WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-link robotic arm

  1. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  2. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  3. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  4. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  5. Vibration attenuation in two-link flexible mechanical arms with periodic composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Xue-wei Kang; Lin-hua Jiang; Lin Han; Hong-qiang Chu; Qiao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the periodic composite materials, so-called phononic crystals, to the flexible mechanical arms systems. Due to the transfer matrix method and the Bloch theorem, the theoretical solution of band structure of the two-link model is deduced and then verified by the frequency response by the finite element method. The influence of the included angle of arms to vibration characteristics is analyzed. The frequency response of the two-link flexible arms with/without phononic crystals is ...

  6. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Minimum-time trajectory control of a two-link flexible robotic manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Feddema, J.T.; Eisler, G.R.; Segalman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the experimental and simulation results of a minimum-time trajectory control scheme for a two-link flexible robot. An off-line optimization routine determines a minimum-time, straight line tip trajectory which stays within the torque constraints of the motors and ends in a quiescent state, i.e., no vibrational transients. An efficient finite-element model is used in the optimization to approximate the flexible arm dynamics. The control strategy described here is used to determine the feedback gains for the position, velocity, and strain gage signals from a quadratic cost criterion based on the finite-element model linearized about the straight line tip trajectory. These feedback signals are added to the modeled torque obtained from the optimization routine and used to control the robot arm actuators. The results indicate that this combination of model-based and error-driven control strategies achieves a closer tracking of the desired trajectory and a better handling of modeling errors (such as tip payloads) than either strategy alone.

  8. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Vibration attenuation in two-link flexible mechanical arms with periodic composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the periodic composite materials, so-called phononic crystals, to the flexible mechanical arms systems. Due to the transfer matrix method and the Bloch theorem, the theoretical solution of band structure of the two-link model is deduced and then verified by the frequency response by the finite element method. The influence of the included angle of arms to vibration characteristics is analyzed. The frequency response of the two-link flexible arms with/without phononic crystals is investigated. The results illustrate that, by using the periodic composite materials, some frequency ranges with strong attenuation can be obtained. This study provides a new way to eliminate vibrations in flexible mechanical arms.

  11. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  14. NN robust based-PID Control of A Two-Link Flexible Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Khairudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator. A planar two-link flexible manipulator that moves in the horizontal plane is considered. A dynamic model of the system is developed using an assumed mode methods. The NN robust based-PID controller is used to reduce a nonlinearities problem that can be efficiently solved. The system responses namely hub angular position, deflection and end-point acceleration responses at both links are obtained and analysed.

  15. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  16. An adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme for two linked 2WD mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Al-Dujaili, Ayad; Cocquempot, Vincent; El Badaoui El Najjar, Maan

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a new adaptive compensation control scheme for two linked mobile robots with actuator failurs. A configuration with two linked two-wheel drive (2WD) mobile robots is proposed, and the modelling of its kinematics and dynamics are given. An adaptive failure compensation scheme is developed to compensate actuator failures, consisting of a kinematic controller and a multi-design integration based dynamic controller. The kinematic controller is a virtual one, and based on which, multiple adaptive dynamic control signals are designed which covers all possible failure cases. By combing these dynamic control signals, the dynamic controller is designed, which ensures system stability and asymptotic tracking properties. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  17. Active Force with Fuzzy Logic Control of a Two-Link Arm Driven by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Jahanabadi; M. Mailah; M. Z. Md Zain; H. M. Hooi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the practicality and feasibility of Active Force Control (AFC) integrated with Fuzzy Logic(AFCAFL) appliedto a two link planar arm actuated by a pair of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) is investigated.The study emphasizes on the application and control of PAM actuators which may be considered as the new generation of actuators comprising fluidic muscle that has high-tension force,high power to weight ratio and high strength in spite of its drawbacks in the form of high nonlinearity behaviour,high hysteresis and time varying parameters.Fuzzy Logic (FL) is used as a technique to estimate the best value of the inertia matrix of robot arm essential for the AFC mechanism that is complemented with a conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control at the outermost loop.A simulation study was first performed followed by an experimental investigation for validation.The experimental study was based on the independent joint tracking control and coordinated motion control of the arm in Cartesian or task space.In the former,the PAM actuated arm is commanded to track the prescribed trajectories due to harmonic excitations at the joints for a given frequency,whereas for the latter,two sets of trajectories with different loadings were considered.A practical rig utilizing a Hardware-In-The-Loop Simulation (H1LS) configuration was developed and a number of experiments were carried out.The results of the experiment and the simulation works were in good agreement,which verified the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed AFCAFL scheme actuated by PAM.

  18. ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF TWO-LINK ROBOT MANIPULATOR BASED ON THE METHOD OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of control for a two-link robot manipulator under disturbances and inaccurately known parameters of the system. A method for adaptive independent control of the two-link robot manipulator based on the method of consecutive compensator is proposed. Adaptability is provided by adaptive adjustment coefficients of the consecutive compensator, and its independence consists in independent control of each link of the manipulator separately from the others. Meanwhile, non-linear effect of other links is considered as a limited external disturbance in the control channel. Dynamic equation of the manipulator was received by the Euler-Lagrange method, taking into account the effect of dynamics of manipulator engines. Since the proposed method has the simplicity of engineering implementation as compared to other adaptive methods of controlling manipulators, its usage on real objects in industry seems to be attractive. During the method simulation it was assumed that disturbances have the form of shifted harmonic signal. A series of simulations for a two-link manipulator system was conducted with the proposed controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of this method in terms of external and internal disturbances. Comparison of this method with the PD controller was made. During the simulations, it was demonstrated that the proposed approach provides lower output error value than manipulator control using PD controller.

  19. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  1. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  2. Tip position control of a two-link flexible robot manipulator based on nonlinear deflection feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, G. E-mail: oke@boun.edu.tr; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-07-01

    The control of flexible link manipulators has gained an increasing importance in robotics, in recent years. To control the tip of a flexible manipulator, the joint angles should converge to the desired positions fast and elastic deflections must be effectively suppressed. In this study, a two-link flexible manipulator is controlled by three methods and the results are compared. These methods are, Pd control, PD control augmented by a nonlinear correction term feedback, where the correction term is a function of the deflection of each link, and an adaptive fuzzy controller with the nonlinear correction term feedback. Simulations have been carried out to compare the performances of all three methods.

  3. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  4. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  5. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  6. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashish Sharma; Kelvin Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications...

  7. A class of fuzzy sliding-mode control simulation for two-link robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, ChunHua

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, I studied the theory of fuzzy logic control of 2R robot, analysed and introduced it detailedly, then applied it to robot tracking control. The validity of the control scheme is verified by end Linear trajectory tracking test of 2R robot robotic manipulator system of fuzzy logic control. It did not depend on the exact mathematical model and could solve effectively the influence of nonlinear and uncertainty.

  8. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  9. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  10. Intra-operative robotics: NeuroArm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; Greer, Alexander D; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and ongoing integration of neuroArm, an image-guided MR-compatible robot. A neurosurgical robotics platform was developed, including MR-compatible manipulators, or arms, with seven degrees of freedom, a main system controller, and a human-machine interface. This system was evaluated during pre-clinical trials and subsequent clinical application, combined with intra-operative MRI, at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. An MR-compatible surgical robot was successfully developed and merged with ioMRI at both 1.5 or 3.0 T. Image-guidance accuracy and microsurgical capability were established in pre-clinical trials. Early clinical experience demonstrated feasibility and showed the importance of a master-slave configuration. Surgeon-directed manipulator control improved performance and safety. NeuroArm successfully united the precision and accuracy of robotics with the executive decision-making capability of the surgeon.

  11. Robots testing robots: ALAN-Arm, a humanoid arm for the testing of robotic rehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jack; Kuznecovs, Maksims; Kanakis, Menelaos; Grigals, Arturs; Narvidas, Mazvydas; Gallagher, Justin; Levesley, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Robotics is increasing in popularity as a method of providing rich, personalized and cost-effective physiotherapy to individuals with some degree of upper limb paralysis, such as those who have suffered a stroke. These robotic rehabilitation systems are often high powered, and exoskeletal systems can attach to the person in a restrictive manner. Therefore, ensuring the mechanical safety of these devices before they come in contact with individuals is a priority. Additionally, rehabilitation systems may use novel sensor systems to measure current arm position. Used to capture and assess patient movements, these first need to be verified for accuracy by an external system. We present the ALAN-Arm, a humanoid robotic arm designed to be used for both accuracy benchmarking and safety testing of robotic rehabilitation systems. The system can be attached to a rehabilitation device and then replay generated or human movement trajectories, as well as autonomously play rehabilitation games or activities. Tests of the ALAN-Arm indicated it could recreate the path of a generated slow movement path with a maximum error of 14.2mm (mean = 5.8mm) and perform cyclic movements up to 0.6Hz with low gain (<1.5dB). Replaying human data trajectories showed the ability to largely preserve human movement characteristics with slightly higher path length and lower normalised jerk.

  12. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  13. Optimal accelerometer placement on a robot arm for pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Sanford, Joseph D.; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Das, Sumit K.; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    The performance of robots to carry out tasks depends in part on the sensor information they can utilize. Usually, robots are fitted with angle joint encoders that are used to estimate the position and orientation (or the pose) of its end-effector. However, there are numerous situations, such as in legged locomotion, mobile manipulation, or prosthetics, where such joint sensors may not be present at every, or any joint. In this paper we study the use of inertial sensors, in particular accelerometers, placed on the robot that can be used to estimate the robot pose. Studying accelerometer placement on a robot involves many parameters that affect the performance of the intended positioning task. Parameters such as the number of accelerometers, their size, geometric placement and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are included in our study of their effects for robot pose estimation. Due to the ubiquitous availability of inexpensive accelerometers, we investigated pose estimation gains resulting from using increasingly large numbers of sensors. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed with a two-link robot arm to obtain the expected value of an estimation error metric for different accelerometer configurations, which are then compared for optimization. Results show that, with a fixed SNR model, the pose estimation error decreases with increasing number of accelerometers, whereas for a SNR model that scales inversely to the accelerometer footprint, the pose estimation error increases with the number of accelerometers. It is also shown that the optimal placement of the accelerometers depends on the method used for pose estimation. The findings suggest that an integration-based method favors placement of accelerometers at the extremities of the robot links, whereas a kinematic-constraints-based method favors a more uniformly distributed placement along the robot links.

  14. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Adaptive Control of Robotic arm with Hysteretic Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Somasundar; Bezzaoucha, Souad; Quintanar Guzman, Serket; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of control of robotic arm with a hysteretic joint behavior. The mechanical design of the one-degree of freedom robotic arm is presented where the joint is actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire. The SMA wire based actuation of the joint makes the robotic arm lightweight but at the same time introduces hysteresis type nonlinearities. The nonlinear dynamic model of the robotic arm is introduced and an Adaptive control solution is pres...

  17. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  18. Robotic Arms. A Contribution to the Curriculum. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W. F.; Carpenter, C. J.

    This report examines ways of providing technician training in the operating principles of robotic devices. The terms "robotics" and "robotic arms" are first defined. Some background information on the principal features of robotic arms is given, including their geometric arrangement, type of actuator used, control method, and…

  19. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  20. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  1. Testing the Robotic Arm Rasp on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Members of NASA Phoenix Mars Mission's Robotic Arm engineering team test the arm's motorized rasp in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. The testbed has a near-duplicate of the Phoenix lander for use in developing techniques to be used on Mars and for checking commands planned for the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench. This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  4. Scrape on Endeavour's robotic arm during oxygen leak repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Robotic arm experts get ready for ultrasound testing on Endeavour's robotic arm. A scrape of the honeycomb shell around the arm occurred while work platforms were being installed to gain access to repair the oxygen leak in the Shuttle's mid-body. Launch of Endeavour on mission STS-113 has been postponed until no earlier than Nov. 22.

  5. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  6. Hardware And Software For Development Of Robot Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usikov, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    System of modular, reusable hardware and software assembled for use in developing remotely controlled robotic arms. Includes (1) central computer and peripheral equipment at control and monitoring station and (2) remote mechanical platform that supports robotic arm. Central computer controls motor drives of robotic arm, but optically, platform holds on-board computer for autonomous operation. Consists mostly of commercial hardware and software. Simulated results of commands viewed in three dimensions.

  7. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  8. Design and Engineering of a Chess-Robotic Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Elouafiq, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of the "Chess-Bot" project, this study's goal is to choose the right model for the robotic arm that the "the Chess-Bot" will use to move the pawn from a cell to another. In this paper, there is the definition and the structure of a robot arm. Also, the different engineering and kinematics fundamentals of the robot and its components will be detailed. Furthermore, the different structures of robotic arms will be presented and compared based on different criteria. Finally, a model for "the Chess-Bot" arm will be synthesized based on accurate algorithms and equations.

  9. Bionic robot arm with compliant actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehl, Bernhard

    2000-10-01

    Traditional robotics uses non-compliant materials for all components involved in the production of movement. Elasticity is avoided as far as possible, because it leads to hazardous oscillations and makes control of precise movements very difficult. Due to this deliberate stiffness, robots are typically heavy and clumsy structures in comparison to their living counterparts (i.e. man and animals). Yet, moving systems in nature cope not only with the difficulties introduced by compliant materials, they also take advantage of the elasticity in muscles and tendons to produce smooth and even rapid movements. It is understood, that elasticity in a multi-jointed moving system requires sophisticated control mechanisms- as provided by a nervous system or a suitably programmed computer. In this contribution I shall describe a two-jointed robot with purpose-built elasticity in its actuators. This is accomplished by spiral springs places in series with a conventional electric motor and a tendon to the arm. It is shown that, with sufficiently soft elasticity, oscillations can be avoided by active oscillation damping. (Such active oscillation damping presumably also governs movement control in man and animals.) Furthermore, once the major problem has been overcome, elasticity is found to offer a wide spectrum of valuable advantages, as far as the most serious problems in traditional robotics are concerned. They are summarized by terms such as less dangerous, position tolerant, lightweight construction, controlled forces, and ballistic movements. These will be explained in detail and presented for discussion.

  10. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm. The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  12. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  13. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

  14. Unmanned Systems: A Lab-Based Robotic Arm for Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A LAB-BASED ROBOTIC ARM FOR GRASPING by Arturo Jacinto II June 2015 Thesis Advisor: Richard M. Harkins Second Reader: Peter Crooker......learning opportunities for various student experiments including the initial selection, startup and development of the Robotic arm and glove controller

  15. Phoenix Robotic Arm's Workspace After 90 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the first 90 Martian days, or sols, after its May 25, 2008, landing on an arctic plain of Mars, NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander dug several trenches in the workspace reachable with the lander's robotic arm. The lander's Surface Stereo Imager camera recorded this view of the workspace on Sol 90, early afternoon local Mars time (overnight Aug. 25 to Aug. 26, 2008). The shadow of the the camera itself, atop its mast, is just left of the center of the image and roughly a third of a meter (one foot) wide. The workspace is on the north side of the lander. The trench just to the right of center is called 'Neverland.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Robot Arm Control Exploiting Natural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    and the approach taken in this thesis is the role of the robot dynamics . In traditional control, the robot is viewed as a general purpose manipulator...robot, and the robot control enforces that command. The robot dynamics are generally ignored or canceled, and certainly do not play a part in how the...task is planned. The approach taken in this thesis is the opposite: the robot dynamics are crucial for the performance of the task as they determine

  17. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a four-arm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Joseph; Stifelman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Robotic partial nephrectomy is an effective alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The 3-arm and 4-arm transperitoneal robotic approaches are well described in the literature. However, a retroperitoneal robotic technique has yet to be fully described. We report our technique and initial experience with robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy with a novel 4-arm approach. We reviewed our current experience with the robotic retroperitoneal approach. Descriptive statistics on patient characteristics, operative parameters, and oncologic outcomes are reported. A total of 67 robotic-assisted partial nephrectomies were performed by one surgeon between October 2009 and October 2010. The 4-arm retroperitoneal approach was used in 8 patients (12%) with no complications. Median tumor size was 2cm. All were posterior renal tumors, with 5 located in the upper pole. The median operative time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and length of stay were 202 minutes, 18 minutes, 100cc, and 2 days, respectively. Pathology indicated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 7 patients with negative margins. The 4-arm robotic approach to retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy is safe, reproducible, and easily used. The fourth arm provides optimal traction on target tissues in key maneuvers and may decrease complications and positive margins secondary to impaired exposure.

  18. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  19. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  20. Robotic Arm and Rover Actuator Systems for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, L.; Brawn, D.; Noon, D.

    1999-01-01

    Missions such as the Sojourner Rover, the Robotic Arm for Mars Polar Lander, and the 2003 Mars Rover, Athena, use numerous actuators that must operate reliably in extreme environments for long periods of time.

  1. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity. In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below. For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across. Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera. The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Lending a helping hand: toward novel assistive robotic arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Stefan; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    Assistive robotics is an increasingly popular research field, which has led to a large number of commercial and noncommercial systems aimed at assisting physically impaired or elderly users in the activities of daily living. In this article, we propose five criteria based on robotic arm usage

  4. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  5. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  6. Robust coordinated control of a dual-arm space robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lingling; Kayastha, Sharmila; Katupitiya, Jay

    2017-09-01

    Dual-arm space robots are more capable of implementing complex space tasks compared with single arm space robots. However, the dynamic coupling between the arms and the base will have a serious impact on the spacecraft attitude and the hand motion of each arm. Instead of considering one arm as the mission arm and the other as the balance arm, in this work two arms of the space robot perform as mission arms aimed at accomplishing secure capture of a floating target. The paper investigates coordinated control of the base's attitude and the arms' motion in the task space in the presence of system uncertainties. Two types of controllers, i.e. a Sliding Mode Controller (SMC) and a nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (MPC) are verified and compared with a conventional Computed-Torque Controller (CTC) through numerical simulations in terms of control accuracy and system robustness. Both controllers eliminate the need to linearly parameterize the dynamic equations. The MPC has been shown to achieve performance with higher accuracy than CTC and SMC in the absence of system uncertainties under the condition that they consume comparable energy. When the system uncertainties are included, SMC and CTC present advantageous robustness than MPC. Specifically, in a case where system inertia increases, SMC delivers higher accuracy than CTC and costs the least amount of energy.

  7. Modelling and control of two coordinated robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    Two coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the two arms as working on the same object simultaneously and as a closed kinematic chain. In both formulations, a novel dynamic control method is used which is based on feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling.

  8. Dynamic Coordination Of A Two-Arm Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1994-01-01

    Report presents study of dynamical and kinematical considerations guiding selection of configuration of self-reconfigurable, two-arm robotic manipulator. Two multiple-link arms cooperate in manipulating single object, reconfiguring their mutual, cooperative structure according to changing task requirements.

  9. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  10. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  11. Modelling and Control of 5 dof Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Gökhan Adar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic modeling of a 5 DOF Robotic Arm was carried out. The Robotic Arm totally had 5 DOF spatial articulated arm which consist of 3 parts. The modeling of dynamic equations of motion were based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The equations were taked into matrix-vector form. The parts of Robotic Arm had been in free fall to see the accuracy of the equations of motion and each joint graphs were obtained. A control algorithm was designed to achieve the position of the joint corresponding to the desired scenario. PID control algorithm is used in this study. As a result of the simulation of the orbits of the cubic joint position had been followed up successfully.

  12. Arm Robot Surveillance Using Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.V

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance place a pivotal role in addressing a wide range of security challenges .In the present paper we propose a Dual Tone Multiple Frequency ( DTMF based Robot with video surveillance. In the proposed model a DTMF based Robot with video surveillance with multiple key functions, Arm picker and security system was implemented. Master and slave concept using 3 Microcontroller and motor driver IC to drive motors was implemented and belt wheel platform was used to move the robot from one place to another. Multiple key functions were used to perform more functions and a camera for surveillance .The robot can navigate with the help of the user.

  13. Octopus-inspired multi-arm robotic swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfakiotakis, M; Kazakidi, A; Tsakiris, D P

    2015-05-13

    The outstanding locomotor and manipulation characteristics of the octopus have recently inspired the development, by our group, of multi-functional robotic swimmers, featuring both manipulation and locomotion capabilities, which could be of significant engineering interest in underwater applications. During its little-studied arm-swimming behavior, as opposed to the better known jetting via the siphon, the animal appears to generate considerable propulsive thrust and rapid acceleration, predominantly employing movements of its arms. In this work, we capture the fundamental characteristics of the corresponding complex pattern of arm motion by a sculling profile, involving a fast power stroke and a slow recovery stroke. We investigate the propulsive capabilities of a multi-arm robotic system under various swimming gaits, namely patterns of arm coordination, which achieve the generation of forward, as well as backward, propulsion and turning. A lumped-element model of the robotic swimmer, which considers arm compliance and the interaction with the aquatic environment, was used to study the characteristics of these gaits, the effect of various kinematic parameters on propulsion, and the generation of complex trajectories. This investigation focuses on relatively high-stiffness arms. Experiments employing a compliant-body robotic prototype swimmer with eight compliant arms, all made of polyurethane, inside a water tank, successfully demonstrated this novel mode of underwater propulsion. Speeds of up to 0.26 body lengths per second (approximately 100 mm s(-1)), and propulsive forces of up to 3.5 N were achieved, with a non-dimensional cost of transport of 1.42 with all eight arms and of 0.9 with only two active arms. The experiments confirmed the computational results and verified the multi-arm maneuverability and simultaneous object grasping capability of such systems.

  14. Robotic vision system for random bin picking with dual-arm robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sangseung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random bin picking is one of the most challenging industrial robotics applications available. It constitutes a complicated interaction between the vision system, robot, and control system. For a packaging operation requiring a pick-and-place task, the robot system utilized should be able to perform certain functions for recognizing the applicable target object from randomized objects in a bin. In this paper, we introduce a robotic vision system for bin picking using industrial dual-arm robots. The proposed system recognizes the best object from randomized target candidates based on stereo vision, and estimates the position and orientation of the object. It then sends the result to the robot control system. The system was developed for use in the packaging process of cell phone accessories using dual-arm robots.

  15. Visual Recognition and Its Application to Robot Arm Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Gau Juang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of optical word recognition and fuzzy control to a smartphone automatic test system. The system consists of a robot arm and two webcams. After the words from the control panel that represent commands are recognized by the robot system, the robot arm performs the corresponding actions to test the smartphone. One of the webcams is utilized to capture commands on the screen of the control panel, the other to recognize the words on the screen of the tested smartphone. The method of image processing is based on the Red-Green-Blue (RGB and Hue-Saturation-Luminance (HSL color spaces to reduce the influence of light. Fuzzy theory is used in the robot arm’s position control. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR technique is applied to the word recognition, and the recognition results are then checked by a dictionary process to increase the recognition accuracy. The camera which is used to recognize the tested smartphone also provides object coordinates to the fuzzy controller, then the robot arm moves to the desired positions and presses the desired buttons. The proposed control scheme allows the robot arm to perform different assigned test functions successfully.

  16. Optimization on robot arm machining by using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Kuan; Chen, Chiu-Hung; Tsai, Shang-En

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an optimization problem on the robot arm machining is formulated and solved by using genetic algorithms (GAs). The proposed approach adopts direct kinematics model and utilizes GA's global search ability to find the optimum solution. The direct kinematics equations of the robot arm are formulated and can be used to compute the end-effector coordinates. Based on these, the objective of optimum machining along a set of points can be evolutionarily evaluated with the distance between machining points and end-effector positions. Besides, a 3D CAD application, CATIA, is used to build up the 3D models of the robot arm, work-pieces and their components. A simulated experiment in CATIA is used to verify the computation results first and a practical control on the robot arm through the RS232 port is also performed. From the results, this approach is proved to be robust and can be suitable for most machining needs when robot arms are adopted as the machining tools.

  17. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  18. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  19. A Kinematic Calibration Process for Flight Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis L.; Robinson, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) robotic arm is ten times more massive than any Mars robotic arm before it, yet with similar accuracy and repeatability positioning requirements. In order to assess and validate these requirements, a higher-fidelity model and calibration processes were needed. Kinematic calibration of robotic arms is a common and necessary process to ensure good positioning performance. Most methodologies assume a rigid arm, high-accuracy data collection, and some kind of optimization of kinematic parameters. A new detailed kinematic and deflection model of the MSL robotic arm was formulated in the design phase and used to update the initial positioning and orientation accuracy and repeatability requirements. This model included a higher-fidelity link stiffness matrix representation, as well as a link level thermal expansion model. In addition, it included an actuator backlash model. Analytical results highlighted the sensitivity of the arm accuracy to its joint initialization methodology. Because of this, a new technique for initializing the arm joint encoders through hardstop calibration was developed. This involved selecting arm configurations to use in Earth-based hardstop calibration that had corresponding configurations on Mars with the same joint torque to ensure repeatability in the different gravity environment. The process used to collect calibration data for the arm included the use of multiple weight stand-in turrets with enough metrology targets to reconstruct the full six-degree-of-freedom location of the rover and tool frames. The follow-on data processing of the metrology data utilized a standard differential formulation and linear parameter optimization technique.

  20. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  1. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A

    2014-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  2. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  3. Exoskeleton arm with force feedback for robot bilateral teleoperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs) wearable exoskeleton arm, ZJUESA, based on man-machine system is presented. It can be used in robot bilateral teleoperation as master arm with force-feedback. With introducing the revolute-prismatic-spherical(RPS) parallel mechanism and planetary gear mechanism, it is designed based on the anatomy of human upper-limb. With the sensors on this external mechanical structure, the human operator motion is detected and converted to the slave robot control command. Additionally the pneumatic system on it generates a force feedback by using hybrid fuzzy control. As a result, the human operator may have a feeling of doing the work directly.

  4. Practical application with plc in manipulation of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a robotic arm PLC Siemens in order not using CNC commands. This is done by programming the PLC ladder diagram language that makes movement on the three axes of the arm by means of stepper motors. Required command console PLC is built with the help of a touch screen HMI Weintek. In the user interface are introduced distances and displacement speeds on the three axes.

  5. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  6. Robotic arm skate for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Kit; Jordan, Kimberlee; King, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb paresis after stroke greatly affects the performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Unfortunately, rehabilitation for upper limb impairment can have poor results. The current robot-assisted devices are expensive and not readily accessible for homecare. This paper presents the development of a low-cost tabletop robotic device for upper limb rehabilitation. Conceptually, patients perform computer-based goal-directed tasks using the robotic platform. Their progress is monitored and intervention, in the form of assistance or resistance, is introduced accordingly. A prototype platform is described. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the device to provide the necessary forces during movement exercises, in relation to task completion progress, device and target location. Appropriate exercises need to be developed before clinical trials can proceed. © 2011 CROWN

  7. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  8. Dual Arm Free Flying Space Robot Trajectory Planning Using Polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikesh Rathee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents path planning of dual arm free flying space robot using smooth functions of time. Kinematic and dynamic modeling of dual arm free flying space robot is presented first. Using kinematic model, the Jacobian of the system has been derived, and using dynamic model, equations of motion are derived. A path planning methodology for planar system is developed using smooth function of time such as polynomials. Due to nonholonomic behaviour of the manipulator in the zero gravity environment linear and angular momentum is conserved. The proposed method yields input trajectories that drive both the manipulator and the base to a desired configuration. Joint torque curves can be obtained by introducing this joint trajectory curves in equation of motion of the space robot.

  9. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Structural Optimization of Slender Robot Arm Based on Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective structural optimization method based on a sensitivity analysis is proposed to optimize the variable section of a slender robot arm. The structure mechanism and the operating principle of a polishing robot are introduced firstly, and its stiffness model is established. Then, a design of sensitivity analysis method and a sequential linear programming (SLP strategy are developed. At the beginning of the optimization, the design sensitivity analysis method is applied to select the sensitive design variables which can make the optimized results more efficient and accurate. In addition, it can also be used to determine the scale of moving step which will improve the convergency during the optimization process. The design sensitivities are calculated using the finite difference method. The search for the final optimal structure is performed using the SLP method. Simulation results show that the proposed structure optimization method is effective in enhancing the stiffness of the robot arm regardless of the robot arm suffering either a constant force or variable forces.

  12. Manipulability measure of dual-arm space robot and its application to design an optimal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liang, Bin; Wang, Xueqian; Li, Gang; Chen, Zhang; Zhu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    Coupling effect exists among different arms and the base in a multi-arm space robot. The manipulability measure of one arm can be affected by the base and the other arms, which has important effects on the configuration optimization, the singularity avoidance and the compliant control. The manipulability measure for a multi-arm space robot is more complex than that of a single-arm space robot. At present, the manipulability measure of a multi-arm space robot has not been studied. In the paper, a new concept of manipulability measure is applied to analyze the manipulability measure for a dual-arm space robot, especially for the manipulability measure of the mission arm subjecting to the influence from coupling effect of auxiliary arm and the base. Based on the manipulability measure of mission arm, a performance index is introduced and used to design and choose an optimization configuration for a dual-arm space robot. Finally, a plane dual-arm space robot is simulated, which is illustrated the influence of joint angles and the base attitude on mission arm's manipulability measure. Simulation results show that the proposed manipulability measure is useful for a multi-arm space robot and optimal configuration can be extended and applied to the coordinated soft rendezvous and docking and the target capture in the field of on-orbit servicing.

  13. Walking Posture Control of Transmission Line Single Arm Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Li, Jinliang; Ou, Yuexiong

    2017-07-01

    To control the walking posture according to transmission line single arm inspection robot, the robot is divided into normal walking and climbing walking two state, and gives the definition, then based on the state space method of state variable feedback and PD control method is used to control the two states, two kinds of control method of simulation by using Matlab, in the end, the two control methods proposed is validated in the actual circuit structures. The results show that, the proposed control method is rapid and effective, and can meet the needs of practical application.

  14. How to Take a Picture of A Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled. The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view. The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008). This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Kinect-Based Sliding Mode Control for Lynxmotion Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ben Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the technological development of manipulator robot increases very quickly and provides a positive impact to human life. The implementation of the manipulator robot technology offers more efficiency and high performance for several human’s tasks. In reality, efforts published in this context are focused on implementing control algorithms with already preprogrammed desired trajectories (passive robots case or trajectory generation based on feedback sensors (active robots case. However, gesture based control robot can be considered as another channel of system control which is not widely discussed. This paper focuses on a Kinect-based real-time interactive control system implementation. Based on LabVIEW integrated development environment (IDE, a developed human-machine-interface (HMI allows user to control in real time a Lynxmotion robotic arm. The Kinect software development kit (SDK provides a tool to keep track of human body skeleton and abstract it into 3-dimensional coordinates. Therefore, the Kinect sensor is integrated into our control system to detect the different user joints coordinates. The Lynxmotion dynamic has been implemented in a real-time sliding mode control algorithm. The experimental results are carried out to test the effectiveness of the system, and the results verify the tracking ability, stability, and robustness.

  16. A Topological Implementation for Motion Planning of a Robotic Arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 张Po

    1993-01-01

    An efficient path planning algorithm based on topologic method is presented in this paper.The collision free path planning for three-joint robotic arm consists of three parts:partition of C-space,construction of CN and search for a path in CN.We mainly solved the problems of partitioning the C-space and undging the connectivity between connected blocks,etc.For the motion planning of a robotic arm with a gripper,we developed the concepts of global planning and local planning,and discussed the basic factors for constructing the planning system.In the paper,some evaluation and analysis of the complexity and reliability of the algorithm are given,together with some ideas to improve the efficiency and increase the reliability.At last,some experimental results are pesented to show the efficency and accuracy of the algorithm.

  17. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  18. Uncalibrated Neuro-Visual Servoing Control for Multiple Robot Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García-Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse image-based tracking schemes for a robot moving in free motion have been proposed and experimentally validated. However, few visual servoing schemes have addressed the tracking of the desired trajectory and the contact forces for multiple robot arms. The main difficulty stems from the fact that camera information cannot be used to drive force trajectories. Recognizing this fact, a unique error manifold that includes position-velocity and force errors in orthogonal complements is proposed. A synergistic scheme that fuses camera, encoder and force sensor signals into a unique error manifold allows proposing a control system which guarantees exponential tracking errors under parametric uncertainty. Additionally a small neural network driven by a second order sliding mode surface is derived to compensate robot dynamics. Residual errors that arise because of the finite size of the neural network are compensated via an orthogonalized second order sliding mode. The performance of the proposed scheme, in two significant applications of the multiple robot arms, is validated through numerical simulations.

  19. End-Effector Position Analysis Using Forward Kinematics For 5 Dof Pravak Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Atit Shah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic control of the robotic manipulator involves study of kinematics and dynamics as a major issue. This paper involves the kinematic analysis of a Pravak Robot arm which is used for doing successful robotic manipulation task in its workspace. The Pravak Robot Arm is a 5-DOF robot having all the joints revolute. The kinematics problem is defined as the transformation from the Cartesian space to the joint space and vice versa. In this study the Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H model is used to model robot links and joints. Pravak Robot Arm is a simple and safe robotic system designed for laboratory training and research applications. This robot allows to gain theoretical and practical experience in robotics, automation and control systems. The MATLAB R2007 is used to analyse end effectors position for a set of joint parameter.

  20. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  1. Test and Validation of the Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.; Collins, C.; Leger, P.; Kim, W.; Carsten, J.; Tompkins, V.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Florow, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm (RA) is a key component for achieving the primary scientific goals of the mission. The RA supports sample acquisition by precisely positioning a scoop above loose regolith or accurately preloading a percussive drill on Martian rocks or rover-mounted organic check materials. It assists sample processing by orienting a sample processing unit called CHIMRA through a series of gravity-relative orientations and sample delivery by positioning the sample portion door above an instrument inlet or the observation tray. In addition the RA facilitates contact science by accurately positioning the dust removal tool, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) relative to surface targets. In order to fulfill these seemingly disparate science objectives the RA must satisfy a variety of accuracy and performance requirements. This paper describes the necessary arm requirement specification and the test campaign to demonstrate these requirements were satisfied.

  2. Designing, Fabrication and Controlling Of Multipurpose3-DOF Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeel, Hafiz Muhammad; Azher, Anum; Usman Ali, Syed M.; Wahab Mughal, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, we have successfully designed and developed a 3-DOF articulated Robotic Arm capable of performing typical industrial tasks such as painting or spraying, assembling and handling automobiles parts and etc., in resemblance to a human arm. The mechanical assembly is designed on SOLIDWORKS and aluminum grade 6061 -T6 is used for its fabrication in order to reduce the structure weight. We have applied inverse kinematics to determine the joint angles, equations are fed into an efficient microcontroller ATMEGA16 which performs all the calculations to determine the joint angles on the basis of given coordinates to actuate the joints through motorized control. Good accuracy was obtained with quadrature optical encoders installed in each joint to achieve the desired position and a LabVIEW based GUI is designed to provide human machine interface.

  3. Totally robotic single-position 'flip' arm technique for splenic flexure mobilizations and low anterior resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obias, Vincent; Sanchez, Caroline; Nam, Arthur; Montenegro, Grace; Makhoul, Rami

    2011-06-01

    Using the da Vinci robot in low anterior resection (LAR) has not been widely adopted due to limited range of motion of the robotic arms and the need to move the robot during operations. Our technique uses all three arms for both the splenic flexure and the pelvis, but with only one docking position. The robot is placed to the left of the patient. The camera port is 3 cm to the right of the umbilicus. Arm 1 is placed in the RLQ. Arm 2 is placed midepigastric. Arm 3 is placed in the LLQ. Arm 3 starts off on the left side of the robot, on the same side as Arm 1 aimed cephalad. During mobilization of colon and splenic flexure, Arms 2 and 3 help retract the colon while Arm 1 dissects. Our pelvic dissection begins with Arm 3 "flipped" to the right side of the robot and redocked to the same left sided port aimed caudally. The robot does not need to be repositioned and the patient does not need to be moved. The pelvic dissection can now be done in the standard fashion. Our early experience includes four patients: two LARs and two left hemicolectomies. Mean operative time = 347 minutes, docking time = 20 minutes, and robotic surgical time = 195 minutes. Two complications occurred: post-operative ileus and high ostomy output. Mean LOS = 5. The robotic "flip" arm technique allows the surgeon to fully utilize all the robotic arms in LAR, which is unique versus other techniques. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. VFI-based Robotic Arm Control for Natural Adaptive Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since neural oscillator based control methods can generate rhythmic motion without information on system dynamics, they can be a promising alternative to traditional motion planning based control approaches. However, for field application, they still need to be robust against unexpected forces or changes in environments so as to be able to generate “natural motion” like most biological systems. In this study a biologically inspired control algorithm that combines neural oscillators and virtual force is proposed. This work gives the condition with respect to parameters tuning to stably activate the neural oscillators. This is helpful to achieve motion adaptability to environmental changes keeping the motion repeatability. He efficacy and efficiency of the proposed methods are tested in the control of a planar three-linkage robotic arm. It is shown that the proposed controller generates a given circular path stably and repeatedly, even with unexpected contact with a wall. The adaptivity of motion control is also tested in control of a robotic arm with redundant degrees of freedom. The proposed control algorithm works throughout the simulations and experiments.

  5. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  6. Spatially random models, estimation theory, and robot arm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spatially random models provide an alternative to the more traditional deterministic models used to describe robot arm dynamics. These alternative models can be used to establish a relationship between the methodologies of estimation theory and robot dynamics. A new class of algorithms for many of the fundamental robotics problems of inverse and forward dynamics, inverse kinematics, etc. can be developed that use computations typical in estimation theory. The algorithms make extensive use of the difference equations of Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier smoothing to conduct spatial recursions. The spatially random models are very easy to describe and are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. The models can also be used to generate numerically the composite multibody system inertia matrix. This is done without resorting to the more common methods of deterministic modeling involving Lagrangian dynamics, Newton-Euler equations, etc. These methods make substantial use of human knowledge in derivation and minipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems.

  7. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process is capable of achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm on industrial components. In RAP, a robot arm carries a polishing module with controlled contact force utilizing oscillating or rotating tools. In this work a multisensory polishing arm with integrat...

  8. Towards Rehabilitation Robotics: Off-the-Shelf BCI Control of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xygonakis, Ioannis; Pandria, Niki; Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Arfaras, George; Kavazidi, Kyriaki Rafailia; Foroglou, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance. Off-the-shelf BCI systems are based on fast, reproducible detection of mental activity and can be implemented in neurorobotic applications. Moreover, social Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly important in rehabilitation robotics development. In this paper, we present our progress and goals towards developing off-the-shelf BCI-controlled anthropomorphic robotic arms for assistive technologies and rehabilitation applications. We account for robotics development, BCI implementation, and qualitative assessment of HRI characteristics of the system. Furthermore, we present two illustrative experimental applications of the BCI-controlled arms, a study of motor imagery modalities on healthy individuals' BCI performance, and a pilot investigation on spinal cord injured patients' BCI control and brain connectivity. We discuss strengths and limitations of our design and propose further steps on development and neurophysiological study, including implementation of connectivity features as BCI modality. PMID:28948168

  9. Towards Rehabilitation Robotics: Off-the-Shelf BCI Control of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Alkinoos; Xygonakis, Ioannis; Pandria, Niki; Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Arfaras, George; Kavazidi, Kyriaki Rafailia; Foroglou, Nicolas; Astaras, Alexander; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance. Off-the-shelf BCI systems are based on fast, reproducible detection of mental activity and can be implemented in neurorobotic applications. Moreover, social Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is increasingly important in rehabilitation robotics development. In this paper, we present our progress and goals towards developing off-the-shelf BCI-controlled anthropomorphic robotic arms for assistive technologies and rehabilitation applications. We account for robotics development, BCI implementation, and qualitative assessment of HRI characteristics of the system. Furthermore, we present two illustrative experimental applications of the BCI-controlled arms, a study of motor imagery modalities on healthy individuals' BCI performance, and a pilot investigation on spinal cord injured patients' BCI control and brain connectivity. We discuss strengths and limitations of our design and propose further steps on development and neurophysiological study, including implementation of connectivity features as BCI modality.

  10. A Geometric Approach for Robotic Arm Kinematics with Hardware Design, Electrical Design, and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt E. Clothier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a geometric approach to solve the unknown joint angles required for the autonomous positioning of a robotic arm. A plethora of complex mathematical processes is reduced using basic trigonometric in the modeling of the robotic arm. This modeling and analysis approach is tested using a five-degree-of-freedom arm with a gripper style end effector mounted to an iRobot Create mobile platform. The geometric method is easily modifiable for similar robotic system architectures and provides the capability of local autonomy to a system which is very difficult to manually control.

  11. Bioinspired locomotion and grasping in water: the soft eight-arm OCTOPUS robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetti, M; Calisti, M; Margheri, L; Kuba, M; Laschi, C

    2015-05-13

    The octopus is an interesting model for the development of soft robotics, due to its high deformability, dexterity and rich behavioural repertoire. To investigate the principles of octopus dexterity, we designed an eight-arm soft robot and evaluated its performance with focused experiments. The OCTOPUS robot presented here is a completely soft robot, which integrates eight arms extending in radial direction and a central body which contains the main processing units. The front arms are mainly used for elongation and grasping, while the others are mainly used for locomotion. The robotic octopus works in water and its buoyancy is close to neutral. The experimental results show that the octopus-inspired robot can walk in water using the same strategy as the animal model, with good performance over different surfaces, including walking through physical constraints. It can grasp objects of different sizes and shapes, thanks to its soft arm materials and conical shape.

  12. Kinematics/statics analysis of a novel serial-parallel robotic arm with hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Dai, Zhuohong; Ye, Nijia; Wang, Peng [Yanshan University, Hebei (China)

    2015-10-15

    A robotic arm with fingered hand generally has multi-functions to complete various complicated operations. A novel serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is proposed and its kinematics and statics are studied systematically. A 3D prototype of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is constructed and analyzed by simulation. The serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand is composed of an upper 3RPS parallel manipulator, a lower 3SPR parallel manipulator and a hand with three finger mechanisms. Its kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of are derived. Its statics formula for solving the active/constrained forces is derived. Its reachable workspace and orientation workspace are constructed and analyzed. Finally, an analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of the serial-parallel robotic arm with a hand and the analytic solutions are verified by a simulation mechanism.

  13. Oscillators and crank turning: exploiting natural dynamics with a humanoid robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M

    2003-10-15

    This paper presents an approach to robot-arm control that exploits the natural dynamics of the arm. This is in contrast to traditional approaches, which either ignore or cancel out arm dynamics. While the traditional approaches are more general, they often result in systems and robot designs that are not robust. The alternative approach gives systems that are computationally simple, robust to variation in system parameters, robust to changes in the dynamics themselves, and versatile. The approach is examined using the example of a compliant robot arm, controlled by independent neural oscillators, in a crank-turning task. A model is constructed, and the robot behaviour compared with the model. These data show that the arm-oscillator system is exploiting the natural dynamics by finding and exciting the resonant mode of the underlying mechanical system. Since this is a natural behaviour of the system, the robot behaviour is robust. The paper concludes by discussing the opportunities and limitations of this approach.

  14. Robotic Arm Control Algorithm Based on Stereo Vision Using RoboRealm Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZABO, R.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a stereo computer vision algorithm intended to control a robotic arm. Specific points on the robot joints are marked and recognized in the software. Using a dedicated set of mathematic equations, the movement of the robot is continuously computed and monitored with webcams. Positioning error is finally analyzed.

