mechanical system is derived using Hamel's equations of motion. Subsequently, a concept for a tracking controller is described in detail. This controller keeps the mobile robot on a given reference trajectory while maintaining it in an upright position. The control objective is reached by a cascade control structure. By an appropriate input transformation, we are able to utilize an input-output linearization of a subsystem. For the remaining dynamics a linear set-point control law is presented. Finally, the performance of the implemented control law is illustrated by simulation results.

  10. Model-Free Primitive-Based Iterative Learning Control Approach to Trajectory Tracking of MIMO Systems With Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.

  11. A Mini-Review of Track And Field’s Talent-Identification Models in Iran and Some Designated Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ghasemzadeh Mirkolaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification and training the athletes of the basic levels in track and field requires codifying a proper model like any other system so that any duplication is prevented as well as knowing the right path. The federation of track and field started to codify the national talent-identification scheme in track and field in 1385. Hence, the present studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in some designated countries and compare them with the codified pattern in Iran. The research method of the present survey is of review which studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in countries like the Russia (Soviet Union, the Germany (former East Germany, China, Australia, Romania, Italy, USA, England, Hungary, Canada, Japan, Qatar, Malaysia, and Iran. Studying track-and-field talent-identification pattern in Iran shows that lack of a new opportunity for trainees and unsustainability of the practical talent-identification scheme have been of its setbacks. Also, comparing the patterns shows that the most important principle of talent-identification scheme in designated countries are cooperation with the institutional sport, continuity of the talent-identification scheme, and supporting and training the elite athletes to help them reach the championship.

  12. Source tracking using microbial community fingerprints: Method comparison with hydrodynamic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D T; Jovanovic, D; Lintern, A; Teakle, I; Barnes, M; Deletic, A; Coleman, R; Rooney, G; Prosser, T; Coutts, S; Hipsey, M R; Bruce, L C; Henry, R

    2017-02-01

    Urban estuaries around the world are experiencing contamination from diffuse and point sources, which increases risks to public health. To mitigate and manage risks posed by elevated levels of contamination in urban waterways, it is critical to identify the primary water sources of contamination within catchments. Source tracking using microbial community fingerprints is one tool that can be used to identify sources. However, results derived from this approach have not yet been evaluated using independent datasets. As such, the key objectives of this investigation were: (1) to identify the major sources of water responsible for bacterial loadings within an urban estuary using microbial source tracking (MST) using microbial communities; and (2) to evaluate this method using a 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The Yarra River estuary, which flows through the city of Melbourne in South-East Australia was the focus of this study. We found that the water sources contributing to the bacterial community in the Yarra River estuary varied temporally depending on the estuary's hydrodynamic conditions. The water source apportionment determined using microbial community MST correlated to those determined using a 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the transport and mixing of a tracer in the estuary. While there were some discrepancies between the two methods, this investigation demonstrated that MST using bacterial community fingerprints can identify the primary water sources of microorganisms in an estuarine environment. As such, with further optimization and improvements, microbial community MST has the potential to become a powerful tool that could be practically applied in the mitigation of contaminated aquatic systems.

  13. 2-port internal model control for gyro stabilized platform of electro-optical tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun-xia; Bao, Qi-liang; Li, Zhi-jun; Wu, Qiong-yan

    2012-06-01

    Line-of-sight stabilized system, which can be used to isolate the vibration of the moving bed and the disturbance of environment, is the most important part of an electro-optical tracking system. The steady precision and robustness are the key issues of recent researches. In this paper, a novel control approach so called 2-Port Internal Model Control (2-PIMC) for line-of-sight stabilized system is proposed. By adding a parallel feedback control loop on the basis of Internal Model Control (IMC), the 2-PIMC method can improve precision while it also has strong robustness as the IMC. The robustness and the static error of 2-PIMC method were subsequently analyzed. Based on this novel method, Simulation and experiment are both carried out for a gyro stabilized platform of electro-optical tracking system. The experiments include a shaking table which can generate disturbance as the moving bed and a gyro stabilized platform which is mounted on the shaking table. The experimental result indicated that the gyro stabilized platform using 2-PIMC method is accurate and effective. Comparing with PI control, the following error and disturbance restraining error were both greatly improved at low-frequency and mid-frequency by the 2-PIMC method proposed. The improvement of precision is more than 10dB at 4Hz. In addition, the 2-PIMC method doesn't need any extra sensors for the platform and it's easy for parameters regulation. It can be concluded that the2-PIMC method is a new approach for the high-performance gyro stabilized platform and might have broad application prospect.

  14. The post-orogenic evolution of the Northeast Greenland Caledonides constrained from apatite fission track analysis and inverse geodynamic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine; Nielsen, S.B.; Gallagher, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    or characteristic trends relative to mean track length. Using these new data and inverse geodynamic modelling, we constrain the evolution in the area since the orogenic collapse of the Caledonides. Exhumation histories are inferred using a uniform stretching model, incorporating variable rates of erosion...... or deposition, and thermal histories are found by solving the one-dimensional transient conduction–advection heat equation. These thermal histories are used with the observed fission track data to constrain acceptable strain rate histories and exhumation paths. The results suggest that rifting has been focused...