  15. Life Cycle Analysis of Double-Arm Type Robotic Tools for LCD Panel Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Wyatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes a life cycle assessment of double-arm type robotic tools made with three different materials. The robotic arms are used for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD panel handling. The environmental impacts generated during all the life stages of the robots have been investigated. The study shows that composite materials have less environmental impact compared with metallic materials. It is also found that the most significant impact category generated by the robotic tools is carcinogen, while the use stage of the robotic tool’s life cycle has the greatest environmental impact.

  16. Walking Pattern Generation of Dual-Arm Mobile Robot Using Preview Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stability request of robot’s moving on the ground, the motion planning of dual-arm mobile robot when moving on the ground is studied and the preview control system is applied in the robot walking pattern generation. Direct question of robot kinematics in the extended task space is analyzed according to Degrees of Freedom configuration of the dual-arm mobile robot. It is proved that the preview control system could be used in the generation of robot Center of Mass forward trajectory through the building of double linear inverted pendulum model of dual-arm mobile robot. The sector gridding search algorithm is proposed and the reachable workspace which meets the Zero Moment Point stability principle when the robot moving on the ground is obtained. Tip Trajectory is generated through polynomial interpolation. Each joint curve is calculated using MATLAB which is imported to virtual physical model. The feasibility of gait generation is verified.

  17. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  18. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope. The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This is an animation of panorama images of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's solar panel and the lander's Robotic Arm with a sample in the scoop. The image was taken just before the sample was delivered to the Optical Microscope. The images making up this animation were taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager looking west during Phoenix's Sol 16 (June 10, 2008), or the 16th Martian day after landing. This view is a part of the 'mission success' panorama that will show the whole landing site in color. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Robotic Arm Camera on Mars, with Lights Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This approximate color image is a view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) as seen by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). This image was taken on the afternoon of the 116th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (September 22, 2008). The RAC is about 8 centimeters (3 inches) tall. The SSI took images of the RAC to test both the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and cover function. Individual images were taken in three SSI filters that correspond to the red, green, and blue LEDs one at a time. This yields proper coloring when imaging Phoenix's surrounding Martian environment. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Some mechanical design aspects of the European Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooy, Peter J.; Mandersloot, Wart M.; Bentall, Richard H.

    1995-01-01

    The European Robotic Arm (ERA) is a contribution to the Russian Segment of the International Space Station Alpha. It will start operating on the Russian Segment during the assembly phase. ERA is designed and produced by a large industrial consortium spread over Europe with Fokker Space & Systems as prime contractor. In this paper, we will describe some of the overall design aspects and focus on the development of several mechanisms within ERA. The operation of ERA during the approach of its end effector towards the grapple interface and the grapple operation is discussed, with a focus on mechanisms. This includes the geometry of the end effector leading edge, which is carefully designed to provide the correct and complete tactile information to a torque-force sensor (TFS). The data from this TFS are used to steer the arm such that forces and moments are kept below 20 N and 20 N.m respectively during the grappling operation. Two hardware models of the end effector are built. The problems encountered are described as well as their solutions. The joints in the wrists and the elbow initially used a harmonic drive lubricated by MoS2. During development testing, this combination showed an insufficient lifetime in air to survive the acceptance test program. The switch-over to a system comprising planetary gearboxes with grease lubrication is described. From these development efforts, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are given for the design of complex space mechanisms.

  2. Wheelchair-mounted robotic arm to hold and move a communication device - final design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Graham; Kurley, Kyle; Brauchie, Casey; Morton, Scott; Barrett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    At the 51st Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium we presented a preliminary design for a robotic arm to assist an individual living within an assistive technology smart home. The individual controls much of their environment with a Dynavox Maestro communication device. However, the device obstructs the individual’s line of site when navigating about the smart home. A robotic arm was developed to move the communication device in and out of the user’s field of view as desired. The robotic arm is controlled by a conveniently mounted jelly switch. The jelly switch sends control signals to a four state (up, off, down, off) single-axis robotic arm interfaced to a DC motor by high power electronic relays. This paper describes the system, control circuitry, and multiple safety features. The arm will be delivered for use later in 2015.

  3. Implementation of Scheduling Algorithm with Robotic Arm and Analytical Plate for Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ramasamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete automation is the ultimate goal in health care industry and this is of utmost importance in clinical laboratories. Processor based bio robots are involved in all these automation procedures. In this study, the indigenous robotic platform, used in clinical chemistry analyzers, which is highly flexible and user friendly for small or medium sized hospitals, is designed. A microcontroller based robotic arm is put forth as the robotic platform and this is capable of handling blood samples, reagents, etc. The basic design is of a compact, three circular analytical plates, placed one inside the other. The samples and reagents are loaded onto the analytical plate; the arm then transfers the blood samples and reagents successively to the reaction cell and if required, next to an incubating unit. Two different arms perform all the different tasks based on the controlling algorithm. The circuit manipulating the path of the robot arm, along with other controlling circuitry of the arm is embedded within the arm itself. By automating this unit, the flexibility and throughput of the tests will be increased. Controlled and precise use of reagents and high accuracy of results are additional advantages. Data handling is also simplified. The robotic arm and analytical plate has been designed, a prototype model has been made and synchronization between the two has been achieved. The clear description of arm and analytical plate movement along with the synchronization algorithms are presented in this study.

  4. Robotic liver resection: initial experience with three-arm robotic and single-port robotic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Emad; Noureldine, Salem I; Saggi, Bob; Buell, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery offers a solution to fundamental limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery, and its use is gaining wide popularity. However, the application of this technology has yet to be established in hepatic surgery. A retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected liver surgery database was performed. Over a 6-month period, all consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted hepatic resection for a liver neoplasm were included. Demographics, operative time, and morbidity encountered were evaluated. A total of 7 robotic-assisted liver resections were performed, including 2 robotic-assisted single-port access liver resections with the da Vinci-Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Sunnyvalle, Calif.) USA. The mean age was 44.6 years (range, 21-68 years); there were 5 male and 2 female patients. The mean operative time (± SD) was 61.4 ± 26.7 minutes; the mean operative console time (± SD) was 38.2 ± 23 minutes. No conversions were required. The mean blood loss was 100.7 mL (range, 10-200 mL). The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 2 ± 0.4 days. No postoperative morbidity related to the procedure or death was encountered. Our initial experience with robotic liver resection confirms that this technique is both feasible and safe. Robotic-assisted technology appears to improve the precision and ergonomics of single-access surgery while preserving the known benefits of laparoscopic surgery, including cosmesis, minimal morbidity, and faster recovery.

  5. Real-Time Discrete Adaptive Control of Robot Arm Based on Digital Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A discrete model reference adaptive controller of robot arm is obtained by integrating the reduced dynamic model of robot, model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and digital signal processing (DSP) computer system into an electromechanical system. With the DSP computer system, the control signal of each joint of the robot arm can be processed in real time and independently. The simulation and experiment results show that with the control strategy, the robot achieved a good trajectory following precision, a good decoupling performance and a high real-time adaptivity.

  6. [Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, A B; Chepur, S V; shestakov, S V

    2013-06-01

    Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces. Further development of the medical service is inseparably associated with the implementation of robot technology into the practice of medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian federation. For this purpose it is necessary to create a clinical scientific research centre of robot technology and interdepartmental scientific research simulation training center on the basis of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. It is also necessary to provide development of medical robotic complexes of tactical level of the medical service.

  7. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P robot-assisted arm training did not increase the risk of participant drop-out (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.03, P = 0.84, I

  8. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  9. Robot Arm Control and Having Meal Aid System with Eye Based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Mardiyanto, Ronny

    Robot arm control and having meal aid system with eye based HCI is proposed. The proposed system allows disabled person to select desirable food from the meal tray by their eyes only. Robot arm which is used for retrieving the desirable food is controlled by human eye. At the tip of the robot arm, tiny camera is equipped. Disabled person wear a glass of which a single Head Mount Display: HMD and tiny camera is mounted so that disabled person can take a look at the desired food and retrieve it by looking at the food displayed onto HMD. Experimental results show that disabled person can retrieve the desired food successfully. It also is confirmed that robot arm control by eye based HCI is much faster than that by hands.

  10. Real Time FPGA-Based Ethernet Control Communication for Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Mohamad Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for real time control communication using Ethernet is proposed. The strategy to support this at the network level and include Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA implementation on the Ethernet platform for robotic arm. An embedded Ethernet controller is designed to send data packet via Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN. The transferring data also employs Arduino Mega as the medium of communication between FPGA board and the robotic arm. It is used as the receiver to receive data packet from FPGA board with the interface of Arduino Ethernet shield. The control operation on the robotic arm is performed once the desired data packet length is reached to the Arduino Mega. SolidWorks and MATLAB software are used to design the robotic arm and simulate the robotic arm working flexibility in real world respectively. The result of the average data packet delay between FPGA boards is lower in comparison to Arduiono board. The data packet can send successfully in through the network to test the robotic arm.

  11. Robotic Arm Camera on Mars with Lights On

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image is a composite view of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) with its lights on, as seen by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager (SSI). This image combines images taken on the afternoon of Phoenix's 116th Martian day, or sol (September 22, 2008). The RAC is about 8 centimeters (3 inches) tall. The SSI took images of the RAC to test both the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and cover function. Individual images were taken in three SSI filters that correspond to the red, green, and blue LEDs one at a time. When combined, it appears that all three sets of LEDs are on at the same time. This composite image is not true color. The streaks of color extending from the LEDs are an artifact from saturated exposure. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. TRANSDUCER GENERATED ARRAYS OF ROBOTIC NANO-ARMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2010-06-01

    We consider sets of two-dimensional arrays, called here transducer generated languages, obtained by iterative applications of transducers (finite state automata with output). Each transducer generates a set of blocks of symbols such that the bottom row of a block is an input string accepted by the transducer and, by iterative application of the transducer, each row of the block is an output of the transducer on the preceding row. We show how these arrays can be implemented through molecular assembly of triple crossover DNA molecules. Such assembly could serve as a scaffold for arranging molecular robotic arms capable for simultaneous movements. We observe that transducer generated languages define a class of languages which is a proper subclass of recognizable picture languages, but it containing the class of all factorial local two-dimensional languages. By taking the average growth rate of the number of blocks in the language as a measure of its complexity, we further observe that arrays with high complexity patterns can be generated in this way.

  13. Design optimization on the drive train of a light-weight robotic arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lelai; Bai, Shaoping; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2011-01-01

    A drive train optimization method for design of light-weight robots is proposed. Optimal selections of motors and gearboxes from a limited catalog of commercially available components are done simultaneously for all joints of a robotic arm. Characteristics of the motor and gearbox, including gear...

  14. A framework of interface improvements for designing new user interfaces for the MANUS robot arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, H.A.; Liefhebber, F.; Herder, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Users of the MANUS robot arm experience a high cognitive and physical load when performing activities of daily living with the arm. These high loads originate from user interface problems and limitations. To reduce these high loads the user interface of the MANUS needs to be improved. Because large

  15. A framework of interface improvements for designing new user interfaces for the MANUS robot arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, H.A.; Liefhebber, F.; Herder, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Users of the MANUS robot arm experience a high cognitive and physical load when performing activities of daily living with the arm. These high loads originate from user interface problems and limitations. To reduce these high loads the user interface of the MANUS needs to be improved. Because large

  16. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor. The f...

  17. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quanti...

  18. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  19. Trial Development of a Mobile Feeding Assistive Robotic Arm for People with Physical Disabilities of the Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hideyuki; Higa, Hiroki; Soken, Takashi; Namihira, Yoshinori

    A mobile feeding assistive robotic arm for people with physical disabilities of the extremities has been developed in this paper. This system is composed of a robotic arm, microcontroller, and its interface. The main unit of the robotic arm can be contained in a laptop computer's briefcase. Its weight is 5kg, including two 12-V lead acid rechargeable batteries. This robotic arm can be also mounted on a wheelchair. To verify performance of the mobile robotic arm system, drinking tea task was experimentally performed by two able-bodied subjects as well as three persons suffering from muscular dystrophy. From the experimental results, it was clear that they could smoothly carry out the drinking task, and that the robotic arm could firmly grasp a commercially available 500-ml plastic bottle. The eating task was also performed by the two able-bodied subjects. The experimental results showed that they could eat porridge by using a spoon without any difficulty.

  20. Development of an Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm and Hand for Interactive Humanoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jamie K. Paik; Bu Hyun Shin; Young-bong Bang; Young-Bo Shim

    2012-01-01

    Humanoid robots are designed and built to mimic human form and movement.Ultimately,they are meant to resemble the size and physical abilities of a human in order to function in human-oriented environments and to work autonomously but to pose no physical threat to humans.Here,a humanoid robot that resembles a human in appearance and movement is built using powerful actuators paired with gear trains,joint mechanisms,and motor drivers that are all encased in a package no larger than that of the human physique.In this paper,we propose the construction of a humanoid-applicable anthropomorphic 7-DoF arm complete with an 8-DoF hand.The novel mechanical design of this humanoid arm makes it sufficiently compact to be compatible with currently available narrating-model humanoids,and to be sufficiently powerful and flexible to be functional; the number of degrees of freedom endowed in this robotic arm is sufficient for executing a wide range of tasks,including dexterous hand movements.The developed humanoid arm and hand are capable of sensing and interpreting incoming external force using the motor in each joint current without conventional torque sensors.The humanoid arm adopts an algorithm to avoid obstacles and the dexterous hand is capable of grasping objects.The developed robotic arm is suitable for use in an interactive humanoid robot.

  1. Results from the Mars Phoenix Lander Robotic Arm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Bonitz, R. G.; Robinson, M. L.; Carsten, J. L.; Volpe, R. A.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Mellon, M. T.; Chu, P. C.; Davis, K. R.; Wilson, J. J.; Shaw, A. S.; Greenberger, R. N.; Siebach, K. L.; Stein, T. C.; Cull, S. C.; Goetz, W.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Keller, H. U.; Lemmon, M. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Mehta, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Mars Phoenix Lander was equipped with a 2.4 m Robotic Arm (RA) with an Icy Soil Acquisition Device capable of excavating trenches in soil deposits, grooming hard icy soil surfaces with a scraper blade, and acquiring icy soil samples using a rasp tool. A camera capable of imaging the scoop interior and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe were also included on the RA. A dozen trench complexes were excavated at the northern plains landing site and 31 samples (including water-ice-bearing soils) were acquired for delivery to instruments on the Lander during the 152 sol mission. Deliveries included sprinkling material from several centimeters height to break up cloddy soils on impact with instrument portals. Excavations were done on the side of the Humpty Dumpty and the top of the Wonderland polygons, and in nearby troughs. Resistive forces encountered during backhoe operations show that soils above the 3-5 cm deep icy soil interfaces are stronger with increasing depth. Further, soils are similar in appearance and properties to the weakly cohesive crusty and cloddy soils imaged and excavated by the Viking Lander 2, which also landed on the northern plains. Adsorbed H2O is inferred to be responsible for the variable nature and cohesive strength of the soils. Backhoe blade chatter marks on excavated icy soil surfaces, combined with rasp motor currents, are consistent with laboratory experiments using grain-supported icy soil deposits, as is the relatively rapid decrease in icy soil strength over time as the ice sublimated on Mars.

  2. Teleoperation of a robot manipulator from 3D human hand-arm motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Jonathan; Verma, Siddharth; Wu, Xianghai; Luu, Timothy

    2003-10-01

    The control of a robot manipulator by a human operator is often necessary in unstructured dynamic environments with unfamiliar objects. Remote teleoperation is required when human presence at the robot site is undesirable or difficult, such as in handling hazardous materials and operating in dangerous or inaccessible environments. Previous approaches have employed mechanical or other contacting interfaces which require unnatural motions for object manipulation tasks or hinder dexterous human motion. This paper presents a non-contacting method of teleoperating a robot manipulator by having the human operator perform the 3D human hand-arm motion that would naturally be used to compete an object manipulation task and tracking the motion with a stereo-camera system at a local site. The 3D human hand-arm motion is reconstructed at the remote robot site and is used to control the position and orientation of the robot manipulator end-effector in real-time. Images captured of the robot interacting with objects at the remote site provide visual feedback to the human operator. Tests in teleoperation of the robot manipulator have demonstrated the ability of the human to carry out object manipulator tasks remotely and the teleoperated robot manipulator system to copy human-arm motions in real-time.

  3. A testbed for a unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, S.; Lee, T.; Tso, K.; Backes, P.; Lloyd, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a complete robot control facility built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of NASA a telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for laboratory based space-like experiments. This system, which is now fully operational, has the following features: separation of the computing facilities into local and remote sites, autonomous motion generation in joint or Cartesian coordinates, dual-arm force reflecting teleoperation with voice interaction between the operator and the robots, shared control between the autonomously generated motions and operator controlled teleoperation, and dual-arm coordinated trajectory generation. The system has been used to carry out realistic experiments such as the exchange of an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU), bolt turning, and door opening, using a mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation, with either a single arm or two cooperating arms.

  4. A testbed for a unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, S.; Lee, T.; Tso, K.; Backes, P.; Lloyd, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a complete robot control facility built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of NASA a telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for laboratory based space-like experiments. This system, which is now fully operational, has the following features: separation of the computing facilities into local and remote sites, autonomous motion generation in joint or Cartesian coordinates, dual-arm force reflecting teleoperation with voice interaction between the operator and the robots, shared control between the autonomously generated motions and operator controlled teleoperation, and dual-arm coordinated trajectory generation. The system has been used to carry out realistic experiments such as the exchange of an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU), bolt turning, and door opening, using a mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation, with either a single arm or two cooperating arms.

  5. A New Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm (Denso VP6242).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusawi, Ahmed R J; Dülger, L Canan; Kapucu, Sadettin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN) architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot's joint angles.

  6. Dynamic Balance Control of Multi-arm Free-Floating Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of the dynamic balance control of multi-arm free-floating space robot during capturing an active object in close proximity. The position and orientation of space base will be affected during the operation of space manipulator because of the dynamics coupling between the manipulator and space base. This dynamics coupling is unique characteristics of space robot system. Such a disturbance will produce a serious impact between the manipulator hand and the object. To ensure reliable and precise operation, we propose to develop a space robot system consisting of two arms, with one arm (mission arm for accomplishing the capture mission, and the other one (balance arm compensating for the disturbance of the base. We present the coordinated control concept for balance of the attitude of the base using the balance arm. The mission arm can move along the given trajectory to approach and capture the target with no considering the disturbance from the coupling of the base. We establish a relationship between the motion of two arm that can realize the zeros reaction to the base. The simulation studies verified the validity and efficiency of the proposed control method.

  7. Digital Hardware Realization of Forward and Inverse Kinematics for a Five-Axis Articulated Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thi Hai Linh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When robot arm performs a motion control, it needs to calculate a complicated algorithm of forward and inverse kinematics which consumes much CPU time and certainty slows down the motion speed of robot arm. Therefore, to solve this issue, the development of a hardware realization of forward and inverse kinematics for an articulated robot arm is investigated. In this paper, the formulation of the forward and inverse kinematics for a five-axis articulated robot arm is derived firstly. Then, the computations algorithm and its hardware implementation are described. Further, very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL is applied to describe the overall hardware behavior of forward and inverse kinematics. Additionally, finite state machine (FSM is applied for reducing the hardware resource usage. Finally, for verifying the correctness of forward and inverse kinematics for the five-axis articulated robot arm, a cosimulation work is constructed by ModelSim and Simulink. The hardware of the forward and inverse kinematics is run by ModelSim and a test bench which generates stimulus to ModelSim and displays the output response is taken in Simulink. Under this design, the forward and inverse kinematics algorithms can be completed within one microsecond.

  8. Numerical Investigation of an Industrial Robot Arm Control Problem Using Haar Wavelet Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nandhakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An error minimization in robot arm dynamics improves operations and performance of production systems. Many contributions have been made in area of robot dynamics since the earliest study more than two decades, but, a number of researchers are still contributing various principles and new techniques for the best use of robots in reality, especially in the field of industry, as this field of study is inexhaustible. This study attempted to analyze the performance of an industrial robot by comparing solutions obtained using RK method and Single-Term Haar Wavelet Series (STHWS method. Exact solution of system of equations representing arm model of a robot had been compared with corresponding discrete solution at different time intervals. Absolute error between exact and discrete solutions had also been determined to suggest the method of improving performance of a robot. Approach: Haar wavelet had been applied extensively for signal processing in communications and proved to be a useful mathematical tool for dynamical systems. In this study, STWHS method had been used for solving differential equations. Result had been obtained and compared with exact solutions. Results: Error had been compared by exact solutions, RK and STHWS solutions were reported for non-singular systems and estimated as almost zero. The validation had been carried out with reference to earlier research output appeared in this field of study. Conclusion/Recommendations: For robot arm model selected for study, solution obtained by STHWS was found to be accurate from results.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover mobility and robotic arm operational performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward; Maimone, Mark; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Yen, Jeng; Petras, Richard; Wilson, Reg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an actual instance of a practical human-robot system used on a NASA Mars rover mission that has been underway since January 2004 involving daily intercation between humans on Earth and mobile robots on Mars.

  10. Internet remote control interface for a multipurpose robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Dunnigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Internet remote control interface for a MITSUBISHI PA10-6CE manipulator established for the purpose of the ROBOT museum exhibition during spring and summer 2004. The robotic manipulator is a part of the Intelligent Robotic Systems Laboratory at Heriot ? Watt University, which has been established to work on dynamic and kinematic aspects of manipulator control in the presence of environmental disturbances. The laboratory has been enriched by a simple vision system consisting of three web-cameras to broadcast the live images of the robots over the Internet. The Interface comprises of the TCP/IP server providing command parsing and execution using the open controller architecture of the manipulator and a client Java applet web-site providing a simple robot control interface.

  11. Effect of Link Flexibility on tip position of a single link robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudan Raju, E.; Siva Rama Krishna, L.; Mouli, Y. Sharath Chandra; Nageswara Rao, V.

    2015-12-01

    The flexible robots are widely used in space applications due to their quick response, lower energy consumption, lower overall mass and operation at high speed compared to conventional industrial rigid link robots. These robots are inherently flexible, so that the kinematics of flexible robots can't be solved with rigid body assumptions. The flexibility in links and joints affects end-point positioning accuracy of the robot. It is important to model the link kinematics with precision which in turn simplifies modelling of dynamics of flexible robots. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of link flexibility on a tip position of a single link robotic arm for a given motion. The joint is assumed to be rigid and only link flexibility is considered. The kinematics of flexible link problem is evaluated by Assumed Modes Method (AMM) using MAT LAB Programming. To evaluate the effect of link flexibility (with and without payload) of robotic arm, the normalized tip deviation is found for flexible link with respect to a rigid link. Finally, the limiting inertia for payload mass is found if the allowable tip deviation is 5%.

  12. Constraint optimization model of a scheduling problem for a robotic arm in automatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ewa; Smith, Stephen F.; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of scheduling a 6 DOF robotic arm to carry out a sequence of spray painting tasks. The duration of any given painting task is process dependent and fixed, but the duration of an “intertask”, corresponding to the process of relocating and reorienting...... the robot arm from one painting task to the next one, is influenced by the order of tasks and must be minimized by the scheduler. There are multiple solutions for reaching any given painting task and tasks can be performed in either of two different directions. Further complicating the problem...... are characteristics of the painting process application itself. Unlike spot-welding, painting tasks require movement of the entire robot arm. In addition to minimizing intertask duration, the scheduler must strive to maximize painting quality and the problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem...

  13. Optimum Design of Multi-Function Robot Arm Gripper for Varying Shape Green Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Zol Bahri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The project focuses on thorough experimentally studies of the optimum design of Multi-function Robot Arm Gripper for varying shape green product. The purpose of this project is to design a few of robot arm gripper for multi-functionally grip a green product with varying shape. The main character of the gripper is that it can automated adjust its finger to suit with the shape of the product. An optimum design of multi-function robot arm gripper is verified through experimental study. The expected result is a series of analytical results on the proposal of gripper design and material that will be selected for the gripper. The analysis of the gripper design proposal by using ANSYS and CATIA software is described in detail in this paper.

  14. Adapting a Low-Cost Selective Compliant Articulated Robotic Arm for Spillage Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Li, Jonathan; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-12-01

    Flexible automation systems provide the needed adaptability to serve shorter-term projects and specialty applications in biochemical analysis. A low-cost selective compliant articulated robotic arm designed for liquid spillage avoidance is developed here. In the vertical-plane robotic arm movement test, the signals from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and accelerometer were able to sense collisions. In the horizontal movement test, however, only the signals from the IMU enabled collision to be detected. Using a calculation method developed, it was possible to chart the regions where the obstacle was likely to be located when a collision occurred. The low cost of the IMU and its easy incorporation into the robotic arm offer the potential to meet the pressures of lowering operating costs, apply laboratory automation in resource-limited venues, and obviate human intervention in response to sudden disease outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  15. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  16. 3D joystick for robotic arm control by individuals with high level spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Pendergast, Martin; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An innovative 3D joystick was developed to enable quadriplegics due to spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to more independently and efficiently operate a robotic arm as an assistive device. The 3D joystick was compared to two different manual input modalities, a keyboard control and a traditional joystick, in performing experimental robotic arm tasks by both subjects without disabilities and those with upper extremity mobility impairments. Fitts's Law targeting and practical pouring tests were conducted to compare the performance and accuracy of the proposed 3D joystick. The Fitts's law measurements showed that the 3D joystick had the best index of performance (IP), though it required an equivalent number of operations and errors as the standard robotic arm joystick. The pouring task demonstrated that the 3D joystick took significantly less task completion time and was more accurate than keyboard control. The 3D joystick also showed a decreased learning curve to the other modalities.

  17. Right-Arm Robotic-Aided-Therapy with the Light-Exoskeleton: A General Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Villeda, Luis I.; Frisoli, Antonio; Sotgiu, Edoardo; Greco, Giovanni; Bergamasco, Massimo

    Rehabilitation robotics applications and their developments have been spreading out as consequences of the actual needs in the human activities of daily living (ADL). Exoskeletons for rehabilitation are one of them, whose intrinsic characteristics are quite useful for applications where repetitive, robustness and accurate performance are a must. As a part of robotic-mediated-rehabilitation programme into the worldwide, the exoskeletons are trying to improve the ADL of disable people through the fusion of several disciplines that lets to expand the capabilities of wearing a powered robotic exoskeletal device for rehabilitation tasks. This fact deserves to present this contribution from a general scope point of view, i.e., the technologies integration and its associated knowledge. So far, the Light-Exoskeleton which is intended for human arm rehabilitation in post-stroke patients is introduced. Preliminary experimental results as well as the involved stages about the system show the capabilities of using a robotic-constrained-rehabilitation for human arm.

  18. A unified teleoperated-autonomous dual-arm robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad; Lee, Thomas S.; Tso, Kam Sing; Backes, Paul G.; Lloyd, John

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of complete robot control facility built as part of a NASA telerobotics program to develop a state-of-the-art robot control environment for performing experiments in the repair and assembly of spacelike hardware to gain practical knowledge of such work and to improve the associated technology. The basic architecture of the manipulator control subsystem is presented. The multiarm Robot Control C Library (RCCL), a key software component of the system, is described, along with its implementation on a Sun-4 computer. The system's simulation capability is also described, and the teleoperation and shared control features are explained.

  19. Compliance Modeling and Error Compensation of a 3-Parallelogram Lightweight Robotic Arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents compliance modeling and error compensation for lightweight robotic arms built with parallelogram linkages, i.e., Π joints. The Cartesian stiffness matrix is derived using the virtual joint method. Based on the developed stiffness model, a method to compensate the compliance...... error is introduced, being illustrated with a 3-parallelogram robot in the application of pick-and-place operation. The results show that this compensation method can effectively improve the operation accuracy....

  20. Total mesorectal excision using a soft and flexible robotic arm: a feasibility study in cadaver models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezzo, Alberto; Mintz, Yoav; Allaix, Marco Ettore; Arolfo, Simone; Bonino, Marco; Gerboni, Giada; Brancadoro, Margherita; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna; Wurdemann, Helge; Noh, Yohan; Althoefer, Kaspar; Fras, Jan; Glowka, Jakob; Nawrat, Zbigniew; Cassidy, Gavin; Walker, Rich; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored by the European Commission, the FP7 STIFF-FLOP project aimed at developing a STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able manipulator for surgical operations, in order to overcome the current limitations of rigid-link robotic technology. Herein, we describe the first cadaveric series of total mesorectal excision (TME) using a soft and flexible robotic arm for optic vision in a cadaver model. TME assisted by the STIFF-FLOP robotic optics was successfully performed in two embalmed male human cadavers. The soft and flexible optic prototype consisted of two modules, each measuring 60 mm in length and 14.3 mm in maximum outer diameter. The robot was attached to a rigid shaft connected to an anthropomorphic manipulator robot arm with six degrees of freedom. The controller device was equipped with two joysticks. The cadavers (BMI 25 and 28 kg/m(2)) were prepared according to the Thiel embalming method. The procedure was performed using three standard laparoscopic instruments for traction and dissection, with the aid of a 30° rigid optics in the rear for documentation. Following mobilization of the left colonic flexure and division of the inferior mesenteric vessels, TME was completed down to the pelvic floor. The STIFF-FLOP robotic optic arm seemed to acquire superior angles of vision of the surgical field in the pelvis, resulting in an intact mesorectum in both cases. Completion times of the procedures were 165 and 145 min, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred. No technical failures were registered. The STIFF-FLOP soft and flexible robotic optic arm proved effective in assisting a laparoscopic TME in human cadavers, with a superior field of vision compared to the standard laparoscopic vision, especially low in the pelvis. The introduction of soft and flexible robotic devices may aid in overcoming the technical challenges of difficult laparoscopic procedures based on standard rigid instruments.

  1. A New Artificial Neural Network Approach in Solving Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm (Denso VP6242

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. J. Almusawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel inverse kinematics solution for robotic arm based on artificial neural network (ANN architecture. The motion of robotic arm is controlled by the kinematics of ANN. A new artificial neural network approach for inverse kinematics is proposed. The novelty of the proposed ANN is the inclusion of the feedback of current joint angles configuration of robotic arm as well as the desired position and orientation in the input pattern of neural network, while the traditional ANN has only the desired position and orientation of the end effector in the input pattern of neural network. In this paper, a six DOF Denso robotic arm with a gripper is controlled by ANN. The comprehensive experimental results proved the applicability and the efficiency of the proposed approach in robotic motion control. The inclusion of current configuration of joint angles in ANN significantly increased the accuracy of ANN estimation of the joint angles output. The new controller design has advantages over the existing techniques for minimizing the position error in unconventional tasks and increasing the accuracy of ANN in estimation of robot’s joint angles.

  2. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Isabelle; Biard, Nicolas; Chalubert, Gérard; Delahoche, Laurent; Marhic, Bruno; Boyer, François C; Leroux, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Laffont I, Biard N, Chalubert G, Delahoche L, Marhic B, Boyer FC, Leroux C. Evaluation of a graphic interface to control a robotic grasping arm: a multicenter study. Grasping robots are still difficult to use for persons with disabilities because of inadequate human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of a graphic interface enhanced by a panoramic camera to detect out-of-view objects and control a commercialized robotic grasping arm. Multicenter, open-label trial. Four French departments of physical and rehabilitation medicine. Control subjects (N=24; mean age, 33y) and 20 severely impaired patients (mean age, 44y; 5 with muscular dystrophies, 13 with traumatic tetraplegia, and 2 others) completed the study. None of these patients was able to grasp a 50-cL bottle without the robot. Participants were asked to grasp 6 objects scattered around their wheelchair using the robotic arm. They were able to select the desired object through the graphic interface available on their computer screen. Global success rate, time needed to select the object on the screen of the computer, number of clicks on the HMI, and satisfaction among users. We found a significantly lower success rate in patients (81.1% vs 88.7%; chi(2)P=.017). The duration of the task was significantly higher in patients (71.6s vs 39.1s; Probotic arms for disabled people, with numerous potential applications in daily life.

  3. Retraining of interjoint arm coordination after stroke using robot-assisted time-independent functional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B. Brokaw, MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a haptic-based approach for retraining of interjoint coordination following stroke called time-independent functional training (TIFT and implemented this mode in the ARMin III robotic exoskeleton. The ARMin III robot was developed by Drs. Robert Riener and Tobias Nef at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, or ETH Zurich, in Zurich, Switzerland. In the TIFT mode, the robot maintains arm movements within the proper kinematic trajectory via haptic walls at each joint. These arm movements focus training of interjoint coordination with highly intuitive real-time feedback of perform-ance; arm movements advance within the trajectory only if their movement coordination is correct. In initial testing, 37 nondisabled subjects received a single session of learning of a complex pattern. Subjects were randomized to TIFT or visual demonstration or moved along with the robot as it moved though the pattern (time-dependent [TD] training. We examined visual demonstration to separate the effects of action observation on motor learning from the effects of the two haptic guidance methods. During these training trials, TIFT subjects reduced error and interaction forces between the robot and arm, while TD subject performance did not change. All groups showed significant learning of the trajectory during unassisted recall trials, but we observed no difference in learning between groups, possibly because this learning task is dominated by vision. Further testing in stroke populations is warranted.

  4. Control and Calibration of a Staubli RX130 Robotic Arm for Construction of Surface Current Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmeter, Patrick; Crawford, Christopher; Guler, Emre; Fugal, Mario; Irvin, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Precision low energy neutron experiments require extremely uniform magnetic fields for manipulating the neutron spin. Such fields can be generated with surface current coils-precision 3-dimensional printed circuits. We are developing a facility to etch out these circuits on copper-plated curved forms using a high-speed spindle attached to the end-effector of a Staubli RX130 six-axis robotic arm. We describe our mathematical model of the robotic links and the software system we designed to control the motion of the arm and to prevent collisions during actuations. We developed a calibration procedure to achieve accuracy of 30 microns in the position of drill.

  5. Design optimization on the drive train of a light-weight robotic arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lelai; Bai, Shaoping; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2011-01-01

    A drive train optimization method for design of light-weight robots is proposed. Optimal selections of motors and gearboxes from a limited catalog of commercially available components are done simultaneously for all joints of a robotic arm. Characteristics of the motor and gearbox, including gear...... ratio, gear inertia, motor inertia, and gear efficiency, are considered in the drive train modeling. A co-simulation method is developed for dynamic simulation of the arm. A design example is included to demonstrate the proposed design optimization method....

  6. Optimal Configuration of a Redundant Robotic Arm: Compliance Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Applications of robots in tasks where the robot's end-effector bears loads, such as manipulating or assembling an object, picking-and-placing loads, grinding or drilling, demand precision. One aspect that improves precision is the limitation, if not elimination, of manipulator compliance. This paper presents a manipulator compliance optimization approach for determining an optimal manipulator configuration for a given position in the robot's task space. A numerical solution for minimal compliance, a nonlinear constrained optimization problem, is presented for an arbitrary position and illustrated by an example, using a model developed on ADAMS software and using MATLAB optimization tools. Also, this paper investigates the optimal value function for robot tasks in which the tool-point is subjected to applied force as it generates an important trajectory such as in grinding processes. The optimal value function is needed for optimal configuration control.

  7. Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mozasser; Ikeura, Ryojun; Mizutani, Kazuki

    In the near future many aspects of our lives will be encompassed by tasks performed in cooperation with robots. The application of robots in home automation, agricultural production and medical operations etc. will be indispensable. As a result robots need to be made human-friendly and to execute tasks in cooperation with humans. Control systems for such robots should be designed to work imitating human characteristics. In this study, we have tried to achieve these goals by means of controlling a simple one degree-of-freedom cooperative robot. Firstly, the impedance characteristic of the human arm in a cooperative task is investigated. Then, this characteristic is implemented to control a robot in order to perform cooperative task with humans. A human followed the motion of an object, which is moved through desired trajectories. The motion is actuated by the linear motor of the one degree-of-freedom robot system. Trajectories used in the experiments of this method were minimum jerk (the rate of change of acceleration) trajectory, which was found during human and human cooperative task and optimum for muscle movement. As the muscle is mechanically analogous to a spring-damper system, a simple second-order equation is used as models for the arm dynamics. In the model, we considered mass, stiffness and damping factor. Impedance parameter is calculated from the position and force data obtained from the experiments and based on the “Estimation of Parametric Model”. Investigated impedance characteristic of human arm is then implemented to control a robot, which performed cooperative task with human. It is observed that the proposed control methodology has given human like movements to the robot for cooperating with human.

  8. Towards image guided robotic surgery: multi-arm tracking through hybrid localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwartowitz, David Morgan [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Biomedical Imaging Resource, Rochester, MN (United States); Miga, Michael I. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Herrell, S.D. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Urology, Nashville, TN (United States); Galloway, Robert L. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Surgery, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Use of the robotic assisted surgery has been increasing in recent years, due both the continuous increase in the number of applications and the clinical benefits that surgical robots can provide. Currently robotic assisted surgery relies on endoscopic video for navigation, providing only surface visualization, thus limiting subsurface vision. To be able to visualize and identify subsurface information, techniques in image-guidance can be used. As part of designing an image guidance system, all arms of the robot need to be co-localized in a common coordinate system. In order to track multiple arms in a common coordinate space, intrinsic and extrinsic tracking methods can be used. First, the intrinsic tracking of the daVinci, specifically of the setup joints is analyzed. Because of the inadequacy of the setup joints for co-localization a hybrid tracking method is designed and implemented to mitigate the inaccuracy of the setup joints. Different both optical and magnetic tracking methods are examined for setup joint localization. The hybrid localization method improved the localization accuracy of the setup joints. The inter-arm accuracy in hybrid localization was improved to 3.02 mm. This inter-arm error value was shown to be further reduced when the arms are co-registered, thus reducing common error. (orig.)

  9. Effects of arm training with the robotic device ARMin I in chronic stroke: three single cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, Tobias; Quinter, Gabriela; Müller, Roland; Riener, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Several clinical studies on chronic stroke conducted with end-effector-based robots showed improvement of the motor function in the affected arm. Compared to end-effector-based robots, exoskeleton robots provide improved guidance of the human limb and are better suited to train task-oriented movements with a large range of motions. To test whether intensive arm training with the arm exoskeleton ARMin I is feasible with chronic-stroke patients and whether it improves motor function in the paretic arm. Three single cases with chronic hemiparesis resulting from unilateral stroke (at least 14 months after stroke). A-B design with 2 weeks of multiple baseline measurements (A), 8 weeks of training (B) with repetitive measurements and a follow-up measurement 8 weeks after training. The training included shoulder and elbow movements with the robotic rehabilitation device ARMin I. Two subjects had three 1-hour sessions per week and 1 subject received five 1-hour sessions per week. The main outcome measurement was the upper-limb part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). The ARMin training was well tolerated by the patients, and the FMA showed moderate, but significant improvements for all 3 subjects (p arm exoskeleton is feasible with chronic-stroke patients. Moderate improvements were found in all 3 subjects, thus further clinical investigations are justified. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A Fast Approach to Arm Blind Grasping and Placing for Mobile Robot Transportation in Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast approach to organizing arm grasping and placing manipulations for mobile robot transportation systems in life science laboratories. The approach builds a blind framework to realize the robot arm operations without integrating any other sensors or recognizing computation, but only adopting the robot’s existing on-board ultrasonic sensors originally installed for collision avoidance. To achieve high-precision indoor positioning performance for the proposed blind arm strategy, a hybrid method is proposed, including a StarGazer system for all laboratory environments and an ultrasonic sensor- based component for the local areas where the arm operations are expected. At the same time, two error- correcting algorithms are presented for the improvement of the high-precision localization and the selection of the robot arm operations. In addition, the architecture of all the robotic controlling centres and their key APIs are also explained. Finally, an experiment proves that the proposed blind strategy is effective and economically viable for the laboratory automation.

  11. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  12. Rehabilitation robotics : stimulating restoration of arm function after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prange, Grada Berendina

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of permanent disability, due to neurological damage in the brain. As a consequence, arm and hand function may be compromised: 60% of stroke patients experiences serious limitations in daily life due to reduced arm and hand function. To minimize such limitations, patients rece

  13. An innovative approach for modeling and simulation of an automated industrial robotic arm operated electro-pneumatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, L.; Popa, V.

    2017-08-01

    The article is focused on modeling an automated industrial robotic arm operated electro-pneumatically and to simulate the robotic arm operation. It is used the graphic language FBD (Function Block Diagram) to program the robotic arm on Zelio Logic automation. The innovative modeling and simulation procedures are considered specific problems regarding the development of a new type of technical products in the field of robotics. Thus, were identified new applications of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) as a specialized computer performing control functions with a variety of high levels of complexit.

  14. Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Aguilar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic―laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry―and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.

  15. Modelling and calibration technique of laser triangulation sensors for integration in robot arms and articulated arm coordinate measuring machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaria, Jorge; Guillomía, David; Cajal, Carlos; Albajez, José A; Aguilar, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic-laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry-and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.

  16. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  17. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting 'animal models'. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots.

  18. School-based use of a robotic arm system by children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Albert M; Bentz, Brenda; Harbottle, Norma; Lynch, Cheryl; Miller, Brad

    2005-12-01

    A robotic arm system was developed for use by children who had very severe motor disabilities and varying levels of cognitive and language skills. The children used the robot in a three-task sequence routine to dig objects from a tub of dry macaroni. The robotic system was used in the child's school for 12-15 sessions over a period of four weeks. Goal attainment scaling indicated improvement in all children in operational competence of the robot, and varying levels of gain in functional skill development with the robot and in carryover to the classroom from the robot experiments. Teacher interviews revealed gains in classroom participation, expressive language (vocalizations, symbolic communication), and a high degree of interest by the children in the robot tasks. The teachers also recommended that the robot should have more color, contrast and character, as well as generating sounds and/or music for student cues. They also felt that the robotic system accuracy should be increased so that teacher assistance is not necessary to complete the task.

  19. da Vinci robotic partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: an atlas of the four-arm technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bhayani,Sam B.

    2008-01-01

    da Vinci robotic surgery is becoming a standard alternative to open and laparoscopic surgical techniques. Robotic partial nephrectomy has been described in limited numbers. In this article, a surgical atlas of the transperitoneal four-arm approach to robotic partial nephrectomy is outlined. Surgical pearls, pitfalls, and limitations are reviewed.

  20. A preliminary study of using active vision guided robotic arm for bone drilling in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zaid; Awang, Mohamed Saufi; Tan, Yew Chin; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-03-01

    The study assesses the capability and accuracy of a robotic arm to perform burr holes. The robotic systems are instructed to recognize targets on artificial skull models placed in different positions and to make burr holes. The accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mm. Robotic arms are capable to perform basic surgical tasks. However, further improvement needs to be done to refine its accuracy and capability. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Measuring information transfer in a soft robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, K; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, R

    2015-05-13

    Soft robots can exhibit diverse behaviors with simple types of actuation by partially outsourcing control to the morphological and material properties of their soft bodies, which is made possible by the tight coupling between control, body, and environment. In this paper, we present a method that will quantitatively characterize these diverse spatiotemporal dynamics of a soft body based on the information-theoretic approach. In particular, soft bodies have the ability to propagate the effect of actuation through the entire body, with a certain time delay, due to their elasticity. Our goal is to capture this delayed interaction in a quantitative manner based on a measure called momentary information transfer. We extend this measure to soft robotic applications and demonstrate its power using a physical soft robotic platform inspired by the octopus. Our approach is illustrated in two ways. First, we statistically characterize the delayed actuation propagation through the body as a strength of information transfer. Second, we capture this information propagation directly as local information dynamics. As a result, we show that our approach can successfully characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of the soft robotic platform, explicitly visualizing how information transfers through the entire body with delays. Further extension scenarios of our approach are discussed for soft robotic applications in general.

  2. Impedance Controller Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization for Robotic Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Mehdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and fast method for fine tuning the controller parameters of robot manipulators in constrained motion. The stability of the robotic system is proved using a Lyapunov‐based impedance approach whereas the optimal design of the controller parameters are tuned, in offline, by a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm. For designing the PSOmethod,differentindexperformancesare considered in both joint and Cartesian spaces. A 3DOF manipulator constrained to a circular trajectory is finally used to validate the performances of the proposed approach. The simulation results show the stability and the performances of the proposed approach.

  3. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  4. Evaluation of new user interface features for the MANUS robot arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, H.A.; Liefhebber, F.; Herder, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    New user interface features and a new user interface for the MANUS robot arm, were designed in order to reduce the high cognitive and physical load that users experience when controlling the MANUS. These interface features, and the new interface, were evaluated for their performance. The following r

  5. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology.

  6. Evaluation of new user interface features for the MANUS robot arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, H.A.; Liefhebber, F.; Herder, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    New user interface features and a new user interface for the MANUS robot arm, were designed in order to reduce the high cognitive and physical load that users experience when controlling the MANUS. These interface features, and the new interface, were evaluated for their performance. The following

  7. The Development of BCI Using Alpha Waves for Controlling the Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Akiyama, Yoko; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    The highly accurate BCI using alpha waves was developed for controlling the robot arm, and real-time operation was succeeded by using noninvasive electrodes. The significant components of the alpha wave were identified by spectral analysis and confirmation of the amplitude of the alpha wave. When the alpha wave was observed in the subject, the subjects were instructed to select the multiple decision branches, concerning 7 motions (including “STOP”) of a robot arm. As a result, high accuracy (70-95%) was obtained, and the subject succeeded in transferring a small box by controlling the robot arm. Since high accuracy was obtained by use of this method, it can be applied to control equipments such as a robot arm. Since the alpha wave can be easily generated, the BCI using alpha waves does not need more training than that using other signals. Moreover, we tried to reduce the false positive errors by effectively detecting artifacts using spectral analysis and detecting signals of 50μV or more. As a result, the false positive errors could be reduced from 25% to 0%. Therefore, this technique shows great promise in the area of communication and the control of other external equipments, and will make great contribution in the improvement of Quality of Life (QOL) of mobility disabled.

  8. A Prototype Robotic Arm for Use by Severely Orthopedically Handicapped Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Richard

    This 18-month pilot project, which ran from October 1, 1987 to March 31, 1989, developed a prototype robotic arm for educational use by students with severe orthopedic disabilities in the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The developmental effort was intended first, to provide direct access to currently available instructional materials and, second,…

  9. Robotics combined with electrical stimulation: hybrid support of arm and hand for functional training after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Reach, grasp and release is part of many functional movements. Graying of society leads to more stroke victims and fewer health care professionals. Technology might be a solution to support certain rehabilitation therapies in future health care. Robotic systems have been developed for support of arm

  10. Integration of a Robotic Arm with the Surgical Assistant Workstation Software Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, J.; Elhawary, H.; Popovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have integrated the Philips Research robot arm with the Johns Hopkins University cisst library, an open-source platform for computerassisted surgical intervention. The development of a Matlab to C++ wrapper to abstract away servo-level details facilitates the rapid development of a component-base

  11. Robotics combined with electrical stimulation: hybrid support of arm and hand for functional training after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, Ard

    2014-01-01

    Reach, grasp and release is part of many functional movements. Graying of society leads to more stroke victims and fewer health care professionals. Technology might be a solution to support certain rehabilitation therapies in future health care. Robotic systems have been developed for support of arm

  12. Integration of a Robotic Arm with the Surgical Assistant Workstation Software Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, J.; Elhawary, H.; Popovic, A.

    2012-01-01

    We have integrated the Philips Research robot arm with the Johns Hopkins University cisst library, an open-source platform for computerassisted surgical intervention. The development of a Matlab to C++ wrapper to abstract away servo-level details facilitates the rapid development of a

  13. On the Value of Estimating Human Arm Stiffness during Virtual Teleoperation with Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Buzzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Teleoperated robotic systems are widely spreading in multiple different fields, from hazardous environments exploration to surgery. In teleoperation, users directly manipulate a master device to achieve task execution at the slave robot side; this interaction is fundamental to guarantee both system stability and task execution performance. In this work, we propose a non-disruptive method to study the arm endpoint stiffness. We evaluate how users exploit the kinetic redundancy of the arm to achieve stability and precision during the execution of different tasks with different master devices. Four users were asked to perform two planar trajectories following virtual tasks using both a serial and a parallel link master device. Users' arm kinematics and muscular activation were acquired and combined with a user-specific musculoskeletal model to estimate the joint stiffness. Using the arm kinematic Jacobian, the arm end-point stiffness was derived. The proposed non-disruptive method is capable of estimating the arm endpoint stiffness during the execution of virtual teleoperated tasks. The obtained results are in accordance with the existing literature in human motor control and show, throughout the tested trajectory, a modulation of the arm endpoint stiffness that is affected by task characteristics and hand speed and acceleration.

  14. Design and experimental testing of the OctArm soft robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Michael D.; Chitrakaran, Vilas; Dienno, Dustin; Csencits, Matthew; Pritts, Michael; Jones, Bryan; McMahan, William; Dawson, Darren; Rahn, Chris; Walker, Ian

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the development of the octopus biology inspired OctArm series of soft robot manipulators. Each OctArm is constructed using air muscle extensors with three control channels per section that provide two axis bending and extension. Within each section, mesh and plastic coupler constraints prevent extensor buckling. OctArm IV is comprised of four sections connected by endplates, providing twelve degrees of freedom. Performance of OctArm IV is characterized in a lab environment. Using only 4.13 bar of air pressure, the dexterous distal section provides 66% extension and 380° of rotation in less than .5 seconds. OctArm V has three sections and, using 8.27 bar of air pressure, the strong proximal section provides 890 N and 250 N of vertical and transverse load capacity, respectively. In addition to the in-lab testing, OctArm V underwent a series of field trials including open-air and in-water field tests. Outcomes of the trials, in which the manipulator demonstrated the ability for adaptive and novel manipulation in challenging environments, are described. OctArm VI is designed and constructed based on the in-lab performance, and the field testing of its predecessors. Implications for the deployment of soft robots in military environments are discussed.

  15. Object Control on Production Line with Image Processing and Five Axis Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ahmet Şenel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Developed and developing countries of the world are seeking high quality, low cost and less time parameters for products which produced with evolving industrial technology. Hence, nowadays instead of manpower machine power is preferred for many industrial applications. In today's industrial applications, robots and robotic arms are widely used because of the amount of high load, continuous operation and features such as low error. In this study, the products which are passing over production line classified with the help of the robot arm and developed embedded system software. In this study, 60 products in total which 45 of them have no manufacturing fault and 15 of them have manufacturing defect have been classified with a very high success rate with 100%.

  16. Singular perturbation composite control of a free-floating flexible dual-arm space robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhanwu; Wang Congqing

    2008-01-01

    The Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamics system. In this paper, the dynamic model is derived of a Free-floating Flexible Dual-arm Space Robot holding a rigid payload. Furthermore, according to the singular perturbation method, the system is separated into a slow subsystem representing rigid body motion of the robot and a fast subsystem representing the flexible link dynamics. For the slow subsystem, based on the second method of Lyapunov, using simple quantitative bounds on the model uncertainties, a robust tracking controller design is used during the trajectory tracking phase. The optimal control method is designed in the fast subsystem to guarantee the exponential stability. With the combination of the two above, the system can track the expected trajectory accurately, even though with uncertainty in model parameters, and its flexible vibration gets suppressed, too. Finally, some simulation tests have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Vibration suppression of robot arm feedforward control with on-line parameter identification; Online kansei dotei ni yoru robot arm no feedforward shindo yokusei seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M.; Kuze, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Matsui, N. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-12-20

    Generally, robot arms with flexible joints are multi-mass resonant systems, thus causing mechanical vibration. Since the vibration deteriorates the arm position control accuracy, the vibration suppression is indispensable to achieve the high performance arm motion. The authors have already proposed a feedforward vibration suppression scheme using an optimal control command shaping. The scheme is suitable for practical industrial use because of its simple control algorithm, however, there still remains a problem inherent in feedforward techniques that parameter setting errors in controller have significant effects on the suppression control accuracy. This paper presents an adaptive feedforward control of the vibration suppression with on-line mechanical parameter identifier, based on the proposed command shaping. In this scheme, the on-line identification of arm inertia using a method of least squares is performed during acceleration in arm motion. The identified parameter is used during deceleration to suppress the residual vibration. Experimental results using a prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A New Objective Function for Obstacle Avoidance by Redundant Service Robot Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ismet Can Dede

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of task-space tracking control of kinematically redundant robots regulating self-motion to ensure obstacle avoidance is studied and discussed. As the subtask objective, the links of the kinematically redundant assistive robot should avoid any collisions with the patient that is being assisted. The shortcomings of the obstacle avoidance algorithms are discussed and a new obstacle avoidance algorithm is proposed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated with tests that were carried out using the virtual model of a seven degrees-of-freedom robot arm. The test results indicate that the developed controller for the robot manipulator is successful in both accomplishing the main-task and the sub task objectives.

  19. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ibone Lizarraga; Arantza Sanz; Victor Etxebarria

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid) and fast (flexible) modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with wellestablished stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good close...

  20. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Etxebarria; Arantza Sanz; Ibone Lizarraga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid) and fast (flexible) modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with well-established stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good clos...

  1. Robot-assisted arm assessments in spinal cord injured patients: a consideration of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Keller

    Full Text Available Robotic assistance is increasingly used in neurological rehabilitation for enhanced training. Furthermore, therapy robots have the potential for accurate assessment of motor function in order to diagnose the patient status, to measure therapy progress or to feedback the movement performance to the patient and therapist in real time. We investigated whether a set of robot-based assessments that encompasses kinematic, kinetic and timing metrics is applicable, safe, reliable and comparable to clinical metrics for measurement of arm motor function. Twenty-four healthy subjects and five patients after spinal cord injury underwent robot-based assessments using the exoskeleton robot ARMin. Five different tasks were performed with aid of a visual display. Ten kinematic, kinetic and timing assessment parameters were extracted on joint- and end-effector level (active and passive range of motion, cubic reaching volume, movement time, distance-path ratio, precision, smoothness, reaction time, joint torques and joint stiffness. For cubic volume, joint torques and the range of motion for most joints, good inter- and intra-rater reliability were found whereas precision, movement time, distance-path ratio and smoothness showed weak to moderate reliability. A comparison with clinical scores revealed good correlations between robot-based joint torques and the Manual Muscle Test. Reaction time and distance-path ratio showed good correlation with the "Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension" (GRASSP and the Van Lieshout Test (VLT for movements towards a predefined position in the center of the frontal plane. In conclusion, the therapy robot ARMin provides a comprehensive set of assessments that are applicable and safe. The first results with spinal cord injured patients and healthy subjects suggest that the measurements are widely reliable and comparable to clinical scales for arm motor function. The methods applied and results can

  2. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-06-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s(-1) and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s)(-1). Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.

  3. Task performance evaluation of asymmetric semiautonomous teleoperation of mobile twin-arm robotic manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysz, Pawel; Sirouspour, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    A series of human factors experiments involving maneuvering and grasping tasks are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel asymmetric semiautonomous teleoperation (AST) control design framework for teleoperation of mobile twin-arm robotic manipulators. Simplified configurations are examined first to explore control strategies for different aspects of such teleoperation tasks. These include teleoperation of a nonholonomic mobile base, telemanipulation of a dual-arm robot, and dual-arm/dual-operator teleoperation task scenarios. In two sets of experiments with a planar nonholonomic mobile base, teleoperation via a 3DOF planar haptic interface with position mapping and force reflection of the nonholonomic constraint decreases task-completion-time (TCT) and reduces unwanted collisions. In dual-arm and dual-operator teleoperation maneuverability experiments, the assignment of decoupled and nonconflicting control frames reduces TCT and unwanted contacts. The use of so-called "soft" constraints via passive semiautonomous control reduces TCT and unwanted block drops in telegrasping experiments with a twin-arm manipulator. A final comprehensive experiment encompassing elements of the simplified configurations demonstrates the effectiveness of AST control framework in dual-operator teleoperation of a twin-arm mobile manipulator.

  4. Four-arm robotic lobectomy for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Galetta, Domenico; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Melfi, Franca; Schmid, Ralph Alexander; Borri, Alessandro; Vannucci, Fernando; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the feasibility and safety of four-arm robotic lung lobectomy in patients with lung cancer and described the robotic lobectomy technique with mediastinal lymph node dissection. Over 21 months, 54 patients underwent robotic lobectomy for early-stage lung cancer at our institute. We used a da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Mountain View, Calif) with three ports plus one utility incision to isolate hilum elements and perform vascular and bronchial resection using standard endoscopic staplers. Standard mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed subsequently. Surgical outcomes were compared with those in 54 patients who underwent open surgery over the same period and were matched to the robotic group using propensity scores for a series of preoperative variables. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 7 (13%) cases. Postoperative complications (11/54, 20%, in each group) and median number of lymph nodes removed (17.5 robotic vs 17 open) were similar in the 2 groups. Median robotic operating time decreased by 43 minutes (P = .02) from first tertile (18 patients) to the second-plus-third tertile (36 patients). Median postoperative hospitalization was significantly shorter after robotic (excluding first tertile) than after open operations (4.5 days vs 6 days; P = .002). Robotic lobectomy with lymph node dissection is practicable, safe, and associated with shorter postoperative hospitalization than open surgery. From the number of lymph nodes removed it also appears oncologically acceptable for early lung cancer. Benefits in terms of postoperative pain, respiratory function, and quality of life still require evaluation. We expect that technologic developments will further simplify the robotic procedure. 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robotic measurement of arm movements after stroke establishes biomarkers of motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Hermano I; Krams, Michael; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K; DiBernardo, Allitia; Chavez, Juan C; Littman, Gary S; Yang, Eric; Byttebier, Geert; Dipietro, Laura; Rykman, Avrielle; McArthur, Kate; Hajjar, Karim; Lees, Kennedy R; Volpe, Bruce T

    2014-01-01

    Because robotic devices record the kinematics and kinetics of human movements with high resolution, we hypothesized that robotic measures collected longitudinally in patients after stroke would bear a significant relationship to standard clinical outcome measures and, therefore, might provide superior biomarkers. In patients with moderate-to-severe acute ischemic stroke, we used clinical scales and robotic devices to measure arm movement 7, 14, 21, 30, and 90 days after the event at 2 clinical sites. The robots are interactive devices that measure speed, position, and force so that calculated kinematic and kinetic parameters could be compared with clinical assessments. Among 208 patients, robotic measures predicted well the clinical measures (cross-validated R(2) of modified Rankin scale=0.60; National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale=0.63; Fugl-Meyer=0.73; Motor Power=0.75). When suitably scaled and combined by an artificial neural network, the robotic measures demonstrated greater sensitivity in measuring the recovery of patients from day 7 to day 90 (increased standardized effect=1.47). These results demonstrate that robotic measures of motor performance will more than adequately capture outcome, and the altered effect size will reduce the required sample size. Reducing sample size will likely improve study efficiency.

  6. Virtual environment for local and remote control of a robot arm for support in engineering teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José T. Buitrago-Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a virtual platform that allows simulation and local and remote command and control of the SCARA robot arm called UV-CERMA, which is installed at the Robotics Laboratory of the Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Valle. The robot has been underutilized for some years due to the obsolete control system. The platform, focused on the engineering education methodology, consists of two applications which simulate the robot and permit its remote and local command and control. One of the applications was implemented on LabVIEW software of National Instruments and the other application was programmed on free software using the open source language Java. Both applications implement forward kinematics and inverse kinematics, have a module for trajectories planning and operation, a module for monitoring the values of the variables and a three dimensional model of the robot. To manipulate the robot, an interface with a joystick was developed, enhancing the versatility of the platform. The applications communicate with the real robot using the National Instruments data acquisition card NI USB-6211, and for the remote connection they have a client-server architecture using TCP/IP sockets.

  7. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system.

  8. Robotic Arm Manipulation Laboratory With a Six Degree of Freedom JACO Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    lift data the following summarizes our conclusions: • Arm interaction with the Virtual Joystick, as opposed to the manual Joystick, is a preferred... Constructor of the window public MainWindow() { //Window xaml component init InitializeComponent

  9. Passive reach and grasp with functional electrical stimulation and robotic arm support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Ard J; Schouten, Alfred C; Veltink, Peter H; van der Kooij, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of arm and hand function is crucial to increase functional independence of stroke subjects. Here, we investigate the technical feasibility of an integrated training system combining robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) to support reach and grasp during functional manipulation of objects. To support grasp and release, FES controlled the thumb and fingers using Model Predictive Control (MPC), while a novel 3D robotic manipulator provided reach support. The system's performance was assessed in both stroke and blindfolded healthy subjects, where the subject's passive arm and hand made functional reach, grasp, move and release movements while manipulating objects. The success rate of complete grasp, move and release tasks with different objects ranged from 33% to 87% in healthy subjects. In severe chronic stroke subjects especially the hand opening had a low success rate (arm and hand for functional pick and place movements. In the current setup, the positioning accuracy of the robot with respect to the object position was critical for the overall performance. The use of a higher virtual stiffness and including feedback of object position in the robot control would likely improve the relative position accuracy. The system has potential for post-stroke rehabilitation, where support could be reduced based on patient performance which is needed to aid motor relearning of reach, grasp and release.

  10. Experiments in cooperative-arm object manipulation with a two-armed free-flying robot. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Ross

    1990-01-01

    Developing computed-torque controllers for complex manipulator systems using current techniques and tools is difficult because they address the issues pertinent to simulation, as opposed to control. A new formulation of computed-torque (CT) control that leads to an automated computer-torque robot controller program is presented. This automated tool is used for simulations and experimental demonstrations of endpoint and object control from a free-flying robot. A new computed-torque formulation states the multibody control problem in an elegant, homogeneous, and practical form. A recursive dynamics algorithm is presented that numerically evaluates kinematics and dynamics terms for multibody systems given a topological description. Manipulators may be free-flying, and may have closed-chain constraints. With the exception of object squeeze-force control, the algorithm does not deal with actuator redundancy. The algorithm is used to implement an automated 2D computed-torque dynamics and control package that allows joint, endpoint, orientation, momentum, and object squeeze-force control. This package obviates the need for hand-derivation of kinematics and dynamics, and is used for both simulation and experimental control. Endpoint control experiments are performed on a laboratory robot that has two arms to manipulate payloads, and uses an air bearing to achieve very-low drag characteristics. Simulations and experimental data for endpoint and object controllers are presented for the experimental robot - a complex dynamic system. There is a certain rather wide set of conditions under which CT endpoint controllers can neglect robot base accelerations (but not motions) and achieve comparable performance including base accelerations in the model. The regime over which this simplification holds is explored by simulation and experiment.

  11. Dynamics Modeling of a Continuum Robotic Arm with a Contact Point in Planar Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grasping objects by continuum arms or fingers is a new field of interest in robotics. Continuum manipulators have the advantages of high adaptation and compatibility with respect to the object shape. However, due to their extremely nonlinear behavior and infinite degrees of freedom, continuum arms cannot be easily modeled. In fact, dynamics modeling of continuum robotic manipulators is state-of-the-art. Using the exact modeling approaches, such as theory of Cosserat rod, the resulting models are either too much time-taking for computation or numerically unstable. Thus, such models are not suitable for applications such as real-time control. However, based on realistic assumptions and using some approximations, these systems can be modeled with reasonable computational efforts. In this paper, a planar continuum robotic arm is modeled, considering its backbone as two circular arcs. In order to simulate finger grasping, the continuum arm experiences a point-force along its body. Finally, the results are validated using obtained experimental data.

  12. Whole-arm tactile sensing for beneficial and acceptable contact during robotic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Phillip M; Killpack, Marc D; Jain, Advait; Vaish, Sarvagya; Hawke, Jeffrey; Kemp, Charles C

    2013-06-01

    Many assistive tasks involve manipulation near the care-receiver's body, including self-care tasks such as dressing, feeding, and personal hygiene. A robot can provide assistance with these tasks by moving its end effector to poses near the care-receiver's body. However, perceiving and maneuvering around the care-receiver's body can be challenging due to a variety of issues, including convoluted geometry, compliant materials, body motion, hidden surfaces, and the object upon which the body is resting (e.g., a wheelchair or bed). Using geometric simulations, we first show that an assistive robot can achieve a much larger percentage of end-effector poses near the care-receiver's body if its arm is allowed to make contact. Second, we present a novel system with a custom controller and whole-arm tactile sensor array that enables a Willow Garage PR2 to regulate contact forces across its entire arm while moving its end effector to a commanded pose. We then describe tests with two people with motor impairments, one of whom used the system to grasp and pull a blanket over himself and to grab a cloth and wipe his face, all while in bed at his home. Finally, we describe a study with eight able-bodied users in which they used the system to place objects near their bodies. On average, users perceived the system to be safe and comfortable, even though substantial contact occurred between the robot's arm and the user's body.

  13. Single-Switch User Interface for Robot Arm to Help Disabled People Using RT-Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Wakita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing a manipulator system in order to support disabled people with less muscle strength such as muscular dystrophy patients. Such a manipulator should have an easy user interface for the users to control it. But the supporting manipulator for disabled people cannot make large industry, so we should offer inexpensive manufacturing way. These type products are called “orphan products.” We report on the construction of the user interface system using RT-Middleware which is an open software platform for robot systems. Therefore other user interface components or robot components which are adapted to other symptoms can be replaced with the user interface without any change of the contents. A single switch and scanning menu panel are introduced as the input device for the manual control of the robot arm. The scanning menu panel is designed to perform various actions of the robot arm with the single switch. A manipulator simulation system was constructed to evaluate the input performance. Two muscular dystrophy patients tried our user interface to control the robot simulator and made comments. According to the comments by them, we made several improvements on the user interface. This improvements examples prepare inexpensive manufacturing way for orphan products.

  14. Control of a Lightweight Flexible Robotic Arm Using Sliding Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibone Lizarraga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust control scheme for flexible link robotic manipulators, which is based on considering the flexible mechanical structure as a system with slow (rigid and fast (flexible modes that can be controlled separately. The rigid dynamics is controlled by means of a robust sliding-mode approach with wellestablished stability properties while an LQR optimal design is adopted for the flexible dynamics. Experimental results show that this composite approach achieves good closed loop tracking properties both for the rigid and the flexible dynamics.

  15. Performance-based robotic assistance during rhythmic arm exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Patricia; Ronsse, Renaud

    2016-09-13

    Rhythmic and discrete upper-limb movements are two fundamental motor primitives controlled by different neural pathways, at least partially. After stroke, both primitives can be impaired. Both conventional and robot-assisted therapies mainly train discrete functional movements like reaching and grasping. However, if the movements form two distinct neural and functional primitives, both should be trained to recover the complete motor repertoire. Recent studies show that rhythmic movements tend to be less impaired than discrete ones, so combining both movement types in therapy could support the execution of movements with a higher degree of impairment by movements that are performed more stably. A new performance-based assistance method was developed to train rhythmic movements with a rehabilitation robot. The algorithm uses the assist-as-needed paradigm by independently assessing and assisting movement features of smoothness, velocity, and amplitude. The method relies on different building blocks: (i) an adaptive oscillator captures the main movement harmonic in state variables, (ii) custom metrics measure the movement performance regarding the three features, and (iii) adaptive forces assist the patient. The patient is encouraged to improve performance regarding these three features with assistance forces computed in parallel to each other. The method was tested with simulated jerky signals and a pilot experiment with two stroke patients, who were instructed to make circular movements with an end-effector robot with assistance during half of the trials. Simulation data reveal sensitivity of the metrics for assessing the features while limiting interference between them. The assistance's effectiveness with stroke patients is established since it (i) adapts to the patient's real-time performance, (ii) improves patient motor performance, and (iii) does not lead the patient to slack. The smoothness assistance was by far the most used by both patients, while it provided

  16. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Leigh R.; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Simeral, John D.; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S.; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI), brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to carry out volitional movements. A neural interface system (NIS)1–5 could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with longstanding tetraplegia can use an NIS to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices6–8. Able-bodied monkeys have used an NIS to control a robotic arm9, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here, we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use NIS-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor five years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. While robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after CNS injury, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals. PMID:22596161

  17. Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Leigh R; Bacher, Daniel; Jarosiewicz, Beata; Masse, Nicolas Y; Simeral, John D; Vogel, Joern; Haddadin, Sami; Liu, Jie; Cash, Sydney S; van der Smagt, Patrick; Donoghue, John P

    2012-05-16

    Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface system to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices. Able-bodied monkeys have used a neural interface system to control a robotic arm, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm and hand over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor 5 years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. Although robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.

  18. A Dual Neural Network as an Identifier for a Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual recurrent neural network is presented and is used to identify the dynamics for a robot arm with three-Degrees of freedom (DoF and trained with a filtered error algorithm. The dual neural network has a structure of two recurrent neural networks working simultaneously, fighting each other to obtain the best identification values, being the criteria for the selection of the vest values: the standard deviation for the identification error. The neural identifier provides important information to a nonlinear block control transformation form acting as a control law to solve the trajectory tracking problem for the robotic plant’s behavior.

  19. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  20. Development control systems takeover: subject robotic arm on the example anthropomorhic robot AR-601

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, R.; Devaev, V.; Zakirzyanova, G.

    2016-06-01

    It is proposed the formation software architecture of complex motion for robotic systems in the form of sets of behavior - patterns - similar to the motor reflexes of living organisms. To form patterns of behavior of the robot teh authors used a methodology of structural analysis of complex systems IDEF0, then developed types of elementary algorithms (patterns) that make up the dynamics of the anthropomorphic robot jump. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University.

  1. Kinematics design and human motion transfer for a humanoid service robot arm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available should have a struc- ture and range of motion similar to that of a human. This paper focuses on the kinematic design of a humanoid robot arm for human environments and the transferring of hu- man motion to the humanoid arm via visual motion capture... frame for the shoulder girdle DOFs a method of extracting ster- num position information from the motion capture data is for- mulated. Finally the formulation is compared against a test data set in order to verify the formulation (Section 6). 2...

  2. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  3. In-Situ Operations and Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm: The First 200 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.; Collins, C.; Leger, P.; Carsten, J.; Tompkins, V.; Hartman, F.; Yen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for more than 200 Martian solar days (or sols) since the Mars Science Laboratory rover touched down in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012. During the first seven months on Mars the robotic arm has performed multiple contact science sols including the positioning of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and/or Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) with respect to rocks or loose regolith targets. The RA has supported sample acquisition using both the scoop and drill, sample processing with CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for In- Situ Martian Rock Analysis), and delivery of sample portions to the observation tray, and the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) and CHEMIN (Chemistry and Mineralogy) science instruments. This paper describes the planning and execution of robotic arm activities during surface operations, and reviews robotic arm performance results from Mars to date.

  4. Space robotics--DLR's telerobotic concepts, lightweight arms and articulated hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzinger, G; Brunner, B; Landzettel, K; Sporer, N; Butterfass, J; Schedl, M

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly outlines DLR's experience with real space robot missions (ROTEX and ETS VII). It then discusses forthcoming projects, e.g., free-flying systems in low or geostationary orbit and robot systems around the space station ISS, where the telerobotic system MARCO might represent a common baseline. Finally it describes our efforts in developing a new generation of "mechatronic" ultra-light weight arms with multifingered hands. The third arm generation is operable now (approaching present-day technical limits). In a similar way DLR's four-fingered hand II was a big step towards higher reliability and yet better performance. Artificial robonauts for space are a central goal now for the Europeans as well as for NASA, and the first verification tests of DLR's joint components are supposed to fly already end of 93 on the space station.

  5. Calibration of High Precision Robot Arm for the Crafting of Magnets for Use in Neutron Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Benjamin; Crawford, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic scalar potential can be used to design precision magnetic fields with surface currents in arbitrary geometry. We are using this technique to design holding field coils for spin transport of neutrons and 3He atoms into the measurement cell of the SNS EDM experiment. We construct holding field coils as three-dimensional printed circuits boards using a Staubli RX130 6-axis industrial robotic arm to etch the circuit. While the arm has a 35-micron repeatability position, the absolute accuracy depends on calibration of transformation matrices between each link, characterized by Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. After factors such as coordinate system degeneracies and free parameters are taken into account, there are 29 parameters that must be calibrated. The robot model, calibration method, and results are presented in this poster.

  6. Compensating the effects of FES-induced muscle fatigue by rehabilitation robotics during arm weight support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rachner Paul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor functions can be hindered in consequence to a stroke or a spinal cord injury. This often results in partial paralyses of the upper limb. The effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy can be improved by the use of rehabilitation robotics and Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. We consider a hybrid arm weight support combining both. In order to compensate the effect of FES-induced muscle fatigue, we introduce a method to substitute the decreasing level of FES support by cable-driven robotics. We evaluated the approach in a trial with one healthy subject performing repetitive arm lifting. The controller automatically adapted the support and thus no increase in user generated volitional effort was observed when FES induced muscle fatigue occured.

  7. Integrating Soft Robotics with the Robot Operating System: A Hybrid Pick and Place Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross M. McKenzie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotic systems present a variety of new opportunities for solving complex problems. The use of soft robotic grippers, for example, can simplify the complexity in tasks such as the grasping of irregular and delicate objects. Adoption of soft robotics by the informatics community and industry, however, has been slow and this is, in-part, due to the amount of hardware and software that must be developed from scratch for each use of soft system components. In this paper, we detail the design, fabrication, and validation of an open-source framework that we designed to lower the barrier to entry for integrating soft robotic subsystems. This framework is built on the robot operating system (ROS, and we use it to demonstrate a modular, soft–hard hybrid system, which is capable of completing pick and place tasks. By lowering this barrier to entry through our open sourced hardware and software, we hope that system designers and Informatics researchers will find it easy to integrate soft components into their existing ROS-enabled robotic systems.

  8. Unmanned Systems: A Lab Based Robotic Arm for Grasping Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Leap Motion Controller RML Robotic Manipulation Laboratory SDK Software Development Kit USB Universal Serial Bus xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...fixed. Only new positions in the vertical direction are sent to the Jaco Arm as shown in Figure 38. The results indicate that there are shifts of 3...MyGetCartesianCommand. The results indicate that there are shifts of 1 cm along the z direction, as shown in Figure 42 and just a few millimeters in the y direction, as

  9. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  10. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  11. Research regarding the influence of driving-wires length change on positioning precision of a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper emphasise positioning precision of an elephant's trunk robotic arm which has joints driven by wires with variable length while operating The considered 5 degrees of freedom robotic arm has a particular structure of joint that makes possible inner actuation with wire-driven mechanism. We analyse solely the length change of wires as a consequence due inner winding and unwinding on joints for certain values of rotational angles. Variations in wires length entail joint angular displacements. We analyse positioning precision by taking into consideration equations from inverse kinematics of the elephant's trunk robotic arm. The angular displacements of joints are considered into computational method after partial derivation of positioning equations. We obtain variations of wires length at about tenths of micrometers. These variations employ angular displacements which are about minutes of sexagesimal degree and, thus, define positioning precision of elephant's trunk robotic arms. The analytical method is used for determining aftermath design structure of an elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires on positioning precision. Thus, designers could take suitable decisions on accuracy specifications limits of the robotic arm.

  12. Adaptive training algorithm for robot-assisted upper-arm rehabilitation, applicable to individualised and therapeutic human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemuturi, Radhika; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2013-09-28

    Rehabilitation robotics is progressing towards developing robots that can be used as advanced tools to augment the role of a therapist. These robots are capable of not only offering more frequent and more accessible therapies but also providing new insights into treatment effectiveness based on their ability to measure interaction parameters. A requirement for having more advanced therapies is to identify how robots can 'adapt' to each individual's needs at different stages of recovery. Hence, our research focused on developing an adaptive interface for the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The interface was based on a lead-lag performance model utilising the interaction between the human and the robot. The goal of the present study was to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system to the performance of the user. Point-to-point movements were executed using the HapticMaster (HM) robotic arm, the main component of the GENTLE/A rehabilitation system. The points were displayed as balls on the screen and some of the points also had a real object, providing a test-bed for the human-robot interaction (HRI) experiment. The HM was operated in various modes to test the adaptability of the GENTLE/A system based on the leading/lagging performance of the user. Thirty-two healthy participants took part in the experiment comprising of a training phase followed by the actual-performance phase. The leading or lagging role of the participant could be used successfully to adjust the duration required by that participant to execute point-to-point movements, in various modes of robot operation and under various conditions. The adaptability of the GENTLE/A system was clearly evident from the durations recorded. The regression results showed that the participants required lower execution times with the help from a real object when compared to just a virtual object. The 'reaching away' movements were longer to execute when compared to the 'returning towards' movements irrespective of the

  13. Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Control Using Sliding Mode Control Based Linear Matrix Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfatman; Marzuki, Mohammad; Alif Mardiyah, Nur

    2017-04-01

    Two-link flexible manipulator is a manipulator robot which at least one of its arms is made of lightweight material and not rigid. Flexible robot manipulator has some advantages over the rigid robot manipulator, such as lighter, requires less power and costs, and to result greater payload. However, suitable control algorithm to maintain the two-link flexible robot manipulator in accurate positioning is very challenging. In this study, sliding mode control (SMC) was employed as robust control algorithm due to its insensitivity on the system parameter variations and the presence of disturbances when the system states are sliding on a sliding surface. SMC algorithm was combined with linear matrix inequality (LMI), which aims to reduce the effects of chattering coming from the oscillation of the state during sliding on the sliding surface. Stability of the control algorithm is guaranteed by Lyapunov function candidate. Based on simulation works, SMC based LMI resulted in better performance improvements despite the disturbances with significant chattering reduction. This was evident from the decline of the sum of squared tracking error (SSTE) and the sum of squared of control input (SSCI) indexes respectively 25.4% and 19.4%.

  14. Crimped braided sleeves for soft, actuating arm in robotic abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yahya; Lekakou, Constantina; Ranzani, Tommaso; Cianchetti, Matteo; Morino, Mario; Arezzo, Alberto; Menciassi, Arianna; Geng, Tao; Saaj, Chakravarthini M

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates different types of crimped, braided sleeve used for a soft arm for robotic abdominal surgery, with the sleeve required to contain balloon expansion in the pneumatically actuating arm while it follows the required bending, elongation and diameter reduction of the arm. Three types of crimped, braided sleeves from PET (BraidPET) or nylon (BraidGreyNylon and BraidNylon, with different monofilament diameters) were fabricated and tested including geometrical and microstructural characterisation of the crimp and braid, mechanical tests and medical scratching tests for organ damage of domestic pigs. BraidPET caused some organ damage, sliding under normal force of 2-5 N; this was attributed to the high roughness of the braid pattern, the higher friction coefficient of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared to nylon, and the high frequency of the crimp peaks for this sleeve. No organ damage was observed for the BraidNylon, attributed to both the lower roughness of the braid pattern and the low friction coefficient of nylon. BraidNylon also required the lowest tensile force during its elongation to similar maximum strain as that of BraidPET, translating to low power requirements. BraidNylon is recommended for the crimped sleeve of the arm designed for robotic abdominal surgery.

  15. The European Robotic Arm: A High-performance Mechanism Finally on Its Way to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruijssen, H. J.; Ellenbroek, M.; Henderson, M.; Petersen, H.; Verzijden, P.; Visser, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and qualification of the European Robotic Arm (ERA), which is planned to be launched by the end of 2015. After years of changes, a shift of launcher and new loads, launch preparation is underway. The European Robotic Arm ERA has been designed and manufactured by Dutch Space and its subcontractors such as Astrium, SABCA and Stork with key roles for the mechanical aspects. The arm was originally designed to be launched by the STS (mounted on a Russian module for the ISS) in 2001. However, due to delays and the STS disaster, a shift was made to the Russian Proton rocket. ERA will be launched on the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM). This module, which is now planned for launch to the ISS in 2015, will carry the ERA. The symmetrical design of the arm with a complete 3 degree-of-freedom wrist and general-purpose end effector on both sides, allows ERA to relocate on the station by grappling a new base point and releasing the old one, and move to different working locations.

  16. CSA's robotic arm, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System, inside the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Workers in the in the Space Station Processing Facility move two segments of the Canadian Space Agency's Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to a workstand. CSA's first contribution to the International Space Station (ISS), the SSRMS is the primary means of transferring payloads between the orbiter payload bay and the ISS for assembly. The 56-foot-long robotic arm includes two 12-foot booms joined by a hinge. Seven joints on the arm allow highly flexible and precise movement.. Latching End Effectors are mounted on each end of the arm for grappling. Video cameras mounted on the booms and end effectors will give astronauts maximum visibility for operations and maintenance tasks on the ISS. The SSRMS is at KSC to begin a campaign of prelaunch processing activities. It is scheduled to be launched aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100, currently planned for July 2000.

  17. Accuracy Analysis and Validation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis L.; Robinson, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity Rover is currently exploring the surface of Mars with a suite of tools and instruments mounted to the end of a five degree-of-freedom robotic arm. To verify and meet a set of end-to-end system level accuracy requirements, a detailed positioning uncertainty model of the arm was developed and exercised over the arm operational workspace. Error sources at each link in the arm kinematic chain were estimated and their effects propagated to the tool frames.A rigorous test and measurement program was developed and implemented to collect data to characterize and calibrate the kinematic and stiffness parameters of the arm. Numerous absolute and relative accuracy and repeatability requirements were validated with a combination of analysis and test data extrapolated to the Mars gravity and thermal environment. Initial results of arm accuracy and repeatability on Mars demonstrate the effectiveness of the modeling and test program as the rover continues to explore the foothills of Mount Sharp.

  18. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  19. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassooij, J.; Tolou, N.; Tortora, G.; Caccavaro, S.; Menciassi, A.; Herder, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of

  20. Arm movement maps evoked by cortical magnetic stimulation in a robotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Lush, L M; Judkins, T N; Wittenberg, G F

    2010-02-03

    Many neurological diseases result in a severe inability to reach for which there is no proven therapy. Promising new interventions to address reaching rehabilitation using robotic training devices are currently under investigation in clinical trials but the neural mechanisms that underlie these interventions are not understood. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be used to probe such mechanisms quickly and non-invasively, by mapping muscle and movement representations in the primary motor cortex (M1). Here we investigate movement maps in healthy young subjects at rest using TMS in the robotic environment, with the goal of determining the range of TMS accessible movements, as a starting point for the study of cortical plasticity in combination with robotic therapy. We systematically stimulated the left motor cortex of 14 normal volunteers while the right hand and forearm rested in the cradle of a two degree-of-freedom planar rehabilitation robot (IMT). Maps were created by applying 10 stimuli at each of nine locations (3x3 cm(2) grid) centered on the M1 movement hotspot for each subject, defined as the stimulation location that elicited robot cradle movements of the greatest distance. TMS-evoked movement kinematics were measured by the robotic encoders and ranged in magnitude from 0 to 3 cm. Movement maps varied by subject and by location within a subject. However, movements were very consistent within a single stimulation location for a given subject. Movement vectors remained relatively constant (limited to arm movements in the robotic reaching trainer, and thus may provide a real-time, non-invasive platform for neurophysiology based evaluation and therapy in motor rehabilitation settings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Design of a Patient Transportation Robot's Lifting Arms Considering Comfort and Safety without the Presence of a Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hoon Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A transportation robot's lifting arms have an effect on the comfort and safety of patients. Improved arms have been designed through dynamic and static analyses to increase safety if a sheet not present on the lifting arms. To design the lifting arms, experimentation is very helpful, however, it is difficult and dangerous to experiment on patients; therefore, a simple human model was made and used for the dynamic analysis. Through the dynamic analysis results, a safe width and comfortable location for the lifting arms were determined. The thickness was then determined by static analysis and optimum design. In addition, tests have been conducted to confirm comfort and safety by deploying the designed lifting arms onto a transportation robot.

  2. Robotically facilitated virtual rehabilitation of arm transport integrated with finger movement in persons with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidow Amy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery of upper extremity function is particularly recalcitrant to successful rehabilitation. Robotic-assisted arm training devices integrated with virtual targets or complex virtual reality gaming simulations are being developed to deal with this problem. Neural control mechanisms indicate that reaching and hand-object manipulation are interdependent, suggesting that training on tasks requiring coordinated effort of both the upper arm and hand may be a more effective method for improving recovery of real world function. However, most robotic therapies have focused on training the proximal, rather than distal effectors of the upper extremity. This paper describes the effects of robotically-assisted, integrated upper extremity training. Methods Twelve subjects post-stroke were trained for eight days on four upper extremity gaming simulations using adaptive robots during 2-3 hour sessions. Results The subjects demonstrated improved proximal stability, smoothness and efficiency of the movement path. This was in concert with improvement in the distal kinematic measures of finger individuation and improved speed. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by a robust 16-second decrease in overall time in the Wolf Motor Function Test and a 24-second decrease in the Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Conclusions Complex gaming simulations interfaced with adaptive robots requiring integrated control of shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and finger movements appear to have a substantial effect on improving hemiparetic hand function. We believe that the magnitude of the changes and the stability of the patient's function prior to training, along with maintenance of several aspects of the gains demonstrated at retention make a compelling argument for this approach to training.

  3. Hybrid Taguchi DNA Swarm Intelligence for Optimal Inverse Kinematics Redundancy Resolution of Six-DOF Humanoid Robot Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Chih Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid Taguchi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA swarm intelligence for solving the inverse kinematics redundancy problem of six degree-of-freedom (DOF humanoid robot arms. The inverse kinematics problem of the multi-DOF humanoid robot arm is redundant and has no general closed-form solutions or analytical solutions. The optimal joint configurations are obtained by minimizing the predefined performance index in DNA algorithm for real-world humanoid robotics application. The Taguchi method is employed to determine the DNA parameters to search for the joint solutions of the six-DOF robot arms more efficiently. This approach circumvents the disadvantage of time-consuming tuning procedure in conventional DNA computing. Simulation results are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness and merit of the proposed methods. This Taguchi-based DNA (TDNA solver outperforms the conventional solvers, such as geometric solver, Jacobian-based solver, genetic algorithm (GA solver and ant, colony optimization (ACO solver.

  4. Embed System for Robotic Arm with 3 Degree of Freedom Controller Using Computational Vision on Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cortinhas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Paper deals with robotic arm embed controller system, with distributed system based on protocol communication between one server supportin g multiple points and mobile applications trough sockets .The proposed system utilizes hand with glove gesture in three-dimensional recognition using fuzzy implementation to set x,y,z coordinates. This approach present all implementation over: two raspberry PI arm based com puter running client program, x64 PC running server program, and one robot arm controlle d by ATmega328p based board.