  15. Implementing the Serial Number Tracking model in telecommunications: a case study of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Polovina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The case study describes the implementation of the SNT (Serial Number Tracking model in an integrated information system, as a means of business support in a Croatian mobile telecommunications company. Objectives: The goal was to show how to make the best practice of the SNT implementation in the telecommunication industry, with referencing to problems which have arisen during the implementation. Methods/Approach: the case study approach was used based on the documentation about the SNT model and the business intelligence system in the Croatian mobile telecommunications company. Results: Economic aspects of the effectiveness of the SNT model are described and confirmed based on actual tangible and predominantly on intangible benefits. Conclusions: Advantages of the SNT model are multiple: operating costs for storage and transit of goods were reduced, accuracy of deliveries and physical inventory was improved; a new source of information for the business intelligence system was obtained; operating processes in the distribution of goods were advanced; transit insurance costs decreased and there were fewer cases of fraudulent behaviour.

  16. JDL level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2002-07-01

    The 1999 Joint Director of Labs (JDL) revised model incorporates five levels for fusion methodologies including level 0 for preprocessing, level 1 for object refinement, level 2 for situation refinement, level 3 for threat refinement, and level 4 for process refinement. The model was developed to define the fusion process. However, the model is only for automatic processing of a machine and does not account for human processing. Typically, a fusion architecture supports a user and thus, we propose a Level 5 User refinement to delineate the human from the machine in the process refinement. Typical human in the loop models do not deal with a machine fusion process, but only present the information to the human on a display. We seek to address issues for designing a fusion system which supports a user: trust, workload, attention and situation awareness. In this paper, we overview the need for a Level 5, the issues concerning the human for realizable fusion architectures, and examples where the human is instrumental in the fusion process such as group tracking.

  17. Increasing vertical resolution in US models to improve track forecasts of Hurricane Joaquin with HWRF as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Banglin; Lindzen, Richard S.; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Liu, Qingfu; Sippel, Jason A.; Ma, Zaizhong; Bender, Morris A.

    2016-10-01

    The atmosphere-ocean coupled Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast model (HWRF) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used as an example to illustrate the impact of model vertical resolution on track forecasts of tropical cyclones. A number of HWRF forecasting experiments were carried out at different vertical resolutions for Hurricane Joaquin, which occurred from September 27 to October 8, 2015, in the Atlantic Basin. The results show that the track prediction for Hurricane Joaquin is much more accurate with higher vertical resolution. The positive impacts of higher vertical resolution on hurricane track forecasts suggest that National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/NCEP should upgrade both HWRF and the Global Forecast System to have more vertical levels.

  18. Increasing vertical resolution in US models to improve track forecasts of Hurricane Joaquin with HWRF as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Banglin; Lindzen, Richard S; Tallapragada, Vijay; Weng, Fuzhong; Liu, Qingfu; Sippel, Jason A; Ma, Zaizhong; Bender, Morris A

    2016-10-18

    The atmosphere-ocean coupled Hurricane Weather Research and Forecast model (HWRF) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used as an example to illustrate the impact of model vertical resolution on track forecasts of tropical cyclones. A number of HWRF forecasting experiments were carried out at different vertical resolutions for Hurricane Joaquin, which occurred from September 27 to October 8, 2015, in the Atlantic Basin. The results show that the track prediction for Hurricane Joaquin is much more accurate with higher vertical resolution. The positive impacts of higher vertical resolution on hurricane track forecasts suggest that National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/NCEP should upgrade both HWRF and the Global Forecast System to have more vertical levels.

  19. A compound spike model for formation of nuclear tracks in solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed RANA

    2007-01-01

    Formation of nuclear tracks in solids has been described as a thermal spike as well as a Coulomb explosion spike.Here,formation of nuclear tracks is described as a compound spike including partial roles of both thermal and Coulomb explosion spikes in track formation.Fractional roles of both spikes depend on atomic and electronic structure of a track detector and deposited energy density in the track detector by the incident charged particle.Behavior of the cylindrical zone along the path of the incident particle is described mathematically in terms of bulk and individual atomic flow or movement.Defect structure of the latent nuclear tracks is described and conditions of continuity and discontinuity of latent tracks are evaluated and discussed.This paper includes mathematical description,analysis and evaluation of the nuclear track formation issue in the light of published experimental and theoretical resuits.which are useful for users of nuclear track detection technique and researchers involved in ion beam induced materials modification and ions implantation in semiconductors.

  20. A particle-tracking model for simulating pollutant dispersion in the Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R

    2004-10-01

    A particle-tracking model to simulate the dispersion of contaminants in the Strait of Gibraltar has been developed. The model solves the hydrodynamic equations off-line and tidal analysis is carried out to determine tidal constants for the two main constituents. Tidal constants and residuals are stored in files that are read by the dispersion model. A lagrangian approach is used to solve dispersion; diffusion and decay are simulated by a Monte Carlo method. A method for assessing the areas of the Strait with higher probability of being affected by contamination occurring after an accident in the shipping routes is given. Generally speaking, the fate of a pollutant discharge strongly depends on wind conditions. Winds from the east tend to retain contamination into the Strait. As a consequence, transverse mixing occurs and both Spain and Morocco coasts are affected by contamination. Under calm conditions and west winds, contaminants are flushed out of the Strait faster and transverse mixing does not occur. Thus, only part of Morocco coast has a higher probability of being affected by contamination.