  5. A statically balanced and bi-stable compliant end effector combined with a laparoscopic 2DoF robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lassooij

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design of a newly developed 2DoF robotic arm with a novel statically balanced and bi-stable compliant grasper as the end effector for laparoscopic surgery application. The arm is based on internal motors actuating 2 rotational DoFs: pitch and roll. The positive stiffness of the monolithic grasper has been compensated using pre-curved straight guided beams that are preloaded collinear with the direction of actuation of the grasper. The result is a fully compliant statically balanced laparoscopic grasper. The grasper has been successfully adapted to a robotic arm. The maximum force and stiffness compensations were measured to be 94% and 97% (i.e. near zero stiffness respectively. Furthermore, the feasibility of adjusting for bi-stable behavior has been shown. This research can be a preliminary step towards the design of a statically balanced fully compliant robotic arm for laparoscopic surgery and similar areas.

  6. Design of a wearable interface for lightweight robotic arm for people with mobility impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Tommaso Lisini; Spagnoletti, Giovanni; Dragusanu, Mihai; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2017-07-01

    Many common activities of daily living like open a door or fill a glass of water, which most of us take for granted, could be an insuperable problem for people who have limited mobility or impairments. For years the unique alternative to overcame this limitation was asking for human help. Nowadays thanks to recent studies and technology developments, having an assistive devices to compensate the loss of mobility is becoming a real opportunity. Off-the-shelf assistive robotic manipulators have the capability to improve the life of people with motor impairments. Robotic lightweight arms represent one of the most spread solution, in particular some of them are designed specifically to be mounted on wheelchairs to assist users in performing manipulation tasks. On the other hand, usually their control interface relies on joystick and buttons, making the use very challenging for people affected by impaired motor abilities. In this paper, we present a novel wearable control interface for users with limb mobility impairments. We make use of muscles residual motion capabilities, captured through a Body-Machine Interface based on a combination of head tilt estimation and electromyography signals. The proposed BMI is completely wearable, wireless and does not require frequently long calibrations. Preliminary experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed system for subjects with motor impairments, allowing them to easily control a robotic arm for activities of daily living.

  7. Robustness and Reliability of Synergy-Based Myocontrol of a Multiple Degree of Freedom Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, Francesca; Casellato, Claudia; d'Avella, Andrea; Sanger, Terence D; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we test the feasibility of the synergy- based approach for application in the realistic and clinically oriented framework of multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic control. We developed and tested online ten able-bodied subjects in a semi-supervised method to achieve simultaneous, continuous control of two DOFs of a robotic arm, using muscle synergies extracted from upper limb muscles while performing flexion-extension movements of the elbow and shoulder joints in the horizontal plane. To validate the efficacy of the synergy-based approach in extracting reliable control signals, compared to the simple muscle-pair method typically used in commercial applications, we evaluated the repeatability of the algorithm over days, the effect of the arm dynamics on the control performance, and the robustness of the control scheme to the presence of co-contraction between pairs of antagonist muscles. Results showed that, without the need for a daily calibration, all subjects were able to intuitively and easily control the synergy-based myoelectric interface in different scenarios, using both dynamic and isometric muscle contractions. The proposed control scheme was shown to be robust to co-contraction between antagonist muscles, providing better performance compared to the traditional muscle-pair approach. The current study is a first step toward user-friendly application of synergy-based myocontrol of assistive robotic devices.

  8. Using Human Gestures and Generic Skills to Instruct a Mobile Robot Arm in a Feeder Filling Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Høilund, Carsten; Krüger, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Mobile robots that have the ability to cooperate with humans are able to provide new possibilities to manufac- turing industries. In this paper, we discuss our mobile robot arm that a) can provide assistance at different locations in a factory and b) that can be programmed using complex human...... actions such as pointing in Take this object. In this paper, we discuss the use of the mobile robot for a feeding scenario where a human operator specifies the parts and the feeders through pointing gestures. The system is partially built using generic robotic skills. Through extensive experiments, we...

  9. Using Human Gestures and Generic Skills to Instruct a Mobile Robot Arm in a Feeder Filling Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Høilund, Carsten; Krüger, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Mobile robots that have the ability to cooperate with humans are able to provide new possibilities to manufac- turing industries. In this paper, we discuss our mobile robot arm that a) can provide assistance at different locations in a factory and b) that can be programmed using complex human...... actions such as pointing in Take this object. In this paper, we discuss the use of the mobile robot for a feeding scenario where a human operator specifies the parts and the feeders through pointing gestures. The system is partially built using generic robotic skills. Through extensive experiments, we...

  10. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Catalan, Jose M; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas

    2015-12-04

    This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM) of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints' estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  11. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bertomeu-Motos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints’ estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  12. Development of a Multi-Arm Mobile Robot for Nuclear Decommissioning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed J. Bakari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the design of a two-arm mobile delivery platform for application within nuclear decommissioning tasks. The adoption of the human arm as a model of manoeuvrability, scale and dexterity is the starting point for operation of two seven-function arms within the context of nuclear decommissioning tasks, the selection of hardware and its integration, and the development of suitable control methods. The forward and inverse kinematics for the manipulators are derived and the proposed software architecture identified to control the movements of the arm joints and the performance of selected decommissioning tasks. We discuss the adoption of a BROKK demolition machine as a mobile platform and the integration with its hydraulic system to operate the two seven-function manipulators separately. The paper examines the modelling and development of a real-time control method using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID and Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP control algorithms in the host computer with National Instruments functions and tools to control the manipulators and obtain feedback through wireless communication. Finally we consider the application of a third party device, such as a personal mobile phone, and its interface with LabVIEW software in order to operate the robot arms remotely.

  13. Development of a Multi-Arm Mobile Robot for Nuclear Decommissioning Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed J. Bakari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the design of a two-arm mobile delivery platform for application within nuclear decommissioning tasks. The adoption of the human arm as a model of manoeuvrability, scale and dexterity is the starting point for operation of two seven-function arms within the context of nuclear decommissioning tasks, the selection of hardware and its integration, and the development of suitable control methods. The forward and inverse kinematics for the manipulators are derived and the proposed software architecture identified to control the movements of the arm joints and the performance of selected decommissioning tasks. We discuss the adoption of a BROKK demolition machine as a mobile platform and the integration with its hydraulic system to operate the two seven-function manipulators separately. The paper examines the modelling and development of a real-time control method using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID and Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP control algorithms in the host computer with National Instruments functions and tools to control the manipulators and obtain feedback through wireless communication. Finally we consider the application of a third party device, such as a personal mobile phone, and its interface with LabVIEW software in order to operate the robot arms remotely.

  14. Grasp planning for a reconfigurable parallel robot with an underactuated arm structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riedel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach of grasp planning is applied to find out the appropriate grasp points for a reconfigurable parallel robot called PARAGRIP (Parallel Gripping. This new handling system is able to manipulate objects in the six-dimensional Cartesian space by several robotic arms using only six actuated joints. After grasping, the contact elements at the end of the underactuated arm mechanisms are connected to the object which forms a closed loop mechanism similar to the architecture of parallel manipulators. As the mounting and grasp points of the arms can easily be changed, the manipulator can be reconfigured to match the user's preferences and needs. This paper raises the question, how and where these grasp points are to be placed on the object to perform well for a certain manipulation task.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  15. Initial development of direct interaction for a transfer robotic Arm system for caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannis, Hervens; Grindle, Garrett G; Kelleher, Annmarie; Wang, Hongwu; Brewer, Bambi; Cooper, Rory

    2013-06-01

    The most common injuries in healthcare are related to transfers. The Strong Arm system assists caregivers in providing fully dependent transfers from an electric power wheelchair to a bed, shower bench, toilet or other surface. However, this system currently controlled by buttons could be more successful with a more intuitive method during use. This paper presents the initial development of direct interaction for a robotic transfer system called Strong Arm. Direct interaction was used to make a transfer system more intuitive to operate using a three-axis load cell. To move Strong Arm, the user must apply intentional force on any of the given axes by surpassing the axis threshold. Unintentional movement could lead to injury. The results indicate that the thresholds for each axis were at least 3.5 N in X, 16.9 N in Y and 5.3N in Z in order to prevent unintentional forces from a human hand that would cause the robot to move.

  16. Trajectory Planning with Pose Feedback for a Dual-Arm Space Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain high precision path tracking for a dual-arm space robot, a trajectory planning method with pose feedback is proposed to be introduced into the design process in this paper. Firstly, pose error kinematic models are derived from the related kinematics and desired pose command for the end-effector and the base, respectively. On this basis, trajectory planning with pose feedback is proposed from a control perspective. Theoretical analyses show that the proposed trajectory planning algorithm can guarantee that pose error converges to zero exponentially for both the end-effector and the base when the robot is out of singular configuration. Compared with the existing algorithms, the proposed algorithm can lead to higher precision path tracking for the end-effector. Furthermore, the algorithm renders the system good anti-interference property for the base. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed trajectory planning algorithm.

  17. Discrete wavelet transform-based fault diagnosis for driving system of pipeline detection robot arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Huiyu; Wang Xinli; Ma Peisun

    2005-01-01

    A real-time wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA)-based fault detection algorithm is proposed. The first stage detailed MRA signals extracted from the original signals were used as the criteria for fault detection. By measuring sharp variations in the detailed MRA signals, faults in the motor driving system of pipeline detection robot arm could be detected. The fault type was then identified by comparison of the three-phase MRA sharp variations. The effects of the faults were examined. The simulation results show that this algorithm is effective and robust, it is promising for fault detection in a robot's joint driving system. The method is simple, rapid and it can operate in real time.

  18. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5-7 years) and acute and late toxicity (cancer-specific mortality) cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm), and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway.

  19. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  20. Attitude control of an object commonly held by multiple robot arms - A Lyapunov approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth; Wen, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple robot arms moving a commonly held object can be viewed as complex actuators whose purpose is to provide net forces and moments to the object. These forces and moments can be used to control the orientation, or attitude, of the object via the Euler equation describing attitude evolution in response to applied moments at the mass center. In contrast to the common approach that feedback-linearizes the attitude dynamics to a double integrator form with respect to some three-parameter local representation of orientation, the authors control the object using a globally nonsingular representation. Using an energy-motivated Liapunov function, globally stable control of attitude is shown.

  1. Development of a Robotic Arm Based Hydrogel Additive Manufacturing System for In-Situ Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Li; Qin Lian; Dichen Li; Hua Xin; Shuhai Jia

    2017-01-01

    In-situ printing is a promising injury repair technique that can be directly applied during surgical operations. This paper features a potential in-situ printing platform based on a small-scale robotic arm with a micro-sized dispenser valve. A double-light-source curing method was applied to print poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) with a 20% (weight/volume) ratio and the entire process was controlled automatically by a computer interface where droplet diameter, curing time, mechanical ...

  2. Attitude control of an object commonly held by multiple robot arms - A Lyapunov approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth; Wen, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple robot arms moving a commonly held object can be viewed as complex actuators whose purpose is to provide net forces and moments to the object. These forces and moments can be used to control the orientation, or attitude, of the object via the Euler equation describing attitude evolution in response to applied moments at the mass center. In contrast to the common approach that feedback-linearizes the attitude dynamics to a double integrator form with respect to some three-parameter local representation of orientation, the authors control the object using a globally nonsingular representation. Using an energy-motivated Liapunov function, globally stable control of attitude is shown.

  3. Canadian robotic arm is moved to the payload canister for STS-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Workers on either side of the payload canister oversee the lowering of the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, and its pallet inside. The arm is 57.7 feet (17.6 meters) long when fully extended and has seven motorized joints. It is capable of handling large payloads and assisting with docking the Space Shuttle. The SSRMS is self-relocatable with a Latching End Effector, so it can be attached to complementary ports spread throughout the Station'''s exterior surfaces. The SSRMS is part of the payload on mission STS-100, scheduled to launch April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A, KSC.

  4. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  5. Beam rider for an Articulated Robot Manipulator (ARM) accurate positioning of long flexible manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Laser beam positioning and beam rider modules were incorporated into the long hollow flexible segment of an articulated robot manipulator (ARM). Using a single laser beam, the system determined the position of the distal ARM endtip, with millimetric precision, in six degrees of freedom, at distances of up to 10 meters. Preliminary designs, using space rated technology for the critical systems, of a two segmented physical ARM, with a single and a dual degree of freedom articulation, were developed, prototyped, and tested. To control the positioning of the physical ARM, an indirect adaptive controller, which used the mismatch between the position of the laser beam under static and dynamic conditions, was devised. To predict the behavior of the system and test the concept, a computer simulation model was constructed. A hierarchical artificially intelligent real time ADA operating system program structure was created. The software was designed for implementation on a dedicated VME bus based Intel 80386 administered parallel processing multi-tasking computer system.

  6. High-precision robotic microcontact printing (R-μCP) utilizing a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Jason D; Klann, Tyler; Sha, Jin; Salick, Max; Knight, Gavin T; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Ashton, Randolph S

    2014-06-01

    Increased realization of the spatial heterogeneity found within in vivo tissue microenvironments has prompted the desire to engineer similar complexities into in vitro culture substrates. Microcontact printing (μCP) is a versatile technique for engineering such complexities onto cell culture substrates because it permits microscale control of the relative positioning of molecules and cells over large surface areas. However, challenges associated with precisely aligning and superimposing multiple μCP steps severely limits the extent of substrate modification that can be achieved using this method. Thus, we investigated the feasibility of using a vision guided selectively compliant articulated robotic arm (SCARA) for μCP applications. SCARAs are routinely used to perform high precision, repetitive tasks in manufacturing, and even low-end models are capable of achieving microscale precision. Here, we present customization of a SCARA to execute robotic-μCP (R-μCP) onto gold-coated microscope coverslips. The system not only possesses the ability to align multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps but also has the capability to do so even after the substrates have been removed, reacted to graft polymer brushes, and replaced back into the system. Plus, non-biased computerized analysis shows that the system performs such sequential patterning with <10 μm precision and accuracy, which is equivalent to the repeatability specifications of the employed SCARA model. R-μCP should facilitate the engineering of complex in vivo-like complexities onto culture substrates and their integration with microfluidic devices.

  7. Brain-machine interface via real-time fMRI: preliminary study on thought-controlled robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ryu, Jeongwon; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Cho, Zang-Hee; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2009-01-23

    Real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI) has been used as a basis for brain-computer interface (BCI) due to its ability to characterize region-specific brain activity in real-time. As an extension of BCI, we present an rtfMRI-based brain-machine interface (BMI) whereby 2-dimensional movement of a robotic arm was controlled by the regulation (and concurrent detection) of regional cortical activations in the primary motor areas. To do so, the subjects were engaged in the right- and/or left-hand motor imagery tasks. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal originating from the corresponding hand motor areas was then translated into horizontal or vertical robotic arm movement. The movement was broadcasted visually back to the subject as a feedback. We demonstrated that real-time control of the robotic arm only through the subjects' thought processes was possible using the rtfMRI-based BMI trials.

  8. Human-Like Behavior Generation Based on Head-Arms Model for Robot Tracking External Targets and Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Beck, Aryel; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Facing and pointing toward moving targets is a usual and natural behavior in daily life. Social robots should be able to display such coordinated behaviors in order to interact naturally with people. For instance, a robot should be able to point and look at specific objects. This is why, a scheme to generate coordinated head-arm motion for a humanoid robot with two degrees-of-freedom for the head and seven for each arm is proposed in this paper. Specifically, a virtual plane approach is employed to generate the analytical solution of the head motion. A quadratic program (QP)-based method is exploited to formulate the coordinated dual-arm motion. To obtain the optimal solution, a simplified recurrent neural network is used to solve the QP problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated using both computer simulation and physical experiments.

  9. A passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots with application to a simplified shuttle RMS arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The main goal is to develop a general theory for the control of flexible robots, including flexible joint robots, flexible link robots, rigid bodies with flexible appendages, etc. As part of the validation, the theory is applied to the control law development for a test example which consists of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS). The performance of the closed loop control system is then compared with the performance of the existing RMS controller to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The theoretical foundation of this new approach to the control of flexible robots is presented and its efficacy is demonstrated through simulation results on the three-link test arm.

  10. Cortical activation during robotic therapy for a severely affected arm in a chronic stroke patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Satoru; Matsushima, Yasuyuki; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The use of robotic-aided therapy in a patient with residual damage from a previous stroke was an attempt to improve function in a moderate to severe hemiparetic arm. Cortical activities associated with motor recovery are not well documented and require investigation. A chronic stroke patient with a severely affected arm underwent a robotic-training program for 12 weeks. The robotic-aided therapy improved motor control and spasticity in the proximal upper-limb. An increased oxygenated hemoglobin level was observed at the motor-related area in the affected hemisphere. A 12-week robotic-aided training program used in a chronic stroke patient demonstrated elements of motor recovery, and was also associated with direct activation of the affected hemisphere.

  11. Upper quadrant port placement for robot-assisted renal surgery: implementation of the Floating Arm and the XL Protype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Samer; Elgin, Robert; Monahan, Michael; Johnston, William K

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: Placement of the fourth arm (4th arm) in the lower quadrant (LQ) is commonly described for robot-assisted renal surgical procedures but has anatomic restrictions and limited ergonomics. An alternative, upper quadrant (UQ) location is desirable, but patient habitus and spacing may restrict robotic attachment. We investigate current trends in 4th arm port placement and propose an alternative method at attaching the robot-the "Floating Arm" (FLA). Robotic surgeons from the Endourological Society were surveyed. A 20-cm extra-long (XL Protype) da Vinci instrument was developed for the FLA technique. A dry lab allowed quantitative comparison of spacing and ranges of motion for standard da Vinci ports (dVP), bariatric dVP, telescoping dVP, and FLA. There were 108 respondents who participated. Half of the respondents avoid using the 4th arm (30% lack of need and 20% because of interference). The majority (90%) typically positions the 4th arm in the LQ, but many reported limitations in this location. Few (5%) place 4th arm in the UQ, while most (73%) have never heard of UQ placement. Existing techniques may increase shoulder height clearance but inversely shorten the working length of the instrument intracorporeally. Alternatively, the XL Protype significantly increased the shoulder length and maintained available working distances intracorporeally. Adjacent arm interference angle was essentially identical (27 degrees) for all ports except a greater range of movement for the XL Protype (35 degrees). Few surgeons are using an UQ positioning or use techniques to improve attachment of the 4th arm. The greatest freedom may be obtained by implementing the FLA, but this necessitates production of a longer instrument.

  12. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  13. Development of a Robotic Arm Based Hydrogel Additive Manufacturing System for In-Situ Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ printing is a promising injury repair technique that can be directly applied during surgical operations. This paper features a potential in-situ printing platform based on a small-scale robotic arm with a micro-sized dispenser valve. A double-light-source curing method was applied to print poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA with a 20% (weight/volume ratio and the entire process was controlled automatically by a computer interface where droplet diameter, curing time, mechanical properties were measured and essential printing parameters (e.g., nozzle velocity, nozzle frequency were determined. Three different two-dimensional (2D plane models (namely, square, circular, and heart-shaped were printed during initial printing trials. The feasibility study of in-situ printing on curved surfaces was tested using a three-dimensional (3D printed defect model. The defect was successfully filled using both parallel and ring printing paths. In conclusion, the robotic arm printing platform and its forming method can achieve a rapid curing of PEGDA hydrogel on a curved surface and has the potential to be applied to in-situ printing.

  14. EVALUATING CONTINUOUS-TIME SLAM USING A PREDEFINED TRAJECTORY PROVIDED BY A ROBOTIC ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Koch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently published approaches to SLAM algorithms process laser sensor measurements and output a map as a point cloud of the environment. Often the actual precision of the map remains unclear, since SLAMalgorithms apply local improvements to the resulting map. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to compare the performance of SLAMalgorithms objectively, especially without an accurate ground truth. This paper presents a novel benchmarking technique that allows to compare a precise map generated with an accurate ground truth trajectory to a map with a manipulated trajectory which was distorted by different forms of noise. The accurate ground truth is acquired by mounting a laser scanner on an industrial robotic arm. The robotic arm is moved on a predefined path while the position and orientation of the end-effector tool are monitored. During this process the 2D profile measurements of the laser scanner are recorded in six degrees of freedom and afterwards used to generate a precise point cloud of the test environment. For benchmarking, an offline continuous-time SLAM algorithm is subsequently applied to remove the inserted distortions. Finally, it is shown that the manipulated point cloud is reversible to its previous state and is slightly improved compared to the original version, since small errors that came into account by imprecise assumptions, sensor noise and calibration errors are removed as well.

  15. Evaluating Continuous-Time Slam Using a Predefined Trajectory Provided by a Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B.; Leblebici, R.; Martell, A.; Jörissen, S.; Schilling, K.; Nüchter, A.

    2017-09-01

    Recently published approaches to SLAM algorithms process laser sensor measurements and output a map as a point cloud of the environment. Often the actual precision of the map remains unclear, since SLAMalgorithms apply local improvements to the resulting map. Unfortunately, it is not trivial to compare the performance of SLAMalgorithms objectively, especially without an accurate ground truth. This paper presents a novel benchmarking technique that allows to compare a precise map generated with an accurate ground truth trajectory to a map with a manipulated trajectory which was distorted by different forms of noise. The accurate ground truth is acquired by mounting a laser scanner on an industrial robotic arm. The robotic arm is moved on a predefined path while the position and orientation of the end-effector tool are monitored. During this process the 2D profile measurements of the laser scanner are recorded in six degrees of freedom and afterwards used to generate a precise point cloud of the test environment. For benchmarking, an offline continuous-time SLAM algorithm is subsequently applied to remove the inserted distortions. Finally, it is shown that the manipulated point cloud is reversible to its previous state and is slightly improved compared to the original version, since small errors that came into account by imprecise assumptions, sensor noise and calibration errors are removed as well.

  16. On nonlinear dynamics and control of a robotic arm with chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix J. L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a robotic arm is modelled by a double pendulum excited in its base by a DC motor of limited power via crank mechanism and elastic connector. In the mathematical model, a chaotic motion was identified, for a wide range of parameters. Controlling of the chaotic behaviour of the system, were implemented using, two control techniques, the nonlinear saturation control (NSC and the optimal linear feedback control (OLFC. The actuator and sensor of the device are allowed in the pivot and joints of the double pendulum. The nonlinear saturation control (NSC is based in the order second differential equations and its action in the pivot/joint of the robotic arm is through of quadratic nonlinearities feedback signals. The optimal linear feedback control (OLFC involves the application of two control signals, a nonlinear feedforward control to maintain the controlled system to a desired periodic orbit, and control a feedback control to bring the trajectory of the system to the desired orbit. Simulation results, including of uncertainties show the feasibility of the both methods, for chaos control of the considered system.

  17. A study on a robot arm driven by three-dimensional trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Park, Sung Woo; Yeom, Hong Gi; Bang, Moon Suk; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-08-20

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) should be able to help people with disabilities by replacing their lost motor functions. To replace lost functions, robot arms have been developed that are controlled by invasive neural signals. Although invasive neural signals have a high spatial resolution, non-invasive neural signals are valuable because they provide an interface without surgery. Thus, various researchers have developed robot arms driven by non-invasive neural signals. However, robot arm control based on the imagined trajectory of a human hand can be more intuitive for patients. In this study, therefore, an integrated robot arm-gripper system (IRAGS) that is driven by three-dimensional (3D) hand trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals was developed and verified. The IRAGS was developed by integrating a six-degree of freedom robot arm and adaptive robot gripper. The system was used to perform reaching and grasping motions for verification. The non-invasive neural signals, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), were obtained to control the system. The 3D trajectories were predicted by multiple linear regressions. A target sphere was placed at the terminal point of the real trajectories, and the system was commanded to grasp the target at the terminal point of the predicted trajectories. The average correlation coefficient between the predicted and real trajectories in the MEG case was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). In the EEG case, it was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The success rates in grasping the target plastic sphere were 18.75 and 7.50 % with MEG and EEG, respectively. The success rates of touching the target were 52.50 and 58.75 % respectively. A robot arm driven by 3D trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals was implemented, and reaching and grasping motions were performed. In most cases, the robot closely approached the target, but the success rate was not very high because

  18. Motor imagery, P300 and error-related EEG-based robot arm movement control for rehabilitation purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saugat; Konar, Amit; Tibarewala, D N

    2014-12-01

    The paper proposes a novel approach toward EEG-driven position control of a robot arm by utilizing motor imagery, P300 and error-related potentials (ErRP) to align the robot arm with desired target position. In the proposed scheme, the users generate motor imagery signals to control the motion of the robot arm. The P300 waveforms are detected when the user intends to stop the motion of the robot on reaching the goal position. The error potentials are employed as feedback response by the user. On detection of error the control system performs the necessary corrections on the robot arm. Here, an AdaBoost-Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used to decode the 4-class motor imagery and an SVM is used to decode the presence of P300 and ErRP waveforms. The average steady-state error, peak overshoot and settling time obtained for our proposed approach is 0.045, 2.8% and 44 s, respectively, and the average rate of reaching the target is 95%. The results obtained for the proposed control scheme make it suitable for designs of prosthetics in rehabilitative applications.

  19. Parametric motion control of robotic arms: A biologically based approach using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; D'Eleuterio, G. M. T.; Lipitkas, J.; Grodski, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A neural network based system is presented which is able to generate point-to-point movements of robotic manipulators. The foundation of this approach is the use of prototypical control torque signals which are defined by a set of parameters. The parameter set is used for scaling and shaping of these prototypical torque signals to effect a desired outcome of the system. This approach is based on neurophysiological findings that the central nervous system stores generalized cognitive representations of movements called synergies, schemas, or motor programs. It has been proposed that these motor programs may be stored as torque-time functions in central pattern generators which can be scaled with appropriate time and magnitude parameters. The central pattern generators use these parameters to generate stereotypical torque-time profiles, which are then sent to the joint actuators. Hence, only a small number of parameters need to be determined for each point-to-point movement instead of the entire torque-time trajectory. This same principle is implemented for controlling the joint torques of robotic manipulators where a neural network is used to identify the relationship between the task requirements and the torque parameters. Movements are specified by the initial robot position in joint coordinates and the desired final end-effector position in Cartesian coordinates. This information is provided to the neural network which calculates six torque parameters for a two-link system. The prototypical torque profiles (one per joint) are then scaled by those parameters. After appropriate training of the network, our parametric control design allowed the reproduction of a trained set of movements with relatively high accuracy, and the production of previously untrained movements with comparable accuracy. We conclude that our approach was successful in discriminating between trained movements and in generalizing to untrained movements.

  20. Non-contact versus contact-based sensing methodologies for in-home upper arm robotic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna; Brooks, Douglas; Brown, Edward; Gebregiorgis, Adey; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, robot-assisted rehabilitation has gained momentum as a viable means for improving outcomes for therapeutic interventions. Such therapy experiences allow controlled and repeatable trials and quantitative evaluation of mobility metrics. Typically though these robotic devices have been focused on rehabilitation within a clinical setting. In these traditional robot-assisted rehabilitation studies, participants are required to perform goal-directed movements with the robot during a therapy session. This requires physical contact between the participant and the robot to enable precise control of the task, as well as a means to collect relevant performance data. On the other hand, non-contact means of robot interaction can provide a safe methodology for extracting the control data needed for in-home rehabilitation. As such, in this paper we discuss a contact and non-contact based method for upper-arm rehabilitation exercises that enables quantification of upper-arm movements. We evaluate our methodology on upper-arm abduction/adduction movements and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as applied to an in-home rehabilitation scenario.

  1. ANSO study: evaluation in an indoor environment of a mobile assistance robotic grasping arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coignard, P; Departe, J P; Remy Neris, O; Baillet, A; Bar, A; Drean, D; Verier, A; Leroux, C; Belletante, P; Le Guiet, J L

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the reliability and functional acceptability of the ‘‘Synthetic Autonomous Majordomo’’ (SAM) robotic aid system (a mobile Neobotix base equipped with a semi-automatic vision interface and a Manus robotic arm). An open, multicentre, controlled study. We included 29 tetraplegic patients (23 patients with spinal cord injuries, 3 with locked-in syndrome and 4 with other disorders; mean SD age: 37.83 13.3) and 34 control participants (mean SD age: 32.44 11.2). The reliability of the user interface was evaluated in three multi-step scenarios: selection of the room in which the object to be retrieved was located (in the presence or absence of visual control by the user), selection of the object to be retrieved, the grasping of the object itself and the robot’s return to the user with the object. A questionnaire was used to assess the robot’s user acceptability. The SAM system was stable and reliable: both patients and control participants experienced few failures when completing the various stages of the scenarios. The graphic interface was effective for selecting and grasping the object – even in the absence of visual control. Users and carers were generally satisfied with SAM, although only a quarter of patients said that they would consider using the robot in their activities of daily living. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade.

  3. Computer vision system R&D for EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Linglong, E-mail: linglonglin@ipp.ac.cn; Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn; Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangy@ipp.ac.cn; Feng, Hansheng, E-mail: hsfeng@ipp.ac.cn; Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn; Pan, Hongtao, E-mail: panht@ipp.ac.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We discussed the image preprocessing, object detection and pose estimation algorithms under poor light condition of inner vessel of EAST tokamak. • The main pipeline, including contours detection, contours filter, MER extracted, object location and pose estimation, was carried out in detail. • The technical issues encountered during the research were discussed. - Abstract: Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first full superconducting tokamak device which was constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm (EAMA) robot provides the means of the in-vessel maintenance such as inspection and picking up the fragments of first wall. This paper presents a method to identify and locate the fragments semi-automatically by using the computer vision. The use of computer vision in identification and location faces some difficult challenges such as shadows, poor contrast, low illumination level, less texture and so on. The method developed in this paper enables credible identification of objects with shadows through invariant image and edge detection. The proposed algorithms are validated through our ASIPP robotics and computer vision platform (ARVP). The results show that the method can provide a 3D pose with reference to robot base so that objects with different shapes and size can be picked up successfully.

  4. A robotic test of proprioception within the hemiparetic arm post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Lucia; Botzer, Lior; Ghez, Claude; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-04-30

    Proprioception plays important roles in planning and control of limb posture and movement. The impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function post-stroke has been difficult to elucidate due to limitations in current tests of arm proprioception. Common clinical tests only provide ordinal assessment of proprioceptive integrity (eg. intact, impaired or absent). We introduce a standardized, quantitative method for evaluating proprioception within the arm on a continuous, ratio scale. We demonstrate the approach, which is based on signal detection theory of sensory psychophysics, in two tasks used to characterize motor function after stroke. Hemiparetic stroke survivors and neurologically intact participants attempted to detect displacement- or force-perturbations robotically applied to their arm in a two-interval, two-alternative forced-choice test. A logistic psychometric function parameterized detection of limb perturbations. The shape of this function is determined by two parameters: one corresponds to a signal detection threshold and the other to variability of responses about that threshold. These two parameters define a space in which proprioceptive sensation post-stroke can be compared to that of neurologically-intact people. We used an auditory tone discrimination task to control for potential comprehension, attention and memory deficits. All but one stroke survivor demonstrated competence in performing two-alternative discrimination in the auditory training test. For the remaining stroke survivors, those with clinically identified proprioceptive deficits in the hemiparetic arm or hand had higher detection thresholds and exhibited greater response variability than individuals without proprioceptive deficits. We then identified a normative parameter space determined by the threshold and response variability data collected from neurologically intact participants. By plotting displacement detection performance within this normative space, stroke survivors

  5. Towards Brain-Computer Interface Control of a 6-Degree-of-Freedom Robotic Arm Using Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Astaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of a robotic arm that can be operated using an exoskeletal position sensing harness as well as a dry electrode brain-computer interface headset. Design priorities comprise an intuitive and immersive user interface, fast and smooth movement, portability, and cost minimization. Materials and Methods. A robotic arm prototype capable of moving along 6 degrees of freedom has been developed, along with an exoskeletal position sensing harness which was used to control it. Commercially available dry electrode BCI headsets were evaluated. A particular headset model has been selected and is currently being integrated into the hybrid system. Results and Discussion. The combined arm-harness system has been successfully tested and met its design targets for speed, smooth movement, and immersive control. Initial tests verify that an operator using the system can perform pick and place tasks following a rather short learning curve. Further evaluation experiments are planned for the integrated BCI-harness hybrid setup. Conclusions. It is possible to design a portable robotic arm interface comparable in size, dexterity, speed, and fluidity to the human arm at relatively low cost. The combined system achieved its design goals for intuitive and immersive robotic control and is currently being further developed into a hybrid BCI system for comparative experiments.

  6. Performing Complex Tasks by Users With Upper-Extremity Disabilities Using a 6-DOF Robotic Arm: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halimi, Reem K; Moussa, Medhat

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study that was conducted to examine how users suffering from severe upper-extremity disabilities can control a 6 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) robotics arm to complete complex activities of daily living. The focus of the study is not on assessing the robot arm but on examining the human-robot interaction patterns. Three participants were recruited. Each participant was asked to perform three tasks: eating three pieces of pre-cut bread from a plate, drinking three sips of soup from a bowl, and opening a right-handed door with lever handle. Each of these tasks was repeated three times. The arm was mounted on the participant's wheelchair, and the participants were free to move the arm as they wish to complete these tasks. Each task consisted of a sequence of modes where a mode is defined as arm movement in one DOF. Results show that participants used a total of 938 mode movements with an average of 75.5 (std 10.2) modes for the eating task, 70 (std 8.8) modes for the soup task, and 18.7 (std 4.5) modes for the door opening task. Tasks were then segmented into smaller subtasks. It was found that there are patterns of usage per participant and per subtask. These patterns can potentially allow a robot to learn from user's demonstration what is the task being executed and by whom and respond accordingly to reduce user effort.

  7. Incorporating robotic-assisted telerehabilitation in a home program to improve arm function following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Susan M; Reiss, Aimee; Buchanan, Sharon; Sahu, Komal; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Clark, Cindy; Wolf, Steven L; Alberts, Jay L

    2013-09-01

    After stroke, many individuals lack resources to receive the intensive rehabilitation that is thought to improve upper extremity motor function. This case study describes the application of a telerehabilitation intervention using a portable robotic device combined with a home exercise program (HEP) designed to improve upper extremity function. The participant was a 54-year-old man, 22 weeks following right medullary pyramidal ischemic infarct. At baseline, he exhibited residual paresis of the left upper extremity, resulting in impaired motor control consistent with a flexion synergistic pattern, scoring 22 of 66 on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. The participant completed 85 total hours of training (38 hours of robotic device and 47 hours of HEP) over the 8-week intervention period. The participant demonstrated an improvement of 26 points on the Action Research Arm Test, 5 points on the Functional Ability Scale portion of the Wolf Motor Function Test, and 20 points on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, all of which surpassed the minimal clinically important difference. Of the 17 tasks of the Wolf Motor Function Test, he demonstrated improvement on 11 of the 15 time-based tasks and both strength measures. The participant reported an overall improvement in his recovery from stroke on the Stroke Impact Scale quality-of-life questionnaire from 40 of 100 to 65 of 100. His score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale improved by 19 points. This case demonstrates that robotic-assisted therapy paired with an HEP can be successfully delivered within a home environment to a person with stroke. Robotic-assisted therapy may be a feasible and efficacious adjunct to an HEP program to elicit substantial improvements in upper extremity motor function, especially in those persons with stroke who lack access to stroke rehabilitation centers.

  8. Design and implementation of a training strategy in chronic stroke with an arm robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Antonio; Sotgiu, Edoardo; Procopio, Caterina; Bergamasco, Massimo; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    The distinguishing features of active exoskeletons are the capability of guiding arm movement at the level of the full kinematic chain of the human arm, and training full 3D spatial movements. We have specifically developed a PD sliding mode control for upper limb rehabilitation with gain scheduling for providing "assistance as needed", according to the force capability of the patient, and an automatic measurement of the impaired arm joint torques, to evaluate the hypertonia associated to the movement during the execution of the training exercise. Two different training tasks in Virtual Reality were devised, that make use of the above control, and allow to make a performance based evaluation of patient's motor status. The PERCRO L-Exos (Light-Exoskeleton) was used to evaluate the proposed algorithms and training exercises in two clinical case studies of patients with chronic stroke, that performed 6 weeks of robotic assisted training. Clinical evaluation (Fugl-Meyer Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale, Bimanual Activity Test) was conducted before and after treatment and compared to the scores and the quantitative indices, such as task time, position/joint error and resistance torques, associated to the training exercises. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  10. Chaotic Motion Of A Two-Link Planar Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatoly; Zak, Michail A.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses global instability in orbital motion of two-link planar mechanism. Principal objective, contributes to understanding of chaotic motions in robot manipulators and other deterministic mechanical systems. Discussion begins with brief review of previous studies of chaotic motion and introduces notion of orbital instability in nonlinear systems. Introduces geometric approach useful in representation of orbital instability.

  11. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avkshtol V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Avkshtol, Yanqun Dong, Shelly B Hayes, Mark A Hallman, Robert A Price, Mark L Sobczak, Eric M Horwitz,* Nicholas G Zaorsky* Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6–15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5–7 years and acute and late toxicity (<6% grade 3–4 late toxicities. Other outcomes (eg, overall and cancer-specific mortality cannot be compared, given the indolent course of low-risk prostate cancer. At this time, neither SBRT device is recommended over the other for all patients; however, gantry-based SBRT machines have the abilities of treating larger volumes with conventional fractionation, shorter treatment time per fraction (~15 minutes for gantry vs ~45 minutes for robotic arm, and the ability to achieve better plans among obese patients (since they are able to use energies >6 MV. Finally

  12. Effects of intensive arm training with the rehabilitation robot ARMin II in chronic stroke patients: four single-cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nef Tobias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-assisted therapy offers a promising approach to neurorehabilitation, particularly for severely to moderately impaired stroke patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intensive arm training on motor performance in four chronic stroke patients using the robot ARMin II. Methods ARMin II is an exoskeleton robot with six degrees of freedom (DOF moving shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Four volunteers with chronic (≥ 12 months post-stroke left side hemi-paresis and different levels of motor severity were enrolled in the study. They received robot-assisted therapy over a period of eight weeks, three to four therapy sessions per week, each session of one hour. Patients 1 and 4 had four one-hour training sessions per week and patients 2 and 3 had three one-hour training sessions per week. Primary outcome variable was the Fugl-Meyer Score of the upper extremity Assessment (FMA, secondary outcomes were the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT, the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS, the Maximal Voluntary Torques (MVTs and a questionnaire about ADL-tasks, progress, changes, motivation etc. Results Three out of four patients showed significant improvements (p Conclusion Data clearly indicate that intensive arm therapy with the robot ARMin II can significantly improve motor function of the paretic arm in some stroke patients, even those in a chronic state. The findings of the study provide a basis for a subsequent controlled randomized clinical trial.

  13. Development of a stereo vision measurement system for a 3D three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting; Hou, Chien-Lun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  14. Research on the man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lifeng; Peng, Jinbao

    2017-03-01

    The Man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control research complex real-world environment, which requires the operator to continuously control and adjust the remote manipulator, as the background, completes the specific mission human in the loop entire system as the research object. This paper puts forward a kind of robot arm control system of Man in the loop based on gesture control, by robot arm control system based on gesture control and Virtual reality scene feedback to enhance immersion and integration of operator, to make operator really become a part of the whole control loop. This paper expounds how to construct a man in the loop control system of the robot arm based on gesture control. The system is a complex system of human computer cooperative control, but also people in the loop control problem areas. The new system solves the problems that the traditional method has no immersion feeling and the operation lever is unnatural, the adjustment time is long, and the data glove mode wears uncomfortable and the price is expensive.

  15. A soft body as a reservoir: case studies in a dynamic model of octopus-inspired soft robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kohei; Hauser, Helmut; Kang, Rongjie; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G.; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The behaviors of the animals or embodied agents are characterized by the dynamic coupling between the brain, the body, and the environment. This implies that control, which is conventionally thought to be handled by the brain or a controller, can partially be outsourced to the physical body and the interaction with the environment. This idea has been demonstrated in a number of recently constructed robots, in particular from the field of “soft robotics”. Soft robots are made of a soft material introducing high-dimensionality, non-linearity, and elasticity, which often makes the robots difficult to control. Biological systems such as the octopus are mastering their complex bodies in highly sophisticated manners by capitalizing on their body dynamics. We will demonstrate that the structure of the octopus arm cannot only be exploited for generating behavior but also, in a sense, as a computational resource. By using a soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus we show in a number of experiments how control is partially incorporated into the physical arm's dynamics and how the arm's dynamics can be exploited to approximate non-linear dynamical systems and embed non-linear limit cycles. Future application scenarios as well as the implications of the results for the octopus biology are also discussed. PMID:23847526

  16. A control system of mobile navigation robot for precise spraying based ultrasonic detecting and ARM embedded technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Yue, Xinpeng; Peng, Yankun

    2011-06-01

    This paper described a control system of mobile navigation robot for precision spraying in greenhouse environment, which were composed of main control module, motor driving module, ultrasonic detecting module and wirless remote control module. The hard circuits of control system were built. The main control module used ARM7TDMI-S-based LPC2210 micro-processing controller. The motor driving module consisted of voltage amplifier circuit based SN74LS245N and DM74LS244N chips, RC filter circuit, and HM-YZ-30 DC brush motor driver. The ultrasonic detecting module consisted of four standard ultrasonic ranging modules which were arranged on the four sides around the mobile navigation robot, and used GM8125 chip to expand serial communication interfaces. An obstacle-avoiding strategy and its algorithm were proposed and the control programs of mobile navigation robot were programmed. The mobile navigation robot for spraying can realize the actions such as starting and stopping, forward and backward moving, accelerate and decelerate motion, and right and left turn. Finally, the functional experiments of the mobile navigation robot were conducted in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the ultrasonic detecting distance of the robot was 50.5mm-1832.0mm and detecting blind zone was less than 50mm, the ultrasonic detecting angle of individual ultrasonic detecting module of robot was similar to U-shaped and its vaule was about 45.66°, and the moving path of navigation robot was approximately linear.

  17. Hand-Eye Calibration and Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm using Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Tizzano, Walter; Andersen, Thomas Timm

    2013-01-01

    tasks. This paper describes the theory and implementation of neural networks for hand-eye calibration and inverse kinematics of a six degrees of freedom robot arm equipped with a stereo vision system. The feedforward neural network and the network training with error propagation algorithm are applied......Traditional technologies for solving hand-eye calibration and inverse kinematics are cumbersome and time consuming due to the high nonlinearity in the models. An alternative to the traditional approaches is the articial neural network inspired by the remarkable abilities of the animals in dierent....... The proposed approaches are validated in experiments. The results indicate that the hand-eye calibration with simple neural network outperforms the conventional method. Meanwhile, the neural network exhibits a promising performance in solving inverse kinematics....

  18. Silhouette-based approach of 3D image reconstruction for automated image acquisition using robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, N.; Saad, W. H. M.; Manap, N. A.; Saad, N. M.; Syafeeza, A. R.

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the approach of 3D image reconstruction using an autonomous robotic arm for the image acquisition process. A low cost of the automated imaging platform is created using a pair of G15 servo motor connected in series to an Arduino UNO as a main microcontroller. Two sets of sequential images were obtained using different projection angle of the camera. The silhouette-based approach is used in this study for 3D reconstruction from the sequential images captured from several different angles of the object. Other than that, an analysis based on the effect of different number of sequential images on the accuracy of 3D model reconstruction was also carried out with a fixed projection angle of the camera. The effecting elements in the 3D reconstruction are discussed and the overall result of the analysis is concluded according to the prototype of imaging platform.

  19. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  20. Lower Robotic Arm Assembly Having a Plurality of Tendon Driven Digits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lower robotic arm includes a base structure, a plurality of digits, and a plurality of tendons. The digits each include first, second, third, and fourth phalanges. Each digit is operatively attached to the base structure at the respective first phalange. A first joint operatively connects the first and second phalange to define a first axis, a second operatively connects the second and third phalange to define a second axis, and a third joint operatively connects the third and fourth phalange to define a third axis, such that the phalanges are selectively rotatable relative to the adjacent phalange, about the respective axis. The tendons are operatively connected to a respective one of the fourth phalanges. Each tendon selectively applies a first torque to the respective fourth phalange to urge the respective phalanges to rotate in a first direction about the respective axes.

  1. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  2. A flexible 3D laser scanning system using a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Zixuan; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Guanliang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible 3D scanning system based on a MEMS scanner mounted on an industrial arm with a turntable. This system has 7-degrees of freedom and is able to conduct a full field scan from any angle, suitable for scanning object with the complex shape. The existing non-contact 3D scanning system usually uses laser scanner that projects fixed stripe mounted on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or industrial robot. These existing systems can't perform path planning without CAD models. The 3D scanning system presented in this paper can scan the object without CAD models, and we introduced this path planning method in the paper. We also propose a practical approach to calibrating the hand-in-eye system based on binocular stereo vision and analyzes the errors of the hand-eye calibration.

  3. Lyapunov function-based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness, and adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of joint level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to a recently proposed energy-like Liapunov function approach, except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. This approach gives way to a much simpler analysis and leads to a new class of control designs which guarantee both global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and parameter uncertainty are present as model perturbations, a sliding mode-like modification of the control law results in a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is formulated within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by simply replacing unknown model parameters by their estimates (i.e., certainty equivalence adaptation).

  4. Integrated vision-based robotic arm interface for operators with upper limb mobility impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An integrated, computer vision-based system was developed to operate a commercial wheelchair-mounted robotic manipulator (WMRM). In this paper, a gesture recognition interface system developed specifically for individuals with upper-level spinal cord injuries (SCIs) was combined with object tracking and face recognition systems to be an efficient, hands-free WMRM controller. In this test system, two Kinect cameras were used synergistically to perform a variety of simple object retrieval tasks. One camera was used to interpret the hand gestures to send as commands to control the WMRM and locate the operator's face for object positioning. The other sensor was used to automatically recognize different daily living objects for test subjects to select. The gesture recognition interface incorporated hand detection, tracking and recognition algorithms to obtain a high recognition accuracy of 97.5% for an eight-gesture lexicon. An object recognition module employing Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm was performed and recognition results were sent as a command for "coarse positioning" of the robotic arm near the selected daily living object. Automatic face detection was also provided as a shortcut for the subjects to position the objects to the face by using a WMRM. Completion time tasks were conducted to compare manual (gestures only) and semi-manual (gestures, automatic face detection and object recognition) WMRM control modes. The use of automatic face and object detection significantly increased the completion times for retrieving a variety of daily living objects.

  5. Dual Arm Work Platform teleoperated robotics system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP) demonstration focused on the use of the DAWP to segment and dismantle the CP-5 reactor tank and surrounding bio-shield components (including the graphite block reflector, lead and boral sheeting) and performing some minor tasks best suited for the use of teleoperated robotics that were not evaluated in this demonstration. The DAWP system is not a commercially available product at this time. The CP-5 implementation was its first D and D application. The demonstration of the DAWP was to determine the areas on which improvements must be made to make this technology commercially viable. The results of the demonstration are included in this greenbook. It is the intention of the developers to incorporate lessons learned at this demonstration and current technological advancements in robotics into the next generation of the DAWP.

  6. Optimizing the Performance Evaluation of Robotic Arms with the Aid of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shivaprakash Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this modern world, robotic evaluation plays a most important role. In secure distance, this leads the humans to execute insecure task. To acquire an effective result, the system which makes the human task easier should be taken care of and the holdup behind the system should be eradicated. Only static parameters are considered and such parameters are not enough to obtain optimized value in existing work. For consecutively attaining optimized value in our previous work, we focused on both static and dynamic parameters in the robotic arm gearbox model. Now, a genetic algorithm is utilized and the result obtained is greater than the existing work. On the other hand, to attain an effective result the genetic algorithm itself is not enough since it takes massive time for computation process and the result obtained in this computation is not as much closer to the true value. By eliminating all those aforementioned issues, a proper algorithm needs to be utilized in order to achieve an efficient result than the existing and our previous works. In this paper, we anticipated to suggest a Particle Swarm Optimization technique that reduce the computation time as well as make the output result as much closer to the true value (i.e., experimentally obtained value

  7. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF, both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB® environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP. The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Results Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. Conclusion The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  8. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Natalia M; di Sciascio, Fernando; Soria, Carlos M; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2009-02-25

    Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Tested in five volunteers, a redundant arrangement was obtained with two pairs of electrodes for each recording channel. The myoelectric signals were electronically amplified, filtered and digitalized, while the processing, fusion algorithms and control were implemented in a personal computer under MATLAB environment and in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The experiments used an industrial robotic manipulator BOSCH SR-800, type SCARA, with four degrees of freedom; however, only the first joint was used to move the end effector to a desired position, the latter obtained as proportional to the EMG amplitude. Several trials, including disconnecting and reconnecting one electrode and disturbing the signal with synthetic noise, were performed to test the fusion techniques. The results given by VWA and DKF were transformed into joint coordinates and used as command signals to the robotic arm. Even though the resultant signal was not exact, the failure was ignored and the joint reference signal never exceeded the workspace limits. The fault robustness and safety characteristics of a myoelectric controlled manipulator system were substantially improved. The proposed scheme prevents potential risks for the operator, the equipment and the environment. Both algorithms showed efficient behavior. This outline could be applied to myoelectric control of prosthesis, or assistive manipulators to better assure the system functionality when electrode faults or noisy environment are present.

  9. The HAAPI (Home Arm Assistance Progression Initiative) Trial: - A Novel Robotics Delivery Approach in Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven L.; Sahu, Komal; Bay, R. Curtis; Buchanan, Sharon; Reiss, Aimee; Linder, Susan; Rosenfeldt, Anson; Alberts, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Background Geographical location, socioeconomic status and logistics surrounding transportation impede access of post-stroke individuals to comprehensive rehabilitative services. Robotic therapy may enhance telerehabilitation by delivering consistent and state-of-the art therapy while allowing for the remote monitoring and adjusting therapy for underserved populations. The Hand Mentor Pro (HMP), was incorporated within a home exercise program (HEP) to improve upper extremity functional capabilities post-stroke. Objective To determine the efficacy of a home-based telemonitored robotic-assisted therapy as part of a HEP compared with a dose-matched HEP-only intervention among individuals less than 6 months post-stroke and characterized as underserved. Methods In this prospective, single-blinded, multisite, randomized controlled trial, 99 hemiparetic participants with limited access to upper extremity rehabilitation were randomized to the: 1) experimental group which received combined HEP and HMP for 3 hrs/day x 5 days x 8 weeks; or 2) control group which received HEP only at an identical dosage. Weekly communication between the supervising therapist and participant promoted compliance and progression of the HEP and HMP prescription. The Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test along with the Fugl Meyer Assessment (upper extremity) were primary and secondary outcome measures respectively, undertaken before and after the interventions. Results Both groups demonstrated improvement across all upper extremity outcomes. Conclusions Robotic+HEP and HEP only were both effectively delivered remotely. There was no difference between groups in change in motor function over time, additional research is necessary to determine appropriate dosage of HMP and HEP. PMID:25782693

  10. The HAAPI (Home Arm Assistance Progression Initiative) Trial: A Novel Robotics Delivery Approach in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Steven L; Sahu, Komal; Bay, R Curtis; Buchanan, Sharon; Reiss, Aimee; Linder, Susan; Rosenfeldt, Anson; Alberts, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Geographical location, socioeconomic status, and logistics surrounding transportation impede access of poststroke individuals to comprehensive rehabilitative services. Robotic therapy may enhance telerehabilitation by delivering consistent and state-of-the art therapy while allowing remote monitoring and adjusting therapy for underserved populations. The Hand Mentor Pro (HMP) was incorporated within a home exercise program (HEP) to improve upper-extremity (UE) functional capabilities poststroke. To determine the efficacy of a home-based telemonitored robotic-assisted therapy as part of a HEP compared with a dose-matched HEP-only intervention among individuals less than 6 months poststroke and characterized as underserved. In this prospective, single-blinded, multisite, randomized controlled trial, 99 hemiparetic participants with limited access to UE rehabilitation were randomized to either (1) the experimental group, which received combined HEP and HMP for 3 h/d ×5 days ×8 weeks, or (2) the control group, which received HEP only at an identical dosage. Weekly communication between the supervising therapist and participant promoted compliance and progression of the HEP and HMP prescription. The Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test along with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UE) were primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively, undertaken before and after the interventions. Both groups demonstrated improvement across all UE outcomes. Robotic + HEP and HEP only were both effectively delivered remotely. There was no difference between groups in change in motor function over time. Additional research is necessary to determine the appropriate dosage of HMP and HEP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Three-dimensional, task-specific robot therapy of the arm after stroke: a multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Blanco, Javier; Campen, Katrin; Curt, Armin; Dietz, Volker; Ettlin, Thierry; Felder, Morena; Fellinghauer, Bernd; Guidali, Marco; Kollmar, Anja; Luft, Andreas; Nef, Tobias; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Stahel, Werner; Riener, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Arm hemiparesis secondary to stroke is common and disabling. We aimed to assess whether robotic training of an affected arm with ARMin--an exoskeleton robot that allows task-specific training in three dimensions-reduces motor impairment more effectively than does conventional therapy. In a prospective, multicentre, parallel-group randomised trial, we enrolled patients who had had motor impairment for more than 6 months and moderate-to-severe arm paresis after a cerebrovascular accident who met our eligibility criteria from four centres in Switzerland. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive robotic or conventional therapy using a centre-stratified randomisation procedure. For both groups, therapy was given for at least 45 min three times a week for 8 weeks (total 24 sessions). The primary outcome was change in score on the arm (upper extremity) section of the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA-UE). Assessors tested patients immediately before therapy, after 4 weeks of therapy, at the end of therapy, and 16 weeks and 34 weeks after start of therapy. Assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but patients, therapists, and data analysts were unmasked. Analyses were by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00719433. Between May 4, 2009, and Sept 3, 2012, 143 individuals were tested for eligibility, of whom 77 were eligible and agreed to participate. 38 patients assigned to robotic therapy and 35 assigned to conventional therapy were included in analyses. Patients assigned to robotic therapy had significantly greater improvements in motor function in the affected arm over the course of the study as measured by FMA-UE than did those assigned to conventional therapy (F=4.1, p=0.041; mean difference in score 0.78 points, 95% CI 0.03-1.53). No serious adverse events related to the study occurred. Neurorehabilitation therapy including task-oriented training with an exoskeleton robot can enhance improvement of

  12. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.

    2016-06-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  13. Feasibility of prostate robotic radiation therapy on conventional C-arm linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Nguyen, Dan; Ruan, Dan; King, Christopher; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Significant dosimetric improvement for radiation therapy using optimized noncoplanar fields has been previously demonstrated. The purpose here is to study the feasibility of optimized robotic noncoplanar radiation therapy, termed 4π therapy, for prostate cancer treatments on a conventional C-arm linac. Twelve low-risk prostate cancer patients previously treated by 2-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were selected. Forty gray in 5 fractions were prescribed to cover 95% of the prostate planning target volume (PTV). To replan by 4π therapy, a column generation method was used to optimize beam orientations and fluence. A total of 30 beams were selected for each patient. Both planning methods provided adequate PTV coverage. Compared against VMAT plans, the 4π plan reduced the rectum V50%, V80%, V90%, D1cc, and the penile bulb maximum doses by 50%, 28%, 19% 11%, and 9% (P arm linac platform. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain-state dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBrauchle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While robot-assisted arm and hand training after stroke allows for intensive task-oriented practice, it has provided only limited additional benefit over dose-matched physiotherapy up to now. These rehabilitation devices are possibly too supportive during the exercises. Neurophysiological signals might be one way of avoiding slacking and providing robotic support only when the brain is particularly responsive to peripheral input.We tested the feasibility of three-dimensional robotic assistance for reach-to-grasp movements with a multi-joint exoskeleton during motor imagery-related desynchronization of sensorimotor oscillations in the β-band only. We also registered task-related network changes of cortical functional connectivity by electroencephalography via the imaginary part of the coherence function.Healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed similar patterns – but different aptitudes – of controlling the robotic movement. All participants in this pilot study with nine healthy subjects and two stroke patients achieved their maximum performance during the early stages of the task. Robotic control was significantly higher and less variable when proprioceptive feedback was provided in addition to visual feedback, i.e. when the orthosis was actually attached to the subject’s arm during the task. A distributed cortical network of task-related coherent activity in the θ-band showed significant differences between healthy subjects and stroke patients as well as between early and late periods of the task.Brain-robot interfaces may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants’ efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration.

  15. Brain state-dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchle, Daniel; Vukelić, Mathias; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    While robot-assisted arm and hand training after stroke allows for intensive task-oriented practice, it has provided only limited additional benefit over dose-matched physiotherapy up to now. These rehabilitation devices are possibly too supportive during the exercises. Neurophysiological signals might be one way of avoiding slacking and providing robotic support only when the brain is particularly responsive to peripheral input. We tested the feasibility of three-dimensional robotic assistance for reaching movements with a multi-joint exoskeleton during motor imagery (MI)-related desynchronization of sensorimotor oscillations in the β-band. We also registered task-related network changes of cortical functional connectivity by electroencephalography via the imaginary part of the coherence function. Healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed similar patterns-but different aptitudes-of controlling the robotic movement. All participants in this pilot study with nine healthy subjects and two stroke patients achieved their maximum performance during the early stages of the task. Robotic control was significantly higher and less variable when proprioceptive feedback was provided in addition to visual feedback, i.e., when the orthosis was actually attached to the subject's arm during the task. A distributed cortical network of task-related coherent activity in the θ-band showed significant differences between healthy subjects and stroke patients as well as between early and late periods of the task. Brain-robot interfaces (BRIs) may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants' efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration, a proposal that warrants

  16. Multi-arm multilateral haptics-based immersive tele-robotic system (HITS) for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Lai, Gilbert; Haddadi, Amir

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the latest advancements of the Haptics-based Immersive Tele-robotic System (HITS) project, a next generation Improvised Explosive Device (IED) disposal (IEDD) robotic interface containing an immersive telepresence environment for a remotely-controlled three-articulated-robotic-arm system. While the haptic feedback enhances the operator's perception of the remote environment, a third teleoperated dexterous arm, equipped with multiple vision sensors and cameras, provides stereo vision with proper visual cues, and a 3D photo-realistic model of the potential IED. This decentralized system combines various capabilities including stable and scaled motion, singularity avoidance, cross-coupled hybrid control, active collision detection and avoidance, compliance control and constrained motion to provide a safe and intuitive control environment for the operators. Experimental results and validation of the current system are presented through various essential IEDD tasks. This project demonstrates that a two-armed anthropomorphic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot interface can achieve complex neutralization techniques against realistic IEDs without the operator approaching at any time.

  17. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymer W Zev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Providing active assistance to complete desired arm movements is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Such active assistance may improve recovery by affecting somatosensory input, motor planning, spasticity or soft tissue properties, but it is labor intensive and has not been validated in controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of robotically administered active-assistive exercise and compare those with free reaching voluntary exercise in improving arm movement ability after chronic stroke. Methods Nineteen individuals at least one year post-stroke were randomized into one of two groups. One group performed 24 sessions of active-assistive reaching exercise with a simple robotic device, while a second group performed a task-matched amount of unassisted reaching. The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of unsupported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. Results and discussion There were significant improvements with training for range of motion and velocity of supported reaching, straightness of unsupported reaching, and functional movement ability. These improvements were not significantly different between the two training groups. The group that performed unassisted reaching exercise improved the smoothness of their reaching movements more than the robot-assisted group. Conclusion Improvements with both forms of exercise confirmed that repeated, task-related voluntary activation of the damaged motor system is a key stimulus to motor recovery following chronic stroke. Robotically assisting in reaching successfully improved arm movement ability, although it did not provide any detectable, additional value beyond the movement practice that occurred concurrently with it. The inability to detect any additional value of robot-assisted reaching

  18. Optomechanical design of a high-precision detector robot arm system for x-ray nano-diffraction with x-ray nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, D.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Kearney, S.; Anton, J.; Chu, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory has created a design for the high-precision detector robot arm system that will be used in the x-ray nano-diffraction experimental station at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) beamline for the NSLS-II project. The robot arm system is designed for positioning and manipulating an x-ray detector in three-dimensional space for nano-diffraction data acquisition with the HXN x-ray microscope. It consists of the following major component groups: a granite base with air-bearing support, a 2-D horizontal base stage, a vertical axis goniometer, a 2-D vertical plane robot arm, a 3-D fast scanning stages group, and a 2-D x-ray pixel detector. The design specifications and unique optomechanical structure of this novel high-precision detector robot arm system will be presented in this paper.

  19. “I Want That”: Human-in-the-Loop Control of a Wheelchair-Mounted Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Tsui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelchair-mounted robotic arms have been commercially available for a decade. In order to operate these robotic arms, a user must have a high level of cognitive function. Our research focuses on replacing a manufacturer-provided, menu-based interface with a vision-based system while adding autonomy to reduce the cognitive load. Instead of manual task decomposition and execution, the user explicitly designates the end goal, and the system autonomously retrieves the object. In this paper, we present the complete system which can autonomously retrieve a desired object from a shelf. We also present the results of a 15-week study in which 12 participants from our target population used our system, totaling 198 trials.

  20. Development of the SAIT single-port surgical access robot--slave arm based on RCM mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Se-gon; Lee, Younbaek; Lee, Jongwon; Ha, Taesin; Sang, Taejun; Moon, Kyung-Won; Lee, Minhyong; Choi, Jung-yun

    2015-01-01

    An innovative single-port surgical robot has recently been developed by the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT). The robot can reach various surgical sites inside the abdominal cavity from a single incision on the body. It has two 7-DOF surgical tools, a 3-DOF endoscope, a flexible hyper-redundant 6-DOF guide tube, and a 6-DOF manipulator. This paper primarily focuses on the manipulator, called a slave arm, which is capable of setting the location of a Remote Center Motion (RCM) point. Because the surgical tools can explore the abdominal area through a small incision point when the RCM point is aligned with the incision area, the RCM mechanism is an integral part of the manipulator for single-port surgery. The mechanical feature, operational principle, control method, and the system architecture of the slave arm are introduced in this paper. In addition, manipulation experiments conducted validate its efficacy.

  1. A FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERFORA TWO-LINK FUNCTIONAL MANIPULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Kamel Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for designing a Fuzzy Logic Controller "FLC"for a dynamically multivariable nonlinear coupling system. The conventional controller with constant gains for different operating points may not be sufficient to guarantee satisfactory performance for Robot manipulator. The Fuzzy Logic Controller utilizes the error and the change of error as fuzzy linguistic inputs to regulate the system performance. The proposed controller have been developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of A Two-Link Functional Manipulator. The new controller uses only the available information of the inputoutput for controlling the position and velocity of the robot axes of the motion of the end effectors

  2. Closed-Loop Behavior of an Autonomous Helicopter Equipped with a Robotic Arm for Aerial Manipulation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kondak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the control of aerial robots interacting physically with objects in the environment and with other aerial robots. The paper presents a controller for the particular case of a small-scaled autonomous helicopter equipped with a robotic arm for aerial manipulation. Two types of influences are imposed on the helicopter from a manipulator: coherent and non-coherent influence. In the former case, the forces and torques imposed on the helicopter by the manipulator change with frequencies close to those of the helicopter movement. The paper shows that even small interaction forces imposed on the fuselage periodically in proper phase could yield to low frequency instabilities and oscillations, so-called phase circles.

  3. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small.

  4. 基于MATLAB的移栽机械臂运动学分析与仿真%Kinematics Analysis and Simulation of Transplanting Robot Arm Based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡飞; 尹文庆; 陈彩蓉

    2012-01-01

    为了实现对四自由度移栽机械臂的精确控制,采用D-H法建立机械臂的连杆坐标系和运动学方程,实现了机械臂运动学正解.根据移栽机械臂的特点及参数,用解析法求得移栽机械臂的运动学逆解.运用MATLAB中的Robotics Toolbox工具箱对移栽机械臂进行运动学仿真,验证了所求得的正解和逆解.%In order to control the four - dimension transplanting robot arm accurately, the kinematics equation and the joint coordinate system of robot arm were established by using Denavit - Hartenberg method, and the forward solution of the kinematic equation was solved. According to the characteristics and parameters of transplanting robot arm, the inverse solution of the kinematics equation was solved by using the analytic method. The forward and inverse kinematics solutions of transplanting robot arm were proved by the kinematics simulation with Robotics Toolbox of MATLAB, which provided a theoretical foundation for trajectory planning and precise controlling of transplanting robot arm.

  5. A proposal for automatic fruit harvesting by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-06-30

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions.

  6. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  7. A Proposal for Automatic Fruit Harvesting by Combining a Low Cost Stereovision Camera and a Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions.

  8. A Proposal for Automatic Fruit Harvesting by Combining a Low Cost Stereovision Camera and a Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Runcan, David; Moreno, Javier; Martínez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an automatic fruit harvesting system by combining a low cost stereovision camera and a robotic arm placed in the gripper tool. The stereovision camera is used to estimate the size, distance and position of the fruits whereas the robotic arm is used to mechanically pickup the fruits. The low cost stereovision system has been tested in laboratory conditions with a reference small object, an apple and a pear at 10 different intermediate distances from the camera. The average distance error was from 4% to 5%, and the average diameter error was up to 30% in the case of a small object and in a range from 2% to 6% in the case of a pear and an apple. The stereovision system has been attached to the gripper tool in order to obtain relative distance, orientation and size of the fruit. The harvesting stage requires the initial fruit location, the computation of the inverse kinematics of the robotic arm in order to place the gripper tool in front of the fruit, and a final pickup approach by iteratively adjusting the vertical and horizontal position of the gripper tool in a closed visual loop. The complete system has been tested in controlled laboratory conditions with uniform illumination applied to the fruits. As a future work, this system will be tested and improved in conventional outdoor farming conditions. PMID:24984059

  9. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  10. Service Arms with Unconventional Robotic Parameters for Intricate Workstations: Optimal Number and Dimensional Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A task-oriented design strategy is presented in this paper for service manipulators. The tasks are normally defined in the form of working locations where the end-effector can work while avoiding the obstacles. To acquire feasible solutions in cluttered environments, the robotic parameters (D-H parameters are allowed to take unconventional values. This enhances the solution space and it is observed that, by inducing this flexibility, the required number of degrees of freedom for fulfilling a given task can be reduced. A bilevel optimization problem is formulated with the outer layer utilizing the binary search method for minimizing the number of degrees of freedom. To enlarge the applicability domain of the proposed strategy, the upper limit of the number of joints is kept more than six. These allowable redundant joints would help in providing solution for intricate workcells. For each iteration of the upper level, a constrained nonlinear problem is solved for dimensional synthesis of the manipulator. The methodology is demonstrated through a case study of a realistic environment of a cluttered server room. A 7-link service arm, synthesized using the proposed method, is able to fulfill two different tasks effectively.

  11. ArmAssist Robotic System versus Matched Conventional Therapy for Poststroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana J. Dimkić Tomić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n=13 each. Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS and Barthel index (BI. The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p=0.002 and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p=0.025 after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p=0.292. There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649.

  12. Neural-Dynamic-Method-Based Dual-Arm CMG Scheme With Time-Varying Constraints Applied to Humanoid Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Zhijun; Zhang, Yunong; Luo, Yamei; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-12-01

    We propose a dual-arm cyclic-motion-generation (DACMG) scheme by a neural-dynamic method, which can remedy the joint-angle-drift phenomenon of a humanoid robot. In particular, according to a neural-dynamic design method, first, a cyclic-motion performance index is exploited and applied. This cyclic-motion performance index is then integrated into a quadratic programming (QP)-type scheme with time-varying constraints, called the time-varying-constrained DACMG (TVC-DACMG) scheme. The scheme includes the kinematic motion equations of two arms and the time-varying joint limits. The scheme can not only generate the cyclic motion of two arms for a humanoid robot but also control the arms to move to the desired position. In addition, the scheme considers the physical limit avoidance. To solve the QP problem, a recurrent neural network is presented and used to obtain the optimal solutions. Computer simulations and physical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and the accuracy of such a TVC-DACMG scheme and the neural network solver.

  13. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and robot-assisted arm training in subacute stroke patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Werner, C; Schonhardt, E M; Bardeleben, A; Jenrich, W; Kirker, S G B

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary reports suggest that central stimulation may enhance the effect of conventional physical therapies after stroke. This pilot study examines the safety and methodology of using transcranial direct stimulation (tDCS) with robot-assisted arm training (AT), to inform planning a larger randomised controlled trial. Ten patients, after an ischaemic stroke 4-8 weeks before study onset, no history of epilepsy, participated. Eight had a cortical lesion and 2 had subcortical lesions: all had severe arm paresis and, co-incidentally, 5 had severe aphasia. Over six weeks, they received thirty 20 min-sessions of AT. During the first 7 minutes, 1.5mA of tDCS was applied, with the anode over the lesioned hemisphere and the cathode above the contralateral orbit. Arm and language impairment were assessed with the Fugl-Meyer motor score (FM, full range 0-66) and the Aachener Aphasie Test. No major side effects occurred. Arm function of three patients (two with a subcortical lesion) improved significantly, with FM scores increasing from 6 to 28, 10 to 49 and 11 to 48. In the remaining seven patients, all with cortical lesions, arm function changed little, FM scores did not increase more than 5 points. Unexpectedly, aphasia improved in 4 patients. These procedures are safe, and easy to use in a clinical setting. In future studies, patients should be stratified by degree of arm weakness and lesion site, also the unexpected aphasia improvement warrants following-up.

  14. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Palafox, Lorena; Hernandez, Jorge; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-04-18

    Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user's arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0.009). Subjects did not report

  15. Early Stroke Rehabilitation of the Upper Limb Assisted with an Electromyography-Driven Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation-Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qiuyang; Hu, Xiaoling; Lai, Qian; Ng, Stephanie C; Zheng, Yongping; Poon, Waisang

    2017-01-01

    Effective poststroke motor rehabilitation depends on repeated limb practice with voluntary efforts. An electromyography (EMG)-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-robot arm was designed for the multi-joint physical training on the elbow, the wrist, and the fingers. To investigate the training effects of the device-assisted approach on subacute stroke patients and to compare the effects with those achieved by the traditional physical treatments. This study was a pilot randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up. Subacute stroke participants were randomly assigned into two groups, and then received 20-session upper limb training with the EMG-driven NMES-robotic arm (NMES-robot group, n = 14) or the time-matched traditional therapy (the control, n = 10). For the evaluation of the training effects, clinical assessments including Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Modified Ashworth Score (MAS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and Function Independence Measurement (FIM) were conducted before, after the rehabilitation training, and 3 months later. Session-by-session EMG parameters in the NMES-robot group, including normalized co-contraction Indexes (CI) and EMG activation level of target muscles, were used to monitor the progress in muscular coordination patterns. Significant improvements were obtained in FMA (full score and shoulder/elbow), ARAT, and FIM [P  0.279] for both groups. Significant improvement in FMA wrist/hand was only observed in the NMES-robot group (P  0.24), and remained at an elevated level when assessed 3 months later. The EMG parameters indicated a release of muscle co-contraction in the muscle pairs of biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis and biceps brachii and triceps brachii, as well as a reduction of muscle activation level in the wrist flexor in the NMES-robot group. The NMES-robot-assisted training was effective for early stroke upper limb rehabilitation and promoted independence in the daily living

  16. Value of C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Fusion in Maximizing the Versatility of Endovascular Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Ponraj; Duran, Cassidy; Al-Jabbari, Odeaa; Abu Saleh, Walid K; Lumsden, Alan; Bismuth, Jean

    2016-01-01

    To report our initial experience and highlight the value of using intraoperative C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CT; DynaCT(®)) image fusion guidance along with steerable robotic endovascular catheter navigation to optimize vessel cannulation. Between May 2013 and January 2015, all patients who underwent endovascular procedures using DynaCT image fusion technique along with Hansen Magellan vascular robotic catheter were included in this study. As a part of preoperative planning, relevant vessel landmarks were electronically marked in contrast-enhanced multi-slice computed tomography images and stored. At the beginning of procedure, an intraoperative noncontrast C-arm cone beam CT (syngo DynaCT(®), Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc.) was acquired in the hybrid suite. Preoperative images were then coregistered to intraoperative DynaCT images using aortic wall calcifications and bone landmarks. Stored landmarks were then overlaid on 2-dimensional (2D) live fluoroscopic images as virtual markers that are updated in real-time with C-arm, table movements and image zoom. Vascular access and robotic catheter (Magellan(®), Hansen Medical) was setup per standard. Vessel cannulation was performed based on electronic virtual markers on live fluoroscopy using robotic catheter. The impact of 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion guidance on robotic vessel cannulation was evaluated retrospectively, by assessing quantitative parameters like number of angiograms acquired before vessel cannulation and qualitative parameters like accuracy of vessel ostium and centerline markers. All 17 vessels were cannulated successfully in 14 patients' attempted using robotic catheter and image fusion guidance. Median vessel diameter at origin was 5.4 mm (range, 2.3-13 mm), whereas 12 of 17 (70.6%) vessels had either calcified and/or stenosed origin from parent vessel. Nine of 17 vessels (52.9 %) were cannulated without any contrast injection. Median number of angiograms required before

  17. The Effect of the Elastic Compliance of Actuator Components on the Dynamics of a Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Valerii Ivanovich; Zavrazhina, Tat'yana Viktorovna

    2003-02-01

    Kinematic and dynamic control problems for a pedestal-mounted robot with a multilink arm are formulated. The robot is considered a system of perfectly rigid bodies controlled by a combined actuating system. The mathematical model of robot dynamics accounts for the elastic properties of actuator components based on the formalism of Lagrange equations of the second kind. The effect of the elastic compliance of the actuator components on the dynamics of manipulator links and actuator motors is discussed. A robot with a two-link arm is considered as an example

  18. Robotic Arm-Assisted Sonography: Review of Technical Developments and Potential Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Daniel R; Cleary, Kevin; Wilson, Emmanuel; Azizi-Koutenaei, Bamshad; Monfaredi, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging requires trained personnel. Advances in robotics and data transmission create the possibility of telesonography. This review introduces clinicians to current technical work in and potential applications of this developing capability. Telesonography offers advantages in hazardous or remote environments. Robotically assisted ultrasound can reduce stress injuries in sonographers and has potential utility during robotic surgery and interventional procedures.

  19. A cost-effective intelligent robotic system with dual-arm dexterous coordination and real-time vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Chen, Alexander Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    articulated arms, one movable robot head, and two charged coupled device (CCD) cameras for producing the stereoscopic views, and articulated cylindrical-type lower body, and an optional mobile base. A functional prototype is demonstrated.

  20. Curiosity’s robotic arm-mounted Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Characterization and calibration status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ravine, Michael A.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; McNair, Sean; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Duston, Brian M.; Wilson, Reg G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Kennedy, Megan R.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Supulver, Kimberley D.; Lipkaman, Leslie J.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Jones, Tessa L.; Nixon, Brian E.; Van Beek, Jason K.; Krysak, Daniel J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2015-01-01

    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel, Bayer pattern color CCD camera with a macro lens mounted on a rotatable turret at the end of the 2-meters-long robotic arm aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. The camera includes white and longwave ultraviolet LEDs to illuminate targets at night. Onboard data processing services include focus stack merging and data compression. Here we report on the results and status of MAHLI characterization and calibration, covering the pre-launch period from August 2008 through the early months of the extended surface mission through February 2015. Since landing in Gale crater in August 2012, MAHLI has been used for a wide range of science and engineering applications, including distinction among a variety of mafic, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; investigation of grain-scale rock, regolith, and eolian sediment textures and structures; imaging of the landscape; inspection and monitoring of rover and science instrument hardware concerns; and supporting geologic sample selection, extraction, analysis, delivery, and documentation. The camera has a dust cover and focus mechanism actuated by a single stepper motor. The transparent cover was coated with a thin film of dust during landing, thus MAHLI is usually operated with the cover open. The camera focuses over a range from a working distance of 2.04 cm to infinity; the highest resolution images are at 13.9 µm per pixel; images acquired from 6.9 cm show features at the same scale as the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers at 31 µm/pixel; and 100 µm/pixel is achieved at a working distance of ~26.5 cm. The very highest resolution images returned from Mars permit distinction of high contrast silt grains in the 30–40 µm size range. MAHLI has performed well; the images need no calibration in order to achieve most of the investigation’s science and engineering goals. The positioning and repeatability of robotic arm placement of the MAHLI camera head have

  1. Modelling and Calibration Technique of Laser Triangulation Sensors for Integration in Robot Arms and Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Juan J.; Albajez, José A.; Carlos Cajal; David Guillomía; Jorge Santolaria

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic―laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry―and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been develope...

  2. Robot-Assisted Training of Arm and Hand Movement Shows Functional Improvements for Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Gerard E; Yozbatiran, Nuray; Berliner, Jeffrey; OʼMalley, Marcia K; Pehlivan, Ali Utku; Kadivar, Zahra; Fitle, Kyle; Boake, Corwin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility, tolerability, and effectiveness of robotic-assisted arm training in incomplete chronic tetraplegia. Pretest/posttest/follow-up was conducted. Ten individuals with chronic cervical spinal cord injury were enrolled. Participants performed single degree-of-freedom exercise of upper limbs at an intensity of 3-hr per session for 3 times a week for 4 wks with MAHI Exo-II. Arm and hand function tests (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, Action Research Arm Test), strength of upper limb (upper limb motor score, grip, and pinch strength), and independence in daily living activities (Spinal Cord Independence Measure II) were performed at baseline, end of training, and 6 mos later. After 12 sessions of training, improvements in arm and hand functions were observed. Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (0.14[0.04]-0.21[0.07] items/sec, P = 0.04), Action Research Arm Test (30.7[3.8]-34.3[4], P = 0.02), American Spinal Injury Association upper limb motor score (31.5[2.3]-34[2.3], P = 0.04) grip (9.7[3.8]-12[4.3] lb, P = 0.02), and pinch strength (4.5[1.1]-5.7[1.2] lb, P = 0.01) resulted in significant increases. Some gains were maintained at 6 mos. No change in Spinal Cord Independence Measure II scores and no adverse events were observed. Results from this pilot study suggest that repetitive training of arm movements with MAHI Exo-II exoskeleton is safe and has potential to be an adjunct treatment modality in rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injury with mild to moderate impaired arm functions.

  3. A novel robotic system for quantifying arm kinematics and kinetics: description and evaluation in therapist-assisted passive arm movements post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, P R; Jackson, A E; Makower, S G; Cozens, J A; Levesley, M C; Mon-Williams, M; Bhakta, B

    2011-04-30

    We developed a system for quantitatively measuring arm movement. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously capture upper limb kinetic and kinematic data during assisted passive arm movements. Data are analysed with respect to Cartesian and upper limb coordinate systems to obtain upper limb joint angles and torques. We undertook an evaluation of the system in participants with stroke to show the feasibility of this approach. During rehabilitation after stroke, one aspect of treatment includes the physiotherapist applying assistive forces to move the impaired arm of the patient who remains passive. There is a dearth of published data on the relationship between upper limb kinematics and the underlying forces (kinetics) in this mode of physiotherapy treatment. Such quantitative data are crucial in facilitating research into therapy practice, for example by measuring variation in practice and determining dosage. An experienced therapist prescribed passive movements tailored to the needs of 16 participants with stroke (41-81 years) with a range of anthropometric sizes and motor impairments. Our novel measurement tool recorded kinematic and kinetic data at 100 Hz for 6-11 movements per participant. The kinetic data show that the majority of movements fall within upper limits of 36.7 N in shoulder elevation, 22.4N in shoulder protraction, 4.6 Nm in shoulder abduction, 12.8 Nm in shoulder flexion, 2.4 Nm in shoulder rotation and 5.5 Nm in elbow flexion. These data show the potential of this system to better understand arm movement, in particular to objectively evaluate physical therapy treatments and support development of robotic devices to facilitate upper limb rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sedimentological Investigations of the Martian Surface using the Mars 2001 Robotic Arm Camera and MECA Optical Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Smith, P. H.; Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The first microscopic sedimentological studies of the Martian surface will commence with the landing of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) December 3, 1999. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) has a resolution of 25 um/p which will permit detailed micromorphological analysis of surface and subsurface materials. The Robotic Ann will be able to dig up to 50 cm below the surface. The walls of the trench will also be inspected by RAC to look for evidence of stratigraphic and / or sedimentological relationships. The 2001 Mars Lander will build upon and expand the sedimentological research begun by the RAC on MPL. This will be accomplished by: (1) Macroscopic (dm to cm): Descent Imager, Pancam, RAC; (2) Microscopic (mm to um RAC, MECA Optical Microscope (Figure 2), AFM This paper will focus on investigations that can be conducted by the RAC and MECA Optical Microscope.

  5. A reliability study on brain activation during active and passive arm movements supported by an MRI-compatible robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Yu, Ningbo; Brügger, Mike; Villiger, Michael; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Riener, Robert; Kollias, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    In neurorehabilitation, longitudinal assessment of arm movement related brain function in patients with motor disability is challenging due to variability in task performance. MRI-compatible robots monitor and control task performance, yielding more reliable evaluation of brain function over time. The main goals of the present study were first to define the brain network activated while performing active and passive elbow movements with an MRI-compatible arm robot (MaRIA) in healthy subjects, and second to test the reproducibility of this activation over time. For the fMRI analysis two models were compared. In model 1 movement onset and duration were included, whereas in model 2 force and range of motion were added to the analysis. Reliability of brain activation was tested with several statistical approaches applied on individual and group activation maps and on summary statistics. The activated network included mainly the primary motor cortex, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal cortex, medial and lateral premotor regions, and subcortical structures. Reliability analyses revealed robust activation for active movements with both fMRI models and all the statistical methods used. Imposed passive movements also elicited mainly robust brain activation for individual and group activation maps, and reliability was improved by including additional force and range of motion using model 2. These findings demonstrate that the use of robotic devices, such as MaRIA, can be useful to reliably assess arm movement related brain activation in longitudinal studies and may contribute in studies evaluating therapies and brain plasticity following injury in the nervous system.

  6. Is robotic arm stereotactic body radiation therapy “virtual high dose ratebrachytherapy” for prostate cancer? An analysis of comparative effectiveness using published data [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas George; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N; Den, Robert B

    2015-05-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) monotherapy and robotic arm (i.e., CyberKnife) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are emerging technologies that have become popular treatment options for prostate cancer. Proponents of both HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT claim that these modalities are as efficacious as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in treating prostate cancer. Moreover, proponents of robotic arm SBRT believe it is more effective than HDR-BT monotherapy because SBRT is non-invasive, touting it as 'virtual HDR-BT.' We perform a comparative effective analysis of the two technologies. The tumor control rates and toxicities of HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are promising. However, at present, it would be inappropriate to state that HDR-BT monotherapy and robotic arm SBRT are as efficacious or effective as other treatment modalities for prostate cancer, which have stronger foundations of evidence. Studies reporting on these technologies have relatively short follow-up time, few patients and are largely retrospective.

  7. Robotic Arm Camera Image of the South Side of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (Door TA4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is shown with one set of oven doors open and dirt from a sample delivery. After the 'seventh shake' of TEGA, a portion of the dirt sample entered the oven via a screen for analysis. This image was taken by the Robotic Arm Camera on Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or 18th Martian day of the mission. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Cost-Savings and Economic Benefits due to the Assistive Robotic Manipulator (ARM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Stuyt, Harry J.A.; Peters, Albér

    2005-01-01

    Besides the social and personal benefits of a rehabilitation robot, the direct cost-savings and other (indirect) economic benefits, or effectiveness, are of major importance to party who pays for (or reimburses) the rehabilitation robot. This paper gives an overview of these cost-savings and, on a

  9. Pandora’s Box: Lethally-Armed Ground Robots in Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    Others debate whether Isaac Asimov ‟s famous Three Laws of Robotics (featured in his book I, Robot and the movie of the same name) could be applied in...http://www.tgdaily.com/hardware-features/43441-engineers-rewrite- asimovs -three- laws (accessed 7 September 2010).

  10. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  11. Remote Sonography in Routine Clinical Practice Between Two Isolated Medical Centers and the University Hospital Using a Robotic Arm: A 1-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Monica; Sacccomandi, Arnaud; Baudron, Bernard; Arbeille, Philippe L

    2016-04-01

    A robotic arm was developed by our laboratory for tele-operated echography on patients in locations isolated from a trained sonographer. The objective of the study was to evaluate, over a 1-year period, the use of the robotic arm for telesonography performed by a sonographer located at the University Hospital (Tours, France) on patients in two isolated medical centers 50 km away linked via the Internet. A nonsonographer operator (physician or paramedic) located the ultrasound probe attached to the robotic arm over the appropriate acoustic window for the organ of interest by rolling the whole robotic arm and mechanical support across the floor. The expert sonographer then telemanipulated the robotic arm via an Internet connection and adjusted the orientation of the probe until the most appropriate organ view for delivering a diagnosis was obtained. Three hundred telesonography examinations were performed within 1 year: 68 (22.7%) on abdominal organs, 20 (6.7%) on pelvic organs, 138 (46%) on supraaortic vessels (carotid artery), 33 (11%) on the thyroid, 30 (10%) on leg veins, and 11 (3.7%) on the kidney and urinary tract. Telesonography could not be achieved in 10 of the 300 cases due to poor image quality on obese patients or those presenting poor echogenicity. These cases were re-examined at the university hospital by a sonographer. The rate of telesonography exams over the 1-year period was 1.5 per day for the "general population" medical site and 1 per week for the "elderly patient" medical site. This study demonstrated that telesonography using a robotic arm can be routinely used for providing echographic diagnoses on patients isolated from imaging centers.

  12. Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: surgical technique using a 3-arm approach and sliding-clip renorrhaphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Cabello

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of renal tumors, minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgery has become increasingly performed due to proven efficiency and excellent functional and oncological outcomes. The introduction of robotics into urologic laparoscopic surgery has allowed surgeons to perform challenging procedures in a reliable and reproducible manner. We present our surgical technique for robotic assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN using a 3-arm approach, including a sliding-clip renorrhaphy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our RPN technique is presented which describes the trocar positioning, hilar dissection, tumor identification using intraoperative ultrasound for margin determination, selective vascular clamping, tumor resection, and reconstruction using a sliding-clip technique. CONCLUSION: RPN using a sliding-clip renorrhaphy is a valid and reproducible surgical technique that reduces the challenge of the procedure by taking advantage of the enhanced visualization and control afforded by the robot. The renorrhaphy described is performed under complete control of the console surgeon, and has demonstrated a reduction in the warm ischemia times in our series.

  13. 基于人体工程学的仿人机械臂构型%Configuration of Humanoid Robotic Arm Based on Human Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京; 宋春雨; 杜滨

    2013-01-01

    针对仿人机械臂构型问题,提出一种新的筛选方法,并确定串联结构方式下最符合人臂特征的仿人机械臂构型.从人体解剖学的角度出发,分析人臂的运动机理,并结合人体测量学和机器人学相关原理构建6种不同的仿人机械臂构型.提出全局相对可操作度指标对不同构型进行灵活性分析,并采用可视化方法绘制出各构型的运动灵活性性能分布图.根据人臂的运动特性分析人臂的运动工作空间,将各构型仿人机械臂工作空间与其对比,从而筛选出串联方式下的最佳仿人机械臂构型.该结果为仿人机械臂的设计提供了理论依据,并为后续运动规划奠定了基础.%A new screening method is proposed in configuring humanoid robotic arm,and a series configuration which is most consistent with the human arm characteristics is constructed The morement mechamnsm of human arm from the point of view of human anatomy is analyzed,and 6 types of humanoid robotic arm combined with the mechanism of anthropometry and robotics are constructed.The global relative manipulability index is put forward,and the dexterity of different types of humanoid robotic arm with this index are analyzed.The visualization method is used to plot the image of dexterous performance distribution.The workspaces of human arm are analyzed,and different types of humanoid robotic arm's workspace with it are contrasted,thereby screening the best type of humanoid robotic arm.The results lay the foundation for humanoid robotic arm design and follow-up study of motion planning.

  14. Image quality and effective dose of a robotic flat panel 3D C-arm vs computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Fischer, Eric; Gebhard, Florian; Richter, Peter H

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose and corresponding image quality of different imaging protocols of a robotic 3D flat panel C-arm in comparison to computed tomography (CT). Dose measurements were performed using a Rando-Alderson Phantom. The phantom was exposed to different scanning protocols of the 3D C-arm and the CT. Pedicle screws were inserted in a fresh swine cadaver. Images were obtained using the same scanning protocols. At the thoracolumbar junction, the effective dose was comparable for 3D high-dose protocols, with (4.4 mSv) and without (4.3 mSv) collimation and routine CT (5 mSv), as well as a dose-reduction CT (4.0 mSv). A relevant reduction was achieved with the 3D low-dose protocol (1.0 mSv). Focusing on Th6, a similar reduction with the 3D low-dose protocol was achieved. The image quality of the 3D protocols using titanium screws was rated as 'good' by all viewers, with excellent correlation. Modern intra-operative 3D-C-arms produce images of CT-like quality with low-dose radiation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Using Arm and Hand Gestures to Command Robots during Stealth Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Assad, Chris; Wolf, Michael; You, Ki Sung; Pavone, Marco; Huntsberger, Terry; Iwashita, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Command of support robots by the warfighter requires intuitive interfaces to quickly communicate high degree-of-freedom (DOF) information while leaving the hands unencumbered. Stealth operations rule out voice commands and vision-based gesture interpretation techniques, as they often entail silent operations at night or in other low visibility conditions. Targeted at using bio-signal inputs to set navigation and manipulation goals for the robot (say, simply by pointing), we developed a system based on an electromyography (EMG) "BioSleeve", a high density sensor array for robust, practical signal collection from forearm muscles. The EMG sensor array data is fused with inertial measurement unit (IMU) data. This paper describes the BioSleeve system and presents initial results of decoding robot commands from the EMG and IMU data using a BioSleeve prototype with up to sixteen bipolar surface EMG sensors. The BioSleeve is demonstrated on the recognition of static hand positions (e.g. palm facing front, fingers upwards) and on dynamic gestures (e.g. hand wave). In preliminary experiments, over 90% correct recognition was achieved on five static and nine dynamic gestures. We use the BioSleeve to control a team of five LANdroid robots in individual and group/squad behaviors. We define a gesture composition mechanism that allows the specification of complex robot behaviors with only a small vocabulary of gestures/commands, and we illustrate it with a set of complex orders.

  16. Design of a Pneumatic Robotic Arm for Solar Cell Tester System By using PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell testers sort photovoltaic cells according to their electrical performance, tested under simulated sunlight. A variety of testers exist, but they all face a common challenge of handling cells that are very small and thin, which makes it difficult to transport the cells from the conveyer to the storage box. This paper presents a new design for a handling robot with vacuum end-effectors, which uses a PLC controller to govern the movement of the cells and the testing process. The design applies to solar cell testers for monocrystalline, polycrystalline, cadmium telluride (CdTe, and copper indium diselenide (CIS cells. Each cell is tested for efficiency and categorized accordingly into four groups (A to D. A Virtual Reality (VR model was built to simulate the system, keeping in mind real world constraints. Two photoelectric sensors were used to make detections for both the testing process and the robot movement. The PLC controller guides the trajectory of the robot according to the results of the efficiency testing. It was seen that the system worked very well, with the testing process and the robot movement interacting smoothly. The robot trajectory was seen to be highly accurate, and the pick and place operations were done with great precision.

  17. Comparison of three-dimensional, assist-as-needed robotic arm/hand movement training provided with Pneu-WREX to conventional tabletop therapy after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Chan, Vicky; Chou, Cathy; Cramer, Steven C; Bobrow, James E

    2012-11-01

    Robot-assisted movement training can help individuals with stroke reduce arm and hand impairment, but robot therapy is typically only about as effective as conventional therapy. Refining the way that robots assist during training may make them more effective than conventional therapy. Here, the authors measured the therapeutic effect of a robot that required individuals with a stroke to achieve virtual tasks in three dimensions against gravity. The robot continuously estimated how much assistance patients needed to perform the tasks and provided slightly less assistance than needed to reduce patient slacking. Individuals with a chronic stroke (n = 26; baseline upper limb Fugl-Meyer score, 23 ± 8) were randomized into two groups and underwent 24 one-hour training sessions over 2 mos. One group received the assist-as-needed robot training and the other received conventional tabletop therapy with the supervision of a physical therapist. Training helped both groups significantly reduce their motor impairment, as measured by the primary outcome measure, the Fugl-Meyer score, but the improvement was small (3.0 ± 4.9 points for robot therapy vs. 0.9 ± 1.7 for conventional therapy). There was a trend for greater reduction for the robot-trained group (P = 0.07). The robot group largely sustained this gain at the 3-mo follow-up. The robot-trained group also experienced significant improvements in Box and Blocks score and hand grip strength, whereas the control group did not, but these improvements were not sustained at follow-up. In addition, the robot-trained group showed a trend toward greater improvement in sensory function, as measured by the Nottingham Sensory Test (P = 0.06). These results suggest that in patients with chronic stroke and moderate-severe deficits, assisting in three-dimensional virtual tasks with an assist-as-needed controller may make robotic training more effective than conventional tabletop training.

  18. A crossover pilot study evaluating the functional outcomes of two different types of robotic movement training in chronic stroke survivors using the arm exoskeleton BONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Bobrow, James E; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2013-12-19

    To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton ("BONES") that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES. Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session. Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p functional and single joint robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training. Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This

  19. An Interactive Human Interface Arm Robot with the Development of Food Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASHWAN D. Zaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A robotic system for the disabled who needs supports at meal is proposed. A feature of this system is that the robotic aid system can communicate with the operator using the speech recognition and speech synthesis functions. Another feature is that the robotic aid system uses an image processing, and by doing this the system can recognize the environmental situations of the dishes, cups and so on. Due to this image processing function, the operator does not need to specify the position and the posture of the dishes and target objects. Furthermore, combination communication between speech and image processing will enables a friendly man-machine to communicate with each other, since speech and visual information are essential in the human communication.

  20. Design and Development of an Automatic Tool Changer for an Articulated Robot Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, H.; Karamanoglu, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the creative industries, the length of time between the ideation stage and the making of physical objects is decreasing due to the use of CAD/CAM systems and adicitive manufacturing. Natural anisotropic materials, such as solid wood can also be transformed using CAD/CAM systems, but only with subtractive processes such as machining with CNC routers. Whilst some 3 axis CNC routing machines are affordable to buy and widely available, more flexible 5 axis routing machines still present themselves as a too big investment for small companies. Small refurbished articulated robots can be a cheaper alternative but they require a light end-effector. This paper presents a new lightweight tool changer that converts a small 3kg payload 6 DOF robot into a robot apprentice able to machine wood and similar soft materials.

  1. Design and Nonlinear Control of a 2-DOF Flexible Parallel Humanoid Arm Joint Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leijie Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the design and nonlinear control of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint based on the cable-driven parallel mechanism which can realize roll and pitch movement. In view of the existence of the flexible parts in the mechanism, it is necessary to solve the vibration control of the flexible wrist/shoulder joint. In this paper, a cable-driven parallel robot platform is developed for the experiment study of the humanoid wrist/shoulder joint. And the dynamic model of the mechanism is formulated by using the coupling theory of the flexible body’s large global motion and small flexible deformation. Based on derived dynamics, antivibration control of the joint robot is studied with a nonlinear control method. Finally, simulations and experiments were performed to validate the feasibility of the developed parallel robot prototype and the proposed control scheme.

  2. Task-driven orbit design and implementation on a robotic C-arm system for cone-beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Jacobson, M.; Stayman, J. W.; Ehtiati, T.; Weiss, C.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: This work applies task-driven optimization to the design of non-circular orbits that maximize imaging performance for a particular imaging task. First implementation of task-driven imaging on a clinical robotic C-arm system is demonstrated, and a framework for orbit calculation is described and evaluated. Methods: We implemented a task-driven imaging framework to optimize orbit parameters that maximize detectability index d'. This framework utilizes a specified Fourier domain task function and an analytical model for system spatial resolution and noise. Two experiments were conducted to test the framework. First, a simple task was considered consisting of frequencies lying entirely on the fz-axis (e.g., discrimination of structures oriented parallel to the central axial plane), and a "circle + arc" orbit was incorporated into the framework as a means to improve sampling of these frequencies, and thereby increase task-based detectability. The orbit was implemented on a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare). A second task considered visualization of a cochlear implant simulated within a head phantom, with spatial frequency response emphasizing high-frequency content in the (fy, fz) plane of the cochlea. An optimal orbit was computed using the task-driven framework, and the resulting image was compared to that for a circular orbit. Results: For the fz-axis task, the circle + arc orbit was shown to increase d' by a factor of 1.20, with an improvement of 0.71 mm in a 3D edge-spread measurement for edges located far from the central plane and a decrease in streak artifacts compared to a circular orbit. For the cochlear implant task, the resulting orbit favored complementary views of high tilt angles in a 360° orbit, and d' was increased by a factor of 1.83. Conclusions: This work shows that a prospective definition of imaging task can be used to optimize source-detector orbit and improve imaging performance. The method was implemented for execution of

  3. Solid modelling for the manipulative robot arm (power) and adaptive vision control for space station missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.

  4. Effect on arm function and cost of robot-assisted group therapy in subacute patients with stroke and a moderately to severely affected arm: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Stefan; Heß, Anke; Werner C, Cordula; Kabbert, Nadine; Buschfort, Rüdiger

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of robot-assisted arm group therapy (RAGT) versus individual arm therapy (IAT) to restore motor function in the moderately to severely affected patient after stroke. Single blind randomized controlled trial. Two in-patient neurological rehabilitation centers. Fifty first time subacute patients with stroke and a non-functional hand. The patients practiced either 30 minutes of RAGT + 30 minutes of IAT (group A) or 2x30 minutes of IAT (group B), per workday for four weeks. The RAGT consisted of six workstations enabling repetitive practice of finger, wrist, forearm and shoulder movements. Patients practiced according to their impairment level on at least two workstations per session. The IAT followed the Motor Relearning Programme, enriched by elements of the impairment-oriented training. Changes of the Fugl Meyer Score (FM, 0-66) between baseline and after 4 weeks, incremental cost effectiveness. Patients were homogeneous at study onset. All patients improved their upper limb motor function over time, but there were no between group differences. The initial (terminal) FM scores were 14.6±9.4 (25.7±16.5) in group A and 16.5±9.8 (31.1±19.1) in group B. The treatment of a single patient with RAGT cost 4.15 €, compared to 10.00 € for a patient to receive IAT. RAGT in combination with IAT was equally effective as a double session of IAT regarding the restoration of upper limb motor functions in moderate to severely affected subacute patients with stroke. The treatment costs for RAGT were less. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. A new hybrid machine design for a 6 DOF industrial robot arm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, AA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available of units sold since 1960 amounted to more than 2 230 000, and the IFR (International Federation of Robotics) estimates the total number of operational industrial robots worldwide to be between 1 021 000 and 1 300 000 units at the end of 2009. [Exec sum... productivity to be competitive on the global market and the competition for market share in rising consumer markets. [IFR 1] The main drivers for the strong recovery in 2010 were automotive manufacturers and the electronics industry. In addition...

  6. 2D-3D radiograph to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration for C-arm image-guided robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Pei; Otake, Yoshito; Azizian, Mahdi; Wagner, Oliver J; Sorger, Jonathan M; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H

    2015-08-01

    C-arm radiographs are commonly used for intraoperative image guidance in surgical interventions. Fluoroscopy is a cost-effective real-time modality, although image quality can vary greatly depending on the target anatomy. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are sometimes available, so 2D-3D registration is needed for intra-procedural guidance. C-arm radiographs were registered to CBCT scans and used for 3D localization of peritumor fiducials during a minimally invasive thoracic intervention with a da Vinci Si robot. Intensity-based 2D-3D registration of intraoperative radiographs to CBCT was performed. The feasible range of X-ray projections achievable by a C-arm positioned around a da Vinci Si surgical robot, configured for robotic wedge resection, was determined using phantom models. Experiments were conducted on synthetic phantoms and animals imaged with an OEC 9600 and a Siemens Artis zeego, representing the spectrum of different C-arm systems currently available for clinical use. The image guidance workflow was feasible using either an optically tracked OEC 9600 or a Siemens Artis zeego C-arm, resulting in an angular difference of Δθ:∼ 30°. The two C-arm systems provided TRE mean ≤ 2.5 mm and TRE mean ≤ 2.0 mm, respectively (i.e., comparable to standard clinical intraoperative navigation systems). C-arm 3D localization from dual 2D-3D registered radiographs was feasible and applicable for intraoperative image guidance during da Vinci robotic thoracic interventions using the proposed workflow. Tissue deformation and in vivo experiments are required before clinical evaluation of this system.

  7. The robotic third arm as a competent analog of an assisting surgeon in radical gastrectomy: impact on short-term clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jun Gi; Jeon, Hae Myung; Park, Cho Hyun; Song, Kyo Young

    2013-05-01

    Robotic surgery was invented to overcome difficulties associated with conventional laparoscopic surgery. However, ways in which to improve the efficacy of such surgery have not yet been discussed. This report focuses on the role of a robotic third arm in maximizing the efficacy of lymph node dissection in robot-assisted gastrectomy. Thirty-five robotic gastrectomies were performed between April 2009 and December 2010. We evaluated our surgical procedures by reviewing video recordings of robotic operations and analyzed the steps involved in lymph node dissections frame by frame. Then, we analyzed the short-term clinical outcomes to look at the impact of standardized use of the third arm on clinical outcomes. The initial 15 cases (Group A) were compared with 20 later cases (Group B) in terms of postoperative inflammation and pancreatitis. The clinicopathologic characteristics, including operation type, hospital stay, morbidity, and pathological features, were not different between the two groups. However, postoperative serum amylase levels as well as drain amylase levels were significantly lower in Group B than in Group A (Probotic third arm.

  8. Peg-in-Hole Assembly Based on Two-phase Scheme and F/T Sensor for Dual-arm Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianmin; Zheng, Yanglong; Ota, Jun; Huang, Yanjiang

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on peg-in-hole assembly based on a two-phase scheme and force/torque sensor (F/T sensor) for a compliant dual-arm robot, the Baxter robot. The coordinated operations of human beings in assembly applications are applied to the behaviors of the robot. A two-phase assembly scheme is proposed to overcome the inaccurate positioning of the compliant dual-arm robot. The position and orientation of assembly pieces are adjusted respectively in an active compliant manner according to the forces and torques derived by a six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) F/T sensor. Experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed assembly scheme. The performances of the dual-arm robot are consistent with those of human beings in the peg-in-hole assembly process. The peg and hole with 0.5 mm clearance for round pieces and square pieces can be assembled successfully.

  9. Covariant formulation for the optimal control of jointed arm robots: an alternative to Pontryagin's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero, J A Rojas; Gazeau, J P; Seguin, P

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate algorithms able to efficiently command the actuators of an articulated robot. Our time discretization method is based on cubic and quintic Hermite Finite Elements. The suggested control optimization consists in minimizing directly the selected criterium by a conjugate gradient type algorithm. A generic example illustrates the super convergence of the Hermite's technique.

  10. Robotic exoskeletons: a perspective for the rehabilitation of arm coordination in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael eJarrassé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Upper-limb impairment after stroke is caused by weakness, loss of individual joint control, spasticity and abnormal synergies. Upper limb movement frequently involves abnormal, stereotyped and fixed synergies, likely related to the increased use of subcortical networks following the stroke. The flexible coordination of the shoulder and elbow joints is also disrupted. New methods for motor learning, based on the stimulation of activity-dependent neural plasticity have been developed. These include robots that can adaptively assist active movements and generate many movement repetitions. However, most of these robots only control the movement of the hand in space. The aim of the present text is to analyse the potential of robotic exoskeletons to specifically rehabilitate joint motion and particularly inter-joint coordination. Firstly, a review of studies on upper-limb coordination in stroke patients is presented and the potential for recovery of coordination is examined. Secondly, issues relating to the mechanical design of exoskeletons and the transmission of constraints between the robotic and human limbs are discussed. The third section considers the development of different methods to control exoskeletons: existing rehabilitation devices and approaches to the control and rehabilitation of joint coordinations are then reviewed, along with preliminary clinical results available. Finally, perspectives and future strategies for the design of control mechanisms for rehabilitation exoskeletons are discussed.

  11. Robotic Exoskeletons: A Perspective for the Rehabilitation of Arm Coordination in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Proietti, Tommaso; Crocher, Vincent; Robertson, Johanna; Sahbani, Anis; Morel, Guillaume; Roby-Brami, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Upper-limb impairment after stroke is caused by weakness, loss of individual joint control, spasticity, and abnormal synergies. Upper-limb movement frequently involves abnormal, stereotyped, and fixed synergies, likely related to the increased use of sub-cortical networks following the stroke. The flexible coordination of the shoulder and elbow joints is also disrupted. New methods for motor learning, based on the stimulation of activity-dependent neural plasticity have been developed. These include robots that can adaptively assist active movements and generate many movement repetitions. However, most of these robots only control the movement of the hand in space. The aim of the present text is to analyze the potential of robotic exoskeletons to specifically rehabilitate joint motion and particularly inter-joint coordination. First, a review of studies on upper-limb coordination in stroke patients is presented and the potential for recovery of coordination is examined. Second, issues relating to the mechanical design of exoskeletons and the transmission of constraints between the robotic and human limbs are discussed. The third section considers the development of different methods to control exoskeletons: existing rehabilitation devices and approaches to the control and rehabilitation of joint coordinations are then reviewed, along with preliminary clinical results available. Finally, perspectives and future strategies for the design of control mechanisms for rehabilitation exoskeletons are discussed. PMID:25520638

  12. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography of the cerebral cortex using a 7 degree-of freedom robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Perez, Robnier; Jivraj, Jamil; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides a high-resolution imaging technique with limited depth penetration. The current use of OCT is limited to relatively small areas of tissue for anatomical structure diagnosis or minimally invasive guided surgery. In this study, we propose to image a large area of the surface of the cerebral cortex. This experiment aims to evaluate the potential difficulties encountered when applying OCT imaging to large and irregular surface areas. The current state-of-the-art OCT imaging technology uses scanning systems with at most 3 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) to obtain a 3D image representation of the sample tissue. We propose the use of a 7 DOF industrial robotic arm to increase the scanning capabilities of our OCT. Such system will be capable of acquiring data from large samples of tissue that are too irregular for conventional methods. Advantages and disadvantages of our system are discussed.

  13. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  14. Experimental evaluation of a Dielectric Elastomer robotic arm for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branz, F.; Francesconi, A.

    2017-04-01

    A growing interest within the space community focuses on robotics due to the large number of possible applications in many mission scenarios. On-Orbit Servicing (OOS) is arguably the most appealing implementation of space automatic systems. In several cases, OOS requires the capture of orbital objects, which is a complex and risky operation that can be successfully performed by robotic manipulators. Soft robotics, in particular, seems to be suitable for such applications given its intrinsic compliance to the operative environment. Devices based on Dielectric Elastomers (DE) can be employed for the implementation of soft robotic systems and showed promising performances. The introduction of DEs to orbital systems would represent a breakthrough in space technologies. In addition, space conditions could further advantage DE robotics, given the reduced environmental loads experienced and the longer times for operations. Nevertheless, Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEA) are a low-TRL (Technology Readiness Level) technology that needs to prove its maturity and suitability to space implementation. In this work, the performances of a redundant manipulator based on DEAs are presented in terms of numerical and experimental results. A 4-DoF planar manipulator has been tested in a gravity-compensated setup. The system is composed by two double-cone actuators mounted in series, each of them providing actuation of two DoF. The end-effector is an optical marker whose position is detected by a vision system. The system has a total of four joint DoF and operates in the xy horizontal plane; only the x and y positions of the end-effector are controlled. Two degrees of redundancy are obtained and exploited for the optimization of joint torques to avoid the saturation of actuators. Numerical simulations have been conducted to predict the system behaviour. The laboratory facility emulates the zero-gravity orbital environment by means of a suspending cable. Detailed experimental results

  15. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.

  16. Robot arm based flat panel CT-guided electromagnetic tracked spine interventions: phantom and animal model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Isfort, Peter; Bruners, Philipp; Mahnken, Andreas H. [RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute Aachen, Aachen (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Wiemann, Christian; Guenther, Rolf W. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen University Hospital, Aachen (Germany); Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kalender, Willi A. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Medical Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Schmitz-Rode, Thomas [RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate accuracy and procedure times of electromagnetic tracking (EMT) in a robotic arm mounted flat panel setting using phantom and animal cadaveric models. A robotic arm mounted flat panel (RMFP) was used in combination with EMT to perform anthropomorphic phantom (n = 90) and ex vivo pig based punctures (n = 120) of lumbar facet joints (FJ, n = 120) and intervertebral discs (IVD, n = 90). Procedure accuracies and times were assessed and evaluated. FJ punctures were carried out with a spatial accuracy of 0.8 {+-} 0.9 mm (phantom) and 0.6 {+-} 0.8 mm (ex vivo) respectively. While IVD punctures showed puncture deviations of 0.6 {+-} 1.2 mm (phantom) and 0.5 {+-} 0.6 mm (ex vivo), direct and angulated phantom based punctures had accuracies of 0.8 {+-} 0.9 mm and 1.0 {+-} 1.3 mm. Planning took longer for ex vivo IVD punctures compared to phantom model interventions (39.3 {+-} 17.3 s vs. 20.8 {+-} 5.0 s, p = 0.001) and for angulated vs. direct phantom FJ punctures (19.7 {+-} 5.1 s vs. 28.6 {+-} 7.8 s, p < 0.001). Puncture times were longer for ex vivo procedures when compared to phantom model procedures in both FJ (37.9 {+-} 9.0 s vs. 23.6 {+-} 7.2 s, p = 0.001) and IVD punctures (43.9 {+-} 16.1 s vs. 31.1 {+-} 6.4 s, p = 0.026). The combination of RMFP with EMT provides an accurate method of navigation for spinal interventions such as facet joint punctures and intervertebral disc punctures. (orig.)

  17. 基于ELM的机器人自适应跟踪控制%Adaptive tracking control of a rigid arm robot based on extreme learning machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 乃永强

    2015-01-01

    -stance for two-link rigid arm robot and compared with existing radial basis function( RBF) neural control algorithms. Simulation results show that ELM controllers have good tracking performance and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.

  18. Into the Caves of Steel: Precaution, Cognition and Robotic Weapon Systems Under the International Law of Armed Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Herbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The pace of development with respect to robotic weapons systems is staggering. Often formulated in the context of a desire of the ‘haves’ States to minimize battlefield casualties and to reduce monetary costs, technological advancement holds a number of ramifications for the law of armed conflict. Specifically, as technology introduces the possibility of increasingly autonomous forms of robotic weapon systems, the implications of augmenting precision while removing, for all intents and purposes, direct control by or involvement of human beings (‘in the loop’ must be examined, along with differentiated responsibilities of the ‘haves’ versus the ‘have-nots’. The present article takes as a foundation the international humanitarian law principle of precaution, as codified in Article 57 of Additional Protocol I, to assess various aspects of the applicability of the relevant provisions to these new weapons systems, and in particular draws conclusions as to how precaution could influence future developments.


  19. Evaluation of the JACO robotic arm: clinico-economic study for powered wheelchair users with upper-extremity disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Veronique; Frappier, Julie; Archambault, Philippe S; Routhier, François

    2011-01-01

    Many activities of daily living, such as picking up glasses, holding a fork or opening a door, which most people do without thinking, can become insurmountable for people who have upper extremity disabilities. The alternative to asking for human help is to use some assistive devices to compensate their loss of mobility; however, many of those devices are limited in terms of functionality. Robotics may provide a better approach for the development of assistive devices, by allowing greater functionality. In this paper, we present results of a study (n=31) which objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of a new joystick-controlled seven-degree of freedom robotic manipulator and assess its potential economic benefits. Results show that JACO is easy to use as the majority of the participants were able to accomplish the testing tasks on their first attempt. The economic model results inferred that the use of the JACO arm system could potentially reduce caregiving time by 41%. These study results are expected to provide valuable data for interested parties, such as individuals with disabilities, their family or caregivers. © 2011 IEEE

  20. A new application of the four-arm standard da Vinci® surgical system: totally robotic-assisted left-sided colon or rectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dean Chi-Siong; Tsang, Charles Bih-Shou; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2011-06-01

    The key to successful rectal cancer resection is to perform complete total mesorectal excision (TME). Laparoscopic TME can be challenging, especially in the narrow confines of the pelvis. Robotic-assisted surgery can overcome these limitations through superior three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and the increased range of movements provided by the endowrist function. To date, all totally robotic resections of the rectum have been described using da Vinci® S or Si systems. Due to the limitations of the standard system, only hybrid procedures have been described so far. To evaluate the feasibility and short-term outcomes of performing totally robotic-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resections using the standard da Vinci® system with a fourth arm extension. The standard system was docked from the patient's left hip. Four 8-mm robotic trocars were inserted. Upon completion of phase 1 (pedicle ligation, colonic mobilization, splenic flexure takedown), the two left-sided arms are repositioned to allow phase 2 (pelvic dissection), enabling the entire procedure except for the distal transection and anastomosis to be performed robotically. Twenty-one robotic procedures were performed from August 2008 to September 2009. The mean age of the patients was 61 years (13 males). The procedures performed included seven anterior resections, seven low anterior resections, five ultralow anterior resections, one abdominoperineal resection, and one resection rectopexy. The majority of the cases were performed in patients with colon or rectal cancer. Operative time ranged from 232 to 444 (mean 316) min. Postoperative morbidity occurred in three patients (14.3%) with no mortalities or conversions. Average hospital stay was 6.4 days. Mean lymph node yield for the cases with cancer was 17.8. The standard da Vinci® system with four arms can be used to perform totally robotic-assisted colorectal procedures for the left colon and rectum with short-term outcomes similar to those of

  1. SU-E-J-114: Towards Integrated CT and Ultrasound Guided Radiation Therapy Using A Robotic Arm with Virtual Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K; Zhang, Y; Sen, H; Lediju Bell, M; Goldstein, S; Kazanzides, P; Iordachita, I; Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Currently there is an urgent need in Radiation Therapy for noninvasive and nonionizing soft tissue target guidance such as localization before treatment and continuous monitoring during treatment. Ultrasound is a portable, low cost option that can be easily integrated with the LINAC room. We are developing a cooperatively controlled robot arm that has high intrafraction reproducibility with repositioning of the ultrasound probe. In this study, we introduce virtual springs (VS) to assist with interfraction probe repositioning and we compare the soft tissue deformation introduced by VS to the deformation that would exist without them. Methods: Three metal markers were surgically implanted in the kidney of one dog. The dog was anesthetized and immobilized supine in an alpha cradle. The reference ultrasound probe position and force to ideally visualize the kidney was defined by an experienced ultrasonographer using the Clarity ultrasound system and robot sensor. For each interfraction study, the dog was removed from the cradle and re-setup based on CBCT with bony anatomy alignment to mimic regular patient setup. The ultrasound probe was automatically returned to the reference position using the robot. To accommodate the soft tissue anatomy changes between each setup the operator used the VS feature to adjust the probe and obtain an ultrasound image that matched the reference image. CBCT images were acquired and each interfraction marker location was compared with the first interfraction Result. Results: Analysis of the marker positions revealed that the kidney was displaced by 18.8 ± 6.4 mm without VS and 19.9 ± 10.5 mm with VS. No statistically significant differences were found between two procedures. Conclusion: The VS feature is necessary to obtain matching ultrasound images, and they do not introduce further changes to the tissue deformation. Future work will focus on automatic VS based on ultrasound feedback. Supported in part by: NCI R01 CA161613

  2. Kalman filtering, smoothing and recursive robot arm forward and inverse dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1986-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for multi-link serial manipulators are solved by using recursive techniques from linear filtering and smoothing theory. The pivotal step is to cast the system dynamics and kinematics as a two-point boundary-value problem. Solution of this problem leads to filtering and smoothing techniques identical to the equations of Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier fixed time-interval smoothing. The solutions prescribe an inward filtering recursion to compute a sequence of constraint moments and forces followed by an outward recursion to determine a corresponding sequence of angular and linear accelerations. In addition to providing techniques to compute joint accelerations from applied joint moments (and vice versa), the report provides an approach to evaluate recursively the composite multi-link system inertia matrix and its inverse. The report lays the foundation for the potential use of filtering and smoothing techniques in robot inverse and forward dynamics and in robot control design.

  3. Robust EMG sensing system based on data fusion for myoelectric control of a robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Myoelectric control of a robotic manipulator may be disturbed by failures due to disconnected electrodes, interface impedance changes caused by movements, problems in the recording channel and other various noise sources. To correct these problems, this paper presents two fusing techniques, Variance Weighted Average (VWA) and Decentralized Kalman Filter (DKF), both based on the myoelectric signal variance as selecting criterion. Methods Tested in five volunteers, a redunda...

  4. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a robotic arm and its flow field: application to the crawl stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2014-04-11

    This study aims to clarify the mechanisms by which unsteady hydrodynamic forces act on the hand of a swimmer during a crawl stroke. Measurements were performed for a hand attached to a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom independently controlled by a computer. The computer was programmed so the hand and arm mimicked a human performing the stroke. We directly measured forces on the hand and pressure distributions around it at 200 Hz; flow fields underwater near the hand were obtained via 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data revealed two mechanisms that generate unsteady forces during a crawl stroke. One is the unsteady lift force generated when hand movement changes direction during the stroke, leading to vortex shedding and bound vortex created around it. This bound vortex circulation results in a lift that contributes to the thrust. The other occurs when the hand moves linearly with a large angle of attack, creating a Kármán vortex street. This street alternatively sheds clockwise and counterclockwise vortices, resulting in a quasi-steady drag contributing to the thrust. We presume that professional swimmers benefit from both mechanisms. Further studies are necessary in which 3D flow fields are measured using a 3D PIV system and a human swimmer.

  5. Robust, fast and accurate vision-based localization of a cooperative target used for space robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhuoman; Wang, Yanjie; Luo, Jun; Kuijper, Arjan; Di, Nan; Jin, Minghe

    2017-07-01

    When a space robotic arm deploys a payload, usually the pose between the cooperative target fixed on the payload and the hand-eye camera installed on the arm is calculated in real-time. A high-precision robust visual cooperative target localization method is proposed. Combing a circle, a line and dots as markers, a target that guarantees high detection rates is designed. Given an image, single-pixel-width smooth edges are drawn by a novel linking method. Circles are then quickly extracted using isophotes curvature. Around each circle, a square boundary in a pre-calculated proportion to the circle radius is set. In the boundary, the target is identified if certain numbers of lines exist. Based on the circle, the lines, and the target foreground and background intensities, markers are localized. Finally, the target pose is calculated by the Point-3-Perspective algorithm. The algorithm processes 8 frames per second with the target distance ranging from 0.3m to 1.5 m. It generated high-precision poses of above 97.5% on over 100,000 images regardless of camera background, target pose, illumination and motion blur. At 0.3 m, the rotation and translation errors were less than 0.015° and 0.2 mm. The proposed algorithm is very suitable for real-time visual measurement that requires high precision in aerospace.

  6. Complication reports for robotic surgery using three arms by a single surgeon at a single institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Huang-Hui; Liu, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate perioperative complications related to robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for management of gynaecologic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight hundred and fifty-one women who underwent robotic procedures between December 2011 and April 2015 were retrospectively included for analysis. Patient demographics, surgical outcomes and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall complication rate was 5.5%, whereas the rate of complications for oncologic cases was 8.4%. Intra-operative complications (n = 7, 0.8%) consisted of five cases of bowel lacerations, one case of ureter laceration and one case of bladder injury. Early and late post-operative complications were 4.0% (n = 34) and 0.8% (n = 6), respectively. Six patients (0.7%) experienced Grade III complications based on the Clavien-Dindo classification and required further surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is a feasible approach for management of gynaecologic disorders; the complication rates for this type of procedure are acceptable. PMID:27251839

  7. Complication reports for robotic surgery using three arms by a single surgeon at a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate perioperative complications related to robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for management of gynaecologic disorders. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-one women who underwent robotic procedures between December 2011 and April 2015 were retrospectively included for analysis. Patient demographics, surgical outcomes and complications were evaluated. Results: The overall complication rate was 5.5%, whereas the rate of complications for oncologic cases was 8.4%. Intra-operative complications (n = 7, 0.8% consisted of five cases of bowel lacerations, one case of ureter laceration and one case of bladder injury. Early and late post-operative complications were 4.0% (n = 34 and 0.8% (n = 6, respectively. Six patients (0.7% experienced Grade III complications based on the Clavien-Dindo classification and required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is a feasible approach for management of gynaecologic disorders; the complication rates for this type of procedure are acceptable.

  8. Experimental Test Rig for Optimal Control of Flexible Space Robotic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    arm slew, camera slewing, or solar panel deployment can impart vibrations on the entire spacecraft. Vibrations on a spacecraft affect the components...71 viii 2. Refined Post-process Development ............................................73 E. IMU ANGLE MEASUREMENTS...Model for Simple Mass-Spring System .....................................34 Figure 17. Angle and Rate Response of Flexible System Model when

  9. 同步仿生机械臂设计%The Design of Synchronization Bionic Robot Arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云彩霞; 李珊; 宋晓华; 李昆

    2014-01-01

    本设计利用安装在人手臂部的加速度传感器采集运动信号,单片机智能运算后发出控制指令,实现机械臂与人臂的同步运动。系统将在采集传感器的输出模拟量经过单片机的处理产生PWM波,使用PWM波驱动舵机实现准确定位,使机械臂实现三自由度的运动。而且还可通过编程和仿生来完成各种预期的作业任务,在构造和性能上兼有人和机器各自的优点,体现了人的智能和适应性。%This design uses the collected motion signal of the acceleration sensor installed in the arm department,issued in the single-chip smart computing control commands,synchronous movement of the manipulator arm.Acquisition sensor output analog processing After the microcontroller PWM wave using PWM wave-driven steering gear to achieve accurate positioning,so that the robotic arm to achieve three degrees of freedom of movement.But also through programming and bionic complete a variety of expected operating tasks,both in structure and performance of the respective advantages of both humans and machines,human intelligence and adaptability.

  10. Thoughts turned into high-level commands: Proof-of-concept study of a vision-guided robot arm driven by functional MRI (fMRI) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Nigri, Anna; Rosazza, Cristina; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of using functional MRI to control a robot arm through a brain-machine interface by directly coupling haemodynamic activity in the sensory-motor cortex to the position of two axes. Here, we extend this work by implementing interaction at a more abstract level, whereby imagined actions deliver structured commands to a robot arm guided by a machine vision system. Rather than extracting signals from a small number of pre-selected regions, the proposed system adaptively determines at individual level how to map representative brain areas to the input nodes of a classifier network. In this initial study, a median action recognition accuracy of 90% was attained on five volunteers performing a game consisting of collecting randomly positioned coloured pawns and placing them into cups. The "pawn" and "cup" instructions were imparted through four mental imaginery tasks, linked to robot arm actions by a state machine. With the current implementation in MatLab language the median action recognition time was 24.3s and the robot execution time was 17.7s. We demonstrate the notion of combining haemodynamic brain-machine interfacing with computer vision to implement interaction at the level of high-level commands rather than individual movements, which may find application in future fMRI approaches relevant to brain-lesioned patients, and provide source code supporting further work on larger command sets and real-time processing.

  11. Balance maintenance in high-speed motion of humanoid robot arm-based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-song; Xiong, Rong; Wu, Jun; Chu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR), this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot's two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm's joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance.

  12. A three-arm (laparoscopic, hand-assisted, and robotic) matched-case analysis of intraoperative and postoperative outcomes in minimally invasive colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag B; Ragupathi, Madhu; Ramos-Valadez, Diego I; Haas, Eric M

    2011-02-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging modality in the field of minimally invasive colorectal surgery. However, there is a dearth of data comparing outcomes with other minimally invasive techniques. We present a 3-arm (conventional, hand-assisted, and robotic) matched-case analysis of intraoperative and short-term outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive colorectal procedures. Between August 2008 and October 2009, 70 robotic cases of the rectum and rectosigmoid were performed. Thirty of these were organized into triplets with conventional and hand-assisted cases based on the following 6 matching criteria: 1) surgeon; 2) sex; 3) body mass index; 4) operative procedure; 5) pathology; and 6) history of neoadjuvant therapy in malignant cases. Demographics, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. Pathological outcomes were analyzed in malignant cases. Data were stratified by postoperative diagnosis and operative procedure. There was no significant difference in intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss (126.1 ± 98.5 mL overall), or postoperative morbidity and mortality among the groups. Robotic technique required longer operative time compared with conventional laparoscopic (P arm case-matched series, the robotic approach results in short-term outcomes comparable to conventional and hand-assisted laparoscopic approaches for benign and malignant diseases of the rectum and rectosigmoid. With 3-dimensional visualization, additional freedom of motion, and improved ergonomics, this enabling technology may play an important role when performing colorectal procedures involving the pelvic anatomy.

  13. Mandibular angle split osteotomy based on a novel augmented reality navigation using specialized robot-assisted arms--A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Shi, Yunyong; Tan, Andy; Bogari, Melia; Zhu, Ming; Xin, Yu; Xu, Haisong; Zhang, Yan; Xie, Le; Chai, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Augmented reality (AR) navigation, is a visible 3-dimensional display technology, that, when combined with robot-assisted surgery (RAS), allows precision and automation in operational procedures. In this study, we used an innovative, minimally invasive, simplified operative method to position the landmarks and specialized robot-assisted arms to apply in a rapid protyping (RP) model. This is the first report of the use of AR and RAS technology in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Five patients with prominent mandibular angle were randomly chosen for this feasibility study. We reconstructed the mandibular modules and created preoperational plans as semi-embedded and nail-fixation modules for an easy registration procedure. The left side of the mandibular modules comprised the experimental groups with use of a robot, and the right sides comprised the control groups without a robot. With AR Toolkits program tracking and display system applied, we carried out the operative plans and measured the error. Both groups were successfully treated in this study, but the RAS was more accurate and stable. The average position and angle were significant (p augmented reality navigation with specialized robot-assisted arms for mandibular angle split osteotomy. AR and RAS can be helpful for patients undergoing craniomaxillofacial surgery. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstacle-avoidance Path Planning of Robot Arm for Tomato-picking Robot%番茄采摘机器人机械臂避障路径规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建军; 武传宇; Yang Simon X; Gauri S Mittal; 毛罕平

    2012-01-01

    It is chosen as research object that joint robot arm avoids erect stem or strut to pick tomatoes, and a kind of obstacle-avoidance path planning method based on configuration space of joint robot arm was presented. Space mapping principle was used to transform obstacle-avoidance problem of joint robot arm in 3-D workspace into avoiding obstacle circle problem of planar R — R robot arm. Critical collision joint angle was used to build up mapping computation models of configuration obstacle space of planar R - R robot arm, and obstacle-avoidance position computation of joint robot arm in 3-D workspace was transformed into joint angles computation of linkages in configuration space. After terminal joint angles of obstacle-avoidance path planning were optimized according to optimal energy function, the obstacle-avoidance joint angle path of planar R — R robot arm based on A * arithmetic was computed. A series of intersectant erect planes described space link position were obtained and the planning of other joint was carried out in the intersectant erect planes. The test of avoiding erect obstacle to pick tomatoes showed that joint robot arm carried with the gripper can move round linear obstacle and guide the gripper to reach object position. The test proved that mapping computation models of configuration obstacle space of planar R- R robot arm were correct. It validated that the obstacle-avoidance path planning method was feasible and may be applied into automatic harvesting of tomato.%以关节型机械臂避开垂直茎秆或撑杆采摘番茄为研究对象,提出了一种基于构形空间的关节型机械臂避障路径规划方法.利用空间映射原理,将关节型机械臂工作空间的三维避障问题转换为平面R-R机械臂避开障碍圆的问题,用临界碰撞关节角建立C-障碍空间的映射计算模型,将工作空间的位置避障转换为构形空间连杆关节角的计算.以能量最优函数优选避障规划的关

  15. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  16. Robust trajectory tracking control of a dual-arm space robot actuated by control moment gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yinghong; Misra, Arun K.

    2017-08-01

    It is a new design concept to employ control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) as reactionless actuators for space robots. Such actuation has several noticeable advantages such as weak dynamical coupling and low power consumption over traditional joint motor actuation. This paper presents a robust control law for a CMG-actuated space robot in presence of system uncertainties and closed-chain constraints. The control objective is to make the manipulation variables to track the desired trajectories, and reduce the possibility of CMG saturation simultaneously. A reduced-order dynamical equation in terms of independent motion variables is derived using Kane's equations. Desired trajectories of the independent motion variables are derived by minimum-norm trajectory planning algorithm, and an adaptive sliding mode controller with improved adaptation laws is proposed to drive the independent motion variables tracking the desired trajectories. Uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed loop system is proven using Lyapunov method. The redundancy of the full-order actual control torques is utilized to generate a null torque vector which reduces the possibility of CMG angular momentum saturation while producing no effect on the reduced-order control input. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of weak dynamical coupling of the CMG-actuated system.

  17. Experiment Automation with a Robot Arm using the Liquids Reflectometer Instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnierczuk, Piotr A [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL; Sundaram, Madhan [ORNL; Parizzi, Andre A [ORNL; Halbert, Candice E [ORNL; Hoffmann, Michael C [ORNL; Greene, Gayle C [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Liquids Reflectometer instrument installed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) enables observations of chemical kinetics, solid-state reactions and phase-transitions of thin film materials at both solid and liquid surfaces. Effective measurement of these behaviors requires each sample to be calibrated dynamically using the neutron beam and the data acquisition system in a feedback loop. Since the SNS is an intense neutron source, the time needed to perform the measurement can be the same as the alignment process, leading to a labor-intensive operation that is exhausting to users. An update to the instrument control system, completed in March 2013, implemented the key features of automated sample alignment and robot-driven sample management, allowing for unattended operation over extended periods, lasting as long as 20 hours. We present a case study of the effort, detailing the mechanical, electrical and software modifications that were made as well as the lessons learned during the integration, verification and testing process.

  18. Kinematics and control algorithm development and simulation for a redundant two-arm robotic manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael P.; Huang, Paul C.; Bunnell, Charles T.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient approach to cartesian motion and force control of a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator is presented. It is based on extending the active stiffness controller to the 7 DOF case in general and use of an efficient version of the gradient projection technique for solving the inverse kinematics problem. Cooperative control is achieved through appropriate configuration of individual manipulator controllers. In addition, other aspects of trajectory generation using standard techniques are integrated into the controller. The method is then applied to a specific manipulator of interest (Robotics Research T-710). Simulation of the kinematics, dynamics, and control are provided in the context of several scenarios: one pertaining to a noncontact pick and place operation; one relating to contour following where contact is made between the manipulator and environment; and one pertaining to cooperative control.

  19. A Mechanical Musculo-Skeletal System for a Human-Shaped Robot Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Koganezawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mechanical system with a similar configuration to a human musculo-skeletal system for use in anthropomorphic robots or as artificial limbs for disabled persons. First, a mechanical module called ANLES (Actuator with Non-Linear Elasticity System is introduced. There are two types of ANLES: the linear-type ANLES and rotary-type ANLES. They can be used as a voluntary muscle in a wide-range of musculo-skeletal structures in which at least double actuators work in an antagonistic setup via some elastic elements. Next, an application of the two types of ANLES to a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF manipulator that has a similar configuration to the human elbow joint is shown. The experimental results of the joint stiffness and joint angle control elucidate that the developed mechanism effectively regulates joint stiffness in the same way as a musculo-skeletal system.

  20. High-Frequency Intermuscular Coherence between Arm Muscles during Robot-Mediated Motor Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzamiglio, Sara; De Lillo, Martina; Naeem, Usman; Abdalla, Hassan; Turner, Duncan L.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of arm reaching in a novel force field involves co-contraction of upper limb muscles, but it is not known how the co-ordination of multiple muscle activation is orchestrated. We have used intermuscular coherence (IMC) to test whether a coherent intermuscular coupling between muscle pairs is responsible for novel patterns of activation during adaptation of reaching in a force field. Subjects (N = 16) performed reaching trials during a null force field, then during a velocity-dependent force field and then again during a null force field. Reaching trajectory error increased during early adaptation to the force-field and subsequently decreased during later adaptation. Co-contraction in the majority of all possible muscle pairs also increased during early adaptation and decreased during later adaptation. In contrast, IMC increased during later adaptation and only in a subset of muscle pairs. IMC consistently occurred in frequencies between ~40–100 Hz and during the period of arm movement, suggesting that a coherent intermuscular coupling between those muscles contributing to adaptation enable a reduction in wasteful co-contraction and energetic cost during reaching. PMID:28119620

  1. [Robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, J

    2000-05-01

    Content of this paper is the current state of the art of robots in surgery and the ongoing work on the field of surgical robotics at the Clinic for Maxillofacial Surgery at the Charité. Robots in surgery allows the surgeon to transform the accuracy of the imaging systems directly during the intervention and to plan an intervention beforehand. In this paper firstly the state of the art is described. Subsequently the scientific work at the clinic is described in detail. The paper closes with a outlook for future applications of robotics systems in maxillofacial surgery.

  2. 番茄采摘机器人机械臂结构设计与参数优化%Structural Design and Parameter Optimization for Tomato Picking Robot Arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周舟; 王俊

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural picking robot is a kind of advanced robot in non-structural environment, whose fruit picking process can be easily influenced by the harsh environment. The characteristics of the robot arm determine the robot working space directly. Based on the characteristics of tomato and its plant' s distribution space, a robot arm with 4 degree-of-freedoms specified one parallel linkage is designed. Besides, optimization design on structure parameter of robot arm is provided. The kinematics of robot arm is established, and the robot working space is simulated through the Mallab software. Simulation results show that in the premise of meeting the expectation for picking tomatoes, we a-chieved the goal of minimizing invalid robot arm working space. The rationality of the structural design for robot arm is validated.%农业采摘机器人属于非结构环境下作业的特种机器人,果实的采摘易受环境变化的影响,机械臂的结构特点直接决定机器人作业范围.根据番茄的特点及其植株的生长分布,设计了具有平行结构关节的四自由度机械臂,建立了机械臂运动学模型,完成了机械臂的结构参数优化设计,并使用MATLAB平台进行了仿真验证.在满足番茄采摘要求的前提下,实现了实际采摘无效空间最小化,证明了该机械臂结构设计合理.

  3. 机器人手臂笛卡尔空间轨迹计算机仿真规划%Cartesian Space Trajectory of Robot Arm Computer Simulation Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周源

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly studies based on Cartesian robot arm joint space trajectory planning problems.By com-puter under the environment of MATLAB software for computer simulation test of the algorithm,continuously and smoothly making the planning of the trajectory path so as to ensure the stability of the robot movement,verify that the algorithm feasi-bi-lity in the process of the machine arm trajectory planning.The major disscussion was based on the Cartesian robot arm empty movement trajectory planning and path generation method.%研究了基于机器人手臂关节笛卡尔空间的轨迹规划问题。通过在MATLAB软件环境下对该算法的计算机仿真测试试验,使规划的轨迹路径连续而平滑,从而保证机器人运动的平稳性,验证该算法在机器手臂轨迹规划过程中的可行性。重点讨论基于机器人手臂笛卡儿空间运动的轨迹规划和轨迹生成方法。

  4. Kinematic Analysis of Exoskeleton Suit for Human Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are many robotic arms developed for providing care to physically disabled people. It is difficult to find robot designs in literature that articulate such a procedure. Therefore, it is our hope that the design work shown in this study may serve as a good example of a systematic method for rehabilitation robot design. Approach: The arm exoskeleton suit was developed to increase human's strength, endurance, or speed enabling them to perform tasks that they previously could not perform. It should not impede the user's natural motion and should be comfortable and safe to wear and easy to use. Although movement is difficult for them, they usually want to go somewhere by themselves. Results: The kinematic exoskeleton suit for human arms is simulated by MATLAB software. The exoskeleton suit of human arm consists of one link length, three link twists, two link offsets and three joint angles. Conclusion: This study introduced the kinematic of exoskeleton suit for human arm. The exoskeleton suit can be used to be instrument for anyone who needs to improve human's performance. It will increase the strength of human that can lift heavy load or help handicapped patients, who cannot use their arm.

  5. Simulation of Milking Robot Arm ANSYS based on Finite Element Method%基于有限元法的挤奶机械臂ANSYS仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 杨圣虎; 程睿; 赵毅

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the design requirements of milking robot, it used finite element ANSYS software to do static analysis on the strength and stiffness of stainless steel bracket and robot arm, and do modal analysis on the structure of stainless steel bracket. The result shows that the strength and stiffness of robot arm can meet the requirements of the design; it provided a guarantee for reasonable design for mechanical structure of milking robot.%为保证挤奶机器人满足设计要求,利用有限元分析软件ANSYS对不锈钢支架及机械臂的强度和刚度进行静力学分析,并对不锈钢支架的结构进行模态分析。结果表明:仿真结果显示机械臂的强度和刚度能够满足设计要求,进而为合理设计挤奶机器人机械结构提供有力保证。

  6. Realtime or Delayed Tele-Echography Using (A) a Robotic Arm, ISDN or Satellite Lines, (B) a Volumic Echographic Capture Mode and Internet (Application to Abdomen and Fetus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Ph.; Cloppet, F.; Boucher, A.; Capri, A.; Vincent, N.

    2008-06-01

    Objective: to test (a) the tele-echography in realtime based on the use of a robotic arm, (b) the delayed tele echography using a volumic echographic capture and delayed processing. Method: A dedicated robotic arm (ESTELE) holding a real ultrasound probe is remotely controlled from the expert site with a fictive probe, and reproduces on the real probe all the movements of the expert hand. A dedicated motorized probe holder (TILTER) was used for tilting a 2D probe from -45 to +45°. Results: During fetal robotized Tele-echography (n=50) the expert was able to visualize and measure the fetal structures in 95% of the cases, while during abdomen echography (n=87) the expert visualized the main organs and lesions in 87% of the cases. The mean duration of the robotized tele echography session for one patient was 20+/-10 min. The delayed echography using the TILTER was tested on 40 patients. The organs were adequately visualized in 85% of the cases after 3 capture per organ. The average time from the first capture until the diagnostic was delivered was 40+/-10 minutes. Conclusion: Realtime or delayed Tele-echography provide similar information as direct examination in at least 85% of the cases. No false diagnostic was reported.

  7. Hybrid echo and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures by using a robotic arm: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yingliang; Penney, Graeme P; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S [Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Bos, Dennis; Frissen, Peter [Philips Applied Technologies, High Tech. Campus 7, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rinaldi, C Aldo, E-mail: y.ma@kcl.ac.u [Department of Cardiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-07

    We present a feasibility study on hybrid echocardiography (echo) and x-ray image guidance for cardiac catheterization procedures. A self-tracked, remotely operated robotic arm with haptic feedback was developed that attached to a standard x-ray table. This was used to safely manipulate a three-dimensional (3D) trans-thoracic echo probe during simultaneous x-ray fluoroscopy and echo acquisitions. By a combination of calibration and tracking of the echo and x-ray systems, it was possible to register the 3D echo images with the 2D x-ray images. Visualization of the combined data was achieved by either overlaying triangulated surfaces extracted from segmented echo data onto the x-ray images or by overlaying volume rendered 3D echo data. Furthermore, in order to overcome the limited field of view of the echo probe, it was possible to create extended field of view (EFOV) 3D echo images by co-registering multiple tracked echo data to generate larger roadmaps for procedure guidance. The registration method was validated using a cross-wire phantom and showed a 2D target registration error of 3.5 mm. The clinical feasibility of the method was demonstrated during two clinical cases for patients undergoing cardiac pacing studies. The EFOV technique was demonstrated using two healthy volunteers. (note)

  8. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie

    2014-02-01

    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Robot-arm-based NDE of hydrogen fuel tank using a 3D-movable HTS-SQUID gradiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukade, Y; Hayashi, K; Tanaka, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanabe, K, E-mail: hatukade@eco.tut.ac.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we constructed a robot-arm-based SQUID-NDE system utilizing a novel HTS-SQUID gradiometer with ramp-edge Josephson junctions for hydrogen fuel tank inspection, and developed an automatic 3D-scanning program. A cylindrical hydrogen fuel tank with a double-layer structure, in which a 3mm-thick Al liner was reinforced by a 3mm-thick carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) cover, was prepared. The tank had a 10-mm-long through crack in the Al liner made by pressure cycle test. To inspect the tank using the SQUID-NDE system, we adopted a low-frequency eddy current technique that enables to excite deep part in the Al liner. By applying an excitation field of 7.5 {mu}T at 0.4 to 10 kHz to the tank from a double-D coil, the tank was scanned by the system while moving the HTS-SQUID gradiometer along curved surface of the tank in magnetically unshielded environment. Magnetic responses from the deep-lying crack in the tank were successfully detected by the system.

  10. Path Planning of Mobile Elastic Robotic Arms by Indirect Approach of Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharam Habibnejad Korayem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding optimal trajectory is critical in several applications of robot manipulators. This paper is applied the open-loop optimal control approach for generating the optimal trajectory of the flexible mobile manipulators in point-to-point motion. This method is based on the Pontryagin-s minimum principle that by providing a two-point boundary value problem is solved the problem. This problem is known to be complex in particular when combined motion of the base and manipulator, non-holonomic constraint of the base and highly non-linear and complicated dynamic equations as a result of flexible nature of links are taken into account. The study emphasizes on modeling of the complete optimal control problem by remaining all nonlinear state and costate variables as well as control constraints. In this method, designer can compromise between different objectives by considering the proper penalty matrices and it yields to choose the proper trajectory among the various paths. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed approach are demonstrated through simulation studies. Finally, to verify the proposed method, the simulation results obtained from the model are compared with the results of those available in the literature.

  11. A quantitative and standardized robotic method for the evaluation of arm proprioception after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Lucia S; Ghez, Claude; Botzer, Lior; Scheidt, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Stroke often results in both motor and sensory deficits, which may interact in the manifested functional impairment. Proprioception is known to play important roles in the planning and control of limb posture and movement; however, the impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function has been difficult to elucidate due in part to the qualitative nature of available clinical tests. We present a quantitative and standardized method for evaluating proprioception in tasks directly relevant to those used to assess motor function. Using a robotic manipulandum that exerted controlled displacements of the hand, stroke participants were evaluated, and compared with a control group, in their ability to detect such displacements in a 2-alternative, forced-choice paradigm. A psychometric function parameterized the decision process underlying the detection of the hand displacements. The shape of this function was determined by a signal detection threshold and by the variability of the response about this threshold. Our automatic procedure differentiates between participants with and without proprioceptive deficits and quantifies functional proprioceptive sensation on a magnitude scale that is meaningful for ongoing studies of degraded motor function in comparable horizontal movements.

  12. Investigation of Fatigability during Repetitive Robot-Mediated Arm Training in People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Severijns

    Full Text Available People with multiple sclerosis (MS are encouraged to engage in exercise programs but an increased experience of fatigue may impede sustained participation in training sessions. A high number of movements is, however, needed for obtaining optimal improvements after rehabilitation.This cross-sectional study investigated whether people with MS show abnormal fatigability during a robot-mediated upper limb movement trial. Sixteen people with MS and sixteen healthy controls performed five times three minutes of repetitive shoulder anteflexion movements. Movement performance, maximal strength, subjective upper limb fatigue and surface electromyography (median frequency and root mean square of the amplitude of the electromyography (EMG signal of the anterior deltoid were recorded during or in-between these exercises. After fifteen minutes of rest, one extra movement bout was performed to investigate how rest influences performance.A fifteen minutes upper limb movement protocol increased the perceived upper limb fatigue and induced muscle fatigue, given a decline in maximal anteflexion strength and changes of both the amplitude and the median frequency of EMG the anterior deltoid. In contrast, performance during the 3 minutes of anteflexion movements did not decline. There was no relation between changes in subjective fatigue and the changes in the amplitude and the median frequency of the anterior deltoid muscle, however, there was a correlation between the changes in subjective fatigue and changes in strength in people with MS. People with MS with upper limb weakness report more fatigue due to the repetitive movements, than people with MS with normal upper limb strength, who are comparable to healthy controls. The weak group could, however, keep up performance during the 15 minutes of repetitive movements.Albeit a protocol of repetitive shoulder anteflexion movements did not elicit a performance decline, fatigue feelings clearly increased in both

  13. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  14. Tool Changer For Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  15. Design and Implement of Fire Robot Based on ARM%基于ARM消防机器人的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 李祥林; 马宏锋

    2012-01-01

    According to sensitive situations of fire,the fire robot has been designed and implemented.ARM2440 is the core control board of robot,which measures distance through the ultrasonic,uses infrared to avoid obstacles,adopts image to identify fire source or tinder,confirms fire positon,carries out the operation of fire detection,photograph,alarm,approach to fire source so as to extinguish the fire.The fire robot completes detection,alarm and fire operation before fire risk,with good reliability and real-time.%针对火种比较敏感的场合,设计并实现了一种智能消防机器人.该机器人以ARM2440为核心控制板,通过超声波测距,红外线避障,采用图像识别火源或火种,确定火灾方位,完成火源探测、拍照、报警,并接近火源,实现灭火操作.消防机器人在火险过程的前三分之二阶段内完成从探测、报警到灭火的操作,具有良好的可靠性和实时性.

  16. Balance Maintenance in High-Speed Motion of Humanoid Robot Arm-Based on the 6D Constraints of Momentum Change Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-song Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR, this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot’s two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm’s joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance.

  17. Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    驷萍

    1997-01-01

    一篇介绍机器人的文章写得如此耐读,如此清新! 首先.我们弄清了robot一词的来历: It was used first in 1920 in a play by Czcchoslovak writer Karel Capek.The wordrobot comes from the Czech word for slave. 上句提供了一个时间:1920。文章接着便抓住这个时间做文章: 且The word robot.and robots themselves are less than 100 years old.But humanshave been dreaming of real and imaginary copies of themselves for thousands of years. 文章就这样写出了波澜,1920年和 thousands of years自然而然构成了强烈对比。1954年和1960s是两个谈及机器人时不得不一提的时间: In 1954,the world’s first robot was produced in the United States. During the 1960s,the first industrial robots appeared beside human workers infactories.下面这句让我们体味到 the Czech word for slave中的 slave不仅言之有理,而且影视和小说里的机器人“造反”,进而 killed the humans who made them的情节也“事出有因”: What do today’s robots do?Robots do work.Work that human consideruninteresting or dangerous.…do many jobs that people consider tiring. 本文将机器人的“功过”放在一起写,笔

  18. Combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy using a four-arm platform: experience, technique and cautions during early procedure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Rizk, Nabil P; Finley, David J; Bains, Manjit S; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Rusch, Valerie W

    2013-05-01

    This study reports an early, single-institution experience of combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic robotic-assisted minimally invasive esophagectomy (RAMIE) using a four-arm robotic platform, with special attention given to the pitfalls and complications during procedure development. We conducted a prospective, single-cohort, observational study of patients undergoing RAMIE at a single institution. A total of 21 patients (median age, 62 years [range, 37-83 years]) underwent RAMIE with a four-arm robotic platform (17 by Ivor Lewis and 4 by McKeown). Of the patients, 17 (81%) had a complete (R0) resection, and 16 (76%) received induction treatment, the majority (14/21 [67%]) with combined chemoradiation. The median operative time was 556 min (range, 395-807 min), which decreased to 414 min (range, 405-543 min) for the last 5 cases in the series. The median estimated blood loss was 307 cm(3) (range, 200-500 cm(3)), and the median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range, 7-70 days). The median number of lymph nodes resected was 20 (range, 10-49). Five (24%) patients were converted to open procedures. Five patients (24%) had major complications. One (5%) died of complications on postoperative Day 70, and 3 (14%) had clinically significant anastomotic leaks (Grade II or greater, by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0). Three patients (14%) in this early experience developed airway fistulas. While four-arm RAMIE may offer advantages over standard minimally invasive esophagectomy approaches, its adoption in a structured program, with critical evaluation of adverse events and subsequent adjustment of technique, is paramount to maximize patient safety, minimize complications and improve the conduct of operation early in the learning curve. Particular technical consideration should be given to prevention of airway complications.

  19. A supplementary system for a brain-machine interface based on jaw artifacts for the bidimensional control of a robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Álvaro; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorín, José M

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) are being used more and more these days to design systems focused on helping people with motor disabilities. Spontaneous BMIs translate user's brain signals into commands to control devices. On these systems, by and large, 2 different mental tasks can be detected with enough accuracy. However, a large training time is required and the system needs to be adjusted on each session. This paper presents a supplementary system that employs BMI sensors, allowing the use of 2 systems (the BMI system and the supplementary system) with the same data acquisition device. This supplementary system is designed to control a robotic arm in two dimensions using electromyographical (EMG) signals extracted from the electroencephalographical (EEG) recordings. These signals are voluntarily produced by users clenching their jaws. EEG signals (with EMG contributions) were registered and analyzed to obtain the electrodes and the range of frequencies which provide the best classification results for 5 different clenching tasks. A training stage, based on the 2-dimensional control of a cursor, was designed and used by the volunteers to get used to this control. Afterwards, the control was extrapolated to a robotic arm in a 2-dimensional workspace. Although the training performed by volunteers requires 70 minutes, the final results suggest that in a shorter period of time (45 min), users should be able to control the robotic arm in 2 dimensions with their jaws. The designed system is compared with a similar 2-dimensional system based on spontaneous BMIs, and our system shows faster and more accurate performance. This is due to the nature of the control signals. Brain potentials are much more difficult to control than the electromyographical signals produced by jaw clenches. Additionally, the presented system also shows an improvement in the results compared with an electrooculographic system in a similar environment.

  20. Imitation of gestures by robotic arms: a quality assessment approach; Imitacion de gestos por brazos roboticos: Una propuesta para evaluar su calidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nope-Rodriguez, S.; Loaiza-Correa, H.; Caicedo-Bravo, E.

    2010-07-01

    This article proposes quantitative evaluation metrics of imitation, suited for the imitation of four gestures performed by a robotic arm on a simulation environment; for each gesture, the metric relies on a group of simple geometric shapes. This approach broadens the concept of imitation; since common metrics just accumulate the error between the joints of the demonstrator and the imitator along their trajectories, in other words, check for the exact replica of the gesture performed by the demonstrator. The results of the proposed metric are compared with an evaluation survey. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Imaging-guided thoracoscopic resection of a ground-glass opacity lesion in a hybrid operating room equipped with a robotic C-arm CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Ping; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Fang, Hsin-Yueh; Chao, Yin-Kai

    2017-05-01

    The intraoperative identification of small pulmonary nodules through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery remains challenging. Although preoperative CT-guided nodule localization is commonly used to detect tumors during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), this approach carries inherent risks. We report the case of a patient with stage I lung cancer presenting as an area of ground-glass opacity (GGO) in the right upper pulmonary lobe. He successfully underwent a single-stage, CT-guided localization and removal of the pulmonary nodule within a hybrid operating room (OR) equipped with a robotic C-arm.

  2. Robotic training and kinematic analysis of arm and hand after incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Z; Sullivan, J L; Eng, D P; Pehlivan, A U; O'Malley, M K; Yozbatiran, N; Francisco, G E

    2011-01-01

    Regaining upper extremity function is the primary concern of persons with tetraplegia caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic rehabilitation has been inadequately tested and underutilized in rehabilitation of the upper extremity in the SCI population. Given the acceptance of robotic training in stroke rehabilitation and SCI gait training, coupled with recent evidence that the spinal cord, like the brain, demonstrates plasticity that can be catalyzed by repetitive movement training such as that available with robotic devices, it is probable that robotic upper-extremity training of persons with SCI could be clinically beneficial. The primary goal of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a novel robotic device for the upper extremity (RiceWrist) and to evaluate robotic rehabilitation using the RiceWrist in a tetraplegic person with incomplete SCI. A 24-year-old male with incomplete SCI participated in 10 sessions of robot-assisted therapy involving intensive upper limb training. The subject successfully completed all training sessions and showed improvements in movement smoothness, as well as in the hand function. Results from this study provide valuable information for further developments of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation in persons with SCI. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  4. Therapeutic synergism in the treatment of post-stroke arm paresis utilizing botulinum toxin, robotic therapy, and constraint-induced movement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Takashi; Amano, Satoru; Hanada, Keisuke; Umeji, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) injection, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), and robotic therapy (RT) each represent promising approaches to enhance arm motor recovery after stroke. To provide more effective treatment for a 50-year-old man with severe left spastic hemiparesis, we attempted to facilitate CIMT with adaptive approaches to extend the wrist and fingers using RT for 10 consecutive weeks after BtxA injection. This combined treatment resulted in substantial improvements in arm function and the amount of arm use in activities of daily living, and may be effective for stroke patients with severe arm paresis. However, we were unable to sufficiently prove the efficacy of combined treatment based only on a single case. To fully elucidate the efficacy of the combined approach for patients with severe hemiparesis after stroke, future studies of a larger number of patients are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain-Computer Interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Keng eAng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG-based Motor Imagery (MI Brain-Computer Interface (BCI coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA score 10-50, recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 minutes per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 hour of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 hour of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 minutes of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 hours of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper-extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12 and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  6. Brain-computer interface-based robotic end effector system for wrist and hand rehabilitation: results of a three-armed randomized controlled trial for chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhou, Longjiang; Tang, Ka Yin; Ephraim Joseph, Gopal J; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an Electroencephalography (EEG)-based Motor Imagery (MI) Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) coupled with a Haptic Knob (HK) robot for arm rehabilitation in stroke patients. In this three-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial; 21 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) score 10-50), recruited after pre-screening for MI BCI ability, were randomly allocated to BCI-HK, HK or Standard Arm Therapy (SAT) groups. All groups received 18 sessions of intervention over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 90 min per session. The BCI-HK group received 1 h of BCI coupled with HK intervention, and the HK group received 1 h of HK intervention per session. Both BCI-HK and HK groups received 120 trials of robot-assisted hand grasping and knob manipulation followed by 30 min of therapist-assisted arm mobilization. The SAT group received 1.5 h of therapist-assisted arm mobilization and forearm pronation-supination movements incorporating wrist control and grasp-release functions. In all, 14 males, 7 females, mean age 54.2 years, mean stroke duration 385.1 days, with baseline FMMA score 27.0 were recruited. The primary outcome measure was upper extremity FMMA scores measured mid-intervention at week 3, end-intervention at week 6, and follow-up at weeks 12 and 24. Seven, 8 and 7 subjects underwent BCI-HK, HK and SAT interventions respectively. FMMA score improved in all groups, but no intergroup differences were found at any time points. Significantly larger motor gains were observed in the BCI-HK group compared to the SAT group at weeks 3, 12, and 24, but motor gains in the HK group did not differ from the SAT group at any time point. In conclusion, BCI-HK is effective, safe, and may have the potential for enhancing motor recovery in chronic stroke when combined with therapist-assisted arm mobilization.

  7. Flexible Robot Arm Dynamics Analysis Based on MATLAB%基于 MATLAB 的柔性机械臂动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫玉昆; 焦国太

    2016-01-01

    In this paper ,the dynamic model of a flexible robot arm was set up by the combination of finite element method (FEM ) and Langrange equation method .Then the dynamic characteristics of the flexible robot arm system were described by mathematic symbolic algorithm using MATLAB program ,which considing the influences of nonlinear factors such as load and friction .This work may lay a theoretical foundation for mechanical design and controling of flexible manipulator .%针对柔性机械臂系统,通过有限元法(FEM )和Lagrange方程相结合的方法建立柔性机械臂的动力学模型,然后通过数学软件MATLAB对数学符号的处理,描述了柔性机械臂单臂系统的动态特性,考虑了载荷和摩擦等非线性因素的影响,为柔性机械臂的机械设计、控制设计等方面奠定了理论基础。

  8. Home-based Computer Assisted Arm Rehabilitation (hCAAR) robotic device for upper limb exercise after stroke: results of a feasibility study in home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Makower, Sophie; Keeling, David; Bhakta, Bipin; O'Connor, Rory J; Levesley, Martin

    2014-12-12

    Home-based robotic technologies may offer the possibility of self-directed upper limb exercise after stroke as a means of increasing the intensity of rehabilitation treatment. The current literature has a paucity of robotic devices that have been tested in a home environment. The aim of this research project was to evaluate a robotic device Home-based Computer Assisted Arm Rehabilitation (hCAAR) that can be used independently at home by stroke survivors with upper limb weakness. hCAAR device comprises of a joystick handle moved by the weak upper limb to perform tasks on the computer screen. The device provides assistance to the movements depending on users ability. Nineteen participants (stroke survivors with upper limb weakness) were recruited. Outcome measures performed at baseline (A0), at end of 8-weeks of hCAAR use (A1) and 1 month after end of hCAAR use (A2) were: Optotrak kinematic variables, Fugl Meyer Upper Extremity motor subscale (FM-UE), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Medical Research Council (MRC) and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) and ABILHAND. Two participants were unable to use hCAAR: one due to severe paresis and the other due to personal problems. The remaining 17 participants were able to use the device independently in their home setting. No serious adverse events were reported. The median usage time was 433 minutes (IQR 250 - 791 min). A statistically significant improvement was observed in the kinematic and clinical outcomes at A1. The median gain in the scores at A1 were by: movement time 19%, path length 15% and jerk 19%, FM-UE 1 point, total MAS 1.5 point, total MRC 2 points, ARAT 3 points, CAHAI 5.5 points and ABILHAND 3 points. Three participants showed clinically significant improvement in all the clinical outcomes. The hCAAR feasibility study is the first clinical study of its kind reported in the current literature; in this study, 17 participants used the robotic device independently

  9. Design of control for household cleaning robot based on ARM%基于arm的家用清洁机器人的控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 陈奕梅

    2014-01-01

    文章提出了一种基于ARM处理器的家用清洁机器人控制系统,包括硬件设计和软件设计。硬件部分包括主控器模块、电源及欠压检测模、传感器模块、人机交互模块、驱动模块以及清洁模块。软件部分设计了清洁机器人的主要控制流程。该控制系统以通用性和功能完备为目标,使机器人具备智能清洁能力。%This paper presents a kind of control system of home cleaning robot based on ARM processor which includes hardware and software design. The hardware part includes main controller module, power supply with undervoltage detection module, sensor module, human-computer interaction module, driving module and cleaning module. The software part designs the staple control procedure of cleaning robot. This control system aims at universal and integrated functions which ensure the robot have the ability to clean intelligently.

  10. Development of Household Intelligent Service Robot with Two Arms%家庭生活支援双臂智能服务机器人的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宪华; 郭永存; 郭帅

    2013-01-01

    A household intelligent service robot was described.The key technologies incluing omnidirectional undercarriage,lightweight arms and the multi-sensor integrating were discussed.The decentralized and hierarchical system control architecture of the robot was introduced.Six days real world experiments carried out with the robot on China International Industry Fair were presented.%阐述了面向家庭生活支援系统的多自由度智能移动服务机器人系统构架方案,对智能服务机器人的全方位移动平台、轻量化手臂及多传感器信息融合等关键部件进行重点论述,并指明进一步研究的方向.通过在上海中国国际工业博览会的现场展示,验证了智能服务机器人系统控制方案的有效性和整体架构的完整性.

  11. 基于ARM的建筑能效数据采集机器人设计%Design of building energy-efficiency data acquisition robot based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙富康; 方潜生; 张毅; 高武双; 陈燕; 张红艳

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces a design of building energy-efficiency data acquisition tracked robot. In indoor environment, using wireless senor network and inertial navigation system combined positioning strategy, the tracked robot can collection wireless sensor node information at target point, and finally complete the building energy efficiency data acquisition task. Though ARM system and several sensors, the tracked robot complete driving and positioning with RSSI technology.%设计了一种应用于建筑能效数据采集的室内履带机器人.该履带机器人在室内环境中通过无线传感器网络和惯性导航系统联合定位的策略,到达目标位置采集无线传感器结点信息,最终完成建筑物内部的建筑能效数据采集任务.采用ARM系统的设计方案,使用电子罗盘、加速度和转速等传感器,结合无线传感器网络的RSSI技术实现了机器人的行驶和定位功能.

  12. Analysis of arm end stiffness for a 6R-spraying robot%6R喷涂机器人操作臂末端刚度的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林义忠; 廖小平; 曾剑

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at a transmission system of a 6-dof spraying robot, the stiffness of the alternating current servo motor, harmonic reducer and timing belt of the system of the robot was analyzed. The transmission chain was simplified a series system composed of a number of elastic elements to calculate the joint axis stiffness. The stiffness matrix of arm end could be calculated and influnce of transmission elements to end stiffness was analized. The arm end stiffness, positioning accuracy can be improved by increasing the stiffness of key elements of the transmission system. Stiffness matrix method proposed in this paper has some practical value in stiffness design of robots.%针对一个6R喷涂机器人的传动系统,分析了系统中交流伺服电机、谐波减速器、同步带等零部件的刚度,并把传动链简化为由若干弹性元件串联组成的系统来计算各关节转轴的关节刚度,从而计算出手臂终端刚度矩阵,并分析各传动部件对末端刚度的影响,通过增加传动系统中关键零部件的刚度来提高手臂的刚度,从而提高机器人的整体刚度和手臂末端点的定位精度,所采用的串联系统刚度矩阵方法在机器人结构的刚度设计中具有一定的应用价值.

  13. Design of a Compliant Robotic Arm Based on Series Elastic Actuator%一种基于串联弹性驱动器的柔顺机械臂设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽; 谷小旭; 赵洪福; 王昆

    2016-01-01

    A compliant robotic arm with passive compliant mechanical structure and active compliant control, SoftArm II, is designed to cope with the dynamically-changing work environments and uncertain human-robot interactions. Series elastic actuators (SEA) are introduced between joint motors and links as transmission module, which is composed of linear springs evenly arranged circumferentially. Firstly, the kinematic model, dynamic model and system stiffness model are set up for the compliant 3DOF robotic arm. Then, SEA spring stiffness can be determined using weighted average joint stiffness at several representative poses in the workspace based on the system stiffness model. Position PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control is employed in the robotic arm, while contact forces at the arm’s end-point and joint torques are monitored to modify the planned trajectory adaptively. Experiments of the circle trajectory tracking in free workspace, human and the robot pushing along a straight line, and collision imitating, are carried out using the compliant robotic arm SoftArm II. The results show that SoftArm II reaches a good position tracking accuracy in free workspace, compliant interaction between the robotic arm and human is achieved, and collision of the robotic arm is safely avoided. The results indicate that the SEA-based passive compliant mechanical structure and the control approach based on end force and joint torque monitoring have the potential to meet the compliance and safety requirements of a robotic arm used in human-robot coexistence environment.%为了应对工作环境的动态变化以及人机交互的不确定性,设计了基于被动柔顺结构和主动柔顺控制的柔顺机械臂SoftArm II.在关节电机和连杆之间加入串联弹性驱动器(SEA)传动模块,SEA传动模块由线弹簧周向均布构成;建立了3DOF柔顺机械臂的运动学/动力学模型以及系统刚度模型,基于系统刚度模型提出工作空

  14. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  15. Exerciser for rehabilitation of the Arm (ERA): Development and unique features of a 3D end-effector robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Marie-Helene; Hamel, Mathieu; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Bernier-Ouellet, Julien; Dupuis, Maxime; Letourneau, Dominic; Briere, Simon; Michaud, Francois

    2016-08-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Consequently, many stroke survivors exhibit difficulties undergoing voluntary movement in their affected upper limb, compromising their functional performance and level of independence. To minimize the negative impact of stroke disabilities, exercises are recognized as a key element in post-stroke rehabilitation. In order to provide the practice of exercises in a uniform and controlled manner as well as increasing the efficiency of therapists' interventions, robotic training has been found, and continues to prove itself, as an innovative intervention for post-stroke rehabilitation. However, the complexity as well as the limited degrees of freedom and workspace of currently commercially available robots can limit their use in clinical settings. Up to now, user-friendly robots covering a sufficiently large workspace for training of the upper limb in its full range of motion are lacking. This paper presents the design and implementation of ERA, an upper-limb 3-DOF force-controlled exerciser robot, which presents a workspace covering the entire range of motion of the upper limb. The ERA robot provides 3D reaching movements in a haptic virtual environment. A description of the hardware and software components of the ERA robot is also presented along with a demonstration of its capabilities in one of the three operational modes that were developed.

  16. Integration of gravitational torques in cerebellar pathways allows for the dynamic inverse computation of vertical pointing movements of a robot arm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe J Gentili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several authors suggested that gravitational forces are centrally represented in the brain for planning, control and sensorimotor predictions of movements. Furthermore, some studies proposed that the cerebellum computes the inverse dynamics (internal inverse model whereas others suggested that it computes sensorimotor predictions (internal forward model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a model of cerebellar pathways deduced from both biological and physical constraints. The model learns the dynamic inverse computation of the effect of gravitational torques from its sensorimotor predictions without calculating an explicit inverse computation. By using supervised learning, this model learns to control an anthropomorphic robot arm actuated by two antagonists McKibben artificial muscles. This was achieved by using internal parallel feedback loops containing neural networks which anticipate the sensorimotor consequences of the neural commands. The artificial neural networks architecture was similar to the large-scale connectivity of the cerebellar cortex. Movements in the sagittal plane were performed during three sessions combining different initial positions, amplitudes and directions of movements to vary the effects of the gravitational torques applied to the robotic arm. The results show that this model acquired an internal representation of the gravitational effects during vertical arm pointing movements. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is consistent with the proposal that the cerebellar cortex contains an internal representation of gravitational torques which is encoded through a learning process. Furthermore, this model suggests that the cerebellum performs the inverse dynamics computation based on sensorimotor predictions. This highlights the importance of sensorimotor predictions of gravitational torques acting on upper limb movements performed in the gravitational field.

  17. 基于DSP带机械手臂履带式移动机器人%Crawler Type Mobile Robot with Mechanical Arm Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远旺; 吴家洲; 邱玉兰; 俞志强

    2014-01-01

    Tracked mobile robots are widely used in military surveillance, anti-terrorism riot, nucleation and pollution prevention, and in other dangerous environments. The robot control system, adopting the structure of DSP embedded servo control system and remote control/semi-autonomous work style, making it work more practi-cal. The embedded control system ensures light weight, small volume, good real-time, and high reliability of the robot. The robot facilitates with a multifunctional mechanical arm, crawler mobile platform, and can realize scene video real-time transmission, and remote control.%履带式移动机器人在军事侦察、反恐防暴、防核化及污染等危险与恶劣环境作业中有着广阔的应用。本机器人控制系统采用了DSP结构的嵌入式伺服控制系统以及遥控/半自主的工作方式,使得机器人工作更具实用性,而嵌入式控制系统则保证了控制系统重量轻、体积小、实时性好、可靠性高的要求。机器人带有多功能机械手臂,现场视频实时传输,履带式移动平台和远程控制相结合。

  18. A neuro-collision avoidance strategy for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onema, Joel P.; Maclaunchlan, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The area of collision avoidance and path planning in robotics has received much attention in the research community. Our study centers on a combination of an artificial neural network paradigm with a motion planning strategy that insures safe motion of the Articulated Two-Link Arm with Scissor Hand System relative to an object. Whenever an obstacle is encountered, the arm attempts to slide along the obstacle surface, thereby avoiding collision by means of the local tangent strategy and its artificial neural network implementation. This combination compensates the inverse kinematics of a robot manipulator. Simulation results indicate that a neuro-collision avoidance strategy can be achieved by means of a learning local tangent method.

  19. The impact of robotic surgery for mid and low rectal cancer: a case-matched analysis of a 3-arm comparison--open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Kyu Jong; Min, Byung Soh; Hur, Hyuk; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lee, Kang Young

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the impact of robotic surgery (RS) in the management of mid and low rectal cancer in comparison with open surgery (OS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS). The benefits of RS in the treatment of rectal cancer have not yet been clearly described. Using propensity scores for adjustment of sex, age, body mass index, tumor stage, and tumor height, a well-balanced cohort with 165 patients in each group, was created by matching each patient who underwent RS as the study group with one who underwent OS or LS as the control group (RS:OS = 1:1, RS:LS = 1:1 match). Pathological results, morbidity, perioperative recovery, and short-term oncological results were compared between the 3 groups. In RS and LS, the time to first flatus and resumed soft diet and length of hospital stay were significantly shortened compared with OS. Robotic surgery showed better recovery outcomes than LS with regard to time to resumed soft diet and length of hospital stay. The visual analog scale was significantly lower in the RS than in the OS and LS from postoperative days 1 to 5. The voiding problem and circumferential resection margin involvement rate were significantly lower in the RS group than in the OS group. No significant difference in 2-year disease-free survival was observed among the 3 groups. Robotic surgery may be an effective tool in the effort to maximize the advantages of minimally invasive surgery in the management of mid to low rectal cancer.

  20. A proof of concept study investigating the feasibility of combining iPAM robot assisted rehabilitation with functional electrical stimulation to deliver whole arm exercise in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory J; Jackson, Andrew; Makower, Sophie G; Cozens, Alastair; Levesley, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation robots can provide exercise for stroke survivors with weakness at the shoulder and elbow, but most do not facilitate hand movements. The aim was to combine robotics and functional electrical stimulation to facilitate exercise in stroke survivors with upper limb impairment. iPAM Mk II was used to assist active reaching in combination with an Odstock Pace stimulator to assist hand opening. The ABILHAND, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) were recorded at baseline and completion. Nine participants (eight males and one female; mean age = 58 years) were recruited; mean time since stroke was 16 months (range = 6-64). The ABILHAND at baseline was -2.73, improving to -1.45 at follow-up (p = 0.038). The ARAT changed from 4.1 to 2.6 (p = 0.180), and the SIS from 49 to 60 (p = 0.019). This study demonstrates that it is possible to combine two technologies in stroke rehabilitation.

  1. Design of Three-Limb Robot with Integrated of Arm-Leg Mechanism%新型三肢体腿臂融合机器人的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊继壮; 李立毅; 赵杰

    2012-01-01

    基于功能仿生原理研制了一种新型三肢体腿臂融合机器人.通过在每个肢体末端配置永磁吸附足和操作器,使机器人可利用肢体分时复用完成移动和操作任务,并具有多种灵活的移动步态和操作方式.通过机器人的基本运动步态实验及操作物品实验,验证了所研制机器人的实用性.%A three-limb robot with integrated of arm-leg mechanism is developed based on functional bionics. The robot can accomplish locomotion and operation tasks in time sharing multiplex mode with aid of permanent magnet absorption mechanisms and operation mechanisms mounted on each limb, and has a variety of agile walking gaits and operation patterns as well. Experiments of fundamental walking gaits and objects operation shows practicality.

  2. Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui

    2013-09-01

    This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.

  3. High-Density Electromyography and Motor Skill Learning for Robust Long-Term Control of a 7-DoF Robot Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use.

  4. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  5. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work.

  6. Research of the vertical swing arm device for a transmission line deicing robot%输电线路除冰机器人竖直摆臂机构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冲振; 庄佳兰; 王吉岱; 王凤芹; 梁程; 张玲玲

    2012-01-01

    研制除冰机器人代替人工方法进行导线除冰具有重要的应用前景.分析了除冰机器人前(后)臂运动特点,得到竖直摆臂机构的设计要求.根据竖直摆臂机构设计要求,采用四杆机构实现竖直摆臂运动.基于四杆机构的封闭性,应用解析法进行了四杆机构的机构综合,并用实例说明其应用.除冰机器人实验样机验证了四杆机构综合方法是正确的,四杆机构式竖直摆臂机构满足机器人的运动所有要求.%Deicing robot is more prospective than the manual in transmission line deicing.The design requirements of vertical swing arm device were got by analyzing motion characteristics of deicing robot fore arm (rear arm).According to motion requirements of the vertical swing arm device, a four-bar mechanism was adopted to achieve its swinging motion.Based on closeness of four-bar mechanism, a synthesis of vertical swing arm device was implemented by analyzing,and an example was used to explain its application. Deicing robot experimental prototype proved that the vertical swing arm device meet the motion require- ments of deicing robot.

  7. An Evaluation of the Design and Usability of a Novel Robotic Bilateral Arm Rehabilitation Device for Patients with Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Pei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Study designCase series.Evidence levelIV (case series.IntroductionRobot-assisted therapy for upper limb rehabilitation is an emerging research topic and its design process must integrate engineering, neurological pathophysiology, and clinical needs.Purpose of the studyThis study developed/evaluated the usefulness of a novel rehabilitation device, the MirrorPath, designed for the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegic stroke.MethodsThe process follows Tseng’s methodology for innovative product design and development, namely two stages, device development and usability assessment. During the development process, the design was guided by patients’ rehabilitation needs as defined by patients and their therapists. The design applied synchronic movement of the bilateral upper limbs, an approach that is compatible with the bilateral movement therapy and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation theories. MirrorPath consists of a robotic device that guides upper limb movement linked to a control module containing software controlling the robotic movement.ResultsFive healthy subjects were recruited in the pretest, and 4 patients, 4 caregivers, and 4 therapists were recruited in the formal test for usability. All recruited subjects were allocated to the test group, completed the evaluation, and their data were all analyzed. The total system usability scale score obtained from the patients, caregivers, and therapists was 71.8 ± 11.9, indicating a high level of usability and product acceptance.Discussion and conclusionFollowing a standard development process, we could yield a design that meets clinical needs. This low-cost device provides a feasible platform for carrying out robot-assisted bilateral movement therapy of patients with hemiplegic stroke.Clinical Trial Registrationidentifier NCT02698605.

  8. Design of an Embedded Mobile Robot Remote Controller Based on ARM%基于ARM的嵌入式移动机器人遥控器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁宪锋; 周风余; 王然; 王小龙

    2012-01-01

    Design of an embedded mobile robot remote controller based on ARM was introduced. The hardware system of the remote controller consists of five different modules: main controller module, power module, LCD module, communication module and button module. The real-time operating system--μC/OS-II is used in the system for multitask scheduling and operation of peripheral devices. According to different situations of the button module, the remote controller sends out different commands to the robot through the RF transceiver named JZ871. Meanwhile, it receives the information from the robot. The LCD module displays the conditions of commands sending, the running states of the robot and the status of the remote controller. A number of validations based on experimental data show this module has advantages of high stability, high accuracy, and long telecontrol distance.%介绍了一种以STM32为核心的嵌入式移动机器人无线遥控器的设计与实现。遥控器硬件部分包括电源模块、主控模块、LCD显示模块、无线数传模块、按键模块;软件上采用嵌入式μC/OS-Ⅱ来实现统一任务调度和外围设备管理。遥控器根据按键的不同状态通过无线收发模块JZ871发送不同指令,并且可以实时接收机器人本体返回的数据,液晶屏会对指令发送状态、机器人本体运行状态及遥控器自身状态进行提示。经过大量实验数据验证,本文设计的遥控器具有高稳定性、高准确性、遥控距离远的优点。

  9. A Study on Developing and Manufacturing of Dual-arm Robot Body Structures and Key Functional Units%双臂机器人本体结构与关键功能部件研制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 周保牛; 吴正勇; 吴小邦

    2016-01-01

    This project analyses the status quo and research findings of manufacturing the body structures of dual-arm robots which have a very promising application prospect in industry, and argues the body structures and the key functional units would satisfy the requirements of featuring both of the robot's dynamics and statics, thus underpinning the functioning of robots with full speed, maximum load and precision. With the detailed demonstration of the latest development of the robot integrated joints, end-effectors, assemblage and precision test, a proposal of making an important breakthrough in key technology is put forward, indicating the future know-how direction of the dual-arm robot.%双臂机器人在工业领域显示了广阔的应用前景,本体结构及关键功能部件是双臂机器人能够实现高速化、高载荷化、高精度化,满足其静力学及动力学特性要求的基础与前提.本文分析了双臂机器人本体结构生产、一体化关节、末端执行器、装配与精度测试的发展,提出了需突破的关键技术,为技术发展提供了发展方向.

  10. Uncontrolled manifold analysis of arm joint angle variability during robotic teleoperation and freehand movement of surgeons and novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisky, Ilana; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Teleoperated robot-assisted surgery (RAS) is used to perform a wide variety of minimally invasive procedures. However, current understanding of the effect of robotic manipulation on the motor coordination of surgeons is limited. Recent studies in human motor control suggest that we optimize hand movement stability and task performance while minimizing control effort and improving robustness to unpredicted disturbances. To achieve this, the variability of joint angles and muscle activations is structured to reduce task-relevant variability and increase task-irrelevant variability. In this study, we determine whether teleoperation of a da Vinci Si surgical system in a nonclinical task of simple planar movements changes this structure of variability in experienced surgeons and novices. To answer this question, we employ the UnControlled manifold analysis that partitions users' joint angle variability into task-irrelevant and task-relevant manifolds. We show that experienced surgeons coordinate their joint angles to stabilize hand movements more than novices, and that the effect of teleoperation depends on experience--experts increase teleoperated stabilization relative to freehand whereas novices decrease it. We suggest that examining users' exploitation of the task-irrelevant manifold for stabilization of hand movements may be applied to: (1) evaluation and optimization of teleoperator design and control parameters, and (2) skill assessment and optimization of training in RAS.

  11. 基于D-H法的挤奶机器人机械臂运动学分析%Analysis on Kinematics of Milking Robot Mechanical Arm based on D-H Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 杨圣虎; 蔡晓华; 吴泽全

    2015-01-01

    为了保证挤奶机器人的机械臂能够满足使用要求和精度,并快速可靠地工作,对其进行运动学分析. 采用D-H法对机械臂的位姿和坐标变换进行建模,通过设置机械臂各杆件坐标系,确定各杆件的齐次坐标变换矩阵,并建立挤奶机器人机械臂运动学方程. 分析结果表明,所设计的机械臂能够满足使用要求.%In order to ensure the mechanical arm of milking robot can meet the requirement of using and accuracy, and can work speedily and reliably, the article did the analysis of kinematics for it. It took D-H method to make model for pose and coordinate transformation of mechanical arm, determined the homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix of each bar by setting each link coordinate system for the mechanical arm, and established kinematics equation for milking robot mechanical arm. The analysis result showed that the design of mechanical arm can meet the request of using.

  12. Robot Avoids Collisions With Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edward; Rosinski, Doug; Wegerif, Dan

    1993-01-01

    Developmental robot equipped with infrared sensors and control system acting in concert to enable manipulator arm to move around obstacles. Robot avoids collisions with other objects, even when moving in unpredictable ways. Control system requires no prior knowledge of environment.

  13. Obstacle Avoidance Criteria Based Motion Planning for Dual-arm Mobile Robot Moving within Truss%基于避障准则的双臂手移动机器人桁架内运动规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟国; 吴鹏

    2012-01-01

    Motion planning approach for dual-arm mobile robot within a truss is studied based on the obstacle avoidance requirements when moving in truss. The collision-free path search algorithm for end-effector in Cartesian coordinate space is proposed based on state-space model, which avoids the problem of complexity growing exponentially in Configuration space (C space) and achieves the requirement of truss bar could either be a target or and obstacle. Obstacle avoidance criteria within the plane for three-arm of dual-arm mobile robot is established, which solves the problem that robot's arms collide with truss bar when the robot moves in truss space. According to the obstacle avoidance criteria within the plane and arm configurations signs, the analytical solution of each joint angle is obtained, which solves the problem that the numerical solution is not closed. The gesture of end-effector in each moment is interpolated linearly by general rotation transformation formula. Matlab is used to model and simulate the dual-arm mobile robot's motion in the truss to verify the feasibility of the obstacle avoidance approach for the motion in the truss.%针对桁架内移动的避障要求,研究双臂手移动机器人桁架内运动的规划方法.基于状态空间模型提出直角坐标空间下的六面心、八边心和八顶点搜索算法,避免了C空间内复杂度呈几何级数增长的问题,实现了末端无碰撞路径搜索.建立双臂手移动机器人三节臂的平面内避障准则,解决了机器人在桁架内运动时机器人臂与桁架杆的碰撞问题.根据平面内避障准则和臂形标志,求得了各个关节角的解析解,解决了数值解的不封闭问题.每个时刻末端姿态由通用旋转变换公式线性插值得到,在Matlab中仿真双臂手移动机器人桁架内的运动,验证了双臂手移动机器人在桁架内运动时避障方法的可行性.

  14. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  15. Dynamic and Stability of Harmonic Driving Flexible Cartesian Robotic Arm with Bolted Joints Based on the Sensitivity and Multiple Scales Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Cartesian robotic arms (CRAs are typical multicoupling systems. Considering the elastic effects of bolted joints and the motion disturbances, this paper investigates the dynamic and stability of the flexible CRA. With the kinetic energy and potential energy of the comprising components, Hamilton’s variational principle and Duhamel integral are utilized to derive the dynamic equation and vibration differential equation. Based on the proposed elastic restraint model of the bolted joints, boundary conditions and mode equations of the flexible CRA are determined with using the principle of virtual work. According to the mode frequencies and sensitivities analysis, it reveals that the connecting stiffness of the bolted joints has significant influences, and the mode frequencies are more sensitive to the tensional stiffness. Moreover, describing the motion displacement of the driving base as combination of an average motion displacement and a harmonic disturbance, the vibration responses of the system are studied. The result indicates that the motion disturbance has obvious influence on the vibration responses, and the influence enhances under larger accelerating operations. The multiple scales method is introduced to analyze the parametric stability of the system, as well as the influences of the tensional stiffness and the end-effector on the stability.

  16. From the elastica compass to the elastica catapult: an essay on the mechanics of soft robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, C.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.; Bigoni, D.

    2017-02-01

    An elastic rod is clamped at one end and has a dead load attached to the other (free) end. The rod is then slowly rotated using the clamp. When the load is smaller than the buckling value, the rod describes a continuous set of quasi-static forms and its end traces a (smooth, convex and simple) closed curve, which would be a circle if the rod were rigid. The closed curve is analytically determined through the integration of the Euler's elastica, so that for sufficiently small loads the mechanical system behaves as an `elastica compass'. For loads higher than that of buckling, the elastica reaches a configuration from which a snap-back instability occurs, realizing a sort of `elastica catapult'. The whole quasi-static evolution leading to the critical configuration for snapping is calculated through the elastica and the subsequent dynamic motion simulated using two numerical procedures, one ad hoc developed and another based on a finite-element scheme. The theoretical results are then validated on a specially designed and built apparatus. An obvious application of the present model would be in the development of soft robotic limbs, but the results are also of interest for the optimization analysis in pole vaulting.

  17. From the elastica compass to the elastica catapult: an essay on the mechanics of soft robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, C.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.

    2017-01-01

    An elastic rod is clamped at one end and has a dead load attached to the other (free) end. The rod is then slowly rotated using the clamp. When the load is smaller than the buckling value, the rod describes a continuous set of quasi-static forms and its end traces a (smooth, convex and simple) closed curve, which would be a circle if the rod were rigid. The closed curve is analytically determined through the integration of the Euler’s elastica, so that for sufficiently small loads the mechanical system behaves as an ‘elastica compass’. For loads higher than that of buckling, the elastica reaches a configuration from which a snap-back instability occurs, realizing a sort of ‘elastica catapult’. The whole quasi-static evolution leading to the critical configuration for snapping is calculated through the elastica and the subsequent dynamic motion simulated using two numerical procedures, one ad hoc developed and another based on a finite-element scheme. The theoretical results are then validated on a specially designed and built apparatus. An obvious application of the present model would be in the development of soft robotic limbs, but the results are also of interest for the optimization analysis in pole vaulting. PMID:28293144

  18. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  19. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration: development and application to tasked-based imaging with a robotic C-arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G.; Uneri, A.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Robotic C-arm systems are capable of general noncircular orbits whose trajectories can be driven by the particular imaging task. However obtaining accurate calibrations for reconstruction in such geometries can be a challenging problem. This work proposes a method to perform a unique geometric calibration of an arbitrary C-arm orbit by registering 2D projections to a previously acquired 3D image to determine the transformation parameters representing the system geometry. Methods: Experiments involved a cone-beam CT (CBCT) bench system, a robotic C-arm, and three phantoms. A robust 3D-2D registration process was used to compute the 9 degree of freedom (DOF) transformation between each projection and an existing 3D image by maximizing normalized gradient information with a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the 3D volume. The quality of the resulting "self-calibration" was evaluated in terms of the agreement with an established calibration method using a BB phantom as well as image quality in the resulting CBCT reconstruction. Results: The self-calibration yielded CBCT images without significant difference in spatial resolution from the standard ("true") calibration methods (p-value >0.05 for all three phantoms), and the differences between CBCT images reconstructed using the "self" and "true" calibration methods were on the order of 10-3 mm-1. Maximum error in magnification was 3.2%, and back-projection ray placement was within 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The proposed geometric "self" calibration provides a means for 3D imaging on general noncircular orbits in CBCT systems for which a geometric calibration is either not available or not reproducible. The method forms the basis of advanced "task-based" 3D imaging methods now in development for robotic C-arms.

  20. Computer-Aided Design and Simulation for the Collision-Avoidance Path Planning of a 2D Robot Arm%机械手避碰路径规划计算机辅助设计与模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志艳; 杨光友; 陈汀; 李浩

    2013-01-01

    本文以离线运动规划方式,使用计算机程序搜寻二维机械手臂的避碰路径的平面直角坐标,以便迅速且合理地求得与避碰路径对应的手臂关节角度。在避碰搜寻过程中,以基本的几何形体代替机械手臂与障碍物的外形来检查手臂的各杆臂是否与障碍物发生碰撞的现象。最后,使用MATLAB软件建立机械手臂与障碍物的实体模型,并读取由程序所产生的关节角度,以进行机械手臂的避碰运动模拟,同时提供视觉上验证避碰路径的可行性。%This paper uses computer simulation approach to search the Cartesian coordinates of an collision-avoidance path for a two-dimensional robot arm.This approach is essential an off-line mtion planning .The joint angles of the robot arm corresponding to a successful path can be efifciently and reasonably obtained by the basic geometry of high school level math,which is used to solve the inverse kinematics problem.In the search process,simple geometric bodies instead of the real shapes of the robot arm and obstacles are used to check the collision between the robot links and obstacles.Finally,using MATLAB software constructs the solid model of the robot arm and obstacles and simulates the collision-avoidance motion by following the path output from the computer program.Using MATLAB also visually provides a way of verifying the feasibility of collision of collision-avoidance paths.

  1. Maintaining trust while fixated to a rehabilitative robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Laura U.; Winther, Trine Straarup; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the trust relationship between humans and a rehabilitation robot, the RoboTrainer. We present a study in which participants let the robot guide their arms through a series of preset coordinates in a 3D space. Each participant interact with the robot twice, one time where...... participants hold on to the robotic arm, and a second time where participants are fixated to the robotic arm. Our findings show that in general participants did not feel more insecure when fixated to the robot. However, when the robot arm moves close to participants and enter their intimate space, or when...

  2. Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); hide

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  3. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  4. Robot Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  5. Kinematics analysis and experiment of multifunctional agricultural robot in greenhouse with three arms%三臂多功能棚室农业机器人的运动学分析及试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权龙哲; 张冬冬; 查绍辉; 奚德君; 王昊

    2015-01-01

    In Greenhouses, the management of fruits and vegetable production involves many tasks, such as picking, spraying, cutting and so on. However, the agricultural robots currently available mainly focus on one specific task. This research focused on a new multifunctional agricultural robot with three arms. Each of its robotic arms has its own function for a different end use. The robot not only can complete one task by collaboration of two different robotic arms but also can fulfill spraying, cutting and picking tasks in the same area. So by using such robot, output productivity can be improved effectively and the cost would be reduced. The robot comprises caterpillar chassis, height-adjustable torso, mechanical structure with three arms, machine-vision system and control system. When at the state of working, the robot uses its machine-vision system to recognize targets. At the moment when targets are found, the robot adjusts its position in order to do tasks correspondingly. Setting up kinematics model of the agricultural robot is the precondition of realizing the system multi-functions. In this paper, we set up the link coordinate system of agricultural robot based on D-H approach. Homogeneous transforming matrixes of adjacent link were established according to the linkage parameters and joint variables. Kinematics equations of visual system, cutting end effector, picking end effector and spraying end effector were deducted and solved, respectively. So the relationship between the position and posture of end effects and linkage parameters and joint variables were determined. The closed-form inverse kinematics was presented by algebraic method and the value of joint variables was calculated according to the certain position and posture of end effects. Kinematics experiments were carried out to verify the correctness of kinematics algorithm and accuracy in application. Matlab software was used to help the calculation of the enveloping space of end effects in the mode

  6. [Robot-aided training in rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisuka, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Recently, new training techniques that involve the use of robots have been used in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegia and paraplegia. Robots used for training the arm include the MIT-MANUS, Arm Trainer, mirror-image motion enabler (MIME) robot, and the assisted rehabilitation and measurement (ARM) Guide. Robots that are used for lower-limb training are the Rehabot, Gait Trainer, Lokomat, LOPES Exoskeleton Robot, and Gait Assist Robot. Robot-aided therapy has enabled the functional training of the arm and the lower limbs in an effective, easy, and comfortable manner. Therefore, with this type of therapy, the patients can repeatedly undergo sufficient and accurate training for a prolonged period. However, evidence of the benefits of robot-aided training has not yet been established.

  7. Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Badoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.

  8. Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Badoni

    2016-01-01

    The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.

  9. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon's hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor.

  10. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon’s hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. PMID:26822625

  11. Simulating the dynamic interaction of a robotic arm and the Space Shuttle remote manipulator system. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Dec. 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrahan, Steven L.; Tolson, Robert H.; Williams, Robert L., II

    1995-01-01

    Industrial robots are usually attached to a rigid base. Placing the robot on a compliant base introduces dynamic coupling between the two systems. The Vehicle Emulation System (VES) is a six DOF platform that is capable of modeling this interaction. The VES employs a force-torque sensor as the interface between robot and base. A computer simulation of the VES is presented. Each of the hardware and software components is described and Simulink is used as the programming environment. The simulation performance is compared with experimental results to validate accuracy. A second simulation which models the dynamic interaction of a robot and a flexible base acts as a comparison to the simulated motion of the VES. Results are presented that compare the simulated VES motion with the motion of the VES hardware using the same admittance model. The two computer simulations are compared to determine how well the VES is expected to emulate the desired motion. Simulation results are given for robots mounted to the end effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). It is shown that for fast motions of the two robots studied, the SRMS experiences disturbances on the order of centimeters. Larger disturbances are possible if different manipulators are used.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex and robot-assisted arm training in chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury: A proof of concept sham-randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozbatiran, Nuray; Keser, Zafer; Davis, Matthew; Stampas, Argyrios; O'Malley, Marcia K; Cooper-Hay, Catherine; Frontera, Joel; Fregni, Felipe; Francisco, Gerard E

    2016-07-15

    After cervical spinal cord injury, current options for treatment of upper extremity motor functions have been limited to traditional approaches. However, there is a substantial need to explore more rigorous alternative treatments to facilitate motor recovery. To demonstrate whether anodal-primary motor cortex (M1) excitability enhancement (with cathodal-supra orbital area) (atDCS) combined with robot-assisted arm training (R-AAT) will provide greater improvement in contralateral arm and hand motor functions compared to sham stimulation (stDCS) and R-AAT in patients with chronic, incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (iCSCI). In this parallel-group, double-blinded, randomized and sham-controlled trial, nine participants with chronic iCSCI (AIS C and D level) were randomized to receive 10 sessions of atDCS or stDSC combined with R-AAT. Feasibility and tolerability was assessed with attrition rate and occurrence of adverse events, Changes in arm and hand function were assessed with Jebson Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT). Amount of Use Scale of Motor Activity Log (AOU-MAL), American Spinal Injury Association Upper Extremity Motor Score and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) at baseline, after treatment, and at two-month follow-up. None of the participants missed a treatment session or dropped-out due to adverse events related to the treatment protocol. Participants tended to perform better in JTHFT and AOU-MAL after treatment. Active group at post-treatment and two-month follow-up demonstrated better arm and hand performance compared to sham group. These preliminary findings support that modulating excitatory input of the corticospinal tracts on spinal circuits may be a promising strategy in improving arm and hand functions in persons with incomplete tetraplegia. Further study is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of recovery.

  13. Development and Implementation of an End-Effector Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot for Hemiplegic Patients with Line and Circle Tracking Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous robots have been widely used to deliver rehabilitative training for hemiplegic patients to improve their functional ability. Because of the complexity and diversity of upper limb motion, customization of training patterns is one key factor during upper limb rehabilitation training. Most of the current rehabilitation robots cannot intelligently provide adaptive training parameters, and they have not been widely used in clinical rehabilitation. This article proposes a new end-effector upper limb rehabilitation robot, which is a two-link robotic arm with two active degrees of freedom. This work investigated the kinematics and dynamics of the robot system, the control system, and the realization of different rehabilitation therapies. We also explored the influence of constraint in rehabilitation therapies on interaction force and muscle activation. The deviation of the trajectory of the end effector and the required trajectory was less than 1 mm during the tasks, which demonstrated the movement accuracy of the robot. Besides, results also demonstrated the constraint exerted by the robot provided benefits for hemiplegic patients by changing muscle activation in the way similar to the movement pattern of the healthy subjects, which indicated that the robot can improve the patient’s functional ability by training the normal movement pattern.

  14. Therapeutic Robotics: A Technology Push: Stroke rehabilitation is being aided by robots that guide movement of shoulders and elbows, wrists, hands, arms and ankles to significantly improve recovery of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we present a retrospective and chronological review of our efforts to revolutionize the way physical medicine is practiced by developing and deploying therapeutic robots. We present a sample of our clinical results with well over 300 stroke patients, both inpatients and outpatients, proving that movement therapy has a measurable and significant impact on recovery following brain injury. Bolstered by this result, we embarked on a two-pronged approach: 1) to determine what constitutes best therapy practice and 2) to develop additional therapeutic robots. We review our robots developed over the past 15 years and their unique characteristics. All are configured both to deliver reproducible therapy but also to measure outcomes with minimal encumbrance, thus providing critical measurement tools to help unravel the key question posed under the first prong: what constitutes "best practice"? We believe that a "gym" of robots like these will become a central feature of physical medicine and the rehabilitation clinic within the next ten years.

  15. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  16. System and method for controlling a vision guided robot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Daro, Timothy; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Turner, III, Raymond D.; Casoli, Daniel J.

    2017-03-07

    A method includes the following steps: actuating a robotic arm to perform an action at a start position; moving the robotic arm from the start position toward a first position; determining from a vision process method if a first part from the first position will be ready to be subjected to a first action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the first position; commencing the execution of the visual processing method for determining the position deviation of the second part from the second position and the readiness of the second part to be subjected to a second action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the second position; and performing a first action on the first part using the robotic arm with the position deviation of the first part from the first position predetermined by the vision process method.

  17. Robotic assisted laparoscopic colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pandalai, S

    2010-06-01

    Robotic surgery has evolved over the last decade to compensate for limitations in human dexterity. It avoids the need for a trained assistant while decreasing error rates such as perforations. The nature of the robotic assistance varies from voice activated camera control to more elaborate telerobotic systems such as the Zeus and the Da Vinci where the surgeon controls the robotic arms using a console. Herein, we report the first series of robotic assisted colectomies in Ireland using a voice activated camera control system.

  18. Innovation in Robotic Surgery: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V Deshpande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotics is the science. In scientific words a "Robot" is an electromechanical arm device with a computer interface, a combination of electrical, mechanical, and computer engineering. It is a mechanical arm that performs tasks in Industries, space exploration, and science. One such idea was to make an automated arm - A robot - In laparoscopy to control the telescope-camera unit electromechanically and then with a computer interface using voice control. It took us 5 long years from 2004 to bring it to the level of obtaining a patent. That was the birth of the Swarup Robotic Arm (SWARM which is the first and the only Indian contribution in the field of robotics in laparoscopy as a total voice controlled camera holding robotic arm developed without any support by industry or research institutes.

  19. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  20. Development of a 3D Parallel Mechanism Robot Arm with Three Vertical-Axial Pneumatic Actuators Combined with a Stereo Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot’s end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H∞ tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end

  1. Non-rigid body static model based miniature robotic arm pose estimation%基于非刚体静力模型的微型机械臂姿态估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷洋; 田书林; 程玉华

    2012-01-01

    A model based estimation approach is proposed to determine the real-time kinematic pose of a miniature cable driven robotic arm with ten passive planar rotation joints. A non-rigid body static equilibrium model is constructed, and the ten planar degree of freedom ( DOF) variables are transformed to one translational variable and one tensile force variable. An linear variable differential transformer(LVDT) sensor and a load cell are used in this robotic arm to measure the planar kinematic pose of its end actuator. The accuracy and error of the measurement results are analyzed; the advantage and insufficiency of this measurement approach are stated; and the proposed method is compared with other potential measurement schemes.%提出了一种针对具有10个被动平面转动关节的微型化柔索驱动机械臂运动姿态的实时估计方法.通过建立该微型机械臂的非刚体静力模型,将10个平面自由度变量转化为1个位移变量和1个张力变量.用一个线型差动变压位移传感器(linear variable differential transformer,LVDT)和一个微型载荷传感器(load cell)测量该微型机械臂终端执行器的平面运动姿态.通过对测量结果的精度和误差进行分析,指出了该测量方法的优势与不足,并与其他几种可能的测量方法进行了比较和讨论.

  2. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS AND CALM CONTROL OF DUAL-ARM SPACE ROBOT FOR CAPTURING A SATELLITE%空间机器人双臂捕获卫星力学分析及镇定控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程靖; 陈力

    2016-01-01

    As the technology of space science develops rapidly, space robot system is expected to capture the non-cooperative satellite on-orbit. Space robot with dual-arm obviously has more comparative advantage in this respect com-pared with the one with single arm. Because of the complicated condition in outer space it makes the dynamics and control problems related to satellite-capturing operation by space robot system with dual-arm to be extremely complicated, and there are some unique characteristics, such as, nonholonomic dynamics restriction, change of system configuration, trans-fer of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy, topology transfer from open to closed loop system, and the constraints of closed-loop geometry and kinematics during satellite-capturing operation. In this paper, the dynamic evolu-tion for space robot with dual-arm capturing a spin satellite and calm control for unstable closed chain composite system are discussed. At first, with the Lagrangian approach, the dynamic model of open chain space robot with dual-arm before capture operation is established, and dynamic model of satellite is derived by Newton-Euler method. On that basis, based on the law of conservation of momentum and the law of force transfer, the impact effect after collision of space robot with dual-arm to capture the target is analyzed and solved by the process of integration and simplification, and the suitable cap-ture operation strategy is given. Closed chain constraint equations are obtained by the constraints of closed-loop geometry and kinematics of closed chain system. With the closed chain constraint equations, the composite system dynamic model is derived. For the unstable closed chain composite system after the capture, the fuzzy H∞control scheme for calm motion is designed. The fuzzy logic system is applied to overcome the influence of uncertainty part and the robust H∞ control item is used to eliminate the approximate error, to guarantee the tracking

  3. Development of posture self-balance mechanism for suspension arm power transmission line inspection robot%吊臂式巡线机器人悬吊姿态自平衡机构的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜生元; 任立敏; 焦宏章; 李建永; 吕相艳

    2011-01-01

    The research on the posture instability phenomena occurred when the widely applied suspension arm inspection robot is crossing over the cable attachments was carried out, the respective pitching instability self-balance mechanism and side sway instability self-balance mechanism was presented from the point view of mechanism, and the analysis of their operating principles was also conducted. Above self-balance mechanism has been proven to be practical and feasible by theoretical-analysis and experimental testing, laying a solid foundation for the application popularization of power line inspection robot.%文中针对目前应用较为广泛的吊臂式巡线机器人在跨越线缆附件时所出现的姿态失稳现象进行了研究,从机构学的角度研制了相应的俯仰失稳自平衡机构、侧倾失稳自平衡机构,并分析了其工作原理.通过理论分析和实验验证,证明了上述自平衡机构的实用性和可行性,为电力巡线机器人的应用推广奠定了坚实的基础.

  4. ARM-Cortex M3-Based Two-Wheel Robot for Assessing Grid Cell Model of Medial Entorhinal Cortex: Progress towards Building Robots with Biologically Inspired Navigation-Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cuneo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation and use of a two-wheel autonomous robot and its effectiveness as a tool for studying the recently discovered use of grid cells as part of mammalian’s brains space-mapping circuitry (specifically the medial entorhinal cortex. A proposed discrete-time algorithm that emulates the medial entorhinal cortex is programed into the robot. The robot freely explores a limited laboratory area in the manner of a rat or mouse and reports information to a PC, thus enabling research without the use of live individuals. Position coordinate neural maps are achieved as mathematically predicted although for a reduced number of implemented neurons (i.e., 200 neurons. However, this type of computational embedded system (robot’s microcontroller is found to be insufficient for simulating huge numbers of neurons in real time (as in the medial entorhinal cortex. It is considered that the results of this work provide an insight into achieving an enhanced embedded systems design for emulating and understanding mathematical neural network models to be used as biologically inspired navigation system for robots.

  5. Research on Control of Renal Biopsy Operation Positioning Robot Under the Guidance of C Arm%C型臂引导下肾穿剌手术定位机器人控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东; 谢叻; 孟纪超; 夏海豹; 夏术介

    2013-01-01

    C-arm image—guided surgical positioning technology is widely used in domestic renal biopsy surgery. C-arni for the two-dimensional images cannot directly provide a three- dimensional image information, and work long hours will lead to health care workers suffer from high—dose radiation. In order to improve the above limitations, we design new surgical positioning robot to access three-dimensional image by two positioning image. Robot control is used fuzzy controller as compensator, which improve control accuracy effectively. The surgical positioning robot can quickly locate, and greatly improve the surgery a success rate, to protect health care workers from the X—ray radiation.%以C型臂图像为引导的定位手术目前在国内肾穿刺手术中广泛应用,但C型臂为二维图像,无法直接提供三维图像信息,且长时间工作会导致医护人员遭受大剂量辐射.为改进上述局限性,设计了新型手术定位机器人通过两次定位来完成对三维图像的获取.在机器人控制中,利用模糊控制器作为补偿器,有效地提高控制精度.这套手术定位机器人可以快速定位,并大大提高了手术的一次成功率,保护医护工作者免受X射线辐射.

  6. 基于双目视觉的机器人目标定位与机械臂控制%Target Positioning and Mechanical Arm Control of Robot Based on Binocular Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁衍凯; 徐昱琳; 周勇飞; 吕晓梦; 王明

    2013-01-01

    In order to interact with complex and changeable environments,finish the recognition and grab for object,a humanoid robot arm control method based on binocular vision is presented that employed in service robot.Manipulator is modeled by D-H method in this paper,the model is improved,a sample inverse arithmetic of humanoid manipulator is presented.The target object is recognized by color segmentation and the 3D position is computed by the stereo vision system.After positioning the target,a blind grasp is performed by the manipulator.Experimental results are conducted for illustration of effectiveness of the proposed methods,and the service robot can recognize and grab the object.%为了更好地与复杂多变的非结构化环境进行交互,完成对目标物体的识别和抓取,提出了一种应用于服务机器人平台的基于双目视觉的仿人机械臂控制方法.文中首先用D-H方法对机械臂进行建模,并对这个模型做了改进,给出了一种更加简便的3+1自由度仿人机械臂的逆解算法,采用基于双目视觉与颜色分割的目标识别方法;然后根据识别出的目标三维坐标信息控制机械臂完成抓取任务;最后,本方法在家庭服务机器人上得到了验证,机器人能够完成对目标物体的识别和抓取动作.

  7. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  8. Robotics and the pediatric surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Attila; Langenburg, Scott; Klein, Michael D

    2003-06-01

    Surgical robots are enabling devices for minimally invasive (laparoscopic) surgery (MIS). They use a computer to enhance a surgeon's skills as hand movements are transmitted to robotic arms. The computer filters tremor, which becomes important at high magnifications of 10 to 15 times available in MIS. It also provides motion scaling so that large hand movements are converted to very small movements of the robotic arm. The robotic arms also have wrists that make suturing and knot tying far more accurate and efficient. Surgical robots are currently used clinically for procedures such as MIS Nissen fundoplication, cholecystectomy, and splenectomy. Laboratory experience indicates that they may provide advantages for newborn procedures such as portoenterostomy for biliary atresia and repair of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. They have a potential for making possible MIS procedures, which can only be done open now, and for introducing entirely new procedures as well as for the performance of procedures by operators distant from the patient.

  9. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots.......-O-bot, a large service robot, in a medical measurement scenario, we compare the timing of the robot's behaviors in three between-subject conditions. The results show that the relative timing of robot behaviors has significant effects on the number of problems participants encounter, and that the robot's verbal...

  10. 基于DSP平台的排爆机械臂控制系统设计%Design of Control System for Eod Robot Arm Based on DSP Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝大; 杜启亮; 秦传波; 田联房; 肖志远

    2014-01-01

    针对具有危险的特种环境,设计一个可以代替人工作业的排爆机器人控制系统。该系统以DSP为中央处理核心,用6个伺服电机配合铝制合金搭建机械臂硬件结构,利用DSP增强型PWM模块驱动伺服电机,上位机采用PC机进行控制。实现了串口测试软件向SCI模块发送指令的功能,从而控制机械臂,仿生模仿人手的各类运动。实验结果表明:控制系统精度高,调节快,该机械臂有强的承重能力,能准确握紧危险品并放于隔离箱中。%Aiming at dangerous special environment,a control system for eod robot which could be used to replace manual opera-tion was designed. In this system,DSP was used as central processing core,six servo motors with aluminum alloy were used to com-plete hardware structure of the mechanical arm. The DSP enhanced PWM module was used to drive the servo motor. Host computer was controlled by PC. Instruction was sent to SCI by the serial testing software,so as to control mechanical arm and can realize multi-an-gle movement. The experimental results show that the control system’s precision is high,the adjustment velocity is fast,the mechani-cal arm has strong bearing ability and can accurately hold dangerous goods and put them in isolation box.

  11. Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and delay...

  12. Transferring human impedance regulation skills to robots

    CERN Document Server

    Ajoudani, Arash

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces novel thinking and techniques to the control of robotic manipulation. In particular, the concept of teleimpedance control as an alternative method to bilateral force-reflecting teleoperation control for robotic manipulation is introduced. In teleimpedance control, a compound reference command is sent to the slave robot including both the desired motion trajectory and impedance profile, which are then realized by the remote controller. This concept forms a basis for the development of the controllers for a robotic arm, a dual-arm setup, a synergy-driven robotic hand, and a compliant exoskeleton for improved interaction performance.

  13. Experiment on vibration control of a two-link flexible manipulator using an input shaper and adaptive positive position feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhongYi Chu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel approach for actively suppressing the vibration within a two-link flexible manipulator to adapt the variation in the model parameters, which is composed of an input shaper and multimode adaptive positive position feedback. Input shaper is applied to shape the command to avoid the flexible vibration in the manoeuvre motion, and the residual vibration can be suppressed by a piezo actuator with the adaptive positive position feedback approach. To demonstrate the approach, two sets of piezoelectric actuator/stain gauge sensor pairs are bonded to the surface of the two-link flexible manipulator; slewing of the flexible link induces vibrations in the link that persist long after the motors stop moving. Vibration suppression is achieved through a combined scheme of input shaper–based motor motion control and an adaptive positive position feedback–based piezo actuator controller. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its suitability for implementation in an existing robot.

  14. Honda humanoid robots development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  15. Spherical mechanism analysis of a surgical robot for minimally invasive surgery -- analytical and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jacob; Lum, Mitch; Trimble, Denny; Hannaford, Blake; Sinanan, Mika

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to the fusion of MIS techniques and robot devices. However, current systems are large and cumbersome. Optimizing the surgical robot mechanism will eventually lead to its integration into the operating room (OR) of the future becoming the extended presence of the surgeon and nurses in a room occupied by the patient alone. By optimizing a spherical mechanism using data collected in-vivo during MIS procedures, this study is focused on a bottom-up approach to developing a new class of surgical robotic arms while maximizing their performance and minimizing their size. The spherical mechanism is a rotational manipulator with all axes intersecting at the center of the sphere. Locating the rotation center of the mechanism at the MIS port makes this class of mechanism a suitable candidate for the first two links of a surgical robot for MIS. The required dexterous workspace (DWS) is defined as the region in which 95% of the tool motions are contained based on in-vivo measurements. The extended dexterous workspace (EDWS) is defined as the entire abdominal cavity reachable by a MIS instruments. The DWS is defined by a right circular cone with a vertex angle of 60 degrees and the EDWS is defined by a cone with an elliptical cross section created by two orthogonal vertex angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees. A compound function based on the mechanism's isotropy and the mechanism stiffness was considered as the performance metric cost function. Optimization across both the DWS and the EDWS lead to a serial mechanism configuration with link length angles of 74 degrees and 60 degrees for a serial configuration. This mechanism configuration maximized the kinematic performance in the DWS while keeping the EDWS as its reachable workspace. Surgeons, using a mockup of two mechanisms in a MIS setup, validated these results experimentally. From these experiments the serial configuration was deemed most applicable for MIS robotic applications compared

  16. On adaptive trajectory tracking of a robot manipulator using inversion of its neural emulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, L; Gopal, M; Chaudhury, S

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of a neuro-adaptive trajectory tracking controller. The paper presents a new control scheme based on inversion of a feedforward neural model of a robot arm. The proposed control scheme requires two modules. The first module consists of an appropriate feedforward neural model of forward dynamics of the robot arm that continuously accounts for the changes in the robot dynamics. The second module implements an efficient network inversion algorithm that computes the control action by inverting the neural model. In this paper, a new extended Kalman filter (EKF) based network inversion scheme is proposed. The scheme is evaluated through comparison with two other schemes of network inversion: gradient search in input space and Lyapunov function approach. Using these three inversion schemes the proposed controller was implemented for trajectory tracking control of a two-link manipulator. Simulation results in all cases confirm the efficacy of control input prediction using network inversion. Comparison of the inversion algorithms in terms of tracking accuracy showed the superior performance of the EKF based inversion scheme over others.

  17. Pyrotechnic robot - constructive design and command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel A. Staretu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyrotechnic robots are service robots used to reduce the time for intervention of pyrotechnic troops and to diminish the danger for the operators. Pyrotechnic robots are used to inspect dangerous areas or/and to remove and to distroy explosive or suspicious devices/objects. These robots can be used to make corridors through mined battle fields, for manipulation and neutralization of unexploded ammunition, for inspection of vehicles, trains, airplanes and buildings. For these robots, a good functional activity is determined with regard to work space dimensions,, robotic arm kinematics and gripper characteristics. The paper shows the structural, kinematic, static synthesis and analysis as well as the design and functional simulation of the robotic arm and the grippers attached on the pyrotechnic robot designed by the authors.

  18. Design of a Laser Range Finder for End Perception of Robot Arm%用于机械臂末端感知的激光测距传感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张禹; 孙奎; 张元飞; 刘宏; 朱万彬

    2014-01-01

    为了提高轻型机械臂的末端感知及操作能力,研制了一种用于轻型机械臂末端感知的近距离大测量范围的高集成化微小型激光测距传感器.基于三角法测距原理,以线阵CCD作为光敏感元件,以FPGA作为主控器,根据传感器分辨率的分布要求设计光学系统,使传感器具有测距范围大、测量最近距离近和测量速度快的显著优点.传感器利用光机电一体化设计思想,采用柔性PCB折叠电路、微小型光学元件和机械封装,实现了高集成化微型化设计.所研制的激光测距传感器测距范围为25 mm~350 mm,体积47 mm×50 mm×15 mm,质量70 g,测量时间1 ms.实验结果表明,该测距传感器易于集成于机械臂控制系统,适用于末端感知,能够有效提高轻型机械臂末端定位精度.%In order to improve the operation and the end perception abilities of light-weight robot arm, a micro laser range finder is developed, which is highly integrated with a wide range and a shorter minimum measurement range. The range finder is designed based on the triangulation ranging theory. It adopts the linear CCD (charge-coupled device) as the light sensor, and the FPGA (field-programmable gate array) as the main controller chip, and the optical system of the sensor is designed according to the distribution requirements of the resolution. Thus, the range finder has a wide measurement range, a shorter minimum measurement range and a high measuring speed. To realize the high integration and miniaturization design, the range finder utilizes the design concept of the optics, mechanism and electricity unitization, which adopts the flexible and foldable PCB (printed circuit board) circuit, miniature optics units and miniature mechanical packaging. The measuring range of the range finder is 25 mm~350 mm, size is 47 mm×50 mm ×15 mm, mass is 70 g and the measuring time is 1 ms. The experimental results show that the

  19. Web teleoperation of robots with simulation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Medina, Fernando; Puente Mendez, Santiago; Canovas, J.; Mangas, J.; Martinez-Larraz, C.

    2002-02-01

    The use of a robot arm for industry is a very common problem. A great quantity of these robots have to have a remote human controller to achieve its task successfully. The user knows what is happening with the robot arm through sensors. This information has to arrive to the user and if it consists of a video then the system needs a high bandwidth to carry it to the user in real-time. The present system uses a simulation feedback instead of video information; this type of feedback gets as much information as a video with a lower bandwidth. The simulation of the system is based on virtual reality modeling feedback language (VRML) to model the robot arm which reproduces the movements of the real robot. This method of feedback has the advantage of required little information to afford the user a real approach to the system. The proposed system lets the user move the robot arm with different point-to-point trajectories and different possibilities of movement. The aim of this kind of laboratory is to facilitate the access for students and professionals in the field of robotics. This system is used for teaching university students the themes of robotics. It improves the training of the students permitting them access to a real robot which would be impossible for universities to afford if each student needed his own robot to practice. This paper presents a remote laboratory approach for experimentation with a real robot, which uses the communication techniques of the web.

  20. 基于Kane方法的双臂空间机器人动力学分析%Dynamics Analysis of a Dual-arm Space Robot Using Kane-Huston Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志锋; 葛新锋

    2012-01-01

    Its dynamics analysis plays an intermediate part in its design and control, so it is important to understand its unique dynamics and control characteristics. The topology, kinematics and dynamics of a dual-arm space robot are systematically studied, and its dynamic model is established by using the Kane-Huston method and the screw theory was presented in this paper. The numerical example shows that, given the values of motion parameters, the transient motion of all parts of the space robot can be solved by using the dynamics model we established. Simulations results show that the dynamics model established with the Kane-Huston method and the screw theory is true to reality.%机器人的动力学分析作为机器人设计和控制的中间桥梁,其独特的动力学特性和控制特征非常重要。本文系统研究了双臂空间机器人系统的拓扑结构、运动学及动力学特征,并基于Kane-Huston方法和旋量理论建立了双臂空间机器人系统动力学模型。算例表明,对于给定的运动参数,采用所建立的模型,可以求出双臂空间机器人各组成部分的瞬时运动,反之亦然。仿真结果表明,本文中基于旋量理论的Kane-Huston方法建立的双臂空间机器人系统动力学模型是符合实际的。